WorldWideScience

Sample records for program band-tailed pigeons

  1. Effect of virulent Trichomonas gallinae on the band-tailed pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabler, R M; Braun, C E

    1975-10-01

    Nine Trichomonas-free band-tailed pigeons (Columba fasciata fasciata) trapped in Colorado died from experimental infection with Jones' Barn Trichomonas gallinae 7.1 days (av.) post-inoculation. Three experimentally infected domestic pigeons (C. livia) used as controls died 5.7 days (av.) post-inoculation. Three band-tailed pigeons from Colorado naturally infected with avirulent T. gallinae. Trichomonads obtained from a fatal case of trichomoniasis in a band-tailed pigeon from California killed a band-tailed pigeon from Colorado; they did not kill five domestic pigeons but did induce severe oral caseation.

  2. Husbandry protocols for the Band-tailed pigeon, Patagioenas fasciata albilinea, at the WCS, Bronx Zoo for future conservation management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, David A; Novak, Ben J; Schmid, Susan C; Huth, Ken J; Totha, Aniko I; Audhya, Tapan

    2017-12-15

    From 2015 to 2016 we determined the husbandry protocols involved in the captive rearing of the Band-tailed Pigeon (BTPI), Patagioenas fascinate albilinea, for use as a tool in the future management of like extant and extinct avian taxa. Current and historical ex-situ conservation management of BTPIs and the closely related Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius, is limited in scope and required further examination. Focus on the BTPI within zoos and private aviculture facilities is currently lacking. New pressures on the wild populations and future examination of the parameters involved in the possible restoration of the Passenger Pigeon may rely on a complete understanding of these conservation management techniques. Here we report on the establishment of a colony of BTPIs, at the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), and detail the progress attained. A confiscated group of BTPIs was presented to WCS and allowed us to set up the colony, document the husbandry involved, and monitor neonatal development and the factors that influence that development. The information has provided a better understanding of the BTPI and has implications for the future conservation management of this and like species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dual-pathogen etiology of avian trichomonosis in a declining band-tailed pigeon population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A; Rogers, Krysta H; Woods, Leslie W; Chouicha, Nadira; Miller, Woutrina A; Johnson, Christine K

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) is a migratory game bird of North America that is at risk for population decline. Epidemics of avian trichomonosis caused by upper digestive tract infection with Trichomonas spp. protozoa in these and other doves and pigeons of the United States are sporadic, but can involve tens of thousands of birds in a single event. Herein, we analyze the role of trichomonosis in band-tailed pigeon mortality and relate spatial, temporal and demographic patterns of parasite transmission to the genetic background of the infecting organism. Infections were most common in adult birds and prevalence was high in band-tailed pigeons sampled at mortality events (96%) and rehabilitation centers (36%) compared to those that were hunter-killed (11%) or live-caught (4%). During non-epidemic periods, animals were primarily infected with T. gallinae Fe-hydrogenase subtype A2, and were less often infected with either T. gallinae subtype A1 (the British finch epidemic strain), T. stableri n. sp. (a T. vaginalis-like species), or Tritrichomonas blagburni n. sp.-like organisms. Birds sampled during multiple epidemics in California were only infected with T. gallinae subtype A2 and T. stableri. The non-clonal etiology of avian trichomonosis outbreaks in band-tailed pigeons and the risk of spill-over to raptor and passerine species highlights the need for additional studies that clarify the host range and evolutionary relationships between strains of Trichomonas spp. in regions of trichomonosis endemicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ECOLOGIC DRIVERS AND POPULATION IMPACTS OF AVIAN TRICHOMONOSIS MORTALITY EVENTS IN BAND-TAILED PIGEONS (PATAGIOENAS FASCIATA) IN CALIFORNIA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Krysta H; Girard, Yvette A; Koenig, Walter D; Johnson, Christine K

    2016-07-01

    :   Avian trichomonosis, a disease typically caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae , is a well recognized cause of death in many avian species. In California, US, trichomonosis has caused periodic epidemics in Pacific Coast Band-tailed Pigeons ( Patagioenas fasciata monilis). We summarize reported mortality events and investigate ecologic drivers and population impacts associated with epidemic mortality due to trichomonosis in Band-tailed Pigeons. Between 1945 and 2014, 59 mortality events involving Band-tailed Pigeons were reported in California with the number of reported events increasing over time. Estimated mortality for these events was variable, ranging between 10 and 10,000 pigeons. Events were most-frequently reported in Monterey (19%; 11/59) and San Luis Obispo (8%; 5/59) counties. Events often started in January (32%; 9/28) and February (50%; 14/28) and lasted 5-68 d. Impacts of mortality events on pigeon populations were indicated by Breeding Bird Survey and Christmas Bird Count abundance indices, which showed a decline in outbreak years compared to nonoutbreak years. Environmental conditions most associated with outbreak years included higher average temperatures between January and March, the period most associated with mortality events, and lower average precipitation in December just prior to mortality events. In Monterey County, events tended to occur in winters following higher acorn production of coast live oaks ( Quercus agrifolia ) in the fall. Weather and food abundance could be related to increased transmission or enhanced viability of Trichomonas spp. Although estimated mortality due to avian trichomonosis was highly variable across years, cumulative losses were substantial and likely to have a negative impact on population size.

  5. Trichomonas stableri n. sp., an agent of trichomonosis in Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A; Rogers, Krysta H; Gerhold, Richard; Land, Kirkwood M; Lenaghan, Scott C; Woods, Leslie W; Haberkern, Nathan; Hopper, Melissa; Cann, Jeff D; Johnson, Christine K

    2014-04-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a ubiquitous flagellated protozoan parasite, and the most common etiologic agent of epidemic trichomonosis in columbid and passerine species. In this study, free-ranging Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) in California (USA) were found to be infected with trichomonad protozoa that were genetically and morphologically distinct from T. gallinae. In microscopic analysis, protozoa were significantly smaller in length and width than T. gallinae and were bimodal in morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2, rpb1, and hydrogenosomal Fe-hydrogenase regions revealed that the protozoan shares an ancestor with Trichomonas vaginalis, the sexually-transmitted agent of trichomoniasis in humans. Clinical and pathologic features of infected birds were similar to infections with T. gallinae. Evidence presented here strongly support taxonomical distinction of this parasite, which we hereby name Trichomonas stableri n. sp. This work contributes to a growing body of evidence that T. gallinae is not the sole etiologic agent of avian trichomonosis, and that the incorporation of molecular tools is critical in the investigation of infectious causes of mortality in birds.

  6. Trichomonas stableri n. sp., an agent of trichomonosis in Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A.; Rogers, Krysta H.; Gerhold, Richard; Land, Kirkwood M.; Lenaghan, Scott C.; Woods, Leslie W.; Haberkern, Nathan; Hopper, Melissa; Cann, Jeff D.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a ubiquitous flagellated protozoan parasite, and the most common etiologic agent of epidemic trichomonosis in columbid and passerine species. In this study, free-ranging Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) in California (USA) were found to be infected with trichomonad protozoa that were genetically and morphologically distinct from T. gallinae. In microscopic analysis, protozoa were significantly smaller in length and width than T. gallinae and were bimodal in morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2, rpb1, and hydrogenosomal Fe-hydrogenase regions revealed that the protozoan shares an ancestor with Trichomonas vaginalis, the sexually-transmitted agent of trichomoniasis in humans. Clinical and pathologic features of infected birds were similar to infections with T. gallinae. Evidence presented here strongly support taxonomical distinction of this parasite, which we hereby name Trichomonas stableri n. sp. This work contributes to a growing body of evidence that T. gallinae is not the sole etiologic agent of avian trichomonosis, and that the incorporation of molecular tools is critical in the investigation of infectious causes of mortality in birds. PMID:24918075

  7. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Band tailing; organic conductors; IR spectra; electrical resistivity. Abstract. The concept of band tailing with focal point and width of the tail from IR absorption spectra of different organic conductors is found valid even for thermal and elastic changes. The experimental situations like change of solvents, method of preparation, ...

  8. Natural selection shaped the rise and fall of passenger pigeon genomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gemma G R; Soares, André E R; Novak, Ben J; Schaefer, Nathan K; Cahill, James A; Baker, Allan J; Demboski, John R; Doll, Andrew; Da Fonseca, Rute R; Fulton, Tara L; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Heintzman, Peter D; Letts, Brandon; McIntosh, George; O'Connell, Brendan L; Peck, Mark; Pipes, Marie-Lorraine; Rice, Edward S; Santos, Kathryn M; Sohrweide, A Gregory; Vohr, Samuel H; Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2017-11-17

    The extinct passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in North America, and possibly the world. Although theory predicts that large populations will be more genetically diverse, passenger pigeon genetic diversity was surprisingly low. To investigate this disconnect, we analyzed 41 mitochondrial and 4 nuclear genomes from passenger pigeons and 2 genomes from band-tailed pigeons, which are passenger pigeons' closest living relatives. Passenger pigeons' large population size appears to have allowed for faster adaptive evolution and removal of harmful mutations, driving a huge loss in their neutral genetic diversity. These results demonstrate the effect that selection can have on a vertebrate genome and contradict results that suggested that population instability contributed to this species's surprisingly rapid extinction. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Field collapse due to band-tail charge in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Schiff, E.A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    It is common for the fill factor to decrease with increasing illumination intensity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells. This is especially critical for thicker solar cells, because the decrease is more severe than in thinner cells. Usually, the fill factor under uniformly absorbed red light changes much more than under strongly absorbed blue light. The cause of this is usually assumed to arise from space charge trapped in deep defect states. The authors model this behavior of solar cells using the Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS) simulation program. The simulation shows that the decrease in fill factor is caused by photogenerated space charge trapped in the band-tail states rather than in defects. This charge screens the applied field, reducing the internal field. Owing to its lower drift mobility, the space charge due to holes exceeds that due to electrons and is the main cause of the field screening. The space charge in midgap states is small compared with that in the tails and can be ignored under normal solar-cell operating conditions. Experimentally, the authors measured the photocapacitance as a means to probe the collapsed field. They also explored the light intensity dependence of photocapacitance and explain the decrease of FF with the increasing light intensity.

  10. The importance of band tail recombination on current collection and open-circuit voltage in CZTSSe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, James E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Hages, Charles J. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Agrawal, Rakesh; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Gray, Jeffery L. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTSSe) solar cells typically exhibit high short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}), but have reduced cell efficiencies relative to other thin film technologies due to a deficit in the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), which prevent these devices from becoming commercially competitive. Recent research has attributed the low V{sub oc} in CZTSSe devices to small scale disorder that creates band tail states within the absorber band gap, but the physical processes responsible for this V{sub oc} reduction have not been elucidated. In this paper, we show that carrier recombination through non-mobile band tail states has a strong voltage dependence and is a significant performance-limiting factor, and including these effects in simulation allows us to simultaneously explain the V{sub oc} deficit, reduced fill factor, and voltage-dependent quantum efficiency with a self-consistent set of material parameters. Comparisons of numerical simulations to measured data show that reasonable values for the band tail parameters (characteristic energy, capture rate) can account for the observed low V{sub oc}, high J{sub sc}, and voltage dependent collection efficiency. These results provide additional evidence that the presence of band tail states accounts for the low efficiencies of CZTSSe solar cells and further demonstrates that recombination through non-mobile band tail states is the dominant efficiency limiting mechanism.

  11. Electrons in feldspar II: A consideration of the influence of conduction band-tail states on luminescence processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, H.R.J.; Ozanyan, K.B.; Wallinga, J.

    2002-01-01

    consider what influence the band tails have on the luminescence properties of feldspar, where electrons travel through the sample prior to recombination. The work highlights the dominant role that 0.04-0.05-eV phonons play in both the luminescence excitation and emission processes of these materials...... electrons can travel, but with reduced mobility: transport through these states is expected to be thermally activated. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, we consider what kind of lattice perturbations could give rise to both localized and extended conduction band-tail states. Secondly. we...

  12. Pigeon tick bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolla, G; Heffler, E; Boita, M

    2017-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a serious systemic allergic reaction with rapid onset and potentially life-threatening. We report in detail a case of severe nocturnal anaphylaxis due to pigeon tick bite showing the diagnostic value of the extract and the recombinant allergen in the diagnostic procedures (basophil...

  13. Role of the Fermi level in the formation of electronic band-tails and mid-gap states of hydrogenated amorphous silicon in thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidiville, A.; Matsui, T.; Sai, H.; Matsubara, K.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells in p-i-n and n-i-p configurations were made with the intrinsic absorber layer deposited at different temperatures, between 200 and 350 °C. Using Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy, the sub-gap absorption was measured, allowing the evaluation of the band-tail width and mid-gap defect quantity of the intrinsic absorber layer of the working device. When deposited at high temperature (>200 °C), p-i-n cells showed a larger performance decrease than n-i-p cells, along with broader band-tails as well as a larger number of defects created in the absorber layer. Hydrogen content measurements showed that for high temperature deposition (>200 °C), the Si-H bond becomes markedly less stable if the Fermi level of the intrinsic layer is shifted toward the valence band by an adjacent p-layer. Furthermore, by annealing samples at different stages of their layer stack deposition, the impact of the band-tail and mid-gap defect states on the open-circuit voltage and on the fill factor was evaluated. Based on these insights, we propose a model to predict the losses of solar cell parameters.

  14. Pigeon circovirus infection in disqualified racing pigeons from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Li; Castaneda, Omir Adrian; Thongchan, Duangsuda; Khatri-Chhetri, Rupak; Tsai, Shinn-Shyong; Wu, Hung-Yi

    2017-08-01

    Pigeons (Columba livia) infected with pigeon circovirus (PiCV) have been reported worldwide. The present study diagnosed PiCV infection in tissue samples of disqualified racing pigeons in Taiwan, using molecular and microscopy diagnostics. Among the 164 dead pigeons examined, 96.95% (159/164) tested positive for PiCV. Severe histopathological lesions, with characteristic inclusions, were observed in various organs of the PiCV-infected pigeons. Multiglobular basophilic intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were found in the bursa of Fabricius and non-lymphoid tissues. The present study identified, for the first time, the presence of inclusion bodies in the thyroid gland, oesophagus, gizzard, and in the third eyelid of circovirus-infected pigeons. The presence of inclusion bodies in the third eyelid and mucosa of the gizzard was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. A high detection rate of PiCV and some severe lesions evident in disqualified racing pigeons, as well as PiCV sequences in this study were highly similar with those detected in European countries suggesting an epidemiological association possibly due to imported pigeons.

  15. [Pigeon sport and animal rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, M

    2007-03-01

    To begin, a short overview of the organization and the realization of the racing pigeon sport. Some physiological facts, relevant to racing pigeons, will be touched on. Lastly, a focus on the flights, their completion and the problems involved with the, in some cases, high number of lost pigeons. The German Club of Pigeon Breeders, has made improvements but, it is certainly not enough. The topic of "City Pigeons" will be briefed. The final part deals with pertinent animal rights issues, causes of mishaps, and some rectifying possibilities, which are available to the government veterinarian. Special emphasis will be placed on the international uniformity of this issue. The lecture should prove that there is a need for every government veterinarian to become actively involved, because the described problematic has a major effect on a very large number of animals.

  16. Fermi integral and density-of-states functions in a parabolic band semiconductor degenerately doped with impurities forming a band tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, B. K.; Mondal, B. N.; Chakraborty, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    We provide the energy spectrum of an electron in a degenerately doped semiconductor of parabolic band. Knowing the energy spectrum, the density-of-states (DOS) functions are obtained, considering the Gaussian distribution of the potential energy of the impurity states, showing a band tail in them e.g., energy spectrum and density-of-states. Therefore, Fermi integrals (FIs) of DOS functions, having band tail, are developed by the exact theoretical calculations of the same. It is noticed that with heavy dopings in semiconductors, the total FI demonstrates complex functions, containing both real and imaginary terms of different FI functions. Their moduli possess an oscillatory function of η (reduced Fermi energy = Ef/kBT, kB is the Boltzmann constant and T is the absolute temperature) and η e (impurity screening potential), having a series solutions of confluent hypergeometric functions, Φ (a, b; z), superimposed with natural cosine functions of angle θ . The variation of θ with respect to η indicated a resonance at η =1.5. The oscillatory behaviour of FIs show the existence of `band-gaps', both in the real as well as in the forbidden bands as new band gaps in the semiconductor.

  17. Attentional tradeoffs in the pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyazovska, O V; Teng, Y; Wasserman, E A

    2014-05-01

    We deployed the Multiple Necessary Cues (MNC) discrimination task to see if pigeons can simultaneously attend to four different dimensions of complex visual stimuli. Specifically, we trained nine pigeons (Columba livia) on a go/no go discrimination to peck only 1 of 16 compound stimuli created from all possible combinations of two stimulus values from four separable visual dimensions: shape (circle/square), size (large/small), line orientation (horizontal/vertical), and brightness (dark/light). Some of the pigeons had CLHD (circle, large, horizontal, dark) as the positive stimulus (S+), whereas others had SSVL (square, small, vertical, light) as the S+. We recorded touchscreen pecking during the first 15 s that each stimulus was presented on each training trial. Discrimination training continued until pigeons' rates of responding to all 15 negative stimuli (S-s) fell to less than 15% of their response rates to the S+. All pigeons acquired the MNC discrimination, suggesting that they attended to all four dimensions of the multidimensional stimuli. Learning rate was similar for all four dimensions, indicating equivalent salience of the discriminative stimuli. The more dimensions along which the S-s differed from the S+, the faster was discrimination learning, suggesting an added benefit from increasing perceptual disparities of the S-s from the S+. Finally, evidence of attentional tradeoffs among the four dimensions was seen during discrimination learning, raising interesting questions concerning the possible control of behavior by elemental and configural stimuli. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Observation of the exciton and Urbach band tail in low-temperature-grown GaAs using four-wave mixing spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, D.; Yildirim, M.; Hacquebard, L.; March, S.; Mathew, R.; Gamouras, A.; Hall, K. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Liu, X.; Dobrowolska, M.; Furdyna, J. K. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    Four-wave mixing (FWM) spectroscopy reveals clear signatures associated with the exciton, free carrier inter-band transitions, and the Urbach band tail in low-temperature-grown GaAs, providing a direct measure of the effective band gap as well as insight into the influence of disorder on the electronic structure. The ability to detect (and resolve) these contributions, in contrast to linear spectroscopy, is due to an enhanced sensitivity of FWM to the optical joint density of states and to many-body effects. Our experiments demonstrate the power of FWM for studying the near-band-edge optical properties and coherent carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown semiconductors.

  19. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  20. Epidemiology of Chlamydia psittaci Infection in Racing Pigeons and Pigeon Fanciers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y; Chen, H; Chen, X; Yang, X; Yang, J; Bavoil, P M; He, C

    2015-08-01

    Over 3 million racing pigeons (Columba livia) are registered in Beijing City Center for gambling purposes. During 2008-2010, we evaluated the occurrence and prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci in racing pigeons as well as the possible zoonotic transmission to pigeon fanciers in six districts of Beijing where pigeon races are particularly popular. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody titres were obtained from 370 pigeons and 79 fanciers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, 206 and 67 throat swabs were, respectively, collected from pigeons and fanciers and tested for the presence of chlamydial antigen using immunofluorescence. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody was detected in 37 of 370 pigeons and 19 of 79 fanciers. Of 206 pigeon clinical specimens, 55 were positive for C. psittaci antigen, while 16 of 67 swabs from the pigeon fanciers were positive. Based on ompA sequence analysis, the genotype of several avian and human isolates was genotype B. Thus, both high-titre C. psittaci-specific antibody and C. psittaci-specific antigen were found with relatively high frequency in the pigeon flocks as well as in the pigeon fanciers. Our study suggests that C. psittaci infection is prevalent among the racing pigeon population in Beijing. Moreover, detection of serum antibodies and antigen in pigeon fanciers suggests that exposure and possible zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci from racing pigeons to humans does occur. In view of the life-threatening respiratory illness C. psittaci may cause in humans, regulatory public health measures, to prevent further spread of the pathogen in avian populations and possible transmission to exposed humans, are urgently needed. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  2. Photoreceptor cell dysplasia in two Tippler pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P A; Munnell, J F; Martin, C L; Prasse, K W; Carmichael, K P

    2004-01-01

    Two 12-week-old Tippler pigeons were evaluated for ocular abnormalities associated with congenital blindness. The pigeons were emaciated and blind. Biomicroscopy and direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy findings of the Tippler pigeons were normal with the exception of partially dilated pupils at rest. Scotopic (blue stimuli) and photopic monocular electroretinograms were extinguished in the blind Tippler pigeons. Histological and electron microscopy studies revealed reduced numbers of rods and cones, and an absence of the double cone complex. The photoreceptor cells' outer segments were absent, and the inner segments were short and broad. The number of cell nuclei in the outer and inner nuclear layers was decreased, and the internal and external plexiform layers were reduced in width. Photoreceptor cell endfeet with developing synaptic ribbons were present in the external plexiform layer. Inflammatory cell and subretinal debris was not seen. The electroretinographic, histopathological, and ultrastructural findings of the blind Tippler pigeons support the diagnosis of a photoreceptor cell dysplasia.

  3. The Occurrence of Heamoproteuscolumbae in Pigeons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Occurrence of Heamoproteuscolumbae in Pigeons ( Columbidaelivia ) Based on Microscopy and PCR Based Method Analysis and Identification of New Lineage in the MalAvi Data Base in Kano State, Nigeria.

  4. Habitat--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  5. Faults--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  6. Passive immunization of pigeons against trichomoniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    Nonimmune homing pigeons Columba livia were infected with the Jones' Barn strain of Trichomonas gallinae and subsequently transfused with plasma from acute or chronically infected pigeons harboring one of 3 different strains of T. gallinae. The transfusions were either a single 2 mi dose given one day after inoculation or three 1 ml doses given 0, 5, and 10 days after inoculation. Plasma from pigeons harboring any of the 3 strains was capable of passively immunizing nonimmune birds. All birds which were immunized with plasma from infected pigeons survived until killed at the end of the test period and no visceral lesions were found on necropsy but trichomonads were present in the oropharynx. All controls (untreated or transfused with normal plasma) died of visceral trichomoniasis. Immune plasma produced some lysis of trichomonads in vitro, and inhibition of motility and vacuolization occurred in some of the non-lysed organisms. The overall lytic activity in vitro affected less than 10% of the suspended trichomonads.

  7. Folds--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  8. Contours--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  9. Pigeon navigation: different routes lead to Frankfurt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Schiffner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tracks of pigeons homing to the Frankfurt loft revealed an odd phenomenon: whereas birds returning from the North approach their loft more or less directly in a broad front, pigeons returning from the South choose, from 25 km from home onward, either of two corridors, a direct one and one with a considerable detour to the West. This implies differences in the navigational process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Pigeons released at sites at the beginning of the westerly corridor and in this corridor behave just like pigeons returning from farther south, deviating to the west before turning towards their loft. Birds released at sites within the straight corridors, in contrast, take more or less straight routes. The analysis of the short-term correlation dimension, a quantity reflecting the complexity of the system and with it, the number of factors involved in the navigational process, reveals that it is significantly larger in pigeons choosing the westerly corridor than in the birds flying straight - 3.03 vs. 2.85. The difference is small, however, suggesting a different interpretation of the same factors, with some birds apparently preferring particular factors over others. CONCLUSIONS: The specific regional distribution of the factors which pigeons use to determine their home course seems to provide ambiguous information in the area 25 km south of the loft, resulting in the two corridors. Pigeons appear to navigate by deriving their routes directly from the locally available navigational factors which they interpret in an individual way. The fractal nature of the correlation dimensions indicates that the navigation process of pigeons is chaotic-deterministic; published tracks of migratory birds suggest that this may apply to avian navigation in general.

  10. Effectiveness of Gel Repellents on Feral Pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Stock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of feral pigeons (Columba livia live in close association with the human population in our cities. They pose serious health risks to humans and lead to high economic loss due to damage caused to buildings. Consequently, house owners and city authorities are not willing to allow pigeons on their buildings. While various avian repellents are regularly introduced onto the market, scientific proof of efficacy is lacking. This study aimed at testing the effectiveness of two avian gel repellents and additionally examined their application from animal welfare standpoint. The gels used an alleged tactile or visual aversion of the birds, reinforced by additional sensory cues. We mounted experimental shelves with the installed repellents in a pigeon loft and observed the behavior of free-living feral pigeons towards the systems. Both gels showed a restricted, transient repellent effect, but failed to prove the claimed complete effectiveness. Additionally, the gels’ adhesive effect remains doubtful in view of animal welfare because gluing of plumage presents a risk to feral pigeons and also to other non-target birds. This study infers that both gels lack the promised complete efficacy, conflict with animal welfare concerns and are therefore not suitable for feral pigeon management in urban areas.

  11. Bird Lice (Mallophaga, Philopteridae, Menoponidae of Domestic Pigeons on Specialized Pigeon Breeding Farms in Poltava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomak I. O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The species composition of pigeon lice parasitic on pigeons of ornamental breeds on the specialized closed-type farm (Poltava was studied. Five species of these ectoparasites were registered: Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758, Campanulotes compar Burmeister, 1838, (Philopteridae, Ischnocera, Bonomiella columbae Emerson, 1957, Hohorstiella lata Piaget, 1880 and Neocolpocephalus turbinatum (Denny, 1842 (Menoponidae, Amblycera. For each species, the data on infection prevalence, intensity and abundance were obtained. High prevalence of infection was registered for all pigeon lice species, while the intensity and, especially, the abundance were considerably different. C. columbae turned out to be the most abundant. B. columbae was rather common. The peculiarities of pigeon lice species localization on the host body were investigated. During the intensive infection of pigeons with lice, the complex of clinical signs is manifested, which testifies about considerable effect of these parasites on the host. The highest pathogenicity is characteristic for H. lata, which usually feeds on blood and lymph.

  12. Pigeons home faster through polluted air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2016-01-05

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals' response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  13. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  14. Epidemiology and pathology of Trichomonas gallinae in the common pigeon (Columba livia)

    OpenAIRE

    Begum, N.; Mamun, M.A.A; Rahman, S.A; Bari, A.S.M

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons (n=300) were examined during July 2007 to June 2008 in different areas of Mymensingh district. Of the pigeons examined, 202 (67.3%) were infected by Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878). Prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae was higher in female pigeon (70.9%) than male pigeon (63.8%). Adult pigeons aged >3 months were comparatively more affected (75%) than the squab aged

  15. Identification of a novel aviadenovirus, designated pigeon adenovirus 2 in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, L; Rubbenstroth, D; Meixner, M; Liere, K; Bartels, H; Rautenschlein, S

    2017-01-02

    The young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS) affects mainly young pigeons of less than one year of age and leads to crop stasis, vomitus, diarrhea, anorexia and occasionally death. This disease is internationally a major health problem because of its seasonal appearance during competitions such as homing pigeon races or exhibitions of ornamental birds. While the etiology of YPDS is still unclear, adenoviruses are frequently discussed as potential causative agents. Electron microscopy of feces from a YPDS outbreak revealed massive shedding of adenovirus-like particles. Whole genome sequencing of this sample identified a novel adenovirus tentatively named pigeon adenovirus 2 (PiAdV-2). Phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis suggest PiAdV-2 to belong to a new species within the genus Aviadenovirus, for which we propose the name Pigeon aviadenovirus B. The PiAdV-2 genome shares 54.9% nucleotide sequence identity with pigeon adenovirus 1 (PiAdV-1). In a screening of further YPDS-affected flocks two variants of PiAdV-2 (variant A and B) were detected which shared 97.6% nucleotide identity of partial polymerase sequences, but only 79.7% nucleotide identity of partial hexon sequences. The distribution of both PiAdV-2 variants was further investigated in fecal samples collected between 2008 and 2015 from healthy or YPDS-affected racing pigeons of different lofts. Independent of their health status, approximately 20% of young and 13% of adult pigeon flocks harbored PiAdV-2 variants. Birds were free of PiAdV-1 or other aviadenoviruses as determined by PCRs targeting the aviadenovirus polymerase or the PiAdV-1 fiber gene, respectively. In conclusion, there is no indication of a correlation between YPDS outbreaks and the presence of PiAdV-2 or other aviadenoviruses, arguing against an causative role in this disease complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Body composition and exercise in racing pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, W; Maclean, J M; Preston, T

    1990-05-01

    Exercise-related changes in body protein 'turnover' and in the absolute amounts of body protein were studied in racing pigeons. Whole body radioactivity was followed in racing and control (limited exercise) birds after protein labelling by the injection of 75Seselenomethionine. Because of re-utilisation of the label this does not give a true picture of body protein turnover but the comparative data suggested an increased turnover in racing compared to control birds. Carcase analysis on a group of pigeons demonstrated a water content for lean body mass of 72.7 per cent +/- 3.54. Lean body mass and exchangeable body potassium were used as indices of total body protein in a group of pigeons participating in an endurance race (15 + hours of flying). The results indicated that no body protein had been used as an energy source. These findings are compatible with the presence in pigeons of a small labile pool or pools of protein. The presence and characteristics of such pools remains to be determined.

  17. Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, T A; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A

    2012-12-01

    Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS.

  18. Atmospheric propagation modeling indicates homing pigeons use loft-specific infrasonic ‘map’ cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Results from an acoustic ray-tracing program using daily meteorological profiles are presented to explain ‘release-site biases’ for homing pigeons at three experimental sites in upstate New York where W. T. Keeton and his co-workers at Cornell University conducted extensive releases between 1968 and 1987 in their investigations of the avian navigational ‘map’. The sites are the Jersey Hill and Castor Hill fire towers, and another near Weedsport, where control pigeons from the Cornell loft vanished in random directions, in directions consistently >50 deg clockwise and in directions ∼15 deg clockwise from the homeward bearing, respectively. Because Cornell pigeons were disoriented at Jersey Hill whereas birds from other lofts were not, it is inferred that Jersey Hill lies within an acoustic ‘shadow’ zone relative to infrasonic signals originating from the Cornell loft’s vicinity. Such signals could arise from ground-to-air coupling of near-continuous microseisms, or from scattering of direct microbaroms off terrain features, both of which are initially generated by wave–wave interactions in the deep ocean. HARPA runs show that little or no infrasound from the loft area arrived at Jersey Hill on days when Cornell pigeons were disoriented there, and that homeward infrasonic signals could have arrived at all three sites from directions consistent with pigeon departure bearings, especially on days when these bearings were unusual. The general stability of release-site biases might be due to influences of terrain on transmission of the homeward signals under prevailing weather patterns, whereas short-term changes in biases might be caused by rapid shifts in atmospheric conditions.

  19. Isolation, histopathology and antibiogram of Escherichia coli from pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Dutta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli among dead and/or diarrhoic pigeons in and around greater Guwahati. Materials and Methods: Samples were cultured from dead and/or diarrhoic pigeons and identification was done by standard methods. The sensitivity of the isolated E.coli strains to 15 antibiotics of human and veterinary use was also determined. Organs from those dead birds from which E.coli were recovered were processed according to the routine procedure for histopathological studies. Results: Out of 150 pigeons subjected to microbiological investigation, 91(60.67 % samples were found positive for E. coli.The most frequently occurring serotypes were O157 (9.89%, followed by O68, O121 (7.69%, O9, O75, O131 (5.49%, O2, O13, O22 (3.30%. Antibiogram investigation of the isolates revealed that 91isolates (100% exhibited resistance against Ampicillin followed by Nitro-furantoin (73.62%, Tetracycline (65.93 %, Oxytetracycline (62.63 % and Streptomycin (61.54. Gross changes of some birds showed fibrinous pericarditis and perihepatitis and coligranuloma in different organs like liver and serosal surface of intestine. Microscopically, severe congestion and haemorrhages in different organs such as liver, kidney, lung and intestine. In some cases thick layer of fibrinous exudates with large number of heterophills over the surface of liver and heart with early degenerative changes as well as focal necrosis. Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic E.coli is present in pigeons in and around greater Guwahati. Surveillance programs may be introduced to monitor antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic E.coli in pigeons in and around greater guwahati. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 91-94

  20. Evidence for discrete landmark use by pigeons during homing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Cordula V; Ross, Jeremy D; Gorsevski, Peter V; Chowdhury, Budhaditya; Bingman, Verner P

    2012-10-01

    Considerable efforts have been made to investigate how homing pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) are able to return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites while the mechanisms underlying navigation in familiar territory have received less attention. With the recent advent of global positioning system (GPS) data loggers small enough to be carried by pigeons, the role of visual environmental features in guiding navigation over familiar areas is beginning to be understood, yet, surprisingly, we still know very little about whether homing pigeons can rely on discrete, visual landmarks to guide navigation. To assess a possible role of discrete, visual landmarks in navigation, homing pigeons were first trained to home from a site with four wind turbines as salient landmarks as well as from a control site without any distinctive, discrete landmark features. The GPS-recorded flight paths of the pigeons on the last training release were straighter and more similar among birds from the turbine site compared with those from the control site. The pigeons were then released from both sites following a clock-shift manipulation. Vanishing bearings from the turbine site continued to be homeward oriented as 13 of 14 pigeons returned home. By contrast, at the control site the vanishing bearings were deflected in the expected clock-shift direction and only 5 of 13 pigeons returned home. Taken together, our results offer the first strong evidence that discrete, visual landmarks are one source of spatial information homing pigeons can utilize to navigate when flying over a familiar area.

  1. Robustness of flight leadership relations in pigeons

    CERN Document Server

    Flack, Andrea; Nagy, Máté; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Collective animal movements produce spectacular natural phenomena that arise from simple local interactions among group members. Flocks of homing pigeons, Columba livia, provide a useful model for the study of collective motion and decision making. During homing flights, flock members are forced to resolve potentially divergent navigational preferences in order to stay together and benefit from flying in a group. Recent work has demonstrated that some individuals consistently contribute more to the movement decisions of the flock than others do, thereby generating stable hierarchical leader/follower networks. Yet, what attributes of a flying pigeon reliably predict leadership remains an open question. We examined the flexibility of an individual's hierarchical leadership rank (i.e. its ordinal position when flock members are ranked according to the average time differences with which they lead or follow others) as a function of changes in its navigational knowledge. We manipulated already established hierarch...

  2. Attributional and relational processing in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGarlick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Six pigeons were trained using a matching-to-sample procedure where sample and rewarded comparisons matched on both attributional (color and relational (horizontal or vertical orientation dimensions. Probes then evaluated the pigeons’ preference to comparisons that varied in these dimensions. A strong preference was found for the attribute of color. The discrimination was not found to transfer to novel colors, however, suggesting that a general color rule had not been learned. Further, when color could not be used to guide responding, some influence of other attributional cues such as shape, but not relational cues, was found. We conclude that pigeons based their performance on attributional properties of but not on relational properties between elements in our matching-to-sample procedure.. Future studies should look at examining other attributes to compare attributional versus relational processing.

  3. Self-recognition in pigeons revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Emiko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2014-11-01

    Recognition of a self-image in a mirror is investigated using the mark test during which a mark is placed onto a point on the body that is not directly visible, and the presence or absence of self-directed behaviors is evaluated for the mirror-observing subjects. Great apes, dolphins, possibly elephants, and magpies have all passed the mark test, that is, displayed self-directed behaviors, whereas monkeys, crows, and other animals have failed the test even though they were able to use a mirror to find a not-directly-visible object. Self-directed behavior and mirror use are prerequisites of a successful mark test, and the absence of these behaviors may lead to false negative results. Epstein, Lanza, and Skinner (1981) reported self-directed behavior of pigeons in front of a mirror after explicit training of self-directed pecking and of pecking an object with the aid of a mirror, but certain other researchers could not confirm the results. The aim of the present study was to conduct the mark test with two pigeons that had received extensive training of the prerequisite behaviors. Crucial points of the training were identical topography (pecking) and the same reinforcement (food) in the prerequisite behaviors as well as sufficient training of these behaviors. After training for the prerequisite behaviors, both pigeons spontaneously integrated the learned self-directed and mirror-use behavior and displayed self-directed behavior in a mark test. This indicates that pigeons display mirror self-recognition after training of suitable ontogenetic contingency. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Pigeons integrate past knowledge across sensory modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Claudia; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Advanced inferring abilities that are used for predator recognition and avoidance have been documented in a variety of animal species that produce alarm calls. In contrast, evidence for cognitive abilities that underpin predation avoidance in nonalarm-calling species is restricted to associative learning of heterospecific alarm calls and predator presence. We investigated cognitive capacities that underlie the perception and computation of external information beyond associative learning by addressing contextual information processing in pigeons, Columba livia, a bird species without specific alarm calls. We used a habituation/dishabituation paradigm across sensory modes to test pigeons' context-dependent inferring abilities. The birds reliably took previous knowledge about predator presence into account and responded with predator-specific scanning behaviour only if predator presence was not indicated before or if the perceived level of urgency increased. Hence, pigeons' antipredator behaviour was not based on the physical properties of displayed stimuli or their referential content alone but on contextual information, indicated by the kind and order of stimulus presentation and different sensory modes. PMID:23487497

  5. Ecto and Gastrointestinal Parasites of Captured Wild Pigeons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of ecto and gastrointestinal parasites of captured wild pigeons in Benin - City, Nigeria. Fifty-six adult pigeons (Columba livia) comprising of thirty-one males and twenty-five females were examined. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites were found in 33 (58.9%) of the ...

  6. Substitution Value of toasted Pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and eighty 7-day old broilers were used in a 28-day feeding trial to determine the substitution value of toasted pigeon pea seeds meal (TPSM) for soybean meal and maize in boiler starter diet. The brown coat coloured pigeon pea seeds were toasted at 100oC for 15minutes and milled. The inclusion levels of ...

  7. Six-lead electrocardiographic studies of the pigeon ( Columba livia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the normal electrocardiogram of apparently normal, conscious pigeons was described. Standard bipolar and augmented unipolar limb leads were recorded in a total of apparently healthy 30 pigeons. Waveforms were analyzed in all the leads at 50 mm/s and 10 mm/mV. P-wave was monophasic and positive in ...

  8. Prevalence of helminth parasites of domestic pigeons ( Columba livia )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the gastrointestinal helminth parasites in domestic pigeons (Columba livia) in Jalingo Metropolis, Taraba State. Sixty pigeons made up of 35 males and 25 females were selected, slaughtered and the gastrointestinal tract examined for the presence of helminth parasites using standard ...

  9. Dressed and internal organ weights of broilers fed toasted pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toasted seeds of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), a tropical legume grown in Nigeria were investigated to determine its effect on the dressed weight and internal organ weight characteristics of broilers. The dry, brown coat coloured pigeon pea seeds were toasted at 100°C for 15minutes, cooled, made into a meal and stored in ...

  10. Efficient Scheduling of Pigeons for a Constrained Delay Tolerant Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legand Burge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Information collection in the disaster area is an important application of pigeon networks—a special type of delay tolerant networks (DTNs that borrows the ancient idea of using pigeons as the telecommunication method. The aim of this paper is to explore highly efficient scheduling strategies of pigeons for such applications. The upper bound of traffic that can be supported under the deadline constraints for the basic on-demand strategy is given through the analysis. Based on the analysis, a waiting-based packing strategy is introduced. Although the latter strategy could not change the maximum traffic rate that a pigeon can support, it improves the efficiency of a pigeon largely. The analytical results are verified by the simulations.

  11. The Pigeon Roost Massacre: Its Cause and Impact and Pigeon Roost Massacre Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Candace Taff

    On the afternoon of September 3, 1812, 24 pioneers living in a settlement on the southern Indiana Territory frontier were murdered and mutilated by Indians. A tragic but familiar scene in the history of the westward expansion, the Pigeon Roost Massacre can be an effective teaching tool in Indiana studies. The massacre deals with the issues and…

  12. The white-crowned pigeon: A fruit-eating pigeon as a host for Trichomonas gallinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Sprunt, A.

    1971-01-01

    Trichomoniasis resulting from infection by Trichomonas gallinae was observed in 12 laboratory reared white-crowned pigeons (Columba leucocephala). A field survey of nestlings in the Florida Keys revealed a prevalence of 88% T. gallinae carriers but no evidence of trichomoniasis could be found among the wild birds.

  13. Two aspects along the continuum of pigeon evolution: A South-Pacific radiation and the relationship of pigeons within Neoaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Gillian C; Penny, David

    2010-08-01

    Phylogenetics explores the continuum of shallower to deeper genetic divergences between taxa. Along this continuum increasing lengths of DNA sequence can be used to answer deeper and deeper questions about biological relationships. We use shorter, and then longer mitochondrial DNA sequences to address two aspects of pigeon evolution. Firstly, we examine the phylogenetic relationships of the eight genera within the South Pacific Ducula-Ptilinopus radiation, and examine how this radiation fits into pigeons generally. Within Ducula, taxa are closely related, whereas Ptilinopus is very diverse, and paraphyletic. One third of all pigeon species are within the Ducula-Ptilinopus radiation, however all are very similar ecologically. Secondly, we study the deeper phylogenetic question regarding the relationship of pigeons to other birds. To this end, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Hemiphaganovaeseelandiae, a member of the Ducula-Ptilinopus radiation. We use this mitochondrial genome, along with additional sandgrouse (Pterocles namaqua) mitochondrial genes to assess various candidates for the closest relative of pigeons. Of parrots, shorebirds, and sandgrouse, we find highest support for the sandgrouse-pigeon grouping. Furthermore in these analyses the pigeon and sandgrouse group closer to the falcons than any other included taxon. The finding that pigeons and sandgrouse may be more closely related to falcons than to previous candidates such as shorebirds or parrots invites further investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: domestic pigeon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available domestic pigeon Columba livia Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Columba_livia_L.png Columba_livia_NL.png Columba_livi...a_S.png Columba_livia_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Columba+livia...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Columba+livia&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Columba+livia&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Columba+livia&t=NS ...

  15. Toltrazuril does not show an effect against pigeon protozoal encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Kristina; Olias, P; Gruber, A D; Lierz, M

    2015-04-01

    The protozoan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi causes a severe neurologic disease in domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) named pigeon protozoal encephalitis. Recently, the parasite has also been reported in psittacines causing a virtually identical disease with fatal outcome. So far, an etiological treatment of S. calchasi infections in pigeons or psittacines is unknown. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the anticoccidian drug toltrazuril against S. calchasi and the influence of the timepoint of treatment. Therefore, nine domestic pigeons were inoculated with 400 S. calchasi sporocysts and treated with toltrazuril (25 mg/kg) in groups of three pigeons each at dpi 10/11 and dpi 40/41 and on two consecutive days at the onset of neurologic signs. After euthanasia at dpi 73, tissue samples including brain and skeletal muscles were examined by histology and S. calchasi-specific real-time PCR. All pigeons independent of the group developed neurologic signs from dpi 49 onwards. Histology identified sarcocysts in the skeletal muscles and a granulomatous encephalitis in the brains. The relative amount of S. calchasi DNA was on a comparable level in all pigeons. Consequently, toltrazuril was demonstrated to be not effective against S. calchasi with the applied treatment regime. Longer treatment periods or agents other the toltrazuril may be considered for further investigations. So far, preventive measures like roofing of aviaries for prevention of infection and regular disinfection remain the most important factor in the control of S. calchasi infections.

  16. "Artificial grammar learning" in pigeons: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T; Shimp, Charles P

    2003-02-01

    An avian analogue to human artificial or synthetic grammar learning (Reber, 1967) was developed. Pigeons viewed horizontal strings of three to eight colored letters. These strings either conformed to Reber's artificial grammar or violated it in one or two locations. Pigeons categorized the letter strings as grammatical (left keypeck) or nongrammatical (right keypeck). Overall accuracy of categorization was above chance to both familiar training strings and to novel transfer strings, thereby satisfying a conventional criterion for learning an abstract concept. The results support a multiple mechanisms point of view according to which pigeons, like humans, learn both abstract concepts and specific strings, or specific parts of strings, in artificial grammar learning tasks.

  17. Maintenance of transferrin polymorphism in pigeons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frelinger, J.A.

    1972-02-01

    Transferrin, a nonheme iron-binding protein, is polymorphic in most vertebrate species that have been examined. In pigeons, it is controlled by an autosomal gene, with two known codominant alleles, Tf/sup A/ and Tf/sup B/. The two alleles are found in nearly equal frequencies and the three genotypes are at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all populations studied. This report shows that ovotransferrins from heterozygous females inhibit microbial growth, by use of yeast as an assay organism, better than ovetransferrins from either of the homozygous types, or those from a mixture of homozygous types. Heterozygous females hatch a larger percentage of their eggs than homozygous females. This difference is probably accounted for by the transferrin effect. The failure of the mixture of the homozygous types to act like the heterozygous type calls into question the currently accepted structure of transferrin as a monomeric protein. The greater fecundity of heterozygous females can account for the maintenance of transferrin polymorphism in pigeons.

  18. BackscatterC [SWATH]--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  19. BackscatterB [7125]--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  20. BackscatterA [8101]--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  1. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  2. the role of the pigeon in the first world war

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    133. Scientia Militaria, South African. Journal of Military Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, 2015, pp. 133–150. doi : 10.5787/43-2-1127. 'MORE THAN JUST HUMAN HEROES'. THE ROLE OF THE PIGEON IN THE FIRST. WORLD WAR ...

  3. Effect of Pigeon Pea Hedgerow Alley Management on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year (2010 and 2011 cropping seasons) field investigation conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised three pigeon pea hedgerow alley populations of 20,000, 33,333 and ...

  4. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  5. Pecking and respiration rhythms of pigeons (Columba livia)

    OpenAIRE

    Hörster, Wolfgang; Xia, Li; Delius, Juan

    2003-01-01

    The production and coordination of rhythmic activities in birds is seldom investigated. Here we describe the pecking and breathing rhythms of pigeons under different conditions. When feeding from a heap of small grains, hungry pigeons pecked at regular intervals of about 0.3 s. The pecking rhythm was slightly slower in the afternoon. The pecking rhythm induced by the dopaminergic drug apomorphine was somewhat faster but some overt pecks were skipped. The mean respiratory cycle during a nonpec...

  6. Sleep deprivation in pigeons and rats using motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sarah M; Paletz, Elliott M; Obermeyer, William H; Benca, Ruth M

    2009-10-01

    Forced sleep deprivation results in substantial behavioral and physiologic effects in mammals. The disk-over-water (DOW) method produces a syndrome characterized by increased energy expenditure and a robust preferentially rapid-eye-movement sleep rebound upon recovery or eventual death after several weeks of sleep deprivation. The DOW has been used successfully only in rats. This paper presents a method to enforce long-term controlled sleep deprivation across species and to compare its effects in rats and pigeons. A conveyor was substituted for the DOW disk. Behavior rather than electroencephalography was used to trigger arousal stimuli, as in gentle-handling deprivation. Rats and pigeons were deprived using this apparatus, and the results were compared with each other and with published reports. The physiologic consequences and recovery sleep in rats were like those published for DOW rats. Magnitude of sleep loss and recovery patterns in pigeons were similar to those seen in rats, but expected symptoms of the sleep deprivation syndrome were absent in pigeons. The use of a motion trigger allowed us to measure and, thus, to assess the quality and impact of the procedure. Prolonged and controlled sleep deprivation can be enforced using automated motion detection and a conveyor-over-water system. Pigeons and rats, deprived of sleep to the same extent, showed similar patterns of recovery sleep, but pigeons did not exhibit the hyperphagia, weight loss, and debilitation seen in rats.

  7. Pigeon visual short-term memory directly compared to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin

    2016-02-01

    Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hierarchical group dynamics in pigeon flocks

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Mate; Biro, Dora; Vicsek, Tamas; 10.1038/nature08891

    2010-01-01

    Animals that travel together in groups display a variety of fascinating motion patterns thought to be the result of delicate local interactions among group members. Although the most informative way of investigating and interpreting collective movement phenomena would be afforded by the collection of high-resolution spatiotemporal data from moving individuals, such data are scarce and are virtually non-existent for long-distance group motion within a natural setting because of the associated technological difficulties. Here we present results of experiments in which track logs of homing pigeons flying in flocks of up to 10 individuals have been obtained by high-resolution lightweight GPS devices and analyzed using a variety of correlation functions inspired by approaches common in statistical physics. We find a well-defined hierarchy among flock members from data concerning leading roles in pairwise interactions, defined on the basis of characteristic delay times between birds' directional choices. The averag...

  9. Pigeons use distinct stop phases to control pecking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Leslie M; Reid, Thomas; Troje, Nikolaus F

    2017-02-01

    Pecking at small targets requires accurate spatial coordination of the head. Planning of the peck has been proposed to occur in two distinct stop phases, but although this idea has now been around for a long time, the specific functional roles of these stop phases remain unsolved. Here, we investigated the characteristics of the two stop phases using high-speed motion capture and examined their functions with two experiments. In experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that the second stop phase is used to pre-program the final approach to a target and analyzed head movements while pigeons (Columba livia) pecked at targets of different size. Our results show that the duration of both stop phases significantly increased as stimulus size decreased. We also found significant positive correlations between stimulus size and the distances of the beaks to the stimulus during both stop phases. In experiment 2, we used a two-alternative forced choice task with different levels of difficulty to test the hypothesis that the first stop phase is used to decide between targets. The results indicate that the characteristics of the stop phases do not change with an increasing difficulty between the two choices. Therefore, we conclude that the first stop phase is not exclusively used to decide upon a target to peck at, but also contributes to the function of the second stop phase, which is improving pecking accuracy and planning the final approach to the target. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol produced discrimination in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, B G; Johansson, J O; Järbe, T U

    1975-01-01

    In an operant situation pigeons learned to peck one response key 90 min after an injection of 0.25mg/kg delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and another key when trained nondrugged. When tested with doses of delta9-THC lwer than the training dose the birds disciminated 0.20 mg/kg of the drug from the nondrugged state but not 0.15 mg/kg or lower doses. The animals were able to discriminate the drug state from the nondrugged 180 min but not 360 min after the injection At a shorter interval (45 min) both drug and nondrug responding appeared. Cannabinol and cannabidiol (4.0 - 8.0 mg/kg) did not elicit any drug responses, nor did pentobarbital, ditran or amphetamine. Tests with LSD resulted in both drug and nondrug responding. When administering noncannabinoid drugs in combination with delta9-THC 0.15 mg/kg the birds responded at the key associated with the drug state, suggesting interactional effects.

  11. The Harvard Pigeon Lab under Herrnstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2002-05-01

    The history of the Harvard Pigeon Lab is a history of two periods of remarkable productivity, the first under Skinner's leadership and the second under Herrnstein's. In each period, graduate students flocked to the leader and then began stimulating one another. Chance favored Herrnstein's leadership, too, because an unusually large number of graduate students were admitted in the fall of 1962. In each period, productivity declined as the leader lost interest in the laboratory and withdrew. Directly and indirectly, the laboratory finally died as a result of the cognitive "revolution." Skinner and his students saw the possibility of a natural science of behavior and set about establishing that science based on concepts such as response rate, stimulus control, and schedules of reinforcement. Herrnstein and his students saw that the science could be quantitative and set about making it so, with relative response rate, the matching law, and the psychophysics of choice (analogous to S. S. Stevens' psychophysics). The history might provide a golden research opportunity for someone interested in the impact of such self-organizing research groups on the progress of science.

  12. EFFECT OF PIGEON ORIGIN NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS ON VARIOUS LIVER ENZYMES AND ASSOCIATED PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED PIGEONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. MUSHTAQ, F. RIZVI AND M. S. ULLAH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a field outbreak in pigeons. The virus was characterized by haemagglutination test (HA and confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition test (HAI. The pathotyping was done by mean death time (MDT, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI and intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI. The ELD50 of the velogenic strain was 10-4.66/0.1 ml. Thirty-nine pigeons were randomly divided into three equal groups. Pigeons of one group were vaccinated with ND vaccine (LaSota strain intraocularly after 14 days of procurement, while the other two groups served as vaccinated and non-vaccinated controls. Birds of these two groups were challenged with velogenic strain of field isolate of NDV 7 days post-vaccination. Birds were kept under observation for 15 days post-challenge. Haemorrhages and congestion were observed in trachea, lungs, liver, proventriculus and intestine of pigeons infected with NDV. Concentrations of AST, ALT and ALP did not differ among pigeons of the three groups.

  13. Lomba Merpati: Place-making and Communal Signalling within Javanese Pigeon Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Stevens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The project, Lomba Merpati, is a series of photographs and video works documenting pigeon racing in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Associated as a lower socio-economic class sport and tied up with expressions of Javanese masculinity, pigeon racing occupies a central position within much of the daily social activity of Javanese villages.  The project explores the significance of pigeon training grounds as communal gathering points for young men in Yogyakarta. Comprising short video and photographic portraits, the series focuses on the performative gestures enacted by pigeon fanciers as they train their pigeons for short distance sprinting.

  14. Dissociation of Procedural and Working Memory in Pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter T. Herbranson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method was developed to concurrently investigate procedural memory and working memory in pigeons. Pigeons performed a sequence of keypecks across 3 response keys in a serial response task, with periodic choice probes for the location of a recently produced response. Procedural memory was operationally defined as decreasing response times to predictable cues in the sequence. Working memory was reflected by accurate responses to the choice probes. Changing the sequence of required keypecks to a random sequence interfered with procedural memory in the form of slowed response times, but did not prevent pigeons from effectively using working memory to remember specific cue locations. Conversely, changing exposure duration of to a cue location influenced working memory but had no effect on procedural memory. Double dissociations such as this have supported the multiple systems approach to the study of memory in cognitive psychology and neuroscience, and they encourage a similar approach in comparative psychology.

  15. Pigeons' discrimination of paintings by Monet and Picasso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Junko; Wakita, Masumi

    1995-01-01

    Pigeons successfully learned to discriminate color slides of paintings by Monet and Picasso. Following this training, they discriminated novel paintings by Monet and Picasso that had never been presented during the discrimination training. Furthermore, they showed generalization from Monet's to Cezanne's and Renoir's paintings or from Picasso's to Braque's and Matisse's paintings. These results suggest that pigeons' behavior can be controlled by complex visual stimuli in ways that suggest categorization. Upside-down images of Monet's paintings disrupted the discrimination, whereas inverted images of Picasso's did not. This result may indicate that the pigeons' behavior was controlled by objects depicted in impressionists' paintings but was not controlled by objects in cubists' paintings. PMID:16812755

  16. Trichomonas spp. in pigeons: detection by OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Petr; Kunca, Tomas; Langrova, Iva; Hartlova, Helena; Brozova, Adela; Jankovska, Ivana; Kudrnacova, Marie; Sloup, Vladislav

    2013-12-01

    The efficacy of the OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test (developed for rapid diagnosis of human Trichomonas vaginalis) in detection of Trichomonas spp. in pigeons (Columba livia) was investigated. Two oral cavity swabs were taken from 50 farm pigeons. Cultivation in Diamond Trichomonas medium was used as a reference method. According to a morphological determination, Trichomonas gallinae was the only protozoan found; however, no further molecular analysis was conducted. The OSOM Trichomonas test was positive in 39 oral swabs. In comparison with the cultivation method three samples were identified as false negative and one as false positive. Test specificity and sensitivity were established as 93% and 90%, respectively. Using Cohen's Kappa, the concordance between the two testing methods was found to be strong (kappa = 0.7506, 95% CI = 0.5162-0.9850). The OSOM Trichomonas test is not able to distinguish between Trichomonas species; however, results suggest that the test is suitable for the rapid detection of Trichomonas spp. infection in pigeons.

  17. First description of Cryptosporidium parvum in carrier pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; Ferrari, Elis Domingos; da Cruz Panegossi, Mariele Fernanda; Nakamura, Alex Akira; Corbucci, Flávio Sader; Nagata, Walter Bertequini; Dos Santos, Bianca Martins; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Widmer, Giovanni; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2017-08-30

    The carrier pigeon and the domestic pigeon are different breeds of the species Columba livia. Carrier pigeons are used for recreational activities such as bird contests and exhibitions. Due to the close contact with humans, these birds may potentially represent a public health risk, since they can host and disseminate zoonotic parasites, such as those belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium (phylum Apicomplexa). The purpose of this work was the detection by microscopic and molecular techniques of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in fecal samples of carrier pigeons, and subsequently to sequence the 18S ribosomal RNA marker of positive samples to identify the species. A total of 100 fecal samples were collected individually in two pigeon breeding facilities from Formiga and Araçatuba, cities located in Minas Gerais state and São Paulo state, Brazil, respectively. The age of the birds ranged from one to 12 years; 56 were females and 44 males. Fecal smears were stained with negative malachite green, whereas the molecular characterization was based on the sequence of a ∼800bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Microscopic examination of fecal smears revealed 4% (4/100) oocyst positivity. On the other hand, 7% (7/100) of positivity were found using nested PCR. Three samples were 99% to 100% similar to Cryptosporidium parvum 18S rDNA type A (Genbank AH006572) and the other three samples had 99% to 100% similarity to C. parvum 18S rDNA type B (Genbank AF308600). To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. parvum oocysts in carrier pigeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional evaluation of cookies produced from pigeon pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cookies were evaluated for proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein quality. The protein content ranged from 6.40% for cookies from 100% cocoyam flour (CF) to 12.97% for cookies from 100% pigeon pea flour (PF). Only four out of the ten cookie formulations had the FAO/WHO minimum recommended ...

  19. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon ( Columba livia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer ...

  20. Intermittence and connectivity of interactions in pigeon flock flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duxin; Liu, Xiaolu; Xu, Bowen; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2017-09-05

    Collective circular motion is a common yet spectacular behavior of pigeon flocks. Efficient and robust inter-individual communication is required for flock coordination during this widely-spreaded movement pattern. When a flock hovers near the home loft, the rotational direction undergoes regular spontaneous variations. Based on intensive analyses of high spatial-temporal resolution GPS data, we quantified the intensity of velocity alignment among different individuals in terms of their velocity fluctuations. It is found that pigeon flocks employ an intermittent interaction (alignment) mechanism, where intra-group information transmission is not required at every instant. However, the union of the topologies of several consecutive interaction networks always keeps connected. This biological observation strongly suggests the presence of a jointly connected topology in pigeon flocks, which helps substantially reduce the communication and/or information processing requirements while retaining the agility and stability of the group. Finally, we conducted extensive investigation on the interaction mechanism as well as the spontaneous changes in rotational direction of pigeon flocks. These results shed some light onto the coordination mechanism exploration of bird flocks' collective motions.

  1. Pathological study of parasitism in racing pigeons: An indication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, this research was conducted to determine the pathological study of parasitism in racing pigeons with an indication of its effects on community health. It was carried out from May to September 2011, by an experimental study on 250 (168 adults and 82 nestlings) blood and faecal samples (Soulsby, 1982) randomly ...

  2. Evidence for response membership in stimulus classes by pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcuioli, Peter J; Jones, B Max; Lionello-DeNolf, Karen M

    2013-03-01

    Response membership in pigeons' stimulus-class formation was evaluated using associative symmetry and class expansion tests. In Experiment 1, pigeons learned hue-hue (AA) and form-form (BB) successive matching plus a modified hue-form (AB) task in which reinforcement was contingent upon a left versus right side-key response after the positive AB sequences. On subsequent BA (symmetry) probe trials, pigeons responded more often to the comparisons on the reverse of the positive than negative AB sequences and, more importantly, preferentially pecked the side key consistent with symmetry after the reversed positive sequences. In Experiment 2, the original three baseline tasks were supplemented by dot-white (CC) successive matching in which reinforcement was contingent upon a left versus right side-key response after the positive CC sequences. Class expansion was then tested by presenting nonreinforced CA and CB successive matching probes. Comparison response rates were mostly nondifferential on CA probes but were uniformly higher on CB probes that consisted of the C samples and B comparisons from the same, hypothesized class. Together, these results provide evidence that responses can become members of stimulus classes, as predicted by Urcuioli's (2008) theory of pigeons' stimulus-class formation and Sidman's (2000) theory of equivalence. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Evaluation of short duration ICRISAT pigeon pea cultivars in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize was in all cases the dominant component of the mixture having higher relative crowding coefficient, and competition coefficient values than the pigeon pea cultivars. ICPL151 and ICPL84023 would be recommended for intercropping with maize because of their higher yield contribution to the overall yield, as the ...

  4. Associative Symmetry by Pigeons after Few-Exemplar Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Saulo M.; Huziwara, Edson M.; Machado, Armando; Tomanari, Gerson Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment investigated whether pigeons can show associative symmetry on a two-alternative matching-to-sample procedure. The procedure consisted of a within-subject sequence of training and testing with reinforcement, and it provided (a) exemplars of symmetrical responding, and (b) all prerequisite discriminations among test samples…

  5. Selective attention and pigeons' multiple necessary cues discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Y; Vyazovska, O V; Wasserman, E A

    2015-03-01

    We deployed the Multiple Necessary Cues (MNC) discrimination task to see if pigeons can simultaneously attend to four different dimensions of complex visual stimuli. Specifically, we trained eight pigeons on a simultaneous discrimination to peck only 1 of 16 compound stimuli created from all possible combinations of two stimulus values from four separable visual dimensions: shape (circle/square), size (large/small), line orientation (horizontal/vertical), and brightness (dark/light). Some pigeons had CLHD (circle, large, horizontal, dark) as the positive stimulus (S+), whereas others had SSVL (square, small, vertical, light) as the S+. All eight pigeons acquired the MNC discrimination, suggesting that they had attended to all four dimensions. Learning rate was similar to all four dimensions, with learning along the orientation dimension being a bit faster than along the other three dimensions. The more dimensions along which the S-s differed from the S+, the faster was learning, suggesting an added benefit from increasing perceptual disparities between the S-s and the S+. Of particular note, evidence of attentional tradeoffs among the four dimensions was much weaker with the simultaneous task than with the successive task. We consider several reasons for this empirical disparity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity in pigeon pea germplasm using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), an important legume crop is predominantly cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa. It is normally considered to have a low degree of genetic diversity, an impediment in undertaking crop improvement programmes.We have analysed genetic polymorphism of domesticated ...

  7. Functional properties of processed pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pigeon pea seeds (Cajanus Cajan) were carefully selected cleaned and divided into two lots for flour production. One portion was germinated following soaking in water for 36 hours, with water change every 6 hours, at a ratio of 1:10 including an hour air rest before re-soaking. The seeds were germinated to obtain root ...

  8. Pigeon-Frequented Areas, Garbage Piles and Dog Faeces as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to establish the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida species in two pigeon-frequented areas; garbage piles from two separate sites in Nairobi, and dog faeces from Small animal clinic, University of Nairobi, Kabete. The sampling included both solid materials and air. Potato Dextrose ...

  9. Altered orientation and flight paths of pigeons reared on gravity anomalies: a GPS tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Blaser

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of pigeon homing are still not understood, in particular how they determine their position at unfamiliar locations. The "gravity vector" theory holds that pigeons memorize the gravity vector at their home loft and deduct home direction and distance from the angular difference between memorized and actual gravity vector. However, the gravity vector is tilted by different densities in the earth crust leading to gravity anomalies. We predicted that pigeons reared on different gravity anomalies would show different initial orientation and also show changes in their flight path when crossing a gravity anomaly. We reared one group of pigeons in a strong gravity anomaly with a north-to-south gravity gradient, and the other group of pigeons in a normal area but on a spot with a strong local anomaly with a west-to-east gravity gradient. After training over shorter distances, pigeons were released from a gravitationally and geomagnetically normal site 50 km north in the same direction for both home lofts. As expected by the theory, the two groups of pigeons showed divergent initial orientation. In addition, some of the GPS-tracked pigeons also showed changes in their flight paths when crossing gravity anomalies. We conclude that even small local gravity anomalies at the birth place of pigeons may have the potential to bias the map sense of pigeons, while reactivity to gravity gradients during flight was variable and appeared to depend on individual navigational strategies and frequency of position updates.

  10. Racing pigeons: a reservoir for nitro-imidazole-resistant Trichomonas gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffaer, L O; Adriaensen, C; De Boeck, C; Claerebout, E; Martel, A

    2014-06-01

    Trichomonas gallinae , the cause of avian trichomonosis, is most commonly found in the order Columbiformes. Racing pigeons are often treated preventively with nitro-imidazoles, which could result in the emergence of resistant isolates, and these isolates can be a threat to wildlife when exchanges occur. The sequence type of 16 T. gallinae isolates obtained from racing pigeons and 15 isolates from wild pigeons was determined based on the ITS1/5.8S rRNA/ITS2 region sequence. In addition, the resistance profiles of these isolates against 5 different nitro-imidazoles (metronidazole, dimetridazole, ronidazole, tinidazole, and carnidazole) were determined. Two different Trichomonas sequence types were isolated. Sequence type A isolates were recovered from racing and wild pigeons, in contrast to sequence type B, which was only isolated from wild pigeons. Isolates with sequence type B were all susceptible to the tested nitro-imidazoles, except for tinidazole resistance in 3 isolates. Resistance to the nitro-imidazoles was observed more frequently in isolates obtained from racing pigeons than from wild pigeons, with most isolates belonging to sequence type A. A higher percentage of the sequence type A isolated from racing pigeons, in comparison with those isolated from the wild pigeons, were resistant to the nitro-imidazoles and displayed higher mean lethal concentration (MLC) values. Two isolates belonging to sequence type A, 1 recovered from a racing pigeon and 1 from a wild pigeon, displayed a similar resistance pattern, suggesting a potential exchange of resistant isolates between racing pigeons and wild pigeons.

  11. Pigeons discriminate objects on the basis of abstract familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Claudia; Wilkinson, Anna; Huber, Ludwig

    2013-11-01

    Knowledge of previous encounters with conspecifics is thought to be beneficial as it allows fast and appropriate behavioral responses toward those animals. This level of categorization goes beyond perceptual similarity and requires the individual to refer to a more abstract common referent, namely familiarity. It has been shown that pigeons are able to form functional classes of conspecifics that are based on familiarity. To date, we do not know whether this ability is restricted to the social context (including heterospecifics) or if it can also be used to classify inanimate objects. Furthermore, the factors influencing the formation of this functional class are still unknown. Here, we show that pigeons (Columba livia) are able to use a categorical rule of familiarity to classify previously unseen photographs of objects from their living environment. Pigeons that lacked real-life experience with the objects were not able to do so. This suggests that perceptual features alone were not sufficient for class recognition. To investigate the impact of additional functional properties of the objects, familiar objects were further divided into two subcategories, namely those that were considered functionally relevant to the birds and those that were not. Although the majority of pigeons learned to categorize photographs of objects based on familiarity alone, our results also suggest an unlearned preference for "relevant" familiar objects. The results presented here suggest that pigeons are able to learn to extract the discriminative feature of abstract familiarity from pictures by referring to previous real-life experience but that additional functions of objects lead to a preference of these objects.

  12. Pigeons and people select efficient routes when solving a one-way "traveling salesperson" task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Brett M; Wasserman, Edward A; Kamil, Alan C

    2007-07-01

    The authors presented people (Experiment 1) and pigeons (Experiments 2 and 3) with a large number of 1-way traveling salesperson problems that consisted of 3, 4, and 5 identical stimuli (nodes) on a computer monitor. The sequence of nodes that each traveler selected was recorded, and the distance of the route was subsequently determined. The routes the pigeons and people selected were reliably more efficient than those used by a Monte Carlo model given the same problems. The pigeons' routes were significantly less efficient than a nearest neighbor model of performance, however. In Experiment 3, pigeons were required to select a route that was within the top 33% of all possible solutions for a given problem. The pigeons' solutions were significantly more efficient than those observed in Experiment 2, in which the behavioral criterion was not imposed. The mechanisms that pigeons and people may have been using to solve the traveling salesperson problems are discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Prevalence and pathological lesion of Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Borji, H.; Razmi, G. H.; Movassaghi, A. H.; Moghaddas, E.; Azad, M.

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the prevalence and pathological lesion of Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons in the northeast part of Iran. Wet mount preparations from the oral cavity/crop of 418 pigeons (Columba livia) captured from various locations in Khorasan province analyzed for T. gallinae by Giemsa’s staining between April 2008 and June 2009. A total of 418 pigeons, 37.32% (n = 156) were infected with T. gallinae. Macroscopically, the oropharynx of infected pigeons has white, ca...

  14. Effect of Hygromycin-B on pigeons (Columba livia) with and without Trichomonas gallinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.

    1972-01-01

    Hygromycin-B was administered in varied quantities to pigeons harboring nonvirulent Trichomonas gallinae and to pigeons free of T. gallinae. Both groups responded identically with large yellow caseous lesions in the upper digestive tract which superficially resembled canker (trichomoniasis). No mycotic association with the lesions could be established in either .group from sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff. The lesions observed in Hygromycin-B-treated pigeons were concluded to be the direct result of the drug on the mucosa of the pigeon's upper digestive tract.

  15. Memory systems interaction in the pigeon: working and reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William A; Strang, Caroline; Macpherson, Krista

    2015-04-01

    Pigeons' performance on a working memory task, symbolic delayed matching-to-sample, was used to examine the interaction between working memory and reference memory. Reference memory was established by training pigeons to discriminate between the comparison cues used in delayed matching as S+ and S- stimuli. Delayed matching retention tests then measured accuracy when working and reference memory were congruent and incongruent. In 4 experiments, it was shown that the interaction between working and reference memory is reciprocal: Strengthening either type of memory leads to a decrease in the influence of the other type of memory. A process dissociation procedure analysis of the data from Experiment 4 showed independence of working and reference memory, and a model of working memory and reference memory interaction was shown to predict the findings reported in the 4 experiments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Reciprocal relationships in collective flights of homing pigeons

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Collective motion of bird flocks can be explained via the hypothesis of many wrongs, and/or, a structured leadership mechanism. In pigeons, previous studies have shown that there is a well-defined hierarchical structure and certain specific individuals occupy more dominant positions --- suggesting that leadership by the few individuals drives the behavior of the collective. Conversely, by analyzing the same data-sets, we uncover a more egalitarian mechanism. We show that both reciprocal relationships and a stratified hierarchical leadership are important and necessary in the collective movements of pigeon flocks. Rather than birds adopting either exclusive averaging or leadership strategies, our experimental results show that it is an integrated combination of both compromise and leadership which drives the group's movement decisions.

  17. Evaluation of Pigeon Pea Lines for Biological Soil Decompaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Godoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil decompaction is generally achieved through mechanical cultivation practices; however biological processes can significantly add to this process through root growth, development, and later senescence. This study was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil and had the purpose of selecting, among forty one pure pigeon pea lines, the most efficient genotypes that promote soil decompaction by roots penetrating compacted soil layers. Utilizing artificially compacted 30 mm high soil blocks, in a series of experiments, these lines were compared to the cultivar Fava Larga taken as a standard. Three lines were preliminarily selected out of the initial group, and afterwards, in more detailed screenings by monitoring soil resistance to penetration and also evaluating the behavior of Tanzania grass plants seeded after pigeon pea, two of them, g5-94 and g8-95, were selected as possessing the most fit root system to penetrate compacted soil layers.

  18. Substitution effects in a generalized token economy with pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leonardo F; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2017-01-01

    Pigeons made repeated choices between earning and exchanging reinforcer-specific tokens (green tokens exchangeable for food, red tokens exchangeable for water) and reinforcer-general tokens (white tokens exchangeable for food or water) in a closed token economy. Food and green food tokens could be earned on one panel; water and red water tokens could be earned on a second panel; white generalized tokens could be earned on either panel. Responses on one key produced tokens according to a fixed-ratio schedule, whereas responses on a second key produced exchange periods, during which all previously earned tokens could be exchanged for the appropriate commodity. Most conditions were conducted in a closed economy, and pigeons distributed their token allocation in ways that permitted food and water consumption. When the price of all tokens was equal and low, most pigeons preferred the generalized tokens. When token-production prices were manipulated, pigeons reduced production of the tokens that increased in price while increasing production of the generalized tokens that remained at a fixed price. The latter is consistent with a substitution effect: Generalized tokens increased and were exchanged for the more expensive reinforcer. When food and water were made freely available outside the session, token production and exchange was sharply reduced but was not eliminated, even in conditions when it no longer produced tokens. The results join with other recent data in showing sustained generalized functions of token reinforcers, and demonstrate the utility of token-economic methods for assessing demand for and substitution among multiple commodities in a laboratory context. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Head and eye movements in unrestrained pigeons (Columba livia)

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlschläger, Andreas; Jäger, Ralf; Delius, Juan

    1993-01-01

    Head and eye movements were simultaneously recorded during locomotory and pecking behavior of 4 pigeons, which were trained to traverse a conditioning chamber, with a pecking key and a food dispenser at each end. Each trial involved key pecking, walking, and feeding. Head movements were registered with a skull-mounted miniature accelerometer, and eye movements were recorded with implanted electrooculogram (EOG) electrodes. An almost perfect temporal coordination between head and eye movements...

  20. Personality and morphological traits affect pigeon survival from raptor attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos D; Cramer, Julia F; Pârâu, Liviu G; Miranda, Ana C; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2015-10-22

    Personality traits have recently been shown to impact fitness in different animal species, potentially making them similarly relevant drivers as morphological and life history traits along the evolutionary pathways of organisms. Predation is a major force of natural selection through its deterministic effects on individual survival, but how predation pressure has helped to shape personality trait selection, especially in free-ranging animals, remains poorly understood. We used high-precision GPS tracking to follow whole flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) with known personalities and morphology during homing flights where they were severely predated by raptors. This allowed us to determine how the personality and morphology traits of pigeons may affect their risk of being predated by raptors. Our survival model showed that individual pigeons, which were more tolerant to human approach, slower to escape from a confined environment, more resistant to human handling, with larger tarsi, and with lighter plumage, were more likely to be predated by raptors. We provide rare empirical evidence that the personality of prey influences their risk of being predated under free-ranging circumstances.

  1. Do Pigeons Prefer Information in the Absence of Differential Reinforcement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R.; Stagner, Jessica P.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research indicates that pigeons do not prefer an alternative that provides a sample (for matching-to-sample) over an alternative that does not provide a sample (i.e., there is no indication of which comparison stimulus is correct). However, Zentall and Stagner (2010) showed that when delay of reinforcement was controlled, pigeons had a strong preference for matching over pseudo-matching (there was a sample but it did not indicate which comparison stimulus was correct). Experiment 1 of the present study replicated and extended the results of the Zentall and Stagner study by including an identity relation between the sample and one of the comparison stimuli in both the matching and pseudo-matching tasks. In Experiment 2, when we asked if the pigeons would still prefer matching if we equated the two tasks for probability of reinforcement, we found no systematic preference for matching over pseudo-matching. Thus, it appears that in the absence of differential reinforcement, the information provided by a sample that signals which of the two comparison stimuli is correct is insufficient to produce a preference for that alternative. PMID:22367755

  2. Pigeons use high spatial frequencies when memorizing pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew S; Brooks, Daniel I; Cook, Robert G

    2015-07-01

    The ability of animals to visually memorize and categorize a large number of pictures is well established. Determining the kinds of information animals use to accomplish these goals has been more difficult. This experiment examined the contribution of spatial frequency information to picture memorization by pigeons. A series of grayscale pictures were notch-filtered to eliminate different portions of the spatial frequency spectrum of memorized pictures. The results indicated that the higher spatial frequencies in the pictures were most important to accurate recognition, suggesting that the detection of fine detail at the high range of pigeon visual acuity was a critical component to their memorized representations. Subsequent tests with band-pass and hybrid conflict stimuli confirmed this conclusion. It is suggested that cognitive and task demands may determine how spatial frequency is used by pigeons, with higher frequencies more important to item memorization, while lower spatial frequencies may contribute to categorization in other types of discrimination tasks. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Geochemistry and hydrology of perched groundwater springs: assessing elevated uranium concentrations at Pigeon Spring relative to nearby Pigeon Mine, Arizona (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas; Tillman, Fred; Naftz, David L.; Bills, Donald; Walton-Day, Katie; Gallegos, Tanya J.

    2017-01-01

    The processes that affect water chemistry as the water flows from recharge areas through breccia-pipe uranium deposits in the Grand Canyon region of the southwestern United States are not well understood. Pigeon Spring had elevated uranium in 1982 (44 μg/L), compared to other perched springs (2.7–18 μg/L), prior to mining operations at the nearby Pigeon Mine. Perched groundwater springs in an area around the Pigeon Mine were sampled between 2009 and 2015 and compared with material from the Pigeon Mine to better understand the geochemistry and hydrology of the area. Two general groups of perched groundwater springs were identified from this study; one group is characterized by calcium sulfate type water, low uranium activity ratio 234U/238U (UAR) values, and a mixture of water with some component of modern water, and the other group by calcium-magnesium sulfate type water, higher UAR values, and radiocarbon ages indicating recharge on the order of several thousand years ago. Multivariate statistical principal components analysis of Pigeon Mine and spring samples indicate Cu, Pb, As, Mn, and Cd concentrations distinguished mining-related leachates from perched groundwater springs. The groundwater potentiometric surface indicates that perched groundwater at Pigeon Mine would likely flow toward the northwest away from Pigeon Spring. The geochemical analysis of the water, sediment and rock samples collected from the Snake Gulch area indicate that the elevated uranium at Pigeon Spring is likely related to a natural source of uranium upgradient from the spring and not likely related to the Pigeon Mine.

  4. Putative adult neurogenesis in two domestic pigeon breeds (Columba livia domestica: racing homer versus utility carneau pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedzisai Mazengenya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica, the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX for immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was very similar in both pigeon breeds with only a few minor differences. In both pigeons, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, walls of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. Generally, the olfactory bulbs and telencephalon had more PCNA and DCX cells than other regions. Two proliferative hotspots were evident in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricles. PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells migrated radially from the walls of the lateral ventricle into the parenchyma. In most telencephalic regions, the density of PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells increased from rostral to caudal, except in the mesopallium where the density decreased from rostral to middle levels and then increased caudally. DCX immunoreactivity was more intense in fibres than in cell bodies and DCX-immunoreactive cells included small granular cells, fusiform bipolar cells, large round and or polygonal multipolar cells. The similarity in the distribution of proliferating cells and new neurons in the telencephalon of the two breeds of pigeons may suggest that adult neurogenesis is a conserved trait as an ecological adaptation irrespective of body size.

  5. Putative adult neurogenesis in two domestic pigeon breeds (Columba livia domestica): racing homer versus utility carneau pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengenya, Pedzisai; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Nkomozepi, Pilani; Manger, Paul R; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2017-07-01

    Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was very similar in both pigeon breeds with only a few minor differences. In both pigeons, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, walls of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. Generally, the olfactory bulbs and telencephalon had more PCNA and DCX cells than other regions. Two proliferative hotspots were evident in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricles. PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells migrated radially from the walls of the lateral ventricle into the parenchyma. In most telencephalic regions, the density of PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells increased from rostral to caudal, except in the mesopallium where the density decreased from rostral to middle levels and then increased caudally. DCX immunoreactivity was more intense in fibres than in cell bodies and DCX-immunoreactive cells included small granular cells, fusiform bipolar cells, large round and or polygonal multipolar cells. The similarity in the distribution of proliferating cells and new neurons in the telencephalon of the two breeds of pigeons may suggest that adult neurogenesis is a conserved trait as an ecological adaptation irrespective of body size.

  6. Genomic diversity and evolution of the head crest in the rock pigeon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Michael D.; Kronenberg, Zev; Li, Cai

    2013-01-01

    The geographic origins of breeds and the genetic basis of variation within the widely distributed and phenotypically diverse domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia) remain largely unknown. We generated a rock pigeon reference genome and additional genome sequences representing domestic and feral pop...

  7. Thermoregulatory and behavioral characteristics of racing pigeons housed under transport conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorssen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Transport is an essential component of racing pigeon contests. Preliminary studies indicated that adverse transport conditions might contribute to the occurrence of flight losses. Flight losses consist of pigeons which do not return to their home loft. In this thesis, physical and social

  8. Discrimination of painting style and quality: pigeons use different strategies for different tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-11-01

    Birds have visual cognition as well developed as humans. Sometimes, the birds show visual discrimination similar to humans, but the birds may use different cues. Previous reports suggest that global configuration cues are salient for humans, whereas local elemental cues are salient for pigeons. I analyzed the discriminative behavior of pigeons with scrambled images because scrambled images keep the local elemental cues of the original images but lose the global configuration cues. If pigeons use local elemental cues, then, they should show transfer of discrimination from the original images to their scrambled images and also transfer from the scrambled images to their original images. In Experiment I, I trained pigeons on painting style discrimination (Japanese paintings vs. Western impressionist paintings) using either the original or scrambled images and found that the pigeons showed bidirectional transfer. In Experiment II, I trained pigeons on discrimination of "good" versus "bad" paintings using children's paintings. The birds showed poor transfer from the original images to their scrambled images and vise versa. Thus, the pigeons discriminated good and bad paintings based mostly on global configuration cues in this case. These results suggest that the pigeons use different cues for different discriminations. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  9. Effect of processing on the nutritive value of pigeon pea ( Cajanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing on the nutritive value of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seeds for finisher broilers. PN Onu, PE Nwakpu, SN Okongwu. Abstract. A 28 – day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of processing of pigeon pea seeds on the performance and nutrient digestibility of finisher broilers. Four experimental ...

  10. High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Wild Crows and Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter.

  11. Efficacy of toltrazuril against experimental infections with Eimeria labbeana and E. columbarum in racing pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reeth, K; Vercruysse, J

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of toltrazuril against heavy experimental Eimeria labbeana and E. columbarum infections in racing pigeons was investigated. Pigeons were treated with toltrazuril at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight before, during, and after the pre-patent period. In pigeons treated during pre-patency (1-5 days postinoculation [PI]), a 99.9% reduction in oocyst output was observed at day 7 PI. Treatment during patency (6-7 days PI) resulted in an interruption of oocyst shedding within 3 to 4 days. Pigeons treated with toltrazuril up to 14 days before the experimental infection showed on average a reduction of more than 97% in the number of oocysts in individual fecal samples. Finally, at reinfection, the immune response of pigeons previously treated during pre-patency was not altered compared with the response of infected unmedicated controls.

  12. The Impact of Deoxynivalenol on Pigeon Health: Occurrence in Feed, Toxicokinetics and Interaction with Salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Haesendonck, Roel; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; Verbrugghe, Elin; De Saeger, Sarah; Audenaert, Kris; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177-1,466 μg/kg). Subsequently, a toxicokinetic analysis revealed a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of DON in pigeons (30.4%), which is comparable to other avian species. Furthermore, semi-quantitative analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that DON-3α-sulphate is the major metabolite of DON in pigeons after intravenous as well as oral administration. Following ingestion of DON contaminated feed, the intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to significant DON concentrations which eventually may affect intestinal translocation and colonization of bacteria. Feeding pigeons a DON contaminated diet resulted in an increased percentage of pigeons shedding Salmonella compared to birds fed control diet, 87 ± 17% versus 74 ± 13%, respectively. However, no impact of DON was observed on the Salmonella induced disease signs, organ lesions, faecal and organ Salmonella counts. The presented risk assessment indicates that pigeons are frequently exposed to mycotoxins such as DON, which can affect the outcome of a Salmonella infection. The increasing number of pigeons shedding Salmonella suggests that DON can promote the spread of the bacterium within pigeon populations.

  13. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci in the feral pigeon population of Basel, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geigenfeind, Ila; Vanrompay, Daisy; Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Feral pigeons (Columba livia) are commonly infected with Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by feral pigeons in the urban environment, we determined the prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci by detection of the outer-membrane protein A (ompA) gene of this pathogen in pharyngeal and cloacal samples of 202 feral pigeons present in a loft in Basel, Switzerland. Additionally, we examined 620 fresh faecal droppings of feral pigeons at six public sites in Basel. The ompA gene of C. psittaci could be detected in only 17 (8.4 %) of the 202 feral pigeons in the loft. C. psittaci DNA was present in nine (2.0 %) of 447 of the pharyngeal swabs and 11 (3.2 %) of the 348 cloacal swabs. Genotyping of the ompA gene revealed genotype B in seven of the birds. In one bird, a mixed infection was detected with the genotypes A, B and E/B, which, to our knowledge is the first time such an infection has been reported. Some of these birds immigrated into the loft as adults. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document how the interconnectedness between feral pigeon subpopulations favours the spread of C. psittaci. C. psittaci DNA was not detected in any of the faecal droppings collected at the six public areas. In spite of the low levels of C. psittaci shedding by feral pigeons in Basel, close contact to feral pigeons bears the risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Feral pigeon management programmes and public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of a pigeon-to-human transmission of such pathogenic agents.

  14. Avian toxoplasmosis: experimental infection of chicken and pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancifiori, F; Rondini, C; Grelloni, V; Frescura, T

    1986-01-01

    Two groups of 13 new-laying hens each were infected by crop-route with 5000 and 50,000 infective oocysts of T. gondii. Four groups of 5 pigeons each were inoculated by crop-route with 50, 500, 1000 and 5000 infective oocysts. To each group of infected birds suitable controls were added. Hens from the experiment with 5000 infective oocysts were apparently resistant to the infection and they had no clinical signs in the succeeding 40 days p.i. Hens from the experiment with 50,000 infective oocysts showed an egg-drop and mortality in embryonated eggs, especially during the first 2 weeks p.i. Isolation of the parasite was unsuccessfully attempted from 720 embryonated eggs, produced by infected groups, and tested on various days p.i. and at different stages of infection. The parasite was isolated from the brain, heart, liver, spleen and lung of infected birds 7 and 15 days p.i.; 40 days p.i. it was evident only in brain and heart. IgG onset and mean course were monitored by ELISA and high titers were reached by both groups. Pigeons from groups 500, 1000 and 5000 developed rapidly progressive clinical signs as diarrhea, trembling, incoordination, torticollis and death. They had enlargement of liver and spleen and focal necrosis, nodular features in the crop. Pigeons from expt 50 had no clinical signs in spite of the presence of the parasite in their organs for over 45 days p.i. Parasite was isolated from brain, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, crop and muscles from all infected groups. Histopathological and ultrastructural features revealed the presence of multiplying tachizoites even within cells of the crop. Seroconversion, as monitored by ELISA, was recorded in all infected groups although high ELISA-titres were never reached. One of the negative controls from expt 5000 developed specific antibodies but the parasite was not isolated from its organs.

  15. Respiratory water loss in free-flying pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, G; Pinshow, B

    2001-11-01

    We assessed respiratory and cutaneous water loss in trained tippler pigeons (Columba livia) both at rest and in free flight. In resting pigeons, exhaled air temperature T(ex) increased with ambient air temperature T(a) (T(ex)=16.3+0.705T(a)) between 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C, while tidal volume V(T) (V(T)=4.7+/-1.0 ml, mean +/- S.D. at standard temperature and pressure dry) and breathing frequency f(R) (f(R)=0.46+/-0.06 breaths s(-1)) were independent of T(a). Respiratory water loss, RWL, was constant over the range of T(a) (RWL=1.2+/-0.4 mg g(-1) h(-1)) used. In flying pigeons, T(ex) increased with T(a) (T(ex)=25.8+0.34T(a)), while f(R) was independent of T(a) (f(R)=5.6+/-1.4 breaths s(-1)) between 8.8 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Breathing frequency varied intermittently between 2 and 8 breaths s(-1) during flight and was not always synchronized with wing-beat frequency. RWL was independent of air temperature (RWL=9.2+/-2.9 mg g(-1) h(-1)), but decreased with increasing inspired air water vapor density (rho(in)) (RWL=12.5-0.362rho(in)), whereas cutaneous water loss, CWL, increased with air temperature (CWL=10.122+0.898T(a)), but was independent of rho(in). RWL was 25.7-32.2 %, while CWL was 67.8-74.3 % of the total evaporative water loss. The data indicate that pigeons have more efficient countercurrent heat exchange in their anterior respiratory passages when at rest than in flight, allowing them to recover more water at rest at lower air temperatures. When evaporative water loss increases in flight, especially at high T(a), the major component is cutaneous rather than respiratory, possibly brought about by reducing the skin water vapor diffusion resistance. Because of the tight restrictions imposed by gas exchange in flight, the amount of water potentially lost through respiration is limited.

  16. Positive influence of L-carnitine on the different muscle fibres types of racing pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M H; Tsai, F H; Chou, S J; Wang, J H; Lo, D Y; Zheng, Z Z; Chan, K W; Lai, J M

    2014-08-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+) ATPase, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), are involved in energy metabolism. These enzymes can be used as indicators of the energy capacity of aerobic cells. The study investigated the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on M. pectoralis superficialis, M. pectoralis profundus, M. extensor carpi radialis muscle and M. flexor carpi ulnaris. Twenty-eight racing pigeons hatched at the same time were divided randomly into three groups. Eight pigeons, which were used as the control group, were sacrificed at 92-day old. The remaining twenty pigeons continued training until they reached 157-day old, with half the pigeons getting 25 mg/head/day of L-carnitine, while the other half given the same amount of water. The pigeons were assessed by histochemical methods and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To assess influence of L-carnitine on muscle fibre composition and the performance of three genes' mRNA, this study applied SDH localization, SDH, Ca(2+) ATPase and LDH mRNA expression to examine the results after oral administration of L-carnitine in vivo in racing pigeons. The results showed that L-carnitine significantly elevated the amount of white muscle fibre type IIa (p L-carnitine of 25 mg/pigeon/day will result in an improvement of muscles related to flying. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Naturally occurring neoplasms in pigeons in a research colony: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonohara, Nozomi; Holland, Christine H; Lin, Tsang-Long; Wigle, William L

    2013-03-01

    This study reports the gross and microscopic pathology of naturally occurring neoplasms in adult pigeons that were presented for necropsy at the Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory from 2001 to 2011. The study population consisted of white carneau and mixed-breed pigeons used in behavioral studies in the Department of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University. Twelve types of neoplasms or proliferative disorders were identified in 28 of 83 pigeons (33.7%). Five pigeons had two or three types of neoplasms-proliferative disorders. Of the 83 pigeons, 11 (13.3%) had seminoma, five (6.0%) had thyroid adenoma, four (4.8%) had lymphoma, four (4.8%) had adenocarcinoma of female reproductive tract origin, two (2.4%) had pulmonary carcinoma, and two (2.4%) had cutaneous vascular hamartomas. Also identified were single incidences of dysgerminoma, mesothelioma, liposarcoma, cloacal papilloma, cloacal adenocarcinoma, and gizzard carcinoma. The most frequently occurring tumor was seminoma; 7/11 cases effaced both testicles and 3/11 cases had metastasis to the liver or kidney. The relatively high prevalence of neoplasms in pigeons in the present study is most likely related to the advanced ages of pigeons kept in the research colony.

  18. Introducing cultivated trees into the wild: Wood pigeons as dispersers of domestic olive seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Gutiérrez-Galán, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Animals may disperse cultivated trees outside the agricultural land, favoring the naturalization or, even, the invasiveness of domestic plants. However, the ecological and conservation implications of new or unexplored mutualisms between cultivated trees and wild animals are still far from clear. Here, we examine the possible role of an expanding and, locally, overabundant pigeon species (Columba palumbus) as an effective disperser of domestic olive trees (Olea europaea), a widespread cultivated tree, considered a naturalized and invasive species in many areas of the world. By analyzing crop and gizzard content we found that olive fruits were an important food item for pigeons in late winter and spring. A proportion of 40.3% pigeons consumed olive seeds, with an average consumption of 7.8 seeds per pigeon and day. Additionally, most seed sizes (up to 0.7 g) passed undamaged through the gut and were dispersed from cultivated olive orchards to areas covered by protected Mediterranean vegetation, recording minimal dispersal distances of 1.8-7.4 km. Greenhouse experiments showed that seeds dispersed by pigeons significantly favored the germination and establishment in comparison to non-ingested seeds. The ability of pigeons to effectively disperse domestic olive seeds may facilitate the introduction of cultivated olive trees into natural systems, including highly-protected wild olive woodlands. We recommend harvesting ornamental olive trees to reduce both pigeon overpopulation and the spread of artificially selected trees into the natural environment.

  19. Detection of Neospora caninum-DNA in brain tissues from pigeons in Changchun, Jilin (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ling; Yang, Dongsheng; Zhai, Tao; Gong, Pengtao; Zhang, Xichen; Li, Jianhua

    2015-11-30

    Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan infecting many domestic and wild animals. The domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) and the sparrow (Passer domesticus) are known as natural intermediate hosts of N. caninum, whereas the role of other birds such as pigeons is still unclear. In the present study, pigeon brain tissues collected in Jilin of China were screened by N. caninum specific-nested PCR to determine whether pigeons functioned as the natural intermediate hosts of N. caninum. The prevalences of N. caninum DNA and Toxoplasma gondii DNA among the brain samples were 30% (63/210) and 13.33% (28/210), respectively. One brain sample was co-infected with N. caninum and T. gondii in naturally infected pigeon. Of the 63 positive samples 42 could be assigned to the NC-PR genotype, 10 to the NC-1 genotypes and 5, 3 and 3 respectively to the each of the three new genotypes identified, indicating genetic polymorphism of N. caninum in pigeons in Jilin of China. The present study expanded the list of intermediate hosts of N. caninum to include pigeons which suggests that pigeons are involved in the transmission of the N. caninum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Coccidia infections in homing pigeons of various age during the racing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Michalczyk, Maria; Sokół, Rajmund

    2011-01-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria spp. is a common parasitic disease in homing pigeons. The study objective was to evaluate the incidence of coccidia infections in pigeon lofts during racing season. The intensity of coccidiosis was determined by floatation analyses of faeces samples collected from three pigeon groups performed in three replications (before the racing season, in mid-season and after the end of racing season). The presence of coccidia oocysts was determined in all faeces samples in each replication. At the end of the racing season, the average oocyst counts in faeces samples collected from pigeons that were flown for the first time increased by around 10% in relation to oocysts counts determined before the race. In flown pigeons (aged 2-4 years) a 2.5-9.9% drop was noted in oocysts counts subject to flock, whereas an increase of 15.7-17.3% was reported in parent flocks (unflown pigeons). The results of the experiment indicate that coccidia infections are a common problem in homing pigeons during racing season, which affects racing results and contributes to bird loss.

  1. PREVALENCE OF TRICHOMONIASIS IN DOMESTIC AND WILD PIGEONS AND ITS EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. SALEEM, M. S. KHAN, A. S. CHAUDRY AND H. A. SAMAD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis and its effect on some blood parameters in pigeons. A total of 100 samples from the pigeons (50 wild and 50 domestic were collected during the months of March and April 2005. Higher prevalence (P<0.05 was recorded in wild pigeons (60% than in domestic pigeon (26%. The overall prevalence recorded was 43%, being non significantly higher in April (56% than in March (30%. In infected pigeons, there was significant (P<0.05 decrease in hemoglobin concentration number of monocytes packed cell volume, body weight, than healthy birds. Likewise, the values of total leukocyte count, lymphocytes and eosinophils were higher significantly (P<0.05 in infected pigeons than the healthy ones. While, no significant difference was observed for heterophils count when infected and healthy birds were compared. It was concluded that trichomonad infection is quite common in wild, as well as in domestic, pigeons under the prevailing cage system.

  2. Dissemination of Salmonella enteritidis by experimentally-infected pigeons

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    ÁH Albuquerque

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of domestic pigeons (Columba livia were experimentally infected orally with doses of 9.5 x10(7 and 9.5 x10(9 CFU/mL (group A and B, respectively of a Salmonella Enteritidis (SE strain isolated from chickens. None of the used doses caused mortality of the inoculated birds; however, the pathogen was successfully recovered from the liver and spleen of group B birds on day 7 post-inoculation (dpi. Pathogen shedding, as evaluated through cloacal swabs, occurred in both groups until the 14th day of observation (p <0.05. Among all fecal samples collected from group B (n=4, three different birds shed the pathogen in their feces, out of which two were positive on 3 dpi and one on 7 dpi. The same number of fecal samples was evaluated in group A and only one bird shed the pathogen, on 7 and 14 dpi. The concentration of the microorganism in the feces was lower in group A than any sample from Group B. Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from chickens, when inoculated in pigeons, may be recovered from feces, cloacal swabs and organs, and these birds may contaminate poultry causing economic losses as well as posing a risk to the public health.

  3. Interaction rules underlying group decisions in homing pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Benjamin; Perna, Andrea; Biro, Dora; Sumpter, David J T

    2013-12-06

    Travelling in groups gives animals opportunities to share route information by following cues from each other's movement. The outcome of group navigation will depend on how individuals respond to each other within a flock, school, swarm or herd. Despite the abundance of modelling studies, only recently have researchers developed techniques to determine the interaction rules among real animals. Here, we use high-resolution GPS (global positioning system) tracking to study these interactions in pairs of pigeons flying home from a familiar site. Momentary changes in velocity indicate alignment with the neighbour's direction, as well as attraction or avoidance depending on distance. Responses were stronger when the neighbour was in front. From the flocking behaviour, we develop a model to predict features of group navigation. Specifically, we show that the interactions between pigeons stabilize a side-by-side configuration, promoting bidirectional information transfer and reducing the risk of separation. However, if one bird gets in front it will lead directional choices. Our model further predicts, and observations confirm, that a faster bird (as measured from solo flights) will fly slightly in front and thus dominate the choice of homing route. Our results explain how group decisions emerge from individual differences in homing flight behaviour.

  4. Genetic parameters of body weight and prolificacy in pigeons

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    Beaumont Catherine

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of body weight at weaning and of prolificacy were estimated in three commercial lines of pigeons selected by BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction on both traits. The model of analysis took into account the direct genetic effects for both traits and the effect of parental permanent environment for body weight. Depending on the line considered, body weight varied from 556.7 g to 647.6 g and prolificacy ranged from 12.5 to 16.8 pigeons weaned per couple of parents per year. Heritability of body weight was high, varying between 0.46 and 0.60, and permanent environment was responsible for 6% to 9% of the total variability. On the contrary, prolificacy was poorly heritable (0.04 to 0.12. They were highly and negatively correlated (-0.77 to -0.82. Body weight showed significant genetic trends in lines B and C. No significant genetic difference could be observed between males and females for both traits.

  5. Speed Determines Leadership and Leadership Determines Learning during Pigeon Flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Benjamin; Ákos, Zsuzsa; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora

    2015-12-07

    A key question in collective behavior is how individual differences structure animal groups, affect the flow of information, and give some group members greater weight in decisions. Depending on what factors contribute to leadership, despotic decisions could either improve decision accuracy or interfere with swarm intelligence. The mechanisms behind leadership are therefore important for understanding its functional significance. In this study, we compared pigeons' relative influence over flock direction to their solo flight characteristics. A pigeon's degree of leadership was predicted by its ground speeds from earlier solo flights, but not by the straightness of its previous solo route. By testing the birds individually after a series of flock flights, we found that leaders had learned straighter homing routes than followers, as we would expect if followers attended less to the landscape and more to conspecifics. We repeated the experiment from three homing sites using multiple independent flocks and found individual consistency in leadership and speed. Our results suggest that the leadership hierarchies observed in previous studies could arise from differences in the birds' typical speeds. Rather than reflecting social preferences that optimize group decisions, leadership may be an inevitable consequence of heterogeneous flight characteristics within self-organized flocks. We also found that leaders learn faster and become better navigators, even if leadership is not initially due to navigational ability. The roles that individuals fall into during collective motion might therefore have far-reaching effects on how they learn about the environment and use social information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional similarities between pigeon 'milk' and mammalian milk: induction of immune gene expression and modification of the microbiota.

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    Meagan J Gillespie

    Full Text Available Pigeon 'milk' and mammalian milk have functional similarities in terms of nutritional benefit and delivery of immunoglobulins to the young. Mammalian milk has been clearly shown to aid in the development of the immune system and microbiota of the young, but similar effects have not yet been attributed to pigeon 'milk'. Therefore, using a chicken model, we investigated the effect of pigeon 'milk' on immune gene expression in the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT and on the composition of the caecal microbiota. Chickens fed pigeon 'milk' had a faster rate of growth and a better feed conversion ratio than control chickens. There was significantly enhanced expression of immune-related gene pathways and interferon-stimulated genes in the GALT of pigeon 'milk'-fed chickens. These pathways include the innate immune response, regulation of cytokine production and regulation of B cell activation and proliferation. The caecal microbiota of pigeon 'milk'-fed chickens was significantly more diverse than control chickens, and appears to be affected by prebiotics in pigeon 'milk', as well as being directly seeded by bacteria present in pigeon 'milk'. Our results demonstrate that pigeon 'milk' has further modes of action which make it functionally similar to mammalian milk. We hypothesise that pigeon 'lactation' and mammalian lactation evolved independently but resulted in similarly functional products.

  7. Functional Similarities between Pigeon ‘Milk’ and Mammalian Milk: Induction of Immune Gene Expression and Modification of the Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Meagan J.; Stanley, Dragana; Chen, Honglei; Donald, John A.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Moore, Robert J.; Crowley, Tamsyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Pigeon ‘milk’ and mammalian milk have functional similarities in terms of nutritional benefit and delivery of immunoglobulins to the young. Mammalian milk has been clearly shown to aid in the development of the immune system and microbiota of the young, but similar effects have not yet been attributed to pigeon ‘milk’. Therefore, using a chicken model, we investigated the effect of pigeon ‘milk’ on immune gene expression in the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) and on the composition of the caecal microbiota. Chickens fed pigeon ‘milk’ had a faster rate of growth and a better feed conversion ratio than control chickens. There was significantly enhanced expression of immune-related gene pathways and interferon-stimulated genes in the GALT of pigeon ‘milk’-fed chickens. These pathways include the innate immune response, regulation of cytokine production and regulation of B cell activation and proliferation. The caecal microbiota of pigeon ‘milk’-fed chickens was significantly more diverse than control chickens, and appears to be affected by prebiotics in pigeon ‘milk’, as well as being directly seeded by bacteria present in pigeon ‘milk’. Our results demonstrate that pigeon ‘milk’ has further modes of action which make it functionally similar to mammalian milk. We hypothesise that pigeon ‘lactation’ and mammalian lactation evolved independently but resulted in similarly functional products. PMID:23110233

  8. Correlation between the deep of the band tail and the potential originated by the impurities in semiconductors n-type and weakly compensated; Correlacion entre la profundidad de la cola de banda y el potencial originado por las impurezas en semiconductores tipo n y ligeramente compensados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonthal, Gerardo; Moros, Jose [Universidad de Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

    2001-02-01

    The doped semiconductors band tail E{sub 0} and the potential by ionized impurities E{sub p} were correlated for n-type and weakly compensated samples of Ge, Si, GaP and CdS. Results showed a lineal behavior with slope of 1.417 and ordinate intersection close to zero. The slope was very close to waited {radical}2 because E{sub p} is a rms potential. [Spanish] Se correlaciono la profundidad de la cola de banda E{sub 0} de los semiconductores dopados con el potencial E{sub p} debido a la interaccion entre las impurezas ionizadas para muestras tipo n y ligeramente compensadas de Ge, Si, GaP y CdS. Los resultados mostraron un comportamiento lineal dependiente 1.417 y corte con el eje de las ordenadas cercano a cero. La pendiente dio muy cercana al {radical}2 esperando en vista de que E{sub p} es un potencial rms.

  9. [Non-infectious unilateral wing lameness of pigeons, so called "Schieffliegersyndrom". First clinical and pathological results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, A; Neumann-Aukthun, M; Kamphausen, L

    2016-01-01

    After medium- and long-distance flights and following the first training units of the year, a unilateral injuring of the shoulder joint is observed in racing pigeons. The objective of the study was to discuss the pathogenesis and aetiology of the damage. In 35 pigeons suffering from unilateral wing lameness, the affected shoulder joints were examined microbiologically and histopathologically. Additionally, both shoulder joints of 12 affected pigeons were examined pathologically and histopathologically. Joint capsule, articular cartilage, tendons and bone structures displayed pathological changes. The non-infectious unilateral wing lameness of pigeons appears to be a stress-induced mechanical damage of the shoulder joint. The different structures of the joint are over-extended by the physical/mechanical influences during longer flights.

  10. Pigeon interaction mode switch-based UAV distributed flocking control under obstacle environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huaxin; Duan, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flocking control is a serious and challenging problem due to local interactions and changing environments. In this paper, a pigeon flocking model and a pigeon coordinated obstacle-avoiding model are proposed based on a behavior that pigeon flocks will switch between hierarchical and egalitarian interaction mode at different flight phases. Owning to the similarity between bird flocks and UAV swarms in essence, a distributed flocking control algorithm based on the proposed pigeon flocking and coordinated obstacle-avoiding models is designed to coordinate a heterogeneous UAV swarm to fly though obstacle environments with few informed individuals. The comparative simulation results are elaborated to show the feasibility, validity and superiority of our proposed algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating the surface area of birds: using the homing pigeon (Columba livia as a model

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    Cristina R. Perez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird.

  12. Lead Effect on Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity of Feral Pigeon (Columba livia) in Drenas

    OpenAIRE

    Albana Plakiqi Milaimi; Qerim I. Selimi; Kasum Rr.Letaj; Artan Trebicka

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of environmental pollution with heavy metals from ferro-nickel smelter on Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD) activity, and to analyze the blood lead level of feral pigeon (Columba livia) in ferro-nickel smelter courtyard in Drenas City, Republic of Kosovo. For this purpose, twenty specimens of feral pigeon (20 birds, males and females), were collected in Drenas city which were living in ferro-nickel smelter courtyard, and 20 specimens in Lub...

  13. Deciphering The Ecological Impact Of The Passenger Pigeon: A Synthesis Of Paleogenetics, Paleoecology, Morphology, And Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Ben Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The extinction of the passenger pigeon may have long-term consequences to eastern North American forest ecosystems; however, the past and ongoing consequences of the species’ extinction cannot be understood nor predicted without thorough knowledge of the species’ historic impacts. According to historic accounts, in abundance passenger pigeons generated large-scale understory and canopy disturbances. Key components needed to fully understand the impact of these disturbances remain contentious ...

  14. Clinical and histopathological Comparison of metamizole and midazolam as premedication in pigeon

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    farshad lotfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthesia in birds is associated with high risks. To resolve this problem, we have to find a drug that is compatible with avian physiology and anatomy. This study was conducted to compare the clinical and pathological effects of metamizol with midazolam as premedication in pigeons. For this purpose, eighteen male adult   pigeons with the mean age of two years and weight of 300 gm, were randomly divided into three groups with six individuals per group. Group I was the control group, in which the pigeons were given an intramuscular (IM injection of ketamine 40 mg/kg body weight. Each pigeon in group II was given an IM injection of midazolam at 6 mg/kg body weight and ketamine at 40 mg/kg body weight within 5 min following the first injection. Also, each pigeon in group III was given an IM injection of metamizole at 500 mg/kg body weight and ketamine at 40 mg/kg body weight within 5 min following the first injection. In order to determine the depth of anesthesia in each group and within 5 min from the last injection, various clinical reflexes were evaluated on the body of each pigeon. Also, postmortem examinations were performed to assess tissue damages in the liver and kidney tissues. The results of clinical evaluation in three groups showed that there was significant difference (p

  15. Zoonotic Infection with Pigeon Paramyxovirus Type 1 linked to Fatal Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiken, Thijs; Breitbart, Mya; Beer, Martin; Grund, Christian; Höper, Dirk; van den Hoogen, Bernadette; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis H; Kroes, Aloys C M; Rosario, Karyna; van Run, Peter; Schwarz, Matthias; Svraka, Sanela; Teifke, Jens; Koopmans, Marion

    2018-01-24

    The characteristics and risk factors of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) infection in humans are poorly known. We performed virological, pathological and epidemiological analyses of a Dutch case, and compared the results with those of a US case. Both infections occurred in transplant patients under immunosuppressive therapy and caused fatal respiratory failure. Both virus isolates clustered with avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) genotype VIb/1, which has pigeons and doves as reservoir. Experimentally inoculated pigeons became infected and transmitted the virus to naïve pigeons. Likely route of transmission to both patients was direct or indirect contact with infected pigeons or doves. Given the large populations of feral pigeons with endemic PPMV-1 infection in cities, increasing urbanisation and a higher proportion of immunocompromised individuals, the risk of severe human PPMV-1 infections may increase. We recommend to test for APMV-1, including PPMV-1, in respiratory disease cases where common respiratory pathogens cannot be identified. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Flight performance, energetics and water turnover of tippler pigeons with a harness and dorsal load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessaman, J.A.; Workman, G.W.; Fuller, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a bird's mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Flight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO2 production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measuremets precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  17. Flight performance energetics and water turnovers of Tippler Pigeons with a harness and doorsal load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessaman, James A.; Workman, Gar W.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a birda??s mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Plight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO, production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measurements precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  18. Metal concentrations in homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia; Halbrook, Richard S; Zang, Shuying; Han, Shuang; Li, Xinyu

    2017-12-22

    Atmospheric pollution in urban areas is a major worldwide concern with potential adverse impacts on wildlife and humans. Biomonitoring can provide direct evidence of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of toxic metals in the environment that is not available with mechanical air monitoring. The current study continues our evaluation of the usefulness of homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. Homing pigeons (1-2, 5-6, and 9-10+ year old (yo)) collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were necropsied and concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in lung tissue. Lung Cd and Pb concentrations were significantly greater in 9-10+-year-old pigeons compared with those in other age groups, indicating their bioavailability and bioaccumulation. Lung Pb and Cd concentrations measured in 5-yo pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were significantly lower than concentrations reported in 5-yo homing pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2011 and correlated with concentrations measured using mechanical air monitoring. In addition to temporal differences, spatial differences in concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg reported in ambient air samples and in pigeon lung tissues collected from Beijing and Guangzhou are discussed.

  19. Delayed neurogenesis with respect to eye growth shapes the pigeon retina for high visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tania; Krawczyk, Michal; Skowronska-Krawczyk, Dorota; Matter-Sadzinski, Lidia; Matter, Jean-Marc

    2016-12-15

    The macula and fovea located at the optical centre of the retina make primate visual perception unique among mammals. Our current understanding of retina ontogenesis is primarily based on animal models having no macula and no fovea. However, the pigeon retina and the human macula share a number of structural and functional properties that justify introducing the former as a new model system for retina development. Comparative transcriptome analysis of pigeon and chicken retinas at different embryonic stages reveals that the genetic programmes underlying cell differentiation are postponed in the pigeon until the end of the period of cell proliferation. We show that the late onset of neurogenesis has a profound effect on the developmental patterning of the pigeon retina, which is at odds with the current models of retina development. The uncoupling of tissue growth and neurogenesis is shown to result from the fact that the pigeon retinal epithelium is inhibitory to cell differentiation. The sum of these developmental features allows the pigeon to build a retina that displays the structural and functional traits typical of primate macula and fovea. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Mycotic flora in the lower digestive tract of feral pigeons (Columba livia) in the El Paso, Texas area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R; Robertstad, G W; Hutchinson, L R; Chavez, J

    1976-01-01

    Fourteen species of fungus were isolated from the lower digestive tract of 39 of 80 pigeons. Sixteen pigeons had concurrent isolations while two harbored three species. Fungi isolated were Allescheria boydii, Aspergillus spp., Candida krusei, Chrysosporium spp., Geotrichum candidum, Mucor spp., Paeciliomyces spp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Rhodotorula spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Streptomyces spp., and Trichosporon cutaneum. There was no apparent evidence that these fungi were associated with clinical disease in any of the pigeons.

  1. Dietary habits of urban pigeons (Columba livia and implications of excreta pH – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spennemann Dirk H. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigeons are considered to be urban pests, causing untold damage to buildings and potentially impacting the health of humans who come into contact with them or their faeces. Pigeon faecal matter has been implicated in both health impacts and building damage, with the acidity of the excreta playing an important role. Purpose of the Review. This paper is a wide-ranging review of the chemical processes of excreta in the pigeon to aid our understanding of the potential problems of pigeons to buildings and human amenity in the urban space. The natural pH of pigeons is shown to vary based on the bird’s and age as well as reproductive stage. Key findings of the review. The influences of the altered diet between the rock dove (the wild progenitor of the feral pigeon and the feral pigeon are detailed, indicating that the human-based diet of urban pigeons most likely causes the feral pigeon excreta to be more acidic than the rock dove excreta. This higher acidity is due in part to diet, but also to potential increases in faecal and/or uric acid volumes due to the low quality of human-based diets. Again, this area of interest is highly data deficient due to the few number of studies and unspecified dietary intake before pH measurement. Implications of the review. Humans are increasingly concerned about pigeon populations (and presumably their accumulated faeces in the urban space, and control comprises a large part of the interaction between humans and feral pigeons. This review provides a greater understanding of feral pigeons and the true effects of their excreta.

  2. Incidence of gastrointestinal parasitism of captive wild pigeons at Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Borghare

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to investigate the helminthic infection in captive wild pigeons (Columba livia at Maharajbagh Zoo Nagpur. All the 30 samples examined were found positive either with single or mixed helminthic infections. The result showed that the incidence of Capillaria sp, Ascaridia sp and  Hetarakis sp. were 56.66%, 76.66%, 16.66% respectively. Mixed parasitic infection was recorded in around 17 samples with either Ascaridia sp. and Capillaria sp or with Ascaridia sp. and Heterakis sp. One of 30 samples examined were found with the cysts of Balantidium coli. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 343-

  3. On the functional extinction of the Passenger Pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David L; Jarić, Ivan; Solow, Andrew R

    2017-10-01

    The Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) was a social breeder, and it has been suggested that the species experienced functional extinction, defined as a total reproductive failure, prior to its actual extinction in the early years of the 20th century. We applied a novel randomization test based on the relative times of the most recent egg- and skin-specimen sightings (i.e., recorded date of specimen collection) to test for functional extinction. For a total of 6 eggs and 27 skins, the observed significance level was 0.38, which indicated that the species did not become functionally extinct. Thus, proposals to reverse its rapid decline in the late 19th century could have been successful. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. An evaluation of the impact of aloe vera and licorice extracts on the course of experimental pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 infection in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewulska, D; Stenzel, T; Smialek, M; Tykalowski, B; Koncicki, A

    2018-02-01

    The progressive decrease in the efficiency of synthetic drugs has prompted research into phytogenic feed additives with potentially immunomodulatory and anti-infective properties. Complex diseases with a mixed etiology, including viral, pose a growing problem in domestic pigeons. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various doses of aloe vera and licorice extracts on the course of experimental PPMV-1 infection in pigeons. The experiment was performed on pigeons divided into 5 groups, including one control group and 4 experimental groups, which were orally administered aloe vera or licorice extracts at 300 or 500 mg/kg BW for 7 d after experimental inoculation with PPMV-1. On d 4, 7, and 14 after inoculation, cloacal swabs and samples of organs were collected from 4 birds in each group. The samples were analyzed to determine the copy number of PPMV-1 RNA by TaqMan qPCR. The results indicate that licorice and aloe vera extracts inhibited PPMV-1 replication by decreasing viral RNA copy numbers in the examined organs. The most inhibitory effect was observed in pigeons receiving aloe vera extract at 300 mg/kg BW, for which PPMV-1 RNA copy numbers were approximately 7-fold lower (brain), 9-fold lower (kidneys), and 14-fold lower (liver) than in the control group. The results of this study point to the potentially antiviral effects of aloe vera and licorice extracts in pigeons infected with PPMV-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the antiviral properties of aloe vera and licorice extracts in domestic pigeons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  5. Differential central projections of vestibular afferents in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, J. D.; Fang, Q.

    1996-01-01

    The question of whether a differential distribution of vestibular afferent information to central nuclear neurons is present in pigeons was studied using neural tracer compounds. Discrete tracing of afferent fibers innervating the individual semicircular canal and otolith organs was produced by sectioning individual branches of the vestibular nerve that innervate the different receptor organs and applying crystals of horseradish peroxidase, or a horseradish peroxidase/cholera toxin mixture, or a biocytin compound for neuronal uptake and transport. Afferent fibers and their terminal distributions within the brainstem and cerebellum were visualized subsequently. Discrete areas in the pigeon central nervous system that receive primary vestibular input include the superior, dorsal lateral, ventral lateral, medial, descending, and tangential vestibular nuclei; the A and B groups; the intermediate, medial, and lateral cerebellar nuclei; and the nodulus, the uvula, and the paraflocculus. Generally, the vertical canal afferents projected heavily to medial regions in the superior and descending vestibular nuclei as well as the A group. Vertical canal projections to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei were observed but were less prominent. Horizontal canal projections to the superior and descending vestibular nuclei were much more centrally located than those of the vertical canals. A more substantial projection to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei was seen with horizontal canal afferents compared to vertical canal fibers. Afferents innervating the utricle and saccule terminated generally in the lateral regions of all vestibular nuclei in areas that were separate from the projections of the semicircular canals. In addition, utricular fibers projected to regions in the vestibular nuclei that overlapped with the horizontal semicircular canal terminal fields, whereas saccular afferents projected to regions that received vertical canal fiber terminations. Lagenar

  6. Homing pigeons as a biomonitor for atmospheric PAHs and PCBs in Guangzhou, a megacity in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yuanyuan; Halbrook, Richard S; Li, Huizhen; You, Jing

    2017-11-30

    The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) in urban atmosphere in Guangzhou, China were assessed using homing pigeons as a biomonitor. Contaminant concentrations in lung were significantly higher than those in liver and fat, indicating chemical uptake was mainly through respiratory route. Tricyclic PAHs and low chlorinated PCBs dominated composition of PAHs and PCBs in homing pigeons, similar as their composition in local atmosphere. Different age-dependent bioaccumulation patterns were noted for PAHs and PCBs. For 1-year old homing pigeons, higher levels of PAHs and PCBs in lung and liver tissues were probably ascribed to more intense flying than 5- and 10-year groups. Fat concentrations of PCBs were greater in aged pigeons than 1-year old pigeons, but PAH concentrations in fat slightly decreased in aged pigeons because of relatively fast biotransformation. Overall, homing pigeons could serve as a suitable biomonitor for urban atmospheric contaminants in coastal cities. Homing pigeons could serve as a good biomonitor for PAHs and PCBs in urban atmosphere, yet different biotransformation potential of the chemicals caused different bioaccumulation patterns in pigeon fat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Burstein–Moss shift parameter. The Fermi level lies in the conduction hand andξ p can be calculated from focal point. Eg and Ep are obtained from optical absorption edges (tables. 1 and 2). From the data on resistivity with temperature, it was found E1 = Eg +Ep only,. 540. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 60, No. 3, March 2003 ...

  8. Defensive behaviors and prosencephalic neurogenesis in pigeons (Columba livia) are affected by environmental enrichment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melleu, F F; Pinheiro, M V; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J

    2016-05-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain appears to be phylogenetically conserved across the animal kingdom. In pigeons and other adult non-oscine birds, immature neurons are observed in several prosencephalic areas, suggesting that neurogenesis may participate in the control of different behaviors. The mechanisms controlling neurogenesis and its relevance to defensive behaviors in non-oscine birds remain elusive. Herein, the contribution of the environment to behavior and neurogenesis of pigeons was investigated. Adult pigeons (Columba livia, n = 6/group), housed in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 42 days, were exposed to an unfamiliar environment (UE) followed by presentation to a novel object (NO). Video recordings of UE+NO tests were analyzed and scored for latency, duration and frequency of angular head movements, peeping, grooming, immobility and locomotion. Twenty-four hours later, pigeons were submitted to the tonic immobility test (TI) and number of trials for TI and TI duration were scored, followed by euthanasia 2 h later. Brains were immunohistochemically processed to reveal doublecortin (DCX), a marker for newborn neurons. Compared to those housed in SE, the pigeons housed in EE responded to a NO with more immobility. In addition, the pigeons housed in EE presented longer TI, more DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells in the hippocampus and fewer DCX-ir cells in the lateral striatum than those housed in SE. There was no correlation between the number of DCX-ir cells and the scores of immobility in behavioral tests. Together, these data suggest that enrichment favored behavioral inhibition and neurogenesis in the adult pigeons through different, parallel mechanisms.

  9. [Effects of the environment on health of feral pigeons (Columba livia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tim; Kamphausen, Ludger; Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We examined 80 feral pigeons and their fecal samples from two feral pigeon lofts of the "Pigeon Action of Basel" (Switzerland) for different pathogens. The tested material harbored four pathogenic agents transmissible to humans (Chlamydia spp., Salmonella spec., Campylobacter jejuni, Cryptococcus neoformans) In addition several pathogens were found which are no zoonotic agents but potentially pathogenic for the pigeons themselves, such as Trichomonas gallinae, coccidia, helminths, ectoparasites and fungi. The number of pathogens and parasites detected in the fecal samples varied significantly between the two localities. The pigeons of the two investigated breeding flocks differed in nutritional status and the incidence of two species of feather lice, Columbicola columbae and Campanulotes bidentatus compar. The prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae between juveniles and adults was not significantly different but juveniles exhibited significantly heavier infestation if infected. Individuals with a good nutritional status tend to show heavier infestation with Trichomonas gallinae compared to birds with moderate or poor nutritional status. Birds with a poor nutritional status tend to suffer from a heavier infestation with the feather louse C. columbae, and birds with a good nutritional status show significant heavier infestation with C. bidentatus compar. It was remarkable that one of the two investigated breeding populations almost gave up its breeding activity for two years because of the loss of its familiar food source. Nevertheless, this population showed a better nutritional status than the population without restrictions in the acquisition of food. This fact could be interpreted by the existence of a biological control mechanism for suppression of the reproduction in degraded environmental conditions to ensure the survival of the adults. If this assumption is correct, the feeding of feral pigeons by animal lovers possibly causes impairment of pigeon's health in

  10. Cardiorespiratory parameters in the awake pigeon and during anaesthesia with isoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botman, Julie; Dugdale, Alex; Gabriel, Fabien; Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    To determine baseline cardiovascular and respiratory variables in the awake pigeon, and to assess those variables during anaesthesia at the individual minimal anaesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane during spontaneous breathing. Prospective, experimental trial. Seven healthy adult pigeons weighing a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 438 ± 38 g. Heart rate (HR), heart rhythm, respiratory rate (fR), end-expired carbon dioxide tension (Pe'CO2), indirect systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and cloacal temperature (T) were measured in birds in the awake state (after acclimatization to handling). Two weeks later, the pigeons were anaesthetized with isoflurane in order to determine their MAC and evaluate the same cardiovascular and respiratory variables during a further 40 minutes of isoflurane anaesthesia. In the awake pigeon, mean ± SD HR, SAP, fR, Pe'CO2 and T were, respectively, 155 ± 28 beats minute(-1), 155 ± 21 mmHg, 34 ± 6 breaths minute(-1), 38 ± 8 mmHg (5.1 ± 1.1 kPa) and 41.8 ± 0.5 °C. Mean isoflurane MAC was 1.8 ± 0.4%. During maintenance of anaesthesia at MAC, although no significant decreases between values obtained in the awake and anaesthetized states emerged in HR or respiratory rate, significant decreases in SAP and cloacal temperature and an increase in Pe'CO2 were observed. No arrhythmia was identified in awake pigeons, whereas second- and third-degree atrioventricular blocks occurred under isoflurane. Isoflurane MAC in pigeons appeared to be higher than in other avian species. Isoflurane anaesthesia in pigeons resulted in hypercapnia, hypotension, mild hypothermia and second- and third-degree atrioventricular blocks. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  11. Comparative cophylogenetics of Australian phabine pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their feather lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Andrew D.; Chesser, R. Terry; Johnson, Kevin P.

    2017-01-01

    Host–parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions. Using molecular sequence data for most phabine species and their lice, we estimated phylogenetic trees for all three groups (pigeons and doves, wing lice and body lice), and compared the phabine (host) tree with both parasite trees using multiple cophylogenetic methods. We found a pattern opposite to that found for New World pigeons and doves, with Australian wing lice showing congruence with their hosts, and body lice exhibiting a lack of congruence. There are no documented records of hippoboscid flies associated with Australian phabines, thus these lice may lack the opportunity to disperse among host species by attaching to hippoboscid flies (phoresis), which could explain these patterns. However, additional sampling for flies is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Large differences in body size among phabine pigeons and doves may also help to explain the congruence of the wing lice with their hosts. It may be more difficult for wing lice than body lice to switch among hosts that vary more dramatically in size. The results from this study highlight how host–parasite coevolutionary histories can vary by region, and how local factors can shape the relationship.

  12. Use of Samples Differing Markedly in Salience May Encourage Use of a Single-Code/Default Strategy in Matching-to-Sample in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Douglas S.

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pigeons will only code the more salient sample when samples differ markedly in salience, pigeons were trained with samples consisting of a 2-s presentation of food (highly salient sample) and an 8-s presentation of keylight (less salient sample). During retention testing, pigeons tended to respond at longer delays as if…

  13. Pigeon RIG-I Function in Innate Immunity against H9N2 IAV and IBDV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR, can sense various RNA viruses, including the avian influenza virus (AIV and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, and trigger the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown that mammalian RIG-I (human and mice and waterfowl RIG-I (ducks and geese are essential for type I interferon (IFN synthesis during AIV infection. Like ducks, pigeons are also susceptible to infection but are ineffective propagators and disseminators of AIVs, i.e., “dead end” hosts for AIVs and even highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Consequently, we sought to identify pigeon RIG-I and investigate its roles in the detection of A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 (H9N2 (ZB07, Gansu/Tianshui (IBDV TS and Beijing/CJ/1980 (IBDV CJ-801 strains in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts or human 293T cells. Pigeon mRNA encoding the putative pigeon RIG-I analogs was identified. The exogenous expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP-tagged pigeon RIG-I and caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs, strongly induced antiviral gene (IFN-β, Mx, and PKR mRNA synthesis, decreased viral gene (M gene and VP2 mRNA expression, and reduced the viral titers of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 virus strains in chicken DF-1 cells, but not in 293T cells. We also compared the antiviral abilities of RIG-I proteins from waterfowl (duck and goose and pigeon. Our data indicated that waterfowl RIG-I are more effective in the induction of antiviral genes and the repression of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 strain replication than pigeon RIG-I. Furthermore, chicken melanoma differentiation associated gene 5(MDA5/ mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS silencing combined with RIG-I transfection suggested that pigeon RIG-I can restore the antiviral response in MDA5-silenced DF-1 cells but not in MAVS-silenced DF-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that pigeon RIG-I and CARDs have a strong antiviral

  14. Afferent innervation of the utricular macula in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xiaohong; Zakir, Mridha Md; Dickman, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was used to retrogradely label afferents innervating the utricular macula in adult pigeons. The pigeon utriclar macula consists of a large rectangular-shaped neuroepithelium with a dorsally curved anterior edge and an extended medioposterior tail. The macula could be demarcated into several regions based on cytoarchitectural differences. The striola occupied 30% of the macula and contained a large density of type I hair cells with fewer type II hair cells. Medial and lateral extrastriola zones were located outside the striola and contained only type II hair cells. A six- to eight-cell-wide band of type II hair cells existed near the center of the striola. The reversal line marked by the morphological polarization of hair cells coursed throughout the epithelium, near the peripheral margin, and through the center of the type II band. Calyx afferents innervated type I hair cells with calyceal terminals that contained between 2 and 15 receptor cells. Calyx afferents were located only in the striola region, exclusive of the type II band, had small total fiber innervation areas and low innervation densities. Dimorph afferents innervated both type I and type II hair cells with calyceal and bouton terminals and were primarily located in the striola region. Dimorph afferents had smaller calyceal terminals with few type I hair cells, extended fiber branches with bouton terminals and larger innervation areas. Bouton afferents innervated only type II hair cells in the extrastriola and type II band regions. Bouton afferents innervating the type II band had smaller terminal fields with fewer bouton terminals and smaller innervation areas than fibers located in the extrastriolar zones. Bouton afferents had the most bouton terminals on the longest fibers, the largest innervation areas with the highest innervation densities of all afferents. Among all afferents, smaller terminal innervation fields were observed in the striola and large fields were

  15. Wild birds and urban pigeons as reservoirs for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli with zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Clarissa A; Cardozo, Marita V; Beraldo, Livia G; Oliveira, Elisabete S; Maluta, Renato P; Barboza, Kaline B; Werther, Karin; Ávila, Fernando A

    2017-05-01

    In order to describe the role of wild birds and pigeons in the transmission of shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) to humans and other animals, samples were collected from cloacae and oropharynx of free-living wild birds and free-living pigeons. Two STEC (0.8%) and five EPEC strains (2.0%) were isolated from wild birds and four EPEC strains (2.0%) were recovered from pigeons. Serogroups, sequence types (STs) and virulence genes, such as saa, iha, lpfA O113, ehxA, espA, nleB and nleE, detected in this study had already been implicated in human and animal diseases. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was found in 25.0% of the pigeon strains and in 57.0% of the wild bird strains; the wild birds also yielded one isolate carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) gene bla CTX-M-8. The high variability shown by PFGE demonstrates that there are no prevalent E. coli clones from these avian hosts. Wild birds and pigeons could act as carriers of multidrug-resistant STEC and EPEC and therefore may constitute a considerable hazard to human and animal health by transmission of these strains to the environment.

  16. Effects of acute and chronic morphine on delay discounting in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppolito, Amy K; France, Charles P; Gerak, Lisa R

    2013-05-01

    When reinforcers of different magnitudes are concurrently available, choice is greater for a large reinforcer; that choice can be reduced by delaying its delivery, a phenomenon called delay discounting and represented graphically by a delay curve in which choice is plotted as a function of delay to the large reinforcer. Morphine, administered acutely, can alter responding for large, delayed reinforcers. In this study, the impact of morphine tolerance, dependence and withdrawal on choice of delayed reinforcers was examined in six pigeons responding to receive a small amount of food delivered immediately or a larger amount delivered immediately or after delays that increased within sessions. Acutely, morphine decreased responding for the large reinforcer, and the effect was greater when morphine was administered immediately, rather than 6 hr, before sessions. During 8 weeks of daily administration, morphine produced differential effects across pigeons, shifting the delay curve downward in some and upward in others. In all pigeons, tolerance developed to the response-rate-decreasing effects of morphine but not to its effects on delay discounting. When chronic morphine treatment was discontinued, rate of responding decreased in four pigeons, indicating the emergence of withdrawal; choice of the large reinforcer increased, regardless of delay, in all pigeons, an effect that persisted for weeks. These data suggest that chronic morphine administration has long-lasting effects on choice behavior, which might impact vulnerability to relapse in opioid abusers. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Route selection by pigeons (Columba livia) in "traveling salesperson" navigation tasks presented on an LCD screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiromitsu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2010-11-01

    Navigation tasks using the "traveling salesperson problem (TSP)" were presented to pigeons (Columba livia) to determine their strategy on spatial tasks with 2 to 3 goals. In Experiment 1, a simple TSP task with 2 goals was presented. In Experiment 2, 3 goals were presented so that each of the goals and the starting location of the target held each corner of a square. In Experiment 3, 3 goals were aligned along a straight line. In Experiment 4, 3 goals were placed so that the 2 of them were in close proximity to each other to form a group. In all of these experiments, the pigeons showed tendencies to visit the nearest goal first, which may suggest that the pigeons mainly used local or inflexible strategies in determining the routes to take. However, further evidence was also found that in Experiment 2, the pigeons frequently selected routes with short traveling distances while traveling either counterclockwise or clockwise, not necessarily relying on the "nearest neighbor" algorithm. Results from these experiments are discussed in relation to the pigeons' foraging ecology and adaptation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Perceptual strategies of pigeons to detect a rotational centre--a hint for star compass learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Alert

    Full Text Available Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy.

  19. A retrospective study of circovirus infection in pigeons: nine cases (1986-1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, L W; Latimer, K S; Niagro, F D; Riddell, C; Crowley, A M; Anderson, M L; Daft, B M; Moore, J D; Campagnoli, R P; Nordhausen, R W

    1994-04-01

    Circovirus infections were diagnosed in 12 pigeons from the United States 4 pigeons from Australia, and 1 pigeon from Canada (1986-1993). Circovirus was identified by electron microscopic examination of basophilic botryoid cytoplasmic inclusions that had a histologic appearance similar to that of psittacine beak and feather disease virus inclusions. Inclusions were seen in splenic, bursal, gut-associated, and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue macrophages and in bursal epithelial cells. Inclusions were composed of paracrystalline arrays of tightly packed, nonenveloped icosahedral virions 14-17 nm in diameter. Histologic changes in the spleens ranged from lymphofollicular hyperplasia with mild discrete lymphocellular necrosis to lymphoid depletion and diffuse histiocytosis. Lesions in the bursa of Fabricius ranged from mild lymphocellular necrosis to severe cystic bursal atrophy. Remaining histologic findings coincided with concurrent bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. Immunoperoxidase staining and DNA in situ hybridization demonstrated that pigeon circovirus is distinct from psittacine beak and feather disease virus; however both viruses apparently share some homologous DNA sequences. Clinical and diagnostic findings indicate that pigeon circovirus may be similar to psittacine beak and feather disease virus with respect to acquired immunodeficiency and subsequent multiple secondary infections.

  20. Captive and free-living urban pigeons (Columba livia) from Brazil as carriers of multidrug-resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Clarissa A; Maluta, Renato P; Beraldo, Lívia G; Cardozo, Marita V; Guastalli, Elisabete A L; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; DebRoy, Chitrita; Ávila, Fernando A

    2017-01-01

    Thirty Escherichia coli isolates from captive and free-living pigeons in Brazil were characterised. Virulence-associated genes identified in pigeons included those which occur relatively frequently in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) from commercial poultry worldwide. Eleven of 30 E. coli isolates from pigeons, belonging mainly to B1 and B2 phylogenetic groups, had high or intermediate pathogenicity for 1-day-old chicks. The frequency of multi-drug resistant (MDR) E. coli in captive pigeons was relatively high and included one isolate positive for the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene bla CTX-M-8 . Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed high heterogeneity among isolates. There is potential for pigeons to transmit antibiotic resistant pathogenic E. coli to other species through environmental contamination or direct contact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relevance and treatment of coccidiosis in domestic pigeons (Columba livia forma domestica) with particular emphasis on toltrazuril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Zebisch, Ralph; Schmidt, Volker

    2009-03-01

    Coccidia are common pathogenic parasites in pigeons (Columba livia). Coccidiosis is most commonly seen in young pigeons and only rarely in adult birds. Infections in domestic pigeons are typically mixed and commonly include Eimeria columbarum and Eimeria labbeana. The reported prevalence of infection is 5.1%-71.9%, and worldwide mortality in juvenile pigeons varies from 5% to 70%, with most deaths occurring in the third and fourth month of life. This article summarizes the life cycle of E. columbarum and E. labbeana, the route of transmission, and the common clinical and pathologic signs of coccidiosis. Chemotherapeutic options discussed include amprolium, sulfonamides, clazuril, and toltrazuril. Reasons to use toltrazuril include the growing resistance against other drugs, such as sulfonamides and amprolium, the extended effectiveness compared with other substances, for example, clazuril, and the ability of pigeons to develop immunity during treatment.

  2. Procrastination by pigeons: preference for larger, more delayed work requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, J E

    1996-01-01

    In three experiments, pigeons chose between alternatives that required the completion of a small ratio schedule early in the trial or a larger ratio schedule later in the trial. Completion of the ratio requirement did not lead to an immediate reinforcer, but simply allowed the events of the trial to continue. In Experiment 1, the ratio requirements interrupted periods in which food was delivered on a variable-time schedule. In Experiments 2 and 3, each ratio requirement was preceded and followed by a delay, and only one reinforcer was delivered, at the end of each trial. Two of the experiments used an adjusting-ratio procedure in which the ratio requirement was increased and decreased over trials so as to estimate an indifference point--a ratio size at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. These experiments found clear evidence for "procrastination"--the choice of a larger but more delayed response requirement. In some cases, subjects chose the more delayed ratio schedule even when it was larger than the more immediate alternative by a factor of four or more. The results suggest that as the delay to the start of a ratio requirement is increased, it has progressively less effect on choice behavior, in much the same way that delaying a positive reinforcer reduces it effect on choice. PMID:8583195

  3. Procrastination by pigeons with fixed-interval response requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, J E

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments studied the phenomenon of procrastination, in which pigeons chose a larger, more delayed response requirement over a smaller, more immediate response requirement. The response requirements were fixed-interval schedules that did not lead to an immediate food reinforcer, but that interrupted a 55-s period in which food was delivered at random times. The experiments used an adjusting-delay procedure in which the delay to the start of one fixed-interval requirement was varied over trials to estimate an indifference point--a delay at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. Experiment 1 found that as the delay to a shorter fixed-interval requirement was increased, the adjusting delay to a longer fixed-interval requirement also increased, and the rate of increase depended on the duration of the longer fixed-interval requirement. Experiment 2 found a strong preference for a fixed delay of 10 s to the start of a fixed-interval requirement compared to a mixed delay of either 0 or 20 s. The results help to distinguish among different equations that might describe the decreasing effectiveness of a response requirement with increasing delay, and they suggest that delayed reinforcers and delayed response requirements have symmetrical but opposite effects on choice. PMID:9540230

  4. The biological function of pigeon crop milk and the regulation of its production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Wang, Xun; Ma, Yao; Li, Xiao Kai

    2017-12-20

    The pigeon (Columba livia) is one of the few birds capable of secreting nutrients to nourish squabs. During the incubation period, the crop of the parent pigeon will be thickened. When squabs are hatched, the crop milk will be secreted from the crop and fed to squabs. The nutritional benefits are similar between the pigeon crop milk and mammalian milk, and both of them are regulated by prolactin. Prolactin stimulates the proliferation of crop epithelial cells, which eventually slough to form the crop milk. Evidence suggests that the complex process may be associated with the transcription of the AnxIcp35 gene and the activation of JAK/STAT and Wnt signal pathways. In this review, we summarize the main components and the biological function of the crop milk, the histological changes of the crop and the regulatory mechanism of crop milk secretion.

  5. Prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae and Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons (Columba domestica) in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Ahmad; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ahmadi, Amin; Himan, Mohammadpour

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae and Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons (Columba domestica) in Isfahan, Iran. Study was done on 100 pigeons from January to June 2010 in Isfahan located in south of Iran. Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from all birds. Also blood samples were obtained from wing vein and thin smears were prepared from them. All smears were stained by Giemsa and were examined by immersion. Out of 100 Oropharyngeal swab smears 57 (57%) were positive for T. gallinae and Haemoproteus gallinae were detected in 62 pigeons (62%) from which blood smear were taken. The present study is in close agreement with other studies in Iran. But infestation rate to theses parasite in world are very different. These differences were probably linked to geographical variations and differences in the feeding habitat and abundance of vehicles of Haemoproteus.

  6. PCR Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Trichomonas gallinae from Domestic Pigeons in Guangzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Shen-Ben; Lv, Meng-Na; He, Xi; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zou, Shang-Shu; Wang, Xin-Qiu; Lin, Rui-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Avian trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas gallinae is a serious protozoan disease worldwide. The domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) is the main host for T. gallinae and plays an important role in the spread of the disease. Based on the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA of this parasite, a pair of primers (TgF2/TgR2) was designed and used to develop a PCR assay for the diagnosis of T. gallinae infection in domestic pigeons. This approach allowed the identification o...

  7. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dolz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae and pigeons (Columbiformes, the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  8. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, G; Solórzano-Morales, Á; Angelova, L; Tien, C; Fonseca, L; Bonilla, M C

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  9. Screening of feral and wood pigeons for viruses harbouring a conserved mobile viral element: characterization of novel Astroviruses and Picornaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Kofstad

    Full Text Available A highly conserved RNA-motif of yet unknown function, called stem-loop-2-like motif (s2m, has been identified in the 3' end of the genomes of viruses belonging to different RNA virus families which infect a broad range of mammal and bird species, including Astroviridae, Picornaviridae, Coronaviridae and Caliciviridae. Since s2m is such an extremely conserved motif, it is an ideal target for screening for viruses harbouring it. In this study, we have detected and characterized novel viruses harbouring this motif in pigeons by using a s2m-specific amplification. 84% and 67% of the samples from feral pigeons and wood pigeons, respectively, were found to contain a virus harbouring s2m. Four novel viruses were identified and characterized. Two of the new viruses belong to the genus Avastrovirus in the Astroviridae family. We propose two novel species to be included in this genus, Feral pigeon astrovirus and Wood pigeon astrovirus. Two other novel viruses, Pigeon picornavirus A and Pigeon picornavirus B, belong to the Picornaviridae family, presumably to the genus Sapelovirus. Both of the novel picornaviruses harboured two adjacent s2m, called (s2m(2, suggesting a possible increased functional effect of s2m when present in two copies.

  10. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto)-fermented pigeon pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Wu, She-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto-fermented pigeon pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension.

  12. Prevalence and Pathology of Trichomoniasis in Free AND#8211; Living Urban Pigeons in the City of Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh I. Al- Sadi and Aws Z. Hamodi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis and its pathology in pigeons. A total of 100 free living urban pigeons were collected during the months August and September 2007. The overall prevalence was 16%. In infected pigeons, yellowish – white masses of caseous necrotic material were seen grossly in the oral cavity, esophagus, crop, and proventiculus. Pale to yellow necrotic areas were noted in the liver. Multiple foci of caseous necrosis were seen microscopically in the oral mucosa together with heavy infiltration of inflammatory cells (mainly heterophils. Foci of necrotic inflammation were seen in the liver and there was thickening of the lining mucosa of the esophagus due to extensive infiltration of heterophils. Collections of necrotic material were seen in the mucosa and submucosa of the esophagus. Infection occurred more frequently in young than in adult pigeons. A higher prevalence of the infection was noted in male than in female pigeons. In all of the infected pigeons, trichomoniasis occured in the absence of apparent secondary disease. It was concluded that trichomonad infection is fairly common in free living urban pigeons in the city of Mosul, Iraq. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 12-14

  13. Natural infections with Pigeon Paramyxovirus-1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the USA: Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro-Ayza, Marcos; Lankton, Julia S.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn

    2017-01-01

    We reviewed pathological findings and to a lesser extent epidemiological data from 70 free-ranging columbiforms naturally infected with Pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1) from 25 different PPMV-1 mortality events in columbiforms in the USA. In a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks, we carried out immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein to determine the tissue distribution of the virus.

  14. Rules to fly by: pigeons navigating horizontal obstacles limit steering by selecting gaps most aligned to their flight direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Ivo G; Bhagavatula, Partha S; Lin, Huai-Ti; Biewener, Andrew A

    2017-02-06

    Flying animals must successfully contend with obstacles in their natural environments. Inspired by the robust manoeuvring abilities of flying animals, unmanned aerial systems are being developed and tested to improve flight control through cluttered environments. We previously examined steering strategies that pigeons adopt to fly through an array of vertical obstacles (VOs). Modelling VO flight guidance revealed that pigeons steer towards larger visual gaps when making fast steering decisions. In the present experiments, we recorded three-dimensional flight kinematics of pigeons as they flew through randomized arrays of horizontal obstacles (HOs). We found that pigeons still decelerated upon approach but flew faster through a denser array of HOs compared with the VO array previously tested. Pigeons exhibited limited steering and chose gaps between obstacles most aligned to their immediate flight direction, in contrast to VO navigation that favoured widest gap steering. In addition, pigeons navigated past the HOs with more variable and decreased wing stroke span and adjusted their wing stroke plane to reduce contact with the obstacles. Variability in wing extension, stroke plane and wing stroke path was greater during HO flight. Pigeons also exhibited pronounced head movements when negotiating HOs, which potentially serve a visual function. These head-bobbing-like movements were most pronounced in the horizontal (flight direction) and vertical directions, consistent with engaging motion vision mechanisms for obstacle detection. These results show that pigeons exhibit a keen kinesthetic sense of their body and wings in relation to obstacles. Together with aerodynamic flapping flight mechanics that favours vertical manoeuvring, pigeons are able to navigate HOs using simple rules, with remarkable success.

  15. Avermectin induced liver injury in pigeon: mechanisms of apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Jun; Li, Ming; Liu, Ci; Qu, Jian-Ping; Min, Ya-Hong; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu

    2013-12-01

    Extensive use of avermectin (AVM) can result in environment pollution, and it is important to evaluate the potential impact this antibiotic has on ecological systems. Few published literatures have discussed the liver injury mechanisms induced by AVM on birds. In this study, pigeons were exposed to feed containing AVM (0, 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg diet) for 30, 60, 90 days respectively. The results showed that AVM increased the number of apoptosis and the expression level of caspase-3, 8, fas mRNA in the liver of pigeons. Ultrastructural alterations, including mitochondrial damage and chromatin aggregation, become severe with increase exposure dose. Exposure to AVM induced significant changes in antioxidant enzyme {superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)} activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, augmented protein carbonyl (PCO) content and DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) coefficient, in a concentration-dependent manner in the liver of pigeons. Our results show that AVM has toxic effect in pigeon liver, and the mechanism of injury caused by AVM is closely related to apoptosis and oxidative stress. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Depth to Transition--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the depth-to-transition map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  17. The effect of food quality during growth on spatial memory consolidation in adult pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, M F; Gasparini, J; Jacquin, L; Mettke-Hofmann, C; Rattenborg, N C; Roulin, A

    2017-02-15

    Poor environmental conditions experienced during early development can have negative long-term consequences on fitness. Animals can compensate for negative developmental effects through phenotypic plasticity by diverting resources from non-vital to vital traits such as spatial memory to enhance foraging efficiency. We tested in young feral pigeons (Columba livia) how diets of different nutritional value during development affect the capacity to retrieve food hidden in a spatially complex environment, a process we refer to as 'spatial memory'. Parents were fed with either high- or low-quality food from egg laying until young fledged, after which all young pigeons received the same high-quality diet until memory performance was tested at 6 months of age. The pigeons were trained to learn a food location out of 18 possible locations in one session, and then their memory of this location was tested 24 h later. Birds reared with the low-quality diet made fewer errors in the memory test. These results demonstrate that food quality during development has long-lasting effects on memory, with a moderate nutritional deficit improving spatial memory performance in a foraging context. It might be that under poor feeding conditions resources are redirected from non-vital to vital traits, or pigeons raised with low-quality food might be better in using environmental cues such as the position of the sun to find where food was hidden. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. The first genetic map of pigeon pea based on diversity arrays ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a total of 554 diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers showed polymorphism in a pigeon pea F2 mapping population of 72 progenies derived from an interspecific cross of ICP 28 (Cajanus cajan) and ICPW 94 (Cajanus scarabaeoides). Approximately 13% of markers did not conform to expected segregation ratio.

  19. than just human heroes' The role of the pigeon in the First World War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responding to current debates that question animal memorialisation in general, this article, which is largely based on contemporary news reports, reports on an investigation of the early war pigeon memorials, their nature, form symbolism and meaning for the affected community within the context of animal and war ...

  20. Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon species in pigeons of southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tavalla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate microsporidia species in pigeons of Ahvaz city, southwest of Iran by the staining and multiplex/nested PCR methods. Methods: Initially, 131 stool specimens were randomly collected from pigeons. The specimens were stained by the modified trichrome (Weber and were microscopically examined. The DNA was extracted by DNA stool extraction kit (Bioneer and was examined by the multiplex/nested PCR method. For differentiating the species of Encephalitozoon, the products of PCR were explored by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using the Mnl1 restriction enzyme. Results: Of 131 specimens, 22 and 18 cases were positive by the staining and the multiplex/ nested-PCR methods, respectively. Of 18, 7 and 11 samples were detected as Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp., respectively. In addition, 2 Encephalitozoon cuniculi and 9 Encephalitozoon intestinalis were Encephalitozoon species. Of 7 Enterocytozoon bieneusi samples, 5 and 2 cases were detected as genotype M and L, respectively. Also, all Encephalitozoon cuniculi samples were identified as genotype II. Conclusions: Our findings showed a relatively high prevalence of microsporidia at pigeons and these birds can be a significant and important source of microsporidiosis. It is essential that the high-risk individuals including patients with immunodeficient diseases should be receiving the accurate and valid information about the risk of direct and indirect contact with the infected pigeons.

  1. Screening for several potential pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballesteros Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogens with the zoonotic potential to infect humans, such as Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Chlamydophila psittaci, can be found in feral pigeons (Columba livia. Given the high density of these birds in the public parks and gardens of most cities, they may pose a direct threat to public health. Methods A total of 118 pigeons were captured in three samplings carried out in 2006-2007 in public parks and gardens in Madrid, Spain. Standard haematological and morphological analyses were carried out on the pigeons. PCR was used to screen for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and Chlamydophila psittaci. Positive samples were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results The analyses demonstrated a high prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci (52.6% and Campylobacter jejuni (69.1% among the birds captured. In contrast, Campylobacter coli was rarely detected (1.1%. Conclusions Pigeons in Madrid can carry Chlamydophila psittaci and Campylobacter jejuni. They may be asymptomatic or subclinical carriers of both pathogens.

  2. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered from pigeons in the territory of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a continual problem for the poultry industry with synanthropic birds representing one of the possible reservoirs of infection. Outbreaks of ND are regularly confirmed among pigeons in different regions of the Russian Federation. The spread of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) a...

  3. A family with extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by wild city pigeons: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. du Marchie Sarvaas; P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a family in which the mother died of unresolved lung disease and whose 5 children, some of whom had previous signs of asthma, were subsequently affected by extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by contact with wild city pigeon antigens. The children received

  4. Extensive Training Is Insufficient to Produce the Work-Ethic Effect in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Urcuioli, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Zentall and Singer (2007a) hypothesized that our failure to replicate the work-ethic effect in pigeons (Vasconcelos, Urcuioli, & Lionello-DeNolf, 2007) was due to insufficient overtraining following acquisition of the high- and low-effort discriminations. We tested this hypothesis using the original work-ethic procedure (Experiment 1) and one…

  5. Attributable risk of Capillaria species in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Qamar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fecal samples were collected from 120 domestic pigeons to determine the Attributable risk of Capillaria spp. The Capillaria spp. was observed in 64 out of 120 (51% pigeons (70 males and 50 females under this study. A total of 64 (39 males and 25 females were found naturally infected with Capillaria spp. with infection percentage of 51% and 50% in males and females respectively. Qualitative examinations include the direct microscopy and faecal floatation while quantitative examination includes McMaster technique (worms load was calculated per gram of the faeces. Month wise Attributable risk showed that eggs of the worms were found to be abundant in the month of July during the present study (60% to 73% because of high humidity. Very high and very low temperature is not suitable for the proper development of the eggs. Qualitative and quantitative examination revealed that Capillaria spp. was more prevalent in males (51% than females (50% but overall there was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the male and female because both individuals invest equal amount of energy in search of food and incubating the eggs. Different breeds of pigeons gave different Attributable risk in different months during the study. Groups of pigeons from different locations showed different variable Attributable risk. Areas with high humidity were more suitable for the development of eggs, which is the reason why higher Attributable risk was observed in Shahdara (75% area of Lahore, Pakistan.

  6. Estimating the surface area of birds: using the homing pigeon (Columba livia) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A

    2014-05-08

    Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd | Biology Open.

  7. Reversal learning in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and pigeons (Columba livia): qualitative differences in behavioral flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M; Stagner, Jessica P; Kirk, Chelsea R; Zentall, Thomas R

    2013-05-01

    Research has shown that pigeons given a simultaneous visually based discrimination reversal, in which a single reversal occurs at the midpoint of each session, consistently show anticipation prior to the reversal as well as perseveration after the reversal, suggesting that they use a less effective cue (time or trial number into the session) than what would be optimal to maximize reinforcement (local feedback from the most recent trials). In the present research, pigeons (Columba livia) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) were tested with a simultaneous spatial discrimination midsession reversal. Pigeons showed remarkably similar errors in anticipation and perseveration as with visual stimuli, thereby continuing to show the suboptimal use of time as a cue, whereas rats showed no anticipatory errors and very few perseverative errors, suggesting that they used local feedback as a cue, thus more nearly optimizing reinforcement. To further test the rats' flexibility, they were then tested with a variable point of reversal and then with multiple points of reversal within a session. Results showed that the rats effectively maximized reinforcement by developing an approximation to a win-stay/lose-shift rule. The greater efficiency shown by rats with this task suggests that they are better able to use the feedback from their preceding choice as the basis of their future choice. The difference in cue preference further suggests a qualitative difference in acquisition of the midsession reversal task between pigeons and rats.

  8. Prevalence and pathological lesion of Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, H; Razmi, G H; Movassaghi, A H; Moghaddas, E; Azad, M

    2011-10-01

    This research was conducted to determine the prevalence and pathological lesion of Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons in the northeast part of Iran. Wet mount preparations from the oral cavity/crop of 418 pigeons (Columba livia) captured from various locations in Khorasan province analyzed for T. gallinae by Giemsa's staining between April 2008 and June 2009. A total of 418 pigeons, 37.32% (n = 156) were infected with T. gallinae. Macroscopically, the oropharynx of infected pigeons has white, caseous lesions or stomatitis. Microscopically, there was moderate congestion with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of pharynx, hyperplasia of mucous cells in epithelia of trachea with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, numerous granulomatous foci in the livers with many multinucleated giant cells, tubulointerstitial nephritis with multifocal to diffuse infiltration of mostly mononuclear inflammatory cells in the kidneys. In the present paper we have described for the first time the co-existence of both genotypes of T. gallinae based on pathological lesions in this area.

  9. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of pigeon circovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shinn Shyong; Chang, Yeng Ling; Huang, Yen Li; Liu, Hung Jen; Ke, Guan Ming; Chiou, Chwei Jang; Hsieh, Yao Ching; Chang, Tsung Chou; Cheng, Li Ting; Chuang, Kuo Pin

    2014-05-01

    There are no effective antiviral treatments for pigeon circovirus (PiCV); thus, rapid diagnosis is critical for effective control of the disease caused by this virus. The recent development of a novel LAMP technique that amplifies nucleic acids rapidly with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions has overcome some of the deficiencies of nucleic-acid-based diagnostic tests. We established a LAMP method for rapid detection of PiCV using two pairs of primers that were designed from PiCV and compared its sensitivity and specificity with that of PCR. Amplification by LAMP was optimal at 63 °C for 60 min. The detection limit was nearly 0.5 pg of PiCV DNA, making it ten times more sensitive than PCR. There was no cross-reaction with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), pigeon Trichomonas gallinae, or pigeon herpesvirus (PHV) under the same conditions. The assay also successfully detected the pathogen DNA in the tissues of infected pigeons. This is the first report indicating that LAMP is a valuable, rapid method of detecting PiCV with high sensitivity and specificity.

  10. Flexible motor adjustment of pecking with an artificially extended bill in crows but not in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The dextrous foraging skills of primates, including humans, are underpinned by flexible vision-guided control of the arms/hands and even tools as body-part extensions. This capacity involves a visuomotor conversion process that transfers the locations of the hands/arms and a target in retinal coordinates into body coordinates to generate a reaching/grasping movement and to correct online. Similar capacities have evolved in birds, such as tool use in corvids and finches, which represents the flexible motor control of extended body parts. However, the flexibility of avian head-reaching and bill-grasping with body-part extensions remains poorly understood. This study comparatively investigated the flexibility of pecking with an artificially extended bill in crows and pigeons. Pecking performance and kinematics were examined when the bill extension was attached, and after its removal. The bill extension deteriorated pecking in pigeons in both performance and kinematics over 10 days. After the bill removal, pigeons started bill-grasping earlier, indicating motor adaptation to the bill extension. Contrastingly, pecking in crows was deteriorated transiently with the bill extension, but was recovered by adjusting pecking at closer distances, suggesting a quick adjustment to the bill extension. These results indicate flexible visuomotor control to extended body parts in crows but not in pigeons. PMID:28386435

  11. Effect of raw, cooked and roasted pigeon peas - based diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of raw, whole-cooked, crushed-cooked, whole-roasted and crushed-roasted pigeon peas on performance characteristics, haematology and serum enzymes of broiler chickens. A total of 120 day-old unsexed broiler chicks of the Marshall strain were randomly allotted to six ...

  12. Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheap, locally available plant seeds such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) could be used in the design and formulation of microbial culture media in order to reduce the cost. Objective: To make use of locally cheap seeds as a basic nutrient medium for the isolation of different microorganisms ...

  13. The antitrichomonal efficacy of garlic and metronidazole against Trichomonas gallinae infecting domestic pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiek, Sh A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Khater, Hanem F; Ali, Ali M

    2014-04-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is the causative agent of canker in pigeon. This work was carried out to investigate in the vitro and in vivo efficacy of aqueous water extract of garlic (AGE) on the growth of T. gallinae infecting pigeons compared to those of metronidazole (MTZ). MTZ and AGE were added, at different concentrations, to glucose-serum broth medium containing 1 × 10(4) trophozoites/ml. In the in vivo experiment, 48 squabs were grouped into four groups. The first group (gr. I) was not infected and not treated. Each squab of the other group was infected with 1 × 10(4) trophozoites. The second group (gr. II) was infected and not treated. On day 0, the third group (gr. III) was treated with MTZ (50 mg/kg BW) and the fourth group (gr. IV) was treated with AGE (200 mg/kg BW) for seven successive days in drinking water. In vitro study revealed that the MLC, 24, 48, and 72 h post treatment were 50, 25, and 12.5 μg/ml, respectively, for MTZ and 75, 50, and 50 mg/ml, respectively, for AGE. Garlic (200 mg/kg BW) had the highest antitrichomonal effect and shortened course of treatment of pigeons from 7 days in gr. III to 5 days. Squabs in gr. II suffered from macrocytic hypochromic anemia, whereas squabs in grs. III and IV showed normal blood pictures. Serum total protein, albumin, and globulin were increased, whereas AST, ALT, and the total cholesterol were decreased in grs. III and IV when compared to those of gr. II. Pigeons protected with AGE showed increased body weight and reduced mortality percentage than the other groups. Our results indicated that garlic may be a promising phytotherapeutic agent for protection against trichomoniasis in pigeons.

  14. Procrastination in the pigeon: Can conditioned reinforcement increase the likelihood of human procrastination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R; Case, Jacob P; Andrews, Danielle M

    2017-11-29

    Procrastination is the tendency to put off initiation or completion of a task. Although people are typically known to procrastinate, recent research suggests that they sometimes "pre-crastinate" by initiating a task sooner than they need to (Rosenbaum et al. in Psychological Science, 25(7), 1487-1496, 2014). A similar finding of precrastination was reported by Wasserman and Brzykcy (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 1130-1134, 2015) with pigeons using a somewhat different procedure. In the present experiment, we used a procedure with pigeons that was more similar to the procedure used by Rosenbaum et al. Pigeons were given a choice between two sequences of events (concurrent chains). Choice of the procrastination chain resulted in color A, which 15-s later would change to color B and 5-s later resulted in reinforcement. Choice of the precrastination chain resulted in color C, which 5-s later would change to color D and 15-s later resulted in reinforcement. Thus, both chains led to reinforcement after 20 s. Results indicated that the pigeons procrastinated. That is, they preferred the 15-5 chain over the 5-15 chain. The results are consistent with Fantino's (Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12, 723-730, 1969) delay reduction theory, which posits that stimuli that signal a reduction in the delay to reinforcement, such as the 5-s stimulus that occurred immediately prior to reinforcement, serve as strong conditioned reinforcers and should be preferred. In support of this theory, the pigeons pecked most at the 5-s stimulus that led immediately to reinforcement, indicating that it had become a strong conditioned reinforcer. The results suggest that delay reduction theory, a theory that emphasizes the attraction to stimuli that predict reinforcement with a short delay, also may contribute to human procrastination behavior because when task completion comes just before the deadline, it may become a stronger conditioned reinforcer than if task completion

  15. Designing a treatment protocol with voriconazole to eliminate Aspergillus fumigatus from experimentally inoculated pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernaert, Lies A; Pasmans, Frank; Baert, Kris; Van Waeyenberghe, Lieven; Chiers, Koen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2009-11-18

    To investigate the efficacy of voriconazole for the treatment of aspergillosis, three groups of six racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) were inoculated in the apical part of the right lung with 2x10(7) conidia of an avian derived Aspergillus fumigatus strain. The minimal inhibitory concentration of voriconazole for this strain was 0.25 microg/ml. In two groups, voriconazole treatment was started upon appearance of the first clinical signs and continued for fourteen days. The third group was sham treated. The voriconazole-treated pigeons received voriconazole orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) q12h (group 1) or 20 mg/kg BW q24h (group 2). Sixteen days post-inoculation all surviving pigeons were euthanized. Weight loss, clinical scores, daily mortality, lesions at necropsy and isolation of A. fumigatus were compared between all groups. In both voriconazole-treated groups, a significant reduction in clinical signs and lesions was observed. Administering voriconazole at 10 mg/kg BW q12h eliminated A. fumigatus and administering voriconazole at 20 mg/kg BW q24h reduced A. fumigatus isolation rates. Mild histological liver abnormalities were found in group 1 (10 mg/kg BW q12h), while mild histological as well as macroscopic liver abnormalities were found in group 2 (20 mg/kg BW q24h). In conclusion, voriconazole at 10 mg/kg BW q12h in pigeons reduces clinical signs and eliminates A. fumigatus in racing pigeons experimentally infected with A. fumigatus.

  16. Granuloma formation and suspected neuropathic pain in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia) secondary to an oil-based, inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine administered for protection against pigeon paramyxovirus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, M L; Monks, D J; Raidal, S R

    2014-05-01

    A domestic pigeon developed a sterile granuloma following vaccination with an oil-adjuvant, inactivated La Sota strain of Newcastle disease. The aim of vaccination was to provide protection against pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1), a disease previously considered exotic to Australia. Granuloma formation is considered a rare complication of vaccination against PPMV-1 in pigeons. Clinical signs consistent with neuropathic pain became apparent during the extensive management of the granuloma, which included surgical removal of foreign material, control of the pain and inflammation and protection against antimicrobial contamination. PPMV-1 is now considered endemic in Australia and protecting pigeons with vaccination is important. Until a product is registered for use, vaccination remains off-label and the risk of adverse reaction, including sterile granuloma, must be considered. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Monitoring for Pb and Cd pollution using feral pigeons in rural, urban, and industrial environments of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Lee, Doo-Pyo

    2006-03-15

    This study was aimed at evaluating the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination status using resident pigeons from rural (island), central urban (Seoul), and four industrial complex areas in Korea with varying traffic density as well as atmospheric metal pollution records. We also discussed the results with respect to metal exposure trends in urban area after introduction of lead-free gasoline in Korea. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd in bone and kidney of pigeons from Seoul were comparable to those from industrial complex areas and were about 15-20 times those at the reference site. This suggests that exposure to metals in the urban environment is as high as in the industrial areas. Lead and Cd concentrations in lungs of pigeons from Seoul were significantly higher by more than three times in 2000 than in 1991 (p atmospheric metal levels decreased. Ingestion may be more important than inhalation in exposing pigeons to Pb and Cd in this study.

  18. Occurrence of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Common and Noninvasive Diagnostic Sampling from Parrots and Racing Pigeons in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovč, Alenka; Jereb, Gregor; Krapež, Uroš; Gregurić-Gračner, Gordana; Pintarič, Štefan; Slavec, Brigita; Knific, Renata Lindtner; Kastelic, Marjan; Kvapil, Pavel; Mićunović, Jasna; Vadnjal, Stanka; Ocepek, Matjaž; Zadravec, Marko; Zorman-Rojs, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Airborne pathogens can cause infections within parrot (Psittaciformes) and pigeon (Columbiformes) holdings and, in the case of zoonoses, can even spread to humans. Air sampling is a useful, noninvasive method which can enhance the common sampling methods for detection of microorganisms in bird flocks. In this study, fecal and air samples were taken from four parrot holdings. Additionally, cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs as well as air samples were taken from 15 racing pigeon holdings. Parrots were examined for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), proventricular dilatation disease virus (PDDV), adenoviruses (AdVs), avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1), avian influenza virus (AIV), Chlamydia psittaci (CP), and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). MAC and AdVs were detected in three parrot holdings, CP was detected in two parrot holdings, and PBFDV and PDDV were each detected in one parrot holding. Pigeons were examined for the pigeon circovirus (PiCV), AdVs, and CP; PiCV and AdVs were detected in all investigated pigeon holdings and CP was detected in five pigeon holdings.

  19. Suboptimal choice in pigeons: Choice is primarily based on the value of the conditioned reinforcer rather than overall reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron P; Zentall, Thomas R

    2016-04-01

    Pigeons have sometimes shown a preference for a signaled 50% reinforcement alternative (leading half of the time to a stimulus that signaled 100% reinforcement and otherwise to a stimulus that signaled 0% reinforcement) over a 100% reinforcement alternative. We hypothesized that pigeons may actually be indifferent between the 2 alternatives with previous inconsistent preferences resulting in part from an artifact of the use of a spatial discrimination. In the present experiments, we tested the hypothesis that pigeons would be indifferent between alternatives that provide conditioned reinforcers of equal value. In Experiment 1, we used the signaled 50% reinforcement versus 100% reinforcement procedure, but cued the alternatives with shapes that varied in their spatial location from trial to trial. Consistent with the stimulus value hypothesis, the pigeons showed indifference between the alternatives. In Experiment 2, to confirm that the pigeons could discriminate between the shapes, we removed the discriminative function from the 50% reinforcement alternative and found a clear preference for the 100% reinforcement alternative. Finally, in Experiment 3, when we returned the discriminative function to the 50% reinforcement alternative and reduced the 100% reinforcement alternative to 50% reinforcement, we found a clear preference for the discriminative stimulus alternative. These results support the hypothesis that pigeons prefer the alternative with the conditioned reinforcer that best predicts reinforcement, whereas its frequency may be relatively unimportant. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Prevalence of Trichomonas spp. in domestic pigeons in Shandong Province, China, and genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiyue; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    Oropharyngeal swabs (n = 609) were collected randomly from 80,000 domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) on five pigeon farms and at one pigeon slaughterhouse in Shandong Province, China, from September 2012 to July 2013. Trichomonas spp. were detected in 206/609 (33.8%) samples. The prevalence was 14.9-31.1%, depending on different levels of sanitation and management, and was 4.8% in nestling pigeons, 13.6% in breeding pigeons and 35.2% in adolescent pigeons. Trichomonas gallinae genotypes A and B, and Trichomonas tenax-like isolates were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing of the 5.8S rDNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. RFLP analysis with the restriction enzyme BsiEI generated different RFLP band patterns between T. gallinae and T.tenax-like isolates. When BsiEI RFLP analysis was combined with HaeIII RFLP analysis, all infection types of T. gallinae and T.tenax-like isolates could be identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adapting the buccal micronucleus cytome assay for use in wild birds: age and sex affect background frequency in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, G L; Somers, C M

    2012-03-01

    Micronucleus (MN) formation has been used extensively as a biomarker of damage from genotoxic exposures. The Buccal MN Cytome (BMCyt) assay provides a noninvasive means of quantifying MN frequency in humans, but it has not been developed for use in wildlife. We adapted the BMCyt assay for use in wild birds, with a focus on feral pigeons (Columba livia) as a potential indicator species. Five of six urban bird species sampled using oral cavity swabs produced sufficient buccal cells for the BMCyt assay. The body size of species sampled ranged almost 100-fold (~60 to 5,000 g), but was a not major factor influencing the number of buccal cells collected. Pigeon cells were stained and scored following published BMCyt assay protocols for humans, but with a modified fixation approach using heat and methanol. Pigeons had the same common nuclear abnormalities reported in human studies, and a similar background MN formation frequency of 0.88 MN/1,000 cells. Adult pigeons had on average a threefold higher rate of MN formation than juveniles, and males had a 1.4- to 2.2-fold higher frequency than females. Domestic and feral pigeons did not differ in overall MN frequency. Our results indicate that the BMCyt assay can be used on wild birds, and could provide a means of assessing environmental genotoxicity in pigeons, a useful indicator species. However, bird age and sex are important factors affecting background MN frequency, and thereby the design of environmental studies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. In vitro nitroimidazole resistance of Trichomonas gallinae and successful therapy with an increased dosage of ronidazole in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, F F; Lumeij, J T

    1992-12-01

    Six out of eight different Trichomonas gallinae strains isolated from racing pigeons proved to be resistant to the nitroimidazole drugs ronidazole, carnidazole and metronidazole. The minimal cytocidal concentration of ronidazole was determined in in vitro experiments. Moreover, a therapeutic dose for ronidazole was determined for the control of trichomoniasis in pigeons from which the resistant T. gallinae strains were isolated. It was a 5-fold increase of the recommended ronidazole dosage which eliminated the infection in affected pigeons.

  3. Learning strategies in matching to sample: if-then and configural learning by pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jeffrey S; Bodily, Kent D; Wright, Anthony A

    2008-02-01

    Pigeons learned a matching-to-sample task with a split training-set design in which half of the stimulus displays were untrained and tested following acquisition. Transfer to the untrained displays along with no novel-stimulus transfer indicated that these pigeons learned the task (partially) via if-then rules. Comparisons to other performance measures indicated that they also partially learned the task via configural learning (learning the gestalt of the whole stimulus display). Differences in the FR-sample requirement (1 vs. 20) had no systematic effect on the type of learning or level of learning obtained. Differences from a previous study [Wright, A.A., 1997. Concept learning and learning strategies. Psychol. Sci. 8, 119-123] are discussed, including the effect of displaying the stimuli vertically (traditional display orientation) or horizontally from the floor.

  4. Avian poxvirus in a free-range juvenile speckled (rock pigeon (Columba guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda G. Bwala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A flightless wild juvenile rock pigeon (Columba guinea with pox-like lesions was picked up on the premises of the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort. The pigeon was housed overnight for possible treatment the following day but died before any other intervention could be instituted. At necropsy, coalescing masses of yellowish nodular cutaneous tumour-like lesions principally on the featherless areas were noticed on the dead pigeon’s head as well as the beak. Histological examination of the sampled skin lesions revealed multifocal areas of hypertrophic and hyperplastic epidermal epithelial cells with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies. Extract from the lesion was processed and inoculated on the chorioallantoic membranes (CAM of 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs and this produced pocks on one of the CAM at day 7 post-inoculation. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of poxvirus in the CAM with the pock lesions.

  5. External fixation to correct tarsal-metatarsal fracture in rock pigeon (Columba livia

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    Leandro Almeida Rui

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Orthopedic conditions, such as bone fractures, are very common in avian medicine. External fixators have been considered the gold standard for birds, since they allow early movement of the limbs and minimal invasive surgery. Fractures in several bones have been successfully treated in pigeons. However, to the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of successful surgical repair of tarsal-metatarsal fracture in rock pigeon. External fixator was made with four 24G catheters, being inserted manually proximal and distal to the fracture and connected with polymerizable acrylic. Radiographic consolidation of fracture was observed 60 days post-surgery and anti-inflammatory and antibiotic protocols were successful on avoiding pain and infection during surgery and bone healing.

  6. Gravity anomalies without geomagnetic disturbances interfere with pigeon homing--a GPS tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Nicole; Guskov, Sergei I; Entin, Vladimir A; Wolfer, David P; Kanevskyi, Valeryi A; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2014-11-15

    The gravity vector theory postulates that birds determine their position to set a home course by comparing the memorized gravity vector at the home loft with the local gravity vector at the release site, and that they should adjust their flight course to the gravity anomalies encountered. As gravity anomalies are often intermingled with geomagnetic anomalies, we released experienced pigeons from the center of a strong circular gravity anomaly (25 km diameter) not associated with magnetic anomalies and from a geophysical control site, equidistant from the home loft (91 km). After crossing the border zone of the anomaly--expected to be most critical for pigeon navigation--they dispersed significantly more than control birds, except for those having met a gravity anomaly en route. These data increase the credibility of the gravity vector hypothesis. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Frequency of endophytic fungi isolated from Dendrobium crumenatum (Pigeon orchid and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIBOWO MANGUNWARDOYO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangunwardoyo W, Suciatmih, Gandjar I. 2012. Frequency of endophytic fungi isolated from Dendrobium crumenatum (Pigeon orchid and antimicrobial activity. Biodiversitas 13: 34-39. The aims of this research was to isolate and study the frequency of endophytic fungi from roots, bulbous, stems, and leaves of Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. (pigeon orchid collected from Tanah Baru housing area, Bogor Botanical Garden, and Herbarium Bogoriense; and to assess for antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 2091, Candida tropicalis LIPIMC 203, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Twelve species of endophytic fungi were identified from 60 samples obtained from D. crumenatum. Guignardia endophyllicola (anamorph: Phyllosticta capitalensis were the dominant endophytic fungi. Screening of the anti-microorganism activity of the endophytic fungi revealed that Fusarium nivale inhibited C albicans and C. tropicalis. All specimens did not inhibit B. subtilis, E. coli, and S. aureus.

  8. Pigeons trade efficiency for stability in response to level of challenge during confined flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C David; Biewener, Andrew A

    2015-03-17

    Individuals traversing challenging obstacles are faced with a decision: they can adopt traversal strategies that minimally disrupt their normal locomotion patterns or they can adopt strategies that substantially alter their gait, conferring new advantages and disadvantages. We flew pigeons (Columba livia) through an array of vertical obstacles in a flight arena, presenting them with this choice. The pigeons selected either a strategy involving only a slight pause in the normal wing beat cycle, or a wings-folded posture granting reduced efficiency but greater stability should a misjudgment lead to collision. The more stable but less efficient flight strategy was not used to traverse easy obstacles with wide gaps for passage but came to dominate the postures used as obstacle challenge increased with narrower gaps and there was a greater chance of a collision. These results indicate that birds weigh potential obstacle negotiation strategies and estimate task difficulty during locomotor pattern selection.

  9. Molecular analysis of Trichomonas gallinae in racing pigeons from Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrek, K; Urbanowicz, J; Chorbiński, P; Gaweł, A

    2017-03-28

    The aim of the study was the molecular analysis of ITS1/5.8S rRNA/ITS2 region of Trichomonas gallinae isolates from racing pigeon lofts in Upper Silesia, Poland. The analysed region is very useful for the taxonomy of the Trichomonadidae family and indicates the possible existence of different genotypes or species within the T. gallinae. A comparison of the complete ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of obtained sequences revealed two different sequences. Twenty-three of the isolates (62%) showed the first sequence (KU954106) while fourteen isolates (38%) showed the second sequence type (KU954107), which were homologous with sequences from Genbank. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the two T. gallinae genotypes which occurred in the pigeons from Upper Silesia are widespread among European countries.

  10. Pathologic changes in pigeons infected with a virulent Trichomonas gallinae strain (Eiberg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narcisi, E M; Sevoian, M; Honigberg, B M

    1991-01-01

    Trichomonas gallinae, Eiberg strain, is a virulent hepatotropic flagellate parasite of pigeons. The parasite initially infects the upper digestive tract, causing the formation of ulcers, which allow it to enter the circulatory system. The trichomonads later gain access to the liver, where they cause the formation of caseous lesions. Vascular congestion and perivascular cuffing in the liver were seen as early as 4 days postinfection (PI). By day 7 PI, a marked reduction in abdominal fat and hepatosplenomegaly was evident. Hepatocytes underwent fatty degeneration (seen by day 7 PI) before total necrosis set in. On day 8 PI, trichomonads could be found among the necrotic hepatocytes in caseous lesions. These lesions were delineated by a wall of leukocytes and occasional giant cells. Nonimmune pigeons died within 14 to 17 days PI of liver dysfunction. Other organs (kidney and genitalia) were also seen to undergo degeneration. These manifestations probably reflect the progression of liver dysfunction.

  11. First trial rewards promote 1-trial learning and prolonged memory in pigeon and baboon

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Robert; Fagot, Joël

    2009-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate in educational settings on the influence of positive and negative consequences on learning. Although positive rewards seem desirable from an ethical perspective, 1-trial learning has been best demonstrated in the animal literature with tasks using highly salient negative consequences, such as shock or illness, and so far only in tasks requiring the acquisition of a singular stimulus-response association. Here we show that pigeons and baboons can concurrently le...

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Pigeons from Public Parks in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Peña, K; Esperón, F; Torres-Mejía, A M; de la Torre, A; de la Cruz, E; Jiménez-Soto, M

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is known to be an emerging problem, but the extent of the issue remains incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of nine resistance genes (bla TEM , catI, mecA, qnrS, sulI, sulII, tet(A), tet(Q), vanA) in the faeces of 141 pigeons from four urban parks in Alajuela, Guadalupe, Tres Ríos and San José in Costa Rica. The genes were identified by real-time PCR directly from enema samples. About 30% of the samples were positive for genes catI and sulI; between 13% and 17% were positive for qnrS, sulII, tet(A) and tet(Q); and 4% were positive for bla TEM . The mecA and vanA genes were not detected. The average of antimicrobial resistance genes detected per pigeon was 2. Eight different patterns of resistance were identified, without differences in the sampling areas, being the most common pattern 2 (sulII positive samples). During rainy season, the genes more frequently found were sulI and tet(A). In conclusion, the urban inhabiting pigeons tested are currently carrying antimicrobial resistance genes, potentially acting as reservoirs of resistant bacteria and vectors to humans. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study carried out on direct detection of resistance genes in the digestive metagenomes of pigeons. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Pigeons (Columba livia) as Trainable Observers of Pathology and Radiology Breast Cancer Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Richard M.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Navarro, Victor M.; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia)—which share many visual system properties with humans—can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds’ histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult) task—namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses)—the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds’ successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools. PMID:26581091

  14. Occurrence and susceptibilities to disinfectants of Cryptococcus neoformans in fecal droppings from pigeons in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    KRANGVICHAIN, Prathomporn; NIYOMTHAM, Waree; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that causes meningoencephalitis and deep skin dermatitis in humans and animals. A hygienic strategy using disinfectants on environmental samples can reduce the risk to the public. The objectives were to survey the distribution of C. neoformans in pigeon fecal droppings collected in 11 districts in Bangkok during 2011?2012 and to evaluate the efficacy of three commercial disinfectant products (based on potassium monopersulfate, sodiu...

  15. The Differential Outcomes Effect in Pigeons (Columba livia): Is It Truly Anticipatory?

    OpenAIRE

    Marijn Kouwenhoven; Michael Colombo

    2016-01-01

    We used delay-interval interference to investigate the nature of the differential outcomes effect (DOE) in pigeons. Birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task under either common outcome or differential outcome conditions, and then presented with visual interference during the delay period. Consistent with previous literature, the common outcomes birds were slower to learn the DMS task than the differential outcomes birds. The common outcome birds were also more impaired by...

  16. Lead Effect on Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity of Feral Pigeon (Columba livia in Drenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Plakiqi Milaimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of environmental pollution with heavy metals from ferro-nickel smelter on Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD activity, and to analyze the blood lead level of feral pigeon (Columba livia in ferro-nickel smelter courtyard in Drenas City, Republic of Kosovo. For this purpose, twenty specimens of feral pigeon (20 birds, males and females, were collected in Drenas city which were living in ferro-nickel smelter courtyard, and 20 specimens in Lubizhdë village as control group (non-contaminated area. ALAD activity in Drenas group was significantly inhibited (P<0.001, compared with ALAD activity of controls. The blood lead level was significantly increased (P=0.015 compared to control group. Correlation between ALAD and blood lead level in Drenas group was negative (r=-0.117; P>0.050 and positive in Lubizhdë group (r=0.452; P> 0.050, but not in significant difference between the input groups. Feral pigeons can play an important role as bioindicators, which can used to monitor the environmental pollution with heavy metals that may originate from Nickel metallurgy.

  17. Molecular characterisation of carbapenemases in urban pigeon droppings in France and Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakchi, Houda; Loucif, Lotfi; Gacemi-Kirane, Djamila; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2017-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to detect the presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in stool samples of urban pigeons. Stool samples were collected from 73 pigeons in two Mediterranean cities, namely Marseille (France) and Annaba (Algeria). Faecal samples were screened by real-time PCR and standard PCR for the presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes. Carbapenem resistance genes were detected in 16 (21.9%) of the samples, with 8 positive for blaOXA-23, 12 positive for blaOXA-51-like and 13 positive for blaOXA-58. No samples were positive for blaNDM-1, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-48, blaVIM or blaKPC. All positive samples were screened for the presence of Acinetobacter spp. by partial rpoB gene sequence amplification, and the results showed the presence of five Acinetobacter spp., with percentage similarities to related species in GenBank ranging between 96% and 100%. The dominant species was Acinetobacter guillouiae, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis. One DNA sequence showed a very low degree of homology (92%) with Acinetobacter gerneri, suggesting a new Acinetobacter spp. Here we report the first detection of carbapenemase-encoding genes from urban pigeon stools. These results question the potential of birds as a reservoir for the spread of these resistance determinants both in animals and humans. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamical modeling of collective behavior from pigeon flight data: flock cohesion and dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck Kattas, Graciano; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Several models of flocking have been promoted based on simulations with qualitatively naturalistic behavior. In this paper we provide the first direct application of computational modeling methods to infer flocking behavior from experimental field data. We show that this approach is able to infer general rules for interaction, or lack of interaction, among members of a flock or, more generally, any community. Using experimental field measurements of homing pigeons in flight we demonstrate the existence of a basic distance dependent attraction/repulsion relationship and show that this rule is sufficient to explain collective behavior observed in nature. Positional data of individuals over time are used as input data to a computational algorithm capable of building complex nonlinear functions that can represent the system behavior. Topological nearest neighbor interactions are considered to characterize the components within this model. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated with simulated noisy data generated from the classical (two dimensional) Vicsek model. When applied to experimental data from homing pigeon flights we show that the more complex three dimensional models are capable of simulating trajectories, as well as exhibiting realistic collective dynamics. The simulations of the reconstructed models are used to extract properties of the collective behavior in pigeons, and how it is affected by changing the initial conditions of the system. Our results demonstrate that this approach may be applied to construct models capable of simulating trajectories and collective dynamics using experimental field measurements of herd movement. From these models, the behavior of the individual agents (animals) may be inferred.

  19. Isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter strains isolated from domestic and free-living pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzic, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Dec, M; Puchalski, A; Wernicki, A

    2016-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. The material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from Lublin and its vicinity. The identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for Campylobacter spp. was carried out by MALDI-TOF and PCR. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth. 3. A total of 35 strains of Campylobacter spp. were isolated; 27 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 8 as Campylobacter coli. Over half of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 40% of strains were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin and 37% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in all strains tested. 4. The results indicate that both domestic and free-living pigeons are reservoirs for bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, which are characterised by varied and growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics.

  20. The Relationship between MC1R Mutation and Plumage Color Variation in Pigeons

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    Jin-Shan Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphisms of MC1R gene play a crucial role in coat color variation in mammals; however, the relationship is still unclear in pigeons. In this study, we sequenced 741 bp fragment of the MC1R for 39 individuals with five plumage color patterns (gray plumage, n=12; black plumage, n=9; white plumage, n=3; spotted plumage, n=12; red plumage, n=3. A total of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were detected, including G199A, G225A, and A466G, which subsequently determined four haplotypes (H1–H4. Among them, H1 is the predominant haplotype. Association analysis revealed that H1 and H3 were significantly associated with the black plumage trait (P<0.05, while the H4 was significantly associated with gray plumage trait (P<0.05. Furthermore, only diplotype H1H1 was significantly associated with black and gray traits of pigeons. Collectively, our study suggested an association between genetic variation of MC1R and plumage color in pigeon.

  1. Antitrichomonal activity of Peganum harmala alkaloid extract against trichomoniasis in pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, M A; Youssefi, M R; Moghadamnia, A A

    2017-06-01

    1. This study was designed to evaluate the antitrichomonal effects of P. harmala alkaloid extract against T. gallinae, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as comparing it to that of metronidazole, conventional antitrichomonal medication and harmine and harmaline, the two alkaloids present in P. harmala. 2. T. gallinae were collected by the wet mount method from infected free-living pigeons. The in vitro assay was performed using multi-well plates containing test compounds in final concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50 or 100 μg/ml. The in vivo assay was done on 60 experimentally infected pigeons dosed with metronidazole at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) or alkaloids at 25 mg/kg BW. 3. The 24 h minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of alkaloid extract was 15 µg/ml while that of metronidazole was 50 µg/ml. Harmine and harmaline revealed 24 h MIC of 30 and 100 µg/ml, respectively. Treatment of infected pigeons with alkaloids led to a full recovery after 3 d but with metronidazole total eradication of trophozoites was not achieved. 4. In conclusion, data of the present study suggested P. harmala is a potent natural anti-trichomonal agent, effective against T. gallinae.

  2. Concurrent outbreak of Newcastle disease and Trichomoniasis in pigeons of Tehran

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    nariman sheykhi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease is the most important viral disease that affected pigeons. The disease is characterized by sudden onset of anorexia and neurological symptoms in pigeon. Trichomonas gallinae causes trichomoniasis of pigeons in the upper gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system. The symptoms of this disease include yellowish green fetid discharge from the mouth, diarrhea, emaciation, severe weakness and death. In the first 6 months of 1392, from a total of 32      suspicious cases from Tehran and its surrounding, swab samples of the mouth, pharynx and larynx of birds were prepared. The samples were studied for trichomonas infection. At necropsy, foci of white to cream color in the oral mucosa, pharynx, larynx and pharyngeal and tracheal mucous congestion associated with the presence of fetid fluid in the crop were observed. Also, general congestion of the carcass, urate deposition in the ureters, and the emptiness gastrointestinal tract was observed. For detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV, samples of the trachea and spleen were collected and RT-PCR experiments were performed on the samples. Trichomonas was observed in the samples under the microscope. All of the 19 samples studied were considered positive to the presence of high virulence strain of the virus. Metronidazole and supportive therapies were used for treatment. Adherence to the principles of biosecurity, treatment or removal of trichomoniasis infected birds, and annual Newcastle disease vaccine are essential for the prevention of concurrent outbreak of these two diseases.

  3. Trichomonas gallinae: Prevalence and molecular characterization from pigeons in Minoufiya governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatam, Ahmed O; AbouLaila, Mahmoud R; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; AbdEl-Gaber, Mostafa M

    2016-11-01

    Trichomonas gallinae infects the upper digestive tract of pigeons. It is transmitted from mother to young squabs by feeding crop milk. Generally, infection resulted in severe mortalities in young birds. In this study, we examined 3315 pigeons of different ages from the Minoufiya governorate for the clinical infection by T. gallinae. The infection was confirmed in infected birds by microscopical examination of oral swabs, histopathological examination, and PCR of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 gene. The prevalence was 63 (1.9%). The parasite was found in 35 (2.04%) from Ashmoun, 15 (1.66%) from Minoof, 8 (1.6%) from Quesna, and 5 (2.5%) from El-Shohada birds. The infection was mainly detected in squabs 60 (1.8%). The sequence of T. gallinae ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 gene from Egypt has high nucleotide sequence identity (up to100%) to T. gallinae from pigeon of USA, Austria, Canada, and Spain. The sequence belongs to genotype B of T. gallinae. Histopathological examination presented the parasites in crop, liver, larynx, and trachea as poorly eosinophilic bodies with severe inflammatory cell infiltration. This is the first study to present the prevalence and genotype of T. gallinae from Minoufiya governorate, Egypt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence and susceptibilities to disinfectants of Cryptococcus neoformans in fecal droppings from pigeons in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krangvichain, Prathomporn; Niyomtham, Waree; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2016-03-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that causes meningoencephalitis and deep skin dermatitis in humans and animals. A hygienic strategy using disinfectants on environmental samples can reduce the risk to the public. The objectives were to survey the distribution of C. neoformans in pigeon fecal droppings collected in 11 districts in Bangkok during 2011-2012 and to evaluate the efficacy of three commercial disinfectant products (based on potassium monopersulfate, sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium compounds, respectively). These were evaluated against pure C. neoformans and yeasts resuspended in sterile pigeon feces using the dilution-neutralization method [Europäische NORM (EN) 1656]. In total, 18 of 164 (11%) samples were positive for C. neoformans. These came from only three of the 11 districts, with a prevalence of between 13-56%. Using multiplex PCR, serotype A was the sole group found. For all disinfectants, C. neoformans mixed in feces was tolerated at a higher dose and time exposure than pure isolates. The most effective disinfectant in this study was a 0.12% quaternary ammonium compound that could rapidly eradicate the yeasts mixed in feces. This finding highlights the occurrence and distribution of C. neoformans in the capital city of Thailand and the need to prolong the duration of exposure to disinfectants with pigeon feces.

  5. No evidence for selective follicle abortion underlying primary sex ratio adjustment in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Vivian C; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2010-03-01

    Primary sex ratio adjustment in birds has been extensively studied, yet the underlying physiological mechanisms are far from understood. Avian females are the heterogametic sex (ZW), and the future sex of the offspring is determined at chromosome segregation during meiosis I, shortly before the oocyte is ovulated. Assuming that the mother can detect the sex of the developing oocyte before ovulation, it has been suggested that a follicle of the un-preferred sex could selectively be induced to become atretic and regress instead of being ovulated (selective follicle abortion). This potential mechanism has been proposed to underlie biased primary sex ratios in birds, including the homing pigeon (Columba livia domestica), which produces a modal clutch size of two eggs. However, without replacement by an additional, already mature follicle, abortion of a preovulatory follicle would most likely result in either reduced clutch sizes or laying gaps, since a not-yet-recruited follicle still needed to undergo the whole maturation phase. In the current study we killed female pigeons, which were adjusting embryo sex of first eggs according to change in body mass. We examined ovaries for signs of follicle abortion but did not find any supporting evidence. All females produced one or two mature follicles but only two out of the 56 experimental birds produced an additional third mature follicle. Therefore, our results do not corroborate the hypothesis that pigeon mothers manipulate primary offspring sex by selectively aborting follicles of the un-preferred sex.

  6. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  7. Nutritional characteristics of two pigeon pea hybrids – Liming and phosphated fertilization

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    Marcia Atauri Cardelli de Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of legumes in animal production systems can be a sustainable alternative as a protein source in rotational grazing system and/or as a protein bank. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. figure as an example of success of this use on animal nutrition. The development of this species can be limited by the high acidity and low soil phosphorus content. There is a lack of scientific information on the effects of liming and phosphorus fertilization on some nutritional variables of two pigeon pea new hybrids. This study was conducted in pots containing 5 kg of soil in a greenhouse at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. There were studied two pigeon pea hybrids, H1 and H2, and the treatments involved agronomic practices: 1 No liming and without phosphorus (control, 2 Liming (L, 3 Phosphorus fertilization (P and 4 Liming plus phosphorus. Liming was proposed to increase soil base saturation to 50%, it was used dolomite lime PRNT = 90%, in an amount corresponding to 4.5 t/ha. Phosphorus fertilization (as superphosphate rate was 60 kg/ha of PO25. The experimental units were allocated according to a complete randomised block design, with five replications. We analyzed the levels of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in pigeon pea shoot at 45 days of age. Statistical analyzes were performed using the software SISVAR, averages were compared using test for multiple comparisons Student Newman-Keuls - SNK test (P < 0.05. The H1 hybrid had the highest content of CP, by applying P, lime plus P and the control treatment compared to H2 hybrid. The association lime plus P resulted in higher content of CP mainly due to the increased availability of P for plants. Smaller values were observed for NDF in H2 with P application. Lower values of ADF were observed in H1 in both control treatment and P application. The ADF values were lower for the hybrid H2 only for the treatment lime plus P. The two

  8. A simple method to count total faecal Capillaria worm eggs in racing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Francis

    2013-10-18

    Capillaria columbae and C. longicollis are fine threadworms found in racing pigeons' small intestines that produce a characteristic lemon shaped bipolar egg. Clinically, capillariasis in racing pigeons can present as severe illness and it has been suggested that worms may affect race performance. A major aim of this study was to validate a cheap, simple to perform flotation technique for counting Capillaria worm eggs in racing pigeon droppings. Trials using reference samples of pigeon droppings laced with 348, 275 and 129 Capillaria eggs per gram, found a typical flotation method based on the modified Wisconsin technique to be inaccurate at counting worm eggs. The main sources of error were due to the loss of eggs in the faecal discard and insufficient flotation time. A new technique, using 0.15 g sample size and 8h flotation time resulted in significantly improved test accuracy. On average the new technique recovered 93% of eggs from reference samples with 129-348 epg concentration, recovering 197 times more eggs than the modified Wisconsin technique. Typical percentage error, as a measure of absolute reliablility, was 10% for the new technique and 50% for the modified Wisconsin technique. The regression line on a test-retest series of samples over a range of egg counts from 0 to 573 epg had a gradient of 0.96 (y=0.96x+6.28; r(2)=0.8408) for the new technique and 0.54 (y=0.54x+0.06; r(2)=0.4249) for the modified Wisconsin technique. The Pearson product moment correlations of the new technique and the modified Wisconsin technique were 0.92 and 0.65 respectively. As measures of relative reliability both the gradient of the regression line and the Pearson product moment correlation further suggested better repeatability of the new technique. It was concluded that the new technique would be an appropriate quantitative method of assessing worm egg burdens in racing pigeons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and small-scale validation of a novel pigeon-associated mitochondrial DNA source tracking marker for the detection of fecal contamination in harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waso, M; Khan, S; Khan, W

    2018-02-15

    The current study was aimed at designing and validating (on a small-scale) a novel pigeon mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) microbial source tracking (MST) marker for the detection of pigeon fecal matter in harvested rainwater. The pigeon mtDNA MST marker was designed to target the mtDNA Cytochrome b gene by employing mismatch amplification mutation assay kinetics. The pigeon marker was validated by screening 69 non-pigeon and 9 pigeon fecal samples. The host-sensitivity of the assay was determined as 1.00 while the host-specificity of the assay was 0.96. Harvested rainwater samples (n=60) were screened for the prevalence of the marker with the mtDNA Cytochrome b marker detected in 78% of the samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to calculate the conditional probability of the marker detecting true pigeon contamination and the marker subsequently displayed a 99% probability of detecting true pigeon contamination in the harvested rainwater samples. In addition, the mtDNA Cytochrome b marker displayed high concurrence frequencies versus heterotrophic bacteria (78.3%), E. coli (73.3%), total coliforms (71.1%) and fecal coliforms (66.7%). This study thus validates that targeting mtDNA for the design of source tracking markers may be a valuable tool to detect avian fecal contamination in environmental waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Practice makes proficient: pigeons (Columba livia) learn efficient routes on full-circuit navigational traveling salesperson problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Danielle M; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Bulitko, Vadim; Madan, Christopher R; Greiner, Ariel; Hurd, Peter L; Spetch, Marcia L

    2015-01-01

    Visiting multiple locations and returning to the start via the shortest route, referred to as the traveling salesman (or salesperson) problem (TSP), is a valuable skill for both humans and non-humans. In the current study, pigeons were trained with increasing set sizes of up to six goals, with each set size presented in three distinct configurations, until consistency in route selection emerged. After training at each set size, the pigeons were tested with two novel configurations. All pigeons acquired routes that were significantly more efficient (i.e., shorter in length) than expected by chance selection of the goals. On average, the pigeons also selected routes that were more efficient than expected based on a local nearest-neighbor strategy and were as efficient as the average route generated by a crossing-avoidance strategy. Analysis of the routes taken indicated that they conformed to both a nearest-neighbor and a crossing-avoidance strategy significantly more often than expected by chance. Both the time taken to visit all goals and the actual distance traveled decreased from the first to the last trials of training in each set size. On the first trial with novel configurations, average efficiency was higher than chance, but was not higher than expected from a nearest-neighbor or crossing-avoidance strategy. These results indicate that pigeons can learn to select efficient routes on a TSP problem.

  11. A First Report of Infestation by Pseudolynchia canariensis in a Herd of Pigeons in Shahrekord (Southwest of Iran

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    Khodadad Pirali-Kheirabadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigeons (Columba livia have been kept as pet and reared for food in several countries including Iran. Ectoparasites are regarded as the basic causes of retardation in growth, lowered vitality and poor conditions of the birds. Pseudolynchia canariensis a hippoboscidae fly is one of the important ectoparasites of pigeons and is respon­sible for the transmission of pathogens to birds and humans same as pathogenic protozoan Haemoproteus columbae.Methods: A herd of domestic pigeons contained 50 pigeons in Shahrekord, southwest Iran was evaluated clinically infested by ectoparasites. Ectoparasites were removed. The samples were collected and then referred to the Laboratory of Parasitology of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.Results: Usin diagnostic key for diptera fly, these flies were find P. canariensis. This is a rare report of infestation of pigeons herd by P. canariensis in Iran. The infestation rate was 40% that rate of infestation in pipers was more than females and in females was more than males.Conclusion: The rate of infested pipers was more than adults that maybe the less potential of pipers in removing of ectoparasites is reason of this higher rate.

  12. The comparison of assessment of pigeon semen motility and sperm concentration by conventional methods and the CASA system (HTM IVOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimowicz, M D; Nizanski, W; Batkowski, F; Savic, M A

    2008-07-01

    The aim of these experiments was to compare conventional, microscopic methods of evaluating pigeon sperm motility and concentration to those measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA system). Semen was collected twice a week from two groups of pigeons, each of 40 males (group I: meat-type breed; group II: fancy pigeon) using the lumbo-sacral and cloacal region massage method. Ejaculates collected in each group were diluted 1:100 in BPSE solution and divided into two equal samples. One sample was examined subjectively by microscope and the second one was analysed using CASA system. The sperm concentration was measured by CASA using the anti-collision (AC) system and fluorescent staining (IDENT). There were not any significant differences between the methods of evaluation of sperm concentration. High positive correlations in both groups were observed between the sperm concentration estimated by Thom counting chamber and AC (r=0.87 and r=0.91, respectively), and between the sperm concentration evaluated by Thom counting chamber and IDENT (r=0.85 and r=0.90, respectively). The mean values for CASA measurement of proportion of motile spermatozoa (MOT) and progressive movement (PMOT) were significantly lower than the values estimated subjectively in both groups of pigeons (pCASA system is very rapid, objective and sensitive method in detecting subtle motility characteristics as well as sperm concentration and is recommended for future research into pigeon semen.

  13. Pigeon guillemot at-sea density off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  14. Effects of pigeon pea and plantain starches on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Kunle; Akin-Ajani, Dorothy O; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Itiola, Oludele A; Odusote, Omotunde M

    2006-03-01

    A study has been made of the effects of pigeon pea starch obtained from the plant Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. (family Fabaceae) and plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (family Musaceae) on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets in comparison with official corn starch BP. Analysis of compressional properties was done by using density measurements, and the Heckel and Kawakita equations, whereas the mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated by using tensile strength (T--a measure of bond strength) and brittle fracture index (BFI--a measure of lamination tendency). The ranking for the mean yield pressure, P(y), for the formulations containing the different starches was generally corn plantain > corn starch while the ranking for BFI was corn > plantain > pigeon pea starch. The bonding capacity of the formulations was in general agreement with the tensile strength results. The disintegration time (DT) of the formulation increased with concentration of plantain and corn starches but decreased with concentration of pigeon pea starch. The general ranking of DT values was plantain < pigeon pea < corn starch. Notably, formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest bond strength and lowest brittleness, suggesting the usefulness of pigeon pea starch in producing strong tablets with minimal lamination tendency. Plantain starch, on the other hand, would be more useful where faster disintegration of tablet is desired. The results show that the starches could be useful in various formulations depending on the intended use of the tablets with the implication that the experimental starches can be developed for commercial purposes.

  15. The effect of endoscopic sterilization on reproductive behavior and pair bond maintenance of feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderich, E; Failing, K; Lierz, M; Schildger, B

    2016-01-01

    Problems related to feral pigeons (Columba livia) in cities mainly result from their large numbers due to uncontrolled population growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether endoscopic guided sterilization affects the reproductive behavior of feral pigeons under experimental conditions, with the intention of assessing this technique as a potential method for feral pigeon population control. Five groups of four pairs of feral pigeons each were studied from 8 weeks before, to 7 weeks after sterilization. Both the male and female of the first pair of each group were sterilized, in the second pair only the female and in the third pair only the male was sterilized. The fourth pair acted as a control. All eggs laid were candled to assess fertility. Surgical sterilization had minimal effects on behavior and therefore seems not to have impact on possible field application for population control. All pairs maintained their pair bonds and continued to defend their nesting sites against other pigeons. Only one female copulated with a foreign fertile male while her primary partner was debilitated due to surgery, but returned to him as soon as he recovered. All eggs laid more than 5 days after male sterilization were infertile, whereas all control pairs had fertile eggs. Only one fertile clutch was produced, 5 days after the male's sterilization. Therefore it is assumed that males remain fertile for a limited period of time. Endoscopic sterilization seems to be a promising method for field control of feral pigeon populations and sterilization of the male only seems sufficient.

  16. The effects of environmental lead exposure and in vitro zinc on tissue delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in urban pigeons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, M.

    1983-01-01

    1. Elevated lead burdens in three urban pigeon populations caused ALAD inhibition, in blood, kidney and liver, the degree of inhibition generally corresponding to the lead content of each tissue. The values obtained are compared with those given by studies of lead exposure in mammals. 2. The usefulness of blood ALAD as an index of lead exposure is discussed. 3. The pH activity profile of ALAD in blood and kidney of urban pigeons was also changed. 4. In vitro zinc additions partially restored lead-inhibited ALAD. 5. These findings are discussed in terms of the possible manner in which lead inhibits ALAD.

  17. Whole-Genome Sequences of Chlamydia psittaci Strain HJ, Isolated from Meat Pigeons with Severe Respiratory Distress and High Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Zongxue; Sun, Ruixue; Chu, Jun; Han, Er; Zhang, Yinxin; Ling, Yong; Gong, Yanping; Li, Dongfang; Wu, Honglong; He, Cheng; Ni, Peixiang

    2015-03-05

    The obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia psittaci causes systemic disease in psittacine birds, domestic poultry, and wild fowl. Importantly, C. psittaci may cause pneumonia, encephalitis, endocarditis, and even death in humans. The potential of pigeons as a source of human psittacosis is supported worldwide by relatively high seroconversion rates in the birds. This study reports the whole-genome sequencing of C. psittaci strain HJ, isolated from meat pigeons suffering from severe pneumonia and high mortality in 2013 in Hebei, China. Copyright © 2015 Zhang et al.

  18. Pigeon fancier’s lung – An under-diagnosed cause of severely debilitating and chronic breathlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Chopra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pigeon fanciers lung or Bird fanciers lung (BFL is one of the common and preventable causes of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. It is an under diagnosed cause of severe incapacitating breathlessness and can be acute, sub-acute or chronic. We report a case of 53 year old female who presented with severe chronic breathlessness due to regular exposure to pigeons for last 35 years. Clinicians should take a detailed history of exposure in patients with unexplained breathlessness as the avoidance of exposure to the antigens can reverse the disease preventing the morbidity and mortality of the patient.

  19. A study of feral pigeon Columba livia var. in urban and suburban areas in the city of Jena, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferman, L. M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A population of feral pigeons, Columba livia var. was conducted in the city of Jena, Germany, from July to December 2007. Daily censuses were conducted by walking ten transects in a selected area of the city, five transects in built up areas and five in the suburbs. Pigeon population density was higher in urban areas than in suburbs but differences were not significant. Main behavioural activities recorded were resting, preening, flying, eating, sunning and roosting. Regular locations of activities were rooftops and roof edges in urban areas, and rooftops, eaves on balconies in suburban areas. The plumage phenotype most frequently recorded in both areas was Blue bar.

  20. Detection of diisocyanates in nesting material associated with mortality in pigeon chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Motoko; Woods, Leslie W; Stump, Samuel; Ebel, Joseph G; Levitt, Ariana S; Frey, Margaret W; Smith, Jeanne; Uzal, Francisco A; Poppenga, Robert H; Puschner, Birgit

    2014-03-01

    Diisocyanates, commonly used in the production of polyurethane foams, paints, elastomers, varnishes, and coatings, are considered among the most hazardous inhalation toxicants. The present report describes 2 unusual cases of mortality in pigeon chicks associated with nesting material contaminated by diisocyanates. Case 1 was submitted by a racing pigeon breeder who had lost all the hatchlings (n = 125) following replacement of the nesting material with a different lot. All adult birds appeared healthy, and hatchability was not significantly affected, but hatchlings became lethargic and dyspneic after a day of hatch. At necropsy, dark wet lungs were found in the hatchlings. Case 2 was submitted by a show-roller pigeon breeder. In this case, the owner reported lower hatchability, and all hatchlings (approximately 100) died within 2 days of hatching with clinical signs similar to the first case. Necropsy did not reveal any significant findings. For both cases, nesting materials were screened for toxic compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (approximately 190-290 ppm) and 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (unquantified) were detected in the nesting pads. While there is very limited information on toxicosis in birds, there are reports of inhalant exposure of diisocyanates causing pulmonary edema and death in various mammalian species. Although cause-effect relationship of mortality and the nesting material was not established in the present cases, the presence of toxic compounds in the nesting materials is a cause for concern. Further investigation is needed to determine the prevalence and toxicity of diisocyanates-contaminated nesting material in avian species.

  1. Dynamical modeling of collective behavior from pigeon flight data: flock cohesion and dispersion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciano Dieck Kattas

    Full Text Available Several models of flocking have been promoted based on simulations with qualitatively naturalistic behavior. In this paper we provide the first direct application of computational modeling methods to infer flocking behavior from experimental field data. We show that this approach is able to infer general rules for interaction, or lack of interaction, among members of a flock or, more generally, any community. Using experimental field measurements of homing pigeons in flight we demonstrate the existence of a basic distance dependent attraction/repulsion relationship and show that this rule is sufficient to explain collective behavior observed in nature. Positional data of individuals over time are used as input data to a computational algorithm capable of building complex nonlinear functions that can represent the system behavior. Topological nearest neighbor interactions are considered to characterize the components within this model. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated with simulated noisy data generated from the classical (two dimensional Vicsek model. When applied to experimental data from homing pigeon flights we show that the more complex three dimensional models are capable of simulating trajectories, as well as exhibiting realistic collective dynamics. The simulations of the reconstructed models are used to extract properties of the collective behavior in pigeons, and how it is affected by changing the initial conditions of the system. Our results demonstrate that this approach may be applied to construct models capable of simulating trajectories and collective dynamics using experimental field measurements of herd movement. From these models, the behavior of the individual agents (animals may be inferred.

  2. Role of the hippocampus in contextual memory after classical aversive conditioning in pigeons (C. livia

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    Reis F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of hippocampal lesions with ibotenic acid (IBO on the memory of the sound-context-shock association during reexposure to the conditioning context. Twenty-nine adult pigeons were assigned to a non-lesioned control group (CG, N = 7, a sham-lesioned group (SG, N = 7, a hippocampus-lesioned experimental group (EG, N = 7, and to an unpaired nonlesioned group (tone-alone exposure (NG, N = 8. All pigeons were submitted to a 20-min session in the conditioning chamber with three associations of sound (1000 Hz, 85 dB, 1 s and shock (10 mA, 1 s. Experimental and sham lesions were performed 24 h later (EG and SG when EG birds received three bilateral injections (anteroposterior (A, 4.5, 5.25 and 7.0 of IBO (1 µl and 1 µg/µl and SG received one bilateral injection (A, 5.25 of PBS. The animals were reexposed to the training context 5 days after the lesion. Behavior was videotaped for 20 min and analyzed at 30-s intervals. A significantly higher percent rating of immobility was observed for CG (median, 95.1; range, 79.2 to 100.0 and SG (median, 90.0; range, 69.6 to 95.0 compared to EG (median, 11.62; range, 3.83 to 50.1 and NG (median, 7.33; range, 6.2 to 28.1 (P<0.001 in the training context. These results suggest impairment of contextual fear in birds who received lesions one day after conditioning and a role for the hippocampus in the modulation of emotional aversive memories in pigeons.

  3. Renal function and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin during free flight in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giladi, I; Goldstein, D L; Pinshow, B; Gerstberger, R

    1997-12-01

    We examined urinary water loss and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin (AVT) in free-flying, tippler pigeons trained to fly continuously for up to 5 h. First, we used [3H]polyethyleneglycol ([3H]PEG) as a glomerular filtration marker by implanting an osmotic minipump into each bird. In two flights (10 birds in winter at an ambient temperature of 13-15 degrees C and seven in summer at 23 degrees C), we measured pre-flight (hydrated, resting control birds) and post-flight [3H]PEG activity and osmolality in blood and ureteral urine. For comparison, we measured these variables in 10 birds in winter before and after controlled dehydration (24 h at 25 or 30 degrees C). Second, we measured plasma levels of AVT in 6-8 birds before and immediately after each of three different summer flights. Urine osmolality increased significantly by up to three times the control level in both post-flight and dehydrated pigeons; urine:plasma osmolality ratios did not exceed 2. Compared with controls, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was significantly lower after flight in summer, but did not change in either post-flight or dehydrated winter pigeons. In winter, mean post-flight urine flow rate (UFR) decreased significantly to less than half the control level, while in summer, post-flight UFR did not differ from control levels. In general, mean filtered water reabsorption (FrH2O) increased from 95 % in controls to 98 % in post-flight and dehydrated birds. Plasma levels of AVT increased after flight to between three and eight times the preflight levels. The data from this first study of kidney function during flight are consistent with previous studies of dehydration in birds and exercise in mammals in which both increased FrH2O and decreased GFR contribute to renal conservation of water.

  4. Wing and body kinematics of takeoff and landing flight in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Angela M; Biewener, Andrew A

    2010-05-01

    Takeoff and landing are critical phases in a flight. To better understand the functional importance of the kinematic adjustments birds use to execute these flight modes, we studied the wing and body movements of pigeons (Columba livia) during short-distance free-flights between two perches. The greatest accelerations were observed during the second wingbeat of takeoff. The wings were responsible for the majority of acceleration during takeoff and landing, with the legs contributing only one-quarter of the acceleration. Parameters relating to aerodynamic power output such as downstroke amplitude, wingbeat frequency and downstroke velocity were all greatest during takeoff flight and decreased with each successive takeoff wingbeat. This pattern indicates that downstroke velocity must be greater for accelerating flight to increase the amount of air accelerated by the wings. Pigeons used multiple mechanisms to adjust thrust and drag to accelerate during takeoff and decelerate during landing. Body angle, tail angle and wing plane angles all shifted from more horizontal orientations during takeoff to near-vertical orientations during landing, thereby reducing drag during takeoff and increasing drag during landing. The stroke plane was tilted steeply downward throughout takeoff (increasing from -60+/-5 deg. to -47+/-1 deg.), supporting our hypothesis that a downward-tilted stroke plane pushes more air rearward to accelerate the bird forward. Similarly, the stroke plane tilted upward during landing (increasing from -1+/-2 deg. to 17+/-7 deg.), implying that an upward-tilted stroke plane pushes more air forward to slow the bird down. Rotations of the stroke plane, wing planes and tail were all strongly correlated with rotation of the body angle, suggesting that pigeons are able to redirect aerodynamic force and shift between flight modes through modulation of body angle alone.

  5. Pigeons produce aerodynamic torques through changes in wing trajectory during low speed aerial turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Ivo G; Badger, Marc A; Pierson, Alyssa N; Bassman, Lori C; Biewener, Andrew A

    2015-02-01

    The complexity of low speed maneuvering flight is apparent from the combination of two critical aspects of this behavior: high power and precise control. To understand how such control is achieved, we examined the underlying kinematics and resulting aerodynamic mechanisms of low speed turning flight in the pigeon (Columba livia). Three birds were trained to perform 90 deg level turns in a stereotypical fashion and detailed three-dimensional (3D) kinematics were recorded at high speeds. Applying the angular momentum principle, we used mechanical modeling based on time-varying 3D inertia properties of individual sections of the pigeon's body to separate angular accelerations of the torso based on aerodynamics from those based on inertial effects. Directly measured angular accelerations of the torso were predicted by aerodynamic torques, justifying inferences of aerodynamic torque generation based on inside wing versus outside wing kinematics. Surprisingly, contralateral asymmetries in wing speed did not appear to underlie the 90 deg aerial turns, nor did contralateral differences in wing area, angle of attack, wingbeat amplitude or timing. Instead, torso angular accelerations into the turn were associated with the outside wing sweeping more anteriorly compared with a more laterally directed inside wing. In addition to moving through a relatively more retracted path, the inside wing was also more strongly pronated about its long axis compared with the outside wing, offsetting any difference in aerodynamic angle of attack that might arise from the observed asymmetry in wing trajectories. Therefore, to generate roll and pitch torques into the turn, pigeons simply reorient their wing trajectories toward the desired flight direction. As a result, by acting above the center of mass, the net aerodynamic force produced by the wings is directed inward, generating the necessary torques for turning. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. The effect of pigeon yolk sac fluid on the growth behavior of calcium carbonate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Previous experiments have proved that thermodynamically unstable calcium carbonate vaterite can exist for long periods in the yolk sac of a pigeon embryo. The aim of this article was to demonstrate the effect of in vitro mineralization of yolk sac fluid on calcium carbonate by direct precipitation. Experiments were conducted using pigeon yolk sac fluid and using lecithin extracted from pigeon yolk sac fluid as a control to investigate the regulating effects of the organic components in the embryo on the formation of the calcium carbonate precipitate. Multiple characterization methods were employed to study the various morphological patterns, sizes, crystal growth, and crystal phase transformations of the calcium carbonate precipitates as regulated by the yolk sac fluid extracted at different stages of incubation. The experimental results demonstrate that as the incubation proceeds towards the later stages, the composition and environmental features of the yolk sac fluid become more favorable for the formation of relatively unstable calcium carbonate phases with high energies of the vaterite state. The experiments conducted with extracted lecithin as the template for crystal growth yielded similar results. A large amount of organic molecules with polar functional groups carried by the yolk sac fluid have strong effects and can both initially induce the crystallization and regulate the aggregation of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, this regulation process is found to be closely related to the lecithin contained in yolk sac fluid. These observations confirm the changes in yolk sac fluid composition during incubation have significant effects on the production of vaterite, which implicates the calcium transport during embryo growth. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Cloning and sequencing of columbid circovirus (coCV), a new circovirus from pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankertz, A; Hattermann, K; Ehlers, B; Soike, D

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of columbid circovirus (CoCV) isolated from pigeons is described. CoCV was amplified using a consensus primer PCR approach directed against conserved sequences within the rep genes of vertebrate circoviruses. The genome of CoCV is circular and 2037 nt in size. It displays 55% homology to the genome of psittacine beak and feather disease virus and is more distantly related (circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest classification of CoCV as member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae.

  8. The orientation of homing pigeons (Columba livia f.d. with and without navigational experience in a two-dimensional environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mehlhorn

    Full Text Available Homing pigeons are known for their excellent homing ability, and their brains seem to be functionally adapted to homing. It is known that pigeons with navigational experience show a larger hippocampus and also a more lateralised brain than pigeons without navigational experience. So we hypothesized that experience may have an influence also on orientation ability. We examined two groups of pigeons (11 with navigational experience and 17 without in a standard operant chamber with a touch screen monitor showing a 2-D schematic of a rectangular environment (as "geometric" information and one uniquely shaped and colored feature in each corner (as "landmark" information. Pigeons were trained first for pecking on one of these features and then we examined their ability to encode geometric and landmark information in four tests by modifying the rectangular environment. All tests were done under binocular and monocular viewing to test hemispheric dominance. The number of pecks was counted for analysis. Results show that generally both groups orientate on the basis of landmarks and the geometry of environment, but landmark information was preferred. Pigeons with navigational experience did not perform better on the tests but showed a better conjunction of the different kinds of information. Significant differences between monocular and binocular viewing were detected particularly in pigeons without navigational experience on two tests with reduced information. Our data suggest that the conjunction of geometric and landmark information might be integrated after processing separately in each hemisphere and that this process is influenced by experience.

  9. Evidence that urocortin is absent from neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in pigeons

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    Cavani J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWN is a central preganglionic parasympathetic cell group that gives rise to cholinergic input to the ciliary ganglion, thereby regulating several neurovegetative ocular functions. Recently, the supposed presence of the neuropeptide urocortin (UCN has been reported in EWN neurons in rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the distribution of UCN in avian brain and to investigate by immunohistochemical analysis the possible use of this substance as an EWN marker in a non-mammalian class of vertebrates. Brain tissue of pigeons was incubated with a specific antibody against UCN and the results showed labeling of many small neurons, forming a double wing in the dorsal mesodiencephalic transition area. Their size and shape, however, differed from those of EWN neurons, and they were preferentially located rostral to the EWN. Double-label experiments employing an antibody against the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT showed that UCN is not localized to the cholinergic cells of the EWN and confirmed the rostral distributionof UCN never overlapping the ChAT+ EWN cells. Taken together, these results suggest that, at least in pigeons, the UCN+ population does not belong to the traditionally defined EWN.

  10. Social learning and innovation are positively correlated in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Julie; Goodyer, William; Lefebvre, Louis

    2007-04-01

    When animals show both frequent innovation and fast social learning, new behaviours can spread more rapidly through populations and potentially increase rates of natural selection and speciation, as proposed by A.C. Wilson in his behavioural drive hypothesis. Comparative work on primates suggests that more innovative species also show more social learning. In this study, we look at intra-specific variation in innovation and social learning in captive wild-caught pigeons. Performances on an innovative problem-solving task and a social learning task are positively correlated in 42 individuals. The correlation remains significant when the effects of neophobia on the two abilities are removed. Neither sex nor dominance rank are associated with performance on the two tasks. Free-flying flocks of urban pigeons are able to solve the innovative food-finding problem used on captive birds, demonstrating it is within the range of their natural capacities. Taken together with the comparative literature, the positive correlation between innovation and social learning suggests that the two abilities are not traded-off.

  11. The geology and emplacement history of the Pigeon kimberlite, EKATI Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Barbara; Hetman, Casey; Nowicki, Tom; Baumgartner, Mike; Harrison, Sara

    2009-11-01

    The Pigeon kimberlite is located approximately 6 km to the northwest of the Koala cluster of the EKATI Diamond Mine, and is presently one of ten kimberlite occurrences in the EKATI resource development plan. It was emplaced along a regional lithological contact between syn-Yellowknife Supergroup granitoid rocks and Yellowknife Supergroup metasedimentary rocks that were covered by a now eroded veneer of poorly consolidated muddy sediments. Detailed age dating has not been undertaken, however the emplacement age is inferred from sedimentary xenoliths present within the pipe to range between 45-75 Ma. Pigeon is a small kimberlite body, estimated to be approximately 3.5 ha at surface, consisting of a steep-sided pipe that can be separated into four main geological domains that are characterized by contrasting textures, different diamond characteristics and unique mineral abundance and compositional signatures. The uppermost portion of the body consists of mud-rich resedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite that was formed by the deposition of extra crater deposits by debris flow type processes into an open diatreme. Texturally complex kimberlite is present within the lower portion of the kimberlite and includes rocks that display a range of features consistent with coherent (magmatic) and less common volcaniclastic (fragmental) rocks. This texturally complex zone is interpreted to represent a clastogenic deposit formed by a low energy eruption within an open diatreme.

  12. Looming-sensitive responses and receptive field organization of telencephalic neurons in the pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Li, Da-Peng; Wang, Shu-Rong

    2006-01-30

    The tectofugal pathway in birds goes from the optic tectum to the telencephalic entopallium via the thalamic nucleus rotundus (nRt). This pathway may be homologous to the colliculo-pulvinar-cortical pathway in mammals. It is known that a population of rotundal neurons in the pigeon can signal impending collision of looming objects with the animal. Here we show by single-unit recording that there exist two groups of looming-sensitive neurons in the entopallium. A tau cell starts firing at a nearly constant time before collision whereas the response onset time of an eta cell is linearly related to the square root of the diameter/velocity ratio of looming objects. These cells are localized in the caudal entopallium. The receptive field (RF) of looming-sensitive cells was mapped on the screen plane but its inhibitory region could not suppress responses to looming objects. It appears that a population of telencephalic cells in pigeons responds to looming objects and their looming responses are not determined by the receptive field organization mapped on the screen plane.

  13. Screening of Feral Pigeons (Columba livia for Pathogens of Veterinary and Medical Importance

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    VL Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pathogens of veterinary and medical importance were investigated in 240 feral pigeons (Columba livia captured in warehouses in São Paulo State, Brazil for one year. Rapid serum agglutination test (RST was performed for the detection of antibodies against Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Salmonella Pullorum/Gallinarum. Positive samples were submitted to hemagglutination inhibition (HI and tube seroagglutination tests, respectively. Molecular techniques (RT-PCR and PCR were performed for Newcastle Diseases Virus (NDV and Chlamydia psittaci diagnosis. Additionally, HI test was applied to detect antibodies against NDV. Serological results by RST were 3.3% positive for M. synoviae, 2.5% for M. gallisepticum, and 0.4% for S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, all negative on the confirmatory tests performed. NDV RNA or antibodies were not detected. C. psittaci DNA was detected in 13% of the samples. Further research on pigeon health status should be conducted because this species is highly adaptable and their numbers are rapidly rising around the world, posing risks for animals and human beings.

  14. Water requirements and drinking rates of homing pigeons: A consideration for exposure risk of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-09-01

    Access to water along a bird's migratory flyway is essential during the vital process of migration. Because of the scarcity of water in some environments, there is potential for migratory birds to encounter and drink from contaminated bodies of water. Ingestion of contaminated water may cause injury and compromise flying ability, leading to a disruption of migration. To determine injury to birds from potential exposure, it is essential to know not only the concentration of a given contaminant in the water but also the quantity and rate of water consumption by the birds. Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were used in a series of experiments to determine differences in drinking behavior after various flights and after periods of resting. Results from the present study demonstrate that homing pigeons' water consumption is dramatically different when assessed according to activity, flight distance, and time elapsed after flight. This suggests that the drinking rates of birds during migration are extremely important and much greater than estimated using traditional exposure assessment procedures. Thus, exposure to contaminants via drinking water may be greatly underestimated, and the rate of water consumption should be considered when estimating potential exposure risk to avian species. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:870-876. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  15. Lack of experience-based stratification in homing pigeon leadership hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Isobel; Pettit, Benjamin; Nagy, Máté; de Perera, Theresa Burt; Biro, Dora

    2016-01-01

    In societies that make collective decisions through leadership, a fundamental question concerns the individual attributes that allow certain group members to assume leadership roles over others. Homing pigeons form transitive leadership hierarchies during flock flights, where flock members are ranked according to the average time differences with which they lead or follow others' movement. Here, we test systematically whether leadership ranks in navigational hierarchies are correlated with prior experience of a homing task. We constructed experimental flocks of pigeons with mixed navigational experience: half of the birds within each flock had been familiarized with a specific release site through multiple previous releases, while the other half had never been released from the same site. We measured the birds' hierarchical leadership ranks, then switched the same birds' roles at a second site to test whether the relative hierarchical positions of the birds in the two subsets would reverse in response to the reversal in levels of experience. We found that while across all releases the top hierarchical positions were occupied by experienced birds significantly more often than by inexperienced ones, the remaining experienced birds were not consistently clustered in the top half-in other words, the network did not become stratified. We discuss our results in light of the adaptive value of structuring leadership hierarchies according to 'merit' (here, navigational experience).

  16. Cloning and sequencing of adhesion protein gene of Trichomonas gallinae from pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, F; Li, G Q; Su, R Q; Liang, G; Chen, Z H; Hicham, W

    2010-02-26

    The adhesion protein (AP) gene of Trichomonas gallinae from pigeon was cloned and sequenced. The first-strand cDNA of the AP gene of T. gallinae from pigeon was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with total RNA extracting kit and cloned in the vector pMD18-T. The recombinant plasmid was identified by PCR and restriction endonuclease, and the positive clone was sequenced and analysed by comparing the sequence similarity with other sequences in the GenBank. The AP gene of T. gallinae had a length of 1032bp, which contained a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 930bp long, coding for 309 amino acids. The sequence analysis revealed that the homology with three AP genes of Trichomonas vaginalis (i.e., TVU87096, TVU87097 and TVU87098) was 94.2%, 92.6% and 92.0%, respectively. It is concluded that the successfully cloned AP gene from T. gallinae will provide the basis for the expression of the AP gene in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and the preparation of its recombinant protein.

  17. PCR Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis ofTrichomonas gallinaefrom Domestic Pigeons in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shen-Ben; Lv, Meng-Na; He, Xi; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zou, Shang-Shu; Wang, Xin-Qiu; Lin, Rui-Qing

    2017-06-01

    Avian trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas gallinae is a serious protozoan disease worldwide. The domestic pigeon ( Columba livia domestica ) is the main host for T. gallinae and plays an important role in the spread of the disease. Based on the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA of this parasite, a pair of primers (TgF2/TgR2) was designed and used to develop a PCR assay for the diagnosis of T. gallinae infection in domestic pigeons. This approach allowed the identification of T. gallinae , and no amplicons were produced when using DNA from other common avian pathogens. The minimum amount of DNA detectable by the specific PCR assay developed in this study was 15 pg. Clinical samples from Guangzhou, China, were examined using this PCR assay and a standard microscopy method, and their molecular characteristics were determined by phylogenetic analysis. All of the T. gallinae -positive samples detected by microscopic examination were also detected as positive by the PCR assay. Most of the samples identified as negative by microscopic examination were detected as T. gallinae positive by the PCR assay and were confirmed by sequencing. The positive samples of T. gallinae collected from Guangzhou, China, were identified as T. gallinae genotype B by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, providing relevant data for studying the ecology and population genetic structures of trichomonads and for the prevention and control of the diseases they cause.

  18. PCR Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Trichomonas gallinae from Domestic Pigeons in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shen-Ben; Lv, Meng-Na; He, Xi; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zou, Shang-Shu; Wang, Xin-Qiu; Lin, Rui-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Avian trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas gallinae is a serious protozoan disease worldwide. The domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) is the main host for T. gallinae and plays an important role in the spread of the disease. Based on the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA of this parasite, a pair of primers (TgF2/TgR2) was designed and used to develop a PCR assay for the diagnosis of T. gallinae infection in domestic pigeons. This approach allowed the identification of T. gallinae, and no amplicons were produced when using DNA from other common avian pathogens. The minimum amount of DNA detectable by the specific PCR assay developed in this study was 15 pg. Clinical samples from Guangzhou, China, were examined using this PCR assay and a standard microscopy method, and their molecular characteristics were determined by phylogenetic analysis. All of the T. gallinae-positive samples detected by microscopic examination were also detected as positive by the PCR assay. Most of the samples identified as negative by microscopic examination were detected as T. gallinae positive by the PCR assay and were confirmed by sequencing. The positive samples of T. gallinae collected from Guangzhou, China, were identified as T. gallinae genotype B by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, providing relevant data for studying the ecology and population genetic structures of trichomonads and for the prevention and control of the diseases they cause. PMID:28719959

  19. Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized conditioned reinforcers in a token economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2015-11-01

    Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized tokens was examined in a token economy. Pigeons could produce and exchange different colored tokens for food, for water, or for food or water. Token production was measured across three phases, which examined: (1) across-session price increases (typical demand curve method); (2) within-session price increases (progressive-ratio, PR, schedule); and (3) concurrent pairwise choices between the token types. Exponential demand curves were fitted to the response data and accounted for over 90% total variance. Demand curve parameter values, Pmax , Omax and α showed that demand was ordered in the following way: food tokens, generalized tokens, water tokens, both in Phase 1 and in Phase 3. This suggests that the preferences were predictable on the basis of elasticity and response output from the demand analysis. Pmax and Omax values failed to consistently predict breakpoints and peak response rates in the PR schedules in Phase 2, however, suggesting limits on a unitary conception of reinforcer efficacy. The patterns of generalized token production and exchange in Phase 3 suggest that the generalized tokens served as substitutes for the specific food and water tokens. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate the utility of behavioral economic concepts in the analysis of generalized reinforcement. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. Epistatic and combinatorial effects of pigmentary gene mutations in the domestic pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domyan, Eric T; Guernsey, Michael W; Kronenberg, Zev; Krishnan, Shreyas; Boissy, Raymond E; Vickrey, Anna I; Rodgers, Clifford; Cassidy, Pamela; Leachman, Sancy A; Fondon, John W; Yandell, Mark; Shapiro, Michael D

    2014-02-17

    Understanding the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity is a critical challenge in biology, yet we know little about the mechanistic effects of different mutations and epistatic relationships among loci that contribute to complex traits. Pigmentation genetics offers a powerful model for identifying mutations underlying diversity and for determining how additional complexity emerges from interactions among loci. Centuries of artificial selection in domestic rock pigeons (Columba livia) have cultivated tremendous variation in plumage pigmentation through the combined effects of dozens of loci. The dominance and epistatic hierarchies of key loci governing this diversity are known through classical genetic studies, but their molecular identities and the mechanisms of their genetic interactions remain unknown. Here we identify protein-coding and cis-regulatory mutations in Tyrp1, Sox10, and Slc45a2 that underlie classical color phenotypes of pigeons and present a mechanistic explanation of their dominance and epistatic relationships. We also find unanticipated allelic heterogeneity at Tyrp1 and Sox10, indicating that color variants evolved repeatedly though mutations in the same genes. These results demonstrate how a spectrum of coding and regulatory mutations in a small number of genes can interact to generate substantial phenotypic diversity in a classic Darwinian model of evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Shock postponement reverses the effects of cocaine on the punished pecking of pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatham, T A; Gyorda, A M; Barrett, J E

    1994-06-01

    The effects of cocaine on punished and unpunished key peck responding of pigeons was examined before and after a history of treadle pressing maintained by shock postponement. In one schedule component, the first peck after 3 min produced grain. The alternate component was similar, but every 30 responses was also punished by a mild shock. Punished responding occurred at approximately 25% of the rate of unpunished responding. Cocaine (0.1-10.0 mg/kg IM) did not affect or decrease punished responding; unpunished responding was not systemically affected. Next, a foot treadle was installed and treadle presses postponed shocks for 25 s; shocks occurred every 5 s in the absence of pressing. The treadle was removed when shocks were reliably postponed. Next, the multiple schedule of key pecking was reinstated. At least one dose of cocaine now increased punished pecking; unpunished responding was not systematically altered. These results complement related findings with monkeys and show that pigeons are suitable subjects for studying the reversal of the effects of cocaine on punished responding by a history of postponing shock.

  2. Prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Al-Bakry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during 2005-2007. In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease. Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove (Columba oenas, rock mountain dove (C. livia, and collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto.Examination of 250, 200 and 40 doves of the three fore–mentioned groups of birds indicated prevalence rates of 22%, 17.5% and 10%, for the three species, respectively. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves. Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease.

  3. The Differential Outcomes Effect in Pigeons (Columba livia: Is It Truly Anticipatory?

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    Marijn Kouwenhoven

    Full Text Available We used delay-interval interference to investigate the nature of the differential outcomes effect (DOE in pigeons. Birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample (DMS task under either common outcome or differential outcome conditions, and then presented with visual interference during the delay period. Consistent with previous literature, the common outcomes birds were slower to learn the DMS task than the differential outcomes birds. The common outcome birds were also more impaired by the visual interference than the differential outcomes birds. Our findings are consistent with the view that the birds trained with common outcomes were likely remembering the sample stimulus during the delay period, and hence were disrupted by the visual interference, whereas the birds trained with differential outcomes were likely relying on the different emotional reactions elicited by the different outcomes to guide their choice behaviour, and hence were less affected by the visual interference. Our findings suggest that the DOE is not truly evidence of anticipatory mediation of short-term retention in pigeons, but rather emotionally driven decision making, which is not truly anticipatory in nature.

  4. Body mass change in flying homing pigeons externally exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill contaminated thousands of miles of habitat valuable to hundreds of species of migratory and resident birds of the Gulf of Mexico. Many birds died as a direct result of the oil spill; however, the indirect effects of oil exposure on the flight ability and body condition of birds are difficult to assess in situ. This study utilizes the homing pigeon as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effect of multiple external oil exposures on the flight performance and body mass change of birds over a series of repeated flights from 136.8km flight distance. Oiled pigeons took significantly longer to return home, lost more weight during flight, and were unable to recover their weight, resulting in reduction of body weight overtime. Based on our data, migratory birds that were oiled, even partially, by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill likely took longer to complete migration and were likely in poor body condition, increasing their risk of mortality and reproductive failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Homing pigeons externally exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil change flight performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-11-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the largest in U.S. history, contaminating thousands of miles of coastal habitat and affecting the lives of many avian species. The Gulf of Mexico is a critical bird migration route area and migrants that were oiled but did not suffer mortality as a direct result of the spill faced unpredictable fates. This study utilized homing pigeons as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effects a single low level external oiling event has on the flight performance and behavior of birds flying repeated 161 km flights. Data from GPS data loggers showed that lightly oiled pigeons changed their flight paths, increased their flight durations by 2.6 fold, increased their flight distances by 28 km and subsequently decreased their route efficiencies. Oiled birds also exhibited reduced rate of weight gain between flights. Our data suggest that contaminated birds surviving the oil spill may have experienced flight impairment and reduced refueling abilities, likely reducing overall migration speed. Our findings contribute new information on how oil spills affect avian species, as the effects of oil on the flight behavior of long distance free-flying birds have not been previously described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal Dynamics of Task Switching and Abstract-Concept Learning in Pigeons

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    Thomas Alexander Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered.

  7. Changes in sensitivity to the rate-decreasing effects of opioids in pigeons treated acutely or chronically with nalbuphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, L.R.; France, C.P.

    1996-10-01

    This study examined whether tolerance or dependence develops to the effects of the low-efficacy µ opioid agonist nalbuphine on schedule-controlled responding. In untreated pigeons responding under a fixed ratio (FR)-20 schedule of food presentation, nalbuphine, naltrexone, morphine, fentanyl, etonitazene and enadoline decreased response rates. Naltrexone (0.1-10.0mg/kg) did not antagonize the rate-decreasing effects of nalbuphine. In a separate group of pigeons, chronic nalbuphine treatment (1.0-56.0mg/kg/day) did not alter the sensitivity of pigeons to the rate-decreasing effects of nalbuphine or naltrexone. In pigeons treated with 56.0mg/kg/day of nalbuphine, dose-effect curves for µ and kappa agonists were shifted 3- to 10-fold to the right of dose-effect curves determined prior to chronic treatment. The rate-decreasing effects of nalbuphine did not appear to be mediated by opioid receptors, as evidenced by the inability of naltrexone to antagonize nalbuphine and the lack of tolerance development. Although chronic nalbuphine altered the sensitivity to the rate-decreasing effects of µ and kappa agonists, there was no change in sensitivity to naltrexone. To the extent that increased sensitivity to antagonists is indicative of dependence, these data suggest that opioid dependence does not develop to nalbuphine.

  8. 50 CFR 20.103 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for... BIRD HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.103 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons. This section provides for the annual...

  9. Isolation of potentially pathogenic fungi from selected pigeons' feeding sites in Karachi: A new dimension to health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Sehar Afshan; Yaseen, Muhammad; Jabeen, Nusrat; Shafique, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    To determine the presence of pathogenic fungal strains in areas where pigeons are present in a large number. This study was conducted at the Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, from February 2015 to March2016, and comprised samples of soil contaminated with pigeons' excreta. The samples were collected from 20 different pigeon-feeding places in the city. These samples were processed for the isolation and identification of fungi by using standard conventional methods. The fungal strains isolated were also tested for their susceptibility to commonly used antifungal agents by disc diffusion technique. There were 105 samples. A wide variety of fungal strains belonging to different genera of Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Candida were isolated and identified by using conventional methods. The antifungal resistance pattern of these strains also depicts emergence of resistance against commonly used antifungal agents such as amphotericin B and fluconazole. The soil and air of places densely populated with pigeons were found to be loaded with fungal spores and many of them were potential pathogens.

  10. Detection and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from feral pigeon in Qom province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Esameili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect and characterize Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 in feral pigeons in Qom province, Iran. Methods: In this survey, 290 cloacal samples were obtained from trapped feral pigeons in Qom province. Microbiological, biochemical and serological examinations were done to detect the E. coli O157:H7. Isolates were subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA genes. Results: Four samples (1.38% were positive for E. coli O157:H7 by using O157 and H7 antisera and only one E. coli O157:H7 strain isolated showed the presence of stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA genes. Conclusions: The results of present survey revealed that feral pigeons in Qom province had the potential to be a reservoir of E. coli O157:H7. The low prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 can be attributed to sampling each pigeon just once and fecal culture limits, and true prevalence of the E. coli O157:H7 might be higher than our findings.

  11. Interactions between delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol as evaluated by drug discrimination procedures in rats and pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, A J; Järbe, T U

    1986-02-01

    Animals (rats and pigeons) were trained to discriminate between the presence and absence of delta 9-THC; the training doses were, respectively: 0.56 mg/kg (pigeons) and 3.0 mg/kg (rats). Once the drug discrimination was mastered, the pigeons were tested repeatedly after a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of delta 9-THC (0.56 mg/kg) at the following intervals 0.5, 1.5, 4.5 and 9 hr after the injection. These results were compared with data from a separate procedure, i.e. where the various intervals after injection were examined only once per injection and both procedures yielded essentially the same outcome. Thus, less than 50% appropriate responding to THC was observed at 0.5 and 9 hr after injection, whereas greater than 90% responding to THC occurred at 1.5 and 4.5 hr. The two procedures have previously been compared in rats (Järbe, Swedberg and Mechoulam, 1981). The repeated tests procedure was then used to evaluate combinations of delta 9-THC and cannabidiol in both species. Cannabidiol prolonged the cue effects of 1 mg/kg of delta 9-THC (intraperitoneal route of administration) in rats but did not change the time-effect curve for delta 9-THC in pigeons (dose range examined: 0.10--0.56 mg/kg); the challenge doses of cannabidiol were, respectively: 30.0 mg/kg (i.p.) and 17.5 mg/kg (i.m.). The rate of responding did not differ in tests with combinations of delta 9-THC and cannabidiol as compared to delta 9-THC given alone in pigeons. Subcutaneously administered 3-PPP, a dopamine pre-synaptic blocker, did not induce responding appropriate for delta 9-THC in rats.

  12. Immunization of BALB/c mice with pigeon IgY induces the production of anti-IgG autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Uribe, Ivan Sammir; Ortega, Enrique; Martínez-Cordero, Erasmo

    2017-09-01

    The breakdown of immunological tolerance due to the activation of autoreactive B and T cells triggers physiopathological processes. An example of such conditions is the production of IgG autoantibodies specific for the Fc portion of IgG (anti-Fcγ IgG). Previous reports have shown that patients with pigeon-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis exhibit an increase in the serum levels of anti-Fcγ IgG. There is no in vivo model for the study of this condition and the immunological mechanisms of tolerance breakdown associated with sensitization by pigeon antigens are still unknown. In this work, we show that the repeated immunization of BALB/c mice with pigeon IgY during 16-weeks induces the production of anti-Fcγ IgG and keeps their high levels for seven weeks. The late appearance of anti-Fcγ IgG autoantibodies in the plasma is similar to what has been reported in other experimental autoimmune models. With the occurrence of anti-Fcγ IgG, there is a reduction in the proportion of Foxp3 + cells (regulatory T cells, Tregs) within the population of splenic CD4 + CD25 + T cells. Thus, our data showed that the immunization of BALB/c mice with IgY promotes the production of anti-Fcγ IgG along with a decrease in Tregs in the spleen. We propose that immunization of mice with pigeon antigens, like IgY can provide a model to study the immunological mechanisms involved in the development of pigeon-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

  13. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in raw poultry meat, environmental and pigeon stools collected in open-air markets

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    Alberto Bellio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis for confirmed human cases in European Union during 2011. Poultry meat was very often implicated in Campylobacter infections in humans. In Italy commerce of raw poultry meat is common in open-air markets: these areas can be considered at high risk of bacterial contamination due to the high presence birds like pigeons. The aim of this study was to collect data about the contamination by thermotolerant Campylobacter of raw poultry meat commercialised in open-air markets, of work-surfaces in contact with poultry meat and of pigeon stools sampled in the market areas in Turin, Northern Italy. Between September 2011 and December 2012, 86 raw poultry meat samples, 86 environmental swabs and 108 animal samples were collected in 38 open-air markets. Analysis were carried out according to ISO10272-1:2006 standard. C.coli was detected in 2.3% (2/86 of raw poultry meat samples, whereas no swab (0/86 resulted positive. Of pigeon stool 28% (30/107 was positive for C.jejuni (83.3% C.jejuni subsp. jejuni and 16.7% C.jejuni subsp. doylei. C.jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from 1 dead pigeon. Our results showed lower rates of contamination than those reported at retail in Europe. Although samples were collected in areas at high risk of contamination, raw poultry meat and work surfaces reported a low level of presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter. The high percentage of C.jejuni isolated from pigeon stools showed the importance of a continuous application of preventive measures by the food business operators and the surveillance activity by the Competent Authority.

  14. [Investigations on the influence of selected compulsory measures on clinically relevant haematological and blood-chemical parameters of racing pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautwald-Junghanns, M E; Bartels, T; Richter, A; Pees, M

    2006-10-01

    In the presented study the influence of stress and environmental factors on selected haematological and blood-chemical parameters in racing pigeons was examined. Blood was taken at three defined days and haematological as well as blood-chemical parameters of clinical relevance were determined. In comparison to reference values published for pigeons, the majority of the values obtained in this study were within physiological borders. The daily handling of the pigeons did not have any significant effect on the examined parameters. Also the heterophile/lymphocyte ratio did not show any changes characteristic of a stress reaction. In contrast, after change of the housing dies with pigeons originating normally from a flock, the first blood sampling should be performed after a 4 or 5-day lasting period of acclimatisation to the the individual housing conditions.

  15. Experimental infection of broiler chicks with Salmonella Typhimurium from pigeon (Columba livia

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    Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of animal and human salmonellosis caused by the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium have been reported. In animals, subclinical infection favors pathogen dissemination through feces. In this context, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia with an asymptomatic condition may play an important role in the transmission of salmonellosis, through the elimination of contaminated feces in commercial aviaries or in poultry feed facilities, causing economic losses to the poultry industry and presenting a risk to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, clinical signs and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the feces and organs of chicks previously inoculated with bacteria isolated from a pigeon. One-day-old chicks were distributed in two experimental groups (G1 and G2 of 32 birds each, and a control group of six birds. Two inocula of 0.4 and 0.7 mL with 105 and 106 colony forming units were used in G1 and G2 birds, respectively. At 1, 4, 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi fecal samples were pooled from each cage and individual cloacal swabs were collected. At 14 dpi, all chicks were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, lung, cecum and intestine for microbiological analysis. Mortality was only observed among G2 birds (6.25%. Most birds presented clinical signs of diarrhea at 4 dpi and no symptom as observed at 14 dpi. The results from cloacal swabs demonstrated bacterial elimination in 68.8% and 53.1% of G2 and G1 birds, respectively at 1 dpi. Additionally, fecal samples had elevated bacterial shedding in all four periods of observation , with a higher excretion at 4 dpi (62.5% for both groups. Among G2 birds, 74.2% were positive for the pathogen in the intestine; G1 birds presented the lowest rate of lung infection (29%, and both groups had more than 50% positivity for liver and caeca. The results revealed that infected chicks with a Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from pigeons may host the

  16. Color differences among feral pigeons (Columba livia) are not attributable to sequence variation in the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derelle, Romain; Kondrashov, Fyodor A; Arkhipov, Vladimir Y; Corbel, Hélène; Frantz, Adrien; Gasparini, Julien; Jacquin, Lisa; Jacob, Gwenaël; Thibault, Sophie; Baudry, Emmanuelle

    2013-08-05

    Genetic variation at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is correlated with melanin color variation in many birds. Feral pigeons (Columba livia) show two major melanin-based colorations: a red coloration due to pheomelanic pigment and a black coloration due to eumelanic pigment. Furthermore, within each color type, feral pigeons display continuous variation in the amount of melanin pigment present in the feathers, with individuals varying from pure white to a full dark melanic color. Coloration is highly heritable and it has been suggested that it is under natural or sexual selection, or both. Our objective was to investigate whether MC1R allelic variants are associated with plumage color in feral pigeons. We sequenced 888 bp of the coding sequence of MC1R among pigeons varying both in the type, eumelanin or pheomelanin, and the amount of melanin in their feathers. We detected 10 non-synonymous substitutions and 2 synonymous substitution but none of them were associated with a plumage type. It remains possible that non-synonymous substitutions that influence coloration are present in the short MC1R fragment that we did not sequence but this seems unlikely because we analyzed the entire functionally important region of the gene. Our results show that color differences among feral pigeons are probably not attributable to amino acid variation at the MC1R locus. Therefore, variation in regulatory regions of MC1R or variation in other genes may be responsible for the color polymorphism of feral pigeons.

  17. Nuclear DNA content of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. with the analysis of flow cytometry

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    Upatham Meesawat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear DNA content for the adult plants grown in a greenhouse and in vitro young plantlets of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. was analyzed using flow cytometry. The resulting 2C DNA values ranged from 2.30±0.14 pgto 2.43±0.06 pg. However, nuclear DNA ploidy levels of long-term in vitro plantlets were found to be triploid and tetraploid.These ploidy levels were confirmed by chromosome counting. Tetraploid individuals (2n = 4x = 76 had approximately two times DNA content than diploid (2n = 2x = 38 individuals. This variation may be due to prolonged cultivation and thepresence of exogenous plant growth regulators.

  18. Acute Lameness in a Roller Pigeon ( Columba livia ) with Multicentric Lymphosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan M; Williams, Robert J; Gogal, Robert M

    2017-06-01

    A 3-yr-old adult female roller pigeon ( Columba livia ) used as part of a breeding pair for an ongoing research study presented with acute left limb lameness. Palpation of the left leg and region revealed a large lump near the coxofemoral joint. The bird was able to ambulate in the cage, but would not brood her hatchling. The bird was humanely euthanized and necropsy was performed. Grossly, multiple large white to pale tan nodules were noted in the pancreas, lung, rib cage, intestines, and unilaterally in the left kidney. Microscopic examination of the various organs revealed neoplastic proliferation of round cells consistent with lymphoblasts. Immunohistochemistry was performed with the use of antibodies to CD3, CD79a, CD20, and CD21 to phenotype the cells. The results indicated that the neoplastic infiltrating cells were predominantly of T-cell origin.

  19. Bradyrhizobium spp. Strains in Symbiosis with Pigeon Pea cv. Fava-Larga under Greenhouse and Field Conditions

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    Márcia Rufini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Optimization of symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes has been extensively studied, seeking agricultural sustainability. To evaluate the symbiotic efficiency of nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. cv. Fava-Larga, experiments were conducted in Leonard jars (axenic conditions, pots with soil, and in the field. Ten strains were tested in Leonard jars, and three strains, in addition to BR 29, were selected according to their ability to promote the growth of pigeon pea, for further tests in pots with different soil types (Inceptsol and Oxisol and in the field (Oxisol. Treatments were compared with strains BR 2003 and BR 2801 (approved as inoculants for pigeon pea, with a non-inoculated control with mineral N fertilization, and with another non-inoculated control (absolute control with low mineral N concentration (Leonard jars or without mineral N fertilization (soil. The efficiency of Bradyrhizobium strains in axenic conditions varies among strains, being higher when pigeon pea cv. Fava-Larga establishes symbiosis with the strains UFLA 03-320, UFLA 03-321, UFLA 04-212, BR 2801, and BR 2003. The soil type influences the symbiotic efficiency of Bradyrhizobium-pigeon pea in soil in the greenhouse, mainly in Inceptsol, in which strains UFLA 04-212, BR 2801, and BR 2003 increased N accumulation in the plant. The strain UFLA 03-320 increased shoot dry matter and N accumulation in the shoot equivalent to the mineral N treatment under field conditions. UFLA 03-320, BR 29, UFLA 03-321, and UFLA 04-212 promoted yields similar to those of the reference strain (BR 2801, and of the mineral N treatment with 70 kg ha-1 urea-N. These results confirm that pigeon pea establishes efficient symbiosis, which provides the N required for its growth. All strains, except for BR 2003, show potential for recommendation as inoculants for grain production. The strain UFLA 03

  20. Morphometric characterisation of wing feathers of the barn owl Tyto alba pratincola and the pigeon Columba livia

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    Klaas Michael

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the barn owl, and a generalist, the pigeon. This report presents a comparison between the feathers of the barn owl and the pigeon and emphasise the specific characteristics of the owl's feathers on macroscopic and microscopic level. An understanding of the features and mechanisms underlying this silent flight might eventually be employed for aerodynamic purposes and lead to a new wing design in modern aircrafts. Results A variety of different feathers (six remiges and six coverts, taken from several specimen in either species, were investigated. Quantitative analysis of digital images and scanning electron microscopy were used for a morphometric characterisation. Although both species have comparable body weights, barn owl feathers were in general larger than pigeon feathers. For both species, the depth and the area of the outer vanes of the remiges were typically smaller than those of the inner vanes. This difference was more pronounced in the barn owl than in the pigeon. Owl feathers also had lesser radiates, longer pennula, and were more translucent than pigeon feathers. The two species achieved smooth edges and regular surfaces of the vanes by different construction principles: while the angles of attachment to the rachis and the length of the barbs was nearly constant for the barn owl, these parameters varied in the pigeon. We also present a quantitative description of several characteristic features of barn owl feathers, e.g., the serrations at the leading edge of the wing, the fringes at the edges of each feather, and the velvet-like dorsal surface. Conclusion The quantitative

  1. Morphometric characterisation of wing feathers of the barn owl Tyto alba pratincola and the pigeon Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Thomas; Klän, Stephan; Baumgartner, Werner; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang; Wagner, Hermann

    2007-11-21

    Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the barn owl, and a generalist, the pigeon. This report presents a comparison between the feathers of the barn owl and the pigeon and emphasise the specific characteristics of the owl's feathers on macroscopic and microscopic level. An understanding of the features and mechanisms underlying this silent flight might eventually be employed for aerodynamic purposes and lead to a new wing design in modern aircrafts. A variety of different feathers (six remiges and six coverts), taken from several specimen in either species, were investigated. Quantitative analysis of digital images and scanning electron microscopy were used for a morphometric characterisation. Although both species have comparable body weights, barn owl feathers were in general larger than pigeon feathers. For both species, the depth and the area of the outer vanes of the remiges were typically smaller than those of the inner vanes. This difference was more pronounced in the barn owl than in the pigeon. Owl feathers also had lesser radiates, longer pennula, and were more translucent than pigeon feathers. The two species achieved smooth edges and regular surfaces of the vanes by different construction principles: while the angles of attachment to the rachis and the length of the barbs was nearly constant for the barn owl, these parameters varied in the pigeon. We also present a quantitative description of several characteristic features of barn owl feathers, e.g., the serrations at the leading edge of the wing, the fringes at the edges of each feather, and the velvet-like dorsal surface. The quantitative description of the feathers and the specific structures of owl

  2. The effects of avermectin on amino acid neurotransmitters and their receptors in the pigeon brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jie; Sun, Bao-Hong; Cao, Ye; Yao, Hai-Dong; Qu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Ci; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of avermectin (AVM) on amino acid neurotransmitters and their receptors in the pigeon brain. Four groups two-month-old American king pigeons (n=20/group) were fed either a commercial diet or an AVM-supplemented diet (20mg/kg·diet, 40 mg/kg·diet, or 60 mg/kg·diet) for 30, 60, or 90 days. The contents of aspartic acid (ASP), glutamate (GLU), glycine (GLY), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain tissues were determined using ultraviolet high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expression levels of the GLU and GABA receptor genes were analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicate that AVM exposure significantly enhances the contents of GABA, GLY, GLU, and ASP in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and optic lobe. In addition, AVM exposure increases the mRNA expression levels of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR), γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABABR), N-methyl-d-aspartate 1 receptor (NR1), N-methyl-d-aspartate 2A receptor (NR2A), and N-methyl-d-aspartate 2B receptor (NR2B) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that the most damaged organ was the cerebrum, followed by the cerebellum, and then the optic lobe. These results show that the AVM-induced neurotoxicity may be associated with its effects on amino acid neurotransmitters and their receptors. The information presented in this study will help supplement the available data for future AVM toxicity studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Darwin and his pigeons. The analogy between artificial and natural selection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The analogy between artificial selection of domestic varieties and natural selection in nature was a vital element of Darwin's argument in his Origin of Species. Ever since, the image of breeders creating new varieties by artificial selection has served as a convincing illustration of how the theory works. In this paper I argue that we need to reconsider our understanding of Darwin's analogy. Contrary to what is often assumed, nineteenth-century animal breeding practices constituted a highly controversial field that was fraught with difficulties. It was only with considerable effort that Darwin forged his analogy, and he only succeeded by downplaying the importance of two other breeding techniques - crossing of varieties and inbreeding - that many breeders deemed essential to obtain new varieties. Part of the explanation for Darwin's gloss on breeding practices, I shall argue, was that the methods of his main informants, the breeders of fancy pigeons, were not representative of what went on in the breeding world at large. Darwin seems to have been eager to take the pigeon fanciers at their word, however, as it was only their methods that provided him with the perfect analogy with natural selection. Thus while his studies of domestic varieties were important for the development of the concept of natural selection, the reverse was also true: Darwin's comprehension of breeding practices was moulded by his understanding of the working of natural selection in nature. Historical studies of domestic breeding practices in the eighteenth and nineteenth century confirm that, besides selection, the techniques of inbreeding and crossing were much more important than Darwin's interpretation allowed for. And they still are today. This calls for a reconsideration of the pedagogic use of Darwin's analogy too.

  4. Posture, head stability, and orientation recovery during vestibular regeneration in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, J David; Lim, Insook

    2004-09-01

    Compensatory behavior such as oculomotor, gaze, and postural responses that occur during movement largely depend upon a functioning vestibular system. In the present study, the initial loss and subsequent recovery of postural and head stability in pigeons undergoing vestibular regeneration were examined. Adult pigeons were trained to manipulate a straight run chamber to peck an illuminated key for fluid reward. Six behavioral measures assessing performance, posture, and head stability were quantified. These included run latency, steps (walking), path negotiation (lane changes), gaze saccades, head bobs, and head shakes. Once normative values were obtained for four birds, complete lesion of all receptor cells and denervation of the epithelia in the vestibular endorgans were produced using a single intralabyrinthine application of streptomycin sulfate. Each bird was then tested at specific times during regeneration and the same behavioral measures examined. At 7 days post-streptomycin treatment (PST), all birds exhibited severe postural and head instability, with tremors, head shakes, staggering, and circling predominating. No normal trial runs, walking, gaze saccades, or head bobs were present. Many of these dysfunctions persisted through 3-4 weeks PST. Gradually, tremor and head shakes diminished and were replaced with an increasing number of normal head bobs during steps and gaze saccades. Beginning at 4 weeks PST, but largely inaccurate, was the observed initiation of directed steps, less staggering, and some successful path negotiation. As regeneration progressed, spatial orientation and navigation ability increased and, by 49 days PST, most trials were successful. By 70 days PST, all birds had recovered to pretreatment levels. Thus, it was observed that ataxia must subside, coincident with normalized head and postural stability prior to the recovery of spatial orientation and path navigation recovery. Parallels in recovery were drawn to hair cell regeneration

  5. Co-existence of Coral Reef Conservation and Tourism at Pigeon Island National Park

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    Nishanthi Marian Perera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPigeon islands National Park (PINP is one of the three Marine National Parks in Sri Lanka with coral reefs being the major habitat protected. A study was undertaken at PINP with the objective of understanding the challenges encountered and opportunities available for managing the park addressing both coral reef conservation and increasing tourism potential. Field visits, formal and informal group discussions, expert opinions, web based information and literature surveys were the methodology utilized.  Despise the impose of an entrance fee in May 2011,  146,375 tourists visited the 471 ha park within 40 month period indicating that one hectare of coral reefs can earn more revenue than larger terrestrial parks with charismatic species such as elephants.  Foreign tourist arrivals had increased from 11.9% in 2011 to 25.13% by 2014.  Visitor reviews indicates that their experience was either excellent (46% or very good (30% due to abundance of marine life, while12% had either a poor or a terrible visitor experience at the site owing to overcrowding, reef damage and high price. With only 21% of live coral cover in 2013, it is evident that the reef is being degraded, indicating that a Protected Area which emphasizes on collecting user-fee revenues can lose sight of its primary conservation objectives and is not undertaking sustainable tourism.  Park management effectiveness is not at desirable level (43%, mainly due to non- implementation of a scientifically based management plan. A continuous monitoring programme to check the health of the reef is need, while the introduction of a multi-tiered user fee structures can enhance the economic reruns.  Incorporating PINP into wider Seascape/landscape management through utilizing Special Area Management approach needed to be promoted. Key Words: Coral Reefs; Pigeon Island National Park; Management Effectiveness; Sustainable Tourism; Stakeholders     

  6. Effects of lethal dose of. gamma. -irradiation on intestinal enzymes of the pigeons Columba livia intermedia Strickland

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    Gadhia, P.K. (South Gujarat Univ., Surat (India). Dept. of Biosciences); Shah, V.C. (Gujarat Univ. School of Sciences, Ahmedabad (India))

    1979-09-01

    Effect of ..gamma..-irradiation with lethal dose (1000 rads) on alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase have been studied in two different regions (duodenum and ileum) of small intestine of pigeons. The enzymes were studied at different intervals like 2, 4, 6 and 8 days after irradiation. The sp. activities of enzyme increased significantly both in duodenum and ileum. However, significant increase in alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase were observed at the 2nd and the 4th days post-irradiation respectively. The increase in enzyme activities may present de novo synthesis of these enzymes after lethal dose of irradiation. The histologic picture revealed that after the 4th day of irradiation, the number of goblet cells increased and after the 6th day crypt-villus system was destroyed completely as compared to sham-irradiated pigeons.

  7. Complete genome sequence and evolution analysis of a columbid herpesvirus type 1 from feral pigeon in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Li, Siwen; Sun, Xiao; He, Ying; Zhao, Hongjing; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Panpan; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-07-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence of a feral pigeon alphaherpesvirus (columbid herpesvirus type 1, CoHV-1), strain HLJ, and compare it with other avian alphaherpesviruses. The CoHV-1 strain HLJ genome is 204,237 bp in length and encodes approximately 130 putative protein-coding genes. Phylogenetically, CoHV-1 complete genome resides in a monophyletic group with the falconid herpesvirus type 1 (FaHV-1) genome, distant from other alphaherpesviruses. Interestingly, the evolutionary analysis of partial genes of CoHV-1 isolated from different organisms and areas (currently accessible on GenBank) indicates that the CoHV-1 HLJ strain isolated from pigeon (Columba livia) is closely related to the strains isolated from peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Poland and owl (Bubo virginianus) in USA. These results may suggest possible transmission of the virus between different organisms and different geographic areas.

  8. Multilocus sequence typing of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale isolated from pigeons and birds of prey revealed new insights into its population structure

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    Susann Thieme

    2016-12-01

    The MLST results of ORT isolated from pigeons and birds of prey likely reflect evolutionary bacterial host adaptations but might also indicate a potential for interspecies transmission. Definite conclusions should be drawn carefully as so far a few strains from non-galliform birds were analyzed by MLST. By extending the number of ORT isolates and the range of potential avian hosts, the MLST database can provide a valuable resource in understanding transmission dynamics.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of Columbid herpesvirus-1 in rock pigeons, birds of prey and non-raptorial birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz J; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Szymański, Piotr; Wencel, Piotr; Houszka, Marek

    2013-03-21

    The identity of herpesviruses isolated in Europe from domestic pigeons (Columbid herpesvirus-1 - CoHV-1) as well as falcons and owls remains unknown. All these herpesviruses are antigenically and genetically related. The falcons and owls are thought to have become infected during the ingestion of pigeon meat thus suggesting the virus's capacity to infect a wide range of hosts. The aim of the conducted study was to detect the occurrence of CoHV-1 and estimating the similarities and differences in the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene of herpesviruses isolated from domestic pigeons, birds of prey and non-raptorial free-ranging birds in Poland. The study has shown the presence of CoHV-1 in 20.4% (18/88) in the examined birds. In case of one CoHV-1, infected Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), neurological signs were observed. Nucleotide sequencing of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene, showed a high similarity among Polish strains (100%), independently from the species of the affected birds. Only one compared CoHV-1 strain - KP 21/23 originating from Germany showed a slightly lower similarity at a level of 99.1%. Further analysis has shown the identity of DNA-dependent DNA polymerase of CoHV-1 strains and other herpesviruses present in poultry as well as other birds ranged from 35.4 to 44.9%. Interestingly CoHV-1 infection was also confirmed for the first time in four non-raptorial birds. The current study has shown a high similarity of CoHV-1 strains and the possible transmission of herpesviruses between domestic rock pigeons and free-ranging birds including raptors and non-raptorial birds. Further studies focused on cloning and the analysis of the whole CoHV-1 genome which is needed to explain the role of the observed similarities and differences between field strains of columbid herpesviruses.

  10. Wound and methyl jasmonate induced pigeon pea defensive proteinase inhibitor has potency to inhibit insect digestive proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomate, Purushottam R; Hivrale, Vandana K

    2012-08-01

    Wounding of plants by chewing insects or other damage induces the synthesis of defensive proteinase inhibitors (PI) in both wounded and distal unwounded leaves. In the present paper we report the characterization of inducible defensive PI from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and its in vitro interaction with Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases (HGP). We found that PI activity was induced in local as well as systemic leaves of pigeon pea by the wounding and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) application. Consistent induction of PI was observed in two wild cultivars of pigeon pea at various growth stages. The estimated molecular weight of inducible PI was ~16.5 kDa. Electrophoretic analysis and enzyme assays revealed that the induced PI significantly inhibited total gut proteinase as well as trypsin-like activity from the midgut of H. armigera. The induced PI was found to be inhibitor of trypsin as well as chymotrypsin. Study could be important to know the further roles of defensive PIs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of uropygial gland secretions on mechanically induced wearing of barn owl and pigeon body feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Benjamin; Müsse, Annika; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Bird feathers are remarkable structures light but yet durable providing insulation and the ability of flight. Owls are highly specialized birds of prey, widely known for their ability to y silently which is enabled by (micro-) structural specializations of the feathers. The barn owl replaces feathers less frequently in comparison to other same sized birds like pigeons, indicating a much better resistance against material fatigue of these delicate microstructures. We used axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) of water drop contact angles as a non-destructive method of characterizing wearing processes in feathers. We hypothesized that feathers become more wettable when worn. We also investigated the impact of ethanol treatment in order to remove fatty residues of the uropygial gland secretions, barn owls and pigeons use for preening, on ageing processes. Ethanol treatment resulted in a slight, but significant increase of water repellency in barn owl but not in pigeon flight feathers. Our preliminary data also suggest that the uropygial gland secretions decelerate the wearing process of the feather keratin. We observed this effect in both species, however, it was more distinct for barn owl uropygial gland secretions. The results of this study, obtained by contact angle measurements used as a non-destructive evaluation method of material fatigue, yield insights into the material fatigue of feathers and the decelerating effect of uropygial gland secretions on wear on the other hand.

  12. Pigeons (C. livia Follow Their Head during Turning Flight: Head Stabilization Underlies the Visual Control of Flight

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    Ivo G. Ros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Similar flight control principles operate across insect and vertebrate fliers. These principles indicate that robust solutions have evolved to meet complex behavioral challenges. Following from studies of visual and cervical feedback control of flight in insects, we investigate the role of head stabilization in providing feedback cues for controlling turning flight in pigeons. Based on previous observations that the eyes of pigeons remain at relatively fixed orientations within the head during flight, we test potential sensory control inputs derived from head and body movements during 90° aerial turns. We observe that periods of angular head stabilization alternate with rapid head repositioning movements (head saccades, and confirm that control of head motion is decoupled from aerodynamic and inertial forces acting on the bird's continuously rotating body during turning flapping flight. Visual cues inferred from head saccades correlate with changes in flight trajectory; whereas the magnitude of neck bending predicts angular changes in body position. The control of head motion to stabilize a pigeon's gaze may therefore facilitate extraction of important motion cues, in addition to offering mechanisms for controlling body and wing movements. Strong similarities between the sensory flight control of birds and insects may also inspire novel designs of robust controllers for human-engineered autonomous aerial vehicles.

  13. Simultaneous discrimination of speed is more difficult than simultaneous discrimination of size for both pigeons and people

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    Olga F. Lazareva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports suggest that pigeons are highly sensitive to speed of motion (Cook, Beale, Koban, 2011; Herbranson, Fremouw, & Shimp, 2002. In contrast, we found that pigeons required more extensive training to learn speed discrimination than size discrimination (Lazareva, Young, & Wasserman, 2014. However, our results were based on a comparison of two experiments conducted in different laboratories, complicating the interpretation of the data. Here, we trained pigeons to perform size discrimination or speed discrimination in a two-alternative simultaneous discrimination task using a within-subject design. All birds acquired size discrimination much faster than speed discrimination, confirming our prior report. We further explored pigeons’ sensitivity to differences in speed and size by training them to discriminate two end-point stimuli in a two-alternative forced-choice task and then presenting a wide range of testing stimuli located between the training end-point stimuli. The results again indicated weaker control by the differences in speed in comparison to size; comparable results were obtained for human participants.

  14. Pigeons exhibit higher accuracy for chosen memory tests than for forced memory tests in duration matching-to-sample.

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    Adams, Allison; Santi, Angelo

    2011-03-01

    Following training to match 2- and 8-sec durations of feederlight to red and green comparisons with a 0-sec baseline delay, pigeons were allowed to choose to take a memory test or to escape the memory test. The effects of sample omission, increases in retention interval, and variation in trial spacing on selection of the escape option and accuracy were studied. During initial testing, escaping the test did not increase as the task became more difficult, and there was no difference in accuracy between chosen and forced memory tests. However, with extended training, accuracy for chosen tests was significantly greater than for forced tests. In addition, two pigeons exhibited higher accuracy on chosen tests than on forced tests at the short retention interval and greater escape rates at the long retention interval. These results have not been obtained in previous studies with pigeons when the choice to take the test or to escape the test is given before test stimuli are presented. It appears that task-specific methodological factors may determine whether a particular species will exhibit the two behavioral effects that were initially proposed as potentially indicative of metacognition.

  15. Lactated Ringer's solution or 0.9% sodium chloride as fluid therapy in pigeons (Columba livia submitted to humerus osteosynthesis

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    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the effects of intraosseous infusion of lactated Ringer's and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions on the electrolytes and acid-base balance in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis. Eighteen pigeons were undergoing to isoflurane anesthesia by an avalvular circuit system. They were randomly assigned into two groups (n=9 receiving lactated Ringer's solution (LR or 0.9% sodium chloride (SC, in a continuous infusion rate of 20mL/kg/h, by using an intraosseous catheter into the tibiotarsus during 60-minute anesthetic procedure. Heart rate (HR, and respiratory rate (RR were measured every 10 min. Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30 and 60 minutes to analyze blood pH, PvCO2, HCO3 -, Na+ and K+. Blood gases and electrolytes showed respiratory acidosis in both groups during induction, under physical restraint. This acidosis was evidenced by a decrease of pH since 0 min, associated with a compensatory response, observed by increasing of HCO3 - concentration, at 30 and 60 min. It was not observed any changes on Na+ and K+ serum concentrations. According to the results, there is no reason for choosing one of the two solutions, and it could be concluded that both fluid therapy solutions do not promote any impact on acid-base balance and electrolyte concentrations in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis.

  16. Reconnaissance of the Pigeon River, a cold-water river in the north-central part of Michigan's southern peninsula

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    Hendrickson, G.E.; Doonan, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    The cold-water streams of the northern states provide unique recreational values to the American people (wilderness or semi-wilderness atmosphere, fast-water canoeing, and trout fishing), but the expanding recreational needs must be balanced against the growing demand of water for public and industrial supplies, for irrigation, and for the dilution of sewage and other wastes. In order to make intelligent decisions regarding use and management of the water resource for recreation and other demands, an analysis of the hydrologic factors related to recreational values is essential.The Pigeon River is one of Michigan's outstanding trout streams and is the favorite of a large number of anglers who return year after year. Camping is also popular and is usually, but not always, associated with fishing. Boating is very rare on the Pigeon because of numerous portages around log jams. Cabin-living and resorting are relatively minor on this river as yet, but much of the private river front may be developed in future years.The Pigeon is located in the north-central part of the southern peninsula of Michigan (see index map). Headwaters are a few miles northeast of Gaylord, and the mouth is at Mullet Lake, a few miles northeast of Indian River. Interstate Highway 75 roughly parallels the river about 5 to 10 miles to the west. Exits from this highway at Gaylord, Vanderbilt, Wolverine, and Indian River, provide easy access to the Pigeon.The recreational value of the river depends on the streamflow characteristics, quality of water, and character of stream channel, and bed and banks. The purpose of this atlas is to describe these characteristics, and to show how they relate to recreational uses.Most of the information presented here was obtained from a field reconnaissance in June, 1966, and from basic records of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. The area of field study is limited to the channel, bed, and banks of the main stem of the Pigeon from source to

  17. Pigeons prefer discriminative stimuli independently of the overall probability of reinforcement and of the number of presentations of the conditioned reinforcer.

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    Stagner, Jessica P; Laude, Jennifer R; Zentall, Thomas R

    2012-10-01

    When pigeons are given a choice between two alternatives, one leading to a stimulus 20% of the time that always signals reinforcement (S+) or another stimulus 80% of the time that signals the absence of reinforcement (S-) and the other alternative leading to one of two stimuli each signaling reinforcement 50% of the time, the 20% reinforcement alternative is preferred although it provides only 40% as much reinforcement. In Phase 1 of the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that pigeons compare the S+ associated with each alternative and ignore the S- by giving them a choice between two pairs of discriminative stimuli (20% S+, 80% S- and 50% S+, 50% S-). Reinforcement theory suggests that the alternative associated with more reinforcement should be preferred but the pigeons showed indifference. In Phase 2, the pigeons were divided into two groups. For one group, the discriminative function was removed from the 50% reinforcement alternative and a strong preference for the 20% reinforcement alternative was found. For the other group, the discriminative function was removed from both alternatives and a strong preference was found for the 50% reinforcement alternative. Thus, the indifference found in Phase 1 was not due to the absence of discriminability of the differential reinforcement associated with the two alternatives (20% vs. 50% reinforcement); rather, the indifference can be attributed to the pigeons' insensitivity to the differential frequency of the two S+ and two S- stimuli. The relevance to human gambling behavior is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Comparison of pigeon guillemot, Cepphus columba, blood parameters from oiled and unoiled areas of Alaska eight years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

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    Seiser, P.E.; Duffy, L.K.; McGuire, David A.; Roby, D.D.; Golet, Gregory H.; Litzow, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, we compared the haematological and plasma biochemical profiles among populations of pigeon guillemots, Cepphus columba, in areas oiled and not oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) that occurred in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre-spill levels. If oil contamination is limiting recovery of pigeon guillemots in PWS, then we expected that blood parameters of pigeon guillemots would differ between oiled and unoiled areas and that these differences would be consistent with either toxic responses or lower fitness. We collected blood samples from chicks at approximately 20 and 30 days after hatching. Physiological changes associated with chick growth were noted in several blood parameters. We found that only calcium and mean cell volume were significantly different between the chicks in oiled and unoiled areas. Despite these differences, blood biomarkers provided little evidence of continuing oil injury to pigeon guillemot chicks, eight years after the EVOS. Preliminary data from adults indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in the adults from the oiled area, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Because adults have greater opportunities for exposure to residual oil than nestlings, we recommend studies that fully evaluate the health of adults residing in oiled areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Visual artificial grammar learning: comparative research on humans, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobbe, Nina; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) provides a useful tool for exploring rule learning strategies linked to general purpose pattern perception. To be able to directly compare performance of humans with other species with different memory capacities, we developed an AGL task in the visual domain. Presenting entire visual patterns simultaneously instead of sequentially minimizes the amount of required working memory. This approach allowed us to evaluate performance levels of two bird species, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia), in direct comparison to human participants. After being trained to discriminate between two types of visual patterns generated by rules at different levels of computational complexity and presented on a computer screen, birds and humans received further training with a series of novel stimuli that followed the same rules, but differed in various visual features from the training stimuli. Most avian and all human subjects continued to perform well above chance during this initial generalization phase, suggesting that they were able to generalize learned rules to novel stimuli. However, detailed testing with stimuli that violated the intended rules regarding the exact number of stimulus elements indicates that neither bird species was able to successfully acquire the intended pattern rule. Our data suggest that, in contrast to humans, these birds were unable to master a simple rule above the finite-state level, even with simultaneous item presentation and despite intensive training. PMID:22688635

  20. First trial rewards promote 1-trial learning and prolonged memory in pigeon and baboon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Robert; Fagot, Joël

    2009-06-09

    There is a long-standing debate in educational settings on the influence of positive and negative consequences on learning. Although positive rewards seem desirable from an ethical perspective, 1-trial learning has been best demonstrated in the animal literature with tasks using highly salient negative consequences, such as shock or illness, and so far only in tasks requiring the acquisition of a singular stimulus-response association. Here we show that pigeons and baboons can concurrently learn, in a cognitively challenging memorization task, hundreds of picture-response associations after a single exposure and that this rapid learning is better promoted by a positive outcome after the first picture presentation. Further, the early positive outcomes had beneficial effects on the memory of learned acquisitions that was detectable up to 6-8 months after initial training. Beyond their significance for educational policies, these findings suggest that the psychological and brain mechanisms controlling rapid, often 1-trial, learning have a long evolutionary history. They may represent the phylogenetic precursor for the disproportionate impact of first impressions in humans and the phenomenon of fast word learning in children.

  1. Feral Pigeons (Columba livia Prefer Genetically Similar Mates despite Inbreeding Depression.

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    Gwenaël Jacob

    Full Text Available Avoidance of mating between related individuals is usually considered adaptive because it decreases the probability of inbreeding depression in offspring. However, mating between related partners can be adaptive if outbreeding depression is stronger than inbreeding depression or if females gain inclusive fitness benefits by mating with close kin. In the present study, we used microsatellite data to infer the parentage of juveniles born in a French colony of feral pigeons, which allowed us to deduce parent pairs. Despite detectable inbreeding depression, we found that pairwise relatedness between mates was significantly higher than between nonmates, with a mean coefficient of relatedness between mates of 0.065, approximately half the theoretical value for first cousins. This higher relatedness between mates cannot be explained by spatial genetic structure in this colonial bird; it therefore probably results from an active choice. As inbreeding but not outbreeding depression is observed in the study population, this finding accords with the idea that mating with genetically similar mates can confer a benefit in terms of inclusive fitness. Our results and published evidence suggest that preference for related individuals as mates might be relatively frequent in birds.

  2. The primary vestibular projection to the cerebellar cortex in the pigeon (Columba livia)

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    Schwarz, I.E.; Schwarz, D.W.

    1983-06-01

    The cerebellar cortex of the pigeon receiving direct vestibular afferents was delineated by anterograde transport of (/sup 3/H)-amino acids injected into the vestibular nerve. Labelled mossy fiber rosettes in the granular layer were concentrated in lobule X (nodulus) and to a lesser extent, in the ventral portion of lobule IXd (uvula and paraflocculus). A few solitary labelled rosettes were also found in more dorsal portions of lobule IX, as well as in the anterior lobe between lobule II and IV. The lingula remained unlabelled. Discrete injections of (/sup 3/H)-leucine into the cristae of each of the three semicircular canals or the utricular macula yielded a similar distribution of fewer labelled rosettes. A few primary mossy fiber terminals labelled after cochlear injections are attributed to afferents from the lagenar macula. Since effective diffusion of label from the injection site was excluded by controls, it is concluded that projection of individual canal and macula nerves to the vestibulocerebellar cortex is not topographically separated. It is proposed that this extensive convergence of various afferents is required by the cerebellum to compute precise and directionally specific control signals during head rotation in all conceivable planes.

  3. Applicability to foraging simulation of a reinforcement schedule controlling the response energy of pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Masanori

    2013-12-01

    In optimal foraging theory (OFT), energy expenditure is an important variable for predicting foraging behavior. However, early studies, including operant simulations of foraging, did not measure energy expenditure. In the present study, an adjusting energy (AE) schedule was developed to control energy expenditure. Interresponse energy (IRE), a measure of the energy expenditure during a response, was calculated by dividing the square of the elapsed time between two consecutive responses by the square of the straight-line distance between the locations of the same two responses. An adjusting procedure was employed to estimate the indifference point between the requirements of the AE schedule and a fixed ratio (FR) schedule, which has been used in many operant simulations. In the adjusting procedure, pigeons adjusted the requirement of the AE schedule to that of the FR schedule. The results showed a systematic relationship between the requirements of the AE and FR schedules. Moreover, the total IRE per reinforcement systematically increased with the AE requirement. Thus, the present study demonstrates the utility of the AE schedule as a procedure for testing the validity of OFT.

  4. Pigeons and the Ambiguous-Cue Problem: A Riddle that Remains Unsolved

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    Óscar García-Leal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous-cue task is composed of two-choice simultaneous discriminations involving three stimuli: positive (P, ambiguous (A, and negative (N. Two different trial types are presented: PA and NA. The ambiguous cue (A served as an S- in PA trials, but as an S+ in NA trials. When using this procedure, it is typical to observe a less accurate performance in PA trials than in NA trials. This is called the ambiguous-cue effect. Recently, it was reported in starlings that the ambiguous-cue effect decreases when the stimuli are presented on an angled (120° panel. The hypothesis is that the angled panel facilitates that the two cues from each discrimination are perceived as a compound, precluding value transfer via a second-order conditioning mechanism. In this experiment, we used pigeons and a flat panel. Nevertheless, our data were quite similar to the previous data in starlings. We conclude that the form of the panel cannot explain the ambiguous-cue effect. Several alternatives to be explored in future experiments are suggested. The riddle of the ambiguous-cue problem still remains unsolved.

  5. A successful search for symmetry (and other derived relations) in the conditional discriminations of pigeons().

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    Urcuioli, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Symmetry is one of three derived relations (along with transitivity and reflexivity) that indicate that explicitly trained conditional relations are equivalence relations and that the elements of those trained relations are members of a stimulus class. Although BA symmetry is typically observed after AB conditional discrimination training in humans, it has been an elusive phenomenon in other animals until just recently. This paper describes past unsuccessful attempts to observe symmetry in non-human animals and the likely reasons for that lack of success. I then describe how methodological changes made in response to the earlier findings have now yielded robust evidence for symmetry in pigeons, and what these changes indicate about the functional matching stimuli. Finally, I describe a theory of stimulus-class formation (Urcuioli, 2008) which specifies how and why symmetry and other derived relations arise from different sets of trained relations. These derived relations are noteworthy because they demonstrate an impressive repertoire of non-similarity-based categorization effects in animals and the generative effects of reinforcement and stimulus control processes on behavior.

  6. Study of pathological changes in digestive system of domestic pigeons (Columba livia in Mosul city

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    M. G. Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred diseased cases of pigeons (Columba livia in Mosul city were examined, 67 birds (67% showed pathologicallesions in digestive system. Most of the gross and histopathological lesions occurred in intestine (29.3% followed byoropharynx, liver, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, and pancreas the values (20.8%, 16.6%, 12.5%, 10.4%, 6.2%, 4.2%respectively. Gross lesions of intestine showed severe tape worms infestation with petechial hemorrhage in some cases,histopathologically there were catarrhal enteritis, necrotic and hemorrhagic enteritis were less, and desquamation of mucosawith bacterial colonies. Gross lesions of oropharynx, esophagus and crop in most cases were yellow caseated masses ornecrotic material. In some cases white diphtheritic membrane with thickening of mucosa in esophagus, crop and proventriculuswere founded, petichial hemorrhage on the mucosa of proventriculus were less some cases. Histopathological lesions oforopharynx and esophagus were thickening of mucosa and presence of necrotic caseated foci on the submucosa. In crop therewere epithelial hyperplasia and in some cases infiltration of inflammatory cells with cocobacilli bacteria and desquamation ofepithelial cells were founded. In proventriculus desquamation and necrosis of epithelial cells of mucus glands with infiltrationof inflammatory cells. Gross lesions in liver and pancreas were limited represented by enlargement and congestion, histopathologically coagulative necrosis of hepatic cells with cocobacilli bacteria, pancreas showed two types of inflammationone was non-suppurative and another was suppurative.

  7. Serum protein changes in immune and nonimmune pigeons infected with various strains of Trichomonas gallinae.

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    Kocan, R M; Herman, C M

    1970-01-01

    Serum protein changes were studied in immune and nonimmune pigeons infected with three different strains of Trichomonas gallinae. Strain I (nonvirulent) produced no change in the relative concentration of serum components. Strains II (oral canker) and III (Jones' Barn) produced decreases in albumin and alpha globulins, and increases in beta and gamma globulins between the 7th and 20th days post infection. Birds infected with strain II began to return to normal by the 20th day, while all those infected with strain III were dead between 10 and 14 days post infection. Two serum protein patterns resulted from infection of immune birds with the Jones' Barn strain. One showed no change in relative protein concentrations and no tissue invasion by the parasite while the other was similar to that seen in nonimmune birds infected with a strain producing oral canker. These also showed evidence of tissue invasion by the parasite. It was concluded that tissue invasion was necessary to evoke a quantitative change in serum protein concentrations.

  8. Prevalence and genotyping of Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansano-Maestre, José; Garijo-Toledo, María Magdalena; Gómez-Muñoz, María Teresa

    2009-06-01

    Avian trichomonosis is a world-wide parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trichomonas gallinae. Although several degrees of pathogenicity have been described on the basis of the clinical signs in birds, there are few reports concerning the genetic characterization of the parasite and its relationship with pathogenicity. The parasite usually appears apathogenic but is occasionally responsible for outbreaks of the disease in avian populations, particularly affecting nestlings of ornithophagous raptors. For 3 years, cultures of oropharingeal samples from 612 wild and domestic pigeons (Columba livia) and 102 birds of prey from 15 different species were made in an attempt to determine the prevalence of T. gallinae in the Valencian Community (eastern Spain). To establish the genotype of the isolates, 5.8S rRNA and the surrounding internal transcribed spacer regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and were sequenced. After restriction map analysis, sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using HaeIII showed two genotypes (A and B) in isolates from both groups of birds, although genotype prevalence differed in each group-genotype A being more prevalent in columbiforms and genotype B in raptors. In addition, genotype B was present in every bird that displayed macroscopic lesions.

  9. Influence of inoculation route on the course of infection of Trichomonas gallinae in nonimmune pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.

    1971-01-01

    The Jones' Barn strain of Trichomonas gallinae was given to nonimmune pigeons by five different routes: (I) oral; (2) pulmonary; (3) intravenous; (4) intramuscular; (5) subcutaneous. The birds infected by the oral and pulmonarv routes succumbed to typical trichomoniasis involving the liver and lungs respectively. The pulmonary route also produced air sac lesions resulting from trichomonads passing through the lungs via the mesobronchi. Intramuscular and subcutaneous introduction of the parasite resulted in transient infections involving small lesions which were resorbed in I to 2 weeks. The intravenous introductions resulted only in large lesions at the site of inoculation, presumably from perivascular leakage at the time of parasite entry. No other internal lesions were found and cultures made from liver and lung tissue were negative for T. gallinae. The results of infection by the oral and pulmonary routes were not surprising, since these are essentially normal routes of infection. The inhibition of parasite development at the intramuscular and subcutaneous sites of parasite introduction may have resulted from inhibition of the mobility of the parasite by connective tissue or these substrates may have been unsuitable for parasite development. The results of intravenous inoculation are surprising, since it has been stated that T. gallinae reaches the viscera via the circulation. If this were true, lesions should have occurred at least in the lungs where the parasites would have lodged following introduction into a vein. Recovery from infection at any site is apparently sufficient to produce an immunity to the parasite when subsequently introduced via the oral route.

  10. Discrimination of holograms and real objects by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Claudia; Steurer, Michael M; Aust, Ulrike

    2014-08-01

    The type of stimulus material employed in visual tasks is crucial to all comparative cognition research that involves object recognition. There is considerable controversy about the use of 2-dimensional stimuli and the impact that the lack of the 3rd dimension (i.e., depth) may have on animals' performance in tests for their visual and cognitive abilities. We report evidence of discrimination learning using a completely novel type of stimuli, namely, holograms. Like real objects, holograms provide full 3-dimensional shape information but they also offer many possibilities for systematically modifying the appearance of a stimulus. Hence, they provide a promising means for investigating visual perception and cognition of different species in a comparative way. We trained pigeons and humans to discriminate either between 2 real objects or between holograms of the same 2 objects, and we subsequently tested both species for the transfer of discrimination to the other presentation mode. The lack of any decrements in accuracy suggests that real objects and holograms were perceived as equivalent in both species and shows the general appropriateness of holograms as stimuli in visual tasks. A follow-up experiment involving the presentation of novel views of the training objects and holograms revealed some interspecies differences in rotational invariance, thereby confirming and extending the results of previous studies. Taken together, these results suggest that holograms may not only provide a promising tool for investigating yet unexplored issues, but their use may also lead to novel insights into some crucial aspects of comparative visual perception and categorization.

  11. Ischemia and ischemic preconditioning in the buffer-perfused pigeon heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischard, F; McKean, T

    1998-01-01

    Isolated pigeon hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer with 1.25 mM Ca++ at a pressure of 60 cm H2O and paced at 210 beats per min. After an equilibration perfusion of 30 min, hearts were subjected to 10 min global ischemia and then reperfused for 30 min. Left ventricular +dP/dtmax, systolic, and end diastolic pressures differed significantly from baseline values during reperfusion as did the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). When the hearts were preconditioned by interruption of flow for two 2.5-min intervals, followed by 10 min of ischemia and then reperfusion, the short periods of ischemia, followed by reperfusion, protected the hearts against the longer bout of ischemia as evidenced by significant differences between the left ventricular (LV) pressure, +dP/dtmax, LV end diastolic pressure and LDH values obtained from the hearts of control vs. preconditioned hearts. Substitution of 1 microM adenosine for the preconditioning ischemia also resulted in the preconditioning response. Ischemic preconditioning (IP) was not blocked by addition of 100 microM 8-(-p-sulfophenyl) theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist. Therefore, isolated, perfused bird hearts can be preconditioned, and the mechanism may involve adenosine receptors, although their activation is not necessary for i.p. to occur. Factors in addition to adenosine are likely involved.

  12. Luminance information decoding on the basis of local field potential signals of pigeon optic tectum neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songwei; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Zhizhong; Niu, Xiaoke; Hu, Yuxia; Shi, Li

    2017-11-08

    Important aspects of brain information processing can be understood by examining decoding of visual stimuli from neuronal response signals. In this research, the luminance information is decoded from the local field potential signal in the optic tectum region of the pigeon. We designed a luminance visual stimulus model with transient flicker characteristics, recorded multichannel local field potential (LFP) signals using a microelectrode array, extracted LFP Fourier transform energy and phase features, constructed a multivariate linear inverse filter luminance information decoding algorithm, and evaluated decoding effects using a cross-correlation method. We found that LFP signal phase decoding of luminance information yielded better effects than amplitude decoding of luminance information. In the case of optimal frequency band, channels, delay time, and other parameters, the results of phase and amplitude codecoding could reach 0.94±0.02. Comparing the differences between neuronal spike decoding and LFP decoding, we found that LFP signal phase and amplitude codecoding resulted in luminance closer to that of the actual stimulus and required fewer decoding electrode channels.

  13. Focused Impedance Method (FIM) and Pigeon Hole Imaging (PHI) for localized measurements - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    This paper summarises up to date development in Focused Impedance Method (FIM) initiated by us. It basically involves taking the sum of two orthogonal tetra-polar impedance measurements around a common central region, giving a localized enhanced sensitivity. Although the basic idea requires 8 electrodes, versions with 6- and 4-electrodes were subsequently conceived and developed. The focusing effect has been verified in 2D and 3D phantoms and through numerical analysis. Dynamic stomach emptying, and ventilation of localized lung regions have been studied successfully suggesting further applications in monitoring of gastric acid secretion, artificial respiration, bladder emptying, etc. Multi-frequency FIM may help identify some diseases and disorders including certain cancers. FIM, being much simpler and having less number of electrodes, appears to have the potential to replace EIT for applications involving large and shallow organs. An enhancement of 6-electrode FIM led to Pigeon Hole Imaging (PHI) in a square matrix through backprojection in two orthogonal directions, good for localising of one or two well separated objects.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, E; Vicente, M S; Carceles, C M

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4:1) combination were studied after intravenous and intramuscular administration of single doses (25 mg kg(-1) bodyweight) to 50 pigeons. The plasma concentrations-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetics and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs after intravenous administration were best described by a two-compartment open model. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 1.77 litres kg(-1) and 1.30 litres kg(-1) respectively. The body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were not significantly different. The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 1.22 (0.09) hour and 1.52 (0.09) hour respectively, and those of clavulanic acid were 1.15 (0.08) hour and 1.49 (0.08) hour. After intramuscular administration both drugs had a significantly longer half-life (P or =0.5 mg litre(-1) (minimum inhibitory concentration of most susceptible pathogens).

  15. Implicit learning in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locurto, Charles; Fox, Maura; Mazzella, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable interest in the conditions under which human subjects learn patterned information without explicit instructions to learn that information. This form of learning, termed implicit or incidental learning, can be approximated in nonhumans by exposing subjects to patterned information but delivering reinforcement randomly, thereby not requiring the subjects to learn the information in order to be reinforced. Following acquisition, nonhuman subjects are queried as to what they have learned about the patterned information. In the present experiment, we extended the study of implicit learning in nonhumans by comparing two species, cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and pigeons (Columba livia), on an implicit learning task that used an artificial grammar to generate the patterned elements for training. We equated the conditions of training and testing as much as possible between the two species. The results indicated that both species demonstrated approximately the same magnitude of implicit learning, judged both by a random test and by choice tests between pairs of training elements. This finding suggests that the ability to extract patterned information from situations in which such learning is not demanded is of longstanding origin.

  16. Development of the diencephalic relay structures of the visual thalamofugal system in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Martina; Freund, Nadja; Güntürkün, Onur

    2008-03-18

    To compare the developmental pattern of the visual tecto- and thalamofugal pathways in the altricial pigeon, we examined the posthatch differentiation of the retinothalamic system. Choleratoxin was injected into the left and right eye to visualize the retinal innervation pattern of the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (GLd). The calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin and calbindin and GABA(Abeta) receptors were used as indicators for the functional development of the GLd. Although all retinorecipient thalamic target structures were invaded by retinal fibers directly after hatching, density of the projection increased during the first week. While the adult GLd was characterized by a substantial number of cells displaying calbindin-immunoreactivity and by a sparse innervation by parvalbumin-immunoreactive fibers, after hatching no labelling for calcium-binding proteins could be detected. Calbindin-immunoreactivity appeared not before posthatching day 7, while parvalbumin-immunoreactive fibers were detected only after the third week. In contrast, a dense but diffuse GABA(Abeta) receptor-labelling was present from hatching onwards that decreased during development. The delayed expression of calbindin as well as changes in the density of GABA(Abeta) receptors indicate that maturation of GLd neurons extends long into the posthatch period. It is likely that the GABAergic interneurons mainly develop within this posthatch timeframe. Combined with the delayed development of the parvalbumin-positive innervation, the developmental pattern of GLd neurons suggests that the thalamofugal networks are immature after hatching and therefore still sensitive to modulations of posthatch visual experience.

  17. Metal Accumulation, Blood δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity and Micronucleated Erythrocytes of Feral pigeons (Columba Livia Living Near Former Lead-Zinc Smelter “ Trepça” – Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezaj I. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of lead in blood and tibia (Pb, zinc (Zn and cupper (Cu in tibia, blood δ- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D; EC: 4.2.1.24 activity, hematocrit value (Hct and micronuclei frequency (MN of peripheral erythrocytes have been determinated in three different populations of feral pigeons (Columba livia; forma urbana and forma domestica, collected in Mitrovica town (situated close to smelter “Trepça”, down closed in 2000 year and in rural area (Koshare willage . The blood lead level in feral pigeons from Mitrovica (forma urbana was 3 times higher (149.6; 50.5 μg% in comparison with that in feral pigeons from Mitrovica (forma domestica and 27.7 times higher (5.4 μg% in comparison with pigeons from rural area. The Pb concentration of tibia of feral pigeons (froma urbana and forma domestica, from Mitrovica town was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with control. The concentration of Zn in tibia of feral pigeons from Mitrovica town (forma urbana, was significantly higher (P<0.006 in comparison with control. The blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons from Mitrovica town (forma urbana and froma domestica, was significantly inhibited in comparison with control. The blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons –forma urbana from Mitrovica town was significantly inhibited (P<0.001 in comparison with the blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons-forma domestica from Mitrovica town. The erythrocyte MN frequency of feral pigeons from Mitrovica was significantly higher (P <0.001 in comparison with controls. The smelter “Trepça” ten year after closed down pose a threat to the local environment, biota and people’s health.

  18. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli AND Campylobacter jejuni IN FERAL PIGEONS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE CITY OF LIMA, PERU

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    Moisés CABALLERO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Feral pigeons (Columbia livia live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuniof urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacterby filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coliand Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coli were isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents.

  19. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) and gamma (PPARγ) in the pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P; Yuan, C; Wang, C; Zou, X-T; Po, Z; Tong, H-B; Zou, J-M

    2014-01-01

    1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are involved in lipid metabolism through transcriptional regulation of target gene expression. The objective of the current study was to clone and characterise the PPARα and PPARγ genes in pigeon. 2. The full-length of 1941-bp PPARα and 1653-bp PPARγ were cloned from pigeons. The two genes were predicted to encode 468 and 475 amino acids, respectively. Both proteins contained two C4-type zinc fingers, a nuclear hormone receptor DNA-binding region signature and a HOLI domain (ligand binding domain of hormone receptors), and had high identities with other corresponding avian genes. 3. Using quantitative real-time PCR, pigeon PPARα gene expression was shown to be high in kidney, liver, gizzard and duodenum whereas PPARγ was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue.

  20. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli AND Campylobacter jejuni IN FERAL PIGEONS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE CITY OF LIMA, PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Moisés; Rivera, Isabel; Jara, Luis M; Ulloa-Stanojlovic, Francisco M; Shiva, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coli were isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents.

  1. Epidemiological investigations on the role of clinically healthy racing pigeons as a reservoir for avian paramyxovirus-1 and avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Lydia; Ryll, Martin; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2013-12-01

    Clinically healthy racing pigeons may harbour notifiable pathogens and serve as an unnoticed reservoir. Thus, 3480 healthy racing pigeons from 172 different lofts were monitored over a period of 2 years for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) and avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1). Pharyngeal and cloacal swabs as well as blood samples were collected from juvenile and adult pigeons. Pools of five pharyngeal swabs per loft and age group were initially screened by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Pharyngeal and cloacal samples from lofts that were positive or suspect in the AIV rRT-PCR or the APMV-1 rRT-PCR were inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation. In addition, sera were examined for antibodies against AIV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antibody levels after vaccination against APMV-1 were determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay. Of the investigated lofts, 0.0 to 1.4% were positive by rRT-PCR for APMV-1 and 0.0 to 6.7% for AIV during this 2-year period with a total of four samplings. No sample yielded replicating virus in egg culture. No antibodies against AIV were detected. Haemagglutination inhibition test of vaccinated racing pigeons indicated age-dependent APMV-1 titres. The results suggest that the examined racing pigeons may have had contact with AIV, but virus replication may have been too low to induce detectable circulating antibody levels. Only a low percentage of samples were positive for APMV-1, but two outbreaks were observed in monitored flocks, indicating ongoing circulation of APMV-1 in the racing pigeon population. These observations highlight the relevance of APMV-1 vaccination and indicate the importance of flock immunity.

  2. Reorientation in diamond-shaped environments: encoding of features and angles in enclosures versus arrays by adult humans and pigeons (Columbia livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubyk, Danielle M; Spetch, Marcia L; Zhou, Ruojing; Pisklak, Jeffrey; Mou, Weimin

    2013-07-01

    Although geometric reorientation has been extensively studied in numerous species, most research has been conducted in enclosed environments and has focused on use of the geometric property of relative wall length. The current studies investigated how angular information is used by adult humans and pigeons to orient and find a goal in enclosures or arrays that did not provide relative wall length information. In enclosed conditions, the angles formed a diamond shape connected by walls, whereas in array conditions, free-standing angles defined the diamond shape. Adult humans and pigeons were trained to locate two geometrically equivalent corners, either the 60° or 120° angles. Blue feature panels were located in the goal corners so that participants could use either the features or the local angular information to orient. Subsequent tests in manipulated environments isolated the individual cues from training or placed them in conflict with one another. In both enclosed and array environments, humans and pigeons were able to orient when either the angles or the features from training were removed. On conflict tests, female, but not male, adult humans weighted features more heavily than angular geometry. For pigeons, angles were weighted more heavily than features for birds that were trained to go to acute corners, but no difference in weighting was seen for birds trained to go to obtuse corners. These conflict test results were not affected by environment type. A subsequent test with pigeons ruled out an interpretation based on exclusive use of a principal axis rather than angle. Overall, the results indicate that, for both adult humans and pigeons, angular amplitude is a salient orientation cue in both enclosures and arrays of free-standing angles.

  3. Assessment of beneficial role of an insectivorous bird, jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus predation, on Helicoverpa armigera infesting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharucha Bhavna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea

  4. Assessment of beneficial role of an insectivorous bird, jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus predation, on Helicoverpa armigera infesting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Bharucha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea and sorghum can be used as mixed crops to protect the crop from

  5. The rate-decreasing effects of fentanyl derivatives in pigeons before, during and after chronic morphine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, C A; Gerak, L R; Bagley, J R; Brockunier, L L; France, C P

    1998-05-01

    Mirfentanil is a fentanyl derivative with non-opioid actions, including non-opioid antinociceptive effects in rhesus monkeys. The current study examined the rate-altering effects of mirfentanil and several other compounds in pigeons to assess: 1) the opioid and non-opioid actions of acutely-administered fentanyl derivatives; and 2) the development of cross-tolerance between each of these compounds and morphine. Seven pigeons responded under a fixed-ratio 20 (FR20) schedule of food delivery. In untreated pigeons, fentanyl, morphine, naltrexone, ketamine and three fentanyl derivatives (mirfentanil, OHM3463 and OHM3295) decreased rates of key pecking in a dose-related manner. Naltrexone (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) attenuated the effects of OHM3463 and not mirfentanil or OHM3295, suggesting non-opioid mediation of the rate-decreasing effects for the latter two fentanyl derivatives. Subjects were treated daily with morphine for 9 weeks, up to a dose of 100 mg/kg per day, during which time the dose-effect curves for morphine, fentanyl and OHM3463 shifted rightward 6-, 10- and 2-fold, respectively, indicating the development of tolerance to morphine and cross-tolerance to fentanyl and OHM3463. Dose-effect curves for ketamine, OHM3295 and mirfentanil were not shifted to the right during morphine treatment, and the dose-effect curve for naltrexone was shifted leftward 180-fold. To the extent that rate-decreasing effects are predictive of antinociceptive effects, these data suggest that some fentanyl derivatives might be useful therapeutics under conditions where tolerance develops to morphine-like opioids.

  6. First report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii infection is a global concern, affecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals and humans worldwide, including poultry. Domestic and companion birds are considered to play an important role in the transmission of T. gondii to humans and other animals. However, little information on T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China was available. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China. Methods In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in 413 (305 caged and 108 free-range adult chickens, 334 (111 caged and 223 free-range adult ducks and 312 adult pigeons in Lanzhou, northwest China, were examined using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results 30 (7.26% chickens, 38 (11.38% ducks and 37 (11.86% pigeons were found to be positive for T. gondii antibodies at the cut-off of 1:5. The prevalences in caged and free-range chickens were 6.23% and 10.19% respectively, however, statistical analysis showed that the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. The seroprevalences in caged and free-range ducks were 6.31% and 13.90% respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in adult chickens, ducks and pigeons sold for meat in poultry markets in Lanzhou, northwest China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and other animals in this region. This is the first seroprevalence study of T. gondii infection in domestic birds in this region.

  7. Anti-emetic mechanisms of Zingiber officinale against cisplatin induced emesis in the pigeon; behavioral and neurochemical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ihsan; Subhan, Fazal; Ayaz, Muhammad; Shah, Rehmat; Ali, Gowhar; Haq, Ikram Ul; Ullah, Sami

    2015-02-26

    Zingiber officinale (ZO, family Zingiberaceae) has been reported for its antiemetic activity against cancer chemotherapy induced emesis in animal models and in clinics. Current study was designed to investigate ZO for potential usefulness against cisplatin induced vomiting in pigeon and its effects on central and peripheral neurotransmitters involved in the act of vomiting. Zingiber officinale acetone fraction (ZO-ActFr) was investigated for attenuation of emesis induced by cisplatin in healthy pigeons. Neurotransmitters DA, 5HT and their metabolites DOPAC, HVA and 5HIAA were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography system coupled with electrochemical detector in area postrema, brain stem and intestine. Antiemetic effect of ZO-ActFr was correlated with central and intestinal neurotransmitters levels in pigeon. Cisplatin (7 mg/kg i.v.) induced emesis without lethality upto the observation period. ZO-ActFr (25, 50 & 100 mg/kg) attenuated cisplatin induced emesis ~ 44.18%, 58.13% (P MCP; 30 mg/kg), produced ~ 48.83% reduction (P < 0.05). ZO-ActFr reduced (P < 0.05 - 0.001) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) concentration in the area postrema, brain stem and intestine at 3(rd) hour of cisplatin administration, while at the 18(th) hour ZO treatments attenuated the dopamine upsurge (P < 0.001) caused by cisplatin in the area postrema and 5HT concentration (P < 0.01 - 0.001) in the brain stem and intestine. ZO treatments alone did not altered the basal neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the brain areas and intestine. The behavioral study verify the antiemetic profile of ZO against cisplatin induced emesis in the pigeon, where central and peripheral neural evidences advocate the involvement of serotonergic mechanism at initial time point (3(rd) hr), while the later time point (18(th) hr) is associated with serotonergic and dopaminergic component in the mediation of its antiemetic effect.

  8. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupkiewicz, J G; Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Mowery, J; Davison, S; Habecker, P; Georoff, T A; Ialeggio, D M; Dubey, J P

    2016-01-30

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and free merozoites were identified in liver. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that schizonts were in hepatocytes. A few schizonts were in spleen. PCR using S. calchasi-specific primers confirmed the diagnosis. Neither lesions nor protozoa were found in brain and muscles. This is the first report of acute visceral S. calchasi-associated sarcocystosis in naturally infected avian hosts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Content of antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of the African yambean, pigeon and cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Obong, H N

    1995-10-01

    The protein, trypsin inhibitor (TI), tannin, phytate, phytic acid phosphorus and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of cultivars of the African yambean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) - AYB, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) - PP and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) - CP were determined. The protein content of CP (24-28.0%) was higher than those of PP (21-22.5%) and AYB (21-22.5%). The cream and speckled AYB contained more TI (30.9 and 25.3 mg/g) than PP (7.5-14.1 mg/g) and CP (9.8-20.5 mg/g). Apart from the white CP cultivar, they contained more tannin (1.24-1.42 mg/g) than PP (0.14-0.97 mg/g) and AYB (0.71-1.17 mg/g). Phytate was lowest in the AYB (6.30-7.49 mg/g) than PP (8.31-11.31 mg/g) and CP (8.40-9.92 mg/g). Phytic acid contributed 67-74% of the phosphorous in the AYB, 66-75% in PP and 54-59% in CP. The IVPD of the AYB (73.3 + or - 0.7%) was significantly lower (p <0.05) than those of PP (76.34 + or - 0.2%) and CP (77.8 + or - 0.4%). There was a significant negative correlation between TI and IVPD (r = -0.63, p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between IVPD and phytate and tannin contents. There was a positive correlation between protein content and IVPD (r = 0.69**) for the legumes under study. These legumes may pose no serious problems to populations consuming them especially when heat treatment is applied before consumption.

  10. Transferring intercellular signals and traits between cancer cells: extracellular vesicles as "homing pigeons".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesi, Giulia; Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Margue, Christiane; Kreis, Stephanie

    2016-06-10

    Extracellular vesicles are cell-derived vesicles, which can transport various cargos out of cells. From their cell of origin, the content molecules (proteins, non-coding RNAs including miRNAs, DNA and others) can be delivered to neighboring or distant cells and as such extracellular vesicles can be regarded as vehicles of intercellular communication or "homing pigeons". Extracellular vesicle shuttling is able to actively modulate the tumor microenvironment and can partake in tumor dissemination. In various diseases, including cancer, levels of extracellular vesicle secretion are altered resulting in different amounts and/or profiles of detectable vesicular cargo molecules and these distinct content profiles are currently being evaluated as biomarkers. Apart from their potential as blood-derived containers of specific biomarkers, the transfer of extracellular vesicles to surrounding cells also appears to be involved in the propagation of phenotypic traits. These interesting properties have put extracellular vesicles into the focus of many recent studies.Here we review findings on the involvement of extracellular vesicles in transferring traits of cancer cells to their surroundings and briefly discuss new data on oncosomes, a larger type of vesicle. A pressing issue in cancer treatment is rapidly evolving resistance to many initially efficient drug therapies. Studies investigating the role of extracellular vesicles in this phenomenon together with a summary of the technical challenges that this field is still facing, are also presented. Finally, emerging areas of research such as the analysis of the lipid composition on extracellular vesicles and cutting-edge techniques to visualise the trafficking of extracellular vesicles are discussed.

  11. Anisotropic interaction rules in circular motions of pigeon flocks: An empirical study based on sparse Bayesian learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duxin; Xu, Bowen; Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2017-08-01

    Coordination shall be deemed to the result of interindividual interaction among natural gregarious animal groups. However, revealing the underlying interaction rules and decision-making strategies governing highly coordinated motion in bird flocks is still a long-standing challenge. Based on analysis of high spatial-temporal resolution GPS data of three pigeon flocks, we extract the hidden interaction principle by using a newly emerging machine learning method, namely the sparse Bayesian learning. It is observed that the interaction probability has an inflection point at pairwise distance of 3-4 m closer than the average maximum interindividual distance, after which it decays strictly with rising pairwise metric distances. Significantly, the density of spatial neighbor distribution is strongly anisotropic, with an evident lack of interactions along individual velocity. Thus, it is found that in small-sized bird flocks, individuals reciprocally cooperate with a variational number of neighbors in metric space and tend to interact with closer time-varying neighbors, rather than interacting with a fixed number of topological ones. Finally, extensive numerical investigation is conducted to verify both the revealed interaction and decision-making principle during circular flights of pigeon flocks.

  12. Experience that much work produces many reinforcers makes the sunk cost fallacy in pigeons: A preliminary test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun eFujimaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sunk cost fallacy is one of the irrational choice behaviors robustly observed in humans. This fallacy can be defined as a preference for a higher-cost alternative to a lower-cost one after previous investment in a higher-cost alternative. The present study examined this irrational choice by exposing pigeons to several types of trials with differently illuminated colors. We prepared three types of nonchoice trials for experiencing different outcomes after presenting same or different colors as alternatives and three types of choice trials for testing whether pigeons demonstrated irrational choice. In nonchoice trials, animals experienced either of the following: (1 no reinforcement after the presentation of an unrelated colored stimulus to the alternatives used in the choice situation, (2 no reinforcement after investment in the lower-cost alternative, or (3 reinforcement or no reinforcement after investment in the higher-cost alternative. In choice trials, animals were required to choose in the following three situations: (A higher-cost vs. lower-cost alternatives, (B higher-cost vs. lower-cost ones after some investment in the higher-cost alternative, and (C higher-cost vs. lower-cost alternatives after the presentation of an unrelated colored stimulus. From the definition of the sunk cost fallacy, we assumed that animals would exhibit this fallacy if they

  13. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies made from blends of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum, and cocoyam flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Laura; Okoli, Eric; Udensi, Emelem

    2013-01-01

    Cookies were produced from germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum, and cocoyam flour (CF) blends to determine their potentials in cookie manufacture. Ten flour formulations were produced and they were evaluated for their proximate and functional properties. Protein content ranged from 4.85% to 19.89% with 100% CF (100CF) having the least value, while 100% germinated pigeon pea flour (100GPF) had the highest value. Increase in levels of GPF to the flour blends resulted in increase in protein content of the blends. Cookies made with 100% fermented sorghum flour (100FSF) had the highest ash content of 2.73%, while cookies made with 100GPF had the least ash content. Energy values of the cookies ranged between 369.37 and 376.56 kcal/100 g, with cookie formulation 50%CF:50%FSF having the least value and cookies made with 16.7%CF:16.7%FSF:66.6GPF having the highest value. The control (cookies made with wheat) had the highest spread ratio of 24.13, while cookies made with 100FSF had the least spread ratio of 14.97. Cookies made with 100CF were the least fragile. Sensory ratings revealed that cookies containing up to 50% CF and above, compared favorably with those made with wheat flour. PMID:24804009

  14. Anisotropic interaction rules in circular motions of pigeon flocks: An empirical study based on sparse Bayesian learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duxin; Xu, Bowen; Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2017-08-01

    Coordination shall be deemed to the result of interindividual interaction among natural gregarious animal groups. However, revealing the underlying interaction rules and decision-making strategies governing highly coordinated motion in bird flocks is still a long-standing challenge. Based on analysis of high spatial-temporal resolution GPS data of three pigeon flocks, we extract the hidden interaction principle by using a newly emerging machine learning method, namely the sparse Bayesian learning. It is observed that the interaction probability has an inflection point at pairwise distance of 3-4 m closer than the average maximum interindividual distance, after which it decays strictly with rising pairwise metric distances. Significantly, the density of spatial neighbor distribution is strongly anisotropic, with an evident lack of interactions along individual velocity. Thus, it is found that in small-sized bird flocks, individuals reciprocally cooperate with a variational number of neighbors in metric space and tend to interact with closer time-varying neighbors, rather than interacting with a fixed number of topological ones. Finally, extensive numerical investigation is conducted to verify both the revealed interaction and decision-making principle during circular flights of pigeon flocks.

  15. Intense flight and endotoxin injection elicit similar effects on leukocyte distributions but dissimilar effects on plasma-based immunological indices in pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, Kevin D.; Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Haase, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    Most birds rely on flight for survival. Yet as an energetically taxing and physiologically integrative process, flight has many repercussions. Studying pigeons (Columba livia) and employing physiological and immunological indices that are relevant to ecologists working with wild birds, we determined

  16. Spatial rooting patterns of gliricidia, pigeon pea and maize intercrops and effect on profile soil N and P distribution in southern Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makumba, W.; Akinnifesi, F.K.; Janssen, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of competition or complementarity between tree and crop roots for below ground resources have been a major debate in simultaneous systems. Root studies were conducted in three cropping systems, namely: sole maize, pigeon pea/maize intercropping and Gliricidia sepium (Gliricidia)/maize

  17. Aflatoxins, discolouration and insect damage in dried cowpea and pigeon pea in Malawi and the effectiveness of flotation/washing operation in eliminating the aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matumba, Limbikani; Singano, Lazarus; Pungulani, Lawrent; Mvula, Naomi; Matumba, Annie; Singano, Charles; Matita, Grey

    2017-05-01

    Aflatoxin contamination and biodeterioration were examined in 302 samples of dry cowpeas and pigeon peas that were randomly purchased from 9 districts of the Southern Region of Malawi during July and November 2015. Further, the impact of flotation/washing on aflatoxin levels on the pulses was elucidated. Aflatoxin analyses involved immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and HPLC quantification with fluorescence detection (FLD) while legume biodeterioration assessments were done by visual inspection. Aflatoxins were frequently detected in cowpea (24%, max., 66 μg/kg) and pigeon pea (22%, max., 80 μg/kg) samples that were collected in the month of July. Lower aflatoxin incidence of 15% in cowpeas (max., 470 μg/kg) and 14% in pigeon peas (max., 377 μg/kg) was recorded in the November collection. Overall, aflatoxin levels were significantly higher in the pulses that were collected in November. However, there were no significant differences in the total aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) + AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2) levels between the two types of pulses. Remarkably, in 76.2% of the aflatoxin positive cowpea and in 41.7% of the aflatoxin positive pigeon pea samples, aflatoxin G1 concentration exceeded aflatoxin B1. Insect damage percentage averaged at 18.1 ± 18.2% (mean ± SD) in the cowpeas and 16.1 ± 19.4% in pigeon peas. Mean discolouration percentage (number of pulses) of the cowpeas and pigeon peas was found to be at 6.7 ± 4.9 and 8.7 ± 6.2%, respectively. Washing and discarding the buoyant fraction was highly efficient in reducing aflatoxin levels; only 5.2 ± 11.1% of the initial aflatoxin level was found in the cleaned samples. In conclusion, cowpeas and pigeon peas sold on the local market in Malawi may constitute a hazard especially if floatation/washing step is skipped.

  18. Evaluation of gastrointestinal tract transit times using barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres and barium sulfate suspension in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Rebecca A; Cronin, Kimberly; Hoover, John P; Pechman, Robert D; Payton, Mark E

    2010-03-01

    Barium impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS) are used in small animal medicine as an alternative to barium sulfate for radiographic studies of the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the usefulness of BIPS as an alternative to barium suspension in measuring gastrointestinal (GI) transit time for avian species, ventrodorsal radiographs were used to follow the passage of BIPS and 30% barium sulfate suspension through the GI tracts of domestic pigeons (Columba livia). Gastrointestinal transit times of thirty 1.5-mm BIPS administered in moistened gelatin capsules and 30% barium sulfate suspension gavaged into the crop were compared in 6 pigeons. Although the barium suspension passed out of the GI tract of all pigeons within 24 hours, the 1.5-mm BIPS remained in the ventriculus for 368.0 +/- 176.8 hours and did not clear the GI tract for 424.0 +/- 204.6 hours. Although the times for passage of BIPS and 30% barium sulfate suspension from the crop into the ventriculus were not significantly different (P = .14), the times for passage of BIPS from the ventriculus into the large intestine-cloaca and for clearance from the GI tract of the pigeons were significantly longer (P barium sulfate suspension. From the results of this study, we conclude that BIPS are not useful for radiographically evaluating GI transit times in pigeons and are unlikely to be useful in other avian species that have a muscular ventriculus. BIPS may or may not be useful for evaluating GI transit times in species that lack a muscular ventriculus.

  19. Total phenols, total flvonoids contents and free radical scavenging activity of seeds crude extracts of pigeon pea traditionally used in Oman for the treatment of several chronic diseases

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    Asma Hamood Al-Saeedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate total phenols, flavonoids content of methanol crude extract of pigeon pea seeds powder and its different polarities soluble fractions and evaluate their free radical scavenging activity. Methods: The powder seeds samples were used for extraction with methanol. Methanol crude extract from the seeds was defatted by water and fractioned by different polarities of solvents. The investigation of total phenols and flavonoids contents of total six crude extracts of pigeon pea were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride calorimetric methods. Antioxidant activity of six crude extracts from the seeds of pigeon pea was determined through α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: Significant amount of total phenols content was presented in hexane crude extract among the six crude extracts of pigeon pea and the order was hexane>chloroform> methanol>ethyl acetate>butanal>water. Similarly, significant amount of total flavonoids content was presented in chloroform crude extract and the order was chloroform>methanol>ethyl acetate>butanol>water>hexane. The crude extracts displayed significant α,α-diphenyl-β- picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with highest value in hexane extract followed by butanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and water crude extracts having value of 95.50%, 83.30%, 64.60%, 64.20%, 60.60% and 52.60%, respectively. Conclusions: The crude extracts from seeds of pigeon pea have high contents of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. In this regards, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment of different chronic diseases.

  20. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.

  1. Anesthesia and liver biopsy techniques for pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) suspected of exposure to crude oil in marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degernes, Laurel A.; Harms, Craig A.; Golet, Gregory H.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the anesthesia and liver biopsy techniques used in adult and nestling pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) to test for continued exposure to residual crude oil in the marine environment. Populations of pigeon guillemots have declined significantly in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, possibly because of residual effects of crude oil in the environment after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989. Measurement of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) is currently the best way to assess crude oil exposure from food sources; however, lethal sampling to obtain adequate liver tissue was not desirable in this declining population of birds. As part of a larger study to identify factors limiting the recovery of pigeon guillemots and other seabird populations, we surgically collected liver samples from adult and nestling guillemots to provide samples for measurement of hepatic CYP1A concentrations. Results from the larger study were reported elsewhere. Liver samples were taken from 26 nestling (1998) and 24 adult (1999) guillemots from a previously oiled site (Naked Island; 12 chicks, 13 adults) and from a nonoiled site (Jackpot Island/Icy Bay; 14 chicks, 11 adults). The birds were anesthetized with isoflurane. No surgical complications occurred with any of the birds and all adult and nestling birds survived after surgery to the point of release or return to the nest. Thirteen out of 14 chicks from the Jackpot Island/Icy Bay and 8 out of 12 chicks from Naked Island fledged. Four chicks at Naked Island were depredated before fledging. All adults abandoned their nests after surgery, so the study sites were revisited the following summer (2000) in an attempt to assess overwinter survival of the adults. All but 1 adult biopsied bird at the nonoiled site (Icy Bay) was found renesting, whereas only 2 birds at the previously oiled site (Naked Island) were similarly observed. The percent of 1999 breeders at Naked Island that returned to their nest sites to breed

  2. Impact of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in soil and transfer rate to leafy vegetable spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumar, M Vassanda; Parihar, R S; Dwivedi, A K; Saha, J K; Rajendiran, S; Dotaniya, M L; Kundu, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of heavy metals in the environment by various anthropogenic activities has become a potential treat to life. Among the heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) shows relatively high soil mobility and has high phyto-mammalian toxicity. Integration of soil remediation and ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration in soils through organic amendments, may provide an attractive land management option for contaminated sites. The application of biochar in agriculture has recently received much attention globally due to its associated multiple benefits, particularly, long-term carbon storage in soil. However, the application of biochar from softwood crop residue for heavy metal immobilization, as an alternative to direct field application, has not received much attention. Hence, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in a soil-plant system in cadmium-spiked sandy loam soil. The biochar was prepared from pigeon pea stalk through a slow pyrolysis method at 300 °C. The experiment was designed with three levels of Cd (0, 5, and 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil) and three levels of biochar (0, 2.5, and 5 g kg(-1) soil) using spinach as a test crop. The results indicate that with increasing levels of applied cadmium at 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) soil, the dry matter yield (DMY) of spinach leaf decreased by 9.84 and 18.29 %, respectively. However, application of biochar (at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil) significantly increased the dry matter yield of spinach leaf by 5.07 and 15.02 %, respectively, and root by 14.0 and 24.0 %, respectively, over the control. Organic carbon content in the post-harvest soil increased to 34.9 and 60.5 % due to the application of biochar 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil, respectively. Further, there was a reduction in the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable cadmium in the soil and in transfer coefficient values (soil to plant), as well as its concentrations in spinach leaf and root, indicating that

  3. Effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates on hatchability, body weight, and energy status in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X Y; Jiang, Y J; Wang, M Q; Wang, Y M; Zou, X T

    2013-08-01

    The effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates on hatchability, BW, yolk sac weights (YSW), pectoral muscle weights (PMW), liver and pectoral muscle glycogen concentration, serum glucose level, and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity of domestic pigeons, hatched from eggs laid by a 40-wk-old breeder flock, were investigated. At 14.5 of incubation, fertile eggs were injected with 200 μL of 1.5% maltose (M) + 1.5% sucrose (S), 2.5% M + 2.5% S, 3.5% M + 3.5% S, or 4.5% M + 4.5% S in 0.75% saline, with controls not injected. Results showed that in ovo injection with 1.5% M + 1.5% S or 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the hatchability compared with the control, whereas injection of 4.5% M + 4.5% S decreased the hatchability. The BW at hatch was quadratic, and BW was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. The YSW at hatch decreased linearly by the injection with 3.5% M + 3.5% S compared with the control group. In ovo injection of 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the PMW at hatch. There were no significant differences between any of the treatment groups for liver glycogen reserves. Serum glucose level at hatch was quadratic, and the glucose level was maximized between supplemental 2.5% M + 2.5% S and supplemental 3.5% M + 3.5% S. The pectoral muscle glycogen reserves increased quadratically as supplemental carbohydrates increased, and the response was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that the injected carbohydrates are available for use and storage. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates, especially at the level of 2.5% M + 2.5% S, on 14.5 d of incubation can improve the hatchability, BW, and PMW by elevating the pectoral muscle glycogen reserves in domestic pigeons at hatch. Results also suggested that in ovo injection of carbohydrates could increase the yolk sac nutrient utilization and hence might enhance the pigeon enteric development.

  4. The de novo assembly of mitochondrial genomes of the extinct passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius with next generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Hung

    Full Text Available The information from ancient DNA (aDNA provides an unparalleled opportunity to infer phylogenetic relationships and population history of extinct species and to investigate genetic evolution directly. However, the degraded and fragmented nature of aDNA has posed technical challenges for studies based on conventional PCR amplification. In this study, we present an approach based on next generation sequencing to efficiently sequence the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome of two extinct passenger pigeons (Ectopistes migratorius using de novo assembly of massive short (90 bp, paired-end or single-end reads. Although varying levels of human contamination and low levels of postmortem nucleotide lesion were observed, they did not impact sequencing accuracy. Our results demonstrated that the de novo assembly of shotgun sequence reads could be a potent approach to sequence mitogenomes, and offered an efficient way to infer evolutionary history of extinct species.

  5. Aftereffects of the surprising presentation and omission of appetitive reinforcers on key-pecking performance in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Steven C; Muzio, Rubén N; Boughner, Robert L; Papini, Mauricio R

    2002-07-01

    The reinforcement-omission effect (ROE), also known as frustration effect, refers to greater response strength immediately after nonreinforcement (N) than reinforcement (R). The ROE was traditionally interpreted as transient invigoration after N induced by primary frustration. Pigeons demonstrate similar ROEs whether outcomes are surprising (partial R) or expected (discrimination training) in runway (Experiment 1) and Skinner box situations (Experiments 2-3). Variations in the interval between N and the opportunity to respond indicate that the ROE results from an aftereffect of food consumption (Experiment 4). Increasing reinforcer magnitude increased the after-R effect, without modifying the after-N function (Experiment 5). These results are reviewed in the context of comparative research on spaced-trial successive negative contrast and related phenomena that have failed to appear in experiments involving nonmammalian vertebrates.

  6. Trace metals, melanin-based pigmentation and their interaction influence immune parameters in feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, M; Gasparini, J; Frantz, A

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the effects of trace metals emitted by anthropogenic activities on wildlife is of great concern in urban ecology; yet, information on how they affect individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems remains scarce. In particular, trace metals may impact survival by altering the immune system response to parasites. Plumage melanin is assumed to influence the effects of trace metals on immunity owing to its ability to bind metal ions in feathers and its synthesis being coded by a pleiotropic gene. We thus hypothesized that trace metal exposure would interact with plumage colouration in shaping immune response. We experimentally investigated the interactive effect between exposure to an environmentally relevant range of zinc and/or lead and melanin-based plumage colouration on components of the immune system in feral pigeons (Columba livia). We found that zinc increased anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IgY primary response maintenance, buffered the negative effect of lead on anti-KLH IgY secondary response maintenance and tended to increase T-cell mediated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin response. Lead decreased the peak of the anti-KLH IgY secondary response. In addition, pheomelanic pigeons exhibited a higher secondary anti-KLH IgY response than did eumelanic ones. Finally, T-cell mediated PHA skin response decreased with increasing plumage eumelanin level of birds exposed to lead. Neither treatments nor plumage colouration correlated with endoparasite intensity. Overall, our study points out the effects of trace metals on some parameters of birds' immunity, independently from other confounding urbanization factors, and underlines the need to investigate their impacts on other life history traits and their consequences in the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions.

  7. Nutrients and certain lipid soluble bioactive components in dehusked whole grains (gota) and dehusked splits (dhal) from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and their cooking characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadeep, Padmanabhan A; Sashikala, Vadakkoot B; Pratape, Vishwas M

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional quality of dehusked whole grains (gota) and dehusked splits (dhal) in red and white varieties of pigeon pea regarding proximate composition and certain lipid-soluble bioactive components was investigated. A decrease in fat and crude fiber was noticed when gota was converted to dhal. The lipid profile of gota and dhal from red and white husk pigeon pea types indicated that essential fatty acids were greater in gota than in their respective dhals. Gota from white husk variety contained more tocopherols than the red variety. Dhal contained less tocopherols than gota. A decrease in the content of gamma and alpha tocopherols, vitamin E activity and total antioxidant activity also indicates loss of bioactive components on splitting gota into dhal. Cooking time and dispersed solids on cooking indicated good cooking quality of gotta. The results indicated the nutritional superiority of gota over dhal and its similarity with dhal in cooking characteristics.

  8. Significance of Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood of Uygur patients in the acute and chronic phases of pigeon breeder’s lung

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    Biqing Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pigeon breeder’s lung (PBL is a type of lung inflammatory disease associated with the immune response to repeated pigeon-derived antigen exposure. The pathogenesis of PBL remains unclear. In this study, peripheral blood samples were collected from Uygur acute - and chronic-phase PBL patients and healthy subjects with pigeon contact. Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cell (Treg activity in different phases of PBL was characterized by changes in Foxp3+CD4+ Treg, CD4+CD25+ T cell, and T lymphocyte subsets. Based on hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP diagnosis criteria, 32 PBL cases from January 2012 to December 2013 in the People’s Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Respiratory Department were included. Lung high-resolution computed tomography was performed, and the cases were classified based on the HP phase into 15 acute-phase and 17 chronic-phase cases. The control group included 30 healthy subjects with Uygur pigeon contact. Blood samples were collected, and the T cell subsets were analyzed via flow cytometry. In both PBL groups, the Foxp3+CD4+ Treg and CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD3+ T cell percentages and CD4+/CD8+ ratios were significantly lower than in the control group (p < 0.01. In the PBL groups, particularly the acute-phase group, the CD8+CD3+ T lymphocyte percentage was significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.01. There were no significant differences in CD4+CD25+ cells between the PBL groups. In peripheral blood from the PBL groups, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was positively correlated with the Foxp3+CD4+ Treg (r = 0.864, p < 0.05 and CD4+/CD25+ cell (r = 0.34, p < 0.05 percentages. Low Foxp3+CD4+ Treg expression or overconsumption may be a pathogenic factor in PBL.

  9. Novel avian oropharyngeal trichomonads isolated from European turtle doves (Streptopelia turtur) and racing pigeons (Columba livia): genetic and morphometric characterisation of clonal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Herrero, M C; Garijo-Toledo, M M; Liebhart, D; Ganas, P; Martínez-Díaz, R A; Ponce-Gordo, F; Carrero-Ruiz, A; Hess, M; Gómez-Muñoz, M T

    2017-11-01

    Extensive diversity has been described within the avian oropharyngeal trichomonad complex in recent years. In this study we developed clonal cultures from four isolates selected by their different ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 (ITS) genotype and their association with gross lesions of avian trichomonosis. Isolates were obtained from an adult racing pigeon and a nestling of Eurasian eagle owl with macroscopic lesions, and from a juvenile wood pigeon and an European turtle dove without clinical signs. Multi-locus sequence typing analysis of the ITS, small subunit of ribosomal rRNA (SSUrRNA) and Fe-hydrogenase (Fe-hyd) genes together with a morphological study by optical and scanning electron microscopy was performed. No significant differences in the structures were observed with scanning electron microscopy. However, the genetic characterisation revealed novel sequence types for the SSUrRNA region and Fe-hyd gene. Two clones were identified as Trichomonas gallinae in the MLST analysis, but the clones from the racing pigeon and European turtle dove showed higher similarity with Trichomonas tenax and Trichomonas canistomae than with T. gallinae at their ITS region, respectively. SSUrRNA sequences grouped all the clones in a clade that includes T. gallinae, T. tenax and T. canistomae. Further diversity was detected within the Fe-hyd locus, with a clear separation from T. gallinae of the clones obtained from the racing pigeon and the European turtle dove. In addition, morphometric comparison by optical microscopy with clonal cultures of T. gallinae revealed significant statistical differences on axostyle projection length in the clone from the European turtle dove. Morphometric and genetic data indicate that possible new species within the Trichomonas genus were detected. Taking in consideration the diversity in Trichomonas species present in the oral cavity of birds, a proper genetic analysis is highly recommended when outbreaks occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. First report of environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other fungi from pigeon droppings in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and in vitro susceptibility testing

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    Hussein Hasan Abulreesh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans and other fungi in samples of pigeon droppings collected from Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: One hundred and twelve withered pigeon dropping samples were collected from 12 different districts. Using the dilution plate technique, samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and esculin agar. Colonies were examined microscopically and C. neoformans identification is confirmed by India ink preparation, observation of urease activity and brown pigmentation on esculin medium. Susceptibility patterns of five yeast species and four molds against five antifungal drugs were tested using agar disk diffusion method. Results: C. neoformans was recovered from 38 samples (34%. Na'aman valley was recorded to be the highest contaminated site (66.7% with C. neoformans, while the samples collected from Al Awaly district were considered as the lowest contaminated samples (6.7%. Also, twenty species related to sixteen genera of fungi other than C. neoformans were recovered from which, three yeast genera were recorded. The antifungal susceptibility testing showed that the nine tested fungal species were sensitive to Mycosat, while Fungican exerted inhibition zones of four species only. C. neoformans was moderately sensitive towards all tested compounds but it can resist Flucoral where no inhibition zone could be detected. Conclusions: Our results are considered to be the first report on the environmental prevalence of C. neoformans in pigeon feces in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The data indicated that pigeon droppings can be considered as a potential source of this basidiomycetous yeast in addition to other fungal species in this region.

  11. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

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    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Sullivan, Kelsey [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States); Irons, David [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators.

  12. Infectious and lethal doses of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus for house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and rock pigeons (Columbia livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D; Stallknecht, David E; Berghaus, Roy D; Swayne, David E

    2009-07-01

    Terrestrial wild birds commonly associated with poultry farms have the potential to contribute to the spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus within or between poultry facilities or between domesticated and wild bird populations. This potential, however, varies between species and is dependent on several virus and host factors, including habitat utilization, susceptibility, and viral shedding patterns. To provide data on susceptibility and shedding patterns of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and rock pigeons (Columba livia), 20 birds from each species were inoculated with decreasing concentrations of A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/05 (H5N1) HPAI virus, and the birds were evaluated for morbidity, mortality, viral shedding, and seroconversion over a 14-day trial. The house sparrows were highly susceptible to the H5N1 HPAI virus as evidenced by low infectious and lethal viral doses. In addition, house sparrows excreted virus via the oropharynx and cloaca for several days prior to the onset of clinical signs. Based on these results, house sparrows could play a role in the dissemination of H5N1 HPAI virus in poultry. In contrast, pigeons were resistant to the HPAI virus, requiring a high concentration of virus to produce infection or death. When infection did occur, the duration of viral shedding was brief, and viral titers were low. The data suggests that pigeons would contribute little to the transmission and spread of H5N1 HPAI virus in poultry.

  13. Grays Harbor and Chehalis River Improvements to Navigation Environmental Studies. Wildlife Studies at Proposed Disposal Sites in Grays Harbor, Washington,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    One Pygmy Owl was heard on site 1, and a Great Horned Gwl was seen perched in a snag on site 5. Screech Owls and Pygmy Owls were residents in mature...fasciata band-tailed pigeon Otus asio screech owl Tyto alba barn owl Glaucidiun Rnoina pygmy owl Bubo virginianus great horned owl Chordeiles minor

  14. Recovering the evolutionary history of crowned pigeons (Columbidae: Goura): Implications for the biogeography and conservation of New Guinean lowland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruxaux, Jade; Gabrielli, Maëva; Ashari, Hidayat; Prŷs-Jones, Robert; Joseph, Leo; Milá, Borja; Besnard, Guillaume; Thébaud, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Assessing the relative contributions of immigration and diversification into the buildup of species diversity is key to understanding the role of historical processes in driving biogeographical and diversification patterns in species-rich regions. Here, we investigated how colonization, in situ speciation, and extinction history may have generated the present-day distribution and diversity of Goura crowned pigeons (Columbidae), a group of large forest-dwelling pigeons comprising four recognized species that are all endemic to New Guinea. We used a comprehensive geographical and taxonomic sampling based mostly on historical museum samples, and shallow shotgun sequencing, to generate complete mitogenomes, nuclear ribosomal clusters and independent nuclear conserved DNA elements. We used these datasets independently to reconstruct molecular phylogenies. Divergence time estimates were obtained using mitochondrial data only. All analyses revealed similar genetic divisions within the genus Goura and recovered as monophyletic groups the four species currently recognized, providing support for recent taxonomic changes based on differences in plumage characters. These four species are grouped into two pairs of strongly supported sister species, which were previously not recognized as close relatives: Goura sclaterii with Goura cristata, and Goura victoria with Goura scheepmakeri. While the geographical origin of the Goura lineage remains elusive, the crown age of 5.73 Ma is consistent with present-day species diversity being the result of a recent diversification within New Guinea. Although the orogeny of New Guinea's central cordillera must have played a role in driving diversification in Goura, cross-barrier dispersal seems more likely than vicariance to explain the speciation events having led to the four current species. Our results also have important conservation implications. Future assessments of the conservation status of Goura species should consider threat

  15. California State Waters Map Series--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  16. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Pigeon Point Web Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of...

  17. Collective Decision-Making in Homing Pigeons: Larger Flocks Take Longer to Decide but Do Not Make Better Decisions.

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    Carlos D Santos

    Full Text Available Social animals routinely are challenged to make consensus decisions about movement directions and routes. However, the underlying mechanisms facilitating such decision-making processes are still poorly known. A prominent question is how group members participate in group decisions. We addressed this question by examining how flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia decide their homing direction. We released newly formed flocks varying in size and determined the time taken to choose a homing direction (decision-making period and the accuracy of that choice. We found that the decision-making period increases exponentially with flock size, which is consistent with a participatory decision-making process. We additionally found that there is no effect of flock size on the accuracy of the decisions made, which does not match with current theory for democratic choices of flight directions. Our combined results are better explained by a participatory choice of leaders that subsequently undertake the flock directional decisions. However, this decision-making model would only entirely fit with our results if leaders were chosen based on traits other than their navigational experience. Our study provides rare empirical evidence elucidating decision-making processes in freely moving groups of animals.

  18. Induction of Zenk protein expression within the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala of pigeons following tone and shock stimulation

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    I. Brito

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba livia, weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG; with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG; with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG; with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG, and with daily handling (naive group; NG. The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P < 0.05. The data indicate an expression of Zenk in the TnA that was driven by experience, supporting the role of this brain area as a critical element for neural processing of aversive stimuli as well as meaningful novel stimuli.

  19. A successful search for symmetry (and other derived relations) in the conditional discriminations of pigeons 1, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcuioli, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Symmetry is one of three derived relations (along with transitivity and reflexivity) that indicate that explicitly trained conditional relations are equivalence relations and that the elements of those trained relations are members of a stimulus class. Although BA symmetry is typically observed after AB conditional discrimination training in humans, it has been an elusive phenomenon in other animals until just recently. This paper describes past unsuccessful attempts to observe symmetry in non-human animals and the likely reasons for that lack of success. I then describe how methodological changes made in response to the earlier findings have now yielded robust evidence for symmetry in pigeons, and what these changes indicate about the functional matching stimuli. Finally, I describe a theory of stimulus-class formation (Urcuioli, 2008) which specifies how and why symmetry and other derived relations arise from different sets of trained relations. These derived relations are noteworthy because they demonstrate an impressive repertoire of non-similarity-based categorization effects in animals and the generative effects of reinforcement and stimulus control processes on behavior. PMID:28386579

  20. Chunking during serial learning by a pigeon: III. What are the necessary conditions for establishing a chunk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrace, H S; Chen, S F

    1991-01-01

    What are the minimal conditions for the formation of chunks by a pigeon learning an arbitrary list? Experiment 1 compared the acquisition of two types of chunkable list (each composed of colors and achromatic geometric forms): A----B----C----D'----E' (or A'----B'----C'----D----E) and A----B----C'----D'----E' (or A'----B'----C----D----E). The first type of list was acquired more rapidly than the second. On both lists, however, evidence of chunking did not emerge until the four-item phase of training (e.g., pauses at the end of one category of list item). In Experiment 2, chunking was shown to occur on four-item lists in which colors and forms were segregated (A----B----C'----D' and A'----B'----C----D), but not on lists in which the two types of items were interspersed (A----B'----C'----D and A'----B----C----D'). As in Experiment 1, evidence of chunking (pauses at chunk boundaries) did not appear until the fourth item was added.

  1. Growth performance and histological intestinal alterations in piglets fed dietary raw and heated pigeon pea seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekbungwan, A; Yamauchi, K

    2004-04-01

    Histological intestinal villus alterations were studied in piglets fed raw (PM) or heated (HPM) pigeon pea seed meal. The trypsin inhibition rate was 99.15% in PM and 54.31% HPM. The PM and HPM were added into the basal diet (crude protein; 176.3 g/kg, gross energy; 4.15 kcal/g, control) at 20% and 40% levels, respectively. The diets were formulated in order to adjust protein to 180 g/kg and gross energy to about 4.20 kcal/g. The feed intake was not different among groups. The daily body weight gain and feed efficiency tended to decrease with the increasing PM level, and they decreased significantly in the 40% PM group compared with the control group (P piglets fed raw PM due to anti-nutritional factors, resulting in the decreased growth performance, and that heating PM might abolish such a harmful effect of the anti-nutritional factors on the villus function, resulting in a similar growth performance to the control. Raw PM could be incorporated under a level of 40%, but heated PM increases the incorporation rate up to the 40% level.

  2. Population, reproduction, and foraging of pigeon guillemots at Naked Island, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Karen L.; Kuletz, Kathy J.; Rice, S.D.; Spies, R.B.; Wolfe, D.A.; Wright, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    After the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied pigeon guillemots Cepphus columba breeding just 30 km from the grounding site. The postspill population was 43% smaller than the prespill population, but we could not attribute the entire decline to the spill because a decline in this guillemot population may have predated the spill. However, relative declines in the population were greater along oiled shorelines, suggesting that the spill was responsible for some of the decline. Reproduction appeared largely unaffected, but the cryptic nature of guillemot nests undoubtedly reduced our ability to detect failed nests. Nesting success was lower, but the apparent cause-greater losses of chicks to predators-was not obviously related to the spill. Fledging weight and growth rates of chicks and the rate at which adults delivered food to their chicks were not lower after the spill. The most likely explanation for the few effects observed is that oil was present on the surface waters of the study area for a relatively short period before the guillemots returned to begin their annual reproductive activities.

  3. Growth of seedlings of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (l. millsp, wand riverhemp (Sesbania virgata (cav. pers., and lead tree (Leucaena leucocephala (lam. de wit in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation strategies utilize plants to decontaminate or immobilize soil pollutants. Among soil pollutants, metalloid As is considered a primary concern as a toxic element to organisms. Arsenic concentrations in the soil result from anthropogenic activities such as: the use of pesticides (herbicides and fungicides; some fertilizers; Au, Pb, Cu and Ni mining; Fe and steel production; coal combustion; and as a bi-product during natural gas extraction. This study evaluated the potential of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, wand riverhemp (Sesbania virgata, and lead tree (Leucaena leucocephala as phytoremediators of soils polluted by As. Soil samples were placed in plastic pots, incubated with different As doses (0; 50; 100 and 200 mg dm-3 and then sown with seeds of the three species. Thirty (pigeon pea and 90 days after sowing, the plants were evaluated for height, collar diameter and dry matter of young, intermediate and basal leaves, stems and roots. Arsenic concentration was determined in different aged leaves, stems and roots to establish the translocation index (TI between the plant root system and aerial plant components and the bioconcentration factors (BF. The evaluated species showed distinct characteristics regarding As tolerance, since the lead tree and wand riverhemp were significantly more tolerant than pigeon pea. The high As levels found in wand riverhemp roots suggest the existence of an efficient accumulation and compartmentalization mechanism in order to reduce As translocation to shoot tissues. Pigeon pea is a sensitive species and could serve as a potential bioindicator plant, whereas the other two species have potential for phytoremediation programs in As polluted areas. However, further studies are needed with longer exposure times in actual field conditions to reach definite conclusions on relative phytoremediation potentials.A fitorremediação é uma estratégia que utiliza plantas para descontaminar ou imobilizar poluentes

  4. Development of dominant sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR marker linked with plume moth (Exelastis atomosa Walsingham 1886 resistance in pigeon-pea

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    Ramya R Mishra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mode of gene action governing resistance to plume moth (Exelastis atomosa Walsingham 1886 derived from pigeon-pea (Cajanus scarabaeoides (L. Thouars accession ICPW-94 has been determined and the resistance alleles have been designated as PPM1. The progenies of F2 population and F3 families derived from an interspecific cross C. cajan (L. Huth ('ICP-26' x C. scarabaeoides (accession ICPW-94 revealed monogenic gene action for resistance to plume moth, and the dominant control by single locus or cluster of tightly linked alleles. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA of 116 F2 progenies by using 143 parental polymorphic RAPD primers could identify a fragment OPA09(910 associated with plume moth resistance in coupling phase of linkage. Further single plant analysis of the 116 F2 mapping population revealed OPA09(910 was linked to PPMi locus conferring host resistance to plume moth with recombination fraction (rf value of 0.125 (12.7 cM of Kosambi function. The resistance specific fragment OPA09(910 was cloned, sequenced and converted into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR marker, SCOPA09(942, which was also closely associated (10.3 cM with the locus PPMl with rf value 0.102. BLAST analysis with pigeon-pea genome sequence also confirmed its occurrence in CcLG02 (Scafseq.LG_V5.0fa and contig 01597 (AFSP01.fsa1. This SCAR marker showed reasonable screening efficiency in the F2, F3, and BC1F1 lines, thus it can be used as genetic handle in marker-assisted introgression of the genomic fragment conferring plume moth resistance and screening of breeding lines in pigeon-pea.

  5. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

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    Foronda P.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  6. Optimization of the Training Process in the Clay Pigeon Shooting, T aking into A ccount the Dynamics of Load Intensity Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay MOROZOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire has been developed and a survey of athletes, specializing in clay pigeon shooting on issues related to effectiveness, an optimal combination of general and special training as well as a balanced alternation of exercise and rest phases and the use of special methods of recovery and rehabilitation has been carried out. It is show n the necessity of influencing on the behavior, emotions, motivation and instilling the positive qualities of character. It has been determined a well - balanced training structure which includes the main points mentioned above as well as necessary recommend ations considering specificity of given kind of sports, to minimize the risk of health impairment.

  7. High yield production of pigeon circovirus capsid protein in the E. coli by evaluating the key parameters needed for protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Guan-Hua; Lin, Yen-Chang; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Chen, Hsi-Jien; Chang, Wen-Te; Tzen, Jason T C; Lee, Meng-Shiou

    2014-05-22

    Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is considered to be a viral agent central to the development of young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS). The Cap protein, a structural protein encoded by the cap (or C1) gene of PiCV, has been shown to be responsible for not only capsid assembly, but also has been used as antigen for detecting antibody when the host is infected with PiCV. The antigenic characteristics of the Cap protein potentially may allow the development of a detection kit that could be applied to control PiCV infection. However, poor expression and poor protein solubility have hampered the production of recombinant Cap protein in the bacteria. This study was undertaken to develop the optimal expression of recombinant full-length Cap protein of PiCV using an E. coli expression system. The PiCV cap gene was cloned and fused with different fusion partners including a His-tag, a GST-tag (glutathioine-S-transferase tag) and a Trx-His-tag (thioredoxin-His tag). The resulting constructs were then expressed after transformation into a number of different E. coli strains; these then had their protein expression evaluated. The expression of the recombinant Cap protein in E. coli was significantly increased when Cap protein was fused with either a GST-tag or a Trx-His tag rather than a His-tag. After various rare amino acid codons presented in the Cap protein were optimized to give the sequence rCapopt, the expression level of the GST-rCapopt in E. coli BL21(DE3) was further increased to a significant degree. The highest protein expression level of GST-rCapopt obtained was 394.27 ± 26.1 mg/L per liter using the E. coli strain BL21(DE3)-pLysS. Moreover, approximately 74.5% of the expressed GST-rCapopt was in soluble form, which is higher than the soluble Trx-His-rCapopt expressed using the BL21(DE3)-pLysS strain. After purification using a GST affinity column combined with ion-exchange chromatography, the purified recombinant GST-rCapopt protein was found to have good antigenic

  8. Dynamic pressure maps for wings and tails of pigeons in slow, flapping flight, and their energetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usherwood, James R; Hedrick, Tyson L; McGowan, Craig P; Biewener, Andrew A

    2005-01-01

    Differential pressure measurements offer a new approach for studying the aerodynamics of bird flight. Measurements from differential pressure sensors are combined to form a dynamic pressure map for eight sites along and across the wings, and for two sites across the tail, of pigeons flying between two perches. The confounding influence of acceleration on the pressure signals is shown to be small for both wings and tail. The mean differential pressure for the tail during steady, level flight was 25.6 Pa, which, given an angle of attack for the tail of 47.6 degrees , suggests the tail contributes 7.91% of the force required for weight support, and requires a muscle-mass specific power of 19.3 W kg(-1) for flight to overcome its drag at 4.46 m s(-1). Differential pressures during downstroke increase along the wing length, to 300-400 Pa during take-off and landing for distal sites. Taking the signals obtained from five sensors sited along the wing at feather bases as representative of the mean pressure for five spanwise elements at each point in time, and assuming aerodynamic forces act within the x-z plane (i.e. no forces in the direction of travel) and perpendicular to the wing during downstroke, we calculate that 74.5% of the force required to support weight was provided by the wings, and that the aerodynamic muscle-mass specific power required to flap the wings was 272.7 W kg(-1).

  9. Extracting the dynamics of perceptual switching from 'noisy' behaviour: an application of hidden Markov modelling to pecking data from pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterpohl, J R; Haynes, J D; Emmert-Streib, F; Vetter, G; Pawelzik, K

    2000-01-01

    When studying animal perception, one normally has the chance of localizing perceptual events in time, that is via behavioural responses time-locked to the stimuli. With multistable stimuli, however, perceptual changes occur despite stationary stimulation. Here, the challenge is to infer these not directly observable perceptual states indirectly from the behavioural data. This estimation is complicated by the fact that an animal's performance is contaminated by errors. We propose a two-step approach to overcome this difficulty: First, one sets up a generative, stochastic model of the behavioural time series based on the relevant parameters, including the probability of errors. Second, one performs a model-based maximum-likelihood estimation on the data in order to extract the non-observable perceptual state transitions. We illustrate this methodology for data from experiments on perception of bistable apparent motion in pigeons. The observed behavioural time series is analysed and explained by a combination of a Markovian perceptual dynamics with a renewal process that governs the motor response. We propose a hidden Markov model in which non-observable states represent both the perceptual states and the states of the renewal process of the motor dynamics, while the observable states account for overt pecking performance. Showing that this constitutes an appropriate phenomenological model of the time series of observable pecking events, we use it subsequently to obtain an estimate of the internal (and thus covert) perceptual reversals. These may directly correspond to changes in the activity of mutually inhibitory populations of motion selective neurones tuned to orthogonal directions.

  10. Telomere erosion varies with sex and age at immune challenge but not with maternal antibodies in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Sophie; Gasparini, Julien; Corbel, Hélène; Frantz, Adrien; Perret, Samuel; Zahn, Sandrine; Criscuolo, Francois; Jacquin, Lisa

    2018-01-25

    Conditions experienced early in life have profound impact on adult fitness, and telomere erosion could be a key mechanism in this process. In particular, early exposure to parasites is a frequent phenomenon in young vertebrates, which is associated with several short- and long-term costs such as telomere erosion. However, the timing of exposure to parasites during ontogeny and maternal antibodies can strongly modulate the costs of immunity, and could differentially affect telomere erosion. Here, we compared the effects of an early or late immune challenge on telomere erosion rate in male and female young feral pigeons (Columba livia) having received or not maternal antibodies. More specifically, we tested whether (i) early or late injections of antigens had different effects on nestling telomere erosion rate, (ii) whether this effect was different between male and female nestlings, and (iii) whether maternal antibodies could modulate telomere erosion rate. Our results show an interaction between sex and age at injection. Late-injected nestlings (injected at 14 days of age) had an accelerated erosion rate compared with the early-injected nestlings (injected at 3 days of age), and this effect was higher in females compared with the males. However, we did not find any effect of maternal antibodies on telomere erosion rate. These results suggest that the age at which an immune challenge occurs is important for telomere erosion and that sex-specific approaches are needed to better understand the short-term and long-term costs of parasite exposure in young vertebrates. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Estímulo discriminativo de extinção produzido por respostas de observação em pombos Discriminative stimulus of extinction produced by observing responses in pigeons

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    Gerson Yukio Tomanari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pombos privados de comida foram expostos a tentativas que podiam terminar com ou sem a apresentação de comida independentemente de qualquer resposta. Durante uma tentativa, bicadas podiam mudar a cor do disco de resposta de branco para verde (S+ ou vermelho (S- a depender do acionamento (ou não do comedouro. Em linha de base, bicadas produziam ambas as cores em intervalos médios variáveis de 15 s. Em duas condições experimentais distintas, tandem VI DRH foi empregado na produção, ora de S+, ora de S-. Resultados mostraram que o esquema tandem levou a uma diminuição geral na freqüência de estímulos discriminativos produzidos, marcadamente na de S+, mas não na de S-. Esses dados fornecem suporte para o modelo de reforçamento condicionado baseado na redução da incerteza.Food-deprived pigeons were given a series of trials in which half ended with response- independent food presentation and half without it. During a trial, pecking the key could change its color from white to green (S+ or red (S-, depending on whether food was programmed or not. In baseline conditions, pecks produced both stimuli (colors on a 15-s variable-interval schedule. In two different conditions, tandem VI DRH was applied to produce either S+ or S-. Results showed that the tandem contingency resulted in a general decrease in the discriminative stimulus production, markedly to S+, but not to S-. The findings are consistent with the uncertainty-reduction model of conditioned reinforcement.

  12. Dosing of adult pigeons with as little as one #9 lead pellet caused severe δ-ALAD depression, suggesting potential adverse effects in wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jeremy P; Nisanian, Mandy; Williams, Susan; Tuckfield, R Cary; Kerr, Richard; Jarrett, Timothy; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Holladay, Steven D; Sharma, Ajay; Gogal, Robert M

    2012-11-01

    Avian wildlife species commonly ingest lead (Pb) spent shot or bullet fragments as grit or mistakenly as food. In previous studies in our laboratory and others, the toxicity varied based on the diet as well as type and quantity of Pb ingested. In the current study, domestic pigeons were gavaged with 1, 2, or 3 Pb pellets and then followed with weekly radiographs and blood physiologic endpoints for 28 days. Pellet retention decreased by roughly 50 % per week as pellets were either absorbed or excreted, except for week 4 where pellet number no longer was diminished. Size of retained pellets visually decreased over retention time. Birds dosed with a single #9 pellet showed mean blood Pb levels over 80 times higher than those of the controls, verifying Pb pellet absorption from the gut. A single Pb pellet also reduced plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity by over 80 % compared to controls, suggesting the potential for population injury in Pb pellet-exposed pigeons.

  13. Sarcocystis calchasi sp. nov. of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) and the Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis): light and electron microscopical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olias, Philipp; Gruber, Achim D; Hafez, Hafez M; Heydorn, Alfred O; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Lierz, Michael

    2010-02-01

    A novel highly pathogenic Sarcocystis species has been shown to cycle between the Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) as definitive host and the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) as intermediate host. However, genetically based characteristics are only available from very few bird-infecting Sarcocystis species. We therefore further characterised morphological properties of this protozoan in both hosts. Using light and electron microscopy, oocysts and sporocysts as well as schizonts and sarcocysts were characterised and compared with available morphological features of previously reported Sarcocystis species of Northern goshawks, Columbidae and genetically closely related species of other avian hosts. Sporocysts shed from day 6 on after experimental infection by the Northern goshawk were of ovoid appearance (11.9 x 7.9 microm). Ultrastructurally, schizonts of all developmental stages were found in the liver, spleen and next to or in endothelial cells of various organs of domestic pigeons 7 to 12 days after experimental infection. The cyst wall surface of slender sarcocysts (1 to 2 mm in length and 20 to 50 microm in width) was smooth and lacked protrusions. Cystozoites were lancet-shaped and measured 7.5 x 1.5 microm in Giemsa stain smears. The morphological findings, when combined with data of experimental infection and genetic studies, convergently indicate that the recently discovered Sarcocystis species represents a new species. We therefore propose to name this parasite Sarcocystis calchasi species nova.

  14. FIRST REPORT ON Cryptococcus neoformans IN PIGEON EXCRETA FROM PUBLIC AND RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF CUIABÁ, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

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    Doracilde Terumi Takahara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5, churches (n = 4, educational institutions (n = 3, health units (n = 8, open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4, residences (n = 23, factory (n = 1 and a prison (n = 1. Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA. Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6% samples corresponding to six (12.2% locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals.

  15. Isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (O:4,5:i and Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhimurium from free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia

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    R.C. Rocha-e-Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the isolation of Salmonella enterica in organs of free-living domestic pigeons. In the clinic examination, the presence of feces in the peri-cloacal and abdominal regions were observed, as well as symptoms such as cachexy, incoordination and opisthotonos. Before any therapeutic protocol was applied the bird died and a necropsy was then performed for the removal of spleen, liver, kidney and intestine for bacteriological examination and antibiotic sensitivity test. Salmonella enterica subsp.enterica (O:4,5:i- and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium were isolated from the liver and intestine and the sensitivity test demonstrated that these strains are sensitive to several antibiotics.

  16. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  17. Proteolytic versus surgical removal: the therapeutic effect of fig tree latex (Ficus carica L on cutaneous and diphtheric forms of avian pox in pigeons (Columba domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Abid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effect of topical applications of fig tree latex (Ficus carica on avian pox lesions in pigeon (Columba domestica in comparison with surgical dressing and topical application of tetracycline ointment 3% were evaluated. Fifteen infected pigeons with mixed infection of both cutaneous and diptheric forms of pox have typical lesions on head, eyelids, inside mouth, cere, base of beak, legs, and feet were used in this study. Birds were divided into three equal groups (5 birds for each group. Group one (G¹ was treated twice daily (BID with tetracycline ointment 3% applied directly on the lesions, after cleaning of the lesions and removal of the external scabs. Group two (G² was treated once a day (during night only, for ten successive days with fig tree latex applied directly on lesions. Group three (G³ was left without treatment as a control group. The activity of the birds, consumption of feed, regression of nodules was monitored daily till the end of the experiment. In both G¹ and G³ groups, the pox lesions remained as they were (persisted as such and did not regressed. The activity of the birds fastly declined from unable to fly, to limited movement, depression, decrease feeding and death within 6 days from the beginning of treatment. The fig tree latex (G² treated birds survived, the activity of the birds and consumption of the feed increased from the 4th day of treatment. The pox lesions regressed and atrophied and disappeared within 10 days of treatment and by this time all birds returned to the normal life. In conclusion, the fig tree latex has beneficial effect in treating the pox lesions with unclear mechanisms of action.

  18. Endocrine consequences of an acute stress under different thermal conditions: A study of corticosterone, prolactin, and thyroid hormones in the pigeon (Columbia livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Parenteau, Charline; Ruault, Stéphanie; Angelier, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    In the context of global change, the physiological and hormonal stress responses have received much attention because of their implications in terms of allostasis. However, most studies have focused on glucocorticoids only as the "common" response to stressors while neglecting other endocrine axes and hormones (e.g. prolactin, thyroid hormones) that play a crucial role in metabolic adjustments. Interestingly, the responsiveness of all these endocrine axes to stress may depend on the energetic context and this context-dependent stress response has been overlooked so far. In the wild, temperature can vary to a large extent within a short time window and ambient temperature may affect these metabolic-related endocrine axes, and potentially, their responsiveness to an acute stressor. Here, we explicitly tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of a standardized stress protocol on multiple hormonal responses in the rock pigeon (Columbia livia). We tested the effect of an acute restraint stress on (1) corticosterone levels, (2) prolactin levels, and (3) thyroid hormone levels (triiodothyronine, thyroxine) in pigeons that were held either at cool temperature (experimental birds) or at room temperature (control birds) during the stress protocol. Although we found a significant influence of restraint stress on most hormone levels (corticosterone, prolactin, and thyroxine), triiodothyronine levels were not affected by the restraint stress. This demonstrates that stressors can have significant impact on multiple endocrine mechanisms. Importantly, all of these hormonal responses to stress were not affected by temperature, demonstrating that the exposure to cold temperature does not affect the way these hormone levels change in response to handling stress. This suggests that some endocrine responses to temperature decreases may be overridden by the endocrine responses to an acute restraint stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of crotalaria and pigeon pea for control of yam nematode diseases Manejo da crotalária e do guandu no controle de nematoses do inhame

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    Marlon da Silva Garrido

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Management of plant-parasitic nematodes with the use of nematicides has not been recommended for small farmers that grow yam in the Northeastern region of Brazil, due to its high cost and residue toxicity. The use of plants with antagonistic effect to nematodes and green manure which improves soil chemical, physical and biological characteristics can be a viable and low cost alternative to control parasitic nematodes. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan plants on the control of yam nematodes. Three experiments were carried out. The first was conducted under in vitro conditions to evaluate the nematostatic and nematicide effect of extracts from fresh and dry matter of the above ground parts of crotalaria, pigeon pea, and the combination of both. The second experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the effect of soil amendment with crotalaria, pigeon pea, and the combination of both in the infectivity of Scutellonema bradys, using tomato plants as the host plant. The third experiment was conducted under field conditions to evaluate the effect of crotalaria, pigeon pea, and the combination of both, cultivated between yam planting rows and incorporated to soil surface, on yam nematodes. The aqueous extract obtained form fresh matter of crotalaria had a nematicide effect of 100% for S. bradys. Extracts from dry matter of both crotalaria and pigeon pea did not have any nematicide effect, but had a nematostatic effect. Incorporation of crotalaria to soil inhibited infectivity of S. bradys in tomato seedlings. These results showed that planting crotalaria alone or in combination with pigeon pea, between the yam planting rows, is an efficient method for controlling S. bradys and Rotylenchulus reniformis associated with yams. Crotalaria can be used for controlling these plant-parasitic nematodes in soil.O manejo de fitomenatóides com o uso de nematicidas não tem

  20. Repellent activity of some essential oils against two stored product beetles Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with reference to Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oil for the safety of pigeon pea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, N N

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils from 35 aromatic and medicinal plant species of Gorakhpur Division (U. P., India) were evaluated for their repellent activity against pulse bruchids Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. of stored pigeon pea seeds. The oil concentration was at 0.36 μl/ml. Out of 35 essential oils, Adhatoda vasica Ness and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oils showed absolute (100 %) insect repellency. Chenopodium oil exhibited 100 % mortality for both the test insects at 10 μl concentration (LD50 = 2.8 μl for C. chinensis & 2.5 μl for C. maculatus) and more toxic than Adhatoda oil (LD50 = 6.8 μl for C. chinensis & 8.4 μl for C. maculatus). During in vivo evaluation, 0.29 and 0.58 μl/ml of Chenopodium oil significantly enhanced feeding deterrence in insects and reduced the seed damage as well as weight loss of fumigated pigeon pea seeds up to 6 months of storage as compared to control set. Thus, Chenopodium oil can be used as an effective option of commercial fumigants for the storage of pigeon pea seeds against pulse bruchids.

  1. Diet analysis by next-generation sequencing indicates the frequent consumption of introduced plants by the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (Columba janthina nitens) in oceanic island habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Haruko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hajime; Umehara, Shoko; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are vulnerable to the introduction of alien species, and they provide a habitat for many endangered species. Knowing the diet of an endangered animal is important for appropriate nature restoration efforts on oceanic islands because introduced species may be a major component of the diets of some endangered species. DNA barcoding techniques together with next-generation sequencing may provide more detailed information on animal diets than other traditional methods. We performed a diet analysis using 48 fecal samples from the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon that is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands based on chloroplast trnL P6 loop sequences. The frequency of each detected plant taxa was compared with a microhistological analysis of the same sample set. The DNA barcoding approach detected a much larger number of plants than the microhistological analysis. Plants that were difficult to identify by microhistological analysis after being digested in the pigeon stomachs were frequently identified only by DNA barcoding. The results of the barcoding analysis indicated the frequent consumption of introduced species, in addition to several native species, by the red-headed wood pigeon. The rapid eradication of specific introduced species may reduce the food resources available to this endangered bird; thus, balancing eradication efforts with the restoration of native food plants should be considered. Although some technical problems still exist, the trnL approach to next-generation sequencing may contribute to a better understanding of oceanic island ecosystems and their conservation.

  2. Emergency surveillance for novel influenza A(H7N9) virus in domestic poultry, feral pigeons and other wild birds in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin, T; Tenzin, S; Tshering, D; Lhamo, K; Rai, P B; Dahal, N; Dukpa, K

    2015-12-01

    Following the March 2013 outbreak of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in humans and the subsequent isolation of the virus from chickens, ducks and pigeons in the People's Republic of China, concerns were raised that the H7N9 virus would spread beyond China through the poultry value chain linking to a number of bordering countries. For this reason, a rapid emergency surveillance exercise took place in Bhutan between May and July 2013 with the objective of determining whether influenza A(H7N9) virus was silently circulating in domestic poultryandwild birds in Bhutan.Atotal of 1716 oropharyngeal,tracheal and cloacal swabs together with faecal droppings were collected from poultry, wild birds and feral pigeons throughout the country; these samples included 150 that had been previously collected for surveillance of influenza A(H5N1) virus. Overall, 733 of the samples were tested. A QIAamp Viral RNA Mini K it was used to extract viral RNA from a mix of oropharyngeal, tracheal and cloacal swabs and faecal droppings. The matrix gene of avian influenza type A virus was detected using a specific real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and positive samples were further tested in RT-PCR for simultaneous detection of the H7 and N9 genes. Among the 733 samples tested, 46 (26 prospective, 20 retrospective) were confirmed positive for influenza A, a prevalence of 6.3% (95% CI: 4.6 to 8.3). The influenza A-positive samples were from areas in the south of Bhutan that had experienced previous outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1). None of the samples tested positive for H7N9 strains, providing evidence that influenza A(H7N9) virus was not present in the sampled population. A risk-based approach for surveillance of influenza A(H7N9) and H5N1 is recommended in Bhutan, based on the epidemiology of the disease in China and other countries in South and Southeast Asia.

  3. Susceptibility of chickens, quail, and pigeons to an H7N9 human influenza virus and subsequent egg-passaged strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuko; Kanehira, Katsushi; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    H7N9 human influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 (Anhui2013) showed low pathogenicity in chickens, quail, and pigeons, with quail being the most susceptible among the species tested. IVPIE1-1, which was recovered from a dead chicken after intravenous inoculation of Anhui 2013, had broader tissue tropism in chickens than did the original inoculum, as well as amino acid substitutions in the polymerase acidic gene and neuraminidase gene segments, but its pathogenicity was not enhanced. Viruses obtained after passage of Anhui 2013 in 10- and 14-day-old embryonated eggs showed rapid accumulation of amino acid substitutions at the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin protein. Two strains obtained through egg passage, 10E4/14E17 and 10E4/10E13, replicated better in intranasally infected chickens than did the original Anhui 2013 strain, yet the new isolates showed low pathogenicity in chickens despite their amino acid substitutions. The increased virus replication in chickens of 10E4/14E17 and 10E4/10E13 was not correlated with temperature-sensitive replication, given that virus replication was suppressed at increased temperatures. The existence of highly susceptible hosts, such as quail, which permit asymptomatic infection, facilitates increased mutation of the virus through amino acid substitution at the receptor-binding site, and this might be one of the mechanisms underlying the prolonged circulation of H7N9 influenza virus.

  4. Comparative Proteomic and Nutritional Composition Analysis of Independent Transgenic Pigeon Pea Seeds Harboring cry1AcF and cry2Aa Genes and Their Nontransgenic Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pragya; Singh, Shweta; Rathinam, Maniraj; Nandiganti, Muralimohan; Ram Kumar, Nikhil; Thangaraj, Arulprakash; Thimmegowda, Vinutha; Krishnan, Veda; Mishra, Vagish; Jain, Neha; Rai, Vandna; Pattanayak, Debasis; Sreevathsa, Rohini

    2017-02-22

    Safety assessment of genetically modified plants is an important aspect prior to deregulation. Demonstration of substantial equivalence of the transgenics compared to their nontransgenic counterparts can be performed using different techniques at various molecular levels. The present study is a first-ever comprehensive evaluation of pigeon pea transgenics harboring two independent cry genes, cry2Aa and cry1AcF. The absence of unintended effects in the transgenic seed components was demonstrated by proteome and nutritional composition profiling. Analysis revealed that no significant differences were found in the various nutritional compositional analyses performed. Additionally, 2-DGE-based proteome analysis of the transgenic and nontransgenic seed protein revealed that there were no major changes in the protein profile, although a minor fold change in the expression of a few proteins was observed. Furthermore, the study also demonstrated that neither the integration of T-DNA nor the expression of the cry genes resulted in the production of unintended effects in the form of new toxins or allergens.

  5. Differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas in the pigeon pea witches'-broom group (16SrIX): an update based on multiple gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-M; Bottner-Parker, K D; Zhao, Y; Bertaccini, A; Davis, R E

    2012-09-01

    The pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma group (16SrIX) comprises diverse strains that cause numerous diseases in leguminous trees and herbaceous crops, vegetables, a fruit, a nut tree and a forest tree. At least 14 strains have been reported worldwide. Comparative phylogenetic analyses of the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene and the moderately conserved rplV (rpl22)-rpsC (rps3) and secY genes indicated that the 16SrIX group consists of at least six distinct genetic lineages. Some of these lineages cannot be readily differentiated based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences alone. The relative genetic distances among these closely related lineages were better assessed by including more variable genes [e.g. ribosomal protein (rp) and secY genes]. The present study demonstrated that virtual RFLP analyses using rp and secY gene sequences allowed unambiguous identification of such lineages. A coding system is proposed to designate each distinct rp and secY subgroup in the 16SrIX group.

  6. The Yamaguchi fox/pigeon-imitation test, a brief cognitive performance rating tool, in a community-dwelling population: normative data for Japanese subjects – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishioka M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Masamichi Ishioka,1 Norio Sugawara,1 Ayako Kaneda,1 Noriyuki Okubo,2 Kaori Iwane,2 Ippei Takahashi,2 Norio Yasui-Furukori1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, 2Department of Social Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, JapanIntroduction: Screening tools for dementia should be valid and easy to complete and have a low psychological burden. Consistent with these principles, the Yamaguchi fox/pigeon-imitation test (YFPIT has been developed. However, there is little information on the utility of the YFPIT for preclinical populations, although the detection of proven prodromal and preclinical states is important.Materials and methods: We recruited 392 volunteers who were at least 60 years old (139 men and 253 women and had participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project. The YFPIT was administered to all participants.Results: Most subjects succeeded in imitating the fox gesture regardless of their cognitive function impairment, while the success rates for the pigeon gesture were 75.3% in the normal group and 56.3% in the cognitive impairment group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PV+, and negative predictive value (PV- were 43.8%, 75.3%, 7.0%, and 97.0%, respectively. The greatest significant difference between the imitation of the pigeon gesture and cognitive impairment was found in females with subjective memory impairments (P=0.001. In that group, the sensitivity, specificity, PV+, and PV- were 100%, 81.9%, 18.8%, and 100%, respectively.Conclusion: This study suggests that the utility of the YFPIT is limited in the general population, but that it is a useful tool in females with subjective memory impairments in a community-dwelling population.Keywords: dementia, gesture imitation, brief screening

  7. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of flavonoid glycosides in pigeon pea leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector with pentafluorophenyl column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Fu, Yu-jie; Zu, Yuan-gang; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Zhao, Chun-jian; Li, Chun-ying; Zhang, Lin; Wei, Zuo-fu

    2012-11-01

    In this study, an ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector with a pentafluorophenyl column for the extraction and quantification of eight flavonoid glycosides in pigeon pea leaves is described. Compared with conventional extraction methods, ILMAE is a more effective and environment friendly method for the extraction of nature compounds from herbal plants. Nine different types of ionic liquids with different cations and anions were investigated. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation had significant effects on the extraction of flavonoid glycosides, and 1.0 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4MIM]Br) solution was selected as solvent. In addition, the extraction procedures were also optimized using a series of single-factor experiments. The optimum parameters were obtained as follows: extraction temperature 60°C, liquid-solid ratio 20:1 mL/g and extraction time 13 min. Moreover, an HPLC method using pentafluorophenyl column was established and validated. Good linearity was observed with the regression coefficients (r(2)) more than 0.999. The limit of detection (LODs) (S/N = 3) and limit of quantification (LOQs) (S/N = 10) for the components were less than 0.41 and 1.47 μg/mL, respectively. The inter- and intraday precisions that were used to evaluate the reproducibility and relative standard deviation (RSD) values were less than 4.57%. The recoveries were between 97.26 and 102.69%. The method was successfully used for the analysis of samples of pigeon pea leaves. In conclusion, the developed ILMAE-HPLC-diode array detector using pentafluorophenyl column method can be applied for quality control of pigeon pea leaves and related medicinal products. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Changes in sensitivity to the rate-decreasing effects of opioids in pigeons treated acutely or chronically with l-alpha-acetylmethadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, L R; France, C P

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute and chronic treatment with l-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM), a long-acting mu opioid agonist that is used to treat opioid dependence. In pigeons responding under an FR20 schedule of food presentation, LAAM decreased responding in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with the largest decrease occurring 4 hr after the administration of 5.6 mg/kg. Acute (1.0-5.6 mg/kg) or chronic (1.0-5.6 mg/kg/day) treatment with LAAM decreased sensitivity to morphine and increased sensitivity to naltrexone, although for both drugs changes in sensitivity were 3- to 10-fold greater during chronic treatment. Chronic LAAM treatment (5.6 mg/kg/day) also decreased sensitivity to fentanyl and etonitazene by 3-fold and increased sensitivity to nalorphine and nalbuphine by 30- and 6-fold, respectively; sensitivity to enadoline and ketamine increased only 2- to 3-fold. When LAAM treatment was temporarily suspended for 1 day, response rates decreased to 33% of control; this disruption was reversed by acute administration of morphine or etonitazene. Increased sensitivity to naltrexone and disruptions in responding when LAAM treatment was temporarily suspended indicate that dependence developed to LAAM. Tolerance and cross-tolerance to agonists as well as increased sensitivity to antagonists can be similar during chronic treatment with morphine or LAAM; however, increased sensitivity to nalbuphine during LAAM treatment is not typically observed during morphine treatment, suggesting that dependence on LAAM might not be identical to dependence on morphine. Finally, changes in sensitivity to other drugs might predict altered sensitivities to opioids and nonopioids in humans receiving LAAM.

  9. The complete genome sequences of poxviruses isolated from a penguin and a pigeon in South Africa and comparison to other sequenced avipoxviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerman, Kristy; Carulei, Olivia; van der Walt, Anelda Philine; Douglass, Nicola; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2014-06-12

    Two novel avipoxviruses from South Africa have been sequenced, one from a Feral Pigeon (Columba livia) (FeP2) and the other from an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) (PEPV). We present a purpose-designed bioinformatics pipeline for analysis of next generation sequence data of avian poxviruses and compare the different avipoxviruses sequenced to date with specific emphasis on their evolution and gene content. The FeP2 (282 kbp) and PEPV (306 kbp) genomes encode 271 and 284 open reading frames respectively and are more closely related to one another (94.4%) than to either fowlpox virus (FWPV) (85.3% and 84.0% respectively) or Canarypox virus (CNPV) (62.0% and 63.4% respectively). Overall, FeP2, PEPV and FWPV have syntenic gene arrangements; however, major differences exist throughout their genomes. The most striking difference between FeP2 and the FWPV-like avipoxviruses is a large deletion of ~16 kbp from the central region of the genome of FeP2 deleting a cc-chemokine-like gene, two Variola virus B22R orthologues, an N1R/p28-like gene and a V-type Ig domain family gene. FeP2 and PEPV both encode orthologues of vaccinia virus C7L and Interleukin 10. PEPV contains a 77 amino acid long orthologue of Ubiquitin sharing 97% amino acid identity to human ubiquitin. The genome sequences of FeP2 and PEPV have greatly added to the limited repository of genomic information available for the Avipoxvirus genus. In the comparison of FeP2 and PEPV to existing sequences, FWPV and CNPV, we have established insights into African avipoxvirus evolution. Our data supports the independent evolution of these South African avipoxviruses from a common ancestral virus to FWPV and CNPV.

  10. Ingestion of a Single 2.3 mm Lead Pellet by Laying Roller Pigeon Hens Reduces Egg Size and Adversely Affects F1 Generation Hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Tannenbaum, Lawrence V; Williams, Susan M; Holladay, Steven D; Tuckfield, Richard C; Sharma, Ajay; Humphrey, Danny Joe; Gogal, Robert M

    2017-05-09

    Many aquatic and terrestrial avian species inadvertently ingest lead (Pb) in the form of spent or fragmented ammunition, mistaking it for food or grit. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that ingestion of even a single 45-mg pellet can significantly increase blood-Pb levels and significantly inhibit the enzyme delta aminolevulinic-acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) for a period of greater than 4 weeks. In the current study, proven breeder pairs of domestic Roller pigeons were housed in individual cages. The hens were orally gavaged with dH2O vehicle, a single #9 Pb pellet (2.0 mm/45 mg) or a single #7.5 Pb pellet (2.3 mm/95 mg), placed back with the cock bird and allowed to mate for two consecutive clutches. The eggs were monitored for fertilization, shell damage, egg weight, and length during the 16- to 18-day incubation period. Hatchlings remained with the hen and cock through the weaning period (28-35 days post hatch) and were monitored for weight, development, and mortality. Weanling blood was collected for blood-Pb levels, δ-ALAD activity, red blood cell counts, total protein, and packed cell volume. Following euthanasia, weanling liver, spleen, kidney, sciatic nerve, thymus, and brain were collected for histopathology. Egg weight and length were significantly decreased in the #7.5 Pb pellet treatment group for the first clutch, and hatchling weight 7 days post hatch also was significantly less in the #7.5 Pb pellet treatment group during the first clutch. Histopathologic analysis showed increased lesions in liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus of the Pb-treated weanlings, during both the first and second clutch compared with the non-Pb-treated weanlings. These data suggest that maternal consumption of a single 95-mg Pb pellet can adversely impact egg size and hatchling organ development.

  11. Nutritional value of toasted pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan seed and its utilization in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Gabriel Solomon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional value of toasted pigeon pea Cajanus cajan seed in the diet of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 was investigated in this study by progressively increasing its inclusion level (100, 200, 300 and 400 g kg−1 in isonitrogenous (35% crude protein and isoenergetic (17.7 kJ g−1 diets. Toasting of the C. cajan seed significantly reduced the anti-nutrients and increased most essential amino acid, protein, and fibre in the seeds. The growth of C. gariepinus (1.36 ± 0.05 g fingerlings fed in triplicate 1 × 1 × 1m3 hapa pond system (n = 40 in triplicates was significantly improved by the different inclusion levels of toasted C. cajan in the diets after 56 days. Comparing the performance of the fish fed 400 g kg−1 of toasted C. cajan with that fed raw seed (400 g kg−1 reveal the efficacy of this processing method in improving the utilization of the feedstuff. Mortality was significantly higher (32% in fish fed the diet containing raw inclusion compared to that fed the control diet or inclusion of toasted C. cajan ( < 5%. Cost analysis revealed that it was economically cheaper to raise the African catfish using toasted C. cajan at 400 g kg−1. It was therefore concluded that toasting improves the nutritional quality of C. cajan, resulting in better performance at higher inclusion levels, hence, can possibly reduce the cost of catfish production.

  12. Comparison of the performance of a few packing materials designed to minimize the thermodynamic band tailing of basic compounds in reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption isotherms of phenol, caffeine, propranolol chloride, and amitriptyline chloride were measured on three new brands of C{sub 18}-bonded silica that have been designed to be more resistant than conventional C{sub 18}-bonded silica at high pHs (>8). These columns were the 4 {micro}m Bidendate Cogent-C{sub 18} (Microsolv Technology Corporation, Long Branch, NJ, USA), the 3.5 {micro}m Zorbax Extend-C{sub 18} (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA), and the 5 {micro}m XTerra-C{sub 18} (Waters, Milford, MA, USA). The originality of these adsorbents is due to their surface chemistry, which protects them from rapid hydrolysis or dissolution at extreme pH conditions. Their adsorption properties were compared to those of the 3 {micro}m Luna-C{sub 18} (Phenomenex, Torrance, CA), which is a more conventional monofunctional material. The adsorption data were acquired by frontal analysis (FA) and the adsorption energy distributions (AEDs) of all systems studied were calculated by the expectation-maximization (EM) method. The experimental results show that neither a simple surface protection (Extend-C{sub 18}) nor the elimination of most of the silanol groups (Cogent-C{sub 18}) is sufficient to avoid a peak tailing of the basic compounds at pH 8 that is of thermodynamic origin. The incorporation of organic moieties in the silica matrix, which was achieved in XTerra-C{sub 18}, the first generation of hybrid methyl/silica material, reduces the silanols activity and is more successful in reducing this peak tailing.

  13. Analysis of carrier transport and band tail states in p-type tin monoxide thin-film transistors by temperature dependent characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Kong, Xi; Yang, Jia; Li, Yunpeng; Wilson, Joshua; Liu, Jie; Xin, Qian; Wang, Qingpu; Song, Aimin

    2016-06-01

    Tin monoxide (SnO) has drawn much attention in recent years due to its high hole mobility, transparency, and potential for mass production. However, due to its metastable nature, the deposited film often contains multi-phases such as metallic tin and tin dioxide, which may degrade its electrical properties. Here, we presented the temperature dependent characteristics of p-type SnO thin-film transistors. The hole transport mechanism is dominated by band conduction at high temperatures and variable-range hopping at low temperatures. The maximum activation energy was found to be 308 meV, which denotes a bandgap of around 0.6 eV. The density of states was found to be 1.12 × 1021 cm-3 eV-1 at VG = -80 V, and 6.75 × 1020 cm-3 eV-1 at VG = 0 V, respectively.

  14. Population, reproduction and foraging of pigeon guillemots at Naked Island, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 9. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, K.L.; Kuletz, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, we studied pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) breeding just 30 km from the grounding site. The post-spill population was 43% less than the pre-spill population, but we could not attribute the entire decline to the spill because a decline in the PWS guillemot population may have predated the spill. However, relative declines in the population were greater along oiled shorelines, suggesting that the spill was responsible for some of the decline. The most likely explanation for the few effects observed is that oil was present on the surface waters of the study area for a relatively short period before the guillemots returned to begin their annual reproductive activities.

  15. THE MEETING OF HADJI BEKTASH AND HADJI TOGHRUL: APPEARANCE IN A PIGEON AND A FALCON FORM HACI BEKTAŞ VE HACI TOĞRUL KARŞILAŞMASI: GÜVERCİN VE DOĞAN DONUNA BÜRÜNME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet TAŞĞIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is about the the case of appearance in a pigeon and a falcon form between Hadji Bektash and Hadji Tughrul narrated in the Vilayatname of Hadji Bektash. The texts narrating separetely the motif of pigeon and falcon are also stated. Occured between Hadji Bektash and Hadji Tugrul according to the Vilayatname, the case is dealt with in the paper in a confidental and modulation sight. More text concerning to the figure, the hymn of pigeon and the poem of pigeon, also indicated throuh the evaluation. The letter is commonly used between the Alawi and Bektashi people attributed to Shah İsmail. There was a change in welcoming ceremony of saints of Rum, when Hadji Bektash arrived the country and they tried to prevent him from the arrival and took many measures. But in none they succeced in any way. It was between those measures that Hadji Tughrul tranformed in to pigeon form and tried to prevent Hadji Bektash entering the country. Those events are explained in the paper naturally.Finally this is first attemp to explain the matter referring to the different historical texts in this way. I am to say the texts are narrating the same event though in different ways of narrations. So that it will be more possible to understand an event which is narrated in many texts and a text, which is common between large communities. Also, meaning of the figures in the texts and their dialogs statue explained, as well as the the explanation of the aim of the pigeon and falcon form and the environment in which in come out. Makale, Hacı Bektaş Velâyetnamesi’nde Hacı Bektaş ve Hacı Tuğrul arasında da cereyan eden Güvercin ve Doğan şekline bürünmeyi ele aldı. Güvercin ve Doğan motifi farklı birden fazla metinde yer alışlarına bakılmaksızın burada yer verildi. Böylece Hacı Bektaş Velâyetnamesi’nden yola çıkarak Hacı Bektaş ile Hacı Tuğrul arasında geçen olayın batini ve değişmeceli anlamı üzerinde duruldu. Güvercin ve Do

  16. Assessment of beneficial role of an insectivorous bird, jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus predation, on Helicoverpa armigera infesting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan crop Evaluación del rol benéfico de Turdoides striatus como predator de Helicoverpa armigera en el cultivo de guandul (Cajanus cajan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Bharucha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea and sorghum can be used as mixed crops to protect the crop from

  17. Feral pigeons in urban environments: dietary flexibility and enzymatic digestion? Palomas domésticas en ambientes urbanos: ¿flexibilidad dietaria y digestión enzimática?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA EUGENIA CIMINARI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Columba livia, original from Europe, is at present widely distributed all over the world. These granivores colonized urban environments where the availability of crops and seeds is not always permanent and, for that are forced to exploit other resources with different composition, e.g. high protein foodstuff. Thus, feral pigeons should have the ability to survive on a diet rich in protein as they do with starchy items by having an adequate digestive biochemical machinery to process it. Phylogenetical and functional hypothesis has been proposed linking dietary flexibility and enzyme lability. All Passeriformes studied to date show the expected positive correlation between aminopeptidase-N and dietary protein but not for intestinal carbohydrases. Conversely, all the non-passerine species modulate intestinal carbohydrases, but not peptidases. Moreover, different scenarios may be posed as the output of a phylogenetical effect, e.g., adding constraints to a lability scheme in certain groups or just determining it (e.g., intestinal disaccharidases modulated in Galloanserae and peptidases modulated in Passeriformes. Consequently, we tested the prediction that feral pigeons adjust digestive enzyme activities according to the level of the respective substrate (e.g., carbohydrates, protein in the diet. Birds were fed for 15 days with two different diets, one with high protein content (low in starch (HP and the other rich in starch and low in proteins (HS. Pigeons fed on the HP were able to survive with no other dietary supplement, as predicted. Pancreatic enzymes did not change between diet treatments. Birds fed on HP exhibited the predicted upward modulation of aminopeptidase-N activity, when compared to birds on HS, while intestinal carbohydrases did not show differences between diets. These results give an apparent support to the functional hypothesis, but are not enough to reject that the observed intestinal protease lability has a phylogenetical

  18. Microplacas de titânio em fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos Titanium microplates for treatment of tibiotarsus fractures in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva Gouvêa

    2011-03-01

    grupo 3, houve maior precocidade no apoio do membro e menor grau de envergamento em relação aos outros grupos. Histologicamente, foi verificada a formação de calo ósseo em todos os animais e presença de tecido ósseo ao redor da microplaca e dos microparafusos. Apesar das complicações observadas, as microplacas de titânio são uma opção para osteossíntese de tibiotarso em aves de médio porte.Among the surgical problems in birds, the fractures are the most prevalent. Due to variations in size, weight, peculiar bone anatomy, high incidence of complicated fractures and functional demands of different species and individuals, it is still not possible to establish an ideal method for osteosynthesis of long bones in birds. Titanium microplates commonly used in human maxillofacial surgery have been recently employed in osteosynthesis of birds, but with few results available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of titanium microplates in the treatment of tibiotarsus fractures in 30 pigeons (Columba livia , adult males and females, with 7 months old, weighing from 400 to 500. The animals were divided into 3 groups with ten animals each. In group 1, a titanium microplate with 6 holes and a central spacer was used; in group 2, a titanium microplate with 8 holes without a spacer in the center was used; in group 3, a titanium microplate with 8 holes with central spacer was used. After clinical evaluation, the birds were submitted to mid-diaphyseal osteotomy in the right bone for placement of different configurations of the titanium plate, and fixed with titanium microscrews 7mm long. The animals were evaluated clinically and radiographically until 90 days postoperatively. After this period, euthanasia was performed in 2 animals from each group. In all animals was observed bone healing and in group 1 the mean and standard deviation were 32.9±9.9 days, in group 2, 30.8±6.7 days in group 3, 26.6±6.4 days. There was no statistical difference in healing time

  19. Interação da deficiência hídrica e da toxicidade do alumínio em guandu cultivado em hidroponia Interaction of water stress and aluminum toxicity in pigeon pea cultivated in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adão Marin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da interação da deficiência hídrica e da toxicidade do alumínio no crescimento inicial e teores de prolina livre em duas cultivares de guandu, IAPAR 43-Aratã e IAC Fava Larga, cultivadas em hidroponia. As plântulas foram submetidas aos estresses em solução nutritiva (pH 3,8, nos potenciais osmóticos de 0, -0,004, -0,006, -0,008 e -0,010 MPa, com 0, 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1 mmol dm-3 de Al3+. O experimento foi conduzido em sala de crescimento, sob luminária com irradiância média de 190 mmol m-2 s-1 , fotoperíodo de 12 horas e temperatura de 25+1ºC. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2x5x5 (duas cultivares de guandu, cinco potenciais osmóticos e cinco níveis de alumínio, com quatro repetições. Os dados foram submetidos às análises de regressão polinomial, agrupamento e componentes principais. A deficiência hídrica causa redução do crescimento da parte aérea do guandu, e a toxicidade do alumínio provoca diminuição do crescimento radicular. Houve aumento nos teores de prolina livre nas duas cultivares sob deficiência hídrica, e apenas na IAC Fava Larga sob toxicidade de alumínio. Na análise multivariada, foi observada alta correlação no crescimento e no acúmulo de prolina na cultivar IAC Fava Larga, o que evidencia provável tolerância aos estresses associados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the interaction effect of water stress and aluminum toxicity on the initial growth and free proline contents in two cultivars of pigeon pea, IAPAR 43-Aratã and IAC Fava Larga, cultivated in hydroponics. The seedlings were submitted to stresses in nutritive solution (pH 3.8, osmotic potentials 0, -0.004, -0.006, -0.008 and -0.010 MPa, with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1 mmol dm-3 Al3+ . The experiment was carried out in a plant growth room, under a luminary unit of average irradiance 190 mmol m-2 s-1 , 12-hour photoperiod and 25+1º

  20. A phytoplasma closely related to the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma (16Sr IX) is associated with citrus huanglongbing symptoms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, D C; Wulff, N A; Martins, E C; Kitajima, E W; Bassanezi, R; Ayres, A J; Eveillard, S; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2008-09-01

    In February 2007, sweet orange trees with characteristic symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB) were encountered in a region of São Paulo state (SPs) hitherto free of HLB. These trees tested negative for the three liberibacter species associated with HLB. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product from symptomatic fruit columella DNA amplifications with universal primers fD1/rP1 was cloned and sequenced. The corresponding agent was found to have highest 16S rDNA sequence identity (99%) with the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma of group 16Sr IX. Sequences of PCR products obtained with phytoplasma 16S rDNA primer pairs fU5/rU3, fU5/P7 confirm these results. With two primers D7f2/D7r2 designed based on the 16S rDNA sequence of the cloned DNA fragment, positive amplifications were obtained from more than one hundred samples including symptomatic fruits and blotchy mottle leaves. Samples positive for phytoplasmas were negative for liberibacters, except for four samples, which were positive for both the phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. The phytoplasma was detected by electron microscopy in the sieve tubes of midribs from symptomatic leaves. These results show that a phytoplasma of group IX is associated with citrus HLB symptoms in northern, central, and southern SPs. This phytoplasma has very probably been transmitted to citrus from an external source of inoculum, but the putative insect vector is not yet known.

  1. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  2. Dry phytomass production of dwarf pigeon pea and millet and decomposition from straws in common bean crop = Produção de fitomassa seca de guandu-anão e milheto e a decomposição das palhadas sob cultivo do feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ernani Marangoni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of concomitant nutrient release from straw favor the bean in succession since deployed immediately after the management of cover crops. This research was carried out in order to quantify the dry phytomass production and decomposition of straws dwarf pigeon pea and millet, and their effects on the production components and grain yield of common bean. The experiment was conducted on an Oxisol in the conventional tillage system. The experimental design was of randomised blocks with four replications in a scheme of split lots. The two lots comprised the common bean crop, in succession to crops of dwarf pigeon pea and millet; the sub-lots comprised randomised in time, 7 evaluation periods, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 days after cutting (DAC. The productivity of dry phytomass and decomposition of straws was evaluated in the cover crops in common bean crop, and the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield in the common bean plants. The dwarf pigeon pea and the millet showed similar productivity for dry phytomass. After irrigated common bean crop, the 70 DAC, remaining straw from cover crops was 60%. The dwarf pigeon pea straws showed higher rate of decomposition, while millet residue was more persistent on the soil surface. The common bean cv. IPR Colibri presented similar agronomic performance in the sequences with pigeon pea or millet of pigeon pea and millet whose straw showed to be beneficial for the crop. = A decomposição da palhada concomitante à liberação de nutrientes favorece o feijoeiro em sucessão desde que a implantação ocorra imediatamente após o manejo das plantas de cobertura. Assim, objetivou-se com esta pesquisa quantificar a produção de fitomassa seca e a decomposição da palhada de guandu-anão e de milheto, bem como seus efeitos nos componentes da produção e produtividade do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo

  3. Field evaluation of a botanical formulation from the milky mangrove Excoecaria agallocha L. against Helicoverpa armigera Hübner. in Abelmoschus esculentus (lady's finger) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Satyan Ramachandran; Egigu, Meseret C

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate a formulation from the milky mangrove tree Excoecaria agallocha L. (E. agallocha) against Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (H. armigera). About 3% aqueous ethanolic spray formulation derived from the lipophilic extract of E. agallocha (dry leaf) was evaluated against H. armigera in Abelmoschus esculentus (lady's finger) and Cajanus cajan (C. cajan) (pigeon pea), under field conditions. On the 9th day of the 4th spray the larval count in the plot treated with 3% E. agallocha formulation drastically came down to 0.23 larva/plant, compared to 1.63 in the ethanol control plot and 1.60 in the unsprayed plot. Blocks sprayed with 3% E. agallocha formulation yielded 35.8 quintals/hectare (q/ha) of healthy pods compared to Ekalux® (pod yield: 60.7 q/ha), 3% Vijay Neem® (60.22 q/ha), yield plot (6 q/ha) and ethanol control (7 q/ha). In C. cajan, 1% E. agallocha, 3% Nimbecidine® and 0.07% indoxacarb were equally potent in reducing the larval population of H. armigera and the non-target pest Spilosoma obliqua to 0%, from the 9th day (3rd spray). Indoxacarb plot recorded the maximum yield of 16.1 q/ha with 2.4% pod damage. Plots sprayed with 1% E. agallocha yielded 14.7 q/ha with 2.32% pod damage. The effect of 3% Nimbecidine® spray (14.35 q/ha) was comparable to E. agallocha formulation. Unsprayed and ethanol control plots yielded 12.41 and 11.2 q/ha of pods with an average pod damage of 4.7%. E. agallocha formulation was found to be promising for the control of H. armigera, under field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Parenting Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martín-Quintana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at emphasizing the importance of using parenting programs to promote parental competences. There is a need for this support taking into account the complexity of the parenting task in our modern societies. Following the European recommendation on positive parenting, those parenting programs are considered important measures to support parents in their educational role. Forward, several generations of parenting programs at the international context were briefly described and some examples of programs within the national context, as well. This paper provides some reflection on three models of parental education, and shows the results of an experiential parenting programs addressed to parents in psychosocial risk situation in two Spanish communities. A new program “Crecer felices en familia”, still in the implementation phase, was also described. As a conclusion, the paper emphasized the importance of evaluating programs in order to know more about their efficacy and to improve the way of implementation in real settings.

  5. Material Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    , and color, but additionally being capable of sensing, actuating, and computing. Indeed, computers will not be things in and by themselves, but embedded into the materials that make up our surroundings. This also means that the way we interact with computers and the way we program them, will change....... Consequently we ask what the practice of programming and giving form to such materials would be like? How would we be able to familiarize ourselves with the dynamics of these materials and their different combinations of cause and effect? Which tools would we need and what would they look like? Will we program...... these computational composites through external computers and then transfer the code them, or will the programming happen closer to the materials? In this feature we outline a new research program that floats between imagined futures and the development of a material programming practice....

  6. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  7. Program Fullerene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Peter, Schwerdtfeger,; Avery, James Emil

    2013-01-01

    Fullerene (Version 4.4), is a general purpose open-source program that can generate any fullerene isomer, perform topological and graph theoretical analysis, as well as calculate a number of physical and chemical properties. The program creates symmetric planar drawings of the fullerene graph......-Fowler, and Brinkmann-Fowler vertex insertions. The program is written in standard Fortran and C++, and can easily be installed on a Linux or UNIX environment....

  8. Avaliação agronômica de linhagens selecionadas de guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp Agronomic evaluation of selected pigeon-pea lines (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Godoy

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de reavaliar agronomicamente 17 linhagens de guandu, originárias de acessos anteriormente selecionados por diversas características de interesse agronômico, foram instalados experimentos em cinco locais do Estado de São Paulo. A confirmação dessas características foi necessária, uma vez que as amostras de sementes dos acessos originais apresentavam mistura mecânica e segregação, razão pela qual, após serem selecionados, os acessos passaram por processo de purificação em condições controladas de polinização. Nesses experimentos, as linhagens foram submetidas a cortes para avaliação da produção de forragem, ocasião em que foram determinados o número de plantas na área útil da parcela e a altura média dessas plantas. Foi também determinado o teor de proteína bruta e de taninos de amostras da forragem produzida. Entre as linhagens testadas, g58-95 e g127-97 confirmaram ter plantas de baixa estatura, g3-94, g167-97 e g29b-94 confirmaram oferecer boas produções de forragem e g146-97 destacou-se quanto à produção inicial de matéria seca.With the purpose of re-evaluating seventeen pigeon-pea lines originated from accessions previously selected for favorable agronomic characteristics, experiments were installed in five locations of the State of São Paulo. The confirmation of those characteristics was necessary because the original accessions presented various degrees of mechanical mixtures and segregation and were submitted to purification process in pollination controlled conditions. In those trials, the lines were cut in several occasions to evaluate forage yield. Each time, it was determined the number of plants in each parcel and its average height. Also it was determined their crude protein and tannins contents. Among the tested lines, g58-95 e g127-97 confirmed to have low plants, g94, g167-97 and g29b-94, confirmed to offer good forage yields, while line g146-97 presented good initial forage

  9. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  10. Programming F#

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Why learn F#? This multi-paradigm language not only offers you an enormous productivity boost through functional programming, it also lets you develop applications using your existing object-oriented and imperative programming skills. With Programming F#, you'll quickly discover the many advantages of Microsoft's new language, which includes access to all the great tools and libraries of the .NET platform. Learn how to reap the benefits of functional programming for your next project -- whether it's quantitative computing, large-scale data exploration, or even a pursuit of your own. With th

  11. Species distribution models for a migratory bird based on citizen science and satellite tracking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxen, Christopher L.; Frey, Jennifer K.; Carleton, Scott A.; Collins, Daniel P.

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution models can provide critical baseline distribution information for the conservation of poorly understood species. Here, we compared the performance of band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) species distribution models created using Maxent and derived from two separate presence-only occurrence data sources in New Mexico: 1) satellite tracked birds and 2) observations reported in eBird basic data set. Both models had good accuracy (test AUC > 0.8 and True Skill Statistic > 0.4), and high overlap between suitability scores (I statistic 0.786) and suitable habitat patches (relative rank 0.639). Our results suggest that, at the state-wide level, eBird occurrence data can effectively model similar species distributions as satellite tracking data. Climate change models for the band-tailed pigeon predict a 35% loss in area of suitable climate by 2070 if CO2 emissions drop to 1990 levels by 2100, and a 45% loss by 2070 if we continue current CO2 emission levels through the end of the century. These numbers may be conservative given the predicted increase in drought, wildfire, and forest pest impacts to the coniferous forests the species inhabits in New Mexico. The northern portion of the species’ range in New Mexico is predicted to be the most viable through time.

  12. Computer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tiffoni

    This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

  13. Choreographic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    , as they offer a concise view of the message flows enacted by a system. For this reason, in the last decade choreographies have been used in the development of programming languages, giving rise to a programming paradigm that in this dissertation we refer to as Choreographic Programming. Recent studies show...... endpoint described in a choreography can then be automatically generated, ensuring that such implementations are safe by construction. However, current formal models for choreographies do not deal with critical aspects of distributed programming, such as asynchrony, mobility, modularity, and multiparty...... sessions; it remains thus unclear whether choreographies can still guarantee safety when dealing with such nontrivial features. This PhD dissertation argues for the suitability of choreographic programming as a paradigm for the development of safe distributed systems. We proceed by investigating its...

  14. Ecología urbana de Triatoma infestans en Argentina: asociación entre Triatoma infestans y palomares Triatoma infestans urban ecology in Argentina: association between Triatoma infestans and pigeon cotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana L. Vallvé

    1995-06-01

    tinha coletado o T. infestans. O perfil alimentar dos triatomas mostra predomínio de sangue de aves; nos edifícios e na adega 95% dos T. infestans analisados alimentaram-se somente de aves; os demais fizeram repastos simples ou mistos em humanos, cães ou gatos. Nenhum T. infestans apresentou infecção com Trypanosoma cruzi.A study was undertaken in an urban area of the capital city of the province of San Juan, Argentina, in a housing complex of 768 flats distributed in buildings of 3 and 7 floors each surrouding an abandoned central winery. A total of 329 Triatoma infestans were captured, 293 on 4 terraces of seven-floor-towers and 36 inside the winery, associated with the great number of pigeons which nest in those places. The bugs were sheltered in the dung accumulated between the cement blocks used to floor the terraces and inside the unused tuns in the winery. Two main bug foci were identified associated with the dense pigeon colonies: 81,5% of the T. infestans collected were found in one of the towers (4B and 11% in the central winery. After six months of insecticidal sprayind of the infested areas, those terraces in wich T. infestans had not been previously found resulted gave positive results. The feeding profile of triatomines shows a predominance of simple bird blood meals; in the buildings and the winery 95% of the T. infestans analized were identified for bird blood meals; the rest had fed on one or more sources: human, dogs or cats. None of the T. infestans was infected by T. cruzi.

  15. Programming Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    If you've mastered Python's fundamentals, you're ready to start using it to get real work done. Programming Python will show you how, with in-depth tutorials on the language's primary application domains: system administration, GUIs, and the Web. You'll also explore how Python is used in databases, networking, front-end scripting layers, text processing, and more. This book focuses on commonly used tools and libraries to give you a comprehensive understanding of Python's many roles in practical, real-world programming. You'll learn language syntax and programming techniques in a clear and co

  16. Programming Python

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lutz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 3 8 9 15 17 20 22 2. A Sneak Preview "Programming Python: The Short Story" The Task Step 1: Representing Records Step 2: Storing Records Persistently Step 3...

  17. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  18. Field Insect Pests and Crop Damage Assessment of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Huth grown under Ratoon and in Mixture with Maize Evaluación de Campo de Insectos Pestes y Daño del cultivo de Gandul (Cajanus cajan [L.] Huth creciendo bajo Rebrotes o en Mezcla con Maíz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madang A Dasbak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of cropping systems that are sustainable and environmentally friendly is vital for the macroeconomic survival of civilization. Intercropping could ensure stability of insect populations in a system. A 3-yr (2005-2007 field trial was therefore carried out in Nigeria under regular and ratoon crops to evaluate five recently developed pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Huth genotypes (ICPL 87, ICPL 161, ICPL 85063, ICP 7120, and ICPL 87119 from the International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT and one local variety for their relative performance and susceptibility to insect pests. The pigeon pea genotypes were in a mixture with two maize genotypes (Zea mays L., open-pollinated and hybrid in regular crops for 2 yr (2005-2006 followed by a ratoon crop for 1 yr (2007. Termites (Odontotermes badius, crickets (Gymnogryllus lucens, and variegated grasshoppers (Zonocerus variegatus were the crop's seedling pests and caused minimal damage. Clavigralla spp. infestations were high at the reproductive stage causing 24% and 29% seed damage in regular and ratoon pigeon pea crops, respectively. Maize slightly suppressed insect pest incidence and damage to pigeon pea pods and seeds but significantly (P La extendida adopción de sistemas de cultivo que son sustentables y benignos para el medio ambiente es vital para la supervivencia macro-económica de la civilización. El intercultivo podría asegurar la estabilidad de población de insectos en un sistema. Un ensayo de campo de 3 anos (2005-2007 fue realizado en Nigeria bajo condiciones de cultivo regular y ratoon para evaluar cinco genotipos de poroto gandul (Cajanus cajan [L.] Huth: ICPL 87, ICPL 161, ICPL 85063, ICP 7120, e ICPL 87119 desde International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT y una variedad local, por sus rendimientos y susceptibilidades relativas a insectos plaga. Los genotipos de poroto gandul estaban en mezcla con dos genotipos de

  19. Nitrogen fertilizer as topdressing in the common bean in succession to single millet or intercropped with dwarf pigeon pea=Adubação nitrogenada em cobertura no feijoeiro em sucessão ao milheto solteiro e consorciado com guanduanão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranieri Martins Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering that large amounts of nitrogen (N are required by the common bean when in succession to crop residue from single grasses and/or intercropped with legumes, the aim of this research was to evaluate the agronomic performance of the Pérola cultivar of the common bean under irrigation and for different doses of N topdressing, when in succession to crops of single millet or intercropped with dwarf pigeon pea. The experimental design was of randomised blocks with four replications in a scheme of split lots. The two lots comprised the bean crop, in succession to crops of single millet and intercropped with dwarf pigeon pea; the sub-lots comprised randomised doses of N (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1. The productivity of dry phytomass was evaluated in the cover crops, and the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield in the bean plants. The single millet and the millet intercropped with dwarf pigeon pea showed similar productivity for dry phytomass. Only grain yield was affected by the previous crops, being higher in succession than in millet intercropped with dwarf pigeon pea. In relation to fertilization with nitrogen, the 100-grain weight and grain yield increased linearly with the doses of N as topdressing. The dose of 180 kg N ha-1 was not sufficient to promote expression of the maximum potential for 100-grain weight or grain yield in the common bean.=Considerando que elevadas quantidades de nitrogênio (N são requeridas pelo feijoeiro em sucessão a resíduos culturais de gramíneas solteiras e/ou consorciadas com leguminosas, objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar o desempenho agronômico do feijoeiro, cultivar Pérola, sob irrigação, em função de doses de N em cobertura, em sucessão aos cultivos de milheto solteiro e consorciado com guandu-anão. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As duas parcelas foram

  20. Army Programs: Army Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-03

    the Energy Program. o Expands the responsibilities of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (para 1-4). o Includes ridesharing as...not been highlighted. Summary. This regulation establishes poli- cies, procedures, and responsibilities for the Army Energy Program. Applicability ...Energy Technology Service (FETS) • 3–13, page 6 Energy Surveys • 3–14, page 6 Army Energy Awareness Seminars • 3–15, page 6 Army ridesharing • 3–16

  1. Presencia de parásitos y enterobacterias en palomas ferales (Columba livia en áreas urbanas en Envigado, Colombia / Presence of parasites and enterobacteria in feral pigeons (Columba livia in urban areas of Envigado, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Pérez-García

    2015-10-01

    among feral populations of Columba livia inhabiting urban areas of the Envigado municipality, Colombia. Methodology: a descriptive cross-sectional, prospective study in which 40 pigeons were taken from six different areas. The feathers were assessed to determine ectoparasitic infestation. Likewise, coanal and cloacae swab was conducted and blood samples were taken from the axillar veins. Direct examination of feces with saline and iodine solution was performed, the flotation technique was used and the Ziehl-Neelsen staining tests were conducted. Haemoparasites were diagnosed with the thick smear method, Wright and Hemacolor® staining. The API 20e® system was used for enterobacteria. Descriptive statistic procedures were carried out along with a correlation analysis between haemoparasites and ectoparasites. Results: Escherichia coli (95%, Haemoproteus spp. (73%, Columbicola columbae (64%, oocysts compatible with Eimeria spp. (55%, Pseudolynchia canariensis (52%, Trichomona spp. (40%, Capillaria spp. (28%, Menopon gallinae (24%, Ascaridia spp. (8%, and a case of Enterobacter cloacae. Additionally, the presence of Ornithonyssus bursa was detected in the nests of some of the birds sampled in this study. Discussion: In spite of the reports of sparse cases of infection in humans found in the literature, the microorganisms isolated in this study have a low risk of transmission in humans. However, they may become a veterinary public health problem since they are a potential source of infection for the urban wildlife with which they share water, food and refuge. Conclusion: The most important percentage was that of oocysts compatible with Eimeria spp (55% and enterobacteria such as E. coli (95%. The presence of Ornithonyssus bursa in the nests evidences a potentially zoonotic pathogen responsible for dermatological lesions in humans.

  2. Microclimatic characterization and productivity of coffee plants grown under shade of pigeon pea in Southern Brazil Caracterização microclimática e produtividade de cafeeiros sombreados com guandu no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverly Morais

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivation in agroforestry systems in Southern Brazil have shown the potential of partial shading to improve management of this crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate microclimatic conditions and their effects on coffee production of plants shaded with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan in comparison to unshaded ones, from May 2001 to August 2002 in Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. The appraised microclimatic characteristics were: global radiation, photosynthetic and radiation balance; air, leaf and soil temperatures; and soil humidity. Shading caused significant reduction in incident global solar radiation, photosynthetically active radiation and net radiation, and attenuated maximum leaf, air and soil temperatures, during the day. Shade also reduced the rate of cooling of night air and leaf temperatures, especially during nights with radiative frost. Soil moisture at 0-10 cm depth was higher under shade. The shaded coffee plants produced larger cherries due to slower maturation, resulting in larger bean size. Nevertheless, plants under shade emitted less plagiotropic branches, with smaller number of nodes per branch, and fewer nodes with fruits, resulting in a large reduction in coffee production. These results show the need to find an optimal tree density and management that do not compromise coffee production and protect against extreme temperatures.Recentes estudos sobre cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cultivados em sistemas agroflorestais no Sul do Brasil têm mostrado o potencial do sombreamento parcial no manejo desta cultura. O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as condições do microclima e seus efeitos na produção de café sombreado com guandu (Cajanus cajan, em comparação ao cultivado a pleno sol, no período de maio de 2001 a agosto de 2002 em Londrina, PR. As características microclimáticas avaliadas foram: radiação global, fotossintética e saldo de radiação; temperaturas

  3. Crescimento e produtividade do inhame cultivado entre faixas de guandu em sistema orgânico Growth and productivity of the taro intercropped with pigeon pea hedgerows in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz de Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento no município de Bom Jardim, Região Serrana do estado do Rio de Janeiro, visando a avaliar o crescimento e produtividade do inhame cultivado entre faixas de guandu, no sistema orgânico de produção. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e três tratamentos, que consistiram em cultivo entre faixas sem realização de poda; cultivo entre faixas com poda, com a biomassa mantida em cobertura do solo; e cultivo entre faixas com poda, com a biomassa removida da área. O sistema de cultivo entre faixas de guandu não podadas revelou-se promissor por promover proteção das plantas de inhame contra queimaduras foliares pela radiação solar, mantendo a mesma produtividade do sistema com faixas podadas. Além disso, revelou-se um método eficaz e de baixo custo para controle alternativo de plantas invasoras, prescindindo-se das capinas que oneram a produção orgânica do inhame, na qual o emprego de herbicidas não é admitido. A poda da faixa de guandu contribui para a melhoria da fertilidade do solo, pelo aporte de 6,58 t ha-1 de biomassa seca e 159 kg ha-1 de N e ainda a ciclagem de 20 kg ha-1 de P, 136 kg ha-1 de K, 64 kg ha-1 de Ca e 16 kg ha-1 de Mg.Growth and productivity of taro intercropped with pigeon pea hedgerows in organic system under different management was tested in Bom Jardim, upland region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A completely randomized block design was used with four replicates. The treatments consisted of unpruned hedgerows; hedgerows pruned with the biomass maintained on the soil surface; and hedgerows pruned with the biomass removed from the experimental area. The unpruned hedgerows system was shown to be advantageous by protecting taro leaves against sun burning and keeping the same productivity of the hedgerows pruned system. In addition, it represented an effective way to control weeds, reducing manual labor and costs of organic taro

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Commission on Cancer National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers National Cancer Database National Accreditation Program for Rectal Cancer Oncology Medical Home Accreditation Program Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Accreditation Program Cancer Programs Staff Information Children's ...

  5. Programming Algol

    CERN Document Server

    Malcolme-Lawes, D J

    2014-01-01

    Programming - ALGOL describes the basics of computer programming using Algol. Commands that could be added to Algol and could increase its scope are described, including multiplication and division and the use of brackets. The idea of labeling or naming a command is also explained, along with a command allowing two alternative results. Most of the important features of Algol syntax are discussed, and examples of compound statements (that is, sets of commands enclosed by a begin ... end command) are given.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the digital computer an

  6. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  7. ICD programming

    OpenAIRE

    Biffi, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Appropriate ICD programming is the key to prevent inappropriate shock delivery, that is closely associated to a negative patients' outcome. Methods: Review of the literature on ICD therapy to generate ICD programmings that can be applied to the broad population of ICD and CRT-D carriers. Results: Arrhythmia detection should occur with a detection time ranging 9″–12″ in the VF zone, and 15″–60″ in the VT zone. Discriminator should be applied at least up to 200 bpm. ATP therap...

  8. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Conference Registry Login SCR Training and Testing Cancer Cancer Programs Cancer Programs Overview of Cancer Programs Cancer Programs News American Joint Committee on ...

  9. Eighteen polymorphic microsatellites for domestic pigeon Columba ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    performed using GeneMapper software (version 3.7, Applied. Biosystem). Statistical analysis. Genetic diversity estimates i.e. observed (Na) and effective number of alleles (Ne), observed (Ho) and expected hete- rozygosity (He) were performed using POPGENE software. (Yeh et al. 1999). Polymorphic information content ...

  10. Pigeons, Facebook and the Birthday Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The unexpectedness of the birthday problem has long been used by teachers of statistics in discussing basic probability calculation. An activity is described that engages students in understanding probability and sampling using the popular Facebook social networking site. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)

  11. Jane Fulton: Cat among the pigeons?

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    Few bureaucratic appointments have raised as many eyebrows as the announcement that controversial health economist Jane Fulton would become Alberta's deputy minister of health. A staunch supporter of private health care, Fulton joins the Alberta ministry just as Premier Ralph Klein's Progressive Conservatives gear up for a battle with Ottawa over two-tier medicine.

  12. Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen (56.7%) birds were infected by helminths represented by four species of cestodes recovered from the gastrointestinal tract. The cestodes were represented by Raillietina tetragona Molin, 1858 1(3.3%), Raillietina cesticillus Molin, 1858 8(26.7%), Amoebotaenia cuneata Linstow, 1872 4(13.3%) and Hymenolepis ...

  13. Program Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if a deficiency, or learning gap, existed in a particular working environment. To determine if an assessment was to be conducted, a program proposal would need to be developed to explore this situation. In order for a particular environment to react and grow with other environments, it must be able to take on…

  14. Sprego Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csernoch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Spreadsheet management is a border-land between office applications and programming, however, it is rather communicated that spreadsheet is nothing more than an easily handled fun piece. Consequently, the complexity of spreadsheet handling, the unprepared end-users, their problem solving abilities and approaches do not match. To overcome these problems we have developed and introduced Sprego (Spreadsheet Lego. Sprego is a simplified functional programming language in spreadsheet environment, and such as can be used both as introductory language and the language of end-user programmers. The essence of Sprego is that we use as few and simple functions as possible and based on these functions build multilevel formulas. With this approach, similar to high level programming, we are able solve advanced problems, developing algorithmic skills, computational thinking. The advantage of Sprego is the simplicity of the language, when the emphasis is not on the coding but on the problem. Beyond that spreadsheets would provide real life problems with authentic data and tables which students are more interested in than the artificial environment and semi-authentic problems of high level programming languages.

  15. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  16. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Inspiring Quality Initiative Resources Continuous Quality Improvement ACS Clinical Scholars in Residence AHRQ Safety Program for ISCR ... Advocacy Efforts Cancer Liaison Program Cancer Programs Conference Clinical Research Program Commission on Cancer National Accreditation Program ...

  18. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  19. Programming Razor

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, Jess

    2011-01-01

    Take Razor for a test drive and discover first hand how this scripting syntax simplifies the way you create dynamic, data-driven websites. With this concise guide, you'll work with Razor syntax by building example websites with Microsoft WebMatrix and ASP.NET MVC. You'll quickly learn how Razor lets you combine code and content in a fluid and expressive manner on Windows-based servers. Programming Razor also explores components of the Razor API, and shows you how Razor templates are turned into rendered HTML. By the end of this book, you'll be able to create Razor-based websites with custom

  20. Coast cross (Cynodon dactylon (L. pers. hay and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. millsp digestibility and nutrients average intake by sheep under two feeding systems/ Consumo médio e digestibilidade do feno de capim “Coast cross” (Cynodon dactylon (L. pers. e feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp em carneiros submetidos a dois regimes alimentares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Waldemar de Oliveira Souza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out with the objectives of determining the daily average intake (DAI, apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of coast cross hay and pigeon pea nutrients and to evaluate thenitrogen balance in sheep. Ten wethers with average weight of 27.50 kg, alloted to suitable cages, were used. A completely randomized design with two treatments (T1= 80% coast cross hay + 20% pigeon peaand T2= 60% coast cross hay + 40% pigeon pea and five replicates, was used. The treatments were evaluated under two feeding systems (voluntary and restrict. Animals receiving ration of T2 presentedhigher DAI (g/kg PV 0.75 (PO experimento foi realizado com os objetivos de determinar o consumo médio diário (CMD, o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA dos nutrientes do feno de capim Coast cross e feijão guandu e avaliar o balanço de nitrogênio (BN em ovinos. Foram utilizados dez ovinos machos, castrados, com peso médio de 27,50 kg, alojados em gaiolas para metabolismo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos (T1 = 80% de feno de Coast cross + 20% de guandu e T2 = 60% de feno de Coast cross + 40% de guandu e cinco repetições por tratamento. Os tratamentos foram avaliados sob dois regimes alimentares (consumo voluntário e restrito. Os animais recebendo ração do T2 apresentaram maior CMD (g/kg PV0,75 (p < 0,05 de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra bruta (FB, matéria orgânica (MO e extrato não nitrogenado (ENN, do que aqueles animais recebendo ração do T1. O CDA da FB da ração T2 foi maior (p < 0,05 do que o da ração T1. O BN dos animais que receberam 40% de guandu (13,15g N/ dia foi superior aos daqueles que receberam 20% desta leguminosa (10,29g N/dia. Conclui-se que o feijão guandu pode ser utilizado como fonte protéica na alimentação de ruminantes, possibilitando CDA da MS próximo de 52% para animais em regime de consumo voluntário, e 81% para animais em regime de consumo restrito. O

  1. Osteossíntese de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia associando-se pinos metálicos e polimetilmetacrilato intramedulares após osteotomia diafisária Humerus osteosynthesis using intramedullary pins and polymethylmethacrylate in domestic pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Alievi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 28 aves adultas, separadas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos. Os pombos foram anestesiados com isoflurano para a realização da osteotomia diafisária transversa do úmero direito. No grupo I, a osteossíntese foi realizada associando-se dois pinos de Kirschner e polimetilmetacrilato, intramedulares; no grupo II, os pinos de Kirschner foram substituídos por pinos de Schanz; no grupo III, foram utilizados apenas dois pinos de Kirschner; e, no grupo IV, apenas dois pinos de Shanz. Os tempos médios para a consolidação óssea foram de 29±4,04 dias no grupo I; 24±5,29 dias no grupo II; 33±3,74 dias no grupo III; e 32,9±5,21 dias no grupo IV. Foi observada migração dos pinos em 42,9% dos animais do grupo I, em 0% nos do grupo II, em 85,7% nos do grupo III, e em 28,6% nos do grupo IV. Em duas aves dos grupos I, III e IV notou-se incapacidade de voar. Os resultados demonstram que a associação de dois pinos de Schanz e polimetilmetacrilato, ambos intramedulares, é um método efetivo para osteossíntese de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia, proporcionando rápida consolidação óssea e mínimas complicações.Twenty-eight adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia were randomly divided into four groups of seven birds each. Anesthesia was performed with isoflurane and oxygen, and an osteotomy of the right humerus midshaft was performed with an electric cutter. On the sequence, one of the following treatments was chosen: group I, two Kirschner pins and polymethylmethacrylate intramedullary; group II, two Schanz pins and polymethylmethacrylate intramedullary; group III, two Kirschner pins only; and group IV, two Schanz pins only. The mean time ± standard deviation for fracture healing was 29±4.04 days in group I; 24±5.29 days in group II; 33±3.74 days in group III; 32.9±5.21 days in group IV. Pin migration was observed in 42.9% of the group I animals, 0% of group II, 85.7% of group III, and 28.6% of group IV. Two

  2. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  3. Aspectos tecnológicos e sensoriais do guandu [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.] enlatado em diferentes estádios de maturação Technological and sensorial aspects of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.] canned at different stages of maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.P. BARCELOS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é viabilizar a introdução do guandu verde enlatado no mercado brasileiro. Foram realizadas três colheitas de grãos ainda verdes da cultivar IAC Fava Larga obtidos no 44º, 57º e 62º dia após a floração (DAF e finalmente no 92º DAF, quando os grãos já possuíam cor pardo-amarelada. Para todos os lotes, após otimização das condições de enlatamento, 121ºC durante 5 a 6 minutos, efetuaram-se estudos quanto ao acúmulo de matéria seca, composição dos grãos, cor, textura e aceitação sensorial. Conclui-se, através do acúmulo de matéria seca do grão, que a maturidade fisiológica ocorreu em torno do 62º DAF, quando também apresentou as melhores características para o enlatamento. As cores dos grãos pós-enlatamento, vermelha e amarela (unidades Lab Hunter apresentaram estáveis até o 62º DAF. A textura foi gradativamente mais firme com o avanço do amadurecimento tendo verificado correlação positiva (r = 0,96 entre medidas de texturas sensorial e instrumental. A aceitação do guandu enlatado cultivar IAC Fava Larga foi apenas regular.The objective of this work is to enable the introduction of canned green pigeon pea in Brazilian market. Three harvests of still green grains of the cultivar IAC Fava Larga, obtained on the 44th, 57th and 62nd days after flowering, DAF, and finally on the 92nd DAF when the grains already possessed yellowish dusky color, were undertaken. To all the lots, after optimization of canning conditions, 121ºC for 5 to 6 minutes, studies concerning the accumulation of dry matter, grain composition, color, texture and sensorial acceptance were carried out. It was concluded through the accumulation of dry matter of the grain, that the physiological maturity occurred around the 62nd DAF. The texture was gradually firmer with advancing maturation, and positive correlation having been found (r = 0,96 between sensorial and instrumental texture measures was noticed. The

  4. Dinâmica de decomposição e liberação de nutrientes de genótipos de guandu sob cultivo em aléias Decomposition dynamics and nutrient release by pigeon pea genotypes under alley cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Porto Salmi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de fitomassa aérea, seus teores de N, P, K, e a dinâmica de liberação desses nutrientes, em seis genótipos de guandu (Cajanus cajan, em sistema de cultivo em aléias. A produção média de biomassa foi de 5,9 Mg ha-1; o acúmulo de N variou de 188,3 a 261,3 kg ha-1, o de P de 7,2 a 9,4 kg ha-1 e o de K de 29,3 a 45,5 kg ha-1; não houve diferença estatística entre os genótipos avaliados. As curvas de liberação mostraram que, aos 56 dias aproximadamente 60% do N e 65% do P e do K, contidos na biomassa remanescente, haviam sido liberados ao solo. Não houve efeito dos genótipos sobre a taxa de liberação de nutrientes. Os resultados indicam que os seis genótipos estudados foram igualmente eficientes em produzir biomassa e em liberar nutrientes de modo satisfatório, no primeiro ano de estudos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the aerial biomass, N, P and K contents, and the dynamics of decomposition and mineralization, in six genotypes of pigeon pea, grown as hedgerows in an alley cropping system. Dry biomass production averaged 5.9 Mg ha-1; N content ranged from 188.3 to 261.3 kg ha-1; P content, from 7.2 to 9.4 kg ha-1 and K content, from 29.3 to 45.5 kg ha-1 . No differences between genotypes were found. Decay curves indicated a rate of 75% of the biomass still remaining 30 days after deposition. Also, approximately 60% of N, and 65% of P and K, of the remaining biomass, were released to soil. No effects of pigeon pea genotypes were found in decomposition or mineralization rates.

  5. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accreditation Program Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Accreditation Program Cancer Programs Staff Information Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Verification ...

  6. Annotated Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Straccia, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    We present Annotated Answer Set Programming, that extends the ex pressive power of disjunctive logic programming with annotation terms, taken from the generalized annotated logic programming framework.

  7. Functional Python programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This book is for developers who want to use Python to write programs that lean heavily on functional programming design patterns. You should be comfortable with Python programming, but no knowledge of functional programming paradigms is needed.

  8. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quality Improvement Program About Standards Apply Participant Use Data File (PUF) Resources & FAQs Find a MBSAQIP Center ... Programs BleedingControl.org Trauma Quality Programs National Trauma Data Bank Trauma Quality Improvement Program Mentoring for Excellence ...

  11. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview of Cancer Programs Cancer Programs News American Joint Committee on Cancer Cancer Advocacy Efforts Cancer Liaison ... Validation Programs Accredited Education Institutes CME Accreditation CME Joint Providership Program Verification of Knowledge and Skills Resources ...

  12. Behavioral program synthesis with genetic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Genetic programming (GP) is a popular heuristic methodology of program synthesis with origins in evolutionary computation. In this generate-and-test approach, candidate programs are iteratively produced and evaluated. The latter involves running programs on tests, where they exhibit complex behaviors reflected in changes of variables, registers, or memory. That behavior not only ultimately determines program output, but may also reveal its `hidden qualities' and important characteristics of the considered synthesis problem. However, the conventional GP is oblivious to most of that information and usually cares only about the number of tests passed by a program. This `evaluation bottleneck' leaves search algorithm underinformed about the actual and potential qualities of candidate programs. This book proposes behavioral program synthesis, a conceptual framework that opens GP to detailed information on program behavior in order to make program synthesis more efficient. Several existing and novel mechanisms subs...

  13. NASA's educational programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

  14. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  15. System programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Šmit, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  16. Operations Program Executive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fague, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Ground Resource Operations Program executive (GROPE) is control program for binding system of programs into single, easily operated entity. It relieves user from complexity arising from decomposition of large application into number of interacting program units. System simplifies job control, data management, and recordkeeping for interacting programs.

  17. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  18. Structured Programming: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Peter

    Designed for use by computer programming teachers, this booklet presents the concepts of structured programming and provides examples of how to implement this methodology, which provides a systematic way of organizing programs so that even large and complex programs are easier to understand and modify than unstructured programs. After a brief…

  19. Energy Technology Programs: program summaries for 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Energy Technology Programs in the BNL Department of Energy and Environment cover a broad range of activities, namely: electrochemical research, chemical energy storage, chemical heat pumps, solar technology, fossil technology, catalytic systems development, space-conditioning technology, and technical support/program management. Summaries of the individual tasks associated with these activities along with publications, significant accomplishments, and program funding levels are presented.

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trauma Quality Programs National Trauma Data Bank Trauma Quality Improvement Program Mentoring for Excellence in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals ...

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2016 Annual Meeting Women's Committee Mentorship Program Outside Activities ACS Archives Contact Us Quality Programs Quality Programs ... Quality in Geriatric Surgery Project Project Goals and Activities Stakeholder Organizations Project Team Resources News Contact Us ...

  2. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accreditation Program for Breast Centers About NAPBC Accreditation Education NAPBC Standards Cancer Programs News Quality in Geriatric ... 4 and Recertification SSR Login MIPS Resources and Education Quality and Safety Conference Trauma Trauma Programs Trauma ...

  3. New Parent Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... preparation and guidance. View More Search All Installation Program Directory Find programs and services at your local installation. View a directory of installations Select a program or service Enter the name of an installation ...

  4. National Toxicology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at NTP Study Types Nominations to the Testing Program Study Results & Research Projects Areas of Research Data & ... on for decisions that matter. The National Toxicology Program provides the scientific basis for programs, activities, and ...

  5. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meeting Women's Committee Mentorship Program Outside Activities ACS Archives Contact Us Quality Programs Quality Programs Overview About ... The Hartford Consensus News Coverage Stop the Bleed Archives and History Archives and History Archives and History ...

  6. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  7. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conference Publications and Posters National Trauma System Injury Prevention and Control Quality and Safety Conference Quality and ... Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program The Recovery Room Choosing Wisely Educational Programs Educational Programs Educational ...

  8. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data Bank Trauma Quality Improvement Program Mentoring for Excellence in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life Support Verification, ... Patients Medical Professionals Skills Programs Find a Treatment Center Patient Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program ...

  9. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo ...

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy ...

  11. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Education ACS Education and Training Courses Publications Education Program Videos Contact Us Clinical Congress Clinical Congress 2017 ... Treatment Center Patient Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program The Recovery Room Choosing Wisely Educational Programs Educational ...

  12. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program for Hospitals Trauma Systems Consultation Program Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Conference Publications and Posters National Trauma System Injury ...

  13. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals Trauma Systems Consultation Program Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Conference Publications and Posters ...

  14. LANL Meteorology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, Jean Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-09

    The goal of the Meteorology Program is to provide all routine meteorology measurements for LANL operational requirements. This report discusses the program, its routine operations, and other services.

  15. About the Clusters Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Innovation Clusters Program advises cluster organizations, encourages collaboration between clusters, tracks U.S. environmental technology clusters, and connects EPA programs to cluster needs.

  16. Fitomassa, teor e acúmulo de micronutrientes do milheto, feijão-deporco e guandu-anão, em cultivo solteiro e consorciado = Micronutrient phytomass, levels and accumulation in millet, jack bean and pigeon pea, as sole crops and in intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Monti Teixeira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O consórcio entre gramíneas e leguminosas para produção de palha, no sistema plantio direto, visa conciliar a proteção do solo, por meio da maior durabilidade da gramínea, com a fixação de N e disponibilização mais rápida de nutrientes pela decomposição da leguminosa. Diante disso, instalou-se um experimento para determinar a produção de fitomassa e o teor e acúmulo de micronutrientes do milheto, feijão-de-porco e guandu-anão, em cultivo solteiro enos consórcios da gramínea com as leguminosas, para a produção de palha no plantio direto. O trabalho foi conduzido no campo experimental do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras – Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais. O delineamento foi o deblocos casualizados, com sete tratamentos, para os teores das espécies em cultivo solteiro e consorciado e cinco tratamentos para produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de micronutrientes, comquatro repetições. Apenas o guandu-anão solteiro apresentou menor produção de fitomassa fresca e seca, com os demais tratamentos produzindo, em média, 12,361 e 2,854 t ha-1 de fitomassa fresca e seca, respectivamente. Houve diferenças significativas para os teores de B, Cu e Zn e para os acúmulos de todos os micronutrientes avaliados. As leguminosas apresentaram maiores teores de B e o milheto, maiores teores de Cu e Zn. De forma geral, o consórcio entremilheto e feijão-de-porco apresentou os maiores acúmulos de micronutrientes.Intercropping leguminous with gramineous crops for straw production in no-tillage systems aims to conciliate soil protection(through greater durability of gramineous crops with nitrogen fixation and faster micronutrient availability (through leguminous decomposition. Therefore, an experiment was conducted withthe intention of evaluating phytomass production as well as micronutrient levels and accumulation in millet (Pennisetum typhoides (Burm. Stapf, jack bean (Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC., and pigeon

  17. Crescimento de milheto e guandu, desempenho de plantas cítricas e propriedades físicas do solo escarificado em um pomar Growth of millet and pigeon pea, performance of citrus trees, and soil physical properties in a chiselled orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bordin

    2008-08-01

    0.30 m, followed by three soil cover crops: spontaneous vegetation, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, and millet (Pennisetum americanum. The statistical design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 3 (chiseling and non-chiseling and three soil covers. After 110 days the aboveground phytomass of cover crops was collected and trenches were dug for root evaluation. The soil physical properties were determined at three points (under canopy, wheel track and inter-row and four depths (0-0.1; 0.1-0.2; 0.2-0.3 and 0.3-0.4 m. The phytomass of the aboveground part and root system of the cover crops was greater in the chiseling treatment. In the chiseling management the root growth of pearl millet was greater than of pigeon pea and equal in the unchiseled treatment. Development and yield of citrus trees were not affected by treatments. Soil chiseling resulted in a higher soil macro porosity and lower soil bulk density and soil penetration resistance.

  18. EFECTO DE LA GERMINACIÓN SOBRE EL CONTENIDO DE HIERRO Y CALCIO EN AMARANTO, QUINUA, GUANDUL Y SOYA EFEITO DA GERMINAÇÃO SOBRE CONTEUDO DA FERRO E CÁLCIO PRESENTES EM QUINOA, AMARANTO, GUANDU E SOJA GERMINATION EFFECT ON IRON AND CALCIUM CONTENT IN AMARANTH, QUINOA, PIGEON PEA AND SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA C CHAPARRO

    2011-06-01

    timo grau de qualidade e uma taxa de germinação acima de 90%. Inicialmente se fez um método padronizado para a obtenção de sementes germinadas, através da definição de variáveis como o uso ou o não de desinfetante, tipo de substrato, tempo de germinação e temperatura de germinação. Para desenvolver o estudo realizado se aplicou um design em blocos casualizados com três repetições por dia de germinação (dias zero, um, dois e três, para a quantificação de ferro e cálcio, foi usada absorção atômica. Os resultados achados permitem concluir que a germinação induziu mudanças na disponibilidade de ferro e cálcio de uma maneira específica em cada tipo de semente; o ferro disponível em sementes de soja, amaranto e quinoa, diminuíam na medida em que avançava o processo de germinação; embora, a germinação não afetou significativamente o teor de ferro em sementes de amaranto e guandu. O cálcio disponível aumentou significativamente em sementes de amaranto e quino a partir do segundo dia de germinação, a germinação gerou um aumentou paralelo no conteúdo de cálcio de 169,1% em amaranto e de 24,75% em quinoa, enquanto que no guandu e na soja o cálcio disponível diminuiu com a germinação.Changes on iron and calcium quantity were evaluated during the germination process of amaranth (Amaranthus sp., quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan and soybean (Glycine max seeds. Seeds produced by farmers in the department of Cauca were used; the four species were selected being sure about their physical quality and a germination percentage higher than 90%. Initially the germinated seed obtaining method was standardized by variables definition such as the use or not of disinfectant, type of substrate, germination time and germination temperature. During the research development a randomly complete block design with three replicates for germination day (day cero, one, two and three was applied; in order to quantify the iron and calcium

  19. [PIC Program Evaluation Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. J.

    These 4 questionnaires are designed to elicit teacher and parent evaluations of the Prescriptive Instruction Center (PIC) program. Included are Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness (14 items), M & M Evaluation of Program Implementation (methods and materials specialists; 11 items), Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness--Case Study…

  20. Derivation of sorting programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Joseph; Loganantharaj, Rasiah

    1990-01-01

    Program synthesis for critical applications has become a viable alternative to program verification. Nested resolution and its extension are used to synthesize a set of sorting programs from their first order logic specifications. A set of sorting programs, such as, naive sort, merge sort, and insertion sort, were successfully synthesized starting from the same set of specifications.

  1. Stochastic Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    To model combinatorial decision problems involving uncertainty and probability, we introduce stochastic constraint programming. Stochastic constraint programs contain both decision variables (which we can set) and stochastic variables (which follow a probability distribution). They combine together the best features of traditional constraint satisfaction, stochastic integer programming, and stochastic satisfiability. We give a semantics for stochastic constraint programs, and propose a number...

  2. Laser Programs Highlights 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, H.; Cassady, C.

    1999-12-01

    This report covers the following topics: Commentary; Laser Programs; Inertial Confinement Fusion/National Ignition Facility (ICF/NIF); Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS); Laser Science and Technology (LS&T); Information Science and Technology Program (IS&T); Strategic Materials Applications Program (SMAP); Medical Technology Program (MTP) and Awards.

  3. Program refinement in UNITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, T.E.J.; Swierstra, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Program refinement has received a lot of attention in the context of stepwise development of correct programs, since the introduction of transformational programming techniques by [Wir71, Hoa72, Ger75, BD77] in the seventies. This report presents a new framework of program refinement, that is

  4. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...... are covered from the point of view of program analysis, program transformation, computational complexity, etc....

  5. C++ Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  6. Generating Consistent Program Tutorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a tool that supports construction of program tutorials. A program tutorial provides the reader with an understanding of an example program by interleaving fragments of source code and explaining text. An example program can for example illustrate how to use a library...... or a framework. We present a means for specifying the fragments of a program that are to be in-lined in the tutorial text. These in-line fragments are defined by addressing named syntactical elements, such as classes and methods, but it is also possible to address individual code lines by labeling them...... with source markers. The tool helps ensuring consistency between program tutorial and example programs by extracting fragments of source code based on the fragment specifications and by detecting when a program tutorial is addressing program fragments that do not exist. The program tutorials are presented...

  7. Federal Wind Energy Program. Program summary. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the Federal Wind Energy Program is to accelerate the development of reliable and economically viable wind energy systems and enable the earliest possible commercialization of wind power. To achieve this objective for small and large wind systems requires advancing the technology, developing a sound industrial technology base, and addressing the non-technological issues which could deter the use of wind energy. This summary report outlines the projects being supported by the program through FY 1977 toward the achievement of these goals. It also outlines the program's general organization and specific program elements.

  8. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  9. Multiobjective programming and planning

    CERN Document Server

    Cohon, Jared L

    2004-01-01

    This text takes a broad view of multiobjective programming, emphasizing the methods most useful for continuous problems. It reviews multiobjective programming methods in the context of public decision-making problems, developing each problem within a context that addresses practical aspects of planning issues. Topics include a review of linear programming, the formulation of the general multiobjective programming problem, classification of multiobjective programming methods, techniques for generating noninferior solutions, multiple-decision-making methods, multiobjective analysis of water reso

  10. Evaluasi Program English Club

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Mirdan; Herpratiwi, Herpratiwi; Purnomo, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to 1) reveal students' perceptions about instructional English club program 2) reveal the students' perceptions about instructional English fun day program 3) reveal perception of students about instructional English wall magazine program. From the results of the study it was concluded that 1) students' perceptions of the instructional English club program was less advantages for students, 2) students' perceptions of instructional English fun day program have ...

  11. Inductive Temporal Logic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Kolter, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We study the extension of techniques from Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) to temporal logic programming languages. Therefore we present two temporal logic programming languages and analyse the learnability of programs from these languages from finite sets of examples. In first order temporal logic the following topics are analysed: - How can we characterize the denotational semantics of programs? - Which proof techniques are best suited? - How complex is the learning task? In propositional ...

  12. Teaching Programming with Scratch

    OpenAIRE

    MIHALIČ, PETRA

    2014-01-01

    There are quite a few good programing languages and environments for teaching kids how to program. They help beginners learn basic programming constructs usually with help of interactive environment. In this thesis I will describe and compare a few of those languages and environments. Scratch is a language and programming environment that is also intended for learning programming using blocks that make writing complicated instructions easier and reduce beginners' difficulties with syntax erro...

  13. Programming Models in HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, Galen M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-13

    These are the slides for a presentation on programming models in HPC, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Parallel Computing Summer School. The following topics are covered: Flynn's Taxonomy of computer architectures; single instruction single data; single instruction multiple data; multiple instruction multiple data; address space organization; definition of Trinity (Intel Xeon-Phi is a MIMD architecture); single program multiple data; multiple program multiple data; ExMatEx workflow overview; definition of a programming model, programming languages, runtime systems; programming model and environments; MPI (Message Passing Interface); OpenMP; Kokkos (Performance Portable Thread-Parallel Programming Model); Kokkos abstractions, patterns, policies, and spaces; RAJA, a systematic approach to node-level portability and tuning; overview of the Legion Programming Model; mapping tasks and data to hardware resources; interoperability: supporting task-level models; Legion S3D execution and performance details; workflow, integration of external resources into the programming model.

  14. Analyzing Array Manipulating Programs by Program Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, J. Robert M.; Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a transformational approach to the problem of verifying simple array-manipulating programs. Traditionally, verification of such programs requires intricate analysis machinery to reason with universally quantified statements about symbolic array segments, such as "every data item stored in the segment A[i] to A[j] is equal to the corresponding item stored in the segment B[i] to B[j]." We define a simple abstract machine which allows for set-valued variables and we show how to translate programs with array operations to array-free code for this machine. For the purpose of program analysis, the translated program remains faithful to the semantics of array manipulation. Based on our implementation in LLVM, we evaluate the approach with respect to its ability to extract useful invariants and the cost in terms of code size.

  15. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  16. The CHROME Honors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2002-01-01

    The CHROME Honors Program was designed as a two-week residential program for 9th and 1Oth grade students participating in CHROME clubs. The curriculum focused on the health sciences with instruction from: (1) the science and health curriculum of the Dozoretz National Program for Minorities in Applied Sciences (DNIMAS) Program of Norfolk State University (NSU); (2) the humanities curriculum of the NSU Honors Program; (3) NASA-related curriculum in human physiology. An Advisory Committee was formed to work with the Project Coordinator in the design of the summer program.

  17. Parallel programming with PCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.

    1991-09-01

    PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, a set of tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. It includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underlie PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. PCN is in the public domain. The latest version of both the software and this manual can be obtained by anonymous FTP from Argonne National Laboratory at info.mcs.anl.gov.

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Accreditation Program Cancer Programs Staff Information Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Verification ACS NSQIP Pediatric Fees and Invoices Quality and ...

  19. Health Programs for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Administration » Health Programs for Veterans Veterans Health Administration Health Programs for Veterans Beyond the doctors and ... families of patients receiving medical care at major military and VA medical centers Geriatrics & Extended Care Geriatric ...

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... entire surgical team with quality, comprehensive education. The standardized interactive program has been developed by the American ... Ostomy Home Skills Hospital Quality Improvement Package The standardized interactive program has been developed by the American ...