WorldWideScience

Sample records for program area radiation

  1. Radiation protection program of Petrobras in industrial radiography area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signorini, M.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial hygiene has as main purpose the preservation of employees physical integrity when exposed to certain agressive agents. PETROBRAS Industrial hygiene program forecasts preventive policies in several specific fields. For the ionizing radiations area it was developed the ''Radiologic Protection Program'' which also deals with specific actions in industrial radiography jobs. These actions are hereinafter presented. (C.M.) [pt

  2. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program

  3. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  4. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S Y; Napier, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 5 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The Committee completed a number of reports in these subject areas, most recently NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. Historically this Committee addressed emerging issues of the nation pertaining to radioactivity or radiation in the environment or radioactive waste issues due either to natural origins or to manmade activities.

  5. NCRP Program Area Committee 7: Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S M; Locke, P A

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing the central importance of effective communication, education, and policy across all of the domains of radiation safety and radiation protection, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established a new committee in 2013. Program Area Committee 7 (PAC 7) was created to develop projects and provide guidance on "Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy." After identifying individuals with relevant expertise who were willing to serve, the Committee held its inaugural meeting in 2014. In 2015, the Committee increased its membership and began carrying out an expanded program of activities. One area of activity has involved providing input and feedback on risk communication issues to NCRP and other agencies. Another area of work has involved liaising with other NCRP committees (e.g., Council Committee 1 and PAC 3) to help incorporate psychosocial and risk communication issues into projects. Future efforts of NCRP's newest PAC are expected to include the development of authoritative reports and commentaries dealing with critical issues and challenges in radiation risk communication, education, and policy.

  6. Community Radiation Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, R.P. Jr.; Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

    1990-05-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program began its ninth year in the summer of 1989, continuing as an essential portion of the Environmental Protection Agency's long-standing off-site monitoring effort. It is a cooperative venture between the Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the University of Utah (U of U), and the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada System. The objectives of the program include enhancing and augmenting the collection of environmental radiation data at selected sites around the Nevada Test Site (NTS), increasing public awareness of that effort, and involving, in as many ways as possible, the residents of the off-site area in these and other areas related to testing nuclear weapons. This understanding and improved communication is fostered by hiring residents of the communities where the monitoring stations are located as program representatives, presenting public education forums in those and other communities, disseminating information on radiation monitoring and related subjects, and developing and maintaining contacts with local citizens and elected officials in the off-site areas. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Community Radiation Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1993-05-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE); the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UNEL). The twelfth year of the program began in the fall of 1991, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The program began as an outgrowth of activities that occurred during the Three Mile Island incident in 1979. The local interest and public participation that took place there were thought to be transferrable to the situation at the NTS, so, with adaptations, that methodology was implemented for this program. The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the existing EPA monitoring network, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as station managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link

  8. WIPP radiation dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is the process by which various measurement results and procedures are applied to quantify the radiation exposure of an individual. Accurate and precise determination of radiation dose is a key factor to the success of a radiation protection program. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for permanent repository of transuranic wastes in a 2000-foot-thick salt bed 2150 feet underground, has established a dosimetry program developed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers''; ANSI/ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities''; DOE Order 5484.1, ''Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements''; and other applicable regulations

  9. The radioisotopes and radiations program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This program of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina refers to the application and production of radionuclides, their compounds and sealed sources. The applications are carried out in the medical, agricultural, cattle raising and industrial areas and in other engineering branches. The sub-program corresponding to the production of radioactive materials includes the production of radioisotopes and of sealed sources, and an engineering service for radioactive materials production and handling facilities. The sub-program of applications is performed through several groups or laboratories in charge of the biological and technological applications, intensive radiation sources, radiation dosimetry and training of personnel or of potential users of radioactive material. Furthermore, several aspects about technology transfer, technical assistance, manpower training courses and scholarships are analyzed. Finally, some legal aspects about the use of radioisotopes and radiations in Argentina are pointed out. (M.E.L.) [es

  10. Radiation monitor training program at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, L.C.; Kittinger, W.D.; Vogel, R.M.

    The Rocky Flats Radiation Monitor Training Program is tailored to train new health physics personnel in the field of radiation monitoring. The purpose of the prescribed materials and media is to be consistent in training in all areas of Rocky Flats radiation monitoring job involvement

  11. Radiation area monitor device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencelj, Matjaz; Stowe, Ashley C.; Petrovic, Toni; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Kosicek, Andrej

    2018-01-30

    A radiation area monitor device/method, utilizing: a radiation sensor; a rotating radiation shield disposed about the radiation sensor, wherein the rotating radiation shield defines one or more ports that are transparent to radiation; and a processor operable for analyzing and storing a radiation fingerprint acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor. Optionally, the radiation sensor includes a gamma and/or neutron radiation sensor. The device/method selectively operates in: a first supervised mode during which a baseline radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor; and a second unsupervised mode during which a subsequent radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor, wherein the subsequent radiation fingerprint is compared to the baseline radiation fingerprint and, if a predetermined difference threshold is exceeded, an alert is issued.

  12. Radiation protection technologist training and certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this program is to establish training requirements and methods for certifying the technical competence of Radiation Protection Technologists. This manual delineates general requirements as well as academic training, on-the-job training, area of facility training, and examination or evaluation requirements for Radiation Protection Trainees (Trainees), Junior Radiation Protection Technologists (JRPT), Radiation Protection Technologists (RPT), and Senior Radiation Protection Technologists (SRPT). This document also includes recertification requirements for SRPTs. The appendices include training course outlines, on-the-job training outlines, and training certification record forms

  13. Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement (ASARM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez G, J.

    2013-10-01

    The realized activities in nuclear facilities involve the determination of the presence of ionizing radiation fields in the workspaces. The instruments designed to detect and to measure these radiation fields provide useful information (specific type of radiation, intensity, etc.) to take the appropriate radiological protection measures, with the purpose of reducing to the minimum the workers exposition and the people in general. The radiological protection program of Reactor TRIGA Mark III contains the instructions and procedures to implement a periodic radiological monitoring, surveillance, rising of contamination levels, type and number of the instruments required for the radiological monitoring of areas and personal. The ana logical monitoring system model Rms II used to detect and measuring exposition speed and neutron radiation fields in several areas of the installation, provides the information in a logarithmic scale measurer of 4 or 5 decades located in a shelf where the previously mentioned measurement channels are centralized. Also inside the reactor monitoring system are two monitors of radioactive material concentration in the air: The particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents monitor which present the referred information of the diverse detectors through ana logical readers. These monitors when operating with an ana logical indication does not present the possibility to generate historical files electronically of each monitor previously mentioned neither to generate visual and audible indications of the alarms. This work presents the Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement which potentiated the functionality of the area monitors for gamma and neutron radiation, as well as of the particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents of reactor TRIGA Mark III, when being developed a computer system that captures in real time the information of all the monitors, generating this way an electronic binnacle, a visual and audible alarm

  14. Bioassay programs for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report discusses the rationale for the establishment of bioassay programs as a means of protection for radiation workers in the nuclear industry. The bioassay program of the Radiation Protection Bureau is described for the years 1966-1978 and plans for future changes are outlined. (auth)

  15. Radiation protection program of Petrobras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signorini, M.

    1988-01-01

    Risks present in oil industry require specific control programs, specialy when using radioactive sources. Main uses of ionizing radiation in oil industry are in process control systems, industrial radiography and oilwell logging. A comprehensive and sistemic program is presented in order to assure the safe use of ionizing radiation in these activities. Principal subjects of this program are the control of radioactive sources, personel training in order to difuse knowledge at operations level and procedures standardization. (author) [pt

  16. Development of web monitoring radiation area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoon Jin; Lee, Jun Hee; Namkoong, Phil; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lee, Su Hong; Lee, Gun Bae

    2005-01-01

    Recently the increasing number of radioisotope industry and nuclear facility have ever raised the possibility of radiation safety accident. As such a result, radioisotope companies and nuclear facility operators have become to be much interested in radiation area monitoring for efficient radiation protection. At present, almost of the radiation area monitors which are imported products are outdated in aspect of their functions. Diversification of the monitoring work is urgently demanding additional functions to be added. Thus we have developed new-type digital area monitor which enables remote web monitoring with image and radiation dose rate value at distant places through using internet, the latest IT technology, and radiation measurement technology

  17. A unique radiation area monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.C.; Allen, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Remote Area Monitoring Systems (RAMS) monitors four radiation areas with two independent systems in each area. Each system consists of power supplies, four ionization chambers, and four analog and digital circuits. The first system controls the warning beacons, horns, annunciation panel and interlocks. The second system presents a quantitative dose rate indication at the console and in the radiation area

  18. The software design of area γ radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chenxin; Deng Changming; Cheng Chang; Ren Yi; Meng Dan; Liu Yun

    2007-01-01

    This paper main introduction the system structure, software architecture, design ideas of the area γ radiation monitoring system. Detailed introduction some programming technology about the computer communication with the local display unit. (authors)

  19. The software design of area γ radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chenxin; Deng Changming; Cheng Chang; Ren Yi; Meng Dan; Liu Yun

    2008-01-01

    This paper main introduction the system structure, software architecture, design ideas of the area γ radiation monitoring system. Detailed introduction some programming technology about the computer communication with the local display unit. (authors)

  20. Pneumatic radiator of transition radiation for large working area arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikhlyarov, K.K.; Gavalyan, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    An unconventional approach to the constructions of large area regular radiator of X-rays transition radiation is proposed based on the use of a pack of hermetically sealed bags, in which elastic helium layers are formed. A prototype of such a radiator of about 1m 2 area was made for test of the proposed device. 9 refs

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    In order to understand energy's role in anthropogenic global climate change, significant reliance is being placed on General Circulation Models (GCMs). A major goal is to foster the development of GCMs capable of predicting the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and the regional effects of such warming. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program will contribute to the Department of Energy goal by improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in GCMs. Two issues will be addressed: the radiation budget and its spectral dependence and the radiative and other properties of clouds. The experimental objective of the ARM Program is to characterize empirically the radiative processes in the Earth's atmosphere with improved resolution and accuracy. A key to this characterization is the effective treatment of cloud formation and cloud properties in GCMs. Through this characterization of radiative properties, it will be possible to understand both the forcing and feedback effects. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. The program RADLST [Radiation Listing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    The program RADLST (Radiation Listing) is designed to calculate the nuclear and atomic radiations associated with the radioactive decay of nuclei. It uses as its primary input nuclear decay data in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) format. The code is written in FORTRAN 77 and, with a few exceptions, is consistent with the ANSI standard. 65 refs

  3. Radiation risk education program - local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushong, S.C.; Archer, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    This article points out the lack of knowledge by the general public and medical profession concerning the true risks of radiation exposure. The author describes an educational program which can be implemented at the local level to overcome this deficiency. The public must understand the enormous extent of benefit derived from radiation applications in our society

  4. Radiation protection program for assistance of victims of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Costa Silva, L.H. da; Rosa, R.

    1991-11-01

    The principles aspects of a radiological protection program for hospitals in case of medical assistance to external and internal contaminated persons are showed. It is based on the experience obtained at Centro Medico Naval Marcilio Dias during the assistance to the victims of Goiania accident in 1987. This paper describes the basic infrastructure of a nursery and the radiation protection procedures for the access control of people and materials, area and personal monitoring, decontamination and the support activities such as calibration of radiation monitors and waste management. Is is also estimated the necessary radiation protection materials and the daily quantity of waste generated. (author)

  5. AEC controlled area safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, D.W.

    1969-01-01

    The detonation of underground nuclear explosives and the subsequent data recovery efforts require a comprehensive pre- and post-detonation safety program for workers within the controlled area. The general personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site are presented. Some of the more unusual health-physics aspects involved in the operation of this program are also discussed. The application of experience gained at the Nevada Test Site is illustrated by description of the on-site operational and safety programs established for Project Gasbuggy. (author)

  6. AEC controlled area safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, D W [Nevada Operations Office, Atomic Energy Commission, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The detonation of underground nuclear explosives and the subsequent data recovery efforts require a comprehensive pre- and post-detonation safety program for workers within the controlled area. The general personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site are presented. Some of the more unusual health-physics aspects involved in the operation of this program are also discussed. The application of experience gained at the Nevada Test Site is illustrated by description of the on-site operational and safety programs established for Project Gasbuggy. (author)

  7. A quality control program for radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.E. de; Sibata, C.H.; Cecatti, E.R.; Kawakami, N.S.; Alexandre, A.C.; Chiavegatti Junior, M.

    1982-01-01

    An extensive quality control program was established covering the following areas: physical parameters of the therapeutical machines, dosimetric standards, preventive maintenance of radiation sources and measuring instruments. A critical evaluation of this program was done after two years (1977-1979) of routine application and the results will be presented. The fluctuation on physical parameters strongly supports the efforts and cost of a quality control program. This program has certainly improved the accuracy required on the delivery of the prescribed dose for radiotherapy treatment. (Author) [pt

  8. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    In order to understand energy's role in anthropogenic global climate change, significant reliance is being placed on General Circulation Models (GCMs). A major goal of the Department is to foster the development of GCMs capable of predicting the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and the regional effects of such warming. DOE research has revealed that cloud radiative feedback is the single most important effect determining the magnitude of possible climate responses to human activity. However, cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks are not understood at the levels needed for reliable climate prediction. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program will contribute to the DOE goal by improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in GCMs. Two issues will be addressed: the radiation budget and its spectral dependence and the radiative and other properties of clouds. Understanding cloud properties and how to predict them is critical because cloud properties may very well change as climate changes. The experimental objective of the ARM Program is to characterize empirically the radiative processes in the Earth's atmosphere with improved resolution and accuracy. A key to this characterization is the effective treatment of cloud formation and cloud properties in GCMs. Through this characterization of radiative properties, it will be possible to understand both the forcing and feedback effects. GCM modelers will then be able to better identify the best approaches to improved parameterizations of radiative transfer effects. This is expected to greatly improve the accuracy of long-term, GCM predictions and the efficacy of those predictions at the important regional scale, as the research community and DOE attempt to understand the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on the Earth's climate. 153 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, J R

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  11. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOPER, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual

  12. Establishments of scientific radiation protection management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1988-01-01

    Some aspects for establishing the radiation protection management program have been discussed. Radiation protection management program includes: definite aims of management, complete data register, strict supervision system, and scientific management methodology

  13. Epidemiological studies in high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-01-01

    Below the doses of 100-200 mSv of radiation exposure, no acute health effect is observed, and the late health effects such as cancer are yet unclear. The problems making the risk evaluation of low dose radiation exposure difficult are the fact that the magnitude of expected health effects are small even if the risk is assumed to increase in proportion to radiation doses. As a result, studies need to be large particular when dealing with rare disease such as cancer. In addition, the expected health effects are so small that they can easily be masked by lifestyles and environmental factors including smoking. This paper will discuss cancer risk possibly associated with low-dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure, describing epidemiological studies on the residents in the high-background radiation areas. (author)

  14. Reduction of radiation area project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This plan deals with the overall reduction of outdoor surface radiation areas under Rockwell's jurisdiction. Four basic alternatives are identified which will reduce and/or stabilize radiation areas until long-term disposal decisions are made: (1) continued routine surveillance and maintenance; (2) reduction or elimination of effluent discharges; (3) improved site stabilization; and (4) site removal. The four major transport mechanisms at Hanford that are the primary forces for contamination spread are identified as wind, animal transport, concentration and dispersal by plants, and transport resulting from human activities

  15. Walking path-planning method for multiple radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yong-kuo; Li, Meng-kun; Peng, Min-jun; Xie, Chun-li; Yuan, Cheng-qian; Wang, Shuang-yu; Chao, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation environment modeling method is designed. • Path-evaluating method and segmented path-planning method are proposed. • Path-planning simulation platform for radiation environment is built. • The method avoids to be misled by minimum dose path in single area. - Abstract: Based on minimum dose path-searching method, walking path-planning method for multiple radiation areas was designed to solve minimum dose path problem in single area and find minimum dose path in the whole space in this paper. Path-planning simulation platform was built using C# programming language and DirectX engine. The simulation platform was used in simulations dealing with virtual nuclear facilities. Simulation results indicated that the walking-path planning method is effective in providing safety for people walking in nuclear facilities.

  16. The software program Peridose to calculate the fetal dose or dose to other critical structures outside the target area in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giessen, P.H. van der

    2001-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the dose outside the target area is of utmost importance when pregnant patients have to undergo radiotherapy, something that occurs in every radiotherapy department once in a while. Such peripheral doses (PD) are also of interest for late effects risk estimations for doses to specific organs as well as estimations of dose to pacemakers. A software program, Peridose, is described to allow easy calculation of this peripheral dose. The calculation is based on data from many publications on peripheral dose measurements, including those by the author. Clinical measurements have shown that by using data averaged over many measurements and different machine types PDs can be estimated with an accuracy of ± 60% (2 standard deviations). The program allows easy and fairly accurate estimates of peripheral doses in patients. Further development to overcome some of the constraints and limitations is desirable. The use of average data is to be preferred if general applicability is to be maintained. (author)

  17. REMOTE AREA RADIATION MONITORING (RARM) ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON RL

    2008-01-01

    The Remote Area Radiation Monitoring (RARM) system will be used to provide real-time radiation monitoring information to the operations personnel during tank retrieval and transfer operations. The primary focus of the system is to detect potential anomalous (waste leaks) or transient radiological conditions. This system will provide mobile, real-time radiological monitoring, data logging, and status at pre-selected strategic points along the waste transfer route during tank retrieval operations. The system will provide early detection and response capabilities for the Retrieval and Closure Operations organization and Radiological Control personnel

  18. Radiation sensitive area detection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Hecht, Diana L. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation sensitive area detection device for use in conjunction with an X ray, ultraviolet or other radiation source is provided which comprises a phosphor containing film which releases a stored diffraction pattern image in response to incoming light or other electromagnetic wave. A light source such as a helium-neon laser, an optical fiber capable of directing light from the laser source onto the phosphor film and also capable of channelling the fluoresced light from the phosphor film to an integrating sphere which directs the light to a signal processing means including a light receiving means such as a photomultiplier tube. The signal processing means allows translation of the fluoresced light in order to detect the original pattern caused by the diffraction of the radiation by the original sample. The optical fiber is retained directly in front of the phosphor screen by a thin metal holder which moves up and down across the phosphor screen and which features a replaceable pinhole which allows easy adjustment of the resolution of the light projected onto the phosphor film. The device produces near real time images with high spatial resolution and without the distortion that accompanies prior art devices employing photomultiplier tubes. A method is also provided for carrying out radiation area detection using the device of the invention.

  19. Radiation safety and protection in US dental hygiene programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farman, A.G.; Hunter, N.; Grammer, S.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of radiation safety and protection measures used by programs teaching dental hygiene indicated some areas for concern. No barriers or radiation shieldings were used between operator and patient in four programs. Radiation monitoring devices were not worn by faculty operators in 16% of the programs. Fewer than half of the programs used thyroid shields for patients on a routine basis. Insufficient filtration for the kilovolt peak employed was used by 14% of the programs, and for 19% more the filtration was unknown or unspecified. Three programs used closed cones. Rectangular collimation was not used at all by 63% of the programs, and only 20% used E speed film routinely. Quality assurance for equipment maintenance and for film processing were in place at only 54% and 49% of the programs, respectively

  20. Controlled platform for the radiation dose data measured in Radiation controlled area of KOMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Kyun; Min, Yi Sub; Park, Jeong Min; Cho, Yong Sub

    2016-01-01

    Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC), the branch institute of Korea atomic energy research institute (KAERI), is a multi-user facility to provide a high-intensity proton beam with the energy from 20 MeV to the 100 MeV. This proton beam is accelerated via the proton linear accelerator that is comprised of a 50-keV injector, 3-MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and 100-MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The KOMAC site is classified into General public area and Radiation controlled area, according to the dose rate of 0.25 μSv/h. The system for the data made in Radiation controlled area should have the database to save and the data in the database could be expressed on the monitor in the any form which user wants. The control platform to satisfy these conditions will be made on the basis of the Qt program and MYSQL program. The place with the maximum average values about the alpha and beta detected is the entrance of Radiation controlled area. However, their values are very small in comparison to the criteria to decide the contamination area in KOMAC. That is, KOMAC is safe from the radioactive contamination. The reason why the radiation dose value is twice the background value in Klystron gallery is the klystron to generate the radiation. However, actually the klystron gallery is controlled by the control room when the proton beam is accelerated

  1. Controlled platform for the radiation dose data measured in Radiation controlled area of KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Kyun; Min, Yi Sub; Park, Jeong Min; Cho, Yong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC), the branch institute of Korea atomic energy research institute (KAERI), is a multi-user facility to provide a high-intensity proton beam with the energy from 20 MeV to the 100 MeV. This proton beam is accelerated via the proton linear accelerator that is comprised of a 50-keV injector, 3-MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and 100-MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The KOMAC site is classified into General public area and Radiation controlled area, according to the dose rate of 0.25 μSv/h. The system for the data made in Radiation controlled area should have the database to save and the data in the database could be expressed on the monitor in the any form which user wants. The control platform to satisfy these conditions will be made on the basis of the Qt program and MYSQL program. The place with the maximum average values about the alpha and beta detected is the entrance of Radiation controlled area. However, their values are very small in comparison to the criteria to decide the contamination area in KOMAC. That is, KOMAC is safe from the radioactive contamination. The reason why the radiation dose value is twice the background value in Klystron gallery is the klystron to generate the radiation. However, actually the klystron gallery is controlled by the control room when the proton beam is accelerated.

  2. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COOPER, J.R.

    2000-04-17

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  3. CEC radiation protection research and training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Program (RPP), initiated as a consequence of the Euratom Treaty aims to promote: scientific knowledge to evaluate possible risks from low doses of natural, medical and man-made radiation; development of methods to assess radiological risks; incentive and support for cooperation between scientists of Member States; expertise in radiation protection by training scientists and the scientific basis for continual updating of the 'Basic Safety Standards', and the evolution of radiation protection concepts and practices. 3 refs

  4. High level natural radiation areas with special regard to Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The studies of high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) around the world are of great importance for determination of risks due to long-term low-level whole body exposures of public. Many areas of the world possess HLNRAs the number of which depends on the criteria defined. Detailed radiological studies have been carried out in some HLNRAs the results of which have been reported at least in three international conferences. Among the HLNRAs, Ramsar has so far the highest level of natural radiation in some areas where radiological studies have been of concern. A program was established for Ramsar and its HLNRAs to study indoor and outdoor gamma exposures and external and internal doses of the inhabitants, 226 Ra content of public water supplies and hot springs, of food stuffs, etc., 222 Rn levels measured in 473 rooms of near 350 houses, 16 schools and 89 rooms and many locations of old and new Ramsar Hotels in different seasons, cytogenetic effects on inhabitants of Talesh Mahalleh, the highest radiation area, compared to that of a control area and radiological parameters of a house with a high potential for internal and external exposures of the inhabitants. It was concluded that the epidemiological studies in a number of countries did not show any evidence of increased health detriment in HLNRAs compared to control groups. In this paper, the conclusions drawn from studies in some HLNRAs around the world in particular Ramsar are discussed. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  5. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  6. Technical Basis - Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELGIN, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD), and radiation surveys of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas

  7. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  8. Programmed cellular response to ionizing radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crompton, N.E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Three forms of radiation response were investigated to evaluate the hypothesis that cellular radiation response is the result of active molecular signaling and not simply a passive physicochemical process. The decision whether or not a cell should respond to radiation-induced damage either by induction of rescue systems, e.g. mobilization of repair proteins, or induction of suicide mechanisms, e.g. programmed cell death, appears to be the expression of intricate cellular biochemistry. A cell must recognize damage in its genetic material and then activate the appropriate responses. Cell type is important; the response of a fibroblast to radiation damage is both quantitatively and qualitatively different form that of a lymphocyte. The programmed component of radiation response is significant in radiation oncology and predicted to create unique opportunities for enhanced treatment success. (orig.)

  9. Radiologic safety program for ionizing radiation facilities in Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly Junior, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    A radiologic safety program for inspection, licensing and control of the use of ionizing radiation in medical, industrial and research facilities in Parana, Brazil is presented. The program includes stages such as: 1- division into implementation phases considering the activity development for each area; 2-use of the existing structure to implement and to improve services. The development of the program will permit to evaluate the improvement reached and to correct operational strategic. As a result, a quality enhancement at the services performed, a reduction for radiation dose exposure and a faster response for emergency situations will be expected

  10. Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement (ASARM); Sistema Automatizado de Medicion de Radiacion de Area (SAMRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez G, J., E-mail: jaime.hernandez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The realized activities in nuclear facilities involve the determination of the presence of ionizing radiation fields in the workspaces. The instruments designed to detect and to measure these radiation fields provide useful information (specific type of radiation, intensity, etc.) to take the appropriate radiological protection measures, with the purpose of reducing to the minimum the workers exposition and the people in general. The radiological protection program of Reactor TRIGA Mark III contains the instructions and procedures to implement a periodic radiological monitoring, surveillance, rising of contamination levels, type and number of the instruments required for the radiological monitoring of areas and personal. The ana logical monitoring system model Rms II used to detect and measuring exposition speed and neutron radiation fields in several areas of the installation, provides the information in a logarithmic scale measurer of 4 or 5 decades located in a shelf where the previously mentioned measurement channels are centralized. Also inside the reactor monitoring system are two monitors of radioactive material concentration in the air: The particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents monitor which present the referred information of the diverse detectors through ana logical readers. These monitors when operating with an ana logical indication does not present the possibility to generate historical files electronically of each monitor previously mentioned neither to generate visual and audible indications of the alarms. This work presents the Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement which potentiated the functionality of the area monitors for gamma and neutron radiation, as well as of the particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents of reactor TRIGA Mark III, when being developed a computer system that captures in real time the information of all the monitors, generating this way an electronic binnacle, a visual and audible alarm

  11. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  12. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-01-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material

  13. Caolines Program. N1 area prospective soundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel, N.; Mari, C.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about The Caolines program. After several stages was designed a network of drilling to be developed in prospective areas. The support of this network was a geological cartography performed in a devonian region.

  14. New England States environmental radiation surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the environmental radiation surveillance programs in the New England States from the viewpoint of their organization and administration is provided. Moreover, the specific monitoring and analytical programs conducted at selected sites in each state is detailed with emphasis on sample types, collection frequencies, and analysis. Also, a comparison is made between the programs of all the states in order to determine the reasons for their differences

  15. Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. proposes the Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) as an innovative approach enabling radiobiologists to investigate the...

  16. Areas of research in radiation chemistry fundamental to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Among all the environmental hazards to which man is exposed, ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated and the most responsibly monitored and controlled. Nevertheless, because of the importance of radiation in modern society from both the hazard as well as the utilitarian standpoints, much more information concerning the biological effects induced and their modification and reversal is required. Together with radiation physics, an understanding of radiation chemistry is necessary for full appreciation of biological effects of high and low energy radiations, and for the development of prophylactic, therapeutic and potentiating methods and techniques in biological organisms. The necessity of understanding the chemistry of any system, biological or not, that is to be manipulated and controlled, is so obvious as to make trivial a statement to that effect. If any natural phenomenon is to be put to our use, surely the elements of it must be studied and appreciated fully. In the preliminary statements of the various panels of this general group, the need for additional information on the basic radiation chemistry concerned in radiation-induced biological effects pervades throughout

  17. Background radiation study of Offa industrial area of Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the external background radiation in Offa industrial area of Kwara State is hereby reported. An in-situ measurement using two Digilert radiation monitors at five different stations were carried out. A mean exposure rate of 0.0132mR/hr, which represents 20% elevation from the standard background radiation, was ...

  18. Tank Focus Area Pretreatment Program. FY 1995 Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.I.; McGinnis, C.P.; Wilkenson, W.T.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    This program management plan (PMP) describes the FY 1995 project plans for the Pretreatment Program of the Tank Focus Area. The Tank Focus Area is one of five areas of environmental concerns originally identified by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology Development (EM-50). Projects in the Tank Focus Area relate to the remediation of liquid waste stored in underground storage tanks at various US Department of Energy sites. The Pretreatment Program is an organizational unit performing work within the Tank Focus Area. The function of the Pretreatment Program is to develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate new technologies, with emphasis on separations. The 11 Pretreatment Program projects for FY 1995 are (1) Cesium Extraction Testing, (2) Comprehensive Supernate Treatment, (3) Hot Cell Studies, (4) Cesium Removal Demonstration, (5) Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration, (6) Crossflow Filtration, (7) Technical Interchange with CEA, (8) TRUEX Applications, (9) NAC/NAG Process Studies (conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory), (10) NAC/NAG Process and Waste Form Studies (conducted at Florida International University), and (11) Program Management. Section 2 of this PMP contains a separate subsection for each FY 1995 project. A brief description of the project, a schedule of major milestones, and a breakdown of costs are provided for each project. The PMP also contains sections that describe the project controls that are in place. Quality assurance, document control, the project management system, and the management organization are described in these sections

  19. N Area Final Project Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.S.; Duncan, G.M; Trent, S.J.

    1998-07-01

    The N Area Final Project Program Plan is issued for information and use by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) for the Hanford Site, and other parties that require workscope knowledge for the deactivation of N Reactor facilities and remediation of the 100-N Area. This revision to the program plan contains the updated critical path schedule to deactivate N Reactor and its supporting facilities, cleanout of the N Reactor Fuel Storage Basin (105-N Basin), and remediate the 100-N Area. This document reflects notable changes in the deactivation plan for N Reactor, including changes in deactivation status, the N Basin cleanout task, and 100-N Area remediation

  20. Radiation Protection of Patients program (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R.; Perez, M. R.; Buzzi, A.; Andisco, D.

    2006-01-01

    After an initial period of conviction for installing an active discussion on Radiation Protection of Patients inside the medical community, there were organized working groups in Radiodiagnosis, Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine and on radiation protection of pregnant women. These groups began systematical activities, which received a strong institutional support of the Argentine Society of Radiology, toward the implementation of a Program of RPP that is being put nowadays into practice. This program has three aims and a series of targets to be fulfilled in successive stages: Basic aims and short term targets: 1) To guarantee the Justification. First goal: Development of the Prescription Guide (achieve) 2) To optimize the radioprotection: First goal: Development of a Manual of Procedures (achieved) 3) To prevent potential exposures. First goal: Design of a Basic Quality System in Health (achieved) The effective participation of the professional's and technician's associations in the development of the program of radiological protection of the patient is a key aspect for the success. (Author)

  1. The radiation safety self-assessment program of Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, G.; Chase, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has developed a self-assessment program to ensure that high quality in its radiation safety program is maintained. The self-assessment program has three major components: routine ongoing assessment, accident/incident investigation, and detailed assessments of particular radiation safety subsystems or of the total radiation safety program. The operation of each of these components is described

  2. Chromosome Aberration on High Level Background Natural Radiation Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti-Lusiyanti; Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    When the body is irradiated, all cells can suffer cytogenetic damage that can be seen as structural damage of chromosome in the lymphocytes. People no matter where they live in world are exposed to background radiation from natural sources both internal and external such as cosmic radiation, terrestrial radiation, cosmogenic radiation radon and thoron. Level of area natural ionizing radiation is varies depending on the altitude, the soil or rock conditions, particular food chains and the building materials and construction features. Level of normal areas of background exposure is annual effective dose 2.4 mSv and the high level areas of background exposure 20 mSv. This paper discuses the frequency of aberration chromosome especially dysenteries in several countries having high level radiation background. It seems that frequency of chromosome aberrations increase, generally with the increase of age of the people and the accumulated dose received. (author)

  3. Training program in radiation protection: implantation in a radiation oncology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, Mario; Morrier, Janelle; Cote, Carl; Lavallee, Marie C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: To introduce the radiation protection training program implemented in the radiation oncology department of the Hotel-Dieu de Quebec. This program seeks to provide an adequate training for all the clinic workers and to fulfill Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) legislations. Materials and Methods: The radiation protection training program implemented is based on the use of five different education modalities: 1) Oral presentations, when the objective of the formation is to inform a large number of persons about general topics; 2) Periodic journals are published bimonthly and distributed to members of the department. They aim to answer frequently asked questions on the radiation safety domain. Each journal contains one main subject which is vulgarized and short notices, these later added to inform the readers about the departmental news and developments in radiation safety; 3) Electronic self-training presentations are divided into several units. Topics, durations, complexity and evaluations are adapted for different worker groups; 4) Posters are strategically displayed in the department in order to be read by all the radiation oncology employees, even those who are not specialized in the radiation protection area; 5) Simulations are organized for specialised workers to practice and to develop their skills in radiation protection situations as emergencies. A registration method was developed to record all training performed by each member of the department. Results: The training program implemented follows the CNSC recommendations. It allows about 150 members of the department to receive proper radiation safety training. The oral presentations allow an interaction between the trainer and the workers. The periodic journals are simple to write while ensuring continuous training. They are also easy to read and to understand. The e-learning units and their associated evaluations can be done at any time and everywhere in the department. The

  4. Radiation processing in India. Current status and future program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Jai Pal

    2003-01-01

    Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, 6 commercial gamma irradiators housing about 1.5 million curie Co-60 and an annual turnover of over US$ 2 million and 3 commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 0.5 million curie Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/wound dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

  5. Achieving a SALP-1 radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, R.L.; Slider, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, the Detroit Edison Company embarked on an ambitious program to raise the performance of the radiation protection (RP) program at its Fermi-2 nuclear plant. The target chosen was a systematic assessment of licensee's performance (SALP)-1 rating by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This goal was achieved in the spring of 1990. This paper summarizes key parts of the improvement program undertaken by Detroit Edison, lessons learned from this experience, and recommendations about applying the lessons learned at other sites. This information may be particularly helpful to commercial and federal government sites wishing to upgrade the performance of their RP programs. Excellence does not necessarily require great expenditures on new equipment or additional staff. It requires a willingness and ability to examine all functions of the RP department and an honest assessment of the most efficient means to accomplish those functions

  6. G4Beamline Program for Radiation Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, Kevin; Roberts, Thomas J.; Degtiarenko, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    G4beamline, a program that is an interface to the Geant4 toolkit that we have developed to simulate accelerator beamlines, is being extended with a graphical user interface to quickly and efficiently model experimental equipment and its shielding in experimental halls. The program is flexible, user friendly, and requires no programming by users, so that even complex systems can be simulated quickly. This improved user interface is of much wider application than just the shielding simulations that are the focus of this project. As an initial application, G4beamline is being extended to provide the simulations that are needed to determine the radiation sources for the proposed experiments at Jefferson Laboratory so that shielding issues can be evaluated. Since the program already has the capabilities needed to simulate the transport of all known particles, including scattering, attenuation, interactions, and decays, the extension involves implementing a user-friendly graphical user inter

  7. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  8. Implementation of radiation safety program in a medical institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanca, Elena D.

    1999-01-01

    A medical institution that utilizes radiation for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of malignancies develops and implements a radiation safety program to keep occupational exposures of radiation workers and exposures of non-radiation workers and the public to the achievable and a more achievable minimum, to optimize the use of radiation, and to prevent misadministration. The hospital radiation safety program is established by a core medical radiation committee composed of trained radiation safety officers and head of authorized users of radioactive materials and radiation machines from the different departments. The radiation safety program sets up procedural guidelines of the safe use of radioactive material and of radiation equipment. It offers regular training to radiation workers and radiation safety awareness courses to hospital staff. The program has a comprehensive radiation safety information system or radsis that circularizes the radiation safety program in the hospital. The radsis keeps the drafted and updated records of safety guides and policies, radioactive material and equipment inventory, personnel dosimetry reports, administrative, regulatory and licensing activity document, laboratory procedures, emergency procedures, quality assurance and quality control program process, physics and dosimetry procedures and reports, personnel and hospital staff training program. The medical radiation protection committee is tasked to oversee the actual implementation of the radiation safety guidelines in the different radiation facilities in the hospital, to review personnel exposures, incident reports and ALARA actions, operating procedures, facility inspections and audit reports, to evaluate the existing radiation safety procedures, to make necessary changes to these procedures, and make modifications of course content of the training program. The effective implementation of the radiation safety program provides increased confidence that the physician and

  9. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Held, Kathryn D.; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Zeman, Elaine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  10. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from ...

  11. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional ...

  12. Environmental monitoring and radiation protection programs of Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoskova, M.; Kostova, M.; Sheherov, L.; Bekiarov, P.; Iovtchev, M.

    2000-01-01

    The system for monitoring and control as an important part of the safety management of the Novi Han Radioactive Waste Repository contains two independent programs: environmental monitoring of the site (controlled area), the restricted access area and the surveillance area (supervised area) of the repository and radiation protection program including personal dosimetric control and indoor dosimetric control of workplaces in the buildings of the repository. The main activities related to the programs implementation are presented

  13. A local-area-network based radiation oncology microcomputer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.K.; Taylor, T.K.; Kumar, P.P.; Imray, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The application of computerized technology in the medical specialty of radiation oncology has gained wide acceptance in the past decade. Recognizing that most radiation oncology department personnel are familiar with computer operations and terminology, it appears reasonable to attempt to expand the computer's applications to other departmental activities, such as scheduling, record keeping, billing, treatment regimen and status, etc. Instead of sharing the processing capability available on the existent treatment minicomputer, the radiation oncology computer system is based upon a microcomputer local area network (LAN). The system was conceptualized in 1984 and completed in March 1985. This article outlines the LAN-based radiation oncology computer system

  14. Estimation of radiation dose in Sakkara area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Hussein, M.I.; Abd El-Hady, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Radon levels seem to be relatively high in some deeply seated caves at various sites in Egypt, apparently due to the U and Th contents in the rocks lining the burial places that are situated deep in the ground. The Sakkara area was examined, and a survey of the exposure rates, effective doses, radon daughter concentrations, and annual doses is presented in the tabular form. (P.A.)

  15. Estimation of radiation dose in Sakkara area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, A Z; Hussein, M I [National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Hady, M L [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, El Minia University, El-Minia (Egypt)

    1999-12-31

    Radon levels seem to be relatively high in some deeply seated caves at various sites in Egypt, apparently due to the U and Th contents in the rocks lining the burial places that are situated deep in the ground. The Sakkara area was examined, and a survey of the exposure rates, effective doses, radon daughter concentrations, and annual doses is presented in the tabular form. (P.A.) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  16. Program package for processing energy spectra of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskalova, E.

    1985-01-01

    A library of programs for processing energy spectra of nuclear radiation using an ICL 4-72 computer is described. The library is available at the computer centre of the Prague universities and bears the acronym JADSPE. The programs perform the computation of positions, areas and half-widths of lines in the energy spectrum of the radiation, they give a graphic representation of the course of energy spectra on the printer and on the CALCOMP recorder; they also perform the addition or subtraction of energy spectra with possible aligning of the beginnings or ends of the spectra or of maximums of chosen lines. A model function in the form of a symmetric Gaussian function is used for the computation of parameters of spectral lines, and the variation of the background with energy is assumed to be linear. (author)

  17. Radiation detection technology assessment program (RADTAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Customs Service and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a technical and operational assessment of gamma ray radiation detection equipment during the period May 5-16, 1997 at a testing facility in North Carolina. The effort was entitled, ''Radiation Detection Technology Assessment Program (RADTAP)'', and was conducted for the purpose of assessing the applicability, sensitivity and robustness of a diverse suite of gamma ray detection and identification equipment for possible use by Customs and other law enforcement agencies. Thirteen companies entered 25 instruments into the assessment program. All detection equipment entered had to exhibit a minimum sensitivity of 20 micro-R per hour (background included) from a Cesium-137 point source. Isotope identifying spectrometers entered were man portable and operable at room temperature with read-out that could be interpreted by non-technical personnel. Radioactive sources used in the assessment included special nuclear material, industrial and health isotopes. Evaluators included Customs inspectors and technical experts from DOE and Customs. No conclusions or recommendations were issued based on the quantitative and qualitative test results, however, the results of the program provided law enforcement agencies with the necessary data to select equipment that best meets their operational needs and budgets. (author)

  18. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal

  19. Program of radiation protection of patients (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo E.; Buzzi, Alfredo; Rojas, Roberto; Andisco Daniel

    2008-01-01

    After an initial period of conviction for installing an active discussion on Radiation Protection of Patients inside the medical community, there were organized 'working groups' in Radiodiagnosis, Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine and on radiation protection of pregnant women. These groups began systematical activities, which received a strong institutional support of the Argentine Society of Radiology, toward the implementation of a 'Program of RPP' that is being put nowadays into practice. The rapid advances which are present in medicine today, both in equipment and work protocol, determine that 'norms and regulations never arrive on time' which is why it is paramount that health services have 'systems of dynamic quality' and 'continual improvement' that can be adapted quickly to changes. This program has 6 principal aims and a series of targets to be fulfilled in successive stages: Basic aims and short term targets: 1) To guarantee the Justification. First goal: Development of the 'Prescription Guide' (achieved); 2) To optimize the radioprotection: First goal: Development of a 'Manual of Procedures' (In process); 3) To prevent potential exposures. First goal: Design of a 'Basic Quality System' in Health (achieved); 4) To achieve a qualification of the professionals by means of a process of certification and re-certification (In process); 5) To spread PRP's criteria by means of chats, meetings and the use of the media and graphical means. (Partially fulfilled); 6) To establish criteria for the protection of patient and operators in Interventional Radiology by creating a referral service. Strategies to cope with different interests within society are described. Main problems, failures and difficulties are also described. The effective participation of the professional and technicians' associations in the development of the program for radiation protection of the patient is a key aspect for the success of the whole national programme. (author)

  20. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1990 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory -- Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release

  1. Radiation Monitoring - A Key Element in a Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.S.; El-dally, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    For a nuclear power plant, radiation is especially of great concern to the public and the environment. Therefore, a radiation monitoring program is becoming a critical importance. This program covers all phases of the nuclear plant including preoperational, normal operation, accident and decommissioning. The fundamental objective of radiation monitoring program is to ensure that the health and safety of public inside and around the plant and to confirm the radiation doses are below the dose limits for workers and the public. This paper summarizes the environmental radiation monitoring program for a nuclear power plant

  2. Radiation analysis in the major areas of marine fisheries research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, A.V.S.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation analysis has been a proven technique to solve, relatively easily and quickly, some of the pressing problems in marine fisheries to the utmost satisfaction. Major areas of marine fisheries research - namely, the determination of sea water characteristics, the productivity studies, the pollution effects, the population dynamics and the preservation of sea foods - wherein the radiation treatment is fully helpful are discussed in detail. The problems encountered in the marine fisheries in India in this context are also outlined. (author)

  3. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassompierre, G.; Bermond, M.; Berthet, M.; Bertozzi, T.; Détraz, C.; Dubois, J.-M.; Dumps, L.; Engster, C.; Fazio, T.; Gaillard, G.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gouanère, M.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Mossuz, L.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Nédélec, P.; Palazzini, E.; Pessard, H.; Petit, P.; Petitpas, P.; Placci, A.; Sillou, D.; Sottile, R.; Valuev, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vey, H.; Wachnik, M.

    1998-02-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  4. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bassompierre, Gabriel; Berthet, M; Bertozzi, T; Détraz, C; Dubois, J M; Dumps, Ludwig; Engster, Claude; Fazio, T; Gaillard, G; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gouanère, M; Manola-Poggioli, E; Mossuz, L; Mendiburu, J P; Nédélec, P; Palazzini, E; Pessard, H; Petit, P; Petitpas, P; Placci, Alfredo; Sillou, D; Sottile, R; Valuev, V Yu; Verkindt, D; Vey, H; Wachnik, M

    1997-01-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982

  6. Area radiation monitor at the intense pulsed-neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, J.J.; Lynch, F.J.; Mundis, R.L.; Howe, M.L.; Dolecek, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent ionization chamber with associated circuitry has been developed for area radiation monitoring in the Intense Pulsed-Neutron Source (IPNS) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The conventional chamber configuration was modified in order to increase the electric field and effective volume thereby achieving higher sensitivity and linearity. The instrument provides local and remote radiation level indications and a high level alarm. Twenty-four of these instruments were fabricated for use at various locations in the experimental area of the IPNS-1 facility

  7. High background radiation area: an important source of exploring the health effects of low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Luxin

    1997-01-01

    Objective: For obtaining more effective data from epidemiological investigation in high background radiation areas, it is necessary to analyze the advantages, disadvantages, weak points and problems of this kind of radiation research. Methods: For epidemiological investigation of population health effects of high background radiation, the author selected high background radiation areas of Yangjiang (HBRA) and a nearby control area (CA) as an instance for analysis. The investigation included classification of dose groups, comparison of the confounding factors in the incidence of mutation related diseases, cancer mortalities and the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations between HBRA and CA. This research program has become a China-Japan cooperative research since 1991. Results: The confounding factors above-mentioned were comparable between HBRA and CA, and within the dose groups in HBRA, based on a systematic study for many years. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations increased with the increase of cumulative dose, but not for children around or below 10 years of age. The relative risks (RR) of total and site-specific cancer mortalities for HBRA were lower or around 1.00, compared with CA. The incidence of hereditary diseases and congenital deformities in HBRA were in normal range. The results were interpreted preliminarily by the modified 'dual radiation action' theory and the 'benefit-detriment competition' hypothesis. Conclusions: The author emphasizes the necessity for continuing epidemiological research in HBRA, especially for international cooperation. He also emphasizes the importance of combination of epidemiology and radiobiology

  8. World high background natural radiation areas: Need to protect public from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights of findings on radiological measurements, radiobiological and epidemiological studies in some main world high background natural radiation (HBNR) areas such as in Brazil, China, India and Iran are presented and discussed with special regard to remediation of radiation exposure of inhabitants in such areas. The current radiation protection philosophy and recommendations applied to workers and public from operation of radiation and nuclear applications are based on the linear non-threshold (LNT) model. The inhabitants of HBNR and radon prone areas receive relatively high radiation doses. Therefore, according to the LNT concept, the inhabitants in HBNR areas and in particular those in Ramsar are considered at risk and their exposure should be regulated. The HBNR areas in the world have different conditions in terms of dose and population. In particular, the inhabitants in HBNR areas of Ramsar receive very high internal and external exposures. This author believes that the public in such areas should be protected and proposes a plan to remedy high exposure of the inhabitants of the HBNR areas of Ramsar, while maintaining these areas as they stand to establish a national environmental radioactivity park which can be provisionally called “Ramsar Research Natural Radioactivity Park” (RRNRP). The major HBNR areas, the public exposure and the need to remedy exposures of inhabitants are reviewed and discussed. - Highlights: ► Highlights of findings on studies in HBNR areas are reviewed and discussed. ► The need to protect HBNR area inhabitants and remedy public exposure is emphasized. ► A collective approach is proposed to remedy exposure of Ramsar HBNR area inhabitants. ► Relocation of HBNR area inhabitants and establishing a park at the location is proposed. ► The advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed and recommendations are made

  9. Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

  10. The radiation protection research within the fourth Framework Program of the European Union (1994-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siunaeve, J.; Mingot, F.; Arranz, L.; Cancio, D.

    1995-01-01

    The next research program on Radiation Protection within the Fourth Framework Program of the European Union has been approved by the Council last December (O.I.N L 361, 12/31/94). The program includes important changes in its structure as well as in the way for implementation in Europe. The most important change is that the main activities concerning Nuclear Safety, Waste Management and Radiation Protection have been included in a single program called Nuclear Fission Safety. The program also includes specific work with CIS countries for the management of Chernobyl consequences as well as other significative contaminations in other areas of the former Soviet Union. (Author)

  11. Application of virtual reality technique to a radiation protection training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, Brian K.; Kang, Ki Doo; Shin, Yoo Jin; Lee, Yon Sik

    2003-01-01

    Using an Internet Virtual Reality (IVR) technique, a 3-dimensional (3-D) model for the radiation controlled area in a nuclear power plant was developed, and a feasibility study to develop a computational program to estimate radiation dose was performed. For this purpose, a pilot model with a dynamic function and bi-directional communication was developed. This model was enhanced from the existing 3-D single-directional communication. In this pilot model, a plant visitor needs to first pass a series of security checks. If the visitor enters the controlled area and approaches a radiation hazard area, alarms with a warning lamp will be initiated automatically. Throughout the test to connect this model from both domestic and international sites in various time zones, it has proven to perform well. Therefore, this model can be applied to broad fields as radiation protection procedures or radiation protection training with photographic data, and on-line dose assessment programs

  12. Overview of a radiation safety program in a district style medical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the eight components of a radiation safety program in a large health care facility spread out over several campuses in a large geographic area in Nova Scotia. The main focus is based on those areas that are regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and generally encompass nuclear medicine and radiation therapy operations. X-ray operations are regulated provincially, but the general operational principles of an effective radiation safety program can be applied in all these areas. The main components covered include the set up of an organizational structure that operates separately from individual departments, general items expected from reports to corporate management or regulators, and some examples of the front-line expectations for those in individual departments. The review is not all encompassing, but should give organizations some insight of the magnitude of a radiation safety program in a district style environment. (author)

  13. Radioprotection program to attend of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Costa Silva, L.H. da; Rosa, R.

    1989-04-01

    The aspects of a radioprotection program to be implanted in hospitals to cases of medical treatment to external and internal contamined people are presented. It is based in the experience acquired in the coordination of radioprotection of the Marcilio Dias Naval Medical Center, Rio de Janeiro, due to accident happened in Goiania in 1987. The infra-structure necessary of a ward and the procedures of radioprotection to acess control, entrance and way out of material area and patients monitoring, decontamination and the activities in the support area such as the control and maintenance of detection equipments and radioactive waste management are described. The radiologic protection materials necessaries and the quantity of radioactive waste generated by patient for day are estimated. (V.R.B.)

  14. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  15. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program

  16. 77 FR 59931 - Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program Grantee; Exception to... Competition--Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program... supplement award to the University of Guam School of Nursing, an Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Program...

  17. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  18. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  19. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans

  20. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods

  1. Results of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP) Survey of Radiation Oncology Residency Program Directors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Eleanor; Abdel-Wahab, May; Spangler, Ann E.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Amdur, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To survey the radiation oncology residency program directors on the topics of departmental and institutional support systems, residency program structure, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements, and challenges as program director. Methods: A survey was developed and distributed by the leadership of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs to all radiation oncology program directors. Summary statistics, medians, and ranges were collated from responses. Results: Radiation oncology program directors had implemented all current required aspects of the ACGME Outcome Project into their training curriculum. Didactic curricula were similar across programs nationally, but research requirements and resources varied widely. Program directors responded that implementation of the ACGME Outcome Project and the external review process were among their greatest challenges. Protected time was the top priority for program directors. Conclusions: The Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs recommends that all radiation oncology program directors have protected time and an administrative stipend to support their important administrative and educational role. Departments and institutions should provide adequate and equitable resources to the program directors and residents to meet increasingly demanding training program requirements.

  2. Minimum requirements on a QA program in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almond, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    In April, 1994, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine published a ''Comprehensive QA for radiation oncology:'' a report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee. This is a comprehensive QA program which is likely to become the standard for such programs in the United States. The program stresses the interdisciplinary nature of QA in radiation oncology involving the radiation oncologists, the radiotherapy technologies (radiographers), dosimetrists, and accelerator engineers, as well as the medical physicists. This paper describes a comprehensive quality assurance program with the main emphasis on the quality assurance in radiation therapy using a linear accelerator. The paper deals with QA for a linear accelerator and simulator and QA for treatment planning computers. Next the treatment planning process and QA for individual patients is described. The main features of this report, which should apply to QA programs in any country, emphasizes the responsibilities of the medical physicist. (author). 7 refs, 9 tabs

  3. Minimum requirements on a QA program in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P R [Louisville Univ., Louisville, KY (United States). J.G. Brown Cancer Center

    1996-08-01

    In April, 1994, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine published a ``Comprehensive QA for radiation oncology:`` a report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee. This is a comprehensive QA program which is likely to become the standard for such programs in the United States. The program stresses the interdisciplinary nature of QA in radiation oncology involving the radiation oncologists, the radiotherapy technologies (radiographers), dosimetrists, and accelerator engineers, as well as the medical physicists. This paper describes a comprehensive quality assurance program with the main emphasis on the quality assurance in radiation therapy using a linear accelerator. The paper deals with QA for a linear accelerator and simulator and QA for treatment planning computers. Next the treatment planning process and QA for individual patients is described. The main features of this report, which should apply to QA programs in any country, emphasizes the responsibilities of the medical physicist. (author). 7 refs, 9 tabs.

  4. ITRAP. Illicit trafficking radiation detection assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    2001-02-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials (nuclear criminality) has become more and more a problem, due to the circulation of the a high number of radioactive sources and the big amount of nuclear material, particularly, caused by the changes of the organisational infrastructures to supervise these material within the successor states of the former Soviet Union. The IAEA data base counts at present more than 300 verified cases. The endangering cased thereby ranges from possible health defect for the publication to terrorists activities and production of nuclear weapons. In addition to the primary criminal reasons the illegal deposal of radioactive sources as salvage, scrap and others show a further problem, which has lead to severe accidents and lethal effects in the past (e.g. Goiana, Mexiko). As the study ITRAP (Illicit Trafficking Radiation Assessment Program) can show, also in Austria the cases of partly considerable contaminated scrap transports from neighbouring countries exists. Some countries have already under taken countermeasures (e.g. Monitoring at the Finnish-Russian and German-Polish border, border monitoring in Italy). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reacted on this actual problem by setting up a new program to fight against nuclear criminality and has suggested a pilot study for the practical test of border monitoring systems. Aim of the study was to work out the technical requirements and the practicability of an useful monitoring system at border crossings. The results of the study will be offered by the IAEA to the member states as international recommendations for border monitoring systems. (author)

  5. Project Radiation Protection East. Swedish cooperation program for radiation protection in Eastern and Central Europe. Status Report, March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.; Johansson, Mai; Grapengiesser, S.; Bennerstedt, T.

    1996-04-01

    Until now the Swedish program for radiation protection work in central and Eastern europe has been granted 55 MSEK by the Swedish government. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994, radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in Radiation Protection East. The government has granted 8 MSEK for this purpose. This report presents a summary over some 150 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. The presentation is updated up to March 1996. 7 figs

  6. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history

  7. Programs of the Materials and Radiation Effects Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalder, E.N.C.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes specific efforts devoted to resolving fusion reactor materials needs as they relate to major fusion power program objectives and construction of major fusion facilities. Summaries of ERDA-sponsored research being conducted on the following areas are given: surface program, bulk irradiation program, dosimetry program, materials selection and development program, and neutron source development program

  8. Some problems in the acceptability of implementing radiation protection programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The three fundamentals that radiation protection programs are based upon are; 1) establishing a quantitative correlation between radiation exposure and biological effects in people; 2) determining a level of acceptable risk of exposure; and 3) establishing systems to measure the radiation dose to insure compliance with the regulations or criteria. The paper discusses the interrelationship of these fundamentals, difficulties in obtaining a consensus of acceptable risk and gives some examples of problems in identifying the most critical population-at-risk and in measuring dose. Despite such problems, it is recommended that we proceed with the existing conservative structure of radiation protection programs based upon a linear no threshold model for low radiation doses to insure public acceptability of various potential radiation risks. Voluntary compliance as well as regulatory requirements should continue to be pursued to maintain minimal exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  9. National Estuary Program Study Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 28 National Estuary Programs (NEPs) in the U.S.that implement habitat protection and restoration projects with their partners. This work takes place within...

  10. Telecommunications Circuit Allocation Programs - Kansas City Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, William

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether DoD circuit allocation programs identified and used the most effective configurations for leased long-haul, special-purpose telecommunications circuits...

  11. Radiation dosimetry for the space shuttle program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.L.; Richmond, R.G.; Cash, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation measurements aboard the Space Shuttle are made to record crew doses for medical records, to verify analytical shielding calculations used in dose predictions and to provide dosimetry support for radiation sensitive payloads and experiments. Low cost systems utilizing thermoluminescent dosimeters, nuclear track detectors and activation foils have been developed to fulfill these requirements. Emphasis has been placed on mission planning and dose prediction. As a result, crew doses both inside the orbiter and during extra-vehicular activities have been reasonable low. Brief descriptions of the space radiation environment, dose prediction models, and radiation measurement systems are provided, along with a summary of the results for the first fourteen Shuttle flights

  12. The calibration procedure of the radiation monitoring system installed in radiation controlled area of KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Kyun; Min, Yi-Sub; Park, Jeong-Min; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The spaces, where these accelerators are installed, are defined as the radiation controlled area and the levels of the radiation in this area are monitored by the radiation monitoring system (RMS) to protect radiation workers and experiment users from the hazards of the ionizing radiation and the surface and air contamination tests are carried out periodically by the radiation secure team. The most of RMS instruments are installed in the accelerator building, where the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator is installed. All detectors of RMS should be calibrated every year to prove the reliability of RMS and almost all instruments for RMS was calibrated during this summer maintenance period of KOMAC this year. Almost all RMS instruments installed in KOMAC is calibrated between 2016-07-13 and 2016-08-24. As the calibration result, if the current reading value are within the 5% of the reference dose rate value, this RMS instrument can be used one more year. Otherwise, the detector of that RMS instrument should be repaired or replaced. The self-calibration certificate for each RMS instrument will be published only for the instrument to satisfy the condition.

  13. Bibliography of marine radiation ecology prepared for the Seabed Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, V.S.

    1980-02-01

    References on the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms have been obtained from a number of sources. Many were obtained from reviews and other publications. Although the primary purpose of preparing this bibliography was to obtain information related to the nuclear wastes Seabed Disposal Biology Program of Sandia Laboratories, freshwater organisms are included as a matter of convenience and also with the belief that such a bibliography would be of interest to a wider audience than that restricted to the Seabed Program. While compilation of a list in an area broad in scope is often somewhat arbitrary, an attempt was made to reference publications that were related to field or laboratory studies of wild species of plants and animals with respect to radiation effects. Complete information concerning each reference are provided without excessive library search. Since one often finds references listed in the literature that are incompletely cited, it was not always possible to locate the reference for verification or completion of the citation. Such references are included where they appeared to be of possible value. When known, a reference is followed with its Nuclear Science Abstract designation, or rarely other abstract sources. Those desiring additional information should check Nuclear Science Abstracts utilizing the abstract number presented or other abstracting sources. In addition, the language of the article, other than English, is given when it is known to me

  14. Bibliography of marine radiation ecology prepared for the Seabed Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, V.S.

    1980-02-01

    References on the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms have been obtained from a number of sources. Many were obtained from reviews and other publications. Although the primary purpose of preparing this bibliography was to obtain information related to the nuclear wastes Seabed Disposal Biology Program of Sandia Laboratories, freshwater organisms are included as a matter of convenience and also with the belief that such a bibliography would be of interest to a wider audience than that restricted to the Seabed Program. While compilation of a list in an area broad in scope is often somewhat arbitrary, an attempt was made to reference publications that were related to field or laboratory studies of wild species of plants and animals with respect to radiation effects. Complete information concerning each reference are provided without excessive library search. Since one often finds references listed in the literature that are incompletely cited, it was not always possible to locate the reference for verification or completion of the citation. Such references are included where they appeared to be of possible value. When known, a reference is followed with its Nuclear Science Abstract designation, or rarely other abstract sources. Those desiring additional information should check Nuclear Science Abstracts utilizing the abstract number presented or other abstracting sources. In addition, the language of the article, other than English, is given when it is known to me.

  15. Analysis of the atmospheric upward radiation in low latitude area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiying; Wu, Zhensen; Lin, Leke; Lu, Changsheng

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing using THz wave has irreplaceable advantage comparing to the microwave and the infrared waves, and study on the THz remote sensing become more and more popular in recent years. The major applications of the remote sensing in THz wavelengths are the retrieval of the atmospheric parameters and the microphysical information of the ice cloud. The remote sensing of the atmosphere is based on the radiation of THz wave along the earth-space path of which the most significant part is the upward radiation of the atmosphere. The upward radiation of the atmosphere in sunny day in the low latitude area is computed and analyzed in this paper. The absorption of THz wave by the atmosphere is calculated using the formulations illustrated in the Recommendation ITU-R P.676 to save machine hour, the frequency range is then restricted below 1THz. The frequencies used for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters such as temperature and water content are usually a few hundred GHz, at the lower end of THz wavelengths, so this frequency range is sufficient. The radiation contribution of every atmospheric layer for typical frequencies such as absorption window frequencies and peak frequencies are analyzed. Results show that at frequencies which absorption is severe, information about lower atmosphere cannot reach the receiver onboard a satellite or other high platforms due to the strong absorption along the path.

  16. 12. 'Tihany' symposium on radiation chemistry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The 12th 'Tihany' symposium on radiation chemistry was held in Zalakaros in the organization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Isotope and Surface Chemistry. The scientific program of the Symposium will cover all the major disciplines of both basic and applied radiation chemistry. The topics were the fundamental processes in radiation chemistry, the different irradiations ways, radiolysis of inorganic and organic systems, nanoscale and the macromolecular systems. Also could be seen presentations in the subject of the food irradiation, the environmental protection, biomedical materials radiation, about the resistant materials, the radiation sterilization and the dosimetry. (S.I.)

  17. 12. 'Tihany' symposium on radiation chemistry. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The 12th 'Tihany' symposium on radiation chemistry was held in Zalakaros in the organization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Isotope and Surface Chemistry. The scientific program of the Symposium will cover all the major disciplines of both basic and applied radiation chemistry. The topics were the fundamental processes in radiation chemistry, the different irradiations ways, radiolysis of inorganic and organic systems, nanoscale and the macromolecular systems. Also could be seen presentations in the subject of the food irradiation, the environmental protection, biomedical materials radiation, about the resistant materials, the radiation sterilization and the dosimetry. (S.I.)

  18. Program Contacts for Northwest Indiana Area (Indiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Indiana Area (Indiana) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  19. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs

  1. Palliative care and palliative radiation therapy education in radiation oncology: A survey of US radiation oncology program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Randy L; Colbert, Lauren E; Jones, Joshua; Racsa, Margarita; Kane, Gabrielle; Lutz, Steve; Vapiwala, Neha; Dharmarajan, Kavita V

    The purpose of this study was to assess the state of palliative and supportive care (PSC) and palliative radiation therapy (RT) educational curricula in radiation oncology residency programs in the United States. We surveyed 87 program directors of radiation oncology residency programs in the United States between September 2015 and November 2015. An electronic survey on PSC and palliative RT education during residency was sent to all program directors. The survey consisted of questions on (1) perceived relevance of PSC and palliative RT to radiation oncology training, (2) formal didactic sessions on domains of PSC and palliative RT, (3) effective teaching formats for PSC and palliative RT education, and (4) perceived barriers for integrating PSC and palliative RT into the residency curriculum. A total of 57 responses (63%) was received. Most program directors agreed or strongly agreed that PSC (93%) and palliative radiation therapy (99%) are important competencies for radiation oncology residents and fellows; however, only 67% of residency programs had formal educational activities in principles and practice of PSC. Most programs had 1 or more hours of formal didactics on management of pain (67%), management of neuropathic pain (65%), and management of nausea and vomiting (63%); however, only 35%, 33%, and 30% had dedicated lectures on initial management of fatigue, assessing role of spirituality, and discussing advance care directives, respectively. Last, 85% of programs reported having a formal curriculum on palliative RT. Programs were most likely to have education on palliative radiation to brain, bone, and spine, but less likely on visceral, or skin, metastasis. Residency program directors believe that PSC and palliative RT are important competencies for their trainees and support increasing education in these 2 educational domains. Many residency programs have structured curricula on PSC and palliative radiation education, but room for improvement exists in

  2. Calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Youssif, B.E.; Beineen, A.A.; Hassan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents results of measurements for the calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments carried out during the period 2006-2008 at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Sudan. The work performed included quality assurance measurements, measurements for the dosimeter calibrations and uncertainty analysis. Calibrations were performed using 137 Cs gamma ray sources produced by OB 85 and OB 34/1 gamma calibrators producing air kerma rate that ranged from 10 μGy/h to 50 mGy/h. Area monitoring instruments were calibrated in terms of ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) derived using air kerma to ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results are presented for 78 area monitoring instruments representing most commonly used types in Sudan. Radioactive check source measurements for the reference chamber showed deviation within 1% limit. The accuracy in the beam output measurements was within 5% internationally considered as acceptable. The results highlighted the importance of radiation protection calibrations. Regulations are further need to ensure safety aspect really meet the required international standards.

  3. Role of secondary standard dosimetry laboratory in radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sohaila; Ali, Noriah Mohd.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiation dosimetry program is an important element of operational radiation protection. Dosimetry data enable workers and radiation protection professionals to evaluate and control work practices to eliminate unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation. The usefulness of the data produced however depends on its quality and traceability. The emphasis of the global dosimetry program is focused through the IAEA/WHO network of secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs), which aims for the determination of SI quantities through proper traceable calibration of radiation protection equipment. The responsibility of SSDL-NUCLEAR MALAYSIA to guarantee a reliable dosimetry service, which is traceable to international standards, is elucidated. It acts as the basis for harmonized occupational radiation monitoring in Malaysia.

  4. Urbanization effects on natural radiation in anomalous areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affonseca, M.S. de.

    1993-10-01

    The urbanization effects and their possible causes on the environmental gamma radiation levels, in an anomalous area, were studied. The field work was accomplished in Guarapari, located in the seacoast of the Brazilian state of Espirito Santo, which is rich in monazite sands, with thorium and uranium contents. The results show clearly that there was a reduction in the levels of external exposition in the streets and squares of Guarapari. It was ascertained that the reduction was due to the materials used in the urbanization. (L.C.J.A.)

  5. REP activities of the conference of radiation control program directors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevill, B.

    1995-01-01

    This talk provides an overview of the activities within the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors associated with Radiological Emergency Preparedness. Included are summaries of interactions with FEMA, with US DOE, with US FDA, and with US DOT

  6. Synchrotron radiation use in some researchs in program in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caticha-Ellis, S.

    1983-01-01

    Physical and biological applications of the synchrotron radiation in some pure and applied research programs in progress in Brazil are presented, in special those related with crystallografic research. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Radiation safety program in a high dose rate brachytherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.V.; Hermoso, T.M.; Solis, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of remote afterloading equipment has been developed to improve radiation safety in the delivery of treatment in brachytherapy. Several accidents, however, have been reported involving high dose-rate brachytherapy system. These events, together with the desire to address the concerns of radiation workers, and the anticipated adoption of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation (IAEA, 1996), led to the development of the radiation safety program at the Department of Radiotherapy, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center and at the Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Medical Center. The radiation safety program covers five major aspects: quality control/quality assurance, radiation monitoring, preventive maintenance, administrative measures and quality audit. Measures for evaluation of effectiveness of the program include decreased unnecessary exposures of patients and staff, improved accuracy in treatment delivery and increased department efficiency due to the development of staff vigilance and decreased anxiety. The success in the implementation required the participation and cooperation of all the personnel involved in the procedures and strong management support. This paper will discuss the radiation safety program for a high dose rate brachytherapy facility developed at these two institutes which may serve as a guideline for other hospitals intending to install a similar facility. (author)

  8. Radiation Protection program of king a bdulaziz university at Jeddah campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoon, A.; Kamal, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the gradual increase in the number of radiation sources on king abdulaziz university campus such that it became difficult to supervise them separately, it became necessary to establish a radiation safety program on the campus. This program covers regulations for supervising and setting safety controls for safe handing housing and operating or using the radiation sources. Inventory of all sources on campus whether machine sources or isotope sources along with their work ares are recorded. Also all the technicians and users of these sources are identified and entered in special special forms along with the nature of the work they do with the respective radiation sources. The performance of the X-ray machines are checked with respect to their expected standard performance. The generated radioactive wastes from the various isotope uses are collected, managed and kept in temporary storage for long lived wastes or stored till complete decay for short half life isotopes. Surveillance of all work area radiation environments as well as monitoring of radiation workers doses are done routinely. Records of all these data are maintained and updated regularly. The university radiation safety committee (URSC), who is responsible for the functioning of the radiation safety program, also arranges several training courses for technicians and researchers and others on the safe uses of radiation sources

  9. Comprehensive quality management program for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.; Roy, T.; Abrath, F.; Wu, T.; Gu, J.; McDonald, R.; Kim, H.; Haenchen, M.

    1994-01-01

    A quality management program for both external beam irradiation (electron and photon modes) and brachytherapy (high dose rate (HDR) and low dose rate (LDR) has been developed. The program follows current USA federal regulations for therapeutic administration of by-product materials. After implementation of the program, 54 HDR patients, 36 LDR brachytherapy patients and 311 external beam patients (including 30 stereotactic radiosurgery cases) were treated. The results of this program are presented

  10. Radioactivity in food crops from high background radiation area in southwest area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanthi, G.; Maniyan, C.G.; Allan Gnana Raj, G.; Thampi Thanka Kumaran, J.

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate radioactive concentration in food crops grown in naturally high-background radiation areas in southwest India. Seventeen varieties of food crops were collected from different parts of Kanyakumari district. The gross alpha and beta activities of the collected samples were measured using alpha scintillation counter and low beta counter respectively. The alpha activity was maximum in tapioca (497± 72 Bq kg -1 ) and the beta activity was maximum in paddy grain (10,946±583 Bq kg -1 ). The gamma activity of the food samples was studied by measuring the activity concentration of the radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Th, 238 U, 40 K) in the food crops. The radioactivity content of the food crops from high-background radiation area was higher when compared to similar samples collected from low-background radiation area. The daily radionuclide intake from the food crops grown and consumed by the public was 127.696 Bq and daily internal dose resulting from ingestion of radionuclides in food was 2.34 μSv. (author)

  11. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation and pregnancy: a self-teaching computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pratik; Rehani, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Two self-interacting computer programs have been developed. The first program which consists of fifteen topics apprises the users with broad spectrum of radiation risks to the unborn during pregnancy and the status of various views in this regard. Another program estimates the dose to uterus in sixteen radiological examinations depending upon the radiographic parameters used. The dose to uterus and hence to the fetus calculated by computer program in different radiographic views have been found to be in agreement with that reported in NRPB-R200 survey report. The two programs combined provide a better understanding of the rather confusing situation regarding dilemma about termination of pregnancy following inadvertent radiation exposure, apprehension about radiation effect in the minds of prescribing doctor and patients, dose estimation and advice to pregnant workers and like. (author). 10 refs

  13. Definition of priority areas for monitoring of gamma radiation on the surroundings of the CDTN installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas, Claudio Jose; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Rodrigues, Paulo C. Horta; Augustin, Cristina Helena R. Rocha

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate compliance with regulations and legal requirements, the Environmental Monitoring Program of the - Development Center of Nuclear Technology - PMA/CDTN was created in 1985. However, at that time, no data was available to represent the background - the natural level for the pre operational period in terms of Gamma radiation. Thus, the lowest value obtained among the sentinel point sites from the early period of the environmental monitoring was adopted as benchmark. As these measurements were performed by procedures and conditions other than that currently in use, this reference value may not correspond to reality. Therefore, it may not be appropriate to use it as background in assessing the possible environmental impact generated by the activities of the facilities. The goal of this study is to propose an area of geographic distribution for 12 monitoring points, outside the CDTN facilities, so that the real natural Gamma radiation levels can be accurately measured without the interference of the radioactivity levels originating from the institution, enabling the determination of the most representative values of the natural gamma radiation in the area. This survey of the natural radiation determination in the study area, with the use of modern equipment and the application of methodology taking into account historical data, as well the geological, geomorphological and geographical studies of the region, pointed to an average background value of 0.095μSv/h. This result, together with other studies, indicated a maximum range of 25m beyond the CDTN boundaries to distribute the monitoring points. (author)

  14. The transient radiation effects and hardness of programmed device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Chuanhua; Xu Xianguo; Zhao Hailin

    2014-01-01

    A review and summary of research and development in the investigation of transient ionizing radiation effects in device and cirviut is presented. The transient ionizing radiation effects in two type of programmed device, that's 32 bit Microcontroller and antifuse FPGA, were studied. The expeiment test data indicate: The transient ionizing radiation effects of 32 bit Microcontroller manifested self-motion restart and Latchup, the Latchup threshold was 5 × 10"7 Gy (Si)/s. The transient ionizing radiation effects of FPGA was reset, no Latchup. The relationship of circuit effects to physical mechanisms was analized. A new method of hardness in circiut design was put forward. (authors)

  15. Development of Computer Program for Analysis of Irregular Non Homogenous Radiation Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang Rozali; Nina Kusumah; Hendro Tjahjono; Darlis

    2003-01-01

    A computer program for radiation shielding analysis has been developed to obtain radiation attenuation calculation in non-homogenous radiation shielding and irregular geometry. By determining radiation source strength, geometrical shape of radiation source, location, dimension and geometrical shape of radiation shielding, radiation level of a point at certain position from radiation source can be calculated. By using a computer program, calculation result of radiation distribution analysis can be obtained for some analytical points simultaneously. (author)

  16. Radiation applications in NDT in space program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K.

    1994-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation play an important role in the qualification of sub-systems and components in space programme. NDT is carried out at various stages of manufacturing of components and also prior to end use to ensure a high degree of reliability. Penetrating radiations such as X-rays, γ-rays and neutrons are extensively used for the radiographic inspection of components, sub-systems and assemblies in both the launch vehicles and satellites. Both low and high energy radiations are employed for the evaluation of the above components depending on their size and nature. Real time radiography (RTR) and computed tomography (CT) are also used in certain specific applications where more detailed information is needed. Neutron radiography is employed for the inspection of pyro-devices used in separation, destruct and satellite deployment systems. Besides their use for non-destructive testing purposes, the radiation sources are also used for various special applications like solid propellant slurry flow measurement simulation of radiation environment on components used in the satellites and also for studying migration of ingredients in solid rocket motor. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs

  17. Human Research Program Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloschak, Gayle; Steinberg-Wright, S.; Coleman, Norman; Grdina, David; Hill, Colin; Iliakis, George; Metting, Noelle; Meyers, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 9-11, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE) of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Space Radiation SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the demands placed on the HRP. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the SRP charge. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on December 11, 2009. The SRP noted that current SRPE strategy is properly science-based and views this as the best assurance of the likelihood that answers to the questions posed as gaps in knowledge can be found, that the uncertainty in risk estimates can be reduced, and that a solid, cost-effective approach to risk reduction solutions is being developed. The current approach of the SRPE, based on the use of carefully focused research solicitations, requiring thorough peer-review and approaches demonstrated to be on the path to answering the NASA strategic questions, addressed to a broad extramural community of qualified scientists, optimally positioned to take advantage of serendipitous discoveries and to leverage scientific advances made elsewhere, is sound and appropriate. The SRP viewed with concern statements by HRP implying that the only science legitimately deserving support should be "applied" or, in some instances that the very term "research" might be

  18. Radiation dose in the high background radiation area in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christa, E P; Jojo, P J; Vaidyan, V K; Anilkumar, S; Eappen, K P

    2012-03-01

    A systematic radiological survey has been carried out in the region of high-background radiation area in Kollam district of Kerala to define the natural gamma-radiation levels. One hundred and forty seven soil samples from high-background radiation areas and five samples from normal background region were collected as per standard sampling procedures and were analysed for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K by gamma-ray spectroscopy. External gamma dose rates at all sampling locations were also measured using a survey meter. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K was found to vary from 17 to 3081 Bq kg(-1), 54 to 11976 Bq kg(-1) and BDL (67.4 Bq kg(-1)) to 216 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the study area. Such heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the region may be attributed to the deposition phenomenon of beach sand soil in the region. Radium equivalent activities were found high in several locations. External gamma dose rates estimated from the levels of radionuclides in soil had a range from 49 to 9244 nGy h(-1). The result of gamma dose rate measured at the sampling sites using survey meter showed an excellent correlation with dose rates computed from the natural radionuclides estimated from the soil samples.

  19. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  20. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry

  1. The role of radiation damage analysis in the fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of radiation damage analysis is the prediction of the performance of facility components exposed to a radiation environment. The US Magnetic Fusion Energy materials program includes an explicit damage analysis activity within the Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) Program. Many of the papers in these Proceedings report work done directly or indirectly in support of the DAFS program. The emphasis of this program is on developing procedures, based on an understanding of damage mechanisms, for applying data obtained in diverse radiation environments to the prediction of component behavior in fusion devices. It is assumed that the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility will be available in the late 1980s to test (and calibrate where necessary) correlation procedures to the high fluences expected in commercial reactors. (orig.)

  2. Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA's regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA's lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants

  3. Radiation area monitoring by wireless-communicating area monitor with surveillance camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Hiromitsu; Kitahara, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Okamoto, Shinji

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at a dose reduction and a work efficiency improvement for nuclear power plants that have high dose regions, we have developed our system of wireless-communicating Area Monitor with Surveillance Camera, and have performed an on-site test. Now we are implementing this Area Monitor with Surveillance Camera for a use as a TV camera in the controlled-area, which enables a personal computer to simultaneously display two or more dose values and site live images on the screen. For the radiation detector of this Area Monitor System, our wireless-communicating dosimeter is utilized. Image data are transmitted via a wireless Local Area Network (LAN). As a test result, image transmission of a maximum of 20 frames per second has been realized, which shows that this concept is a practical application. Remote-site monitoring also has been realized from an office desk located within the non-controlled area, adopting a Japan's wireless phone system, PHS (Personal Handy Phone) for the transmission interface. (author)

  4. A quality control program for the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) in personnel radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyung Won; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Hyung Sub

    1994-01-01

    High quality radiation dosimetry is essential for workers who rely upon personal dosemeters to record the amount of radiation to which they are exposed. The ministry of science and technology (MOST) issued a ministerial ordinance (No 199-15) about the technical criteria on personnel dosimeter processors on 1992. The purpose of this quality control program is to prescribe the procedures approved by the management of KAERI for implementing a quality badge service by means of TLD for personnel working in an area where they may be exposed to ionization radiation. (Author) 10 refs

  5. Aerial radiation survey techniques for efficient characterization of large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydelko, T.; Riedhauser, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Accidental or intentional releases of radioactive isotopes over potentially very large surface areas can pose serious health risks to humans and ecological receptors. Timely and appropriate responses to these releases depend upon rapid and accurate characterization of impacted areas. These characterization efforts can be adversely impacted by heavy vegetation, rugged terrain, urban environments, and the presence of unknown levels of radioactivity. Aerial survey techniques have proven highly successful in measuring gamma emissions from radiological contaminates of concern quickly, efficiently, and safely. Examples of accidental releases include the unintentional distribution of uranium mining ores during transportation, the loss of uranium processing and waste materials, unintentional nuclear power plant emissions into the atmosphere, and the distribution of isotopes during major flooding events such as the one recently occurring in New Orleans. Intentional releases have occurred during the use of deleted uranium ammunition test firing and war time use by military organizations. The threat of radiological dispersion device (dirty bomb) use by terrorists is currently a major concern of many major cities worldwide. The U.S. Department of Energy, in cooperation with its Remote Sensing Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, has developed a sophisticated aerial measurement system for identifying the locations, types, and quantities of gamma emitting radionuclides over extremely large areas. Helicopter mounted Nal detectors are flown at low altitude and constant speed along parallel paths measuring the full spectrum of gamma activity. Analytical procedures are capable of distinguishing between radiological contamination and changes in natural background emissions. Mapped and tabular results of these accurate, timely and cost effective aerial gamma radiation surveys can be used to assist with emergency response actions, if necessary, and to focus more

  6. National Nanotechnology Initiative Investments by Agency and Program Component Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — Data represents National Nanotechnology Initiative investments by agency and program component area (PCA) from FY 2001 through FY 2010 (requested). While this data...

  7. Tanks focus area multiyear program plan - FY96-FY98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP) presents the recommended TFA technical program. The recommendation covers a 3-year funding outlook (FY96-FY98), with an emphasis on FY96 and FY97. In addition to defining the recommended program, this document also describes the processes used to develop the program, the implementation strategy for the program, the references used to write this report, data on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank site baselines, details on baseline assumptions and the technical elements, and a glossary

  8. The NSW radiation therapy PDY educational program. A review of the 2002 and 2003 programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beldham-Collins, Rachael

    2005-01-01

    Each month, nine radiation oncology departments in the public health sector in New South Wales host a one-day educational program for graduate practitioners completing their professional development year (PDY). Various topics are presented which are considered relevant to graduates in the transition from the academic environment to full time work in busy clinical departments. This paper presents the findings of a review of the NSW State Radiation Therapy PDY educational program for 2002 and 2003 instigated by the NSW Chiefs Group. The program was evaluated to determine whether it enhanced the learning experiences of graduate practitioners during the PDY. The results indicate the educational program has been successful in enhancing the skills of the radiation therapy graduate practitioners. This finding suggests the program is having a positive impact on the experience of the graduate practitioners within radiation therapy in NSW. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Radiography

  9. Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park…

  10. A computer based learning program for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, T.; Kruell, A.; Schmidt, R.

    1999-01-01

    Many textbooks about radiation therapy for the education of medical, technical and scientific staff are available. But they are restricted to transfer of knowledge via text and figures. On the other hand movies and animated pictures can give you a more realistic impression of the procedures and technical equipment of a radiation therapy department. Therefore, an interactive multimedia teaching program was developed at the Universitaets-Krankenhaus Eppendorf for the department of radiation therapy. The electronic textbook runs under 'MS Windows 3.1 trademark ' (with multimedia extensions) and 'MS Windows 95 trademark ', contains eight chapters and can be used without any preliminary knowledge. The program has been tested by medical personnel, nurses, physicists and physicians and was generally welcome. The program was designed for people with different levels of education to reach as many users as possible. It was not created to replace textbooks but was designed for their supplement. (orig.) [de

  11. Human projected area factors for detailed direct and diffuse solar radiation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubaha, K.; Fiala, D.; Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Projected area factors for individual segments of the standing and sedentary human body were modelled for both direct and diffuse solar radiation using detailed 3D geometry and radiation models. The local projected area factors with respect to direct short-wave radiation are a function of the solar...

  12. Radiation damage calculations for the APT materials test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corzine, R.K.; Wechsler, M.S.; Dudziak, D.J.; Ferguson, P.D.; James, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A materials irradiation was performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in the fall of 1996 and spring of 1997 in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program. Testing of the irradiated materials is underway. In the proposed APT design, materials in the target and blanket are to be exposed to protons and neutrons over a wide range of energies. The irradiation and testing program was undertaken to enlarge the very limited direct knowledge presently available of the effects of medium-energy protons (∼1 GeV) on the properties of engineering materials. APT candidate materials were placed in or near the LANSCE accelerator 800-MeV, 1-mA proton beam and received roughly the same proton current density in the center of the beam as would be the case for the APT facility. As a result, the proton fluences achieved in the irradiation were expected to approach the APT prototypic full-power-year values. To predict accurately the performance of materials in APT, radiation damage parameters for the materials experiment must be determined. By modeling the experiment, calculations for atomic displacement, helium and hydrogen cross sections and for proton and neutron fluences were done for representative samples in the 17A, 18A, and 18C areas. The LAHET code system (LCS) was used to model the irradiation program, LAHET 2.82 within LCS transports protons > 1 MeV, and neutrons >20 MeV. A modified version of MCNP for use in LCS, HMCNP 4A, was employed to tally neutrons of energies <20 MeV

  13. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, William W [Pittsburg, CA; Labov, Simon E [Berkeley, CA

    2009-06-09

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  14. MGR COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE PACKAGE FOR RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION, AND FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Compliance Program Guidance Package identifies the regulatory guidance and industry codes and standards addressing radiation protection equipment, instrumentation, and support facilities considered to be appropriate for radiation protection at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Included are considerations relevant to radiation monitoring instruments, calibration, contamination control and decontamination, respiratory protection equipment, and general radiation protection facilities. The scope of this Guidance Package does not include design guidance relevant to criticality monitoring, area radiation monitoring, effluent monitoring, and airborne radioactivity monitoring systems since they are considered to be the topics of specific design and construction requirements (i.e., ''fixed'' or ''built-in'' systems). This Guidance Package does not address radiation protection design issues; it addresses the selection and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation to the extent that the guidance is relevant to the operational radiation protection program. Radon and radon progeny monitoring instrumentation is not included in the Guidance Package since such naturally occurring radioactive materials do not fall within the NRC's jurisdiction at the MGR

  15. HEU Transparency Implementation Program and its Radiation Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radev, R

    2002-01-01

    In February 1993, the Governments of the United States (U.S.) and the Russian Federation (R.F.) signed a bilateral Agreement for the U.S. purchase of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from 500 metric tons (MT) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of Russian nuclear weapons. The HEU Purchase Agreement serves important national security and nonproliferation policy imperatives for both countries since its implementation reduces the quantity of surplus Russian HEU that could be stolen and diverted for weapons use. In return, Russia receives much needed U.S. dollars over a 20-year delivery period. In 2001, Russia received over half a billion US dollars from the purchase of the LEU blended from 30 MT HEU. As part of this Agreement, transparency rights were agreed upon that provide confidence to both governments that the nonproliferation objectives of the Agreement are being fulfilled. While the U.S. Department of State, in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is responsible negotiating transparency rights associated with this nuclear material, the NNSA is responsible for implementing those rights. These rights allow U.S. and R.F., personnel (called ''monitors'') to visit the processing facilities and observe the steps for processing the HEU into fuel for nuclear reactors. In this fashion, the processing of HEU to LEU is made ''transparent.'' For DOE, there are three transparency objectives: (1) that the HEU is extracted from nuclear weapons, (2) that this same HEU is oxidized, and (3) that the HEU is blended into LEU. For MINATOM, the transparency objective is: (1) that the LEU is fabricated into fuel for commercial nuclear power reactors: The transparency is based on visits by designated transparency monitors (100 preapproved U.S. and Russian monitors) with specific rights to monitor and to access storage and processing areas to provide confidence that the nonproliferation goals

  16. The international atom: evolution of radiation control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, F J

    2002-07-01

    Under the Atoms for Peace program, Turkey received a one MWt swimming pool reactor in 1962 that initiated a health physics program for the reactor and a Radiation Control Program (RCP) for the country's use of ionizing radiation. Today, over 13,000 radiation workers, concentrated in the medical field, provide improved medical care with 6,200 x-ray units, including 494 CAT scanners, 222 radioimmunoassay (RIA) labs and 42 radiotherapy centers. Industry has a large stake in the safe use of ionizing radiation with over 1,200 x-ray and gamma radiography and fluoroscopic units, 2,500 gauges in automated process control and five irradiators. A 48-person RCP staff oversees this expanded radiation use. One incident involving a spent 3.3 TBq (88 Ci) 60Co source resulted in 10 overexposures but no fatalities. Taiwan received a 1.6 MWt swimming pool reactor in 1961 and rapidly applied nuclear technology to the medical and industrial fields. Today, there are approximately 24,000 licensed radiation workers in nuclear power field, industry, medicine and academia. Four BWRs and two PWRs supply about 25% of the island's electrical power needs. One traumatic event galvanized the RCP when an undetermined amount of 60Co was accidentally incorporated into reinforcing bars, which in turn were incorporated into residential and commercial buildings. Public exposures were estimated to range up to 15 mSv (1.3 rem) per annum. There were no reported ill effects, except possibly psychological, to date. The RCP now has instituted stringent control measures to ensure radiation-free dwellings and work places. Albania's RCP is described as it evolved since 1972. Regulations were promulgated which followed the IAEA Basic Safety Standards of that era. With 525 licenses and 600 radiation workers, the problem was not in the regulations per se but in their enforcement. The IAEA helped to upgrade the RCP as the economy evolved from one that was centrally planned economy to a free market economy. As this

  17. Real-Time Engagement Area Development Program (READ-Pro)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burger, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    The Real Time Engagement Area Development Program (READ-Pro) is a PC-based prototype system which provides company-level commanders with real-time operational analysis tools to develop ENGAGEMENT AREAS(EA) for direct fire (DF) systems...

  18. Real-Time Engagement Area Development Program (Read-Pro)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burger, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    The Real-Tine Engagement Area Development Program (READ-Pro) is a PC-based prototype system which provides company-level commanders with real-time operational analysis tools to develop engagement areas (RA) for direct fire (DR) systems...

  19. Radiation protection study of radiology medical workers in radiodiagnosis area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Canizal, C.; Garcia, M.A.; Orozco, M.; Rincon, A.; Padilla, Y.; Martinez, A.

    1996-01-01

    Aspects related to radiological safety and its organization in radiodiagnosis were evaluated by means of scanning carried out in 18 hospitals of Mexico City, divided in 11 public institutions and 7 private ones. The population being studied was: hospital personnel that works in radiodiagnosis. The survey was made with 31 dichotomic variables, being obtained 132 surveys. The personnel characteristics are 83% works in public institutions, 49% works in radiodiagnosis, 3% has an academic degree, 13% is member of a hospital professional association, 13% has updated information on radiological protection, 36% was trained, 45% works for more than 2 years, 52% uses personal dosemeter, less than the 20% knows about the fundamentals of the radiological protection and 24% states to suffer from biological radiation effects, due to the exposure to x-rays. As result of the study, it was found that the main problems that the radiological protection has, are: lack of training programs in radiological protection and supervision, medical surveillance and the few number of persons that takes part in clinical meetings and professional associations. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  20. NASA Space Radiation Program Integrative Risk Model Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sandridge, Chris

    2015-01-01

    NASA Space Radiation Program Element scientists have been actively involved in development of an integrative risk models toolkit that includes models for acute radiation risk and organ dose projection (ARRBOD), NASA space radiation cancer risk projection (NSCR), hemocyte dose estimation (HemoDose), GCR event-based risk model code (GERMcode), and relativistic ion tracks (RITRACKS), NASA radiation track image (NASARTI), and the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS). This session will introduce the components of the risk toolkit with opportunity for hands on demonstrations. The brief descriptions of each tools are: ARRBOD for Organ dose projection and acute radiation risk calculation from exposure to solar particle event; NSCR for Projection of cancer risk from exposure to space radiation; HemoDose for retrospective dose estimation by using multi-type blood cell counts; GERMcode for basic physical and biophysical properties for an ion beam, and biophysical and radiobiological properties for a beam transport to the target in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory beam line; RITRACKS for simulation of heavy ion and delta-ray track structure, radiation chemistry, DNA structure and DNA damage at the molecular scale; NASARTI for modeling of the effects of space radiation on human cells and tissue by incorporating a physical model of tracks, cell nucleus, and DNA damage foci with image segmentation for the automated count; and OLTARIS, an integrated tool set utilizing HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) intended to help scientists and engineers study the effects of space radiation on shielding materials, electronics, and biological systems.

  1. Fundamental radiation effects studies in the fusion materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fundamental radiation effects studies in the US Fusion Materials Program generally fall under the aegis of the Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) Program. In a narrow sense, the problem addressed by the DAFS program is the prediction of radiation effects in fusion devices using data obtained in non-representative environments. From the onset, the program has had near-term and long-term components. The premise for the latter is that there will be large economic penalties for uncertainties in predictive capability. Fusion devices are expected to be large and complex and unanticipated maintenance will be costly. It is important that predictions are based on a maximum of understanding and a minimum of empiricism. Gaining this understanding is the thrust of the long-term component. (orig.)

  2. A new graduate education program in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beldham-Collins, Rachael; Milinkovic, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The evaluation of the Radiation Oncology Network's (RON) in house professional development year (PDY) support program was implemented to determine the appropriate teaching, learning and transfer of learning strategies that assist the newly practicing radiation therapists' transition into the busy working environment. As the AIR program saw little clinical support offered to participating new graduates and thus a need for further educational support was felt. The RON support program was initially introduced as the clinical education support component of the NSW PDY program that was introduced in 1995 by the Australian Institute of Radiography. Method: Following the facilitation of the RON PDY program over a twelve month period, qualitative feedback was obtained using a focus group consisting of new graduates from the program. Two moderators facilitated the focus group: one moderator facilitated the discussion while the second moderator transcribed it. The graduate practitioners were asked a number of questions related to the teaching and learning strategies employed by the program as well as the structure of the program. Results/discussion: The responses were analysed into the following themes: teaching and learning strategies, transfer of learning, facilitation and future learning needs. Overall the graduate practitioners found the program nurtured their skill, knowledge and attitudes appropriately at such a critical stage in their career

  3. A new graduate education program in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beldham-Collins, Rachael [Radiation Oncology Network, Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, PO Box 533, Wentworthville NSW 2145 (Australia); School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Milinkovic, Danielle [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: d.milinkovic@fhs.usyd.edu.au

    2009-02-15

    Purpose: The evaluation of the Radiation Oncology Network's (RON) in house professional development year (PDY) support program was implemented to determine the appropriate teaching, learning and transfer of learning strategies that assist the newly practicing radiation therapists' transition into the busy working environment. As the AIR program saw little clinical support offered to participating new graduates and thus a need for further educational support was felt. The RON support program was initially introduced as the clinical education support component of the NSW PDY program that was introduced in 1995 by the Australian Institute of Radiography. Method: Following the facilitation of the RON PDY program over a twelve month period, qualitative feedback was obtained using a focus group consisting of new graduates from the program. Two moderators facilitated the focus group: one moderator facilitated the discussion while the second moderator transcribed it. The graduate practitioners were asked a number of questions related to the teaching and learning strategies employed by the program as well as the structure of the program. Results/discussion: The responses were analysed into the following themes: teaching and learning strategies, transfer of learning, facilitation and future learning needs. Overall the graduate practitioners found the program nurtured their skill, knowledge and attitudes appropriately at such a critical stage in their career.

  4. Radiation Area Remedial Action FY 1996 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, W.M.

    1996-11-01

    The Radiation Area Remedial Action (RARA) project is responsible for the interim stabilization and maintenance of the majority of the inactive waste sites at the Hanford Site. These waste sites include approximately 400 individual sites and 4,000 acres. Three facilities were removed from the RARA list near the end of fiscal year (FY) 1996P: the 218-W-4B, 218-E-10, and 218-E-12B Burial Grounds. These three facilities are treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) sites assigned to Fluor Daniel Hanford. Therefore, the RARA project will no longer perform activities on the inactive portions to maintain clear lines of responsibility (fully with Fluor Daniel Hanford). RARA activities are broken into two broad categories: interim stabilization, and surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Interim stabilization addresses major corrective actions for sites with radioactive surface contamination. A site continues to require S and M once it has received interim stabilization. Vegetation management is a significant activity under the RARA project. The goal is to control vegetation that may grow and spread radioactive contamination

  5. Exploratory study of the radiation-protection training programs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, C.D.

    1982-06-01

    The objective of the study was to examine current radiation training programs at a sample of utilities operating nuclear reactors and to evaluate employee information on radiation health. The study addressed three elements: (1) employee perceptions and understanding of ionizing radiation; (2) utility trainers-their background, training, and problems; (3) the content, materials, and conduct of training programs; (4) program uniformity and completeness. These areas were examined through visits to utilities, surveys, and employee interviews. The programs reviewed were developed by utility personnel who have backgrounds, for the most part, in health physics but who may have little formal training in adult education. This orientation, coupled with the inherent nature of the subject, has produced training programs that appear to be too technical to achieve the educational job intended. The average nuclear power plant worker does not have the level of sophistication needed to understand some of the information. It became apparent that nuclear power plant workers have concerns that do not necessarily reflect those of the scientific community. Many of these result from misunderstandings about radiation. Unfortunately, the training programs do not always address these unfounded but very real fears

  6. Improvements to the Ionizing Radiation Risk Assessment Program for NASA Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semones, E. J.; Bahadori, A. A.; Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Flores-McLaughlin, J.

    2011-01-01

    To perform dosimetry and risk assessment, NASA collects astronaut ionizing radiation exposure data from space flight, medical imaging and therapy, aviation training activities and prior occupational exposure histories. Career risk of exposure induced death (REID) from radiation is limited to 3 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. The Radiation Health Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is implementing a program to integrate the gathering, storage, analysis and reporting of astronaut ionizing radiation dose and risk data and records. This work has several motivations, including more efficient analyses and greater flexibility in testing and adopting new methods for evaluating risks. The foundation for these improvements is a set of software tools called the Astronaut Radiation Exposure Analysis System (AREAS). AREAS is a series of MATLAB(Registered TradeMark)-based dose and risk analysis modules that interface with an enterprise level SQL Server database by means of a secure web service. It communicates with other JSC medical and space weather databases to maintain data integrity and consistency across systems. AREAS is part of a larger NASA Space Medicine effort, the Mission Medical Integration Strategy, with the goal of collecting accurate, high-quality and detailed astronaut health data, and then securely, timely and reliably presenting it to medical support personnel. The modular approach to the AREAS design accommodates past, current, and future sources of data from active and passive detectors, space radiation transport algorithms, computational phantoms and cancer risk models. Revisions of the cancer risk model, new radiation detection equipment and improved anthropomorphic computational phantoms can be incorporated. Notable hardware updates include the Radiation Environment Monitor (which uses Medipix technology to report real-time, on-board dosimetry measurements), an updated Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter, and the Southwest Research Institute

  7. Microbiology of the surface water samples in the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Zamani, Khosrow; Sedigh, Hadi; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Taeb, Shahram; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Soofi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Residents of high background radiation areas of Ramsar have lived in these areas for many generations and received radiation doses much higher than the dose limit recommended by ICRP for radiation workers. The radioactivity of the high background radiation areas of Ramsar is reported to be due to 226 Ra and its decay products, which have been brought to the surface by the waters of hot springs. Over the past years the department has focused on different aspects of the health effects of the elevated levels of natural radiation in Ramsar. This study was aimed to perform a preliminary investigation on the bioeffects of exposure to elevated levels of natural radiation on the microbiology of surface water samples. Water samples were collected from surface water streams in Talesh Mahalleh district, Ramsar as well as a nearby area with normal levels of background radiation. Only two strains of bacteria, that is, Providencia stuartii and Shimwellia blattae, could be isolated from the water samples collected from high background radiation areas, while seven strains (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter asburiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Buttiauxella agerstis, Tatumella punctuata and Raoultella ornithinolytica) were isolated from the water samples collected from normal background radiation areas. All the bacteria isolated from water samples of high and normal background radiation areas were sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, heat, betadine, alcohol, and deconex. Although other investigators have reported that bacteria isolated from hot springs show radioresistance, the results reported here do not reveal any adaptive response. (author)

  8. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L. [SeaSpace Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  9. Effectiveness of radiation control program for Dornier HM3 lithotriptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, D.P.; Gleeson, M.J.; Politis, G.; Glaze, S.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation exposure during extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was calculated using a worst-case method in 135 randomly selected patients. The patients were divided into four groups according to body weight: small (less than 140 pounds), medium (141-180 pounds), large (181-220 pounds), and very large (greater than 220 pounds). Average skin exposure was found to be 15.2 R (from 1.2 to 95.6 R). After implementation of a radiation awareness program radiation exposure was calculated in 128 cases (matched for body weight and stone burden) and average exposure was 9.5 R (from 0.9 to 33.4 R) with a reduction of 20, 37, 33, and 62 percent for each group, respectively. Radiation exposure reduction was primarily due to a reduction in the number of radiographic snapshots taken as a result of preferential use of special-mode fluoroscopic stills. 21 references

  10. Effectiveness of radiation control program for Dornier HM3 lithotriptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, D.P.; Gleeson, M.J.; Politis, G.; Glaze, S.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation exposure during extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was calculated using a worst-case method in 135 randomly selected patients. The patients were divided into four groups according to body weight: small (less than 140 pounds), medium (141-180 pounds), large (181-220 pounds), and very large (greater than 220 pounds). Average skin exposure was found to be 15.2 R (from 1.2 to 95.6 R). After implementation of a radiation awareness program radiation exposure was calculated in 128 cases (matched for body weight and stone burden) and average exposure was 9.5 R (from 0.9 to 33.4 R) with a reduction of 20, 37, 33, and 62 percent for each group, respectively. Radiation exposure reduction was primarily due to a reduction in the number of radiographic snapshots taken as a result of preferential use of special-mode fluoroscopic stills. 21 references.

  11. Directional Radiation Dosimeter for Area and Environmental Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoli, J.E.; Campos, V.P.; Moura, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    It is presented a dosimeter that is able to measure the photon exposure and the direction from where the radiation came from. Preliminary measurements performed by this new directional radiation dosimeter demonstrate its application. This dosimeter consists of a small lead cube with thermoluminescent discs on each face, placed in well known coordinates. Only one dosimeter of this kind indicates the direction of the radiation beam, if it came from a unique position. This study was conducted inside the radiation room of a Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiator and the dosimeter indicated the source position

  12. Radiation monitoring program at nuclear scientific experimental and educational center - IRT-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenov, A.; Stankov, D.; Marinov, K.; Nonova, T.; Krezhov, K.

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring minimal risk of personnel exposure without exceeding the dose limits is the main task of the General Program for Radiation Monitoring of Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Education Centre (NSEEC) with research reactor IRT. Since 2006 the IRT-Sofia is equipped with a new and modern Radiation Monitoring System (RMS). All RMS detectors are connected to the server RAMSYS. They have online (real-time) visualization in two workstations with RAMVISION software. The RMS allows the implementation of technological and environmental monitoring at the nuclear facility site. Environmental monitoring with the RMS external system includes monitoring of dose rate; alpha and beta activity; radon activity; Po-218, Po-214, Po-212 activity; gamma control of vehicles. Technological control of reactor gases includes: Alpha beta particulate monitor; Iodine monitor; Noble gases monitor; Stack flow monitor. The General Program based on the radiation monitoring system allows real-time monitoring and control of radiation parameters in the controlled area and provides for a high level of radiation protection of IRT staff and users of its facilities. This paper presents the technical and functional parameters of the radiation monitoring system and radiation protection activities within the restricted zone in IRT facilities. (authors)

  13. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Our Changing Climate-Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is

  14. Epidemiological studies in high-background radiation areas its potential contribution to evaluating risk of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Nair, R.K.; Nakamura, Seiichi; Mizuno, Shoich

    2008-01-01

    The health effect of low-level ionizing radiation is yet unclear. As pointed out by Upton in his review (Upton, 1989), low-level ionizing radiation seems to have different biological effects from what high-level radiation has. Its evaluation requires epidemiological studies of scale-large cohorts (ICRP 99, 2005) such of atomic bomb survivors and nuclear workers. Epidemiological studies in high-background radiation (HBR) areas are also expected to make a significant contribution toward this end. Among several HBR areas in the world, Yangjiang, Guangdong Province in China, Karunagappally in Kerala State of India, Manawalakurichi and Koodankulam in Tamil Nadu of India, and Ramsar in Iran are important areas where epidemiological studies are possible, because of their relatively high background radiation levels and large population sizes. (author)

  15. Area Safety Program for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappe, G.M.

    1984-10-01

    Overall the Area Safety Program has proved to be a very successful operation. There is no doubt that a safety program organized through line management is the best way to involve all personnel. Naturally, when the program was first started, there was some criticism and a certain resistance on the part of a few individuals to fully participate. However, once the program was underway and it could be seen that it was working to everyone's advantage, this reluctance disappeared and a spirit of full cooperation is now enjoyed. It is very important that for this success to continue there must be a two way flow of information, both from the Area Safety Coordinators up through line management, and from senior management, with decisions and answers, back down through the management chain with the utmost dispatch. As with all programs, there is still room for improvement. This program has started a review cycle with a view to streamlining certain areas and possibly increasing its scope in others

  16. Development of a programming model for radiation-resistant software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Piercey, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The adverse effects of ionizing radiation on microelectronic systems include cumulative dosage effects, single-event upsets (SEU's) and latch-up. Most frequent, especially when the radiation environment includes heavy ions, are SEU's. Unfortunately SEU's are difficult to detect since they can be read (in RAM or ROM) as valid addresses. They can however be handled in software by proper techniques. The authors refer to their method as MRS - Maximally Redundant Software. The MRS programming model which the authors are developing uses multiply redundant boot blocks, majority voting, periodic refresh, and error recovery techniques to minimize the deleterious effects of SEU's. 1 figure

  17. Building the basis for a comprehensive radiation protection program for a multi-program laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    An explicit, workplace-specific training has been developed, implemented, and documented for all radiation workers. In addition to the radiation worker personnel located at reactors, accelerators, radiochemical laboratories, and waste treatment areas, we have trained other personnel who work in areas where a lesser potential for radiological/chemical exposure exists. These workforces include construction crews, site restoration crews, contracted special services such as scoping and site characterization teams, and short-term visitors. We are developing a comprehensive, integrated approach to radiation protection training suited for a multi-purpose research laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. MSX-Basis program for analyzing of gamma radiation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Moran, R.L.; Marin, E.; Hernandez, M.

    1992-01-01

    A MSX-Basic language program, called ESPEC-2, which carries out the analytical evaluation of gamma spectrum and involves an smoothing routine, a zero area rectangular transform to locate peaks, and a Gaussian fitting technique for the peaks, is described. The program provides the performance needed for demonstrative uses, and ease of operation for the laboratory classroom

  19. FINAL REPORT FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe M. Aldrich

    2004-11-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

  20. FINAL REPORT. FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, Joe M.

    2004-01-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC--05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004

  1. Multiple chromosome aberrations among newborns from high level natural radiation area and normal level natural radiation area of south west coast of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soren, D.C.; Ramachandran, E.N.; Karuppasamy, C.V.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Anil Kumar, V.; Koya, P.K.M.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Cord blood samples were collected in heparin vials and microculture techniques employed to obtain good metaphase chromosome spreads. In cytogenetic studies on newborns cells with multiple aberrations were recorded in 57 from a total of 27285 newborns (1266972 cells). Of these 17294 newborns (964140 cells) were from High Level Natural Radiation Area (HLNRA) and 9991 newborns (302832 cells) from Normal Level Natural Radiation Area (NLNRA). Cells with multiple aberrations were observed in 38 and 19 newborns from High and Normal Level Natural Radiation Area respectively. On an average one cell with multiple aberrations was observed among 479 newborns. Cells with multiple aberrations were observed in newborns from HLNRA as well as NLNRA in both males and females. Gender difference of newborns, maternal age group and background radiation levels did not seem to have any influence in the occurrence of Multiple chromosome aberrations

  2. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundell, J. F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Magnuson, S. O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scherbinske, P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Case, M. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  3. Community Radiation Monitoring Program: Annual report, October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, E.N.; Jones, M.A.; Thompson, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    The objectives of this program include augmenting and enhancing collection of airborne radiation data at selected locations, making the public aware of that specific effort, and involving in as many ways as possible the residents of the area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to increase their understanding of these and other DOE-sponsored activities. The commitment to these residents, on the part of DOE and the others associated with the program, to the protection of their health and safety is the overriding consideration in the effort. Improving communication with these people through hiring and training local residents as program representatives, presenting local public education forums, disseminating information on radiation monitoring and other related subjects, and developing and maintaining contacts and communication with local officials are the vehicles currently used to further the flow of accurate and timely information

  4. A geophysical tour of high background radiation areas of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, D.; Kher, R.K.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1995-01-01

    A comparison of the findings including health effects in four major high natural background areas of the world are given. Such high background areas could prove to be a radiation ecology laboratory gifted by nature and provide further insight in the relation of radiation, natural or otherwise and human health. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Environmental Remediation Sciences Program at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargar, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based techniques provide unique capabilities to address scientific issues underpinning environmental remediation science and have emerged as major research tools in this field. The high intensity of SR sources and x-ray photon-in/photon-out detection allow noninvasive in-situ analysis of dilute, hydrated, and chemically/structurally complex natural samples. SR x-rays can be focused to beams of micron and sub-micron dimension, which allows the study of microstructures, chemical microgradients, and microenvironments such as in biofilms, pore spaces, and around plant roots, that may control the transformation of contaminants in the environment. The utilization of SR techniques in environmental remediation sciences is often frustrated, however, by an ''activation energy barrier'', which is associated with the need to become familiar with an array of data acquisition and analysis techniques, a new technical vocabulary, beam lines, experimental instrumentation, and user facility administrative procedures. Many investigators find it challenging to become sufficiently expert in all of these areas or to maintain their training as techniques evolve. Another challenge is the dearth of facilities for hard x-ray micro-spectroscopy, particularly in the 15 to 23 KeV range, which includes x-ray absorption edges of the priority DOE contaminants Sr, U, Np, Pu, and Tc. Prior to the current program, there were only two (heavily oversubscribed) microprobe facilities in the U.S. that could fully address this energy range (one at each of APS and NSLS); none existed in the Western U.S., in spite of the relatively large number of DOE laboratories in this region

  6. A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.; Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM's highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM's experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program

  9. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site's 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410

  10. Economics of area-wide sit control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, Walther

    2003-01-01

    The economic feasibility of using the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control certain key insect pests has been demonstrated clearly. The successful implementation of a number of area-wide and large-scale SIT programs has produced substantial economic benefits for the beneficiaries of the technology. The economic advantages of this technology will become more evident as indirect benefits of SIT application are incorporated into total program benefit estimates. Awareness of the technical and economic advantages of the SIT, and market forces favoring the use of environmentally clean pest control methods, will encourage private investment in this technology. (author)

  11. Program description of FIBRAM (Fiber Optic Radiation Attenuation Model): a radiation attenuation model for optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, W.J.

    1987-06-01

    The report describes a fiber-optics system model and its computer implementation. This implementation can calculate the bit error ratio (BER) versus time for optical fibers that have been exposed to gamma radiation. The program is designed so that the user may arbitrarily change any or all of the system input variables and produce separate outputs. The primary output of the program is a table of the BER as a function of time. This table may be stored on magnetic media and later incorporated into computer graphic programs. The program was written in FORTRAN 77 for the IBM PC/AT/XT computers. Flow charts and program listings are included in the report

  12. Distance Education Programs in Radiation Protection- A ten year Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvin, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Professional development has always played a critical role in the organisation of radiation safety programs. Training programs for professionals, technologists and general workers involved in high risk trades vary according to their experience and specific functions. The key concept for effective programs consists in the proper match of the training content with the individual skills and interests of the participants. In conventional class training, unless the students constitute an homogeneous group, the teaching can not perfectly follow the specific needs of all participants and the pace of the course is kept at a sub-optimal level in order to accommodate less talented participants. Distance education with Electronic Mail, web CT, first class mail, and other communication tools has been used with success during the last decade in undergraduate, master's and doctoral programs as well as in continuing training for workers. It offers a wide range of teaching strategies and course content. Compared to conventional training, it has numerous benefits: (1) Travel costs for students and instructors are eliminated and international groups of students and professors can easily be constituted; (2) Instructors can be recruited worldwide; (3) Discussion forums can be established easily; (4) Integration of expert guests into online course discussions are possible; (5) Student online publications of projects, assignments and abstracts are current; (6) Schedules are more flexible and proctored examinations are possible. The author will present the strategies used at McGill University in the teaching of Radiation Protection to physicians and professionals ( MSc. level ) and the application of distance education methods for training large groups of workers in biomedical research centres, hospitals, power generation facilities and utilities in general. He will describe the content of the programs, the study guides, the evaluation formats, web-site references and resources, the

  13. Solar radiation in forest and pasture areas in the Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, J.R.P.; Costa, R.F. da; Fisch, G.; Souza, S.S. de; Nobre, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The average daytime behavior of the global incident radiation (Rg) over grassland (NS) and forest (RJ) in Rondonia State during dry and wet seasons were analyzed. The data set originated from the ABRACOS Project’s automatic meteorological stations in years 1992 through 1996. Results showed that incident radiation is smaller in pasture than in forest (17.1MJ m -2 dia -1 pasture versus 18.3M Jm -2 dia -1 forest) during the dry season. In the wet season, incident radiation is smaller than dry season, with 16.9MJ m -2 dia -1 for pasture and 17.1MJ m -2 dia -1 for forest. Atmospheric transmittance in pasture was smaller than forest (0.58 versus 0.66) in the dry season. This difference is equivalent a reduction of 2.8M Jm -2 dia -1 in the surface incident radiation. In the wet season the transmittances were 0.52 for the pasture and 0.50 for the forest. (author) [pt

  14. Human genetic studies in areas of high natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.; Krieger, H.

    1978-01-01

    Data have been obtained by a genetic-epidemiological survey of a population living in the State of Espirito Santo (Brazil), and subjected to mean levels of natural radiation, per locality, ranging from 7 to 133 μrad/hr. Multiple regression models have been applied to the data, and the results showed no detectable effect of natural radiation on the sex ratio at birth, on the occurrence of congenital anomalies, and on the numbers of pregnancy terminations, stillbirths, livebirths, and post-infant mortality in the children, as well as fecundity and fertility of the couples (these observations contradict some data from the literature, based on official records and without analyses of the concomitant effects of other variables). However, nonsignificant results cannot be considered as disproving harmful effects of natural radiation on mortality and morbidity. These results may simply mean that other causes of mortality and morbidity are so important, under the conditions of the study, that the contribution of low-level, chronic natural radiation is made negligible. (author)

  15. Down syndrome and the high background radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Ramachandran, E.N.; Karuppasamy, C.V.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Soren, D.C.; Anil Kumar, V.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy-21 is a complex human clinical entity compromising several functional, structural and developmental features with wide variation in expression levels. The diagnosis is confirmed in majority of the cases by an extra dose of chromosome 21 by cytogenetics and occasionally it may be due to either chromosomal translocation or mosaicism (different cell lines in the same individual). The extra chromosome 21 is usually formed by non-disjunction during meiosis and is the most common numerical chromosomal anomaly compatible with life, as chromosome 21 is one of the smallest with relatively fewer genes most of which are reckoned to be non lethal. Though exact causative factors and pathogenesis is not fully understood, a rise in maternal age at conception coupled with deleterious environmental influence on an ageing ovum is a recognized risk factor. The de novo nature of trisomy-21 and its relatively higher frequency makes it a reliable indicator to assess the role of chronic high background radiation in inducing germ line mutation and congenital malformation. Many other relatively common congenital malformations with multifactorial origin may not have this de novo property and associating its incidence with the prevailing natural background radiation become more complex. In vitro studies have shown association between high intensity radiation and genetics effects but such a relationship so far was not established between DS and radiation

  16. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements

  17. 200 Areas soil remediation strategy -- Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The remediation and waste management activities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site (located in Richland, Washington) currently range from remediating groundwater, remediating source units (contaminated soils), decontaminating and decommissioning of buildings and structures, maintaining facilities, managing transuranic, low-level and mixed waste, and operating tank farms that store high-level waste. This strategy focuses on the assessment and remediation of soil that resulted from the discharge of liquids and solids from processing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs, burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and addresses only those waste sites assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program

  18. Remedial action in areas of enhanced natural background radiation levels (with particular emphasis in areas with mineral sand mining residues)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    In areas where individuals may receive doses from natural background sources which are higher than those received in areas of normal background radiation, it may be considered desirable that some remedial action be taken to reduce those doses. Contributions to these higher doses may be through high gamma ray fields from the ground or from the use of local building materials, the intake of food or water derived from the areas or of food covered with dust from the areas, the ingestion of dirt and the inhalation of dust, and radon or thoron. Guidelines for remedial action in areas where residues from mineral sand mining and processing have been deposited are given

  19. Design and implementation of a programming circuit in radiation-hardened FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lihua; Han Xiaowei; Zhao Yan; Liu Zhongli; Yu Fang; Chen, Stanley L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel programming circuit used in our radiation-hardened field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. This circuit provides the ability to write user-defined configuration data into an FPGA and then read it back. The proposed circuit adopts the direct-access programming point scheme instead of the typical long token shift register chain. It not only saves area but also provides more flexible configuration operations. By configuring the proposed partial configuration control register, our smallest configuration section can be conveniently configured as a single data and a flexible partial configuration can be easily implemented. The hierarchical simulation scheme, optimization of the critical path and the elaborate layout plan make this circuit work well. Also, the radiation hardened by design programming point is introduced. This circuit has been implemented in a static random access memory (SRAM)-based FPGA fabricated by a 0.5 μm partial-depletion silicon-on-insulator CMOS process. The function test results of the fabricated chip indicate that this programming circuit successfully realizes the desired functions in the configuration and read-back. Moreover, the radiation test results indicate that the programming circuit has total dose tolerance of 1 x 10 5 rad(Si), dose rate survivability of 1.5 x 10 11 rad(Si)/s and neutron fluence immunity of 1 x 10 14 n/cm 2 .

  20. Design and implementation of a programming circuit in radiation-hardened FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua, Wu; Xiaowei, Han; Yan, Zhao; Zhongli, Liu; Fang, Yu; Chen, Stanley L.

    2011-08-01

    We present a novel programming circuit used in our radiation-hardened field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. This circuit provides the ability to write user-defined configuration data into an FPGA and then read it back. The proposed circuit adopts the direct-access programming point scheme instead of the typical long token shift register chain. It not only saves area but also provides more flexible configuration operations. By configuring the proposed partial configuration control register, our smallest configuration section can be conveniently configured as a single data and a flexible partial configuration can be easily implemented. The hierarchical simulation scheme, optimization of the critical path and the elaborate layout plan make this circuit work well. Also, the radiation hardened by design programming point is introduced. This circuit has been implemented in a static random access memory (SRAM)-based FPGA fabricated by a 0.5 μm partial-depletion silicon-on-insulator CMOS process. The function test results of the fabricated chip indicate that this programming circuit successfully realizes the desired functions in the configuration and read-back. Moreover, the radiation test results indicate that the programming circuit has total dose tolerance of 1 × 105 rad(Si), dose rate survivability of 1.5 × 1011 rad(Si)/s and neutron fluence immunity of 1 × 1014 n/cm2.

  1. MAILROOM- A LOCAL AREA NETWORK ELECTRONIC MAIL PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mailroom program is a Local Area Network (LAN) electronic mail program. It allows LAN users to electronically exchange notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computer. The Mailroom program links all LAN users into a communication circle where messages can be created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through a series of menu-driven screens. Mailroom includes a feature which allows users to determine if a message they have sent has been read by the receiver. Each user must be separately installed and removed from Mailroom as they join or leave the network. Mailroom comes with a program that accomplishes this with minimum of effort on the part of the Network Administrator/Manager. There is also a program that allows the Network Administrator/Manager to install Mailroom on each user's workstation so that on execution of Mailroom the user's station may be identified and the configurations settings activated. It will create its own configuration and data/supporting files during the setup and installation process. The Mailroom program is written in Microsoft QuickBasic. It was developed to run on networked IBM XT/ATs or compatibles and requires that all participating workstations share a common drive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 71K. Mailroom was developed in 1988.

  2. Mentorship Programs in Radiation Oncology Residency Training Programs: A Critical Unmet Need

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhami, Gurleen; Gao, Wendy; Gensheimer, Michael F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Trister, Andrew D. [Sage Bionetworks, Seattle, Washington (United States); Kane, Gabrielle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Zeng, Jing, E-mail: jzeng13@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a nationwide survey to evaluate the current status of resident mentorship in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: An anonymous electronic questionnaire was sent to all residents and recent graduates at US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education–accredited radiation oncology residency programs, identified in the member directory of the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology. Factors predictive of having a mentor and satisfaction with the mentorship experience were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The survey response rate was 25%, with 85% of respondents reporting that mentorship plays a critical role in residency training, whereas only 53% had a current mentor. Larger programs (≥10 faculty, P=.004; and ≥10 residents, P<.001) were more likely to offer a formal mentorship program, which makes it more likely for residents to have an active mentor (88% vs 44%). Residents in a formal mentoring program reported being more satisfied with the overall mentorship experience (univariate odds ratio 8.77, P<.001; multivariate odds ratio 5, P<.001). On multivariate analysis, women were less likely to be satisfied with the mentorship experience. Conclusions: This is the first survey focusing on the status of residency mentorship in radiation oncology. Our survey highlights the unmet need for mentorship in residency programs.

  3. Perry Nuclear Power Plant Area/Equipment Temperature Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Perry Nuclear Power Plant Area/Equipment Temperature Monitoring Program serves two purposes. The first is to track temperature trends during normal plant operation in areas where suspected deviations from established environmental profiles exist. This includes the use of Resistance Temperature Detectors, Recorders, and Temperature Dots for evaluation of equipment qualified life for comparison with tested parameters and the established Environmental Design Profile. It also may be used to determine the location and duration of steam leaks for effect on equipment qualified life. The second purpose of this program is to aid HVAC design engineers in determining the source of heat outside anticipated design parameters. Resistance Temperature Detectors, Recorders, and Temperature Dots are also used for this application but the results may include design changes to eliminate the excess heat or provide qualified equipment (cable) to withstand the elevated temperature, splitting of environmental zones to capture accurate temperature parameters, or continued environmental monitoring for evaluation of equipment located in hot spots

  4. Program For Local-Area-Network Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    MailRoom is computer program for local-area network (LAN) electronic mail. Enables users of LAN to exchange electronically notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computers. Links all users of LAN into communication circle in which messages created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through series of menu-driven screens. Includes feature that enables users to determine whether messages sent have been read by receivers. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

  5. Current status on educational program for radiation emergency medical preparedness in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. S.; Kong, H. J.; Noh, J. H.; Kim, C. S.

    2002-01-01

    There are several educational programs in worldwide for the user of radiation, radioisotopes, and nuclear power plant. REAC/TS is one of the most famous centers for radiation emergency personnel. REMPAN, one of the World Health Organization is also to promote the medical preparedness for radiation accident and provide advice and assistance in the case of radiation accident and radiological emergency. There are a variety of educational programs of radiation emergency, but not many programs of medical preparedness in Korea. Therefore, it is introduced here Korean current environment and future direction of educational programs for the radiation emergency medical preparedness

  6. Apparatus for detecting alpha radiation in difficult access areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steadman, P.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    An electrostatic alpha radiation detector for measuring alpha radiation emitted from inside an enclosure comprising an electrically conductive expandable electrode for insertion into the enclosure is disclosed. After insertion, the electrically conductive expandable electrode is insulated from the enclosure and defines a decay cavity between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure so that air ions generated in the decay cavity are electrostatically captured by the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure when an electric potential is applied between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. Indicator means are attached to the electrically conductive expandable electrode for indicating an electrical current produced by generation of the air ions generated in the decay cavity by collisions between air molecules and the alpha particles emitted from the enclosure. A voltage source is connected between the indicator means and the electrically conductive enclosure for creating an electric field between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. 4 figs

  7. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload

  8. Radiation protection program at an accelerator facility complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanuja, Jaya

    2007-01-01

    Broad aspects of Radiation Protection Program at the Tyco Healthcare/Mallinckrodt Inc. will be presented with emphasis on Occupational dose, Public dose and ALARA program. Regulatory requirements, compliance and radio nuclides of concern for external exposure and internal contamination will be discussed. The facility is subject to in depth annual inspections by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to ensure compliance with regulations and operating license requirements. The facility is required to have an emergency contingency plan in place. A simulated emergency drill scenario is witnessed and graded by the NRC and state inspectors, with full participation by the fire department and the local hospital. Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) is in charge of all radiological aspects of the facility, and reports to the plant manager directly. The RSO or any of his staff has the authority to stop a job if there is a radiological concern. The Radiation protection organization interfaces with Production, QA and Engineering and ensures there is no conflict with Industrial Safety, OSHA and FDA requirements. Any employee has the right to call the regulatory officials if he/she has a concern. Operational aspects of Radiation protection program such as radiological survey, contamination control and limits, air sample survey, radio active waste processing and record retention requirements are per plant procedures and regulatory requirements. Shielding and administrative requirements for designing a modification to an existing design or a new lab/hot cell is subject to in-depth review and approval by Radiation Safety Committee. Each department has a Dose Reduction Subcommittee which meets periodically to discuss if any changes in procedures or facility can be made to decrease the dose. The subcommittee also trends the dose to ensure it is trending downward. Even though 99 Mo/ 99m TC generators are manufactured at the facility, majority of the dose is from cyclotron maintenance

  9. Air temperature, radiation budget and area changes of Quisoquipina glacier in the Cordillera Vilcanota (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Wilson; Macedo, Nicolás; Montoya, Nilton; Arias, Sandro; Schauwecker, Simone; Huggel, Christian; Rohrer, Mario; Condom, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Peruvian Andes host about 71% of all tropical glaciers. Although several studies have focused on glaciers of the largest glaciered mountain range (Cordillera Blanca), other regions have received little attention to date. In 2011, a new program has been initiated with the aim of monitoring glaciers in the centre and south of Peru. The monitoring program is managed by the Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú (SENAMHI) and it is a joint project together with the Universidad San Antonio Abad de Cusco (UNSAAC) and the Autoridad Nacional del Agua (ANA). In Southern Peru, the Quisoquipina glacier has been selected due to its representativeness for glaciers in the Cordillera Vilcanota considering area, length and orientation. The Cordillera Vilcanota is the second largest mountain range in Peru with a glaciated area of approximately 279 km2 in 2009. Melt water from glaciers in this region is partly used for hydropower in the dry season and for animal breeding during the entire year. Using Landsat 5 images, we could estimate that the area of Quisoquipina glacier has decreased by approximately 11% from 3.66 km2 in 1990 to 3.26 km2 in 2010. This strong decrease is comparable to observations of other tropical glaciers. In 2011, a meteorological station has been installed on the glacier at 5180 m asl., measuring air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, net short and longwave radiation and atmospheric pressure. Here, we present a first analysis of air temperature and the radiation budget at the Quisoquipina glacier for the first three years of measurements. Additionally, we compare the results from Quisoquipina glacier to results obtained by the Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD) for Zongo glacier (Bolivia) and Antizana glacier (Ecuador). For both, Quisoquipina and Zongo glacier, net shortwave radiation may be the most important energy source, thus indicating the important role of albedo in the energy balance of the glacier

  10. Web design and development for centralize area radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Haris, Mohd Fauzi; Soh @ Shaari, Syirrazie Che; Azman, Azraf; Razalim, Faizal Azrin B. Abdul; Yapp, Raymond; Hasim, Harzawardi; Aslan, Mohd Dzul Aiman

    2017-01-01

    One of the applications for radiation detector is area monitoring which is crucial for safety especially at a place where radiation source is involved. An environmental radiation monitoring system is a professional system that combines flexibility and ease of use for data collection and monitoring. Nowadays, with the growth of technology, devices and equipment can be connected to the network and Internet to enable online data acquisition. This technology enables data from the area monitoring devices to be transmitted to any place and location directly and faster. In Nuclear Malaysia, area radiation monitor devices are located at several selective locations such as laboratories and radiation facility. This system utilizes an Ethernet as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors and stores the data at a server for recording and analysis. This paper discusses on the design and development of website that enable all user in Nuclear Malaysia to access and monitor the radiation level for each radiation detectors at real time online. The web design also included a query feature for history data from various locations online. The communication between the server's software and web server is discussed in detail in this paper.

  11. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantino, Angelo; Alía, Rubén García; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Brugger, Markus; Cerutti, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh), running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee) as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he). In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  12. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Infantino Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh, running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he. In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  13. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE's programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols

  14. Studies on the natural radiation levels around the Caspian sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    We measured about 80 items from four areas of Mazandaran, randomly selected samples of food products, soil and water, around the shore of the Caspian sea area. The results showed that the natural radioactivity in beans and broad beans in some areas is much more than in others. The results were also compared with the levels of radiations from some materials from Brazil, which also contained high levels of radiations. Samples measured in this study showed higher levels of radiations than the American food products. (author). 12 refs, 8 tabs

  15. Program for radiation protection of the patient (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo E.; Perez, Maria del R.; Alfredo Buzzi; Andisco, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    After an initial period of conviction for installing an active discussion on radiation protection of patients inside the medical community, there were organized 'working groups' in radiodiagnosis, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and on radiation protection of pregnant women. These groups began systematical activities, which received a strong institutional support of the Argentine Society of Radiology, toward the implementation of a 'Program of RPP' that is being put nowadays into practice. This program has three aims and a series of targets to be fulfilled in successive stages: basic aims and short term targets: 1) To guarantee the justification: first goal: development of the 'Prescription Guide' (achieved); 2) To optimize the radioprotection: first goal: Development of a 'Manual of Procedures' (achieved); 3) To prevent potential exposures: first goal: Design of a 'Basic quality system' in Health (achieved). The effective participation of the professional's and technician's associations in the development of the program of radiological protection of the patient is a key aspect for the success. (author) [es

  16. Off-site environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States Nuclear Test areas, Calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Fontana, C.A.; Grossman, R.F.; Black, S.C.; Dye, R.E.; Smith, D.D.; Thome', D.J.; Mullen, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    The principal activity at the NTS is testing of nuclear devices, though other related projects are also conducted. The principal activities of the Off-Site Radiological Safety Program are routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests; and protective actions in support of the nuclear testing program. These are conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. 28 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs

  17. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Smith, D.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1983. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclide releases yield an estimated dose of 5 x 10 -5 man-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.2 mrem per year. Plutonium and krypton in air were similar to 1982 levels while cesium and strontium in other samples were near the detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 29 references, 35 figures, 30 tables

  18. Syrinx - a research program for the pulsed power radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etlicher, B.; Chuvatin, A.S.; Choi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Syrinx is a targeted research program with the objective to study, through practical examples, the fundamentals necessary to define the details of all parts which will be required for a new powerful plasma radiation source. The current level of activities of Syrinx is in the design and construction of a multi-megajoule class IES based pulsed power driver which will use long conduction Plasma Opening Switch technology. The present paper reviews mainly the basic experimental research of the POS a nd Z-pinch accomplished in the framework of Syrinx project. This work has a unique international level of participation, from conceptual designs to particular investigations. (author). 9 figs., 17 refs

  19. The annual terrestrial gamma radiation dose to the population of the urban Christchurch area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    Natural terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured with a high pressure ionization chamber at 70 indoor (195 site measurements) and 58 outdoor locations in the metropolitan Christchurch area. Based on these site measurements, the average gonad dose rate to the population from natural terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 273+-56 microgray per annum. (auth)

  20. Materials balance area Custodian Performance Evaluation Program at PNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1991-07-01

    The material balance area (MBA) custodian has primary responsibility for control and accountability of nuclear material within an MBA. In this role, the custodian operates as an extension of the facility material control and accountability (MC ampersand A) organization. To effectively meet administrative requirements and protection needs, the custodian must be fully trained in all aspects of MC ampersand A related to the MBA, and custodian performance must be periodically evaluated. DOE Policy requires that each facility provide for a program which assures that each facility provide for a program which assures that personnel performing MC ampersand A functions are (1) trained and/or qualified to perform their duties and responsibilities and (2) knowledgeable of requirements and procedures related to their functions. The MBA Custodian Performance Evaluation Program at PNL uses a variety of assessment techniques to meet this goal, including internal and independent MBA audits, periodic custodian testing, conduct of limited scope performance tests, daily monitoring of MC ampersand A documentation, and reviewing custodian performance during physical inventories. The data collected from these sources is analyzed and incorporated into an annual custodian performance evaluation document, given to each custodian and line management. Development of this program has resulted in significantly improved custodian performance and a marked decrease in finding and observations identified during MBA audits

  1. Compliation of summary statistics for radiation worker exposure for the 200 Areas: 1978--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides estimates of average annual radiation worker exposures for the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site for various facilities. The period of exposures extends from calendar year 1978 through 1993. These estimates were extracted from annual dosimetry reports

  2. Low-Power Large-Area Radiation Detector for Space Science Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this task is to develop a low-power, large-area detectors from SiC, taking advantage of very low thermal noise characteristics and high radiation...

  3. Morfofunctional indices of peripheric blood for persons working within the strict radiation control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Yukhimuk, L.N.; Egorova, D.M.; Pogontseva, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The blood of 118 people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control has been investigated. Erythrocyte morphofunctional value has been estimated taking into consideration the erythrocyte morphological index as well as mechanical and osmotic resistivity of erythrocytes. For people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control intensity of signals of EPR for blood paramagnetic centres essentially changes. It proves profound changes in functioning of blood plasma antioxidant system for people working in the area of strict radiation control. For the people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control in peripheric blood growth of echynocytes and spherocytes as well as lowering of mechanical resistivity of erythrocytes is observed. 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  4. Implantation and Evaluation of a Training Program in Radiation Protection of the Exposed Workers in our Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Agudo, A.; Ruiz Rodriguez, J. C.; Zapata Jimenez, J. C.; Munoz Cuevas, R.; Gil Tomas, S.

    2004-01-01

    The object of this work is to introduce the training program in Radiation Protection implemented in our Hospital, and its evaluation and follow-up. Material AND Methods: The training program in Radiation Protection implanted by the Department of Radiation Protection in the Hospital de la Ribera consists of three types of training modalities: Annual Seminars: applicable to all the exposed workers and divided in a general part and a specific one for each area; Informative lectures: applicable to a specific department, deal with specific issues of interest without predetermined frequency; Individualised training: applicable to pregnant, new workers, job moves and duties change. The follow-up of the program is carried out by mean of inquiries about general and site-specific knowledge on radiation protection. Results The results of the inquiries are analysed and related with the continuous training program. Conclusion: It is remarkable that departments with workers without academic training in radiation protection (Intensive Care Unit, Surgery, Endoscopy,) need a more dedicated training. The results confirm the validity of the three training modalities: The annual seminar provides a continuous training to all exposed workers; the informative lecture is useful to handle immediately issues of current interest in a specific department and the individual training are useful to acquire specific knowledge about radiation risks and radiation protection rules in new working situations. (Author)

  5. Measurement of high natural background radiation levels by TLD at Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Rahman, M.M.; Koddus, M.A.; Husain, S.R.; Malek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    High natural background radiation levels at the Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh were measured by LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters. The dose rates varied from 2621 to 35391 μGy.y -1 with a mean of 11968 μGy.y -1 . The average dose rate is found to significantly higher than the world average value. In order to formulate appropriate guidelines for radiation protection of the population in this area, the necessary recommendations are described. (author)

  6. A study of ultraviolet solar radiation at Cairo urban area, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaa, S.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Dept. of Astronomy and Meterology

    2004-07-01

    The monthly mean values of global, G, and ultraviolet, UV, solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface at Cairo urban area during the two different periods (1969-1973) and (1993-1997) are presented, analyzed and compared. The effect of urbanization processes on the solar radiation components is investigated and discussed. It was found that the total radiation of the two components, G and UV received at the urban area of Cairo during the period (1969-1973) highly exceeds the radiation received during the period (1993-1997) for all months of the year. The mean relative reduction of G and UV reached 17.4% and 27.4% respectively. A significant correlation between G and UV radiation has been established and the recommended correlation equation has been stated to estimate the values of UV radiation that are difficult to measure at any site in the zone of Lower Egypt. Also, a comparative study of the two radiation components, G and UV, at urban (Cairo) and rural (Bahtim) areas during the period (1993-1997) revealed that the urban area always has values of G and UV radiation distinctly lower than that found in rural area for all months of the year. Urban-rural mean reduction of G and UV reached 7.0% and 17.9% respectively. The ratio of the ultraviolet to global radiation (UV/G) are calculated and compared with other sites in the Arabian Peninsula. The effect of atmospheric dust on the measured solar radiation components is also investigated and discussed. (author)

  7. Epidemiological studies in the high and normal level radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koya, P.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    High and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala give unique opportunities to estimate the risk, if any, of chronic low dose exposure by direct epidemiological studies on human beings. Studies in the area are being carried out by Low Level Radiation Research Laboratory of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in collaboration with Departments of Health and Family Welfare/Social Welfare of the Government of Kerala and local post graduate colleges. To assess the role of chronic low dose exposure in the induction/transmission of chromosomal alterations across generations, hospital based cytogenetic studies on newborns was carried out to estimate and compare the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and karyotypes anomalies in the high (areas with radiation dose of more than 1.50 mGy/year) and normal (areas with radiation dose of 1.50 mR/year or less) level radiation areas. A total of 1,267,788 metaphases from 27,295 (9,64,390 cells from 17,298 newborns of high and 3,03,398 cells from 9,997 newborns of normal level radiation areas) newborns was screened

  8. Investigation and analysis of etiology of down's syndrome in children of high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Yongru

    1985-01-01

    In order to find out what caused the differences in incidences of Down's syndrome between the children in high background radiation area and those in control area, investigation and analysis were carried ou in 5 aspects based on the original data and the information from the previous survey. These are: the incidences of congenital malformations in normal areas, the age distribution of children examined, the maternal age, the dates of birth of afflicted children, and the radiation exposure of mothers. The results suggested that the higher incidence of Down's syndrome in high background area might be related to the materal age. Further studies are needed to arrive at a conclusion

  9. IAEA education and training programs in radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zueteh

    1995-01-01

    In order to assist the promotion of the industrial application of isotopes and radiation in Southeast Asia and Pacific region, the regional IAEA/UNDP/RCA project was formed in 1982. Phase 1 was 1982-1986, Phase 2 was 1987-1991, and now it entered Phase 3, 1993-1997. 15 countries joined the project, and now the donor countries expanded to five or more including Japan, Australia, China, ROK and India. Radiation technology is one of the subprojects of the regional project, aiming at transferring this technology from developed countries to developing countries and promoting to industrialize this technology. For the purpose, technical personnel and their skill are essential, and IAEA supports and supplements the educational and training program in developing countries. Executive management seminar (EMS), national workshop (NW), regional training course (RTC) and national training courses (NTCs) are the main components of this education program. The contents of these components are explained, and the activities which were carried out so far under them are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Program director and chief resident perspectives on the educational environment of US radiation oncology programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriochoa, Camille; Weller, Michael; Berry, Danielle; Reddy, Chandana A; Koyfman, Shlomo; Tendulkar, Rahul

    Our goals were toexamine the educational approachesused at radiation oncology residency programs nationwide andto evaluate program director(PD) and chief resident (CR) perceptions of their educational environment. We distributed a survey regarding curricular structure via email toall identified US radiation oncology residency PDs and CRs. Pearson χ 2 test was used toevaluate whether differences existed between answers provided by the 2 study populations. The survey was disseminated to 200 individuals in 85 US residency programs: 49/85PDs(58%)and 74/115 (64%)CRs responded. More than one-half of PDs and CRs report that attending physicians discussed management, reviewed contours, and conducted mock oral board examinations with the residents. At nearly 50% of programs, the majority of teaching conferences use a lecture-based approach, whereas only 20% reported predominant utilization of the Socratic method. However, both PDs (63%) and CRs (49%) reported that Socratic teaching is more effective than didactic lectures (16% and 20%, respectively), with the remainder responding that they are equally effective. Teaching sessions were reported to be resident-led ≥75% of the time by 50% of CRs versus 18% of PDs (P = .002). Significantly more CRs than PDs felt that faculty-led teaching conferences were more effective than resident-led conferences (62% vs 26%, respectively; P Socratic-based teaching conferences. Increased communication between PDs and CRs can better align perceptions with educational goals. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiological investigation of radiological effects in high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Luxin; Zha, Yongru; Tao, Zufan; He, Weihui; Chen, Deqing; Yuan, Yongling

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to provide some information for providing whether any detrimental effects exist in a large population whose families have been continuously exposed to a low dose rate radiation. Two areas in Yangjiang Country, characterized by high background radiation (HBR) with environmental gamma exposure, large population size and long-term inhabitants, were selected for evaluation of late effects of HBR. The areas with normal radiation background close to the Yangjiang Country were selected as control areas. Up to 1986 approximately one million person-years in each area in both HBR and control areas have been observed. No increase of cancer mortality was found in the HBR areas; on the contrary, cancer mortality tended to be lower in the HBR areas than the control areas. The prevalence of hereditary diseases and congenital defects was similar in both HBR and control areas, but the frequency of Down's syndrome was higher in the HBR areas (through within the normal range) than the control areas. A possible explanation is the difference of age of maternity between the HBR and control areas, and the extremely low frequency in the control areas. Possible factors influencing the incidence of mutationbased diseases were comparable in the HBR and control groups. However, the cultural and educational levels were somewhat different, probably affecting health status and family planning. It is likely that there may be a dose threshold for cancer incidence, but this remains to be determined by further research. (N.K.)

  12. Local area networks in radiation detection systems: advantages and pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaauw, M [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Lindstrom, R M [Inorganic Analytical Research Div., National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Both at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) and at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), local area networks are being used to acquire and process data from multiple [gamma]-ray spectrometers. The IRI system was only recently set up. A comparison is made between the NIST network, the old IRI network and the new IRI network, resulting in recommendations for new systems to be set up. (orig.)

  13. Cytogenetic findings from inhabitants of different ages in high background radiation areas of Yangjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqing; Yao Suyan; Zhang Chaoyang

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between high background radiation and injurious effect on inhabitants. Method: Peripheral blood samples were collected from the inhabitants of 10, 40, 55 and 70 years old in high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, Chromosome preparations were carried out with conventional whole-blood microculture. Results: The percentage of dicentric chromosome with fragments in inhabitants of HBRA was significantly higher than that in control areas (CA) (0.469% vs. 0.315%, P<0.01), and there was an increase in the aberration frequencies with age (or accumulated doses). Conclusion: Chromosome aberration is an extremely sensitive indicator of radiation damage and a good radio-biodosimeter

  14. Biological effects of low-dose radiation on human population living in high-background radiation areas of Kerala coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-01-01

    High-level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala coast is densely populated and known for its wide variation in background radiation dose levels due to uneven distribution of monazite in the beach sand. The background radiation dose varies from 1 to 45 mGv/y. The areas with >1.5mGy/y is considered as HLNRA. Human population inhabiting in this area are exposed to low-dose chronic radiation since generations. Hence, this population provides an ideal situation to study dose response and adaptive response, if any, due to natural chronic low-dose exposure. It has been investigated extensively to study the biological and health effects of long-term low-dose/low-dose radiation exposure. So far over 150, 000 newborns monitored from hospital-based study did not reveal any significant difference in the incidence of any of the malformations and stillbirth between HLNRA and adjacent control areas. A case-control study on cleft lip/palate and mental retardation did not show any association with background radiation dose. Cytogenetic investigation of over 27,000 newborns did not show any significant increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations and karyotype anomalies. DNA damage endpoints, such as micronuclei, telomere length and DNA strand breaks, did not reveal any significant difference between control and exposed population. Studies on DNA damage and repair revealed efficient repair of DNA strand breaks in HLNRA individuals. Molecular studies using high throughput microarray analysis indicated a large number of genes involved in various molecular and cellular pathways. Indications of in vivo radioadaptive response due to natural chronic low-dose exposure in this population have important implications to human health. (author)

  15. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Aaron S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Thomas, Charles R., E-mail: thomasch@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute/Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Bonner, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama (United States); DeWeese, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mittal, Bharat B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Ilinois (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  16. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Thomas, Charles R.; Bonner, James A.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Formenti, Silvia C.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members

  17. Strategic planning in an academic radiation medicine program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J.L.; Foxcroft, S.; Moyo, E.; Cooke-Lauder, J.; Spence, T.; Zahedi, P.; Bezjak, A.; Jaffray, D.; Lam, C.; Létourneau, D.; Milosevic, M.; Tsang, R.; Wong, R.; Liu, F.F.

    2017-01-01

    Background In this paper, we report on the process of strategic planning in the Radiation Medicine Program (rmp) at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre. The rmp conducted a strategic planning exercise to ensure that program priorities reflect the current health care environment, enable nimble responses to the increasing burden of cancer, and guide program operations until 2020. Methods Data collection was guided by a project charter that outlined the project goal and the roles and responsibilities of all participants. The process was managed by a multidisciplinary steering committee under the guidance of an external consultant and consisted of reviewing strategic planning documents from close collaborators and institutional partners, conducting interviews with key stakeholders, deploying a program-wide survey, facilitating an anonymous and confidential e-mail feedback box, and collecting information from group deliberations. Results The process of strategic planning took place from December 2014 to December 2015. Mission and vision statements were developed, and core values were defined. A final document, Strategic Roadmap to 2020, was established to guide programmatic pursuits during the ensuing 5 years, and an implementation plan was developed to guide the first year of operations. Conclusions The strategic planning process provided an opportunity to mobilize staff talents and identify environmental opportunities, and helped to enable more effective use of resources in a rapidly changing health care environment. The process was valuable in allowing staff to consider and discuss the future, and in identifying strategic issues of the greatest importance to the program. Academic programs with similar mandates might find our report useful in guiding similar processes in their own organizations. PMID:29270061

  18. Strategic planning in an academic radiation medicine program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J L; Foxcroft, S; Moyo, E; Cooke-Lauder, J; Spence, T; Zahedi, P; Bezjak, A; Jaffray, D; Lam, C; Létourneau, D; Milosevic, M; Tsang, R; Wong, R; Liu, F F

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the process of strategic planning in the Radiation Medicine Program (rmp) at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre. The rmp conducted a strategic planning exercise to ensure that program priorities reflect the current health care environment, enable nimble responses to the increasing burden of cancer, and guide program operations until 2020. Data collection was guided by a project charter that outlined the project goal and the roles and responsibilities of all participants. The process was managed by a multidisciplinary steering committee under the guidance of an external consultant and consisted of reviewing strategic planning documents from close collaborators and institutional partners, conducting interviews with key stakeholders, deploying a program-wide survey, facilitating an anonymous and confidential e-mail feedback box, and collecting information from group deliberations. The process of strategic planning took place from December 2014 to December 2015. Mission and vision statements were developed, and core values were defined. A final document, Strategic Roadmap to 2020, was established to guide programmatic pursuits during the ensuing 5 years, and an implementation plan was developed to guide the first year of operations. The strategic planning process provided an opportunity to mobilize staff talents and identify environmental opportunities, and helped to enable more effective use of resources in a rapidly changing health care environment. The process was valuable in allowing staff to consider and discuss the future, and in identifying strategic issues of the greatest importance to the program. Academic programs with similar mandates might find our report useful in guiding similar processes in their own organizations.

  19. Radiation-ecological monitoring in the area of «Ruppur» NPP in the People's Republic of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, A.V.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Tsygvintsev, P.N.; Isamov, N.N.; Kurbakov, D.N.

    2016-01-01

    The program of radiation-ecological monitoring of the region of «Ruppur» NPP is developed, survey points are chosen and examined; the monitoring objects, list of observing parameters, regulation of observation are determined as well as the techniques of observation and regulatory and engineering provisions. On the base of radiation-ecological monitoring of atmospheric air, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems carried out in 30-km area of the NPP in 2014-2015 it is possible to make a conclusion that ecological situation in the region is good in whole. Formed monitoring network of atmosphere, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems will allow to record the change of situation in 30-km NPP area and to reveal the effect of the NPP operation on ecology in the region [ru

  20. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  1. Incidence of neural tube defects in the natural radiation coastal areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    All consecutive births in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala were monitored for congenital malformations observable at birth since 1995. The HLNR area, a coastal strip of land about 55 km in length and 0.5 km in breadth from Purakkad in the north in Alleppey district to Sakthikulangara in the south of Quilon district, stands out among the most prominent background radiation areas of the world. Natural deposit of monazite sand, containing Thorium (8-10%), Uranium (0.3%) and corresponding decay products, is the source of elevated background radiation, ranging from < 1 to 45 mGy/year. Wide variation in dose, due to the patchy and non-uniform distribution of Monazite sand, enables in built controls. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. Areas with a mean radiation dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and areas with a dose level of 1.5 mGy/year or less were treated as normal level radiation (NLNR) areas. The study carried out since 1995 does not seem to implicate HLNR in the incidence of neural tube defects among newborns

  2. Environmental radiation monitoring system in Tokai and Oarai areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeki

    1983-01-01

    In the Tokai and the Oarai areas there are total of seventeen enterprises, different in size and kind, connected with nuclear energy. Environmental monitoring is carried out in the cooperation of the Government, local governments and enterprises according to the plans by a prefectural monitoring committee. The purpose is in the following three aspects: (1) Estimation of the dose of general people, based on environmental radioactivity and released radioactivity data (2) Grasping the radioactive accumulation on long-terms (3) Detection of abnormal releases from the enterprises at an early stage. By environmental monitoring made thus far, no rise in environmental radioactivities due to the enterprises is indicated. (author)

  3. Problems Concerning Dose Assessments in Epidemiology of High Background Radiation Areas of Yangjiang, China (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.X.; Yuan, Y.L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study on radiation levels and dose assessments in the epidemiology of a high background radiation area (HBRA) and the control area (CA) is to respond to the needs of epidemiology in these areas, where the inhabitants are continuously exposed to low dose, low dose rate ionising radiation. A brief description is given of how the research group evaluated the feasibility of the investigation by analysing the population size and the radiation levels, how simple reliable methods were used to get the individual annual dose for every cohort member, and how the cohort members were classified into various dose groups for dose-effect relationship analysis. Finally, the use of dose group classification for cancer mortality studies is described. (author)

  4. Cancer occurrence in the high natural background radiation area of Kerala coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan Nair, M.; Sreedevi Amma, N.; Ramachandran, T.P.; Varghese Cherian; Jayalakshmy, P.; Mani, K.S.; Boban, T.G.; Jayadevan, S.; Gangadharan, P.

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the health effects if any, in populations living in high background radiation areas, the Department of Atomic Energy has sanctioned a 5-year project to establish a Registry covering Karunagappally taluk. The study proposes to cover a population of about 1,00,000 persons living in high background radiation areas where the radiation levels range anywhere between 10 and 825 μR/h inside the houses; for comparison the study proposes to cover another 3,00,000 persons living in nearby normal areas where the natural radiation levels range between 6 and 200 μ R/h. The data collected so far in the first 2.5 years are presented in this paper which covers a population of about 1,10,000 persons living in three villages. No attempt is made to interpret the data at this preliminary stage. (author). 7 tabs

  5. Micro-meteorological modelling in urban areas: pollutant dispersion and radiative effects modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliez, Maya

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution and urban climate studies require to take into account the complex processes due to heterogeneity of urban areas and the interaction with the buildings. In order to estimate the impact of buildings on flow and pollutant dispersion, detailed numerical simulations were performed over an idealized urban area, with the three-dimensional model Mercure-Saturne, modelling both concentration means and their fluctuations. To take into account atmospheric radiation in built up areas and the thermal effects of the buildings, we implemented a three-dimensional radiative model adapted to complex geometry. This model, adapted from a scheme used for thermal radiation, solves the radiative transfer equation in a semi-transparent media, using the discrete ordinate method. The new scheme was validated with idealized cases and compared to a complete case. (author) [fr

  6. AA, radiation shielding curtain along the target area

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    At the far left is the beam tube for the high-intensity proton beam from the 26 GeV PS. The tube ends in a thin window and the proton beam continues in air through a hole in the shielding blocks (see also 8010308), behind which the target (see 7905091, 7905094)was located. After the target followed the magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons, and the first part of the injection line with a proton dump. The antiprotons, deflected by a magnet, left the target area through another shielding wall, to make their way to the AA ring. Laterally, this sequence of components was shielded with movable, suspended, concrete blocks: the "curtain". Balasz Szeless, who had constructed it, is standing at its side.

  7. Continuing training program in radiation protection in biological research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, R.; Hidalgo, R.M.; Usera, F.; Macias, M.T.; Mirpuri, E.; Perez, J.; Sanchez, A.

    2008-01-01

    specific training program in radiation protection to meet the different needs of all workers in a biological research center. This program aims to ensure compliance with the relevant national legislation and to minimize the possibility of radiological incidents and accidents in this kind of center. This study has involved contributions from six nationally and internationally recognized Spanish biological research centers that have active training programs in radiation protection, and the design of the program presented here has been informed by the teaching experience of the training staff involved. The training method is based on introductory and refresher courses for personnel in direct contact with the radioactive facility and also for indirectly associated personnel. The courses will include guideline manuals (print or electronic), training through seminars or online materials, and also personnel evaluation, visits to the radioactive facility or practical training as required. The introductory courses are intended for newly incorporated personnel. The refresher courses are fundamentally designed to accommodate possible changes to national legal regulations, working conditions or the in-house radiological protection controls. Maintenance and instrumentation workers, cleaners, administrative personnel, etc. who are associated with the radioactive facility indirectly. These workers are affected by the work in the radioactive facility to varying degrees, and they therefore also require information and training in radiological protection tailored to their level of interaction with the installation. The aim of this study was to design a specific training program in radiation protection to meet the different needs of all workers in a biological research center. This program aims to ensure compliance with the relevant national legislation and to minimize the possibility of radiological incidents and accidents in this kind of center. This study has involved contributions from

  8. Skin tumor area extraction using an improved dynamic programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qaisar; Celebi, M E; Fondón García, Irene

    2012-05-01

    Border (B) description of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions is one of the most important tasks for the clinical diagnosis of dermoscopy images using the ABCD rule. For an accurate description of the border, there must be an effective skin tumor area extraction (STAE) method. However, this task is complicated due to uneven illumination, artifacts present in the lesions and smooth areas or fuzzy borders of the desired regions. In this paper, a novel STAE algorithm based on improved dynamic programming (IDP) is presented. The STAE technique consists of the following four steps: color space transform, pre-processing, rough tumor area detection and refinement of the segmented area. The procedure is performed in the CIE L(*) a(*) b(*) color space, which is approximately uniform and is therefore related to dermatologist's perception. After pre-processing the skin lesions to reduce artifacts, the DP algorithm is improved by introducing a local cost function, which is based on color and texture weights. The STAE method is tested on a total of 100 dermoscopic images. In order to compare the performance of STAE with other state-of-the-art algorithms, various statistical measures based on dermatologist-drawn borders are utilized as a ground truth. The proposed method outperforms the others with a sensitivity of 96.64%, a specificity of 98.14% and an error probability of 5.23%. The results demonstrate that this STAE method by IDP is an effective solution when compared with other state-of-the-art segmentation techniques. The proposed method can accurately extract tumor borders in dermoscopy images. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth's atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described

  10. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  11. Survey of Radiation Oncology Centres in Australia: report of the radiation oncology treatment quality program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klybaba, M.; Kenny, L.; Kron, T.; Harris, J.; O'Brien, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: One of the first steps towards the development of a comprehensive quality program for radiation oncology in Australia has been a survey of practice. This paper reports on the results of the survey that should inform the development of standards for radiation oncology in Australia. A questionnaire of 108 questions spanning aspects of treatment services, equipment, staff, infrastructure and available quality systems was mailed to all facilities providing radiation treatment services in Australia (n = 45). Information of 42 sites was received by June 2006 providing data on 113 operational linear accelerators of which approximately 2/3 are equipped with multi-leaf collimators. More than 75% of facilities were participating in a formal quality assurance (QA) system, with 63% following a nationally or internationally recognised system. However, there was considerable variation in the availability of policies and procedures specific to quality aspects, and the review of these. Policies for monitoring patient waiting times for treatment were documented at just 71% of all facilities. Although 85% of all centres do, in fact, monitor machine throughput, the number and types of efficiency measures varied markedly, thereby limiting the comparative use of these results. Centres identified workload as the single most common factor responsible for limiting staff involvement in both QA processes and clinical trial participation. The data collected in this 'snapshot' survey provide a unique and comprehensive baseline for future comparisons and evaluation of changes

  12. Material balance area custodian performance evaluation program at PNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the material balance area (MBA) custodian has primary responsibility for control and accountability of nuclear material within an MBA. In this role, the custodian operates as an extension of the facility material control and accountability (MC and A) organization. To effectively meet administrative requirements and protection needs, the custodian must be fully trained in all aspects of MC and A related to the MBA, and custodian performance must be periodically evaluated. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Policy requires that each facility provide for a program which ensures that personnel performing MC and A functions are trained and/or qualified to perform their duties and responsibilities and knowledgeable of requirements and procedures related to their functions. the MBA Custodian Performance Evaluation Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) uses a variety of assessment techniques to meet this goal, including internal and independent MBA audits, periodic custodian testing, limited scope performance tests, daily monitoring of MC and A documentation, and reviewing custodian performance during physical inventories

  13. Practical application of computer program Panthere for workers' radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlier, Pierre; Michoux, Xavier; Lereculey, Clement

    2014-01-01

    The civil engineering operations to strengthen the raft of Fessenheim's nuclear plant were carried out by EDF. This technical modification has two principles objectives: 1) to increase the thickness of the reactor pit's concrete and 2) to create a new spreading area for corium (by creating a penetration through the wall of the reactor pit). Behind the complex technical operations two radioprotection issues were studied using the computer program 'PANTHERE': 1) Workers' radiation protection during the execution of the work (because of high dose rates in the reactor pit) and 2) operators' radiation protection after the execution of the work. Results contributed to decrease personal and collective dosimetry of operations and to model and design a biological shield to protect workers during Fessenheim reactor operation. (authors)

  14. Networked solutions of radiation control of state borders and urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, Victor; Gordeev, Alexander; Mamedov, Arif

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Prevention of illicit trafficking in radioactive and nuclear materials through state borders as well as the disperse of radioactive materials in urban area is a challenging task of national security departments in many countries. To solve this task, appropriate actions of personnel on-site equipped by radiation detectors such as fixed radiation portal monitors or mobile personal radiation detectors are required. However, users of radiation equipment such as Customs, Border Guard and Police Services often perform radiation control as additional responsibility to their main duties. Furthermore, these users have no sufficient expertise in radiation control and need real-time remote expert help to interpret readings of radiation equipment and expert support in decision making process. Polimaster has developed complete solution called Nuclear Protection Network system (NPNET) for high-effective radiation control on State Borders as well as inside a country. NPNET system intended for efficient interaction and on-line data exchange between a user, radiation control instrument, for example a personal radiation detector or radioisotope identifier, and remote Command Center. Availability of such system allows to solve more efficiently tasks of detection, localization and identification of ionizing radiation sources, to properly interpret false alarms (e.g. at detention of a passenger having passed radio-therapy etc.) and effectively prevent illicit trafficking radioactive and nuclear materials. The NPNET system can cover territory as large as city or even a state and provides assistant of infinite number of independent user groups. NPNET has a module structure and could be easily adapted to any specific user's requirements. Thus, the radiation mobile system NPNET is an effective tool for prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials and is recommended for use by Border guards, Customs, Securities and emergency situations services. (author)

  15. Building the strategic national stockpile through the NIAID Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Carmen I; Cassatt, David R; Dicarlo, Andrea L; Macchiarini, Francesca; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Norman, Mai-Kim; Maidment, Bert W

    2014-02-01

    The possibility of a public health radiological or nuclear emergency in the United States remains a concern. Media attention focused on lost radioactive sources and international nuclear threats, as well as the potential for accidents in nuclear power facilities (e.g., Windscale, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) highlight the need to address this critical national security issue. To date, no drugs have been licensed to mitigate/treat the acute and long-term radiation injuries that would result in the event of large-scale, radiation, or nuclear public health emergency. However, recent evaluation of several candidate radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) has provided initial proof-of-concept of efficacy. The goal of the Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health) is to help ensure the government stockpiling of safe and efficacious MCMs to treat radiation injuries, including, but not limited to, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to supporting research in these areas, the RNCP continues to fund research and development of decorporation agents targeting internal radionuclide contamination, and biodosimetry platforms (e.g., biomarkers and devices) to assess the levels of an individual's radiation exposure, capabilities that would be critical in a mass casualty scenario. New areas of research within the program include a focus on special populations, especially pediatric and geriatric civilians, as well as combination studies, in which drugs are tested within the context of expected medical care management (e.g., antibiotics and growth factors). Moving forward, challenges facing the RNCP, as well as the entire radiation research field, include further advancement and qualification of animal models, dose conversion from animal models to humans, biomarker identification, and

  16. Use of complex electronic equipment within radiative areas of PWR power plants: feability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, P.; Carquet, M.

    1988-01-01

    EDF has undertaken a study in order to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of using complex electronic equipment within radiative areas of PWR power plants. This study lies on tests of VLSI components (Random Access Memories) under gamma rays irradiations, which aims are to evaluate the radiation dose that they can withstand and to develop a selection method. 125 rad/h and 16 rad/h tests results are given [fr

  17. Cytogenetic studies on newborns from high level natural background radiation areas of Kerala coast, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, V.D.; Kurien, C.J.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    1997-01-01

    The human population residing in the monazite bearing high level natural background radiation (HLNBR) areas of Kerala, along the South-West coast of India provides unique opportunities of assessing directly in man, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure. The per capita dose received by this population is nearly four times the normal background radiation level. While this is the average dose, the radiation levels prevailing in these HLNBR areas are in the range of 1 to over 35 mGy per year. Chromosomal aberration studies in the lymphocytes of newborns and adults from these areas have been in progress for two decades. So far, 4156 newborn babies from HLNBR and 7321 from normal background radiation (NBR) areas have been screened for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings). The mean frequency of dicentrics and rings did not show any significant difference between the newborns in the control and the HLNBRA population. Assessment of the frequency of micronuclei in cytochalasin-B blocked binucleated lymphocytes of 49 newborns from control areas and 131 newborns from radioactive areas also showed similar values. While an age-dependent increase in chromosome aberration frequency was observed in the adult samples from control and the study areas, the regression analysis of the data indicated a marginally higher slope for the samples from HLNBRA. Karyotype anomalies recorded so far among the newborns have not revealed any significant difference in the incidence of numerical (including Down syndrome) and structural alterations between the control and the exposed populations. A noteworthy observation, herein reported for the first time from any HLNBR area is that there is no discernible increase in the incidence of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of newborn babies hailing from HLNBR areas, where their ancestral generations have lived for several hundreds of years. (author)

  18. Emergency response activities and collecting damaged radiation devices from a war affected area in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasic, Damir; Schaller, Antum

    1997-01-01

    A number of various devices containing ionizing radiation sources were in use in the area affected by the recent war in Croatia. In destruction caused by the war operations, a number of these devices were damaged, destroyed or even missed/lost. The actions undertaken to (re)collect these radiation sources, experience gained and lessons learned are reviewed. The importance of a well-organized national regulatory system is highlighted as a precondition for the efficient identification and safe collection of radiation sources which were under ruins. Experience from this event could be well applicable to similar situations caused by disasters and particularly for regulatory authorities who design emergency preparedness plans. (author)

  19. Development of wide-area radiation monitor using an optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Naoki; Kato, Masatoshi; Baba, Mamoru; Yamadera, Akira; Miura, Takako

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a method for radiation distribution measurement by combining an optical fiber of wave-length shift type with a plastic scintillator, and studied its properties to apply as a wide-area radiation monitor. The detector employs two photomultipliers in both ends of the fiber and locate the radiation position by using the difference of light arrival time from scintillators. We tested the detector with gamma-rays and neutrons concerning with the position-response and pulse-height response of the detector. From the experiment, we confirmed the proper operation of the detector and position response with spatial resolution of 30-60 cm

  20. External gamma radiation dose studies in the proposed uranium mining areas of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.; Reddy, K.; Reddy, C.; Reddy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Natural radiation sources contribute the largest component to the total effective dose received by the human population. Among these sources, natural background gamma radiation shares a noteworthy amount. The present study aims at the establishment of baseline environmental gamma radiation data in the environs of proposed uranium mining areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. To this end, a systematic study has been undertaken using Thermoluminescence (T.L.) dosimeters and G.M. (Geiger - Muller) tube based survey meter. These levels are estimated both indoors and outdoors in the study area covering about 23 villages surrounding the proposed mining sites. The estimated external gamma radiation levels (air kerma) varied from 0.605 to 4.39 mGy.y -1 . The mean indoor to outdoor radiation level ratio is found to be 1.1 ± 0.1. The estimated mean equivalent doses due to external background radiation in the villages of the study area range from 1.03 to 2.83 mSv.y -1 with a mean of 2.34 ± 0.39 mSv.y -1 . (authors)

  1. Optimization of in-vivo monitoring program for radiation emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Wi Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In case of radiation emergencies, internal exposure monitoring for the members of public will be required to confirm internal contamination of each individual. In-vivo monitoring technique using portable gamma spectrometer can be easily applied for internal exposure monitoring in the vicinity of the on-site area. In this study, minimum detectable doses (MDDs) for '1'3'4Cs, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 131}I were calculated adjusting minimum detectable activities (MDAs) from 50 to 1,000 Bq to find out the optimal in-vivo counting condition. DCAL software was used to derive retention fraction of Cs and I isotopes in the whole body and thyroid, respectively. A minimum detectable level was determined to set committed effective dose of 0.1 mSv for emergency response. We found that MDDs at each MDA increased along with the elapsed time. 1,000 Bq for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, and 100 Bq for {sup 131}I were suggested as optimal MDAs to provide in-vivo monitoring service in case of radiation emergencies. In-vivo monitoring program for emergency response should be designed to achieve the optimal MDA suggested from the present work. We expect that a reduction of counting time compared with routine monitoring program can achieve the high throughput system in case of radiation emergencies.

  2. Community Radiation Monitoring Program annual report, October 1, 1987--September 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, R.P. Jr.; Cooper, E.N.

    1989-03-01

    In addition to enhancing and augmenting the collection of airborne radiation data from communities close-in to the test site, something that could easily be done with automated equipment, the Community Radiation Monitoring Program seeks to involve local residents of those areas. That is accomplished in two ways: hiring intelligent, well-respected members of the community as Station Managers and Alternates and providing them the training they need to respond to community concerns and questions; and then getting out to those and surrounding communities and holding meetings that serve not just as a forum for DOE and EPA spokesmen, but as a chance for concerned citizens to receive honest and credible answers to questions they might have. The Community Radiation Monitoring Program is, after more than seven years, sound and in focus. Continuous enhancements and ''fine tuning'' will serve to improve its ability to serve the people who live in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Radiation exposure map based on fuzzy logic for the representation of areas with high natural background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Wagner Eustaquio de; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    The identification of areas with high concentrations of natural radionuclides is an important task in classifying these areas in relation to the health risk for residents in the region. The aim of this work is to identify areas of high exposure to nuclear radiation using a geographic representation based on the theory of fuzzy sets. Radiometric data obtained from previous works developed in a region of high concentrations in natural uranium were used to create a fuzzy map of the local radiation levels. During the image processing, a nonlinear filter was applied to eliminate noise i.e. to reduce isolated pixels that would eventually cause major uncertainties in the results. A resulting image was geographically positioned (WGS40) and obtained in gray scale. This image was fuzzified for membership functions that represent linguistic variables as low exposure, medium exposure and high exposure. After representing the membership grade in a RGB (red, green and blue) image it was possible to visualize the radiation level in the area of exposure. When compared to data from the region, results demonstrated the good efficiency of the technique here employed for the representation of areas with high radioactivity levels. The image obtained also provided important information about those areas where exposure to radiation is more pronounced. Hence, the fuzzy map can be applied in decision-making of experts when a risk situation is identified. (author)

  4. Down's syndrome and related abnormalities in an area of high background radiation in coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochupillai, N.; Verma, I.C.; Grewal, M.S.; Ramalingaswami, V.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that in a coastal area of Kerala, Southern India, the background radiation is between 1500 and 3000 mR/yr, this being due to the presence of Th-containing monazite mineral in the soil. During an epidemiological study of modular lesions of the thyroid in this area an apparently high prevalence of Down's syndrome and other forms of severe mental retardation was observed. A house-to-house survey of relevant abnormalities in this area was made, and also in a comparable control area without high background radiation. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in a sample of the population in the study and control areas was also investigated. The observations support the view that radiation induces genetic anomalies occur with above average frequency in the population living in the area with high background radiation. Only gross abnormalities evident in clinical examination were recorded. The study and control populations were similar in age and sex structure and general sociologic conditions. Severe mental retardation was the commonest abnormality encountered, and 85% of the abnormalities detected in the study population were genetic in origin, compared with 56% in the control population. Prevalence of Down's syndrome was 0.93 per 1000 in the study population. (U.K.)

  5. Investigation on Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Yongru

    1989-01-01

    After the survey in 1975 and 1979 of Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area, we made a follow-up investigation in 1985 and 1986. All the obtained data are analysed. 25258 children in high background radiation area were examined and 22 children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity rate being 0.87%. 21837 children in control area were examined and four children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity being 0.18%. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. It was noted that the occurrence of Down's syndrome was related to the maternal age but there was no evidence suggesting a close relationship between high background radiation and the development of Down's syndrome

  6. The basis for a radiological protection program to the health area of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Rosangela Franco.

    1994-01-01

    There are some sectors in the Health Area of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) that present great potential risks from the viewpoint of radiation protection. The aim of this work is to establish the basis a radiological protection program applicable to these sectors. The Diagnostic Radiology Services and the Laboratory of Cardiac Catheterization of the Hospital de Clinicas have been analyzed, as well as the Radiotherapy Services of the Center for Integral Assistance to the Women Health (CAISM). This work was mainly supported by national and international regulations related to the operative and employment aspects of the equipment and radiation sources used in the health area. Regulations related to area and individual monitoring of workers were also used. Results show that the interior of the rooms where the equipment and radiation sources are located is classified as controlled area, whereas the neighborhoods of the rooms are mostly free areas. In order to improve the radiological protection conditions, only some of the operative and employment aspects need to be modified regarding equipment and radiation sources. In this way, routine personal monitoring would not be further required. Since all the workers have their annual mean equivalent doses below 3/10 of the primary limits of the applicable equivalent dose, routine individual monitoring could be exempted. (author). 23 refs., 51 figs., 83 tabs

  7. Use of middle infrared radiation to estimate the leaf area index of a boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, D.S. [Kingston Univ., Surrey (United Kingdom). Centre for Earth and Environmental Science Research, School of Geography; Wicks, T. E.; Curran, P.J. [Southampton Univ., Southampton, Hampshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

    2000-06-01

    Reflected radiation recorded by satellite sensors is a common procedure to estimate the leaf area index (LAI) of boreal forest. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), derived from measurements of visible and near infrared radiation were commonly used to estimate LAI. But research in tropical forest has shown that LAI is more closely related to radiation of middle infrared wavelengths than that of visible wavelengths. This research calculated a vegetation index (VI3) using radiation from vegetation recorded at near and middle infrared wavelengths. In the case of boreal forest, VI3 and LAI displayed a closer relationship than NDVI and LAI. Also, the use of VI3 explained approximately 76 per cent of the variation in field estimates of LAI, versus approximately 46 per cent for NDVI. The authors concluded that consideration should be given to information provided by middle infrared radiation to estimate the leaf area index of boreal forest. The research area was located in the Southern Study Area (SSA) of the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmospher Study (BOREAS), situated on the southern edge of the Canadian boreal forest, 40 km north of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. 1 tab., 4 figs., 46 refs.

  8. Role of the area postrema in radiation-induced taste aversion learning and emesis in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Chedester, A.L.; Lee, J.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the area postrema in radiation-induced emesis and taste aversion learning and the relationship between these behaviors were studied in cats. The potential involvement of neural factors which might be independent of the area postrema was minimized by using low levels of ionizing radiation (100 rads at a dose rate of 40 rads/min) to elicit a taste aversion, and by using body-only exposures (4500 and 6000 rads at 450 rads/min) to produce emesis. Lesions of the area postrema disrupted both taste aversion learning and emesis following irradiation. These results, which indicate that the area postrema is involved in the mediation of both radiation-induced emesis and taste aversion learning in cats under these experimental conditions, are interpreted as being consistent with the hypotheses that similar mechanisms mediate both responses to exposure to ionizing radiation, and that the taste aversion learning paradigm can therefore serve as a model system for studying radiation-induced emesis

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, February 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    This newsletter consists of the following: (1) ARM Science Team Meeting Scheduled-The 11th Annual ARM Science Team meeting is scheduled for March 19-23, 2001, in Atlanta, Georgia. Members of the science team will exchange research results achieved by using ARM data. The science team is composed of working groups that investigate four topics: instantaneous radiative flux, cloud parameterizations and modeling, cloud properties, and aerosols. The annual meeting brings together the science team's 150 members to discuss issues related to ARM and its research. The members represent universities, government laboratories and research facilities, and independent research companies. (2) Communications to Extended Facilities Upgraded-New communications equipment has been installed at all of the SGP extended facilities. Shelters were installed to house the new equipment used to transfer data from instruments via the Internet to the site data system at the central facility. This upgrade has improved data availability from the extended facilities to 100% and reduced telephone costs greatly. (3) SGP Goes ''Buggy''-Steve Sekelsky, a researcher from the University of Massachusetts, is planning to bring a 95-GHz radar to the SGP central facility for deployment in March-October 2001. The radar will help to identify signals due to insects flying in the air. The ARM millimeter cloud radar, which operates at 35 GHz, is sensitive to such insect interference. Testing will also be performed by using a second 35-GHz radar with a polarized radar beam, which can differentiate signals from insects versus cloud droplets. (4) Winter Fog-Fog can add to hazards already associated with winter weather. Common types of fog formation include advection, radiation, and steam. Advection fog: An advection fog is a dense fog that forms when a warm, moist air mass moves into an area with cooler ground below. For example, fog can form in winter when warmer, water-saturated air from the south (associated with

  10. Design and implementation on wireless transmission platform of area radiation monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dan; Ge Liangquan; Lai Wanchang; Ren Yong; Liu Huijun; Wang Guangxi

    2011-01-01

    To solve data transmission problems of radiation area monitoring system, Wireless transmission platform is built based on ZigBee module, thus wireless transmission between the radiation area central node and the monitoring points is achieved. It introduces the framework of ZigBee protocol, APL applications between FFD and RFD module, FFD, module and central node host, and RFD module and monitoring equipment, are developed using simplified protocol stack. Wireless network is set up using a FFD module and two RFD modules, the results show that RSSI are above 50, and the data communication is normal for the transmission distance of 60 m. (authors)

  11. Community Radiation Monitoring Program. Annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1993-05-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE); the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UNEL). The twelfth year of the program began in the fall of 1991, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The program began as an outgrowth of activities that occurred during the Three Mile Island incident in 1979. The local interest and public participation that took place there were thought to be transferrable to the situation at the NTS, so, with adaptations, that methodology was implemented for this program. The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the existing EPA monitoring network, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as station managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link.

  12. Assessing Interpersonal and Communication Skills in Radiation Oncology Residents: A Pilot Standardized Patient Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Melody; Berman, Abigail T.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; LaMarra, Denise; Baffic, Cordelia; Suneja, Gita; Vapiwala, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is a lack of data for the structured development and evaluation of communication skills in radiation oncology residency training programs. Effective communication skills are increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and are critical for a successful clinical practice. We present the design of a novel, pilot standardized patient (SP) program and the evaluation of communication skills among radiation oncology residents. Methods and Materials: Two case scenarios were developed to challenge residents in the delivery of “bad news” to patients: one scenario regarding treatment failure and the other regarding change in treatment plan. Eleven radiation oncology residents paired with 6 faculty participated in this pilot program. Each encounter was scored by the SPs, observing faculty, and residents themselves based on the Kalamazoo guidelines. Results: Overall resident performance ratings were “good” to “excellent,” with faculty assigning statistically significant higher scores and residents assigning lower scores. We found inconsistent inter rater agreement among faculty, residents, and SPs. SP feedback was also valuable in identifying areas of improvement, including more collaborative decision making and less use of medical jargon. Conclusions: The program was well received by residents and faculty and regarded as a valuable educational experience that could be used as an annual feedback tool. Poor inter rater agreement suggests a need for residents and faculty physicians to better calibrate their evaluations to true patient perceptions. High scores from faculty members substantiate the concern that resident evaluations are generally positive and nondiscriminating. Faculty should be encouraged to provide honest and critical feedback to hone residents' interpersonal skills

  13. 25 CFR 2.19 - Action by Area Directors and Education Programs officials on appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Programs officials on appeal. (a) Area Directors, Area Education Programs Administrators, Agency... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by Area Directors and Education Programs officials on appeal. 2.19 Section 2.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES...

  14. The New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program: A Model for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Burger; D. J. Adams; T. Post; L. Sommers; B. Swift

    2005-01-01

    The New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program, modeled after the National Audubon Society?s Important Bird Areas Program, is based on legislation signed by Governor Pataki in 1997. New York is the first state in the nation to enact such a program. The BCA Program seeks to provide a comprehensive, ecosystem approach to conserving birds and their habitats on...

  15. Cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, analysis of cost and effectiveness suggests that decontamination costs for agricultural areas account for approximately 80% of the total decontamination cost, of which approximately 60% is associated with storage. In addition, the costs of decontamination per person per unit area are estimated to vary greatly. Appropriate selection of decontamination methods may significantly decrease decontamination costs, allowing more meaningful decontamination in terms of the limited budget. Our analysis can help in examining the prioritization of decontamination areas from the viewpoints of cost and effectiveness in reducing the external dose. Decontamination strategies should be determined according to air dose rates and future land-use plans.

  16. The role of radiologic technologist in radiation protection and quality assurance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurovic, B.; Spasci -Jokic, V.; Misovic, M.

    2001-01-01

    The most important sources of ionizing radiation for general public are medical sources. Good working protocols and radiological protections measurements provided significant reduction of patients and professional doses. Medical users of ionizing radiation are radiological technologists. The purpose of this paper is to point out to several facts and errors in radiation protection educational programs for radiological technologists. Medical College educational program covers main specific topics in radiation protection, but there are some omissions in training process. Radiological technologists must be actively involved in radiation protection. Following ethical standards they will reach higher standards than the law requires

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  18. Stress and Burnout Among Residency Program Directors in United States Radiation Oncology Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Sonya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Kusano, Aaron S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Carter, Justin Nathaniel; Gable, Laura [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate stressors among radiation oncology residency program directors (PDs) and determine the prevalence and indicators of burnout. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey was offered to PDs of US radiation oncology programs in the fall of 2014. Survey content examined individual and program demographics, perceptions surrounding the role of PD, and commonly encountered stressors. Burnout was assessed using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. Results: In total, 47 of 88 PDs (53%) responded to the survey. Although 78% of respondents reported feeling “satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with their current role, 85% planned to remain as PD for <5 years. The most commonly cited stressors were satisfying Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education/Residency Review Committee requirements (47%), administrative duties (30%) and resident morale (28%). Three-quarters of respondents were satisfied that they became PDs. Overall, 11% of respondents met criteria for low burnout, 83% for moderate burnout, and 6% for high burnout. Not having served as a PD at a prior institution correlated with high depersonalization (OR 6.75, P=.04) and overall burnout (odds ratio [OR], 15.6; P=.04). Having more years on faculty prior to becoming PD correlated with less emotional exhaustion (OR, 0.44, P=.05) and depersonalization (OR, 0.20, P=.04). Finally, having dedicated time for PD duties correlated with less emotional exhaustion (OR, 0.27, P=.04). Conclusions: Moderate levels of burnout are common in U.S. radiation oncology PDs with regulatory stressors being common. Despite this, many PDs are fulfilled with their role. Longitudinal studies assessing dynamic external factors and their influence on PD burnout would be beneficial.

  19. Stress and Burnout Among Residency Program Directors in United States Radiation Oncology Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Sonya; Kusano, Aaron S.; Carter, Justin Nathaniel; Gable, Laura; Thomas, Charles R.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate stressors among radiation oncology residency program directors (PDs) and determine the prevalence and indicators of burnout. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey was offered to PDs of US radiation oncology programs in the fall of 2014. Survey content examined individual and program demographics, perceptions surrounding the role of PD, and commonly encountered stressors. Burnout was assessed using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. Results: In total, 47 of 88 PDs (53%) responded to the survey. Although 78% of respondents reported feeling “satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with their current role, 85% planned to remain as PD for <5 years. The most commonly cited stressors were satisfying Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education/Residency Review Committee requirements (47%), administrative duties (30%) and resident morale (28%). Three-quarters of respondents were satisfied that they became PDs. Overall, 11% of respondents met criteria for low burnout, 83% for moderate burnout, and 6% for high burnout. Not having served as a PD at a prior institution correlated with high depersonalization (OR 6.75, P=.04) and overall burnout (odds ratio [OR], 15.6; P=.04). Having more years on faculty prior to becoming PD correlated with less emotional exhaustion (OR, 0.44, P=.05) and depersonalization (OR, 0.20, P=.04). Finally, having dedicated time for PD duties correlated with less emotional exhaustion (OR, 0.27, P=.04). Conclusions: Moderate levels of burnout are common in U.S. radiation oncology PDs with regulatory stressors being common. Despite this, many PDs are fulfilled with their role. Longitudinal studies assessing dynamic external factors and their influence on PD burnout would be beneficial.

  20. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk.

  1. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk

  2. Technical information program summary: radiation protection - issues, terms, definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Questions concerning the health effects and risks of exposure to ionizing radiations are presented and answered on a popular level. Definitions are given for various working terms. A defense is made of the radiation protection policies of Westinghouse Hanford Company

  3. Experience of wireless local area network in a radiation oncology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhijit; Asthana, Anupam Kumar; Aggarwal, Lalit Mohan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a wireless local area network (LAN) between different types of users (Radiation Oncologists, Radiological Physicists, Radiation Technologists, etc) for efficient patient data management and to made easy the availability of information (chair side) to improve the quality of patient care in Radiation Oncology department. We have used mobile workstations (Laptops) and stationary workstations, all equipped with wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi) access. Wireless standard 802.11g (as recommended by Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ) has been used. The wireless networking was configured with the Service Set Identifier (SSID), Media Access Control (MAC) address filtering, and Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) network securities. We are successfully using this wireless network in sharing the indigenously developed patient information management software. The proper selection of the hardware and the software combined with a secure wireless LAN setup will lead to a more efficient and productive radiation oncology department.

  4. Radiation distribution measurement using plastic scintillating optical fibers for survey of radioactive contamination in wide area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikara; Ito, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    It is important to examine distribution of environmental contamination due to the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and to confirm the effect of decontamination works. We have applied radiation distribution measurement using plastic scintillating optical fibers (PSFs) in the survey of contamination in wide area including residential, farmland, forests, etc. In the measurements system, two scintillation lights that emitted at an incidence of a radiation transmit to photomultiplier tubes at the both end of PSFs. The position where scintillation light emitted is obtained from the detection time difference of each photomultiplier tube. The distribution of light emission quantity indicates the distribution of radiation incident in a PSF which is corresponds to the distribution of dose-rate. The radiation detection system using the PSFs has been applied to the radiation distribution measurement on grounds, trees, etc. The results show a good agreement with point data measured by survey meters using sodium iodide scintillators. As the PSFs which have water resistance, they have been successfully applied to the radiation distribution measurement in the river. We have also succeeded in measuring two-dimensional distribution of radiation by measuring the count rate while moving to the fiber at a constant speed. (author)

  5. Measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates from Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland area shores. Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental radiation exposure rate measurements are taken on and around the Hanford Site for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. In 1992, environmental radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from shoreline and island areas ranging from Vernita, along the Hanford Reach, down to the Richland Pumphouse. Measurements were taken primarily at locations known or expected to have elevated exposure rates as determined by examination of aerial photographs depicting radiation exposure measurements. Results from the 1992 survey indicated radiation exposure rates taken from the Hanford Reach area were elevated in comparison to the measurements taken from the Vernita area with ranges of 8 to 28 μR/hr and 4 to 11 μR/hr, respectively. In January 1994, additional shoreline radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from the Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland areas to determine the relationship of radiation exposure rates along the Richland area shores when compared to Vernita and Hanford Reach area exposure rates (measurements along the Richland area were not collected during the 1992 survey). This report discusses the 1994 results and is an addendum to the report that discussed the 1992 survey. An analysis of variance indicated a significant location interaction at a p-value of 0.0014. To determine differences between paried locations a post-hoc comparison of location means was performed on log transformed data using the Scheffacute e's F-test. This test indicated a significant difference between Hanford Reach and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.075 /μR/hr and a p-value of 0.0014. No significant difference was found between Hanford Reach and Vernita area means: The mean difference was 0.031 μR/hr and the p-value was 0.3138. No significant difference was found between Vernita and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.044 μR/hr and a p-value of 0.1155

  6. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation. IV. Research in radioactive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire-Maia, A [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    1974-01-01

    A review is made on researches performed in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. Some considerations are made on the importance and difficulties involved in projects of this kind. Although there is no doubt that natural radioactivity is one of the causes of the so-called spontaneous mutations, the practical demonstration of this assertion is extremely complex. Projects trying to correlate high levels of natural radioactivity with the occurrence of cancer (in general, or specific), leukemia, congenital malformations (in general or specific), neuro-vegetative disturbs, sex ratio, mortality, and physical development, as well as other characteristics. Some researches with animals are also mentioned, and references are given for plant studies. A critical analysis is made of some works relating to human populations.

  7. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation.IV. Research in radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is made on researches performed in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. Some considerations are made on the importance and difficulties involved in projects of this kind. Although there is no doubt that natural radioactivity is one of the causes of the so-called spontaneous mutations, the practical demonstration of this assertion is extremely complex. Projects trying to correlate high levels of natural radioactivity with the occurrence of cancer (in general, or specific), leukemia, congenital malformations (in general or specific), neuro-vegetative disturbs, sex ratio, mortality, and physical development, as well as other characteristics. Some researches with animals are also mentioned, and references are given for plant studies. A critical analysis is made of some works relating to human populations [pt

  8. The Development of light-weight 2-link robot arm for high radiation area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Cheol; Seo, Yong Chil; Jung, Kyung Min; Choi, Young Soo

    2009-10-15

    A light-weight 2-link robot arm which weight is less than 8kg was developed for treating the small radio-active material in the high radiation area such as nuclear power plants and NDT area. The light-weight 2-link robot arm can be attached on a small mobile robot and carry out tasks. It is a 5 DOF robot arm including a gripper

  9. Radiation risk assessment in professionals working in dental radiology area using buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatullah, Syed; Dawasaz, Ali Azhar; Luqman, Master; Assiry, Ali A; Almeshari, Ahmed A; Togoo, Rafi Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosal cells of professionals working in radiology area to determine the risk of stochastic effects of radiation. All the professionals and students working in King Khalid University - College of Dentistry radiology area were included in the Risk Group (RG = 27). The Control Group (CG = 27) comprised of healthy individual matching the gender and age of the RG. Buccal mucosal scraping from all the 54 subjects of RG and CG were stained with Papanicolaou stain and observed under oil immersion lens (×100) for the presence of micronuclei (MN) in the exfoliated epithelial cells. There was no significant difference between the incidence of MN in RG and CG (p = >0.05) using t-test. Routine radiation protection protocol does minimize the risk of radiation induced cytotoxicity, however, screening of professionals should be carried out at regular intervals.

  10. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2002-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an unsignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2001-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an unsignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2000-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an insignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  13. A microprocessor based area monitor system for neutron and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.; Heusser, G.

    1980-01-01

    The conventional electronics of the area monitors at the MPI-Heidelberg accelerators have been replaced by a microprocessor system consisting of individual detector-microprocessors and a central microcomputer. The detector microprocessors convert the count rates of BF3 and GM counter tubes into dose rates and control three different radiation thresholds (failure, low and high level). Different warning signals are operated directly by the detector processors, whereas the dose rates are transferred to the central microcomputer. Here the data are processed for recording on tape and displaying on TV monitors. The detector as well as the central processors have been developed on the basis of a 16-bit microprocessor. In the control rooms the dose rates of the individual monitors are displayed and on an indicator board showing the different locations, the high radiation level and the state of the doors (open, locked, and closed, locked but open) are sianaled by different LED. If a high radiation threshold is surpassed, the doors adjacent to that area can be locked either by switches on the indicator board or automatically. Within the experimental area, the low and high radiation level is indicated by acoustic and light signals. The whole concept permits keeping the absorbed doses of the personnel as low as possible without affecting the flexibility of the experimental operations. The independence of the microprocessor driven area monitors guarantees a high reliability. Compared to conventional electronics the advantages of the system are its reliability and cost. (Author)

  14. Uniform sources of ionizing radiation of extended area from radiotoned photographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackray, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technique of toning photographic films, that have been uniformly exposed and developed, with radionuclides to provide uniform sources of ionizing radiation of extended area and their uses in radiography are discussed. The suitability of various radionuclides for uniform-plane sources is considered. (U.K.)

  15. Radiation dose distribution monitoring at neutron radiography facility area, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Daud

    1995-01-01

    One experiment was carried out to get the distribution of radiation doses at the neutron radiography facilities, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia. The analysis was done to evaluate the safety level of the area. The analysis was used in neutron radiography work

  16. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-10-03

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of

  17. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-01-01

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of technology

  18. Community Radiation Monitoring Program. Annual report, December 1, 1982-March 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.; Cooper, E.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program is beginning its third year as part of the underground nuclear testing safety program developed by the US Department of Energy. The objectives of the program are: (1) to include local participation in the federal program to protect the health and safety of residents near the Nevada Test Site, (2) to augment the existing radiation monitoring network, and (3) to improve public understanding of the program by direct community involvement. The activities of program personnel from December 1, 1982 to March 31, 1984 are descussed and future efforts presented. 3 figures, 17 tables. (MF)

  19. Variability in effective radiating area and output power of new ultrasound transducers at 3 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Lennart D; Straub, Stephen J; Howard, Samuel M

    2007-01-01

    Spatial average intensity (SAI) is often used by clinicians to gauge therapeutic ultrasound dosage, yet SAI measures are not directly regulated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards. Current FDA guidelines permit a possible 50% to 150% minimum to maximum range of SAI values, potentially contributing to variability in clinical outcomes. To measure clinical values that describe ultrasound transducers and to determine the degree of intramanufacturer and intermanufacturer variability in effective radiating area, power, and SAI when the transducer is functioning at 3 MHz. A descriptive and interferential approach was taken to this quasi-experimental design. Measurement laboratory. Sixty-six 5-cm(2) ultrasound transducers were purchased from 6 different manufacturers. All transducers were calibrated and then assessed using standardized measurement techniques; SAI was normalized to account for variability in effective radiating area, resulting in an nSAI. Effective radiating area, power, and nSAI. All manufacturers with the exception of Omnisound (P = .534) showed a difference between the reported and measured effective radiating area values (P nSAI (P < .05) than all other manufacturers functioning at 3 MHz. Intramanufacturer variability in SAI ranged from 16% to 35%, and intermanufacturer variability ranged from 22% to 61%. Clinicians should consider treatment values of each individual transducer, regardless of the manufacturer. In addition, clinicians should scrutinize the power calibration and recalibration record of the transducer and adjust clinical settings as needed for the desired level of heating. Our data may aid in explaining the reported heating differences among transducers from different manufacturers. Stricter FDA standards regarding effective radiating area and total power are needed, and standards regulating SAI should be established.

  20. Evaluation of the radiation field and shielding assessment of the experimental area of HIE-ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanets, Y.; Goncalves, I.F.; Maria, S. di; Vaz, P.; Vollaire, J.; Bernardes, A.P.; Dorsival, A.; Kadi, Y.; Vlachoudis, V.

    2014-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is one of the first facilities in the world dedicated to the production of the radioactive ion beams (RIB) and during all its working time underwent several upgrades. The goal of the latest proposed upgrade, 'The High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE' (HIE-ISOLDE), is to provide a higher performance facility in order to approximate it to the level of the next generation ISOL facilities, like EURISOL. The HIE-ISOLDE aims to improve significantly the quality of the produced RIB and for this reason the increasing of the primary beam power is one of the main objectives of the project. An increase in the nominal beam current (from 2 to 6 μA proton beam intensity) and energy (from 1.4 GeV to 2 GeV) of the primary proton beam will be possible due to the upgrade of CERN's accelerator infrastructure. The current upgrade means reassessment of the radiation protection and the radiation safety of the facility. However, an evaluation of the existing shielding configuration and access restrictions to the experimental and supply areas must be carried out. Monte Carlo calculations were performed in order to evaluate the radiation protection of the facility as well as radiation shielding assessment and design. The FLUKA-Monte Carlo code was used in this study to calculate the ambient dose rate distribution and particle fluxes in the most important areas, such as the experimental hall of the facility. The results indicate a significant increase in the ambient dose equivalent rate in some areas of the experimental hall when an upgrade configuration of the primary proton beam is considered. Special attention is required for the shielding of the target area once it is the main and very intensive radiation source, especially under the upgrade conditions. In this study, the access points to the beam extraction and beam maintenance areas, such as the mass separator rooms and the high voltage room, are identified as the most sensitive for the experimental hall from

  1. A proposed methodology for performing risk analysis of state radiation control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornsife, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is comprised of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. Topics discussed include barriers to effective risk assessment and management, and real versus perceived risk for various radiation programs in the state of Pennsylvania. Calculation results for Pennsylvania are provided for low-level radioactive waste transportation risks, indoor radon risk, and cancer morbidity risk from x-rays. A methodology for prioritizing radiation regulatory programs based on risk is presented with calculations for various Pennsylvania programs

  2. A prospective study on congenital malformations in the high background radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hospital based epidemiological study on congenital anomalies carried out in the high level natural radiation (HLNR) areas of southern Kerala since 1995 to assess the hereditary effects, if any, of HLNR is reported here. Thorium, Uranium to a limited extent, and corresponding decay products in the natural deposits of monazite sand is the source of radiation. HLNR and normal level natural radiation (NLNR) areas are interwoven due to the patchy and non-uniform distribution of monazite in the region. Areas with a mean dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and those with 1.5 mGy/year or less, as NLNR. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. The comparison of individual malformation in HLNR and NLNR areas are presented and efforts are on to accrue sufficient sample size to enable the comparison

  3. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha (India))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R. C.; Gusain, G. S.; Rautela, B. S.; Sagar, D. V.; Prasad, G.; Shahoo, S. K.; Ishikawa, T.; Omori, Y.; Janik, M.; Sorimachi, A.; Tokonami, S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to radon, 222 Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, 220 Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to 220 Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of 220 Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha (India)) presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper. (authors)

  4. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha (India))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S [Dept. of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal Univ., Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal 249199 (India); Sagar, D V [Health Physics Unit EAD, BARC, IRE, OSCOM, Matikhalo, Ganjam, Odisha 761 045 (India); Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S [Inst. of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki Univ., Aomori 036-8564 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to radon, {sup 222}Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, {sup 220}Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to {sup 220}Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of {sup 220}Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha (India)) presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper. (authors)

  5. Preliminary Study of Position-Sensitive Large-Area Radiation Portal Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chang Hwy; Kim, Hyunok; Moon, Myung Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongyul [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Won; Lim, Yong Kon [Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    An RPM, which is a passive inspection method, is a system for monitoring the movement of radioactive materials at an airport, seaport, border, etc. To detect a γ-ray, an RPM using the plastic scintillator is generally used. The method of γ-ray detection using an RPM with a plastic scintillator is to measure lights generated by an incident γ-ray in the scintillator. Generally, a large-area RPM uses one or two photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for light collection. However, in this study, we developed a 4-ch RPM that can measure the radiation signal using 4 PMTs. The reason for using 4 PMTs is to calculate the position of the radiation source. In addition, we developed an electric device for acquisition of a 4-ch output signal at the same time. To estimate the performance of the developed RPM, we performed an RPM test using a {sup 60}Co γ-ray check source. In this study, we performed the development of a 4-ch RPM. The major function of the typical RPM is to measure the radiation. However, we developed a position-sensitive 4-ch RPM, which can be used to measure the location of the radiation source, as well as the radiation measurement, at the same time. In the future, we plan to develop an algorithm for a position detection of the radiation. In addition, an algorithm will be applied to an RPM.

  6. Radiation protection and environmental monitoring in the area of the Asse shaft plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Mueller-Lyda, I.

    1990-08-01

    Personnel monitoring has been carried through in compliance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Environmental monitoring including measurement of local doses, local dose rates, and airborne radioactivity in the shaft has been made according to the provisions for radiation protection at the place of work. Maximum permissible personal doses or activity levels for occupationally exposed persons have not been exceeded in the reporting period. Exhaust air monitoring detected the nuclides H-3, C-14, Pb-210, and the short-lived daughter products of Rn-222 and Rn-220. The activity concentrations in the environment, determined from the measured annual release values, for some part have been lower than the average of natural concentrations of said nuclides. The radiation exposure due to emissions, measured at the least favourable point in the environment, has been far below the limits set by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In conclusion: The radiation exposure of the personnel and of the population in the area of the Asse shaft plant due to the storage of radioactive is low, compared to the natural radiation exposure. (orig.) [de

  7. Radiation protection and environmental monitoring in the area of the Asse shaft plant. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lyda, I.; Meyer, H.

    1988-07-01

    Personnel monitoring has been carried through in compliance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Environmental monitoring including measurement of local doses, local dose rates, and airborne radioactivity in the shaft has been made according to the provisions for radiation protection at the place of work. Maximum permissible personal doses or activity levels for occupationally exposed persons have not been exceeded in the reporting period. Exhaust air monitoring detected the nuclides H-3, C-14, Pb-210, and the short-lived daughter products of Rn-222 and Rn-220. The activity concentrations in the environment, determined from the measured annual release values, for some part have been lower than the average of natural concentrations of said nuclides. The radiation exposure due to emissions, measured at the least favourable point in the environment, has been far below the limits set by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In conclusion: The radiation exposure of the personnel and of the population in the area of the Asse shaft plant due to the storage of radioactive is low, compared to the natural radiation exposure. (orig.) [de

  8. Radiation protection and environmental monitoring in the area of the Asse shaft plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lyda, I.; Meyer, H.

    1989-06-01

    Personnel monitoring has been carried through in compliance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Environmental monitoring including measurement of local doses, local dose rates, and airborne radioactivity in the shaft has been made according to the provisions for radiation protection at the place of work. Maximum permissible personal doses or activity levels for occupationally exposed persons have not been exceeded in the reporting period. Exhaust air monitoring detected the nuclides H-3, C-14, Pb-210, and the short-lived daughter products of Rn-222 and Rn-220. The activity concentrations in the environment, determined from the measured annual release values, for some part have been lower than the average of natural concentrations of said nuclides. The radiation exposure due to emissions, measured at the least favourable point in the environment, has been far below the limits set by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In conclusion: The radiation exposure of the personnel and of the population in the area of the Asse shaft plant due to the storage of radioactive is low, compared to the natural radiation exposure. (orig.) [de

  9. Mapping radon-prone areas using γ-radiation dose rate and geological information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Talavera, M; Rey, C; Ramos, L; García-Pérez, A

    2013-01-01

    Identifying radon-prone areas is key to policies on the control of this environmental carcinogen. In the current paper, we present the methodology followed to delineate radon-prone areas in Spain. It combines information from indoor radon measurements with γ-radiation and geological maps. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it lessens the requirement for a high density of measurements by making use of commonly available information. It can be applied for an initial definition of radon-prone areas in countries committed to introducing a national radon policy or to improving existing radon maps in low population regions. (paper)

  10. A survey of senile dementia in the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia; Su Gasaki, H.; Yang Yuhua

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of long-term low dose and low dose-rate ionizing radiation exposure on the prevalence rate of senile dementia, further assess the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on central nervous system and study the pathogen of senile dementia, and provide direct observational data of human beings. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of senile dementia was carried out in high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, Guangdong Province, China. The survey was conducted in two stages. For the initial screening, Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS) was used for all subjects. In the second stage, the stage of diagnosis, special questionnaires of healthy state of old people were sued. The final diagnoses were made according to the third revised edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III-R) of American Psychiatric Association. Results: 1018 inhabitants aged 65 years and over, including 513 persons in HBRA and 505 in CA were observed. According to DSM III-R, 61 cases (31 cases in HBRA and 30 cases in CA) of senile dementia were diagnosed. The prevalence rates of senile dementia are 6.04% in HBRA and 5.94% in CA, the total prevalence rate being 5.99%. Conclusion: No significant statistical difference in the prevalence rate of senile dementia between the two areas was found, suggesting that the prevalence rate of senile dementia in these areas is not associated with the high background radiation exposure

  11. Epidemiological and radio-biological studies in high background radiation areas of Kerala coast: implications in radiation protection science and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi

    2018-01-01

    Till date, Linear No Threshold hypothesis (LNT) is well accepted in radiation protection science in spite of its limitations. However, dose response studies using multiple biological end points from high-background radiation areas have challenged the linearity. Radio-biological and epidemiological studies from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast showed non-linearity as well as efficient repair of DNA damage in HLNRA indicating that dose limits for public exposure needs to be revisited which may have implications in radiation protection science, human health and low dose radiation biology. However, further studies using high throughput approach is required to identify chronic radiation signatures in human population exposed to elevated level of natural background radiation

  12. Data management and scientific integration within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracio, Deborah K.; Hatfield, Larry D.; Yates, Kenneth R.; Voyles, Jimmy W.; Tichler, Joyce L.; Cederwall, Richard T.; Laufersweiler, Mark J.; Leach, Martin J.; Singley, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy with the goal to improve the predictive capabilities of General Circulation Models (GCM's) in their treatment of clouds and radiative transfer effects. To achieve this goal, three experimental testbeds were designed for the deployment of instruments that will collect atmospheric data used to drive the GCM's. Each site, known as a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART), consists of a highly available, redundant data system for the collection of data from a variety of instrumentation. The first CART site was deployed in April 1992 in the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Lamont, Oklahoma, with the other two sites to follow in September 1995 in the Tropical Western Pacific and in 1997 on the North Slope of Alaska. Approximately 400 MB of data are transferred per day via the Internet from the SGP site to the ARM Experiment Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The Experiment Center is central to the ARM data path and provides for the collection, processing, analysis, and delivery of ARM data. Data are received from the CART sites from a variety of instrumentation, observational systems, amd external data sources. The Experiment Center processes these data streams on a continuous basis to provide derived data products to the ARM Science Team in near real-time while providing a three-month running archive of data. A primary requirement of the ARM Program is to preserve and protect all data produced or acquired. This function is performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory where leading edge technology is employed for the long-term storage of ARM data. The ARM Archive provides access to data for participation outside of the ARM Program. The ARM Program involves a collaborative effort by teams from various DOE National Laboratories, providing multi-disciplinary areas of expertise. This paper will discuss the collaborative methods in which the ARM teams

  13. Review of epidemiological and cytogenetic studies on high background radiation area residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2008-01-01

    Emerging scientific knowledge in the field of radiation biology has put into question the generic use of a simple linear extrapolation of radiation effects from high to low dose or dose rate. Though the direct information of biological effects at low dose or low dose rate has been accumulated, it is still immature to mention health effects as the consequence of biological effects. As epidemiological data have been the main sources of direct information on human health effects, studies of the health of population exposed by low dose or low dose rate ionizing radiation will help to improve our understanding. In this meaning, the epidemiological studies of residents in high background radiation areas (HBRA), which are supported by us, will provide important direct information on the biological and health effects of chronic low dose rate ionizing radiation. The epidemiological results in HBRA in China showed there are no significant increases of cancer risks caused by the high background levels of ionizing radiation. From the results which come from cytogeneticl studies, the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations have shown good correlation with cumulative doses in their lifetimes, which indicated it is a sensitive and informative biomarker. On the other hand, the frequencies of stable chromosomal aberrations have shown no significant difference and the frequency was much higher than that of unstable type aberrations. It suggests that mutagenic factors other than radiation contribute more than the elevated level of radiation to the induction of DNA rearrangements which could lead to the increase of cancer risk in HBRA in China. (author)

  14. Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.Y.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wei, L.X.; Beebe, G.W.; Zha, Y.R.; Kaplan, M.M.; Tao, Z.F.; Maxon, H.R. III; Zhang, S.Z.; Schneider, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid nodularity following continuous low-dose radiation exposure in China was determined in 1,001 women aged 50-65 years who resided in areas of high background radiation (330 mR/yr) their entire lives, and in 1,005 comparison subjects exposed to normal levels of radiation (114 mR/yr). Cumulative doses to the thyroid were estimated to be of the order of 14 cGy and 5 cGy, respectively. Personal interviews and physical examinations were conducted, and measurements were made of serum thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine concentrations, and chromosome aberrations in circulating lymphocytes. For all nodular disease, the prevalences in the high background and control areas were 9.5% and 9.3%, respectively. For single nodules, the prevalences were 7.4% in the high background area and 6.6% in the control area (prevalence ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.55). There were no differences found in serum levels of thyroid hormones. Women in the high background region, however, had significantly lower concentrations of urinary iodine and significantly higher frequencies of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations. Increased intake of allium vegetables such as garlic and onions was associated with a decreased risk of nodular disease, which seems consistent with experimental studies suggesting that allium compounds can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation. The prevalence of mild diffuse goiter was higher in the high background radiation region, perhaps related to a low dietary intake of iodine. These data suggest that continuous exposure to low-level radiation throughout life is unlikely to appreciably increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, such exposure may cause chromosomal damage

  15. Validity of the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis in setting radiation protection regulations for the inhabitants in high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Atefi, M.; Razi, Z.; Mortazavi Gh

    2010-01-01

    Some areas in Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, have long been known as inhabited areas with the highest levels of natural radiation. Despite the fact that the health effects of high doses of ionizing radiation are well documented, biological effects of above the background levels of natural radiation are still controversial and the validity of the LNT hypothesis in this area, has been criticized by many investigators around the world. The study of the health effects of high levels of natural radiation in areas such as Ramsar, help scientists to investigate the biological effects without the need for extrapolating the observations either from high doses of radiation to low dose region or from laboratory animals to humans. Considering the importance of these studies, National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD) of the Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority has started an integrative research project on the health effects of long-term exposure to high levels of natural radiation. This paper reviews findings of the studies conducted on the plants and humans living or laboratory animals kept in high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar. In human studies, different end points such as DNA damage, chromosome aberrations, blood cells and immunological alterations are discussed. This review comes to the conclusion that no reproducible detrimental health effect has been reported so far. In this paper the validity of LNT hypothesis in the assessment of the health effects of high levels of natural radiation is discussed. (author)

  16. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

  17. Preliminary indoor thoron measurements in high radiation background area of southeastern coastal Orissa (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R. C.; Prasad, G.; Gusain, G. S.; Rautela, B. S.; Choubey, V. M.; Vidya Sagar, D.; Tokonami, S.; Sorimachi, A.; Sahoo, S. K.; Janik, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of radon and thoron measurements in the houses of Chhatrapur area of southeastern coast of Orissa (India). This area is one of the high radiation background radiation areas in India, which consists of monazite sand as the source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations were measured in the houses of Chhatrapur area using twin cup radon dosemeters, RAD7 and radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). Thoron progeny concentration was also measured in the houses using deposition rate measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of study area were found to vary from 8 to 47 Bq m -3 and the below detection level to 77 Bq m -3 , respectively. While thoron progeny concentration in these houses ranges between 0.17 and 4.24 Bq m -3 , preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than radon concentration in the houses of the study area. The thoron progeny concentration was found to be comparatively higher, which forms a base for further study in the area. The comparison between the results of various techniques is presented in this paper. (authors)

  18. Preliminary indoor thoron measurements in high radiation background area of southeastern coastal Orissa (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R C; Prasad, G; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S [Dept. of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal Univ., Badshahi Thaul, Tehri Garhwal 249 199 (India); Choubey, V M [Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248 001 (India); Vidya Sagar, D [Health Physics Unit (EAD, BARC), IRE, OSCOM, Matikhalo, Dt. Ganjam, Orissa 761 045 (India); Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Sahoo, S K; Janik, M; Ishikawa, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263 8555 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of radon and thoron measurements in the houses of Chhatrapur area of southeastern coast of Orissa (India). This area is one of the high radiation background radiation areas in India, which consists of monazite sand as the source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations were measured in the houses of Chhatrapur area using twin cup radon dosemeters, RAD7 and radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). Thoron progeny concentration was also measured in the houses using deposition rate measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of study area were found to vary from 8 to 47 Bq m{sup -3} and the below detection level to 77 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. While thoron progeny concentration in these houses ranges between 0.17 and 4.24 Bq m{sup -3}, preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than radon concentration in the houses of the study area. The thoron progeny concentration was found to be comparatively higher, which forms a base for further study in the area. The comparison between the results of various techniques is presented in this paper. (authors)

  19. Community radiation monitoring program. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1994-08-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UUNEL). The thirteenth year of this program began in the fall of 1992, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE--sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the then-existing EPA monitoring network around the NTS, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah, and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Station Managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These mangers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded through their training, experience, community standing, and effort in becoming a very visible, able, and valuable asset in this link.

  20. Community radiation monitoring program. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1994-08-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UUNEL). The thirteenth year of this program began in the fall of 1992, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE--sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the then-existing EPA monitoring network around the NTS, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah, and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Station Managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These mangers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded through their training, experience, community standing, and effort in becoming a very visible, able, and valuable asset in this link

  1. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  2. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards

  3. A Comprehensive Review of Selected Business Programs in Community Colleges and Area Vocational-Technical Centers. Program Review Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    In 1988, a review was conducted of the business component of associate in arts and associate in science (AS) degree programs, and of the certificate programs in business in Florida community colleges and area vocational-technical centers. Focusing primarily on business programs in marketing, general business management, and small business…

  4. The MuCool Test Area and RF Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torun, Y.; Huang, D.; Norem, J.; Palmer, Robert B.; Stratakis, Diktys; Bross, A.; Chung, M.; Jansson, A.; Moretti, A.; Yonehara, K.; Li, D.

    2010-01-01

    The MuCool RF Program focuses on the study of normal conducting RF structures operating in high magnetic field for applications in muon ionization cooling for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders. Here we give an overview of the program, which includes a description of the test facility and its capabilities, the current test program, and the status of a cavity that can be rotated in the magnetic field, which allows for a detailed study of the maximum stable operating gradient vs. magnetic field strength and angle.

  5. Chromosome translocation in residents of the high background radiation areas in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayata, Isamu; Minamihisamatsu, Masako; Wang Chunyan; Wei Zhang; Chen Deqing; Morishima, Hiroshige; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    We performed a cytogenetical study using chromosome painting analysis on 9 residents of the naturally high background radiation areas (HBRA) and 8 residents of the control areas in southern China. The estimated dose (air kerma) of each resident measured by an electric pocket dosimeter showed 2.20-4.23 mGy/year in HBRA and 0.56-0.70 mGy/year in the control areas. A total of 14,096 cells (1,566 cells/case) in the former and 17,522 cells (2,190 cells/case) in the latter were analyzed. Children, both in HBRA and in the control areas, had translocations at low frequencies. The frequency of translocations among elder individuals varied widely and it was not possible to detect dose effect although it was detected in dicentrics. The effect of radiation on the induction of chromosome aberrations, which have a statistically potential risk of causing malignant or congenital diseases, seems to be less significant than those of metabolic factors and/or mutagenic agents (excluding radiation) even in HBRA in China. (author)

  6. 10. 'Tihany' symposium on radiation chemistry. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The 10th 'Tihany' Symposium on Radiation Chemistry was held between August 31 and September 5, 2002, in Sopron, Hungary. An oral presentation section and two poster sections were organized, in every aspects of Radiation Chemistry and Radiochemistry. All presentation have been processed in abstracts form in the INIS database. (R.P.)

  7. 10. 'Tihany' symposium on radiation chemistry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The 10th 'Tihany' Symposium on Radiation Chemistry was held between August 31 and September 5, 2002, in Sopron, Hungary. An oral presentation section and two poster sections were organized, in every aspects of Radiation Chemistry and Radiochemistry. All presentation have been processed in abstracts form in the INIS database. (R.P.)

  8. mtDNA point and length heteroplasmy in high- and low radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, L.; Forster, P.; Gurney, S.M.; Spencer, M.; Huang, C.; Röhl, A.; Brinkmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal peninsula in Kerala (India) contains the world's highest level of natural radioactivity in a densely populated area, offering an opportunity to characterize radiation-associated DNA mutations. Here, we focus on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, which are passed exclusively from the mother to her children. To analyse point mutations, we sampled 248 pedigrees (988 individuals) in the high-radiation peninsula and in nearby low-radiation islands as a control population. Then, in an extended sample of 1,172 mtDNA sequences (containing some non-Indians for comparison), we also analysed length mutations, which in mtDNA can lead to the phenomenon of length heteroplasmy, i.e. the existence of different DNA types in the same cell. We wished to find out how fast mtDNA mutates between generations, and whether the mutation rate is increased in radioactive conditions compared to the low-irradiation sample

  9. Emergency response activities and collecting damaged radiation devices from a war affected area in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subasic, Damir; Schaller, Antum [APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    A number of various devices containing ionizing radiation sources were in use in the area affected by the recent war in Croatia. In destruction caused by the war operations, a number of these devices were damaged, destroyed or even missed/lost. The actions undertaken to (re)collect these radiation sources, experience gained and lessons learned are reviewed. The importance of a well-organized national regulatory system is highlighted as a precondition for the efficient identification and safe collection of radiation sources which were under ruins. Experience from this event could be well applicable to similar situations caused by disasters and particularly for regulatory authorities who design emergency preparedness plans. (author) 4 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Application of gypsum as shielding against low-energy X-radiation in the radiodiagnosis area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, J.A.G.; Lima, F.R.A.; Santos, M.A.P. dos; Oliveira, D.N.S. de; Silva, V.H.F.F. da

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, materials such as lead, concrete and iron have been studied for use as shielding for ionizing radiations of different energies in radiative installations. In the radiodiagnosis area, lead and barite are the most used materials as shielding. However, for beams of low energy X-radiation, such as in mammography and dentistry, the gypsum material may be used. This study aims to verify the feasibility of the use of gypsum as shielding for low-energy X-ray using standardized dental X-ray beams in a metrology laboratory. The project will allow a better understanding in the study of gypsum used as shielding, certifying its use as a good attenuator for low-energy X-ray

  11. Radiation Protection Control Area Around Baggage Control X-ray Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, I.; Radalj, Z.; Milkovic-Kraus, S.; Cerovac, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of prompt occupational dose reporting rises when dose is received within a short-time interval or when the radiation source suffers any technical failures. Radiation exposure is to be recognized as a private/or group hazard of each person alone. Actual radiation quality of the source is to be taken into account. To optimize the radiological radiation protection Quality Control measurements of the source are done. We have developed digital dosemeters of type ALARA OD2 for external dosimetry to be used for establishing the real pattern of occupational dose delivered to the workers or/and as the (Ort) professional environmental measuring station. We are using dosemeter to define the control areas and areas of concern - point (Ort) around the source. This upgrade to legal obligatory external (film badge) dosimetry will help us to ease defining the professional stuff and working places which are actually exposed to ionising radiation of concern and for which it is necessary to provide legally required, or even additional, occupational health care programme. This means the analysis of exposure situations for specific jobs near the X-ray equipment used for baggage control in the context of carrying out a detailed study for the optimisation of radiation protection. PC data readout from device forms a real time exposure dose rate pattern that proves that any worker or other employee working nearby the baggage X-ray unit is not obliged to undergo any legal occupational monitoring (dosimetry or health) hence the total dose per year will not exceed 1 mSv under the worst working conditions. (author)

  12. Problem area descriptions : motor vehicle crashes - data analysis and IVI program analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, the IVI program focuses on the more significant safety problem categories as : indicated by statistical analyses of crash data. However, other factors were considered in setting : program priorities and schedules. For some problem areas, ...

  13. The European nuclear safety and radiation protection area: steps and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, G.

    2010-01-01

    Launched with enthusiasm and determination in 1957, The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC - EURATOM), which aimed to promote the development of a 'powerful nuclear industry' in Europe, has not ultimately fulfilled the wishes of its founding fathers. Rapidly, and on a topic as strategic as the peaceful use of the atom, national reflexes prevailed. The Chernobyl disaster, in 1986, also substantially slowed down the use of nuclear energy in Europe. Nuclear safety and radiation protection have followed two different paths. Backed by Chapter III of the EURATOM treaty, over time the EAEC has developed a substantial legislative corpus on radiation protection. Meanwhile, and strange as it may seem, nuclear safety has remained the poor relation, on the grounds that the treaty does not grant EURATOM competence in the area. It is true that legislation was adopted in reaction to Chernobyl, but for a long time there was no specific regulation of nuclear safety in the EU. The European nuclear safety and radiation protection area owes its construction to Community mechanisms as well as to informal initiatives by safety authorities. Today, more than ever, this centre provides consistency, an overall balance which should both strengthen it and impose it as an international reference. Progress can now be expected on waste management, radiation protection and the safety objectives of new reactors. (author)

  14. Solar radiation measurements and Leaf Area Index (LAI) from vegetal covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandelli, E.V.; Marques Filho, A. de O.

    1999-01-01

    A method by which a physical model of the solar radiation transfer in a vegetal medium is inverted to estimate the leaf area index (LAI) for different types of vegetation is presented here, as an alternative to the destructive experiments, which are a hard task to implement on the vegetation covers. Radiation data were obtained during the dry season — 1996, at the Embrapa Experimental Station, (BR 174 - km 54, 2° 31' S, 60° 01' W), Manaus, Brazil. The method yielded convergent values for the LAI between different adopted radiation classes with more stable estimates at time when there is a predominant diffuse radiation. The application of the inversion algorithm yields the following values for the leaf area index and respective annual foliage increments: 3.5 (0.35 yr. -1 ) for the intact secondary forest; 2.0 (0.5 yr -1 ) for the palm agroforestry system; and 1.6 (0.4 yr -1 ) for the multi-layer ones [pt

  15. A Decision Support System for Plant Optimization in Urban Areas with Diversified Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyi Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sunshine is an important factor which limits the choice of urban plant species, especially in environments with high-density buildings. In practice, plant selection and configuration is a key step of landscape architecture, which has relied on an experience-based qualitative approach. However, the rationality and efficiency of this need to be improved. To maintain the diversity of plant species and to ensure their ecological adaptability (solar radiation in the context of sustainable development, we developed the Urban Plants Decision Support System (UP-DSS for assisting plant selection in urban areas with diversified solar radiation. Our methodology mainly consists of the solar radiation model and calibration, the urban plant database, and information retrieval model. The structure of UP-DSS is also presented at the end of the methodology section, which is based on the platform of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Microsoft Excel. An application of UP-DSS is demonstrated in a residential area of Wuhan, China. The results show that UP-DSS can provide a very scientific and stable tool for the adaptive planning of shade-tolerant plants and photoperiod-sensitive plants, meanwhile, it also provides a specific plant species and the appropriate types of plant community for user decision-making according to different sunshine radiation conditions and the designer’s preferences.

  16. Relationship between incident radiation, leaf area and dry-matter yield in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, A.D.; Nanda, R.

    1986-01-01

    Light-utilization efficiency was evaluated between 20 and 50 days of crop growth period in 'Kalyansona', 'Sonalika' (semi-dwarf), 'Hindi 62' (tall) varieties of bread-wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend., Fiori and Paol.) and semi-dwarf 'HD 4502' variety of macaroni wheat (T. durum Desf.). In the first model, the relationship between absorbed photosynthetic radiation and crop growth rates showed above-ground dry matter of 2.9 g in 'Sonalika', 2.5 g each in 'Kalyansona' and 'HD 4502' and 1.8 g in 'Hindi 62' were produced for each megajoule of absorbed photosynthetic radiation corresponding to the growth efficiency of 5.1, 4.4 and 3.1% respectively. In the second model of partial regression analysis, the rate of change in dry matter due to mean green area index as well as photosynthetic radiation was low in 'Hindi 62'. However, the dry matter changes due to mean green area index were similar in 'Kalyansona', 'HD4502' and 'Sonalika', but was high due to photosynthetic radiation in 'Sonalika' only. Both models gave similar conclusion

  17. Radiation protection and environmental monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Mueller-Lyda, I.

    1994-01-01

    The personnel at the site has been monitored in accordance with the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In addition, ambient dose, ambient dose rate, and radioactivity levels of the air in the mine have been measured pursuant to the health physics provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. None of the measured results indicated any dose received by the persons, or ambient radioactivity levels, exceeding the maximum permissible values determined for occupational exposure. Continuous monitoring of the mine off-gas has shown a minor accumulation of the nuclides. H-3, C-14, Pb-210 and of the short-lived daughter products of Rn-222 and Rn-220. The average annual emission values serving as input data, the concentration levels computed for the environment of the mine for some part have been below the levels of the naturally occurring concentrations of these nuclides. The emission-induced radiation dose measured at the least favourable place in the plant's vicinity has been far below the maximum permissible dose defined in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. All activities carried out in the Asse salt mine for the purpose of research work and storage of radioactive waste in the period under review have been contributing only a negligible amount to the radiation exposure of the population or personnel, as compared to the natural or other man-made radioactivity levels in that area. (orig.) [de

  18. Radiation protection and environmental monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Mueller-Lyda, I.

    1995-01-01

    The personnel at the site has been monitored in accordance with the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In addition, ambient dose, ambient dose rate, and radioactivity levels of the air in the mine have been measured pursuant to the health physics provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. None of the measured results indicated any dose received by the persons, or ambient radioactivity levels, exceeding the maximum permissible values determined for occupational exposure. Continuous monitoring of the mine off-gas has shown a minor accumulation of the nuclides. H-3, C-14, Pb-210 and of the short-lived daughter products of Rn-222 and Rn-220. The average annual emission values serving as input data, the concentration levels computed for the environment of the mine for some part have been below the levels of the naturally occurring concentrations of these nuclides. The emission-induced radiation dose measured at the least favourable place in the plant's vicinity has been far below the maximum permissible dose defined in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. All activities carried out in the Asse salt mine for the purpose of research work and storage of radioactive waste in the period under review have been contributing only a negligible amount to the radiation exposure of the population or personnel, as compared to the natural or other man-made radioactivity levels in that area. (orig.) [de

  19. Radiation environment within the 30 km area of the Chernobyl' APP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.; Komarov, V.I.; Zverkov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The effluent structure together with meteorological conditions indicated the main pollution zones and their spotty map obtained from isotope ratio and radiation dose measurements. Soon after the accident the main contaminated areas were formed in the western, south-western and north-eastern directions. By the autumn of 1987 the pollution abatement became 2 orders lower that it had been just after the accident. According to the situation in the mid 1987 1/6 of the entire 30 km area around the Chernobyl' APP was marked by the 10 mR/h isoline. The calculations have shown that during the next 5 years the radiation level can be 5 times lower due to radioactive isotope decay

  20. Radiative surface temperatures of the burned and unburned areas in a tallgrass prairie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asrar, G.; Harris, T.R.; Lapitan, R.L.; Cooper, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted in a natural tallgrass prairie area in the Flint Hills of Kansas. Our objective was to evaluate the surface radiative temperatures of burned and unburned treatments of the grassland as a means of delineating the areas covered by each treatment. Burning is used to remove the senescent vegetation resulting from the previous year's growth. Surface temperatures were obtained in situ and by an airborne scanner. Burned and unburned grass canopies had distinctly different diurnal surface radiative temperatures. Measurements of surface energy balance components revealed a difference in partitioning of the available energy between the two canopies, which resulted in the difference in their measured surface temperatures. The magnitude of this difference is dependent on the time of measurements and topographic conditions. (author)

  1. Integration of radiation protection in safety management: sharing best practices between radiation protection and other safety areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockerols, Pierre; Fessler, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) located in Geel is one of the seven institutes of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC, DG JRC). The institute was founded in 1960 as a nuclear research centre, but has gradually shifted its activities to also include 'non-nuclear' domains, mainly in the areas of food safety and environmental surveillance. As the activities on the IRMM site are currently quite diversified, they necessitate the operation of nuclear controlled areas, accelerators, as well as bio safety restricted areas and chemical laboratories. Therefore, the care for occupational health and safety and for environmental protection has to take into consideration various types of hazards and threats. Recently an integrated management system according to ISO-9001, ISO-14001 and OHSAS-18001 was implemented. The integrated system combines 'vertically' quality, occupational health and safety and environmental issues and covers 'horizontally' the nuclear, biological and chemical fields. The paper outlines how the radiation protection can be included in an overall health, safety and environmental management system. It will give various practical examples where synergies can be applied: 1-) the overall policy; 2-) The assessment and ranking of all risks and the identification, in a combined way, of the appropriate prevention measures; 3-) The planning and review of related actions; 4-) The monitoring, auditing and registration of anomalies and incidents and the definition of corrective actions; 5-) The training of personnel based on lessons learned from past experiences; 6-) The organisation of an internal emergency plan dealing with nuclear and non-nuclear hazards. Based on these examples, the benefits of having an integrated approach are commented. In addition, the paper will illustrate how the recent ICRP fundamental recommendations and more particularly some of the principles of radiation protection such as

  2. Radiation shielding tests in the Meson beamline in the master substation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.; Kissel, W.; Leveling, A.; Moore, C.D.; Vylet, V.

    1991-04-01

    A review of shielding uncovered a weak region in a portion of the proton beam transport to the Meson Area. Preliminary CASIM Monte Carlo studies indicated dose rates at the surface under abnormal operating conditions would be above the Fermilab Radiation Guide limits. Measurements made on December 15 and 16 confirmed this concern. Further comparisons of data with CASIM predictions are discussed. 5 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Radiation processing in some Central-East European countries: an area report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1990-01-01

    The area report presents the state of art and the hard-ware status of radiation processing in some Central-East European countries. Only sources exceeding 1.85 PBq (50 kCi) of the isotope and 0.5 kW beam power electron accelerators have been taken into account, operating in the first half of 1989. Trends of development are discussed. (author)

  4. The inertial properties of pulsing interflow area of counterflow hydrodynamic radiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тetyana V. Makarova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The jet hydrodynamic radiators (HDR are the devices where part of kinetic energy of flooded jet is transformed to pulsations of internal interflow area and flow shell fluctuations. The sound generation process in HDR is involved with its constructional features. Aim: The aim of this work is to study the inertial properties of the HDR pulsating interflow area taking into account its geometric singularities. Materials and Methods: It was proposed to study the pulsating area using the simplified sphere model of pulsating cavitating area of the counterflow type jet hydrodynamic radiator. This radiator can be implemented in two modifications: taking into account the volume that occupies by jet from the nozzle with and without accounting of it. Results: The characteristic dimensions and spatial restrictions are determined for the mentioned modifications based on the research results. The own mass, apparent mass and total mass of pulsating area (pulsator were determined. The dependencies of the corresponding mass relations versus pulsator radius were obtained. Conclusions: It was shown that specifically apparent mass has dominance in total one and it is almost 6 times greater than pulsator own mass. The consideration of the central axial passage occupied by jet out of muzzle increases the contribution of apparent mass to total mass. The influence of apparent mass intensifies under increase of the gas content of dual-phase environment, i.e. under cavitation propagation. The total masses of pulsating area are nearest one to another in various models modifications due to cancellation effect of two factors - increase of pulsator apparent mass and decrease of its own mass under comparatively low sphere volume.

  5. Program Contacts for Lake Pontchartrain Area/New Orleans (Louisiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake Pontchartrain Area/New Orleans (Louisiana) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts

  6. Revitalized citizen projects for Fukushima's radiation and nuclear disaster issues and introduction of the integrated programs relative to radiation education, exercise guidance, and development support at Tokushima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakama, Minoru; Nakayama, Shintaro; Saze, Takuya

    2017-01-01

    As for the purpose of this project, 'Revitalized Residential Projects for Fukushima's Radiological and Nuclear Disaster Issues at Tokushima University', the organization of the special mission which is constructed in staffs with volunteer sprits at universities and research facilities have collaborated together with elementary and junior high school teachers and the local government at the revitalized areas in Fukushima. They have built and practiced the new learning education model to bring up the children in there who are not defeated by uneasiness and the rumor of the radiation pollutions relative to the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. For children carrying the future only at Fukushima but also in Japan, we bring up hope and the smile of them by coordinating their education to feed the resistance from an early stage to every rumor. By carrying on it we have set up with an integrated goal of getting that we can breed vitality and relief of the whole local community. Our radiation hazard support team at Tokushima University worked on urgent radiation exposure screening at Fukushima from the beginning of earthquake disaster. We had worked on support activities such as the radiation protection education, and also made efforts for the uneasiness reduction of citizens and reducing burdens on the local government. Until now we have kept up with working on the medium-and-long term trials of uneasiness reductions due to radiation properties and radiation hazards for local inhabitants and staffs such as any companies and the local government through practicing these programs, civilian learning society, staff learning society, learning society and counselling for mother and the child, radiation measurement, decontamination advice, and radioactivity measurement support, in particular, at Shirakawa City located as the doorway city of Tohoku area. This report introduces an outline of collaborated programs that we have developed in this project

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, January 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    In the realm of global climate modeling, numerous variables affect the state of the atmosphere and climate. One important area is soil moisture and temperature. The ARM Program uses several types of instruments to gather soil moisture information. An example is the soil water and temperature system (SWATS). A SWATS is located at each of 21 extended facility sites within the CART site boundary. Each system is configured to measure soil moisture and temperature at eight distinct subsurface levels. A special set of probes used in the SWATS measures soil temperature, soil-water potential, and volumetric water content. Sensors are placed at eight different depths below the soil surface, starting at approximately 5 cm (2 in.) below the surface and ending as deep as 175 cm (69 in.). Each site has two identical sets of probes buried 1 m (3.3 ft) apart, to yield duplicate measurements as a quality control measure. At some sites, impenetrable soil or rock layers prevented installation of probes at the deeper levels. The sensors are connected to an electronic data logger that collects and stores the data. Communication equipment transfers data from the site. All of the electronic equipment is housed in a weatherproof enclosure mounted on a concrete slab

  8. Introducing a music program in the perioperative area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, M F; Monson, B; Bookbinder, M

    1997-10-01

    Music can touch patients deeply and thus transform their anxiety and stress into relaxation and healing. Patients with cancer who undergo surgical procedures are highly stressed. To help alleviate these patients' stress and improve their comfort, perioperative nurses at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, surveyed surgical patients and staff members about introducing a perioperative music program. This article reviews the literature on the use of music in perioperative care settings and describes MSKCC's decision to evaluate and then implement a music program.

  9. Cytogenetic investigation in a population living in the high background radiation area in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deqing, C.

    1980-04-01

    On the basis of the previous investigation, 24,000 metaphases of the lymphocytes of 120 inhabitants from Tongyou region, where the highest individual cummulative exposure per year of 372 mR in weighted average was recorded in the high background radiation area selected, have been analysed with the method recommended by WHO in 1973, in order to determine the extent of human chromosome aberrations induced by the high background radiation of various levels. The results show that the difference between the total number of chromosome breakages in the individuals living in the high background radiation area and that in the control area (0.32x10/sup -2/ and 0.27x10/sup -2/ per cell respectively) is not significant whereas that between the numbers of two-hite aberrations (mainly dicentric) in the same two groups (0.042x10/sup -2/ and 0.0048x10/sup -2/ per cell) is significant (X/sup 2/ = 6.1475, P<0.05). In addition, the normal value of the chromosome aberrations of human lymphocytes was analyzed.

  10. Cytogenetic study of stable chromosome aberrations in residents of a high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Chunyan; Chen Deqing; Wei Lvxin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of high background radiation on the induction of stable chromosome aberrations. Methods: By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique chromosome Nos. 1, 2 and 4 were painted using specific biotin-labeled whole chromosome painting probes. Peripheral blood specimens were taken from 31 individuals living in the high background radiation area (HRBA) and 29 individuals in the control area. Results: No significant difference was found in the frequencies of translocations between HBRA and the control (P>0.05, Mann-Whitney U test) for both children and elderly individuals. On the other hand, correlation between age and translocation frequencies was significant at the 1% level (r s =0.388 with 56DF). Conclusion: There are no differences in the frequencies of translocations between HBRA and the control area. The present result indicates that the contribution of an elevated level of natural radiation in HBRA in China to the induction rate of stable type aberrations (translocations) dose not have a significant effect compared with the contributions from all other sources such as chemical mutagens and(or) metabolic factors. (authors)

  11. Status and update of the National Ignition Facility radiation effects testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J F; Serduke, F J; Wuest, C R.

    1998-01-01

    We are progressing in our efforts to make the National Ignition Facility (NIF) available to the nation as a radiation effects simulator to support the Services needs for nuclear hardness and survivability testing and validation. Details of our program were summarized in a paper presented at the 1998 HEART Conference [1]. This paper describes recent activities and updates plans for NIF radiation effects testing. research. Radiation Effects Testing

  12. Late effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Studies of the resident population in the Semipalatinsk area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenson, R.I.; Tchaijunusova, N.J.; Gusev, B.I.; Katoh, O.; Kimura, A.; Hoshi, M.; Kamada, N.; Satow, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The early and late radiation effects on residents of the nuclear test site in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, were studied. In Semipalatinsk area hundreds of on-the-ground and underground nuclear tests had been conducted between 1949 and 1989. The collected biological data was investigated in terms of the following points, i.e., cancer incidence, mortality rates from malignant tumors, infant mortality and congenital anomalies, overall mortality, hemopoiesis, chromosomal aberrations in the somatic cells, immune system parameters, cardiovascular system findings, and thyroid gland disorders. The individual points were investigated according to the exposure level, resident areas, years after exposure, age, and sex. The significant findings are given and discussed. (S.Y.)

  13. Algorithms and programs for processing of satellite data on ozone layer and UV radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkovskij, N.B.; Ivanyukovich, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Some algorithms and programs for automatic retrieving and processing ozone layer satellite data are discussed. These techniques are used for reliable short-term UV-radiation levels forecasting. (authors)

  14. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Radiation protection program changes that do not require a license amendment and are permitted under § 35.26... of the nursing service, and a representative of management who is neither an authorized user nor a...

  15. Nested case-control study on the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianming; Sun Quanfu; Yuan Yongling

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted based on 106517 subjects. 98 cases that died of NPC were detected during a follow-up program for 9 years. Univariate analysis and multivariate non-conditional logistic regression were used to analyze associations between the exposure factors and NPC. Results: Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels, salted fish intake, the history of chronic rhinitis and the family history of NPC were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study was 0.86 and 0.87, respectively. Conclusion: Salted fish intake was a strong risk factor of NPC. Education, the history of chronic rhinitis and the family history of NPC were also related to NPC risk. The exposure to high background radiation in HBRA of Yangjiang was not related to NPC risk with or without the adjustment for those major risk determinants of NPC

  16. Radiologic safety program for ionizing radiation facilities in Parana, Brazil; Programa de seguridad radiologica para las oficinas de salud en Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly Junior, J.G. [Secretaria de Saude do Estado do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    A radiologic safety program for inspection, licensing and control of the use of ionizing radiation in medical, industrial and research facilities in Parana, Brazil is presented. The program includes stages such as: 1- division into implementation phases considering the activity development for each area; 2-use of the existing structure to implement and to improve services. The development of the program will permit to evaluate the improvement reached and to correct operational strategic. As a result, a quality enhancement at the services performed, a reduction for radiation dose exposure and a faster response for emergency situations will be expected 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. IAEA eLearning Program: The Use of Radiation Detection Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains a computer based training on Radiation Detection Techniques for Nuclear Security Applications. The IAEA Nuclear Security eLearning tool offers computer based training to Frontline Officers to improve their understanding about key elements of the use of radiation detection instruments. The eLearning program prepares Frontline Officers for the IAEA Detection and Response Frontline Officer course

  18. Monitoring of high-radiation areas for the assessment of operational and body doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.J.; Tung, C.J.; Yeh, W.W.; Liao, R.Y.

    2004-01-01

    protection quantities should be applied. For significant exposures that are deemed abnormal, according to the recommendations in ICRP Publication 28, actual doses in the body, from an assessment of the accident, should be used.' In order to assess radiation protection quantities and actual absorbed doses in the body stated above, information on the energy and irradiation geometry of the incident radiation is required. ICRP in its Publication 35 recommended that: 'In minor accidents, when the deep dose equivalent index is only slightly above the limit, the organ and tissue dose equivalents themselves may still comply with the annual limit for effective dose equivalent. Information on the energy spectrum and orientation of the incident radiation may then allow more realistic estimates of these dose equivalents to be made.' In this work, we surveyed high radiation areas in the nuclear power plants in Taiwan. We measured energy and angular distributions of photons in these areas by a portable Nal detector. We then analyzed the irradiation geometries using the ICRU classifications. Applying these results, the Taiwan Power Company should be able to evaluate actual body doses more accurately for workers exposed to high-levels of radiation

  19. Computer program for source distribution process in radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kassiri, H.; Abdul Ghani, B.

    2007-08-01

    Computer simulation for dose distribution using Visual Basic has been done according to the arrangement and activities of Co-60 sources. This program provides dose distribution in treated products depending on the product density and desired dose. The program is useful for optimization of sources distribution during loading process. there is good agreement between calculated data for the program and experimental data.(Author)

  20. French high level nuclear waste program: key research areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, G.

    1985-09-01

    The most important aspects of this research program concern disposal safety: the long-term behavior and sensitivity of the materials to the variability inherent in industrial processes, and the characterization of the final product. This research requires different investigations involving various scientific fields, and implements radioactive and non-radioactive glass samples as well as industrial scale glass blocks. Certain studies have now been completed; others are still in progress

  1. Social Area Analysis in Program Evaluation and Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Joseph R.; Kamis-Gould, Edna

    1981-01-01

    Social area analysis (SAA) is defined, and its conceptual roots and principal applications identified. The utility of SAA is assessed by reviewing use of demographic data among several disciplines. Authors review seminal and recent contributions to the field. Ecological fallacies and other problematic facets of SAA are considered. (Author/DWH)

  2. Coping with radiation measurement in Hippo area of Marumori Town, Miyagi Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011). The section 1 reports the process of its title and present status of the Hippo area. The area localizes at the most southern zone of Miyagi prefecture, borders on Fukushima and is 50 km distant from the Plant. Rapidly after the Accident, they required the precise measurement of ambient dose in the area, but it was 2 months later that it was conducted by Marumori Town office. The dose was found to much exceed 1 mc-Sv/h, being far higher than the dose reported by Miyagi prefecture. The monitoring was restricted at ten-odd fixed sites in the area as large as 75 km 2 , which was unsatisfactory for all residents who lived in houses scattered among hills. Accordingly, the author's area association bought GM-counters through internet, lent them, and also made a map of dose distribution at 137 spots along the roads covering the whole area to be passed out to all houses in July. This conceivably helped for them to learn their positioning in the radiation environment and how to live. In addition, the association could get (July 2012) an instrument (ATOMTEX, AT1320A, made in Belarus) for food monitoring on donations from past and present residents as the Town office, where the monitoring had been done, was too far from the area and had refused the economical assistance. The use of the machine was (still, is) difficult, and the speculation of data, sometimes more: however, the food monitoring is now essential for residents to live safely and easily. The author thinks that self-help is not desirable and hopes the wider means should be taken beyond the administrative border. (T.T.)

  3. Radiative transfer analysis of the effect of ink dot area on color phase in inkjet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonome, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Kono, Takahiro; Yamada, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses a mechanism of inkjet printing and investigates the effect of ink contrast on the color phase of the printed object. Inkjet printing is a popular printing method for home use, but its color repeatability is occasionally broken. To verify this problem, we calculated the radiative transfer equation on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer, and the color was quantitatively estimated. The ink dot area and spectral reflectance of the printed samples were measured. Furthermore, the spectral reflectance of the objects printed with different dot areas were theoretically calculated. By comparing the measured and calculated reflectance, we estimated the scattering coefficient of the paper and absorption coefficient of the ink. We quantitatively calculated the color with the HSV color system. The hue changed with dot area rate. It is considered that this is caused by the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks. We believe that this study will aid the development of ink without color change and improve the color repeatability of inkjet printers. - Highlights: • Radiative transfer on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer is modeled. • Spectral reflectance of the printed samples are measured and calculated. • The hue changes with dot area rate because of the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks.

  4. Application of radiation protection principles to the cleanup of contaminated areas. Interim report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    Recognizing that there was a general lack of guidance on protection from ionizing radiation in the case of protracted or chronic exposures and prompted by the clear need for such guidance for aiding decision making in the particular case of the rehabilitation of areas affected by residual deposits of radioactive materials from past activities, the IAEA started a project in 1993 to address the problem. A small working group was established and met on several occasions over a three year period. The working group used, as it starting point, the Recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) (Publication 60) and the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. The approach emphasizes the use of risk to individuals from existing contamination and from the residual contamination after cleanup actions as a basis for decision making. Nevertheless, links are maintained with the basic ICRP radiation protection system by recognizing that, in many situations, cleanup actions may be influenced by more than only individual risk consideration; there will be radiological and non-radiological constraints which will differ depending on whether the situation is more 'intervention like' or 'practice like'. The framework for decision making being proposed by the working group is being published in this report to allow for a period of review and comment by experts and decision makers in Member States

  5. Bayesian modeling to assess populated areas impacted by radiation from Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, C.; Cervone, G.

    2017-12-01

    Citizen-led movements producing spatio-temporal big data are increasingly important sources of information about populations that are impacted by natural disasters. Citizen science can be used to fill gaps in disaster monitoring data, in addition to inferring human exposure and vulnerability to extreme environmental impacts. As a response to the 2011 release of radiation from Fukushima, Japan, the Safecast project began collecting open radiation data which grew to be a global dataset of over 70 million measurements to date. This dataset is spatially distributed primarily where humans are located and demonstrates abnormal patterns of population movements as a result of the disaster. Previous work has demonstrated that Safecast is highly correlated in comparison to government radiation observations. However, there is still a scientific need to understand the geostatistical variability of Safecast data and to assess how reliable the data are over space and time. The Bayesian hierarchical approach can be used to model the spatial distribution of datasets and flexibly integrate new flows of data without losing previous information. This enables an understanding of uncertainty in the spatio-temporal data to inform decision makers on areas of high levels of radiation where populations are located. Citizen science data can be scientifically evaluated and used as a critical source of information about populations that are impacted by a disaster.

  6. Analysis of characteristics and radiation safety situation of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ruilan; Li Jianhui; Wang Xiaoqing; Huang Mingquan

    2014-01-01

    According to the radiation safety management of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China, features and radiation safety conditions of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China were analyzed based on summarizing the inspection data for 2011-2013. So the main problems of radiation environment security on uranium mine were studied. The relevant management measures and recommendations were put forward, and the basis for environmental radiation safety management decision making of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in future was provided. (authors)

  7. Developing a training program for radiation protection officers in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinda, R.

    2013-04-01

    Non-Destructive Testing employs a variety of techniques which are used to test objects e.g. pipes, vessels, welded joints, castings and other devices for imperfections without interfering with their physical structure. The common methods of testing include magnetic particle, ultrasound, dye penetrant and industrial radiography using gamma emitting radiation sources and electronic x-ray emitting devices. Other methods used are acoustic emission testing, acoustic resonance testing, electromagnetic testing, infrared testing and leak testing. This project work focuses on training of RPOs in the areas where radiation is used, as improper use may lead to high radiation exposure. In order to ensure adequate protection and safety of staff and the public, the Radiation Protection Officers need to be thoroughly trained. With proper training the Radiation Protection Officer will have the ability to interpret legislative instruments and understand the requirements. The RPO will also be able to develop a Radiation Protection Plan and train fellow staff on radiation safety issues. A number of companies currently specialize in Industrial Radiography and this number is growing on a yearly basis. Since the increased use of radiation sources cannot be curbed, training Radiation Protection Officers will improve the radiation safety standards within these companies and promote the safe use of the radiation sources. Therefore this project covers the fundamental elements required to train Radiation Protection Officers in Industrial Radiography. (author)

  8. [Regulatory supervision and radiation survey in the area of location of former military technical bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, N K; Kiselev, S M; Titov, A V; Seregin, V A; Isaev, D V; Akhromeev, S V; Filonova, A A; Semenova, M P; Gimadova, T I; Aladova, R A; Kosnikov, A S; Shchelkanova, E S; Luk'ianets, A I

    2013-01-01

    Activities related to the rehabilitation of areas and facilities of the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste (SNF and RW) at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha on the Kola Peninsula and in the Primorsky Krai in the Russian Far East is an important component of the regulatory functions of the Federal Medical biological Agency (FMBA of Russia). Technical support to the FMBA of Russia in this activity is provided by A.L Burnazyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center Main research interests include evaluation of radiological threats to determine the priority directions of regulation, a detailed analysis of the radiation situation at areas, territories and in vicinity of temporary waste storage facilities, radiation control and environmental monitoring, the development of digital maps and geoinformation systems, project expertise in the field of rehabilitation of PVC including the management of SNF and RW Implementation of these natural, practical and theoretical works is completed by development a set of regulatory documents ensuring adherence to radiation safety for the stuff population and the environment, and the also documents governing the management of SNF and RW waste in the territories of PVC.

  9. Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in lymphocytes of inhabitants in high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinsheng; Zheng Qiaoling

    1985-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 126 students of 15-16 years old, living in the high background radiation area, and from 124 controls of the same age range, living in the normal background radiation area. All students were interviewed for evaluation of their health status. Whole blood cultures were done with RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum and antibiotics, The culture were incubated for 54-56 h in the presence of BrdU (10 μg/ml). Metaphases were stained for SCE using a modified techniqu of perry and Wolff. From each person 20 second division metaphases were analysed for SCEs. The average frequencies of SCEs observed in the high background group and the control group are presented. More SCEs were observed in the high background group than in the control with a statistically signigicant difference. In regard to the sex factor, it was found that the SCE frequencies in both sexes of the high background group were slightly higher than those in the control group. These findings suggest that continuous low-level irradiation by the high background radiation may induce increased frequency of SCEs

  10. Secondary Content Area Reading: Challenging Sell for Professors in Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2011-01-01

    Candidates in teacher education programs who are training to become secondary education content area teachers are required in most programs to enroll in a class dealing with teaching reading in the content areas. A number of these candidates reluctantly attend these courses and question the appropriateness of the content they are required to…

  11. Radiation processing program at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman

    2007-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been proven to enhance industrial efficiency and productivity, improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, variety of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been studied at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. At present, effort is focused towards developing new materials based on natural polymers such as natural rubber and rubber based products, palm oil and palm oil based products and polysaccharide. In this respect, the most challenging issues are to develop new materials/products that have commercial value and to bring the products from laboratory to market. (author)

  12. Low risk of pulmonary tuberculosis of residents in high background radiation area, Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaojuan; Sun Quanfu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the pulmonary tuberculosis mortality risk of the residents in high background radiation area (HBRA), Yangjiang, China. Methods: A cohort including 89 694 persons in HBRA and 35 385 persons in control area (CA) has been established since 1979. Person-year tables based on classified variables including sex, attained age, follow-up calendar year, and dose-rate group (high, intermediate, and low in HBRA, and control group) were tabulated using DATAB in EPICURE. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the relative risks (RR) of infectious and parasitic disease especially for pulmonary tuberculosis. Cumulative dose for each cohort member was obtained. Results: Two million person-years were accumulated by follow-up and 612 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis ascertained. Compared with risk in the control area, statistically significant lower risk of pulmonary tuberculosis was observed in HBRA among those who aged 60 years and over; markedly decreased risk occurred among males; no significant difference was found among the 6 follow-up stages, two subregions in the HBRA, or different diagnostic facilities. A statistically significantly negative dose-response was observed (P<0.001), the higher accumulative dose, the lower dose the pulmonary tuberculosis mortality risk. Its excess relative risk (ERR/Sv) was estimated to be -1.09 (95% CI: -1.34, -0.85). No established risk factors could explain this lower risk. Conclusions: The mortality of puhnonary tuberculosis among residents in HBRA who were chronically exposed to low-dose radiation was statistically significantly lower than that in the control area, and a significant dose-response relationship was observed, which probably resulted from the immunoenhancement of low dose radiation. (authors)

  13. Radon-thoron exposures in high background radiation areas: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    The radon-thoron measurements reported in literature for the high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of the world are summarised here. The most important areas covered are the Radon Spas and the thorium bearing monazite deposits. Special mention is made of the ongoing programmes of radon-thoron survey in the monazite beach areas of India; preliminary measurements indicate significant levels of thoron exposures. The diurnal and seasonal variations are quite wide underscoring the importance of carrying out integrated measurements for meaningful assessments of population exposures. Radon-thoron inhalation dose rates upto 30 mSv/y have been measured in lran as well as India. It has been generally observed that the cumulative population doses due to radon-thoron inhalation are as high as those due to the external exposures in these HBRAs. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Farmer education and organization in the Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, Ronald F.L.; Sugano, J.S.; Jang, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A critical component of successful area wide pest management (AWPM) programs are organized, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programs. The Hawaii area wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) program's educational program, a part of a USDA AWPM program in Hawaii, utilized the 'logic model' approach to organize, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programs statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between program inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilized extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational program targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness program for the pubic at large. Additional key components of the HAW-FLYPM education program was the development of implementation schedules used to track program progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a sustainability calculator to assess the likelihood of program sustainability after the initial five year funding cycle. The model served as a 'blue print' for ensuring program elements were planned, delivered and executed on a timely basis. Utilization of the logic model to organize efforts and manage diverse, multi agency programs such as the HAW-FLYPM program has shown to be a successful method of program advancement and outcome achievement. (author)

  15. The radiation monitoring system for the LHC experiments and experimental areas

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, C

    2004-01-01

    With the high energies stored in the beams of the LHC, special attention needs to be paid to accident scenarios involving beam losses which may have an impact on the installed experiments. Among others, an unsynchronized beam abort and a D1 magnet failure are considered serious cases. According to simulations, the CMS inner tracker in such accident scenarios can be damaged by instantaneous rates which are many orders of magnitude above normal conditions. Investigations of synthetic diamond as a beam condition monitor sensor, capable of generating a fast beam dump signal, will be presented. Furthermore, a system to monitor the radiation fields in the experimental areas is being developed. It must function in the radiation fields inside and around the experiments, over a large dynamic range. Several new active and passive sensors, such as RadFET, OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) sensors, p-i-n diodes, Polymer-Alanine Dosimeters and TLDs (Thermoluminescent Dosimeters) are under investigation. Recent resul...

  16. Environmental Radiation Studies in Mn-Mines at Wadi Naseib Area, South West Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.F.; El-Galy, M.M.; El-Feky, M.G.; Mohamed, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The activity concentrations of radon and thoron decay products beside the gamma dose rate of the naturally occurring radionuclides were measured and calculated in two underground manganese mines, M1 and M2 at Wadi Naseib area in Sinai. Radon daughters and thoron daughters working levels were calculated using Rolle method after measuring the alpha activity. The measurements were taken at different stations inside the two mines. The radiation levels were calculated at seven stations inside the first mine and at ten stations inside the second mine. It was found that, the radon daughter products have major effect while the thoron daughter products and -dose have the minor effect in U/G mines. These measurements will be considered in perspective with the ventilation required to lower the radon decay products inside the mine in order to establish adequate working level that conform with proper radiation safety requirements for workers inside these mines

  17. Neutronics and radiation field studies for the RIA fragmentation target area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Susana [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-446, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: reyes20@llnl.gov; Boles, Jason L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-446, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ahle, Larry E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-446, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Stein, Werner [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-446, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2006-06-23

    Neutronics simulations and activation evaluations are currently in progress as part of the pre-conceptual research and development effort for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). The RIA project involves generating heavy element ion beams with powers up to 400 kw for use in a fragmentation target line to produce selected ion beams for physics research experiments. Designing a fragmentation beam dump for RIA is one of the most critical challenges for such a facility. Here, we present the results from neutronics and radiation field assessments for various beam dump concepts that can meet requirements for the RIA fragmentation line. Preliminary results from heavy ion transport including radiation damage evaluations for the RIA fragmentation beam dump are also presented. Initial neutronics and activation studies will be incorporated with other target area considerations to identify important challenges and explore possible solutions.

  18. Neutronics and radiation field studies for the RIA fragmentation target area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Susana; Boles, Jason L.; Ahle, Larry E.; Stein, Werner

    2006-06-01

    Neutronics simulations and activation evaluations are currently in progress as part of the pre-conceptual research and development effort for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). The RIA project involves generating heavy element ion beams with powers up to 400 kW for use in a fragmentation target line to produce selected ion beams for physics research experiments. Designing a fragmentation beam dump for RIA is one of the most critical challenges for such a facility. Here, we present the results from neutronics and radiation field assessments for various beam dump concepts that can meet requirements for the RIA fragmentation line. Preliminary results from heavy ion transport including radiation damage evaluations for the RIA fragmentation beam dump are also presented. Initial neutronics and activation studies will be incorporated with other target area considerations to identify important challenges and explore possible solutions.

  19. Radiation dozes reconstruction of Semipalatinsk region Beskaragai area's population by the method of biological measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaliev, A.; Kundakbaeva, G.; Bigalieva, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The study of radiation situation (on the position of May 1989) in Beskaragai area of Semipalatinsk region showed that the level of γ-radiation on it's territory reached 13-20 μR/hour, which was determined by the traces of long living radionuclides. In the inhabited regions of Dolon, Kanonerka, Buras, Ramadan villages the effect of deepening was noticed, α-particle's density level has reached maximum on the depth of approximately 10 cm, and further it decreases up to the 30 cm depth, This circumstance witnesses about the fact that we are talking about radioactive traces of many years ago happening with a time going to the depth from the upper coverage of soil. We've made the evaluation of radiation influence's genetic effects on the man's population. Cytogenetic analysis (with the use of G-method of chromosome's coloring) at whole in Beskaragai region shows that the frequency of aberrations for the cell among the inhabitants of the region is obviously higher 3.3 times at average in the region than among the population of the controlled area. During the study of the cytogenetic effects of increased radiation level's influence it is important first of all to determine the frequency of chromosome type aberrations - dicentric chromosomes, centric circles, acentric pair fragments. As it is known, the level of chromosome type aberrations is sufficiently well correlated with the doze, We have determined accumulative doze of radiation using the formula (D.C. Lloyd at all. 1992) for the calculation of dicentrics under the chronical influence of the small dozes of ionized radiation. According to the made calculations the oriented reconstruction of radiation dozes in Beskaragai region made 11 ber = 0.11 Sv, for the Dolon village - 14 ber, Kanonerka village - 13 ber, Buras village - 6 ber, Ramadan - 9.5 ber. Presented data allows to ask the question about the more spread use of cytogenetic method of research among the different population's categories living at

  20. An updated radiation protection program prospectus based on 20 years of data describing program drivers and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert J; Gutierrez, Janet M

    2014-08-01

    In 1992, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHSCH) Radiation Safety Program began assembling data on a monthly basis that described various program drivers and associated activities. At the end of calendar year 2002, a decade of data had been collected, so the information was summarized into a novel program prospectus, displaying various program indicator parameters in a format similar to that used in a commercial enterprise prospectus provided to potential investors. The consistent formatting of the data afforded a succinct and easily digestible snapshot of program activities and trends. Feedback from various program stakeholders, even those unfamiliar with radiation safety matters, was overwhelmingly positive. By the end of 2012, a total of 20 years of data had been collected, so an updated and slightly modified prospectus was created. The summary document has helped to describe the drivers of the program, revealed some interesting trends, and has aided in maintaining program support even in challenging economic times. The data summary has also proved to be useful in making future projections regarding program needs.

  1. Attenuation of radiation- and drug-induced conditioned taste aversions following area postrema lesions in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of lesions of the area postrema on the acquisition of radiation- and drug-induced (histamine and lithium chloride) conditioned taste aversions were investigated. The results indicated that area postrema lesions caused a significant attenuation of the aversion produced by pairing a novel sucrose solution with radiation (100 rad) or drug injection. Further, the area postrema lesions produced a similar level of attenuation of the taste aversion in all three treatment conditions. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of this finding for defining the mechanisms by which exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion

  2. MSX-Basis program for analyzing of gamma radiation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, E.; Hernandez, M.; Soto Moran, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A MSX-Basic language program, called ESPEC-1, which provides a very flexible data reduction facility during gamma spectrum analysis applications, is described. The program provides the performance needed for demonstrative uses, and ease of operation for the laboratory classroom

  3. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittroff, Connie; Strasser, Susan Barr

    1999-01-01

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations

  4. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittroff, Connie; Strasser, Susan Barr [lead editors

    1999-08-03

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations.

  5. Tanks focus area multiyear program plan FY97-FY99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major tank remediation problem with approximately 332 tanks storing over 378,000 ml of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Most of the tanks have significantly exceeded their life spans. Approximately 90 tanks across the DOE complex are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents are potentially explosive. These tanks must be remediated and made safe. How- ever, regulatory drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Therefore, the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) began operation in October 1994. The focus area manages, coordinates, and leverages technology development to provide integrated solutions to remediate problems that will accelerate safe and cost-effective cleanup and closure of DOE's national tank system. The TFA is responsible for technology development to support DOE's four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), INEL (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: safety, characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, immobilization, and closure

  6. A regional study of the radiation environment of Greenham Common, Newbury District and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This study was commissioned by Newbury District Council and Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council in response to public concern following disclosures about events at Greenham Common in the 1950s, and the suspicion that there may have been an accident involving a nuclear weapon leading to off-site contamination at the airbase. The Greenham Common airbase is at an advanced stage of decommissioning with parts of the site already re-developed for industrial and leisure purposes and material being removed for use in construction of the Newbury by-pass. The success of such developments is critically dependent on public confidence in the quality of the environment, both near the site, and more generally throughout the area. For this reason the study was commissioned with the aims of: I. defining the radiation environment of the whole district and parts of its surrounding areas. II. examining whether there is any evidence of radioactive contamination in the vicinity of the Greenham Common airbase. III. assessing the evidence that there may have been a release of nuclear material from the site. The work involved a collaboration between scientists from the Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, who conducted gamma ray surveys to define the general radiation environment of the area, and Scientists from the University of Southampton who collected an extensive range of samples for high sensitivity radiochemical analyses. This report presents their findings and main conclusions, together with a discussion of the background to the study and its implications. (Author)

  7. Further investigation on chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of inhabitants in high background radiation area in Yangjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqing; Zhang Chaoyang; Yao Suyan

    1985-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 122 healthy secondary school students at the age of 15 to 16 living in a high background radiation region and from 99 controls, All subjects from both areas had lived there since their births; they were non-smokers and without history of exposure to medical X-rays. The youngsters of 15 to 16 years old who were native-born and grew up in the high background radiation area received approximately 3.5 rad more cumulative γ-ray exposure than those in the control area. For each individual 200 M-1 cells were analysed. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in the high background group was 0.47/100 cells, while that in the control group was 0.33/100 cells, the diffrence being statistically significant. The frequencies of acentrics (fragment, acentric ring and minute), dicentrics and stable aberrations (inversion and translocation) were 0.41, 0.021 and 0.045/100 cells respectively in the high background group, and 0.30, 0.020 and 0.005/100 cells respectively in the control group. Only the difference of stable aberrations between the two groups was significant

  8. Environmental radiation in coal and soil samples from Savannah area (Chatham County, GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, D.; Ghuman, G.S.; Chandra, K.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation measurements were made in coal and fly ash samples from Savannah Electric ampersand Power Company (SEPCO) plant on the Savannah River and the soil core samples from three sites along the flow gradient of Savannah State University Campus Creek. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of natural radiation due to radon and potassium in the Savannah area and possible effect of external factors such as the operations at Savannah River Site (SRS). The instrument used for this purpose was Geiger Counter Model 500 (Tennelec/Nucleus, Inc.) which was standardized with known samples of Sr-90 (0.1 μCi t 1/2 = 28.6 yrs., beta radiation) and Co-60 (1.0 μCi t 1/2 = 5.27 yrs., gamma radiation). Beta and gamma radiations in the samples were differentiated with the help of polyethylene and lead absorbers. Results showed quite low radioactivity in bituminous coal from SEPCO plant and it reduced by a factor of 0.5 and 0.25 in fly ash and weathered fly ash, respectively. Radioactivity of soil samples was slightly greater in the top soil (0-3 cm) of two sites and it decreased markedly with depth (20 cm). Site III soil samples containing lime shells had a negligible radioactivity because carbonate rocks developed from calcareous skeletal matter have low radioactivity from their beginning. Radioactivity appeared to be mainly associated with the fine textured top soil of two sites (high clay content) and it exhibited very little leaching downward into lower layers. Clay particles with greater radioactivity, are formed from the decomposition of feldspars and micas which contain a large fraction of earth's potassium fraction. Measurements with the use of absorbers indicated that the observed radiation in all the samples was mainly due to the gamma rays. A comparison with the radioactivity in coal dust and fly ash samples from SRS revealed that the Savannah samples contained extremely low radiation, which may be due only to the natural sources

  9. Three Mile Island, Unit 2, radiation protection program: report of the special panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, C.B.; Murphy, T.D.; Neely, D.R.; Kathren, R.L.; Rich, B.L.; Stone, G.F.; Casey, W.R.

    1979-12-01

    A special panel was appointed by the Director of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, NRC, to review the radiation protection program at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The Panel confirmed several management and technical deficiencies in the program. Recent major GPU/Met Ed commitments and actions demonstrated a major change in management attitude. The Panel concluded that exposures to personnel can be maintained to as low as is reasonably achievable while limited preparatory recovery work continues and when further needed improvements are implemented as needed, the radiation safety program will be able to support major recovery activities

  10. Three Mile Island, Unit 2, radiation protection program: report of the special panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, C. B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Murphy, T. D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Neely, D. R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Kathren, R. L. [Batelle Pacific Northwest Lab. (United States); Rich, B. L. [Exxon Nuclear Idaho Co., Inc. ID (United States); Stone, G. F. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Casey, W. R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1979-12-01

    A special panel was appointed by the Director of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, NRC, to review the radiation protection program at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The Panel confirmed several management and technical deficiencies in the program. Recent major GPU/Met Ed commitments and actions demonstrated a major change in management attitude. The Panel concluded that exposures to personnel can be maintained to as low as is reasonably achievable while limited preparatory recovery work continues and when further needed improvements are implemented as needed, the radiation safety program will be able to support major recovery activities.

  11. BWR Radiation Assessment and Control Program: assessment and control of BWR radiation fields. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstine, L.D.

    1983-05-01

    This report covers work on the BWR Radiation Assessment and Control (BRAC) Program from 1978 to 1982. The major activities during this report period were assessment of the radiation-level trends in BWRs, evaluation of the effects of forward-pumped heater drains on BWR water quality, installation and operation of a corrosion-product deposition loop in an operating BWR, and analyzation of fuel-deposit samples from two BWRs. Radiation fields were found to be controlled by cobalt-60 and to vary from as low as 50 mr/hr to as high as 800 mr/hr on the recirculation-system piping. Detailed information on BWR corrosion films and system deposits is presented in the report. Additionally, the results of an oxygen-injection experiment and recontamination monitoring studies are provided

  12. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation characteristic of the new high background radiation area of lambwe east southern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achola, S.O.; Patel, J.P.; Angeyo, H.K.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Rocks and soils from a number of areas underlined by carbonatite rocks in Kenya have been associated with high levels of natural background radioactivity. People in such high background radiation areas (HBRA), are exposed to abnormally high annual absorbed dose (that have health implications) than the global normal 1 mSvyr-1. In this paper, results of field background radiation measurements, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in (mainly carbonatite rock and soil) matrices, and estimated annual external effective dose rates are presented for South and North Ruri hills in Lambwe East location of Suba District, which lies roughly between latitudes 0°30'S and 1°00'S, bounded on the east by longitude 34°30'E and on the west by the shores of Lake Victoria 16 and Winnam Gulf. Altitudes in the region range from about 1000 m on the shores of Lake Victoria to above 1800 m on top of the Ruri hills. The main geological features are carbonatite formations. Twenty one samples were analyzed using high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer. The activity concentrations ranged 14.18 - 6559.99 Bqkg-1 (average: 1396.85 Bqkg-1) for Th-232; 2.73 - 499.24 Bqkg-1 (average: 178.69 Bqkg-1) for U-238; and 56.67 - 1454.73 Bqkg-1 (average: 508.67 Bqkg-1) for K-40. The variability in Th distribution could be due to another contributing factor apart from carbonatite: Homa hills geothermal field fluids might be responsible for delivery of Th to surface rocks; some hot spots have travertine deposits. Measured absorbed dose rates in air outdoors range 700 - 6000.00 nGyh-1 (mean: 2325.84 nGy h-1); assuming 0.4 occupancy factor, these values correspond to individual annual effective dose rates of 1.717 - 14.717 mSvyr-1 (mean: 5.705 mSv yr-1). Measured absorbed dose rates are higher than calculated values since they include the contribution of cosmic rays. The natural radioactivity is fractionated with higher levels in the soils than carbonatite rocks

  13. Glovebox glove change program at Technical Area 55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivas, J.D.; Burkett, B.O.; Weier, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    A formal glovebox glove change program is planned for the the gloveboxes in technical area 55 at the Los Alamos National laboratory. The program will increase worker safety by reducing the chance of having worn out gloves in service. The Los Alamos program is based on a similar successful program at the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado. Glove change frequencies at Rocky Flats were determined statistically, and are based on environmental factors the glovebox gloves are subjected to

  14. Off-site environmental monitoring report: radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.D.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Patzer, R.G.; Smith, D.D.

    1985-04-01

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1984. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclides releases yield an estimated dose of 1 x 10 -3 person-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.6 mrem per year. Plutonium in air was still detectable along with krypton-85, which continued its gradual increase, as has been reported previously. Cesium and strontium in air were near their detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 32 refs., 36 figs., 27 tabs

  15. The Development of On-Line Statistics Program for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Jong; Lee, Dong Hoon; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Jo, Chul Ku; Kim, Mi Sook; Ru, Sung Rul; Hong, Seung Hong

    2001-01-01

    Purpose : By developing on-line statistics program to record the information of radiation oncology to share the information with internet. It is possible to supply basic reference data for administrative plans to improve radiation oncology. Materials and methods : The information of radiation oncology statistics had been collected by paper forms about 52 hospitals in the past. Now, we can input the data by internet web browsers. The statistics program used windows NT 4.0 operation system, Internet Information Server 4.0 (IIS4.0) as a web server and the Microsoft Access MDB. We used Structured Query Language (SQL), Visual Basic, VBScript and JAVAScript to display the statistics according to years and hospitals. Results : This program shows present conditions about man power, research, therapy machines, technic, brachytherapy, clinic statistics, radiation safety management, institution, quality assurance and radioisotopes in radiation oncology department. The database consists of 38 inputs and 6 outputs windows. Statistical output windows can be increased continuously according to user need. Conclusion : We have developed statistics program to process all of the data in department of radiation oncology for reference information. Users easily could input the data by internet web browsers and share the information

  16. Ecological and human impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas - human and ecological impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Centre for Environmental radioactivity CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, 1430 Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Fen Complex in Norway is an area well-known with its specific magmatic bedrock rich in thorium (Th), iron (Fe), niobium (Nb) and rare earth elements (REE). During several past centuries, intensive mining was conducted at sites in the area, giving rise to enhanced radioactivity levels. Previous human health studies demonstrated exposure doses among the highest in Europe. In the current work, contamination status with respect to radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, uranium ({sup 238}U)) and trace elements (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb)) and possible impact on humans and biota were investigated at legacy NORM and undisturbed surrounding NOR rich sites in the Fen Complex area. Significantly heterogeneous radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, and daughters) distribution was found in soil at both legacy NORM and undisturbed NOR rich sites. Thorium activity concentration levels exceeded screening levels for radioactive waste material given by Norwegian Pollution Control Act. Based on sequential extraction results, mobility of {sup 232}Th and trace elements were low, although higher at legacy NORM than at undisturbed NOR rich sites. Uranium was present at considerable levels (up to 50 %) in pH and redox sensitive soil fraction, as well as bound to soil organic compounds. However, no further transport towards biggest water source Norsjoe Lake was observed, as concentration levels of all investigated elements in water samples were extremely low. Long-term surveys of outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rates, thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in the air demonstrated elevated values (up to 9.2 μGy/h, 5000 Bq/m{sup 3} and 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively) with significant seasonal variation. Calculated annual exposure doses to humans due to outdoor exposure could exceed 10 mSv, i.e., be higher than 1 mSv dose constraint given by ICRP. Roughly summarized with previously published data on indoor doses for Fen village population, total annual exposure

  17. Online fault diagnostics and testing of area gamma radiation monitor using wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Padi Srinivas; Kumar, R. Amudhu Ramesh; Mathews, M. Geo; Amarendra, G.

    2017-07-01

    Periodical surveillance, checking, testing, and calibration of the installed Area Gamma Radiation Monitors (AGRM) in the nuclear plants are mandatory. The functionality of AGRM counting electronics and Geiger-Muller (GM) tube is to be monitored periodically. The present paper describes the development of online electronic calibration and testing of the GM tube from the control room. Two electronic circuits were developed, one for AGRM electronic test and another for AGRM detector test. A dedicated radiation data acquisition system was developed using an open platform communication server and data acquisition software. The Modbus RTU protocol on ZigBee based wireless communication was used for online monitoring and testing. The AGRM electronic test helps to carry out the three-point electronic calibration and verification of accuracy. The AGRM detector test is used to verify the GM threshold voltage and the plateau slope of the GM tube in-situ. The real-time trend graphs generated during these tests clearly identified the state of health of AGRM electronics and GM tube on go/no-go basis. This method reduces the radiation exposures received by the maintenance crew and facilitates quick testing with minimum downtime of the instrument.

  18. Radiation safety program in high dose rate brachytherapy facility at INHS Asvini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachytherapy concerns primarily the use of radioactive sealed sources which are inserted into catheters or applicators and placed directly into tissue either inside or very close to the target volume. The use of radiation in treatment of patients involves both benefits and risks. It has been reported that early radiation workers had developed radiation induced cancers. These incidents lead to continuous work for the improvement of radiation safety of patients and personnel The use of remote afterloading equipment has been developed to improve radiation safety in the delivery of treatment in brachytherapy. The widespread adoption of high dose rate brachytherapy needs appropriate quality assurance measures to minimize the risks to both patients and medical staff. The radiation safety program covers five major aspects: quality control, quality assurance, radiation monitoring, preventive maintenance, administrative measures and quality audit. This paper will discuss the radiation safety program developedfor a high dose rate brachytherapy facility at our centre which may serve as a guideline for other centres intending to install a similar facility.

  19. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach

  20. Assessment and GIS mapping of terrestrial Gamma radiation in Elfao area in Elgedaref states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N. S.

    2012-09-01

    This study is a part of national programme with an overall objective of producing radioactivity map for Sudan. It is carried out in Elfao area, the area which cover West Elgadareif and East Aljazeera State. Soil samples were collected with the aid of global positioning system (GPS) and the activity concentration of 40 K , 2 38U , 232 Th, have been measured using Nal γ-spectrometry. The average concentrations were 322±241 Bq/kg for 40 K, 20±7 Bq/kg for 2 38U and 27±1.4 Bq/kg for 232 Th. The obtained results were found to be lower than the corresponding global values reported in the UNSCEAR publications for normal areas Absorbed dose rate in air a height of 1m from the ground as calculated from the measured activity concentration using of Dose Rate Conversion Factors (DRCF) averaged 39 n Gy/h with corresponding to an annual effective dose of 48 μSv/y. These values lie within the worldwide range for normal radiation areas. Using Geographical Information System (GIS), prediction maps for activity concentrations of 40 K, 2 38U , 232 Th were produced. Similar GIS predictive map for absorbed dose rate in air at a height of above ground level was produced, which showed a trend of increase from the East towards West of the study area.(Author)

  1. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from the NOAA Climate Data...

  2. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  3. Atmospheric turbidity parameters affecting the incident solar solar radiation for two different areas in (Eg))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, M.T.Y.; Mosalam, M.A.; El-metwally, M.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric turbidity parameters such as Linke turbidity (L-0) and true Angstrom parameters (Bita o , Alpha 0 ) have been determined from the measurements of direct solar radiation for entire spectrum and for specified spectral bands during one year starting from june 1992 to may 1993. Comparison between the industrial area in Helwan (south Cairo) with that of the agricultural area in Mansoura, in (Eg), was done. Analysis of data revealed that the atmospheric turbidity parameters (L Beta) in Helwan is higher than that in Mansoura, except for hot wet months. The increase of L in Mansoura, in summer, is due to the increase of water vapor content. The wavelength exponent Alpha shows that the size the size of particles in Helwan is larger than that in Mansoura

  4. The twenty-second screening for thyroid disorders in radiation-contaminated areas of the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tanekazu [Kawasaki Coll. of Allied Health Professions, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Monobe, Manami

    2000-12-01

    One hundred and ninety-one people who reside in radiation-contaminated areas of the Ukraine near the site of the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were screened in 1999. The ages of people screened ranged from 1 to 74 years. Diffuse goiter was palpable in 67.5%, and nodular goiter in 3.1%. Thyroid cancer was detected in only one suspicious case. Among the people with diffuse goiter, however, there were positive anti-thyroglobulin hemagglutination tests (TGHA) in 6.7% and positive anti-microsome hemagglutination tests (MCHA) in 16.7% of cases. In addition, urinary iodine concentrations and daily urinary excretion were low. Thus, it is thought that the majority of diffuse goiters in this area are not due to autoimmune thyroiditis but to iodine deficiency. At present, no definite conclusion can be drawn on the relationship between the large number of diffuse goiters and radioactive contamination. Further studies are required. (author)

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Grossman, R.F.; Corkern, W.D.; Thome, D.J.; Patzer, R.G.; Hopper, J.L.

    1981-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV) continued its Offsite Radiological Safety Program for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other sites of past underground nuclear tests. For each test, the Laboratory provided airborne meteorological measurements, ground and airborne radiation monitoring teams, and special briefings to the Test Controller's Advisory Panel. Test-related radioactivity from the NTS was detected offsite following the Riola Test conducted on September 25, 1980. This consisted of xenon-133 (3.4 x 10 -11 μCi/m1) and xenon-135 (3.6 x 10 -10 μCi/m1) in a compressed air sample collected at Lathrop Wells, Nevada. The estimated dose equivalent to the whole body of a hypothetical receptor at Lathrop Wells from exposure to the radioxenon was 0.011 mrem, which is 0.006 percent of the radiation protection guide for a suitable sample of the general population. Whole-body counts of individuals residing in the environs of the NTS showed no manmade radionuclides attributable to the testing program. The only radioactivity from non-NTS sites of past underground nuclear tests was due to tritium in water samples collected from the Project Dribble Site near Hattiesburg, Mississippi, and the Project Long Shot Site on Amchitka Island, Alaska. The maximum concentrations measured at these locations were 1 and 0.1 percent of the Concentration Guide for drinking water, respectively. A small amount of airborne radioactivity originating from nuclear tests carried out by the People's Republic of China was detected during 1980 at some stations scattered throughout the Air Surveillance Network. The Laboratory's Animal Investigation Program sampled tissues from wildlife and domestic animals on and around the NTS. Data from analysis of these tissues are published separately in an annual report

  6. RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES IN RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED AREAS OF TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chichura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. The analyses of radiation hygienic monitoring conducted in Tula region territories affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident regarding cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the local foodstuffs and the analyses of populational annual effective dose. The materials and methods. The survey was conducted in Tula Region since 1997 to 2015. Over that period, more than fifty thousand samples of the main foodstuffs from the post-Chernobyl contaminated area were analyzed. Simultaneously with that, the external gamma - radiation dose rate was measured in the fixed control points. The dynamics of cesium -137 and strontium-90 content in foodstuffs were assessed along with the maximum values of the mean annual effective doses to the population and the contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures into the structure of the annual effective collective dose to the population. The results. The amount of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in the local foodstuffs was identified. The external gamma- radiation dose rate values were found to be stable and not exceeding the natural fluctuations range typical for the middle latitudes of Russia’s European territory. The maximum mean annual effective dose to the population reflects the stable radiation situation and does not exceed the permissible value of 1 mSv. The contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures of the population has been continuously reducing as well as the average individual dose to the population per one medical treatment under the annual increase of the medical treatments quantities. The conclusion. There is no exceedance of the admissible levels of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 content in the local foodstuffs. The mean annual effective dose to the population has decreased which makes it possible to transfer the settlements affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident to normal life style. This is covered by the draft concept of the settlements’ transfer to normal life style.

  7. Radiation doses measured by TLD (thermoluminescent dosimeter) in x-ray examination, especially on the skin area beneath of which female gonads situate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S; Hiraki, M; Murakami, S; Nishikawa, N; Yagi, T [Nissei Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    1977-03-01

    By means of TLD, we measured the radiation doses to the skin in the central area of the field of radiation and doses scattered outside of the radiation field, utilizing a phantom to define a suitable radiation field. Clinically, when radiography of the gall bladder and the chest was done, we measured both the radiation doses of the central skin area where radiation was done and the skin above the area of the female gonads. In radiography of the chest, the radiation doses to the skin area above the female gonads situate was under 0.1 mR. When female gonads are less than 15 cm from the margin of the radiation field of the radiation dose can be decreased by 30% if gum sheets containing lead are used to cover the skin area outside the radiation field.

  8. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, June 2002.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite-Beginning in July, all three ARM sites (Southern Great Plains[SGP], North Slope of Alaska, and Tropical Western Pacific; Figure 1) will participate in the AIRS Validation IOP. This three-month intensive operational period (IOP) will validate data collected by the satellite-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) recently launched into space. On May 4, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Aqua, the second spacecraft in the Earth Observing System (EOS) series. The EOS satellites monitor Earth systems including land surfaces, oceans, the atmosphere, and ice cover. The first EOS satellite, named Terra, was launched in December 1999. The second EOS satellite is named Aqua because its primary focus is understanding Earth's water cycle through observation of atmospheric moisture, clouds, temperature, ocean surface, precipitation, and soil moisture. One of the instruments aboard Aqua is the AIRS, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA agency. The AIRS Validation IOP complements the ARM mission to improve understanding of the interactions of clouds and atmospheric moisture with solar radiation and their influence on weather and climate. In support of satellite validation IOP, ARM will launch dedicated radiosondes at all three ARM sites while the Aqua satellite with the AIRS instrument is orbiting overhead. These radiosonde launches will occur 45 minutes and 5 minutes before selected satellite overpasses. In addition, visiting scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will launch special radiosondes to measure ozone and humidity over the SGP site. All launches will generate ground-truth data to validate satellite data collected simultaneously. Data gathered daily by ARM meteorological and solar radiation instruments will complete the validation data sets. Data from Aqua-based instruments, including AIRS, will aid in weather forecasting, climate modeling, and

  9. A biomonitoring program of the coastal area of the Principality of Monaco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambutte, S.; Tambutte, E.; Rolland, P.; Van Klaveren, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    The laboratory of ecotoxicology of the 'Service de l'Environnement de Monaco' has set up a biomonitoring program in three areas of the littoral of the Principality of Monaco. This program belongs to the general monitoring program on the quality of the Environment. At a subregional level, this program is part of the programs of the tripartite agreement 'RAMOGE', between the three countries France, Italy and the Principality of Monaco; the aim of this agreement being to build a pilot zone of fight against pollution in Mediterranean. At an international level, this program goes in the scope of the 'MEDPOL' biomonitoring program intending to establish or to intensify programs for the continuous monitoring of marine pollution in the mediterranean zone. Our biomonitoring program consists in assessing the effects of pollutants on two marine organisms (Dicentrarchus labrax and Mytilus galloprovincialis) by using general and specific stress indices

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Global Warming and Methane-Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as ''greenhouse gases.'' These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro-carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a greenhouse enclosure, trapping infrared radiation inside and warming the space. One of the more important greenhouse gases is the naturally occurring hydrocarbon methane. Methane, a primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil sources, termites, oceans, fresh-waters, and non-wetland soils. Methane is also produced by human-related (or anthropogenic) activities such as fossil fuel production, coal mining, rice cultivation, biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste management operations and landfills, and domesticated livestock operations (Figure 1). These anthropogenic activities account for approximately 70% of the methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane is removed naturally from the atmosphere in three ways. These methods, commonly referred to as sinks, are oxidation by chemical reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl ion, oxidation within the stratosphere, and microbial uptake by soils. In spite of their important role in removing excess methane from the atmosphere, the sinks cannot keep up with global methane production. Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 145% since 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world population growth, pointing to anthropogenic sources as the cause (Figure 2). Increases in the methane concentration reduce Earth's natural cooling efficiency by trapping more of the outgoing

  11. Major congenital malformations in the high and normal level radiation areas of southwest coast of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheer, K.R.; Jaikrishan, G.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Seshadri, M.; Jagadeesan, C.K.; Madhusoodhanan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital malformations are defects in organogenesis during the fetal periods and its influence on the individual may vary according to the type of malformation. Some congenital malformations are trivial and may not have any significance but for a minimal cosmetic deformity. Major malformations on the contrary may be severe enough to be life-threatening with serious structural, functional or cosmetic disability requiring surgical or medical management and are an important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world. The present paper analyses the major malformations detected during the monitoring of newborns in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural radiation areas of Kerala, a narrow strip of land in the southwest coast extending from Purakkad panchayat of Alapuzha district in the north to Neendakara Panchayat of Quilon district in the south. The coastal area has natural deposits of Monazite sand containing Thorium. Thorium together with its daughter products accounts for the elevated levels of natural radiation. The finding in general was in conformity with similar works on malformations

  12. Emergency response activities and the collection of damaged radiation devices in the war areas of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasic, D.; Schaller, A.

    1998-01-01

    Several kinds of devices containing sources of ionizing radiation had been in use in the areas of Croatia which were affected by the recent war, principally in industrial and medical applications. The greater share of these devices was constituted by 151 radioactive lightning conductors with a maximum individual activity of 19.5 GBq and some 8300 smoke detectors. In the destruction caused by the war, some of these devices were damaged, destroyed or lost. The actions undertaken to retrieve them and their sources are described, as well as the experience gained and lessons learned. The importance of a well organized national regulatory system is underscored as a precondition for the efficient identification and safe recovery of radiation sources lying amidst the ruins in the area affected by the war. The experience gained in these actions may be applicable to similar situations caused by natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, etc. and of particular interest to regulatory authorities for the drawing up of emergency preparedness plans. (author)

  13. Population exposure to airborne thorium at the high natural radiation areas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A.C.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Haridasan, P.P.; Radhakrishnan, S. [Health Physics Unit, Indian Rare Earths Limited, Udyogamandal, 683 501 Kerala (India); Krishnamony, S. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1998-09-01

    High natural radiation areas in the coastal and peninsular India were studied for airborne thorium and resultant population exposure due to inhalation. Four locations covering three states viz., Ayiramthengu and Neendakara in Kerala, Kudiraimozhi in Tamil Nadu and Bhimilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh were investigated. External gamma radiation fields 1 m above the monazite ore bodies ranged from 200 to 3000 nGy h{sup -1}. Soil samples showed {sup 232}Th specific activity varying from 0{center_dot}1 to 1{center_dot}5 Bq g{sup -1} with surface alpha activity in the range of1{center_dot}0-12{center_dot}5 Bq cm{sup -2}. Suspended particulates in the samples ranged from 60-140 {mu}g m{sup -3} with {sup 232}Th showing a wider variation of <0{center_dot}03-0{center_dot}3 mBq m{sup -3}. There was poor correlation between suspended particulates and long-lived alpha airborne activity (r=-0{center_dot}3). The resuspension factors for {sup 232}Th were in the range of 1{center_dot}5x10{sup -8}-7{center_dot}9x10{sup -7} cm{sup -1}. Higher resuspension was correlated with dry sand dunes. The upper limits for Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to inhalation of airborne {sup 232}Th at the respective high natural radiation areas were estimated to range from 50{+-}30 to 300{+-}130 {mu}Sv (5-30 mrem) per year per adult member of public assuming an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1 {mu}m for the airborne particulates. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and interfaces with external data sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, G.M.; Cress, T.S.; Melton, R.B.

    1993-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the Department of Energy's major field project in support of its global change research program. Its objective is to improve the performance of cloud and radiation models and parameterizations in general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research. The data produced by ARM will be handled and maintained to satisfy the research needs of the program and to be accessible and usable by the general research and academic communities. In addition to data from field instrumentation, ARM Science Team needs include a substantial amount of data from outside the ARM Program (''external data''), which will be acquired and provided routinely through the ARM data system. With respect to data archival and sharing, the ARM Program reflects the objectives delineated by the US Global Change. The purpose of this presentation is to summarize the conceptual designs embodied in the ARM data system and the status of its implementation

  15. Radiation processing program at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan

    2008-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been proven to enhance industrial efficiency and productivity, improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, varieties of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been studied at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. At present, effort is focused towards developing new materials based on natural polymers such as natural rubber and rubber based products, palm oil and palm oil based products and polysaccharide. Hydrogel based on sago starch has been developed and commercialized for face mask. As for wound dressing application, sago hydrogel is still subjected to the clinical evaluation. Sago starch has also been modified for biodegradable products such as bio-film and bio-foam for packaging purposes. On the other hand palm oil based acrylate resins have been synthesized at the Nuclear Malaysia for pressure sensitive adhesive and printing ink applications. Meanwhile, natural rubber is used in a polymer blend and composites for automotive components. All of these products are at various stages of commercialization. (author)

  16. Radiation Effects and Component Hardening testing program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Weil, B.S.; Chesser, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes Phase II of the Radiation Effects and Component Hardening (REACH) testing program, performed as part of the joint collaborative agreement between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan, Components and materials were submitted to 10 5 R/hr gamma radiation fields for 10,000 hr, producing accumulated doses of 10 9 R; most performed as expected

  17. PARATI - a dynamic model for radiological assessments in urban areas. Pt. 1. Modelling of urban areas, their contamination and radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, E.R.R.; Conti, L.F.C.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    The structure and mathematical model of PARATI, a detailed computer programme developed for the assessment of the radiological consequences of an accidental contamination of urban areas, is described with respect to the scenarios used for the estimation of exposure fields in a village or town, the models for the initial and secondary contamination with the radionuclide 137 Cs, the concepts for calculating the resulting radiation exposures and the changes with time of the contamination and radiation fields. Kerma rates at various locations in tropical urban areas are given, and the contribution of different contaminated surfaces to these rates after dry or wet deposition are discussed. (orig.). With 6 figs., 12 tabs

  18. EUMENES, a computer software for managing the radiation safety program information at an institutional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Saiz, Alejandro; Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Valdes Ramos, Maryzury; Martinez Gonzalez, Alina; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Niurka; Vergara Gil, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The correct application of national and international regulations in the field of Radiological Safety requires the implementation of Radiation Safety Programs appropriate to the developed practice. These Programs demand the preparation and keeping of an important number of records and data, the compliance with working schedules, systematic quality controls, audits, delivery of information to the Regulatory Authority, the execution of radiological assessments, etc. Therefore, it is unquestionable the necessity and importance of having a computer tool to support the management of the information related to the Radiation Safety Program in any institution. The present work describes a computer program that allows the efficient management of these data. Its design was based on the IAEA International Basic Safety Standards recommendations and on the requirements of the Cuban national standards, with the objective of being flexible enough to be applied in most of the institutions using ionizing radiations. The most important records of Radiation Safety Programs were incorporated and reports can be generated by the users. An additional tools-module allows the user to access to a radionuclide data library, and to carry out different calculations of interest in radiological protection. The program has been developed in Borland Delphi and manages Microsoft Access databases. It is a user friendly code that aims to support the optimization of Radiation Safety Programs. The program contributes to save resources and time, as the generated information is electronically kept and transmitted. The code has different security access levels according to the user responsibility at the institution and also provides for the analysis of the introduced data, in a quick and efficient way, as well as to notice deadlines, the exceeding of reference levels and situations that require attention. (author)

  19. A radiation protection training program with a focus on communicating risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.H.; Zelmer, R.L.; Tourneur, F.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation protection training is generally provided to promote a radiologically safe work environment, and to help ensure that doses are kept as low as reasonably achievable. In many cases, this reason makes good sense. Radiological risk can often be a significant concern when working with radioactive materials or radiation-emitting devices. However, in conducting the work of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office, it is often the case that the perception of radiological risk is of greater concern that the radiological risk itself. In this case, radiation protection training can serve another equally important purpose. It can be used to convey, in a balanced manner, the actual radiological risks associated with the work, and to put those risks in perspective. For individuals who are not familiar with radiation safety, effective radiation protection training that focuses on risk communication can reduce the level of concern surrounding work to be performed. This, in turn, can have an overall positive impact on the efficiency of the work, on goodwill within the community where the work is taking place, and even on the overall safety of those conducting the work. The radiation protection training program developed and implemented by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office is described in the context of other, more traditional radiation protection training programs. (author)

  20. Planning and Programming of Education and Training Courses on the Radiation Fusion Technologies for Next Generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Nam, Y. M.; Choi, P. H.

    2009-06-01

    In order to program education and training courses on the radiation technologies and to have the WNU RT School to be held in Korea, this project was carried out. It was also done to make a strategy for running the programmed courses, and to build and knit a global network among radiation specialists such as international advisory board, domestic advisory board and steering committee. A plan for the WNU RT School in Korea was made under this project. Curricula in all subjects related to radiation technology and the lecture materials were prepared, which are essential for education and training courses on radiation technologies for next generations. Lecturers were selected among global CEOs and professionals in radiation industries and university professors and radiation specialists. In addition, a global network among radiation specialists such as international advisory board, domestic advisory board and steering committee was built and organized. As a model for the international education and training courses in RT field as well as the other fields, it can be used for making fundamentals of technology exports and promoting Korea's national image in science and technology

  1. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivins, Steven R; Stoetzel, Gregory A

    2001-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the DOE Standard Radiological Control, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2000 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  2. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Cha Yongru; Zhou Shunyuan

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  3. Data base management system for a radiation safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKetty, M.H.; Roach, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    A data base management system (DBMS) has been developed that simplifies the retrieval of data concerning radioisotope use at a university and hospital. The system customizes software that is commercially available to perform several functions. Reports can be developed concerning receipt of radioactive materials, radioactive waste disposal, and research proposals submitted by investigators. Reports can be prepared that utilize the software's ability to perform numerical calculations. The main advantage of the DBMS is that it allows the easy retrieval of information that is used in the day-to-day operation of a radiation safety office; it also provides easy access and manipulation of data for the preparation of reports, budget proposals, and justifications for purchases

  4. A program for assuring the competence of radiation protection supervisors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkin, P.; Nelis, P.; Christie, K.

    2002-01-01

    Baker Hughes Incorporated is a service company providing drilling, formation evaluation and production technology to the oil and gas industry. The corporation is the combination of many innovative companies, some dating back to the early 1900s, that have developed and introduced technology to serve the global petrochemical industry. Every day in oil fields around the world, Baker Hughes engineers, geo-scientists and field service personnel apply the latest technology to find reserves, develop fields and produce oil and gas. Baker Hughes INTEQ, a division of Baker Hughes Inc., provides a range of services associated with drilling operations. A major product line utilises sealed radioactive sources to obtain real-time information on the formation being drilled. This is done by use of a technique called measurement while drilling (MWD). A nuclear MWD operation on a drilling rig involves the use of a 185 GBq Am-241/Be neutron source and a 74 GBq Cs-137 gamma ray source. INTEQ's Eastern Hemisphere operations have provided MWD services in more than 50 countries in the last 10 years, from its major support bases in the UK, Norway, Nigeria, Dubai and Singapore. Baker Hughes INTEQ takes the safety of its work with radioactive sources extremely seriously and, when developing these services, put a lot of thought into how this could be ensured. An essential factor was deemed to be the competence of the personnel providing the services at the rig site, most importantly, the radiation protection supervisor (RPS). The RPS is responsible for ensuring that the specified working procedures are observed at all times. In doing so, the RPS will ensure that the work being done with the radioactive sources proceeds in a manner which is fully compliant with the regulations for radiation protection in the country in which the work is being undertaken

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years

  6. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L. (comps.)

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  7. MONTEC, an interactive fortran program to simulate radiation dose and dose-rate responses of populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.A.; Szekely, J.G.

    1983-09-01

    The computer program MONTEC was written to simulate the distribution of responses in a population whose members are exposed to multiple radiation doses at variable dose rates. These doses and dose rates are randomly selected from lognormal distributions. The individual radiation responses are calculated from three equations, which include dose and dose-rate terms. Other response-dose/rate relationships or distributions can be incorporated by the user as the need arises. The purpose of this documentation is to provide a complete operating manual for the program. This version is written in FORTRAN-10 for the DEC system PDP-10

  8. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  9. 76 FR 31998 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved... Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar year 2012. This is... certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in States with critical shortages of primary care...

  10. 75 FR 32972 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Medically Underserved Areas for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Medically Underserved... Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar year 2011. This is... certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in States with critical shortages of primary care...

  11. Radionuclide activity and the immune system functioning in residents of radiation contaminated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Sokolenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to assess the relation of radioactive contamination degree to immune system functioning, in the absence or presence of additional potential immunosuppressants. To achieve the objective, during the period of 1995–2015 we examined 250 people, students of Cherkasy State University, who lived in the areas of enhanced radiation monitoring before. Also we evaluated the additional impact of the emotional stress caused by examinations on examined students. Indicators of cellular immunity were determined by immunophenotyping and dyeing using Romanowsky-Giemsa method. The level of immunoglobulins in blood serum was determined by radial immunodiffusion (Mancini method. The level of cortisol in blood serum was determined by immunoenzyme method. We have found that in absence of the emotional stress among residents of the areas contaminated with radionuclides, cortisol level remained at the upper limit of homeostatic norm. There is an average positive correlation between the activity of radionuclides in the territories of residence and the level of cortisol. There are marked average positive correlations between the activity of radionuclides and the level of neutrophils, and low positive correlations with the levels of IgG and IgM in blood serum. Average negative correlations between the activity of radionuclides and the following parameters are also observed: absolute and relative number of functionally mature T-lymphocytes with phenotype CD3+, absolute and relative number of their helper subpopulation CD4+, absolute and relative number of natural killer cells with phenotype CD16+; and strong negative correlations with immunoregulatory index CD4+/CD8+. Cortisol level shows the similar correlation with the same parameters, but correlation coefficient is lower. Under conditions of additional stress, caused by emotional load during the examinations, cortisol level significantly increases. This enhanced previously discovered

  12. Computerization aspects of the Health Physics' Radiation Control Program at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolecek, Elwyn H.

    1978-01-01

    Greater public awareness of the potential hazards of ionizing radiation and the more stringent governmental compliance programs have made accountability of radioactive materials an item of increasingly major concern for all radionuclide users. For low-volume (radioisotopically) organizations, manual record keeping techniques may suffice without requiring significant work-hour allocations. When considering high-volume users, the workload contingent with manual inventory is usually excessive from an employee time-allocation standpoint. Therefore, various automation systems are employed, usually with the aid of an in-house or time-purchase computer system. The computer programs developed for these systems often do not allow for future modification without major rewriting. Therefore, to facilitate in program concept, modification, and implementation the Health Physics Section at Argonne National Laboratory chose to design and code its computer program(s) and has instituted a Radiation Administrative Program (RAP) as a major component of the Section's laboratory-wide radiation control program. Coded in ANSI PL/I, RAP provides both flexibility in present concept and allowance for future growth. It requires less than 300K words of computer memory and can be easily incorporated at other organizations with minimal modifications. The modular design provides run cost benefits and versatility of report generation and modification. Through the use of this type of information processing and retrieval system, one can manipulate large amounts of radionuclide data, providing control and identification, while still maintaining commitment of computer costs and employee time at a reasonable level. (author)

  13. Key Performance Indicators in the Evaluation of the Quality of Radiation Safety Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Cheryl Culver; Shaffer, Sheila; Fink-Bennett, Darlene; Winokur, Kay

    2016-08-01

    Beaumont is a multiple hospital health care system with a centralized radiation safety department. The health system operates under a broad scope Nuclear Regulatory Commission license but also maintains several other limited use NRC licenses in off-site facilities and clinics. The hospital-based program is expansive including diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine (molecular imaging), interventional radiology, a comprehensive cardiovascular program, multiple forms of radiation therapy (low dose rate brachytherapy, high dose rate brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, and gamma knife), and the Research Institute (including basic bench top, human and animal). Each year, in the annual report, data is analyzed and then tracked and trended. While any summary report will, by nature, include items such as the number of pieces of equipment, inspections performed, staff monitored and educated and other similar parameters, not all include an objective review of the quality and effectiveness of the program. Through objective numerical data Beaumont adopted seven key performance indicators. The assertion made is that key performance indicators can be used to establish benchmarks for evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness and quality of radiation safety programs. Based on over a decade of data collection, and adoption of key performance indicators, this paper demonstrates one way to establish objective benchmarking for radiation safety programs in the health care environment.

  14. Radiation protection program for transport of radiopharmaceutical and labelled compounds in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Zayda H.; Perez, Saul; Ayra, Fernando E.; Torres, Mirta B.

    2008-01-01

    The Centre of Isotopes (CENTIS) is the main consignor and carrier of radioactive material in Cuba. The purpose of this work is to describe the Radiation Protection Program (RPP) implemented inside the Organization Quality Management System, to achieve and maintain an optimized standard of protection in the accomplishment of these functions. All those areas involving radiation exposures are considered (e.g. design of type A packages, packing, loading, handling, in-transit storage, road transport and inspection and maintenance of packaging). The quality assurance requirements for packaging components were established using a grading process. A material to absorb twice the volume of the liquid contents is tested and its water absorptivity, grammage and capillary rise were estimated. Categories and transport indexes for 56 packages of radiopharmaceuticals incorporating radioiodine, 32 P, 188 Re and 90 Y and technetium generators, are determined. Tests for demonstrating compliance with requirements for type A packages with liquid and solid radioactive content and for air transport are performed and documented. A numeric code for each package by consignee is registered and controlled in each step of the process and as a guarantee of its traceability. Safety and security of radioactive materials during storage in transit and transport are supervised. Training of workers trough periodic curses and emergency exercises is implementing. Individual Licensing of this staff is conducted by CENTIS and presented to the Cuban Regulatory Authority. The effective annual doses distributions are reported since 1996 to 2007. Occupational exposure is acceptably low and less than 6 mSv. It has not been reported any incident in about two thousand road shipments carried out. CENTIS' RPP has been under review, detailed appraisals and audits. The Certification of the management system by ISO 9001:2000 has been identified as a goal and a way for the continuous improvement. (author)

  15. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, April 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Intensive Observation Period Projects Scheduled-Several IOP projects have been scheduled for the SGP CART site this spring. These projects either have already begun or will begin shortly. Radiosondes-The RS-90 Transition IOP is currently under way. The RS-90 model radiosonde is gradually replacing the older RS-80 model. Radiosondes are instrument packages attached to and launched by weather balloons. The instruments measure atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity as the balloon rises through the air. The new RS-90 model is a high-performance radiosonde with fast-response sensors capable of providing data for each variable every second. The relatively environmentally friendly package is constructed of cardboard and steel rather than Styrofoam, and it has a water-activated battery that contains no toxic substances. The RS-90 Transition IOP is taking place during April. Operators will launch both the old RS-80 and the new RS-90 radiosondes simultaneously once each day to obtain duplicate vertical profiles of the atmosphere for comparison. This procedure will also allow data users to test the output from the old and new radiosondes in models. Narrow Field of View (NFOV) Solar Spectrometer Cloud Optical Depth Retrieval Campaign-The NFOV IOP is scheduled to take place on May 7-August 31, 2001. A researcher from Pennsylvania State University will be deploying a dual-spectrometer instrument that measures the hemispheric flux and zenith NFOV radiance over a wavelength range of 300- 1000 nanometers. (One nanometer equals 1 billionth of a meter or 0.000000039 inches.) This wavelength range includes the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectra. These measurements are used to estimate cloud optical depth-a quantity related to the amount of solar radiation intercepted by a cloud-for broken cloud fields over vegetated surfaces. The IOP measurements will be compared with optical depth measurements made by SGP instruments. Precision Gas Sampling (PGS

  16. Clinical evaluation of radiation oncology greater area database (ROGAD). From 1992 to 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harauchi, Hajime; Inamura, Kiyonari; Umeda, Tokuo

    2001-01-01

    Radiotherapy clinical records of 8,950 cases were collected from 251 hospitals in the period from 1992 to 1998 by the activity of Radiation Oncology Greater Area Database ROGAD under the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology JASTRO, and their data were analyzed. Outlines of analysis are presented in this paper and other 5 papers in series. Also follow-up data of 814 cases by the 4th follow-up survey study carried out in 1998 were retrieved and examined. Case distribution survey according to ICD-O code for primary tumor region were worked out. Chronological change of case distribution during these seven years were examined and briefly stated in this paper. Case analyses in terms of 5 portions of topographical region were also done, and 5 papers together with this paper describe the results of the analyses. Data analysis comparison between ROGAD and the regular census revealed that the resulted analyses of collected clinical data by ROGAD from 1992 to 1998 indicated the real world of radiation therapy situation in Japan. One of the reason to state this is that ROGAD covers 34.7% of number of facilities and 36.1% of number of cases treated in Japan. The another reason is that we could reduce the rate of mis-registration and items of blanked registration by means of improvement of registration software with logical check. We made sure from our effort of this ROGAD activity for these 7 years experiences that continuation of the run of this database ROGAD would bring us much more accurate information on the radiation oncology situation in Japan. (author)

  17. Direct Penetrating Radiation Monitoring Systems: Technical Evaluation for Use at Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Kraig; W. A. Treadaway; R. J. Wechsler

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances and commercialization of electret-ion-chamber (EIC) technology for photon measurements prompted us to consider EKs as a replacement for our TLD system. After laboratory tests indicated that both systems gave adequate results for controlled exposures, throughout 1998 we conducted field tests with paired TLDs and EICS, in LANL technical areas and in public areas. We had approximately 30 paired sampling sites at Area G. At each sampling site, we deployed three TLDs and three EICS. The EICS were contained in air-tight jars, each of which was placed in a Tyvek envelope and hung about 1 m above the ground. The dosimeters were read (and, if necessary, replaced) every three months. At the sites outside Area G, the TLD readings for the first two quarters were statistically significantly higher than those of the EICS: group average exposures were 38 and 36, compared with 33 mR (both quarters) for the EICS; during quarter 3, the EIC average (40 mR) was higher than the TLD average (34 mR); and during quarter 4, the two systems were statistically the same: EIC = 42, TLD = 41 with a p-value of 0.61. We are still evaluating these differences and performing additional laboratory studies to determine causes. At the Area G sites,we noticed that several of the TLDs gave much higher readings than their co-located EICS; we believe that the TLDs were over-responding by ∼50% to the low-energy (60-keV) gamma radiation associated with 241 Am, whereas the EICS were responding accurately. We conclude that EICS are more accurate at a wide range of gamma energies and are preferable to TLDs in environments where a significant fraction of the photons are low energy

  18. Radiative transfer analysis of the effect of ink dot area on color phase in inkjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonome, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Kono, Takahiro; Yamada, Jun

    2017-06-01

    This study discusses a mechanism of inkjet printing and investigates the effect of ink contrast on the color phase of the printed object. Inkjet printing is a popular printing method for home use, but its color repeatability is occasionally broken. To verify this problem, we calculated the radiative transfer equation on the surface of an object printed by an inkjet printer, and the color was quantitatively estimated. The ink dot area and spectral reflectance of the printed samples were measured. Furthermore, the spectral reflectance of the objects printed with different dot areas were theoretically calculated. By comparing the measured and calculated reflectance, we estimated the scattering coefficient of the paper and absorption coefficient of the ink. We quantitatively calculated the color with the HSV color system. The hue changed with dot area rate. It is considered that this is caused by the broad range of the spectral absorption coefficients of inks. We believe that this study will aid the development of ink without color change and improve the color repeatability of inkjet printers.

  19. A survey of monitoring and assay systems for release of metals from radiation controlled areas at LANL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, K. M. (Kathleen M.); MacArthur, D. W. (Duncan W.)

    2002-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a recent effort in waste minimization has focused on scrap metal from radiological controlled areas (RCAs). In particular, scrap metal from RCAs needs to be dispositioned in a reasonable and cost effective manner. Recycling of DOE scrap metals from RCAs is currently under a self-imposed moratorium. Since recycling is not available and reuse is difficult, often metal waste from RCAs, which could otherwise be recycled, is disposed of as low-level waste. Estimates at LANL put the cost of low-level waste disposal at $550 to $4000 per cubic meter, depending on the type of waste and the disposal site. If the waste is mixed, the cost for treatment and disposal can be as high as $50,000 per cubic meter. Disposal of scrap metal as low-level waste uses up valuable space in the low-level waste disposal areas and requires transportation to the disposal site under Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations for low-level waste. In contrast, disposal as non-radioactive waste costs as little as $2 per cubic meter. While recycling is unavailable, disposing of the metal at an industrial waste site could be the best solution for this waste stream. A Green Is Clean (GIC) type verification program needs to be in place to provide the greatest assurance that the waste does not contain DOE added radioactivity. This paper is a review of available and emerging radiation monitoring and assay systems that could be used for scrap metal as part of the LANL GIC program.

  20. Profiles of doses to the population living in the high background radiation areas in Kerala, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chougaonkar, M.P. E-mail: mpckar@hotmail.com; Eappen, K.P.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Shetty, P.G.; Mayya, Y.S.; Sadasivan, S.; Venkat Raj, V

    2004-07-01

    A sample study of the profiles of radiation exposures to the populations living in the high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of the monazite-bearing region in Kerala, India, has been conducted by monitoring 200 dwellings selected from two villages in this region. Each of these dwellings was monitored for 1 year and the study lasted for a period of 2 years. The indoor gamma ray dose measurements were carried out using thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and the inhalation doses due to radon, thoron and their progenies were monitored using solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) based twin-cup dosimeters. Outdoor gamma ray dose measurements were carried out using Geiger Muller (GM) tube based survey meters. Annual effective doses were computed, using occupancy factors of 0.8 and 0.2, respectively, for indoor and outdoor, by adding the three components. Occupants of 41.6% of the houses surveyed were observed to receive the annual effective doses ranging between 0.5 and 5 mSv/a, 41.6% between 5 and 10 mSv/a, 10.2% between 10 and 15 mSv/a and 6.6% greater than 15 mSv/a. The inhalation component was generally smaller than the external gamma ray component and on an average it was found to constitute about 30% of the total dose. The paper presents the details of the methodology adopted and the analysis of the results.

  1. Training on radiation protection in university area. Experience of Technical University of Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, X.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the different agents that are involved in training on Radiation Protection in Spain. The main circumstances which can introduce new challenges in radiation protection practices are reviewed, namely the planned modifications in the regulation framework, the mobility of European workers, the consequences of deregulation of the electric system, the moratorium of the Spanish nuclear programme and the changes in Spanish studies resulting from implementation of the European Higher Education Area. In relation to the contributions that university groups can develop in this field, the author makes some suggestions according to his own experience in the Technical University of Catalonia. It is emphasized that this contribution must be characterized by its quality, credibility and independence. It should include activities such as development of R and D studies, the implementation of accredited laboratories, organization of post-graduate courses, preparation of teaching materials and technical publications, and collaboration with public institutions, scientific and professional societies and other organizations. Finally, the other new activity that is stressed is related to the efforts required to improve information and communication to the stake holders and a growing social interest. (Author)

  2. Measurements and simulations of the BLM response to a radiation field inside the CERF target area

    CERN Document Server

    Lebbos, E; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Ferrari, A; Kramer, D; Nordt, A; Roeed, K; Roesler, S; Sapinski, M; Vlachoudis, V

    2010-01-01

    The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility is installed in one of the secondary beam lines (H6) of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), in the North Experimental Area at CERN. This facility is used as a reference for testing, inter-comparing and calibrating passive and active instruments. In May 2009, the SPS provided a mixed hadron beam (protons, pions and kaons) during a few days, in order to perform several measurements with different devices such as the Radiation Protection Monitor used for residual dose rates due to Induced Radioactivity in the LHC (PMI), the Secondary Emission Monitor used for high beam losses (SEM), the Radiation Monitor for electronics (RadMon), and the Beam Loss Monitor for the LHC (BLM). This report focuses on the measurements of the BLM response during this year’s operation at CERF. The measurements evaluate the sensitivity of the BLM signal to the particle energy spectrum, with special attention to the contribution coming from thermal neutrons. For this purpose, meas...

  3. 78 FR 35054 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Program to Prevent Smoking in Hazardous Areas (Pertains to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ...; Program to Prevent Smoking in Hazardous Areas (Pertains to Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and... carrying smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground and to prevent smoking in hazardous areas... Act), 30 U.S.C. 877(c), and 30 CFR 75.1702 prohibits persons from smoking or carrying smoking...

  4. A PROGRAM OF ADULT EDUCATION FOR THE MARSHALL COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL SERVICE AREA, LEWISBURG, TENNESSEE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARNES, JOHN O., JR.

    THE NEED FOR AN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE MARSHALL COUNTY (TENNESSEE) HIGH SCHOOL SERVICE AREA WAS STUDIED THROUGH QUESTIONNAIRES COMPLETED BY 207 ADULTS, EXAMINATION OF SCHOOL AND GOVERNMENT RECORDS, AND PERSONAL INTERVIEWS. IT WAS FOUND THAT OVER HALF OF THE AREA RESIDENTS WERE NOT HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES, AND THAT MANY ADULTS DESIRED MORE…

  5. REDUCING THE IMPACT OF RADIATION FACTORS IN AREAS WITH HIGH LEVEL OF RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zaredinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the modern problems of radioecology. The study reveals the problems of radioecological situation in some regions of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The main attention of the authors is paid to the ecologically hazardous objects in the uranium mining industry. The characteristics of wastes from uranium mining and stages of development of the mining industry are described. The historical background of the accumulation of the wastes in dumps, the ore-bearing rocks, and other off-balance ores is given. The practical experience and directions radio-ecological safety are generalized, achieving improvements of the environmental quality in areas with high risk. In conclusion, the authors recommend carrying out some measures to reduce an impact of the radiation factor on human health and to stabilize the radioecological situation at the studied regions.

  6. Radiation protection during backfitting or dismantling work in the controlled area of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, J.; Kausch, S.; Palmowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Backfitting measures or dismantling activities within the controlled area put special requirements on radiological protection. This is to be shown by the example of the following cases. Sanitation of the general decontamination services of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center; waste water, equipment decontamination, incineration and packaging facility; dismantling and disposal of high-radiation components including decontamination of buildings of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant at Mol; reconstruction of the HDR plant for safety experiments together with waste management for components and systems, as e.g. pressure vessel internals, pipes etc.; exchange of the steam dryer and the water separator including planning of the conditioning process in the Wuergassen nuclear power plant. This lecture deals with the engineering and organizational problems, especially accounting for radiological protection and enters into planning of measures for radiological protection, their organization and execution, problems of direct and remote-controlled work also being discussed. The question of personnel qualification is also commented on. (orig.) [de

  7. Germline mutation rates in families residing in high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in southwest India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi; Ghosh, Anu; Ahmad, Shazia; Saini, DivyaIakshmi; Chauhan, P.S.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    For this study, 200 nuclear families have been analyzed using over 40 mini- and microsatellite markers. Cord blood samples for the child and peripheral blood samples for the parent(s) were collected in EDTA vacuutainers from the hospital units located in High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRA) and Normal Level Natural Radiation Areas (NLNRA). Both the parents of the newborn were exposed to the background dose. The families were grouped into four distinct dose groups - NLNRA group 5.00 mGy/year. An overall mutation rate of 2.08 X 10 -3 per cell per generation was observed for NLNRA and 2.12 X 10 -3 per cell per generation for HLNRA families. No radiation induced dose response was observed for the stratified groups. Thus, this study shows that mutation rates at mini- and microsatellites in the off springs of the parents living in the high background radiation areas of Kerala does not vary with radiation exposure. This is the first report to understand germline mutation rates at hypervariable loci in families residing in high level natural radiation areas of the world

  8. Examinations on Applications of Manual Calculation Programs on Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy Using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Dae Sup; Hong, Dong Ki; Back, Geum Mun; Kwak, Jung Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    There was a problem with using MU verification programs for the reasons that there were errors of MU when using MU verification programs based on Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) Algorithm with radiation treatment plans around lung using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA). On this study, we studied the methods that can verify the calculated treatment plans using AAA. Using Eclipse treatment planning system (Version 8.9, Varian, USA), for each 57 fields of 7 cases of Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT), we have calculated using PBC and AAA with dose calculation algorithm. By developing MU of established plans, we compared and analyzed with MU of manual calculation programs. We have analyzed relationship between errors and 4 variables such as field size, lung path distance of radiation, Tumor path distance of radiation, effective depth that can affect on errors created from PBC algorithm and AAA using commonly used programs. Errors of PBC algorithm have showned 0.2{+-}1.0% and errors of AAA have showned 3.5{+-}2.8%. Moreover, as a result of analyzing 4 variables that can affect on errors, relationship in errors between lung path distance and MU, connection coefficient 0.648 (P=0.000) has been increased and we could calculate MU correction factor that is A.E=L.P 0.00903+0.02048 and as a result of replying for manual calculation program, errors of 3.5{+-}2.8% before the application has been decreased within 0.4{+-}2.0%. On this study, we have learned that errors from manual calculation program have been increased as lung path distance of radiation increases and we could verified MU of AAA with a simple method that is called MU correction factor.

  9. Examinations on Applications of Manual Calculation Programs on Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy Using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Dae Sup; Hong, Dong Ki; Back, Geum Mun; Kwak, Jung Won

    2012-01-01

    There was a problem with using MU verification programs for the reasons that there were errors of MU when using MU verification programs based on Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) Algorithm with radiation treatment plans around lung using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA). On this study, we studied the methods that can verify the calculated treatment plans using AAA. Using Eclipse treatment planning system (Version 8.9, Varian, USA), for each 57 fields of 7 cases of Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT), we have calculated using PBC and AAA with dose calculation algorithm. By developing MU of established plans, we compared and analyzed with MU of manual calculation programs. We have analyzed relationship between errors and 4 variables such as field size, lung path distance of radiation, Tumor path distance of radiation, effective depth that can affect on errors created from PBC algorithm and AAA using commonly used programs. Errors of PBC algorithm have showned 0.2±1.0% and errors of AAA have showned 3.5±2.8%. Moreover, as a result of analyzing 4 variables that can affect on errors, relationship in errors between lung path distance and MU, connection coefficient 0.648 (P=0.000) has been increased and we could calculate MU correction factor that is A.E=L.P 0.00903+0.02048 and as a result of replying for manual calculation program, errors of 3.5±2.8% before the application has been decreased within 0.4±2.0%. On this study, we have learned that errors from manual calculation program have been increased as lung path distance of radiation increases and we could verified MU of AAA with a simple method that is called MU correction factor.

  10. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo; Ruby, Espejo Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied

  11. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, CP 04510 (Mexico); Ruby, Espejo Fonseca [Instituto de Enfermedades de la Mama FUCAM-AC, CP 04980 (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  12. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  13. 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Implementation Plan - Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepp, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    The 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Implementation Plan - Environmental Restoration Program (Implementation Plan) addresses approximately 700 soil waste sites (and associated structures such as pipelines) resulting from the discharge of liquids and solids from processing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs,burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program. The Implementation Plan outlines the framework for implementing assessment activities in the 200 Areas to ensure consistency in documentation, level of characterization, and decision making. The Implementation Plan also consolidates background information and other typical work plan materials, to serve as a single referenceable source for this type of information

  14. Skier and Snowboarder Motivations and Knowledge Related to Voluntary Environmental Programs at an Alpine Ski Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Needham, Mark D.

    2011-11-01

    Many alpine ski areas have recently adopted voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) such as using recycling, renewable energy, and biofuels to help reduce their environmental impacts. Studies have addressed the performance of these VEPs in mitigating environmental impacts of this industry, but little is known about visitor awareness and perceptions of these programs. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring skier and snowboarder knowledge of VEPs at a ski area and the influence of these programs on their motivations to visit this area currently and behavioral intentions to visit again in the future. Data were obtained from an onsite survey at the Mt. Bachelor ski area in Oregon, USA ( n = 429, 89.7% response rate). Few skiers and snowboarders were knowledgeable of VEPs at this area and fewer than 20% were motivated to visit on their current trip because of these programs. Other attributes such as scenery, snow conditions, and access were more important for influencing visitation. Up to 38% of skiers and snowboarders, however, intend to visit this ski area more often if it adopts and promotes more VEPs. Managers can use these results to inform communication and marketing of their environmental programs and performance to visitors. Additional implications for management and future research are discussed.

  15. Environmental radiation monitoring plan for depleted uranium and beryllium areas, Yuma Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    This Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan (ERM) discusses sampling soils, vegetation, and biota for depleted uranium (DU) and beryllium (Be) at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). The existing ERM plan was used and modified to more adequately assess the potential of DU and Be migration through the YPG ecosystem. The potential pathways for DU and Be migration are discussed and include soil to vegetation, soil to animals, vegetation to animals, animals to animals, and animals to man. Sample collection will show DU deposition and will be used to estimate DU migration. The number of samples from each area varies and depends on if the firing range of interest is currently used for DU testing (GP 17A) or if the range is not used currently for DU testing (GP 20). Twenty to thirty-five individual mammals or lizards will be sampled from each transect. Air samples and samples of dust in the air fall will be collected in three locations in the active ranges. Thirty to forty-five sediment samples will be collected from different locations in the arroys near the impact areas. DU and Be sampling in the Hard Impact and Soft Impact areas changed only slightly from the existing ERM. The modifications are changes in sample locations, addition of two sediment transport locations, addition of vegetation samples, mammal samples, and air sampling from three to five positions on the impact areas. Analysis of samples for DU or total U by inductively-coupled mass spectroscopy (ICP/MS), cc spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and kinetic phosphorimetric analysis (KPA) are discussed, and analysis for Be by ICP/MS are recommended. Acquiring total U (no isotope data) from a large number of samples and analysis of those samples with relatively high total U concentrations results in fewer isotopic identifications but more information on U distribution. From previous studies, total U concentrations greater than about 3 times natural background are usually DU by isotopic confirmation

  16. Gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversions in rats: A comparison of the protective effects of area postrema lesions with differing doses of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenkopp, K.P.; Giugno, L.

    1989-01-01

    Lesions which destroy the area postrema (AP) and damage the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) attenuate or abolish conditioned taste aversions (CTA) induced by a variety of pharmacological agents as well as exposure to radiation. In the present experiment, 4 groups of male rats received lesions of AP and 4 groups were given sham lesions. One sham-lesioned and one AP-lesioned group were given a single pairing of 1-hr access to a novel 0.10% sodium saccharin solution followed immediately with exposure to 0, 100, 200, or 400 rad of gamma radiation, respectively. Four days later all groups were given daily two-bottle preference tests (saccharin vs. water) on 4 consecutive days. The sham-lesioned groups exposed to the radiation (100, 200, or 400 rad) developed profound aversions to the saccharin on all test days (p less than 0.001). In contrast, all of the AP-lesioned groups as well as the sham-irradiated (0 rad) sham-lesioned group exhibited strong, comparable (p greater than 0.30) preferences for saccharin. Thus, lesion of AP abolished the radiation-induced CTA at all dose levels of radiation. These results raise the possibility of pharmacological intervention at the level of AP to prevent radiation-induced CTA in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

  17. National environmental radiation monitoring program: towards formulating policy on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukiman Sarmani

    2002-01-01

    Though Malaysia has no nuclear power station, but the management of its low level radioactive waste generated from industrial activities involves most of the same issues that must be considered in countries with nuclear power. These include public consultation at all stages, an open approach, high level scientific and engineering input and political decision by the Government. A carefully planned approach, which involves the public and gives time to build trust and confidence, is necessary for success. It is also pertinent to establish accurate and reliable data on environmental radiation to accurately assess possible risk. This is where a national monitoring program on environmental radiation is very important. While accurate data will help formulate sound policy on radioactive waste management, it should also be readily available to the public to gain support and acceptance. This paper presents arguments on the importance of a national monitoring program for environmental radiation as an input for formulating a policy on radioactive waste management in Malaysia. (Author)

  18. Medical program in radiation protection from the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. R.; Gisone, P.; Di Trano, J.L.; Dubner, D.L.; Michelin, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    This program is carried out by the Radio pathology Laboratory, belonging to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The program includes the following aspects: 1) planning and organization of medical response in radiological emergencies. A three-level system of medical assistance has been developed considering: a- determination of each level of care and their potential roles; b- choice of medical facilities for medical assistance; c- preparedness for medical response (equipment s, logistic support, human resources, training). 2) scientific research activities related to radio pathology subjects: a- hematological indicators in radioinduced aplasia; b- biological and biophysical dosimeters; c- radiation effects on the developing brain. 3) edition of practical guidelines for diagnostic and treatment: a- external and internal radioactive contamination; b- acute radiation syndrome; c- radiological burns. 4) medical advising in radioprotection (risk assessment in radiation workers, medical exposures, potential effects of prenatal irradiation). 5) international interactions: activities related with the constitution of a Latin American radio pathology network, linkage with international reference centers. (author) [es

  19. Users manual. Pursuit program of use licenses of radioactive material or generator equipment of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerril M, V.M.; Villarreal, J.E.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the program 'Databases for the pursuit of licenses of use of radioactive material', it consists on the application of a computer system carried out in dbase IV that it allows the control of the all the information related with those licenses for use, possession and storage of radioactive material or generator equipment of ionizing radiations. (Author)

  20. Program system for calculating streaming neutron radiation field in reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhongliang; Zhao Shu.

    1986-01-01

    The A23 neutron albedo data base based on Monte Carlo method well agrees with SAIL albedo data base. RSCAM program system, using Monte Carlo method with albedo approach, is used to calculate streaming neutron radiation field in reactor cavity and containment operating hall. The dose rate distributions calculated with RSCAM in square concrete duct well agree with experiments

  1. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

  2. Final results of the Cuban program for children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Julio; García, Omar

    2016-01-01

    From 1990 till 2011, a free health care program for children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident was organized and implemented by the Cuban Government. A significant number of qualified personal in medicine and science collaborated with this program. The information gathered for more than 21 years and the conclusive results obtained in the program are presented here. During this time, 26 114 patients, 84 % children, mostly from Ukraine, Russia and Belarus were treated in the mentioned program. Other aspects of the Cuban medical assistance in Ukraine and the main results obtained in the radiological impact evaluation of the accident on the children treated in Cuba are also included. (author)

  3. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivins, S.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)--(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years (CY) 1993--1996 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 93 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1997. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusions that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas

  4. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GA Stoetzel; SR Bivins

    1999-01-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-1997 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 97 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during calendar year 1998. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas

  5. Development of the image registration program for portal and DRR images in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takeshi; Nakazeko, Kazuma; Tachibana, Atsuhi; Hashimoto, Takeyuki; Shinohara, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose an image registration program of portal images and digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) images used as simulation images for external beam radiation therapy planning. First, the center of the radiation field in a portal image taken using a computed radiograhy cassette is matched to the center of the portal image. Then scale points projected on a DRR image and the portal image are deleted, and the portal image with the radiation field is extracted. Registration of the DRR and portal images is performed using mutual information as the registration criterion. It was found that the absolute displacement misregistrations in two directions (x, y) were 1.2±0.7 mm and 0.5±0.3 mm, respectively, and rotation disagreement about the z axis 0.3±0.3deg. It was concluded the proposed method was applicable to image registration of portal and DRR images in radiation therapy. (author)

  6. Technical critique on radiation test facilities for the CTR surface and materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1975-02-01

    Major radiation test facilities will be necessary in the near-term (5 years) and long-term (greater than 10 years) future for the timely development and understanding of fusion confinement systems and of prototype fusion power reactors. The study includes the technical justifications and requirements for CTR Neutron and Plasma Radiation Test Facilities. The initial technical critique covers the feasibility and design problems: in upgrading the performance of the accelerator-rotating (solid TiT) target systems, and in transforming the accelerator-supersonic jet target concept into a radiation testing facility. A scoping assessment on the potential of a pulsed high-beta plasma device (dense plasma focus) is introduced to explore plasma concepts as near-term neutron and plasma radiation sources for the CTR Surface and Materials Program. (U.S.)

  7. The emergency medical programs of japan and foreign countries for radiation accidents in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yoshiro

    1994-01-01

    In our country, the medical emergency programs for the people living near nuclear power stations are well organized, however, preparation of medical staffs who are well trained is considered to be not sufficient. In the USA, on call 24 hours response to a radiological emergency is provided and funded by Department of Energy(DOE) or electric companies. Especially, REAC/TS is a part of DOE response network, in which there are provided well-trained physicians, nurses, health physicists, coordinators and support personnels. In United Kingdom, National Radiological Protection Board(NRPB) is responsible to a radiological emergency program. Each nuclear power station has its own emergency program consisting of a team of physicians, nurses and health physicists. In France, French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is a responsible agency for a radiological emergency program. On call 24 hours response to a radiological emergency is provided in Fontenay-aux Roses Institute and Curie Institute. Curie Institute also responds to radiological emergencies in other countries at the request of WHO. In Germany(West Germany), compulsory assurance system covers a radiological emergency program and a radiological protection. There are seven centers in West Germany, in which well-trained medical staffs are provided against radiological injuries. In this report, I tried to propose a new concept about emergency medical programs for nuclear power station accidents in Japan. I think it is a very urgent theme to provide on call 24 hours radiological emergency program, in which patients suffered from acute radiation sickness with internal contamination or contaminated radiation burns will be treated without any trouble. We have to make our best efforts to complete basic or clinical research about radiation injuries including bone marrow transplantation, radioprotectors, chelating agents and radiation burns etc. (J.P.N.)

  8. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.

  9. Compression force and radiation dose in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waade, Gunvor G.; Sanderud, Audun [Department of Life Sciences and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, P.O. 4 St. Olavs Plass, 0130 Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, Solveig, E-mail: solveig.hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Department of Life Sciences and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, P.O. 4 St. Olavs Plass, 0130 Oslo (Norway); The Cancer Registry of Norway, P.O. 5313 Majorstuen, 0304 Oslo (Norway)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Compression force and radiation dose for 17 951 screening mammograms were analyzed. • Large variations in mean applied compression force between the breast centers. • Limited associations between compression force and radiation dose. - Abstract: Purpose: Compression force is used in mammography to reduce breast thickness and by that decrease radiation dose and improve image quality. There are no evidence-based recommendations regarding the optimal compression force. We analyzed compression force and radiation dose between screening centers in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), as a first step towards establishing evidence-based recommendations for compression force. Materials and methods: The study included information from 17 951 randomly selected screening examinations among women screened with equipment from four different venors at fourteen breast centers in the NBCSP, January-March 2014. We analyzed the applied compression force and radiation dose used on craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) view on left breast, by breast centers and vendors. Results: Mean compression force used in the screening program was 116N (CC: 108N, MLO: 125N). The maximum difference in mean compression force between the centers was 63N for CC and 57N for MLO. Mean radiation dose for each image was 1.09 mGy (CC: 1.04mGy, MLO: 1.14mGy), varying from 0.55 mGy to 1.31 mGy between the centers. Compression force alone had a negligible impact on radiation dose (r{sup 2} = 0.8%, p = < 0.001). Conclusion: We observed substantial variations in mean compression forces between the breast centers. Breast characteristics and differences in automated exposure control between vendors might explain the low association between compression force and radiation dose. Further knowledge about different automated exposure controls and the impact of compression force on dose and image quality is needed to establish individualised and evidence

  10. Radiation Dose Contribution To The Worker Health Level At Serpong Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuwono, Indro

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of internal and external radiation doses received for radiation and non-radiation workers of P2TBDU have been done. In the period of 1997/1998 and 1998/1999 there were no significant increasing level of radiation doses received that was 0.55 mSv and highest received radiation dose was 2.66% from dose limit value. Increasing of healthy difference on the same period was 5.76%. Increasing of healthy difference no cause by increasing of radiation dose received but maybe the food consumption design

  11. Reanalysis of noncancer deaths (1987-1995) among residents in high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianming; Zha Yongru; Sun Quanfu; Liu Yusheng; Li Jia; Tao Zufan; Wei Lvxin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To further analyze non-cancer mortality rates and relevant influencing factors among the residents in high background radiation area(HBRA) and its control area (CA). Methods: The data for the period 1987-1995 were obtained from a fixed cohort by prospective survey. The mortality investigation on the spot consisted of two steps, i.e. the follow-up of the cohort members and the ascertainment of causes of death. On the basis of the hamlet-specific average of annual external dose, the cohort members were classified into four groups for internal comparison: high, medial and low dose groups in HBRA and control group in CA. Relative risk (RR), excess relative risk(ERR/Sv) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using AMFIT program in Epicure. Results: During the period 1987-1995, the noncancer mortality in HBRA increased by 9% compared with that in the control group, and the relative risk of noncancer diseases was 1.09 (P=0.01), indicating a statistically significant excess mortality in the HBRA. The significantly increased noncancer death was caused by diseases of digestive system, with a RR of 1.46(P=0.006); the relative risk of chronic liver diseases including cirrhosis was 1.98(P=0.004). The significantly decreased noncancer death rates were observed for the infectious and parasitic diseases, the RR being 0.81(P=0.04); for pulmonary tuberculosis, RR 0.58(P<0.001). The homogeneity tests of risks across the four dose-groups revealed that the RRs for diseases of digestive system and for liver cirrhosis were significantly different, P values being 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. The ERR(95% CI)/Sv for diseases of digestive system and liver cirrhosis were 2.18(0.22, 7.64) and 10.94(1.34, NA), respectively. Conclusion: The death rates from diseases of digestive system, especially chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis were statistically significantly higher, and that from pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly lower in the HBRA than those in the control

  12. Nutrition status in residents in the high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Shujie; Li Xiaojuan; Sun Quanfu; Wei Lvxin; Gen Jiwu; Wen Cuiju; Tan Huizhen; Zou Jianmin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the current status of nutrition and examine the difference between inhabitants in the high background radiation area (HBRA) and the control area (CA). Methods: Sixty and sixty-five male farmers aged 50 and over were randomly selected from HBRA and CA, respectively. Information on dwelling history, history of disease, medical treatment and X-ray examination were collected by interview. Body height and weight were measured, and BMIs were calculated. Serum levels of total protein, albumin and globulin, triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apo A1 and Apo B were measured. Results: There was difference in BMI distribution between the two groups. Averages of total biochemistry indexes measured were in normal range in the two groups. With adjustment to age distribution, the serum levels of total protein, albumin and triacylglycerol (TG) of residents in CA were higher than those in HBRA; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was higher in HBRA than that in CA. Conclusions: This serum assay of nutrients in HBRA and CA residents confirmed the results obtained from previous surveys. Both HBRA and CA residents have similar nutrition status, residents in CA consumed more animal protein and fat compared with those in HBRA. (authors)

  13. Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Joshua; Kadlec, Emil A.; Jarecki, Robert L.; Starbuck, Andrew; Howell, Stephen; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul S.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical power generation from a moderate-temperature thermal source by means of direct conversion of infrared radiation is important and highly desirable for energy harvesting from waste heat and micropower applications. Here, we demonstrate direct rectified power generation from an unbiased large-area nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diode rectifier called a rectenna. Using a vacuum radiometric measurement technique with irradiation from a temperature-stabilized thermal source, a generated power density of 8 nW /cm2 is observed at a source temperature of 450 °C for the unbiased rectenna across an optimized load resistance. The optimized load resistance for the peak power generation for each temperature coincides with the tunnel diode resistance at zero bias and corresponds to the impedance matching condition for a rectifying antenna. Current-voltage measurements of a thermally illuminated large-area rectenna show current zero crossing shifts into the second quadrant indicating rectification. Photon-assisted tunneling in the unbiased rectenna is modeled as the mechanism for the large short-circuit photocurrents observed where the photon energy serves as an effective bias across the tunnel junction. The measured current and voltage across the load resistor as a function of the thermal source temperature represents direct current electrical power generation.

  14. A research program on radiative transfer model development in support of the ARM program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to develop radiative transfer models that are consistent with ARM spectral radiance measurements for clear and cloudy atmospheres. Our approach is to develop the model physics and related databases with a line-by-line model in the context of available spectral radiance measurements. The line-by-line model then functions as an intermediate standard to both develop and validate rapid radiative transfer models appropriate to GCM applications. A preprint of an extended abstract for the 1994 AMS volume describing a Quality Measurement Experiment using the ARM spectral data is included as an attachment

  15. 77 FR 69651 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent Demonstration Program Participants... Authorities (PHAs) participating in the Small Area FMR Demonstration. SUMMARY: Section 8(c)(1) of the United... Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program for those PHAs selected to participate in the Small Area FMR...

  16. PUMN: a radiation damage simulation computer program for the WINERY system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuspa, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The WINERY Radiation Damage Computer Simulation System will attempt to solve the entire radiation damage problem from the incident radiation to the property changes which occur in the material, using a set of interrelated computer programs. Computer simulation may be indispensable to the study of the radiation damage to materials in breeder and fusion reactors. WINERY is introduced with this work, and one portion of the system, the PUMN program, is developed and used to obtain important radiation damage results with Fe 3 Al crystal. PUMN is a program which simulates the response of the atoms in a crystal to a knock-on atom. It yields the damage configuration of the crystal by considering the dynamic interaction of all the atoms of the computational cell, up to 1000 atoms. The trajectories of the atoms are calculated using the Nordsieck Method, which has a prediction step based upon Taylor series expansions of the position and its first five time derivatives, and has a correction sequence which uses coefficients which have been optimized for efficiency and accuracy. Other features, such as restart files, automatic time step control, and crystal extension, make PUMN a versatile program which can simulate cases of relatively high knock-on energy, at least up to 500 eV. The PUMN program provides the WINERY system with results for the number of displacements, N/sub d/, due to knock-on atoms with various energies. This study dealt exclusively with Fe 3 Al. The values of N/sub d/ for Fe 3 Al were obtained at two different energies, 100 eV and 500 eV, for a variety of initial directions

  17. Radioecology teaching: evaluation of the background radiation levels from areas with high concentrations of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R M; Okuno, E; Gomes, P R S; Veiga, R; Estellita, L; Mangia, L; Uzeda, D; Soares, T; Facure, A; Brage, J A P; Mosquera, B; Carvalho, C; Santos, A M A

    2004-01-01

    The study of environmental radioactivity is a topic which is not usually included in physics courses in Brazilian and Latin American universities. Consequently, high-school teachers are not able to show experimentally or discuss with their students the effects of exposure to terrestrial radiation. This paper presents a laboratory experiment in a teaching programme on the physics of ionizing radiation. It is based on the evaluation of the background radiation levels from areas with high concentrations of natural or artificial radionuclides in the soil. A brief analysis of the theory behind the technique and a description of some measurements, including their interpretations, are presented

  18. Performance evaluation of the conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection in the small industrial gauges and industrial radiography areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joyra Amaral dos

    1999-08-01

    This works evaluates by punctuation the performance in conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection area which make use of small industrial gauges and industrial radiography. It proposes, procedures for industry self-evaluation, besides a new radiation protection plans pattern for the small industrial gauges area. The data source where inspection reports of Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute/Nuclear Energy Commission conventional Brazilian industries' radiation protection plans, beyond visitation to the inspection place. The performance evaluation has been realized both in the administrative and operational aspects of the industries. About of 60% of the industries have a satisfactory register control which does not happen to the operational control. The performance evaluation advantage is that industries may self-evaluate, foreseeing Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute's regulation inspections, correcting its irregularities, automatically improving its services. The number of industries which have obtained satisfactory performance in both areas is below 70%, both in administrative and operational aspects. Such number can be considered a low one as it is radiation protection. The procedures propose in this work aim to improve such a situation. (author)

  19. Non-cancer disease mortality among inhabitants in the high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China (1979-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Quanfu; Akiba, Suminori; Zou Jianming

    2008-01-01

    Much is still unknown about the health effects of low-level radiation on human health, particularly on the risk of non-cancer diseases. A review by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) scientists has concluded that the association of atomic-bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is almost certain since the relationship was shown by incidence and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis. In addition to the studies of atomic bomb survivors, the association of CVD with radiation exposure was observed in several other studies, including the follow-up study of patients treated for Hodgkin lymphoma, ankylosing spondilitis, peptic ulcer and scoliosis as well as nuclear workers. The inhabitants in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang, Guangdong Province, China receive the external radiation doses of 1.33 mSv in excess every year, mainly from exposure to terrestrial gamma ray, when compared to the residents in the neighboring control area (CA). Our most recent analysis of cancer mortality among residents in the HBRA and the CA showed no evident difference between the two areas. It should be of note that the crude cancer mortality rate in the study population was 60/100,000 person-years, which is much lower than cancer mortality in developed countries. On the other hand, non cancer deaths accounted for 90% of all deaths. In this report, we present the results of mortality analysis for non-cancer diseases during the period 1979-1998. (author)

  20. Program description of FIBRAM: a radiation attenuation model for optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, W.J.

    1987-06-01

    The report describes a fiber optics system model and its computer implementation. This implementation can calculate the bit error ratio (BER) versus time for optical fibers that have been exposed to gamma radiation. The program is designed so that the user may arbitrarily change any or all of the system input variables and produce separate output calculations. The primary output of the program is a table of the BER as a function of time. This table may be stored on magnetic media and later incorporated into computer graphics programs

  1. Comparison of the results of radiation transport calculation obtained by means of different programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatkov, D.V.; Kruchkov, V.P.

    1995-01-01

    Verification of calculational results of radiation transport, obtained by the known, programs and constant libraries (MCNP+ENDF/B, ANISN+HILO, FLUKA92) by means of their comparison with the precision results calculations through ROZ-6N+Sadko program constant complex and with experimental data, is carried out. Satisfactory agreement is shown with the MCNP+ENDF/B package data for the energy range of E<14 MeV. Analysis of the results derivations, obtained trough the ANISN-HILO package for E<400 MeV and the FLUKA92 programs of E<200 GeV is carried out. 25 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  2. The situation of radiation oncology training programs and their graduates in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crewson, Philip E.; Sunshine, Jonathan H.; Schepps, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: In light of concerns about the job market, the American College of Radiology (ACR) studied the employment situation of 1997 radiation oncology graduates, and the status and plans of radiation oncology training programs. Methods and Materials: In April-May 1997, and in a December follow-up, the ACR surveyed all radiation oncology residency directors about the employment situation of their 1997 residency and fellowship graduates and about their programs. Ninety-four percent of those surveyed responded. We compared findings with surveys from 1995 and 1996. Differences were assessed with p ≤ 0.05 as the test of statistical significance. Results: By six months after graduation, 98% of residency graduates and all fellowship graduates were employed. Program directors reported approximately 95% of graduates had positions that reasonably matched their training and personal employment goals. Programs have reduced beginning residency slots by 22% over the past three years, and further reductions are planned. Many observers were disappointed with fill rates in the 1997 National Match, but by the December follow-up, 96% of beginning-year residency slots were filled. Conclusion: Unemployment continues to be low, and one 'softer' indicator, the job market perceptions of residency program directors, showed improvement

  3. Cost avoidance techniques through the Fernald controlled area trash segregation program and the RIMIA solid waste reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menche, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a Department of Energy owned facility that produced high quality uranium metals for military defense. The Fernald mission has changed from one of production to remediation. Remediation is intended to clean up legacy (primary) waste from past practices. Little opportunity is available to reduce the amount of primary waste. However, there is an opportunity to reduce secondary waste generation, primarily through segregation. Two programs which accomplish this are the Controlled Area Trash Segregation Program and the RIMIA Solid Waste Reduction Program. With these two programs now in place at the FEMP, it has been estimated that a 60% reduction has been achieved in unnecessary clean waste being disposed as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site. The cost savings associated with these programs (currently 79,000 cubic feet, $428,000) could easily run into the millions of dollars based on the upcoming restoration activities to be undertaken. The segregation of non-radiological waste in the radiologically Controlled Area not only establishes a firm commitment to send only low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site, but also results in substantial cost avoidance

  4. Area program in population genetics. Final report, November 1, 1975-August 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, E.H.Y.; Gershowitz, H.; Meisler, M.H.; Mohrenweiser, H.W.; Neel, J.V.; Rothman, E.D.; Sing, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Research results are summarized for the following task areas: (1) Amerindian mutation rates; (2) pilot study of monitoring populations for the frequency of mutation; (3) interdigitation with the biochemical genetics study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (Hiroshima, Japan); (4) intraindividual variation in erythrocyte blood group antigens as indicators of somatic mutation; (5) in vitro studies of somatic cell mutation rates; (6) development of approaches to the study of mutation rates; and (7) statistical problems associated with the study of mutation and selection

  5. Integrity of the National Resident Matching Program for Radiation Oncology: National Survey of Applicant Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Charles R., E-mail: thomasch@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, OHSU Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kusano, Aaron S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of radiation oncology applicants and to evaluate the prevalence of behaviors that may be in conflict with established ethical standards. Methods and Materials: An anonymous survey was sent to all 2013 applicants to a single domestic radiation oncology residency program through the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP). Questions included demographics, survey of observed behaviors, and opinions regarding the interview and matching process. Descriptive statistics were presented. Characteristics and experiences of respondents who matched were compared with those who did not match. Results: Questionnaires were returned by 87 of 171 applicants for a 51% response rate. Eighty-two questionnaires were complete and included for analysis. Seventy-eight respondents (95.1%) reported being asked at least 1 question in conflict with the NRMP code of conduct. When asked where else they were interviewing, 64% stated that this query made them uncomfortable. Forty-five respondents (54.9%) reported unsolicited post-interview contact by programs, and 31 (37.8%) felt pressured to give assurances. Fifteen respondents (18.3%) reported being told their rank position or that they were “ranked to match” prior to Match day, with 27% of those individuals indicating this information influenced how they ranked programs. Half of respondents felt applicants often made dishonest or misleading assurances, one-third reported that they believed their desired match outcome could be improved by deliberately misleading programs, and more than two-thirds felt their rank position could be improved by having faculty from their home institutions directly contact programs on their behalf. Conclusions: Radiation oncology applicants report a high prevalence of behaviors in conflict with written NRMP policies. Post-interview communication should be discouraged in order to enhance fairness and support the professional development of future

  6. Integrity of the National Resident Matching Program for Radiation Oncology: National Survey of Applicant Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, Emma B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Kusano, Aaron S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of radiation oncology applicants and to evaluate the prevalence of behaviors that may be in conflict with established ethical standards. Methods and Materials: An anonymous survey was sent to all 2013 applicants to a single domestic radiation oncology residency program through the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP). Questions included demographics, survey of observed behaviors, and opinions regarding the interview and matching process. Descriptive statistics were presented. Characteristics and experiences of respondents who matched were compared with those who did not match. Results: Questionnaires were returned by 87 of 171 applicants for a 51% response rate. Eighty-two questionnaires were complete and included for analysis. Seventy-eight respondents (95.1%) reported being asked at least 1 question in conflict with the NRMP code of conduct. When asked where else they were interviewing, 64% stated that this query made them uncomfortable. Forty-five respondents (54.9%) reported unsolicited post-interview contact by programs, and 31 (37.8%) felt pressured to give assurances. Fifteen respondents (18.3%) reported being told their rank position or that they were “ranked to match” prior to Match day, with 27% of those individuals indicating this information influenced how they ranked programs. Half of respondents felt applicants often made dishonest or misleading assurances, one-third reported that they believed their desired match outcome could be improved by deliberately misleading programs, and more than two-thirds felt their rank position could be improved by having faculty from their home institutions directly contact programs on their behalf. Conclusions: Radiation oncology applicants report a high prevalence of behaviors in conflict with written NRMP policies. Post-interview communication should be discouraged in order to enhance fairness and support the professional development of future

  7. Development of a residency program in radiation oncology physics: an inverse planning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rao F H; Dunscombe, Peter B

    2016-03-08

    Over the last two decades, there has been a concerted effort in North America to organize medical physicists' clinical training programs along more structured and formal lines. This effort has been prompted by the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP) which has now accredited about 90 residency programs. Initially the accreditation focused on standardized and higher quality clinical physics training; the development of rounded professionals who can function at a high level in a multidisciplinary environment was recognized as a priority of a radiation oncology physics residency only lately. In this report, we identify and discuss the implementation of, and the essential components of, a radiation oncology physics residency designed to produce knowledgeable and effective clinical physicists for today's safety-conscious and collaborative work environment. Our approach is that of inverse planning, by now familiar to all radiation oncology physicists, in which objectives and constraints are identified prior to the design of the program. Our inverse planning objectives not only include those associated with traditional residencies (i.e., clinical physics knowledge and critical clinical skills), but also encompass those other attributes essential for success in a modern radiation therapy clinic. These attributes include formal training in management skills and leadership, teaching and communication skills, and knowledge of error management techniques and patient safety. The constraints in our optimization exercise are associated with the limited duration of a residency and the training resources available. Without compromising the knowledge and skills needed for clinical tasks, we have successfully applied the model to the University of Calgary's two-year residency program. The program requires 3840 hours of overall commitment from the trainee, of which 7%-10% is spent in obtaining formal training in nontechnical "soft skills".

  8. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deva Jayanthi, D., E-mail: d.devajayanthi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629001 (India); Maniyan, C.G. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Perumal, S. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: {yields} The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. {yields} The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. {yields} As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. {yields} Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. {yields} These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  9. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C.G.; Perumal, S.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: → The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. → The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. → As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. → Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. → These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  10. Complex of programs for calculating radiation fields outside plane protecting shields, bombarded by high-energy nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, E.K.; Man'ko, B.V.; Serov, A.Ya.; Sychev, B.S.

    1979-01-01

    A complex of programs for modelling various radiation situations at high energy proton accelerators is considered. The programs are divided into there main groups according to their purposes. The first group includes programs for preparing constants describing the processes of different particle interaction with a substanc The second group of programs calculates the complete function of particle distribution arising in shields under irradiation by high energy nucleons. Concrete radiation situations arising at high energy proton accelerators are calculated by means of the programs of the third group. A list of programs as well as their short characteristic are given

  11. Impact of the probability of causation on the radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    Although the probability of causation approach is the only scientific basis on which a given cancer can be judged to be causally related to a given exposure, the impact of this concept on the radiation safety program could be counter-productive. As health physicists, the practices and the concepts we employ have been developed to protect the worker. Effective dose equivalent and committed dose equivalent are protective concepts but useless for probability of causation analysis. Perhaps extensive records will be the only way that good radiation protection and probability of causation analysis can coexist

  12. 75 FR 27808 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Voucher Program--Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in Certain Metropolitan Areas for.... ACTION: Notice of Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents (FMRs) in Selected Metropolitan... topics related to small area FMRs, including how these small areas should be defined. Small area FMRs...

  13. A program to compute the area of an irregular polygon on a spheroidal surface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivakholundu, K.M.; Prabaharan, N.

    (MATLAB). Short Note824 lar shapes. The analytical integrations were carried out with the software package MATLAB on a SUN workstation. The comparisons were made to check: 1. The eC128ect of varying strip width for integration. 2. Variation of accuracy... this program can be used to calculate the area on the spheroidal surface for irregular shapes without losing accuracy. REFERENCES Bomford, G. (1977) Geodesy. Oxford University Press, 731 pp. Larkin, B. J. (1988) A FORTRAN 77 program to calcu- late areas...

  14. Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: Radiation exposure and remediation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P., E-mail: Jacob@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Bogdevitch, I. [Scientific Research State Enterprise ' Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry' , Minsk (Belarus); Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Grebenshikova, N. [Institute of Radiology, Gomel (Belarus); Isamov, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lazarev, N. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine); Panov, A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Ulanovsky, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Zhuchenko, Y. [Institute of Radiology, Gomel (Belarus); Zhurba, M. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine)

    2009-12-15

    Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of

  15. Analysis of data (1987-1995) from investigation of cancer mortality in high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Akiba, S.; Zha Yongru

    1999-01-01

    Objective: This investigation is a special project of High Background Radiation Research Group. The objective of the cancer mortality study in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang, China, which was started in 1972, was to estimate cancer risk associated with the low level radiation exposure of average annual effective dose of 6.4 mSv in HBRA. Since 1991, the study has been conducted collaboratively by Chinese and Japanese scientists with the purpose of accumulating further person years (Pyr) of observation for improving the statistical precision and seeing the reproducibility of the previous results. Methods: The cancer mortality data of 1987-1995 covered in the current cooperative study were collected by a retrospective and/or prospective survey from a fixed cohort. The mortality investigation on the spot consisted of two steps, i.e. the follow-up of members in the cohort and the ascertainment of the death causes. Based on the hamlet-specific average annual external dose, the members of the cohort in HBRA were classified into three groups: high, medial and low dose groups. Risk comparisons between each of the three dose groups with the control group from control area (CA) were conducted by means of relative risk (RR). The RR and the excess relative risk coefficient (ERR per sievert) and their y 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using AMFIT program in Epicure. Results: During the period 1987-1995, there were 5161 total deaths and 557 cancer deaths among 926238 Pyr at risk in the cohort of 106517 subjects. The RR (95% CI) adjusted for sex and age group for all cancers of whole HBRA was 0.96 (0.80-1.15). As for the site-specific cancer of whole HBRA, the RRs for leukemia, cancers of nasopharynx, esophagus and intestine were larger than one, while the RRs for cancers of stomach, liver, lungs, female breast, thyroid and lymphoma were less than one. However, all of them were not statistically different from one (P>0.05 for all). The

  16. The Very High Background Radiation Area in Ramsar, Iran: Public Health Risk or Signal for a Regulatory Paradigm Shift?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P. Andrew [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Mortazavi, S.M. Javad [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Medical Physics Dept.

    2001-07-01

    Ramsar, a city on the Caspian Sea in northern Iran hosts the highest measured natural background radiation levels in the world. These are due to the local geology and hydrogeology and, in some places, deliver radiation doses far in excess of those recommended for radiation workers. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy/yr and the highest recorded doses are about 260 mGy/yr. These high radiation levels are due to the deposition of {sup 226}Ra in local rocks and, because these rocks are used in the construction of many local houses, interior radiation levels are often similar to those found outside. The presence of areas such as Ramsar raises an interesting public health policy question: Is it necessary to relocate the inhabitants to areas of lower natural background radiation levels in the interests of public health? According to the linear, no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, there is no doubt that relocating the population of Ramsar will result in a reduction in cancer incidence. Therefore, under any reasonable policy based on the LNT hypothesis, the public health is best served by relocating many of Ramsar's inhabitants to other areas along the Caspian Sea. At present, there is no reliable epidemiological data on cancer incidence among the inhabitants of Ramsar's high background radiation areas (HBRAs), but local physicians feel that local cancer incidence rates are lower than in neighboring cities. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that there is a statistically significant radio adaptation in the inhabitants of Ramsar. Interestingly, it seems that the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of the inhabitants of Ramsar is no higher than the control areas. This important finding suggests that the cancer rate in Ramsar should be no higher than in other comparable parts of Iran. In other HBRAs such as Yangjiang, China it has been reported that mortality from all cancers and those from

  17. The Very High Background Radiation Area in Ramsar, Iran: Public Health Risk or Signal for a Regulatory Paradigm Shift?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, P. Andrew; Mortazavi, S.M. Javad

    2001-01-01

    Ramsar, a city on the Caspian Sea in northern Iran hosts the highest measured natural background radiation levels in the world. These are due to the local geology and hydrogeology and, in some places, deliver radiation doses far in excess of those recommended for radiation workers. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy/yr and the highest recorded doses are about 260 mGy/yr. These high radiation levels are due to the deposition of 226 Ra in local rocks and, because these rocks are used in the construction of many local houses, interior radiation levels are often similar to those found outside. The presence of areas such as Ramsar raises an interesting public health policy question: Is it necessary to relocate the inhabitants to areas of lower natural background radiation levels in the interests of public health? According to the linear, no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, there is no doubt that relocating the population of Ramsar will result in a reduction in cancer incidence. Therefore, under any reasonable policy based on the LNT hypothesis, the public health is best served by relocating many of Ramsar's inhabitants to other areas along the Caspian Sea. At present, there is no reliable epidemiological data on cancer incidence among the inhabitants of Ramsar's high background radiation areas (HBRAs), but local physicians feel that local cancer incidence rates are lower than in neighboring cities. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that there is a statistically significant radio adaptation in the inhabitants of Ramsar. Interestingly, it seems that the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of the inhabitants of Ramsar is no higher than the control areas. This important finding suggests that the cancer rate in Ramsar should be no higher than in other comparable parts of Iran. In other HBRAs such as Yangjiang, China it has been reported that mortality from all cancers and those from leukemia, breast and

  18. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radiation Control Program - Partners in Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S. L.; Stafford, M. W.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Management and Integration (M and I) contract for all five of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a world renowned national laboratory and research and development facility, the BJC mission involves executing the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. In addition to BJC's M and I contract, UT-Battelle, LLC, a not-for-profit company, is the Management and Operating (M and O) contractor for DOE on the ORNL site. As part of ORNL's EM program, legacy inactive facilities (i.e., reactors, nuclear material research facilities, burial grounds, and underground storage tanks) are transferred to BJC and are designated as remediation, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), or long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M) facilities. Facilities operated by both UT-Battelle and BJC are interspersed throughout the site and are usually in close proximity. Both UT-Battelle and BJC have DOE-approved Radiation Protection Programs established in accordance with 10 CFR 835. The BJC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program adapts to the M and I framework and is comprised of a combination of subcontracted program responsibilities with BJC oversight. This paper focuses on the successes and challenges of executing the BJC RADCON Program for BJC's ORNL Project through a joint M and I contractor relationship, while maintaining a positive working relationship and partnership with UT-Battelle's Radiation Protection organization

  19. Development of a Community Radiation Monitoring program near a nuclear industrial facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauley, B.J.; Maxwell, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring (ComRad) program is a cooperative effort of the DOE, Rocky Flats Office (RFO), EG ampersand G, and surrounding communities. The intent of the ComRad program is to establish radiation and meteorological monitoring stations in the communities for their independent control and use. The primary objectives of the ComRad program are to provide (1) public education, (2) active participation of the public, and (3) better community relations. The ComRad program involves establishing new offsite environmental surveillance stations to be operated and managed by local community science teachers. The general public will be invited to inspect the air quality instrumentation and results displayed. The instrumentation for each station will include a gamma counter, weather station, high-volume (Hi-Vol) air sampler, and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). The purpose of this paper is to describe the operation of the ComRad program emphasizing program objectives, organizational responsibility, participation by community technical representatives, station managers and alternate station managers training, and data dissemination to the public

  20. The NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation environment model program, 1964 - 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vette, J.I.

    1991-11-01

    The major effort that NASA, initially with the help of the United States Air Force (USAF), carried out for 27 years to synthesize the experimental and theoretical results of space research related to energetic charged particles into a quantitative description of the terrestrial trapped radiation environment in the form of model environments is detailed. The effort is called the Trapped Radiation Environment Modeling Program (TREMP). In chapter 2 the historical background leading to the establishment of this program is given. Also, the purpose of this modeling program as established by the founders of the program is discussed. This is followed in chapter 3 by the philosophy and approach that was applied in this program throughout its lifetime. As will be seen, this philosophy led to the continuation of the program long after it would have expired. The highlights of the accomplishments are presented in chapter 4. A view to future possible efforts in this arena is given in chapter 5, mainly to pass on to future workers the differences that are perceived from these many years of experience. Chapter 6 is an appendix that details the chronology of the development of TREMP. Finally, the references, which document the work accomplished over these years, are presented in chapter 7