WorldWideScience

Sample records for program area radiation

  1. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  2. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S Y; Napier, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 5 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The Committee completed a number of reports in these subject areas, most recently NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. Historically this Committee addressed emerging issues of the nation pertaining to radioactivity or radiation in the environment or radioactive waste issues due either to natural origins or to manmade activities.

  3. ERLN Radiation Focus Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Environmental Response Laboratory Network, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) here provides your laboratory with access to radiation-specific laboratory guidance documents and training courses.

  4. Radiation area monitor device and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vencelj, Matjaz; Stowe, Ashley C.; Petrovic, Toni; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Kosicek, Andrej

    2018-01-30

    A radiation area monitor device/method, utilizing: a radiation sensor; a rotating radiation shield disposed about the radiation sensor, wherein the rotating radiation shield defines one or more ports that are transparent to radiation; and a processor operable for analyzing and storing a radiation fingerprint acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor. Optionally, the radiation sensor includes a gamma and/or neutron radiation sensor. The device/method selectively operates in: a first supervised mode during which a baseline radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor; and a second unsupervised mode during which a subsequent radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor, wherein the subsequent radiation fingerprint is compared to the baseline radiation fingerprint and, if a predetermined difference threshold is exceeded, an alert is issued.

  5. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program business model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W; Hatchett, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a "virtual pharmaceutical firm," coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies.

  6. The NASA Radiation Health Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Schimmerling, W.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program for determining the impact of cosmic radiation on health is described in terms of its long-term goal of reducing the uncertainty of radiation-model prediction to +/- 25 percent by 2010. The Space Radiation Health Program (SRHP) is intended to address fundamental issues for establishing a scientific basis for human radiation protection: (1) the prediction of the probability of biological effects from radiation; (2) the reduction of uncertainty in predicted highly charged energetic particles; and (3) the characterization of background flux from Galactic cosmic rays. Another key objective is to develop related technologies for ground- and space-based solar monitoring to predict events involving solar energetic particles. Although substantial uncertainties are involved in the prediction of such events, the SRHP is essential for determining crucial variables related to launching mass and humans into orbit.

  7. Space radiation health program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

  8. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables.

  9. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KURTZ, J.E.

    2000-05-10

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, and radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  10. Controlled platform for the radiation dose data measured in Radiation controlled area of KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Kyun; Min, Yi Sub; Park, Jeong Min; Cho, Yong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC), the branch institute of Korea atomic energy research institute (KAERI), is a multi-user facility to provide a high-intensity proton beam with the energy from 20 MeV to the 100 MeV. This proton beam is accelerated via the proton linear accelerator that is comprised of a 50-keV injector, 3-MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and 100-MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The KOMAC site is classified into General public area and Radiation controlled area, according to the dose rate of 0.25 μSv/h. The system for the data made in Radiation controlled area should have the database to save and the data in the database could be expressed on the monitor in the any form which user wants. The control platform to satisfy these conditions will be made on the basis of the Qt program and MYSQL program. The place with the maximum average values about the alpha and beta detected is the entrance of Radiation controlled area. However, their values are very small in comparison to the criteria to decide the contamination area in KOMAC. That is, KOMAC is safe from the radioactive contamination. The reason why the radiation dose value is twice the background value in Klystron gallery is the klystron to generate the radiation. However, actually the klystron gallery is controlled by the control room when the proton beam is accelerated.

  11. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, W.; Sulzman, F. M.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Health Program is a part of the Life Sciences Division in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA). The goal of the Space Radiation Health Program is development of scientific bases for assuring adequate radiation protection in space. A proposed research program will determine long-term health risks from exposure to cosmic rays and other radiation. Ground-based animal models will be used to predict risk of exposures at varying levels from various sources and the safe levels for manned space flight.

  12. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, J R

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  13. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  14. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELGIN, J.C.

    2000-10-02

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD), and radiation surveys of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  15. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and implement a radiation protection program commensurate...

  16. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  17. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  18. Director of Program Area | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary The Director of a Program Area is accountable to the Vice President of the Program and Partnership Branch for providing strategic intelligence, intellectual leadership and the overall management of the Program Areas personnel (20-35 staff per Program Area).

  19. Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement (ASARM); Sistema Automatizado de Medicion de Radiacion de Area (SAMRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez G, J., E-mail: jaime.hernandez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The realized activities in nuclear facilities involve the determination of the presence of ionizing radiation fields in the workspaces. The instruments designed to detect and to measure these radiation fields provide useful information (specific type of radiation, intensity, etc.) to take the appropriate radiological protection measures, with the purpose of reducing to the minimum the workers exposition and the people in general. The radiological protection program of Reactor TRIGA Mark III contains the instructions and procedures to implement a periodic radiological monitoring, surveillance, rising of contamination levels, type and number of the instruments required for the radiological monitoring of areas and personal. The ana logical monitoring system model Rms II used to detect and measuring exposition speed and neutron radiation fields in several areas of the installation, provides the information in a logarithmic scale measurer of 4 or 5 decades located in a shelf where the previously mentioned measurement channels are centralized. Also inside the reactor monitoring system are two monitors of radioactive material concentration in the air: The particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents monitor which present the referred information of the diverse detectors through ana logical readers. These monitors when operating with an ana logical indication does not present the possibility to generate historical files electronically of each monitor previously mentioned neither to generate visual and audible indications of the alarms. This work presents the Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement which potentiated the functionality of the area monitors for gamma and neutron radiation, as well as of the particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents of reactor TRIGA Mark III, when being developed a computer system that captures in real time the information of all the monitors, generating this way an electronic binnacle, a visual and audible alarm

  20. Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. proposes the Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) as an innovative approach enabling radiobiologists to investigate the...

  1. Advanced Survivable Radiator Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    point that it was easily peeled off. When the material was peeled away up to the area protected by the attachment method, the adhesion was sufficient...NOTE: A special braiding package of I.D. 5/8", length 4-1/4" with a straight or pineapple build is available, with a net yarn weight of either 1/8

  2. Background radiation study of Offa industrial area of Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the external background radiation in Offa industrial area of Kwara State is hereby reported. An in-situ measurement using two Digilert radiation monitors at five different stations were carried out. A mean exposure rate of 0.0132mR/hr, which represents 20% elevation from the standard background radiation, was ...

  3. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the radiation protection program, including: (1) The...

  4. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with a documented radiation protection program (RPP) a...

  5. Cooperative Radiation Effects Simulation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-16

    nucleation and growth of voids were enhaced or unaffected. Only in the Ni-Si alloy, in which the void size was smaller than the pure nickel control, is...dense internal damage structures developed in both the alpha and beta phases. Due to imaging difficulties, caused by the size and shape of the beta...are illustrated in Fig. 8, a bright field-dark field series from one area of the specimen. The bright field micrograph, Fig. 8(a), imaged some large

  6. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) survey of radiation biology educators in U.S. and Canadian radiation oncology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Barry S; Held, Kathryn D; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P; Zeman, Elaine M

    2009-11-01

    To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  7. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  8. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without Commission approval if— (1)...

  9. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional radiolo- gists, radiographers and nurses ...

  10. Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Mayeaux, B M.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, the SRPE has recently released the Space Radiation Tissue Sharing Forum. The Forum provides access to an inventory of investigator-stored tissue samples and enables both NASA SRPE members and NASA-funded investigators to exchange information regarding stored and future radiobiological tissues available for sharing. Registered users may review online data of available tissues, inquire about tissues posted, or request tissues for an upcoming study using an online form. Investigators who have upcoming sacrifices are also encouraged to post the availability of samples using the discussion forum. A brief demo of the forum will be given during the presentation

  11. Forms for Documenting Radiation Safety Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    YES [JNO [0 EXEMPT [J WHITE -1 0I YELLOWIl II YELLOW.- I Il ’pC ACTIVITY AMOUNT 0. TRANSPORTAION INDEX E. TYPE ISOTOPE AL. FPACKAGE RADIATION LEVELS G...disconnection to high 2 Each access panel has at least one safety interlock - 3 X rays cannot be resumed except by initialing control(s) (Not safety interlock...adequate inyworkplaces where? sources were used’I a Wei e facilities coiifigured as r equir ed’ 10CFR30 34 b Was access to radiationisource storage areas

  12. Northeastern Area Forest Legacy Program Yearbook 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) is to protect environmentally important forest areas that are threatened by conversion to nonforest uses. The Forest Legacy Program is a partnership between participating States and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These two entities work together to identify important forest lands and...

  13. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassompierre, G.; Bermond, M.; Berthet, M.; Bertozzi, T.; Détraz, C.; Dubois, J.-M.; Dumps, L.; Engster, C.; Fazio, T.; Gaillard, G.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gouanère, M.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Mossuz, L.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Nédélec, P.; Palazzini, E.; Pessard, H.; Petit, P.; Petitpas, P.; Placci, A.; Sillou, D.; Sottile, R.; Valuev, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vey, H.; Wachnik, M.

    1998-02-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  14. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bassompierre, Gabriel; Berthet, M; Bertozzi, T; Détraz, C; Dubois, J M; Dumps, Ludwig; Engster, Claude; Fazio, T; Gaillard, G; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gouanère, M; Manola-Poggioli, E; Mossuz, L; Mendiburu, J P; Nédélec, P; Palazzini, E; Pessard, H; Petit, P; Petitpas, P; Placci, Alfredo; Sillou, D; Sottile, R; Valuev, V Yu; Verkindt, D; Vey, H; Wachnik, M

    1997-01-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  15. Program for Area Concentration Achievement Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Anthony J.

    The Program for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT) produces the cooperative assessment instrument known as the Area Concentration Achievement Test (ACAT). The ACAT uses a model designed specifically to measure curricular strengths and weaknesses and to provide this information at the departmental level. PACAT has developed 57…

  16. NCRP Vision for the Future and Program Area Committee Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, John D

    2017-02-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) believes that the most critical need for the nation in radiation protection is to train, engage, and retain radiation professionals for the future. Not only is the pipeline shrinking, but for some areas there is no longer a pipe! When the call comes to respond, there may be no one to answer the phone! The NCRP "Where are the Radiation Professionals?" initiative, Council Committee (CC) 2, and this year's annual meeting are to focus our efforts to find solutions and not just reiterate the problems. Our next major initiative is CC 1, where the NCRP is making recommendations for the United States on all things dealing with radiation protection. Our last publication was NCRP Report No. 116, Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, in 1993-time for an update. NCRP has seven active Program Area Committees on biology and epidemiology, operational concerns, emergency response and preparedness, medicine, environmental issues and waste management, dosimetry, and communications. A major scientific research initiative is the Million Person Study of Low Dose Radiation Health Effects. It includes workers from the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons test participants (atomic veterans), industrial radiographers, and early medical workers such as radiologists and technologists. This research will answer the one major gap in radiation risk evaluation: what are the health effects when the exposure occurs gradually over time? Other cutting edge initiatives include a re-evaluation of science behind recommendations for lens of the eye dose limits, recommendations for emergency responders on dosimetry after a major radiological incident, guidance to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration with regard to possible central nervous system effects from galactic cosmic rays (the high energy, high mass particles bounding through space), re-evaluating the population exposure to medical radiation (NCRP Report No

  17. Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

  18. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  19. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  20. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  1. A modular radiative transfer program for gas filter correlation radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. C.; Campbell, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamentals of a computer program, simulated monochromatic atmospheric radiative transfer (SMART), which calculates atmospheric path transmission, solar radiation, and thermal radiation in the 4.6 micrometer spectral region, are described. A brief outline of atmospheric absorption properties and line by line transmission calculations is explained in conjunction with an outline of the SMART computational procedures. Program flexibility is demonstrated by simulating the response of a gas filter correlation radiometer as one example of an atmospheric infrared sensor. Program limitations, input data requirements, program listing, and comparison of SMART transmission calculations are presented.

  2. Palliative care and palliative radiation therapy education in radiation oncology: A survey of US radiation oncology program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Randy L; Colbert, Lauren E; Jones, Joshua; Racsa, Margarita; Kane, Gabrielle; Lutz, Steve; Vapiwala, Neha; Dharmarajan, Kavita V

    The purpose of this study was to assess the state of palliative and supportive care (PSC) and palliative radiation therapy (RT) educational curricula in radiation oncology residency programs in the United States. We surveyed 87 program directors of radiation oncology residency programs in the United States between September 2015 and November 2015. An electronic survey on PSC and palliative RT education during residency was sent to all program directors. The survey consisted of questions on (1) perceived relevance of PSC and palliative RT to radiation oncology training, (2) formal didactic sessions on domains of PSC and palliative RT, (3) effective teaching formats for PSC and palliative RT education, and (4) perceived barriers for integrating PSC and palliative RT into the residency curriculum. A total of 57 responses (63%) was received. Most program directors agreed or strongly agreed that PSC (93%) and palliative radiation therapy (99%) are important competencies for radiation oncology residents and fellows; however, only 67% of residency programs had formal educational activities in principles and practice of PSC. Most programs had 1 or more hours of formal didactics on management of pain (67%), management of neuropathic pain (65%), and management of nausea and vomiting (63%); however, only 35%, 33%, and 30% had dedicated lectures on initial management of fatigue, assessing role of spirituality, and discussing advance care directives, respectively. Last, 85% of programs reported having a formal curriculum on palliative RT. Programs were most likely to have education on palliative radiation to brain, bone, and spine, but less likely on visceral, or skin, metastasis. Residency program directors believe that PSC and palliative RT are important competencies for their trainees and support increasing education in these 2 educational domains. Many residency programs have structured curricula on PSC and palliative radiation education, but room for improvement exists in

  3. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  4. Bibliography of marine radiation ecology prepared for the Seabed Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, V.S.

    1980-02-01

    References on the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms have been obtained from a number of sources. Many were obtained from reviews and other publications. Although the primary purpose of preparing this bibliography was to obtain information related to the nuclear wastes Seabed Disposal Biology Program of Sandia Laboratories, freshwater organisms are included as a matter of convenience and also with the belief that such a bibliography would be of interest to a wider audience than that restricted to the Seabed Program. While compilation of a list in an area broad in scope is often somewhat arbitrary, an attempt was made to reference publications that were related to field or laboratory studies of wild species of plants and animals with respect to radiation effects. Complete information concerning each reference are provided without excessive library search. Since one often finds references listed in the literature that are incompletely cited, it was not always possible to locate the reference for verification or completion of the citation. Such references are included where they appeared to be of possible value. When known, a reference is followed with its Nuclear Science Abstract designation, or rarely other abstract sources. Those desiring additional information should check Nuclear Science Abstracts utilizing the abstract number presented or other abstracting sources. In addition, the language of the article, other than English, is given when it is known to me.

  5. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  6. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs.

  7. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Research Program Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloschak, Gayle; Steinberg-Wright, S.; Coleman, Norman; Grdina, David; Hill, Colin; Iliakis, George; Metting, Noelle; Meyers, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 9-11, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE) of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Space Radiation SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the demands placed on the HRP. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the SRP charge. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on December 11, 2009. The SRP noted that current SRPE strategy is properly science-based and views this as the best assurance of the likelihood that answers to the questions posed as gaps in knowledge can be found, that the uncertainty in risk estimates can be reduced, and that a solid, cost-effective approach to risk reduction solutions is being developed. The current approach of the SRPE, based on the use of carefully focused research solicitations, requiring thorough peer-review and approaches demonstrated to be on the path to answering the NASA strategic questions, addressed to a broad extramural community of qualified scientists, optimally positioned to take advantage of serendipitous discoveries and to leverage scientific advances made elsewhere, is sound and appropriate. The SRP viewed with concern statements by HRP implying that the only science legitimately deserving support should be "applied" or, in some instances that the very term "research" might be

  9. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional radiolo ... mined as most sensitive to radiation. The use of a thyroid guard also decreases the effective dose by approx- ... al radiation is necessary. Thermo- luminescent dosimetry is used to measure radiation and the apparatus.

  10. Case Study Evaluation of the Boston Area Carpooling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    The report evaluates a carpooling program in operation in the Boston, Massachusetts area from August, 1973 through August, 1974. The program, entitled the WBZ/ALA Commuter Computer Campaign, was the first program in the nation to promote and organize...

  11. 78 FR 23818 - Urbanized Area Formula Program: Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... inaccurate, and now interprets each provision to require their application at the UZA level. In other words... Program (5337) Rural Area Formula Program (5311) Transit Oriented Development Pilot Program (section 20005...

  12. Human projected area factors for detailed direct and diffuse solar radiation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubaha, K.; Fiala, D.; Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Projected area factors for individual segments of the standing and sedentary human body were modelled for both direct and diffuse solar radiation using detailed 3D geometry and radiation models. The local projected area factors with respect to direct short-wave radiation are a function of the solar...

  13. Base-Level Management of Laser Radiation Protection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs), or alexandrite. Liquid materials that are used as active mediums include: rhodamine dye and coumarin . Section D...a source of radiation and the dye emits radiation at a longer wavelength. Coumarin dyes are useful as active media for emissions inthe blue to green...plastic, or quartz. Optical fibers have found uses in many areas including: industrial laser welding; medical surgery; dental work; product-code

  14. Improvements to the Ionizing Radiation Risk Assessment Program for NASA Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semones, E. J.; Bahadori, A. A.; Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Flores-McLaughlin, J.

    2011-01-01

    To perform dosimetry and risk assessment, NASA collects astronaut ionizing radiation exposure data from space flight, medical imaging and therapy, aviation training activities and prior occupational exposure histories. Career risk of exposure induced death (REID) from radiation is limited to 3 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. The Radiation Health Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is implementing a program to integrate the gathering, storage, analysis and reporting of astronaut ionizing radiation dose and risk data and records. This work has several motivations, including more efficient analyses and greater flexibility in testing and adopting new methods for evaluating risks. The foundation for these improvements is a set of software tools called the Astronaut Radiation Exposure Analysis System (AREAS). AREAS is a series of MATLAB(Registered TradeMark)-based dose and risk analysis modules that interface with an enterprise level SQL Server database by means of a secure web service. It communicates with other JSC medical and space weather databases to maintain data integrity and consistency across systems. AREAS is part of a larger NASA Space Medicine effort, the Mission Medical Integration Strategy, with the goal of collecting accurate, high-quality and detailed astronaut health data, and then securely, timely and reliably presenting it to medical support personnel. The modular approach to the AREAS design accommodates past, current, and future sources of data from active and passive detectors, space radiation transport algorithms, computational phantoms and cancer risk models. Revisions of the cancer risk model, new radiation detection equipment and improved anthropomorphic computational phantoms can be incorporated. Notable hardware updates include the Radiation Environment Monitor (which uses Medipix technology to report real-time, on-board dosimetry measurements), an updated Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter, and the Southwest Research Institute

  15. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L. [SeaSpace Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  16. Estimating the Effects of Astronaut Career Ionizing Radiation Dose Limits on Manned Interplanetary Flight Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Rojdev, Kristina; Valle, Gerard D.; Zipay, John J.; Atwell, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Space radiation effects mitigation has been identified as one of the highest priority technology development areas for human space flight in the NASA Strategic Space Technology Investment Plan (Dec. 2012). In this paper we review the special features of space radiation that lead to severe constraints on long-term (more than 180 days) human flight operations outside Earth's magnetosphere. We then quantify the impacts of human space radiation dose limits on spacecraft engineering design and development, flight program architecture, as well as flight program schedule and cost. A new Deep Space Habitat (DSH) concept, the hybrid inflatable habitat, is presented and shown to enable a flexible, affordable approach to long term manned interplanetary flight today.

  17. National Estuary Program Study Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 28 National Estuary Programs (NEPs) in the U.S.that implement habitat protection and restoration projects with their partners. This work takes place within...

  18. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundell, J. F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Magnuson, S. O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scherbinske, P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Case, M. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  19. Beowawe Geothermal Area evaluation program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovenitti, J. L

    1981-03-01

    Several exploration programs were conducted at the Beowawe Geothermal Prospect, Lander and Eureka County, Nevada. Part I, consisting of a shallow temperature hole program, a mercury soil sampling survey, and a self-potential survey were conducted in order to select the optimum site for an exploratory well. Part II consisted of drilling a 5927-foot exploratory well, running geophysical logs, conducting a drill stem test (2937-3208 feet), and a short-term (3-day) flow test (1655-2188 feet). All basic data collected is summarized.

  20. FINAL REPORT FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe M. Aldrich

    2004-11-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

  1. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made in accordance...

  2. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Integrated Program Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    on National Planning Scenarios. 15. SUBJECT TERMS WARRP, Program Management 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18...Agent YELLOW, which is a mixture of the chemical warfare agents Sulfur Mustard and Lewisite, is a liquid with a garlic -like odor. Sulfur mustard

  3. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  4. Web design and development for centralize area radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Haris, Mohd Fauzi; Soh @ Shaari, Syirrazie Che; Azman, Azraf; Razalim, Faizal Azrin B. Abdul; Yapp, Raymond; Hasim, Harzawardi; Aslan, Mohd Dzul Aiman

    2017-01-01

    One of the applications for radiation detector is area monitoring which is crucial for safety especially at a place where radiation source is involved. An environmental radiation monitoring system is a professional system that combines flexibility and ease of use for data collection and monitoring. Nowadays, with the growth of technology, devices and equipment can be connected to the network and Internet to enable online data acquisition. This technology enables data from the area monitoring devices to be transmitted to any place and location directly and faster. In Nuclear Malaysia, area radiation monitor devices are located at several selective locations such as laboratories and radiation facility. This system utilizes an Ethernet as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors and stores the data at a server for recording and analysis. This paper discusses on the design and development of website that enable all user in Nuclear Malaysia to access and monitor the radiation level for each radiation detectors at real time online. The web design also included a query feature for history data from various locations online. The communication between the server's software and web server is discussed in detail in this paper.

  5. Radiation dose due to radon and thoron progeny inhalation in high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yasutaka; Tokonami, Shinji; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kudo, Hiromi; Pornnumpa, Chanis; Nair, Raghu Ram K; Jayalekshmi, Padmavaty Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori

    2017-03-20

    In order to evaluate internal exposure to radon and thoron, concentrations for radon, thoron, and thoron progeny were measured for 259 dwellings located in high background radiation areas (HBRAs, outdoor external dose: 3-5 mGy y(-1)) and low background radiation areas (control areas, outdoor external dose: 1 mGy y(-1)) in Karunagappally Taluk, Kerala, India. The measurements were conducted using passive-type radon-thoron detectors and thoron progeny detectors over two six-month measurement periods from June 2010 to June 2011. The results showed no major differences in radon and thoron progeny concentrations between the HBRAs and the control areas. The geometric mean of the annual effective dose due to radon and thoron was calculated as 0.10 and 0.44 mSv, respectively. The doses were small, but not negligible compared with the external dose in the two areas.

  6. Air temperature, radiation budget and area changes of Quisoquipina glacier in the Cordillera Vilcanota (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Wilson; Macedo, Nicolás; Montoya, Nilton; Arias, Sandro; Schauwecker, Simone; Huggel, Christian; Rohrer, Mario; Condom, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Peruvian Andes host about 71% of all tropical glaciers. Although several studies have focused on glaciers of the largest glaciered mountain range (Cordillera Blanca), other regions have received little attention to date. In 2011, a new program has been initiated with the aim of monitoring glaciers in the centre and south of Peru. The monitoring program is managed by the Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú (SENAMHI) and it is a joint project together with the Universidad San Antonio Abad de Cusco (UNSAAC) and the Autoridad Nacional del Agua (ANA). In Southern Peru, the Quisoquipina glacier has been selected due to its representativeness for glaciers in the Cordillera Vilcanota considering area, length and orientation. The Cordillera Vilcanota is the second largest mountain range in Peru with a glaciated area of approximately 279 km2 in 2009. Melt water from glaciers in this region is partly used for hydropower in the dry season and for animal breeding during the entire year. Using Landsat 5 images, we could estimate that the area of Quisoquipina glacier has decreased by approximately 11% from 3.66 km2 in 1990 to 3.26 km2 in 2010. This strong decrease is comparable to observations of other tropical glaciers. In 2011, a meteorological station has been installed on the glacier at 5180 m asl., measuring air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, net short and longwave radiation and atmospheric pressure. Here, we present a first analysis of air temperature and the radiation budget at the Quisoquipina glacier for the first three years of measurements. Additionally, we compare the results from Quisoquipina glacier to results obtained by the Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD) for Zongo glacier (Bolivia) and Antizana glacier (Ecuador). For both, Quisoquipina and Zongo glacier, net shortwave radiation may be the most important energy source, thus indicating the important role of albedo in the energy balance of the glacier

  7. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Infantino Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh, running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he. In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  8. Very high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran: preliminary biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiassi-nejad, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Cameron, J R; Niroomand-rad, A; Karam, P A

    2002-01-01

    People in some areas of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, receive an annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation that is up to 260 mSv y(-1), substantially higher than the 20 mSv y(-1) that is permitted for radiation workers. Inhabitants of Ramsar have lived for many generations in these high background areas. Cytogenetic studies show no significant differences between people in the high background compared to people in normal background areas. An in vitro challenge dose of 1.5 Gy of gamma rays was administered to the lymphocytes, which showed significantly reduced frequency for chromosome aberrations of people living in high background compared to those in normal background areas in and near Ramsar. Specifically, inhabitants of high background radiation areas had about 56% the average number of induced chromosomal abnormalities of normal background radiation area inhabitants following this exposure. This suggests that adaptive response might be induced by chronic exposure to natural background radiation as opposed to acute exposure to higher (tens of mGy) levels of radiation in the laboratory. There were no differences in laboratory tests of the immune systems, and no noted differences in hematological alterations between these two groups of people.

  9. National Nanotechnology Initiative Investments by Agency and Program Component Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — Data represents National Nanotechnology Initiative investments by agency and program component area (PCA) from FY 2001 through FY 2010 (requested). While this data...

  10. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section 35.24 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation...

  11. Tanks focus area multiyear program plan - FY96-FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP) presents the recommended TFA technical program. The recommendation covers a 3-year funding outlook (FY96-FY98), with an emphasis on FY96 and FY97. In addition to defining the recommended program, this document also describes the processes used to develop the program, the implementation strategy for the program, the references used to write this report, data on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank site baselines, details on baseline assumptions and the technical elements, and a glossary.

  12. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Aaron S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Thomas, Charles R., E-mail: thomasch@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute/Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Bonner, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama (United States); DeWeese, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mittal, Bharat B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Ilinois (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  13. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  14. A diagram for defined solar radiation absorbed per unit area of flat plate solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Altuntop, N. [Erciyes University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Reno University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NV (United States); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada University, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In Erciyes University, the Solar House (28.75 m{sup 2}) is heated from the floor by using flat plate liquid solar collectors. Required solar radiation for heating and heat losses are calculated. In this work, the required calculations for Erciyes Solar House were generalized and required calculation were done to evaluate absorbed solar radiation per unit surface of the flat plate liquid collector. At the end, three generalized diagrams for nine different months are obtained using obtained numerical values. The goal of preparing diagrams is to determine absorbed solar radiation per unit surface area of flat plate liquid collector at any instant at any latitude, In this work, the diagram is explained by means of sample calculations for November. This diagram was prepared to find out absorbed solar radiation per unit area of black surface collector by means obtained equations. With this diagram, all instant solar radiation can be evaluated in 19 steps. (authors)

  15. Strategic planning in an academic radiation medicine program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J L; Foxcroft, S; Moyo, E; Cooke-Lauder, J; Spence, T; Zahedi, P; Bezjak, A; Jaffray, D; Lam, C; Létourneau, D; Milosevic, M; Tsang, R; Wong, R; Liu, F F

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the process of strategic planning in the Radiation Medicine Program (rmp) at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre. The rmp conducted a strategic planning exercise to ensure that program priorities reflect the current health care environment, enable nimble responses to the increasing burden of cancer, and guide program operations until 2020. Data collection was guided by a project charter that outlined the project goal and the roles and responsibilities of all participants. The process was managed by a multidisciplinary steering committee under the guidance of an external consultant and consisted of reviewing strategic planning documents from close collaborators and institutional partners, conducting interviews with key stakeholders, deploying a program-wide survey, facilitating an anonymous and confidential e-mail feedback box, and collecting information from group deliberations. The process of strategic planning took place from December 2014 to December 2015. Mission and vision statements were developed, and core values were defined. A final document, Strategic Roadmap to 2020, was established to guide programmatic pursuits during the ensuing 5 years, and an implementation plan was developed to guide the first year of operations. The strategic planning process provided an opportunity to mobilize staff talents and identify environmental opportunities, and helped to enable more effective use of resources in a rapidly changing health care environment. The process was valuable in allowing staff to consider and discuss the future, and in identifying strategic issues of the greatest importance to the program. Academic programs with similar mandates might find our report useful in guiding similar processes in their own organizations.

  16. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  17. Laser pumped light emitting diodes as broad area sources of coherent radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Faiz; Sorel, Marc

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes the use of large area light emitting diodes, pumped with various laser sources, as extended area emitters of coherent radiation. The photon recycling takes place through the intermediary of electron hole pair formation and subsequent stimulated recombination. It is possible to generate both spontaneous and stimulated emission together and the two channels are then independent of each other. This allows the generation of a mixture of coherent and non-coherent radiation in any desired proportion. The technique described is a broad-band resonant process with diffusive feedback and can be used for generating non-collimated laser radiation for a variety of applications.

  18. 105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KINKEL, C.C.

    1999-12-14

    This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).

  19. 105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Kinkel, C C

    1999-01-01

    This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).

  20. Evaluation of High Level Environmental Background Radiation Areas and its Variation in Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyeb Allahverdi Pourfallah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. For most individuals, this exposure exceeds that from all man-made sources combined. Materials and Methods In this study, the annual effective dose in high level environmental background radiation areas (HLEBRAs of northern city of Ramsar in Iran was determined. For dosimetry, a gamma radiation dosimeter was used. Measurements were performed in more than 90 points in five districts with HLEBR around and near hot springs. Results In some areas, the annual effective dose from outdoor external gamma radiation in HLEBRAs (30 mSv/y exceeded the annual effective dose limit for radiation workers. Our results are evident that the population dose from normal background radiation in HLEBRAs is 200 times higher than corresponding values in Ramsar sea shore. To estimate the cosmic ray contribution, dose measurements were performed on the sea surface one km off the sea shore. Conclusion The observed differences over locations and measured doses between this study and the others revealed the dynamic nature of this phenomenon, and necessitate performing the periodic studies in these areas. Moreover, cytogenetic and immunologic researches for studying the long term effects of these high level environmental radiations on the residents of these HLEBRAs are necessary.

  1. Building the strategic national stockpile through the NIAID Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Carmen I; Cassatt, David R; Dicarlo, Andrea L; Macchiarini, Francesca; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Norman, Mai-Kim; Maidment, Bert W

    2014-02-01

    The possibility of a public health radiological or nuclear emergency in the United States remains a concern. Media attention focused on lost radioactive sources and international nuclear threats, as well as the potential for accidents in nuclear power facilities (e.g., Windscale, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) highlight the need to address this critical national security issue. To date, no drugs have been licensed to mitigate/treat the acute and long-term radiation injuries that would result in the event of large-scale, radiation, or nuclear public health emergency. However, recent evaluation of several candidate radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) has provided initial proof-of-concept of efficacy. The goal of the Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health) is to help ensure the government stockpiling of safe and efficacious MCMs to treat radiation injuries, including, but not limited to, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to supporting research in these areas, the RNCP continues to fund research and development of decorporation agents targeting internal radionuclide contamination, and biodosimetry platforms (e.g., biomarkers and devices) to assess the levels of an individual's radiation exposure, capabilities that would be critical in a mass casualty scenario. New areas of research within the program include a focus on special populations, especially pediatric and geriatric civilians, as well as combination studies, in which drugs are tested within the context of expected medical care management (e.g., antibiotics and growth factors). Moving forward, challenges facing the RNCP, as well as the entire radiation research field, include further advancement and qualification of animal models, dose conversion from animal models to humans, biomarker identification, and

  2. 77 FR 59931 - Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... University of Guam School of Nursing, an Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Program grantee, to coordinate... baccalaureate nursing education program in the Pacific. Its focus is on health careers training and development... only nationally accredited baccalaureate nursing education program in the Pacific. The Guam/Micronesia...

  3. AA, radiation shielding curtain along the target area

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    At the far left is the beam tube for the high-intensity proton beam from the 26 GeV PS. The tube ends in a thin window and the proton beam continues in air through a hole in the shielding blocks (see also 8010308), behind which the target (see 7905091, 7905094)was located. After the target followed the magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons, and the first part of the injection line with a proton dump. The antiprotons, deflected by a magnet, left the target area through another shielding wall, to make their way to the AA ring. Laterally, this sequence of components was shielded with movable, suspended, concrete blocks: the "curtain". Balasz Szeless, who had constructed it, is standing at its side.

  4. Optimization of in-vivo monitoring program for radiation emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Wi Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In case of radiation emergencies, internal exposure monitoring for the members of public will be required to confirm internal contamination of each individual. In-vivo monitoring technique using portable gamma spectrometer can be easily applied for internal exposure monitoring in the vicinity of the on-site area. In this study, minimum detectable doses (MDDs) for '1'3'4Cs, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 131}I were calculated adjusting minimum detectable activities (MDAs) from 50 to 1,000 Bq to find out the optimal in-vivo counting condition. DCAL software was used to derive retention fraction of Cs and I isotopes in the whole body and thyroid, respectively. A minimum detectable level was determined to set committed effective dose of 0.1 mSv for emergency response. We found that MDDs at each MDA increased along with the elapsed time. 1,000 Bq for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, and 100 Bq for {sup 131}I were suggested as optimal MDAs to provide in-vivo monitoring service in case of radiation emergencies. In-vivo monitoring program for emergency response should be designed to achieve the optimal MDA suggested from the present work. We expect that a reduction of counting time compared with routine monitoring program can achieve the high throughput system in case of radiation emergencies.

  5. The Detroit Area Pre-College Engineering Program, Inc. (DAPCEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kenneth

    1990-01-01

    Describes activities of the Detroit Area Pre-College Engineering Program (DAPCEP), which aims to increase the number of middle school and high school minority (Black, Hispanic, and Native American) students who are motivated and prepared academically to choose careers in science, engineering, and other technical fields. Summarizes program…

  6. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. Steve; Badhwar, Gautam D.; Golightly, Michael J.; Hardy, Alva C.; Konradi, Andrei; Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu

    1993-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk.

  7. Assessing Interpersonal and Communication Skills in Radiation Oncology Residents: A Pilot Standardized Patient Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Melody [Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Berman, Abigail T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); LaMarra, Denise [Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Baffic, Cordelia; Suneja, Gita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Vapiwala, Neha, E-mail: Neha.Vapiwala@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: There is a lack of data for the structured development and evaluation of communication skills in radiation oncology residency training programs. Effective communication skills are increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and are critical for a successful clinical practice. We present the design of a novel, pilot standardized patient (SP) program and the evaluation of communication skills among radiation oncology residents. Methods and Materials: Two case scenarios were developed to challenge residents in the delivery of “bad news” to patients: one scenario regarding treatment failure and the other regarding change in treatment plan. Eleven radiation oncology residents paired with 6 faculty participated in this pilot program. Each encounter was scored by the SPs, observing faculty, and residents themselves based on the Kalamazoo guidelines. Results: Overall resident performance ratings were “good” to “excellent,” with faculty assigning statistically significant higher scores and residents assigning lower scores. We found inconsistent inter rater agreement among faculty, residents, and SPs. SP feedback was also valuable in identifying areas of improvement, including more collaborative decision making and less use of medical jargon. Conclusions: The program was well received by residents and faculty and regarded as a valuable educational experience that could be used as an annual feedback tool. Poor inter rater agreement suggests a need for residents and faculty physicians to better calibrate their evaluations to true patient perceptions. High scores from faculty members substantiate the concern that resident evaluations are generally positive and nondiscriminating. Faculty should be encouraged to provide honest and critical feedback to hone residents' interpersonal skills.

  8. Assessing interpersonal and communication skills in radiation oncology residents: a pilot standardized patient program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Melody; Berman, Abigail T; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Lamarra, Denise; Baffic, Cordelia; Suneja, Gita; Vapiwala, Neha

    2014-04-01

    There is a lack of data for the structured development and evaluation of communication skills in radiation oncology residency training programs. Effective communication skills are increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and are critical for a successful clinical practice. We present the design of a novel, pilot standardized patient (SP) program and the evaluation of communication skills among radiation oncology residents. Two case scenarios were developed to challenge residents in the delivery of "bad news" to patients: one scenario regarding treatment failure and the other regarding change in treatment plan. Eleven radiation oncology residents paired with 6 faculty participated in this pilot program. Each encounter was scored by the SPs, observing faculty, and residents themselves based on the Kalamazoo guidelines. Overall resident performance ratings were "good" to "excellent," with faculty assigning statistically significant higher scores and residents assigning lower scores. We found inconsistent inter rater agreement among faculty, residents, and SPs. SP feedback was also valuable in identifying areas of improvement, including more collaborative decision making and less use of medical jargon. The program was well received by residents and faculty and regarded as a valuable educational experience that could be used as an annual feedback tool. Poor inter rater agreement suggests a need for residents and faculty physicians to better calibrate their evaluations to true patient perceptions. High scores from faculty members substantiate the concern that resident evaluations are generally positive and nondiscriminating. Faculty should be encouraged to provide honest and critical feedback to hone residents' interpersonal skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, analysis of cost and effectiveness suggests that decontamination costs for agricultural areas account for approximately 80% of the total decontamination cost, of which approximately 60% is associated with storage. In addition, the costs of decontamination per person per unit area are estimated to vary greatly. Appropriate selection of decontamination methods may significantly decrease decontamination costs, allowing more meaningful decontamination in terms of the limited budget. Our analysis can help in examining the prioritization of decontamination areas from the viewpoints of cost and effectiveness in reducing the external dose. Decontamination strategies should be determined according to air dose rates and future land-use plans.

  10. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section 35.2024 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A licensee shall retain a record of...

  11. Results of the 2014 Survey of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Ashesh B; Marshall, David; Vapiwala, Neha; Davis, Sara Beth; Langer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP) conducted an in-depth survey of program directors along several axes. We report the results of this survey and compare the major findings with those of the 2007 ADROP survey. The survey was written and approved by ADROP leadership in 2012, announced online through broadcasts throughout 2013 and early 2014, and closed in mid-2014. The results based on question groups related to (1) hours spent in activities, (2) budget and nonprogram resources, (3) physics/biology didactics, (4) mock exams/didactics/research, (5) electives, (6) students, and (7) resources/challenges were tabulated. Descriptive comparisons with the 2007 survey were performed. There was 26% participation (23/88 programs). Major areas of time commitment were faculty and site organization, maintenance, and corrections (70 hours/year) and didactics/conferences and rounds (200 hours/year). The median program director protected time was 23% (range 0%-50%). All responding programs (100%) had biology and physics courses and assigned directors, but only approximately 20% of respondents had a threshold grade in these courses for graduation. Major resources desired were templates of goals/objectives by disease site, competency evaluations by level, journal club repository, and software for contouring, oral examination preparation, grant writing, publication writing, oral presentation, and effective teaching. Major activity challenges were Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education external review and time commitment. Overall, the 2014 results are similar to those of the 2007 survey. The average time commitment remains considerably higher than the 10% minimum required in the current ACGME program requirements. The survey results may guide ADROP membership in centralizing some of the identified resources needed. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Community Radiation Monitoring Program. Annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1993-05-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE); the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UNEL). The twelfth year of the program began in the fall of 1991, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The program began as an outgrowth of activities that occurred during the Three Mile Island incident in 1979. The local interest and public participation that took place there were thought to be transferrable to the situation at the NTS, so, with adaptations, that methodology was implemented for this program. The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the existing EPA monitoring network, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as station managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link.

  13. Community Radiation Monitoring Program; Annual report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

    1992-06-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (U of U). This eleventh year of the program began in the summer of 1991 and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which the DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of those efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Managers and program representatives in 19 communities adjacent to and downwind from the NTS. These Managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link.

  14. Experience of wireless local area network in a radiation oncology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhijit; Asthana, Anupam Kumar; Aggarwal, Lalit Mohan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a wireless local area network (LAN) between different types of users (Radiation Oncologists, Radiological Physicists, Radiation Technologists, etc) for efficient patient data management and to made easy the availability of information (chair side) to improve the quality of patient care in Radiation Oncology department. We have used mobile workstations (Laptops) and stationary workstations, all equipped with wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi) access. Wireless standard 802.11g (as recommended by Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ) has been used. The wireless networking was configured with the Service Set Identifier (SSID), Media Access Control (MAC) address filtering, and Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) network securities. We are successfully using this wireless network in sharing the indigenously developed patient information management software. The proper selection of the hardware and the software combined with a secure wireless LAN setup will lead to a more efficient and productive radiation oncology department.

  15. Experience of wireless local area network in a radiation oncology department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a wireless local area network (LAN between different types of users (Radiation Oncologists, Radiological Physicists, Radiation Technologists, etc for efficient patient data management and to made easy the availability of information (chair side to improve the quality of patient care in Radiation Oncology department. We have used mobile workstations (Laptops and stationary workstations, all equipped with wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi access. Wireless standard 802.11g (as recommended by Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ has been used. The wireless networking was configured with the Service Set Identifier (SSID, Media Access Control (MAC address filtering, and Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP network securities. We are successfully using this wireless network in sharing the indigenously developed patient information management software. The proper selection of the hardware and the software combined with a secure wireless LAN setup will lead to a more efficient and productive radiation oncology department.

  16. Stress and Burnout Among Residency Program Directors in United States Radiation Oncology Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Sonya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Kusano, Aaron S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Carter, Justin Nathaniel; Gable, Laura [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate stressors among radiation oncology residency program directors (PDs) and determine the prevalence and indicators of burnout. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey was offered to PDs of US radiation oncology programs in the fall of 2014. Survey content examined individual and program demographics, perceptions surrounding the role of PD, and commonly encountered stressors. Burnout was assessed using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. Results: In total, 47 of 88 PDs (53%) responded to the survey. Although 78% of respondents reported feeling “satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with their current role, 85% planned to remain as PD for <5 years. The most commonly cited stressors were satisfying Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education/Residency Review Committee requirements (47%), administrative duties (30%) and resident morale (28%). Three-quarters of respondents were satisfied that they became PDs. Overall, 11% of respondents met criteria for low burnout, 83% for moderate burnout, and 6% for high burnout. Not having served as a PD at a prior institution correlated with high depersonalization (OR 6.75, P=.04) and overall burnout (odds ratio [OR], 15.6; P=.04). Having more years on faculty prior to becoming PD correlated with less emotional exhaustion (OR, 0.44, P=.05) and depersonalization (OR, 0.20, P=.04). Finally, having dedicated time for PD duties correlated with less emotional exhaustion (OR, 0.27, P=.04). Conclusions: Moderate levels of burnout are common in U.S. radiation oncology PDs with regulatory stressors being common. Despite this, many PDs are fulfilled with their role. Longitudinal studies assessing dynamic external factors and their influence on PD burnout would be beneficial.

  17. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  19. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-10-03

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of

  20. Radiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering using seasonally varying injection areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Anton; Korhonen, Hannele; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Kokkola, Harri

    2017-06-01

    Stratospheric sulfur injections have often been suggested as a cost-effective geoengineering method to prevent or slow down global warming. In geoengineering studies, these injections are commonly targeted to the Equator, where the yearly mean intensity of the solar radiation is the highest and from where the aerosols disperse globally due to the Brewer-Dobson Circulation. However, compensating for greenhouse gas-induced zonal warming by reducing solar radiation would require a relatively larger radiative forcing to the mid- and high latitudes and a lower forcing to the low latitudes than what is achieved by continuous equatorial injections. In this study we employ alternative aerosol injection scenarios to investigate if the resulting radiative forcing can be targeted to be zonally more uniform without decreasing the global the mean radiative forcing of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering. We used a global aerosol-climate model together with an Earth system model to study the radiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur injection scenarios with different injection areas. According to our simulations, varying the SO2 injection area seasonally would result in a similar global mean cooling effect as injecting SO2 to the Equator, but with a more uniform zonal distribution of shortwave radiative forcing. Compared to the case of equatorial injections, in the seasonally varying injection scenario where the maximum sulfur production from injected SO2 followed the maximum of solar radiation, the shortwave radiative forcing decreased by 27 % over the Equator (the latitudes between 20° N and 20° S) and increased by 15 % over higher latitudes. Compared to the continuous injections to the Equator, in summer months the radiative forcing was increased by 17 and 14 % and in winter months decreased by 14 and 16 % in Northern and Southern hemispheres, respectively. However, these forcings do not translate into as large changes in temperatures. The changes in forcing

  1. Radiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering using seasonally varying injection areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laakso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfur injections have often been suggested as a cost-effective geoengineering method to prevent or slow down global warming. In geoengineering studies, these injections are commonly targeted to the Equator, where the yearly mean intensity of the solar radiation is the highest and from where the aerosols disperse globally due to the Brewer–Dobson Circulation. However, compensating for greenhouse gas-induced zonal warming by reducing solar radiation would require a relatively larger radiative forcing to the mid- and high latitudes and a lower forcing to the low latitudes than what is achieved by continuous equatorial injections. In this study we employ alternative aerosol injection scenarios to investigate if the resulting radiative forcing can be targeted to be zonally more uniform without decreasing the global the mean radiative forcing of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering. We used a global aerosol–climate model together with an Earth system model to study the radiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur injection scenarios with different injection areas. According to our simulations, varying the SO2 injection area seasonally would result in a similar global mean cooling effect as injecting SO2 to the Equator, but with a more uniform zonal distribution of shortwave radiative forcing. Compared to the case of equatorial injections, in the seasonally varying injection scenario where the maximum sulfur production from injected SO2 followed the maximum of solar radiation, the shortwave radiative forcing decreased by 27 % over the Equator (the latitudes between 20° N and 20° S and increased by 15 % over higher latitudes. Compared to the continuous injections to the Equator, in summer months the radiative forcing was increased by 17 and 14 % and in winter months decreased by 14 and 16 % in Northern and Southern hemispheres, respectively. However, these forcings do not translate into as large changes in

  2. Level of radiation dose in university hospital non-insured private health screening programs in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Keun Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate radiation exposure resulting from the comprehensive health examinations of selected university hospital programs and to present basic data for research and management strategies on the health effects of medical radiation exposure. Methods Radiation-based diagnostic studies of the comprehensive health examination programs of ten university hospitals in Seoul, Korea, as introduced in their websites, were analyzed. The medical radiation studies of the programs were reviewed by radiologists. Only the effective doses of the basic studies were included in the analysis. The optional studies of the programs were excluded. Results Among the 190 comprehensive health examination programs, 132 programs (69.5% included computed tomography studies, with an average of 1.4 scans. The average effective dose of radiation by program was 3.62 mSv for an intensive program for specific diseases; 11.12 mSv for an intensive program for cancer; 18.14 mSv for a premium program; and 24.08 mSv for an overnight program. A higher cost of a programs was linked to a higher effective dose (r=0.812. The effective doses of the examination programs for the same purposes differed by as much as 2.1 times by hospital. Inclusion of positron emission tomography–computed tomography was the most critical factor in determining the level of effective dose. Conclusions It was found that radiation exposure dose from comprehensive health exam programs targeted for an asymptomatic, healthy public reached between 3.6 and 24 times the annual dose limit for the general public. Relevant management policies at the national level should be provided to minimize medical radiation exposure.

  3. Variable area radial turbine fabrication and test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, C.

    1986-01-01

    A variable area radial turbine with a moveable nozzle sidewall was experimentally evaluated. The turbine was designed for an advanced variable capacity gas turbine rotorcraft engine. The turbine has a mass flow rate of 2.27 kg/sec (5.0 lbs/sec), and a rotor inlet temperature of 1477K (2200 F). Testing was conducted at a reduced inlet temperature, but the aerodynamic parameters and Reynolds numbers were duplicated. Overall performance was obtained for a range of nozzle areas from 50% to 100% of the maximum area. The test program determined the effect on performance of: (1) Moving the hub or shroud sidewall; (2) Sidewall-vane clearance leakage; (3) Vaneless space geometry change; and (4) Nozzle cooling flows. Data were obtained for a range of pressure ratios and speeds and are presented in a number of performance maps.

  4. Contextual Information for the Potential Enhancement of Annual Radiation Protection Program Review Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert J; Gutiérrez, Janet M

    2017-08-01

    Organizations possessing sources of ionizing radiation are required to develop, document, and implement a "radiation protection program" that is commensurate with the scope and extent of permitted activities and sufficient to ensure compliance with basic radiation safety regulations. The radiation protection program must also be reviewed at least annually, assessing program content and implementation. A convenience sample assessment of web-accessible and voluntarily-submitted radiation protection program annual review reports revealed that while the reports consistently documented compliance with necessary regulatory elements, very few included any critical contextual information describing how important the ability to possess radiation sources was to the central mission of the organization. Information regarding how much radioactive material was currently possessed as compared to license limits was also missing. Summarized here are suggested contextual elements that can be considered for possible inclusion in annual radiation protection program reviews to enhance stakeholder understanding and appreciation of the importance of the ability to possess radiation sources and the importance of maintaining compliance with associated regulatory requirements.

  5. Mapping radon-prone areas using γ-radiation dose rate and geological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Talavera, M; García-Pérez, A; Rey, C; Ramos, L

    2013-09-01

    Identifying radon-prone areas is key to policies on the control of this environmental carcinogen. In the current paper, we present the methodology followed to delineate radon-prone areas in Spain. It combines information from indoor radon measurements with γ-radiation and geological maps. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it lessens the requirement for a high density of measurements by making use of commonly available information. It can be applied for an initial definition of radon-prone areas in countries committed to introducing a national radon policy or to improving existing radon maps in low population regions.

  6. The synchrotron radiation angiography program at the national synchrotron light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.; Gmuer, N.

    1987-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) angiography program is under development. The program is a collaboration between the Stanford University Angiography Project and the NSLS. A 180 m/sup 2/ clinical facility has been built. A beam line is being constructed to utilize a superconducting wiggler radiation source. Projected start-up date for the NSLS program is Summer 1988.

  7. Community radiation monitoring program. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1994-08-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UUNEL). The thirteenth year of this program began in the fall of 1992, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE--sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the then-existing EPA monitoring network around the NTS, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah, and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Station Managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These mangers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded through their training, experience, community standing, and effort in becoming a very visible, able, and valuable asset in this link.

  8. High background radiation areas: the case of Villar de la Yegua village (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz, C; Quindós, L S; Fernández, P L; Gómez, J; Fuente, I; Quindós, L; Matarranz, J L

    2007-01-01

    The starting point of the Spanish experience in the study of High Background Radiation Areas is the development of a nationwide indoor radon survey carried out in 1988. This campaign, belonging to the first Spanish Radon Framework, consisted of approximately 2000 indoor radon measurements which represented a valuable basis to face rigorously the radon issue in Spain. Together but indepently from this survey, since 1991 the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council, the National Uranium Company and several Universities have developed the so-called MARNA project with the aim of estimating potential radon emission from external gamma dose rates, radium concentrations in soil and geological parameters. During the last decade, several regional surveys have also been conducted to determine exposure to natural sources of radiation in different highly populated background radiation areas. Among them, the surroundings of the village of Villar de la Yegua Town, located in the western province of Salamanca, is the most important area of Spain from a radiological point of view, with the highest indoor radon concentrations, of up to 15,000 Bq m(-3) being found there. Until now, the main result of the study in this area showed a geometric mean radon concentration of 818 Bq m(-3), which is 18 times higher than the national average. In this article, the results of the last survey, carried out in Villar de la Yegua during 2004 are summarised. A geometric mean radon concentration of 1356 Bq m(-3) was found. Dose estimation coming from radon inhalation is also shown.

  9. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  10. The effects of residence duration in high background radiation areas on immune surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Abediankenari, Saeid; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah; Khosravifarsani, Meysam

    2013-01-01

    The effective dose received by humans from natural sources is about 2.4 mSv y(-1), but this is 10.2 mSv y(-1) for inhabitants of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran. Carcinogenesis is one of the most studied effects of radiation, especially in high doses. Nonetheless carcinogenesis of low doses is uncertain. A recent epidemiological study in high background radiation areas of Ramsar showed that the cancer incidence in this era is lower than neighbors. The reason of this different behavior is under study yet. NK cells, helper, and Cytotoxic T cells are most important components of the tumor immune surveillance. The counts and activities of these cells and also leukocytes, lymphocyte, neutrophil cells, and other important parameters were studied in the residents of Ramsar with different duration of exposure to chronic low dose radiation. Fifty residents of high background radiation areas, who were between 25 and 35 years and fully healthy, were selected randomly and their consent was obtained. Then, 2 cc fresh peripheral bloods were taken in sterile conditions. Complete blood cell counts were performed by an automatic hematology analyzer and CD4+, CD8+, NK, and CD107a+ cell counts were determined by monoclonal antibodies and flowcytometry. CD4+ and CD8+ percentages and the CD4/CD8 ratio were determined and the data were analyzed using SPSS 16. The percentages of CD4+ cells increase, but the counts of CD107a+ cells decline in higher exposure durations. The other parameters did not have significant regression with exposure duration. These confirm that living in high background radiation areas may induce changes in the immune system gradually and address more investigations.

  11. A Decision Support System for Plant Optimization in Urban Areas with Diversified Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyi Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sunshine is an important factor which limits the choice of urban plant species, especially in environments with high-density buildings. In practice, plant selection and configuration is a key step of landscape architecture, which has relied on an experience-based qualitative approach. However, the rationality and efficiency of this need to be improved. To maintain the diversity of plant species and to ensure their ecological adaptability (solar radiation in the context of sustainable development, we developed the Urban Plants Decision Support System (UP-DSS for assisting plant selection in urban areas with diversified solar radiation. Our methodology mainly consists of the solar radiation model and calibration, the urban plant database, and information retrieval model. The structure of UP-DSS is also presented at the end of the methodology section, which is based on the platform of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Microsoft Excel. An application of UP-DSS is demonstrated in a residential area of Wuhan, China. The results show that UP-DSS can provide a very scientific and stable tool for the adaptive planning of shade-tolerant plants and photoperiod-sensitive plants, meanwhile, it also provides a specific plant species and the appropriate types of plant community for user decision-making according to different sunshine radiation conditions and the designer’s preferences.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, November 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-12-03

    Fall 2002 Intensive Operation Periods: Single Column Model and Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle--In an Intensive Operation Period (IOP) on November 3-23, 2002, researchers at the SGP CART site are collecting a detailed data set for use in improving the Single Column Model (SCM), a scaled-down climate model. The SCM represents one vertical column of air above Earth's surface and requires less computation time than a full-scale global climate model. Researchers first use the SCM to efficiently improve submodels of clouds, solar radiation transfer, and atmosphere-surface interactions, then implement the results in large-scale global models. With measured values for a starting point, the SCM predicts atmospheric variables during prescribed time periods. A computer calculates values for such quantities as the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface and predicts how clouds will evolve and interact with incoming light from the sun. Researchers compare the SCM's predictions with actual measurements made during the IOP, then adjust the submodels to make predictions more reliable. A second IOP conducted concurrently with the SCM IOP involves high-altitude, long-duration aircraft flights. The original plan was to use an unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV), but the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aircraft Proteus will be substituted because all UAVs have been deployed elsewhere. The UAV is a small, instrument-equipped, remote-control plane that is operated from the ground by a computer. The Proteus is a manned aircraft, originally designed to carry telecommunications relay equipment, that can be reconfigured for uses such as reconnaissance and surveillance, commercial imaging, launching of small space satellites, and atmospheric research. The plane is designed for two on-board pilots in a pressurized cabin, flying to altitudes up to 65,000 feet for as long as 18 hours. The Proteus has a variable wingspan of 77-92 feet and is 56 feet long. The plane

  13. An Ionizing Radiation Sensor Using a Pre-Programmed MAHAOS Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Hsieh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metal-aluminum oxide–hafnium aluminum oxide‒silicon oxide–silicon (hereafter MAHAOS devices can be candidates for ionizing radiation sensor applications. In this work, MAHAOS devices (SONOS-like structures with high k stack gate dielectric were studied regarding the first known characterization of the ionization radiation sensing response. The change of threshold voltage VT for a MAHAOS device after gamma ray exposure had a strong correlation to the total ionization dose (TID of gamma radiation up to at least 5 Mrad TID. In this paper, the gamma radiation response performances of the pre-programmed and virgin (non-pre-programmed MAHAOS devices are presented. The experimental data show that the change of VT for the pre-programmed MAHAOS device with gamma irradiation is very significant. The data of pre-programmed MAHAOS devices written by 5 Mrad TID of gamma radiation was also stable for a long time with data storage. The sensing of gamma radiation by pre-programmed MAHAOS devices with high k stack gate dielectric reported in this study has demonstrated their potential application for non-volatile ionizing radiation sensing technology in the future.

  14. High-resolution texture imaging with hard synchrotron radiation in the moving area detector technique

    CERN Document Server

    Wcislak, L; Klein, H; Garbe, U; Schneider, J R

    2003-01-01

    The orientation distribution of crystallites in polycrystalline materials (called texture) is usually measured by polycrystal X-ray diffraction by 'step-scanning' the sample in angular intervals in the order of 1 deg. This technique is not suited to fully exploit the low angular divergence of hard synchrotron radiation in the order of 'milliradian'. Hence, step-scanning was replaced by a continuous 'sweeping' technique using a continuously shifted area detector. In order to avoid overlapping from different reflections (hkl) a Bragg-angle slit was introduced. The 'moving-detector' technique can be applied to obtain images of orientation as well as of location distributions of crystallites in polycrystalline samples. It is suitable for imaging continuous 'orientation density' distribution functions as well as of 'grain-resolved' textures. The excellent features of high-energy synchrotron radiation combined with the moving area detector technique will be illustrated with several examples including very sharp def...

  15. Radiologic safety program for ionizing radiation facilities in Parana, Brazil; Programa de seguridad radiologica para las oficinas de salud en Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly Junior, J.G. [Secretaria de Saude do Estado do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    A radiologic safety program for inspection, licensing and control of the use of ionizing radiation in medical, industrial and research facilities in Parana, Brazil is presented. The program includes stages such as: 1- division into implementation phases considering the activity development for each area; 2-use of the existing structure to implement and to improve services. The development of the program will permit to evaluate the improvement reached and to correct operational strategic. As a result, a quality enhancement at the services performed, a reduction for radiation dose exposure and a faster response for emergency situations will be expected 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Radiation shielding calculations for MuCool test area at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor Rakhno; Carol Johnstone

    2004-05-26

    The MuCool Test Area (MTA) is an intense primary beam facility derived directly from the Fermilab Linac to test heat deposition and other technical concerns associated with the liquid hydrogen targets being developed for cooling intense muon beams. In this shielding study the results of Monte Carlo radiation shielding calculations performed using the MARS14 code for the MuCool Test Area and including the downstream portion of the target hall and berm around it, access pit, service building, and parking lot are presented and discussed within the context of the proposed MTA experimental configuration.

  17. Variability of physics education in radiation oncology medical residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indra J; Moskvin, Vadim

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quality of medical physics education for radiation oncology medical residents. An independent survey regarding physics education was carried out using e-mail. The survey contained 12 questions addressing the duration, length, and quality of education. Responses were tabulated and compared with the recommended educational scheme. Nearly 56% of institutions participated in this survey. Educational patterns were found to be significantly variable among institutions. Some have minimum physics education (10 lectures), and some have 90 lectures per year. In general, two-thirds of the institutions require residents to attend classes up to the third year. Significant variability of physics education for radiation oncology medical residents was observed, contrary to the national recommendations. With advanced treatment techniques, physics education should be given more importance, and the number of lectures should be increased to accommodate every aspect of radiation oncology practice. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 25 CFR 2.19 - Action by Area Directors and Education Programs officials on appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by Area Directors and Education Programs officials... Programs officials on appeal. (a) Area Directors, Area Education Programs Administrators, Agency...—Indian Affairs/Director (Indian Education Programs) shall render written decisions in all cases appealed...

  19. Integrating an academic radiation safety program into an environmental management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurosky, Daniel M

    2003-08-01

    The Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Program at the University of South Carolina recently developed an environmental management system (EMS) based on the ISO 14001 International Standard. Since our radiation safety program must already meet strict state licensing requirements, the process of conforming to this standard was relatively easy to accomplish. The EH&S program achieved certification to the ISO 14001 standard in August of 2002. The benefits of the EMS include: better interaction between radiation safety and other EH&S program entities, holds all employees accountable by closely tracking program activities, presents a clear picture of program accomplishments to the university administration, allows for better use of limited resources and provides for continuous program improvement.

  20. Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program: the Galileo area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, R.D.; Kordas, J.F.

    1983-12-28

    The Galileo area is the first region of the Nevada Test Site to be surveyed by the Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP). This report describes in detail the use of soil sampling and in situ spectrometry to estimate radionuclide activities at selected sampling locations; the descriptions of these methods will be used as a reference for future RIDP reports. The data collected at Galileo were analyzed by kriging and the polygons of influence method to estimate the total inventory and the distribution of six man-made radionuclides. The results of the different statistical methods agree fairly well, although the data did not give very good estimates of the variogram for kriging, and further study showed the results of kriging to be highly dependent on the variogram parameters. The results also showed that in situ spectrometry gives better estimates of radionuclide activity than soil sampling, which tends to miss highly radioactive particles associated with vegetation. 18 references, 28 figures, 11 tables.

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

  2. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittroff, Connie; Strasser, Susan Barr [lead editors

    1999-08-03

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations.

  3. Three Mile Island, Unit 2, radiation protection program: report of the special panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, C. B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Murphy, T. D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Neely, D. R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Kathren, R. L. [Batelle Pacific Northwest Lab. (United States); Rich, B. L. [Exxon Nuclear Idaho Co., Inc. ID (United States); Stone, G. F. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Casey, W. R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1979-12-01

    A special panel was appointed by the Director of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, NRC, to review the radiation protection program at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The Panel confirmed several management and technical deficiencies in the program. Recent major GPU/Met Ed commitments and actions demonstrated a major change in management attitude. The Panel concluded that exposures to personnel can be maintained to as low as is reasonably achievable while limited preparatory recovery work continues and when further needed improvements are implemented as needed, the radiation safety program will be able to support major recovery activities.

  4. Online fault diagnostics and testing of area gamma radiation monitor using wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Padi Srinivas; Kumar, R. Amudhu Ramesh; Mathews, M. Geo; Amarendra, G.

    2017-07-01

    Periodical surveillance, checking, testing, and calibration of the installed Area Gamma Radiation Monitors (AGRM) in the nuclear plants are mandatory. The functionality of AGRM counting electronics and Geiger-Muller (GM) tube is to be monitored periodically. The present paper describes the development of online electronic calibration and testing of the GM tube from the control room. Two electronic circuits were developed, one for AGRM electronic test and another for AGRM detector test. A dedicated radiation data acquisition system was developed using an open platform communication server and data acquisition software. The Modbus RTU protocol on ZigBee based wireless communication was used for online monitoring and testing. The AGRM electronic test helps to carry out the three-point electronic calibration and verification of accuracy. The AGRM detector test is used to verify the GM threshold voltage and the plateau slope of the GM tube in-situ. The real-time trend graphs generated during these tests clearly identified the state of health of AGRM electronics and GM tube on go/no-go basis. This method reduces the radiation exposures received by the maintenance crew and facilitates quick testing with minimum downtime of the instrument.

  5. A Broad-Area Method for the Diurnal Characterisation of Upwelling Medium Wave Infrared Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Hally

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fire detection from satellite sensors relies on an accurate estimation of the unperturbed state of a target pixel, from which an anomaly can be isolated. Methods for estimating the radiation budget of a pixel without fire depend upon training data derived from the location’s recent history of brightness temperature variation over the diurnal cycle, which can be vulnerable to cloud contamination and the effects of weather. This study proposes a new method that utilises the common solar budget found at a given latitude in conjunction with an area’s local solar time to aggregate a broad-area training dataset, which can be used to model the expected diurnal temperature cycle of a location. This training data is then used in a temperature fitting process with the measured brightness temperatures in a pixel, and compared to pixel-derived training data and contextual methods of background temperature determination. Results of this study show similar accuracy between clear-sky medium wave infrared upwelling radiation and the diurnal temperature cycle estimation compared to previous methods, with demonstrable improvements in processing time and training data availability. This method can be used in conjunction with brightness temperature thresholds to provide a baseline for upwelling radiation, from which positive thermal anomalies such as fire can be isolated.

  6. The New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program: A Model for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Burger; D. J. Adams; T. Post; L. Sommers; B. Swift

    2005-01-01

    The New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program, modeled after the National Audubon Society?s Important Bird Areas Program, is based on legislation signed by Governor Pataki in 1997. New York is the first state in the nation to enact such a program. The BCA Program seeks to provide a comprehensive, ecosystem approach to conserving birds and their habitats on...

  7. Recollections on Sixty Years of NBS Ionizing Radiation Programs for Energetic X Rays and Electrons1

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, H. William

    2006-01-01

    These recollections are on ionizing radiation programs at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) that started in 1928 and ended in 1988 when NBS became the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The independent Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards (CIRMS) was formed in 1992. This article focuses on how measurements and standards for x rays, gamma rays, and electrons with energies above 1 MeV began at NBS and how they progressed. It also suggests how the rad...

  8. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from the NOAA Climate Data...

  9. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  10. Ecological and human impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas - human and ecological impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Centre for Environmental radioactivity CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, 1430 Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Fen Complex in Norway is an area well-known with its specific magmatic bedrock rich in thorium (Th), iron (Fe), niobium (Nb) and rare earth elements (REE). During several past centuries, intensive mining was conducted at sites in the area, giving rise to enhanced radioactivity levels. Previous human health studies demonstrated exposure doses among the highest in Europe. In the current work, contamination status with respect to radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, uranium ({sup 238}U)) and trace elements (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb)) and possible impact on humans and biota were investigated at legacy NORM and undisturbed surrounding NOR rich sites in the Fen Complex area. Significantly heterogeneous radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, and daughters) distribution was found in soil at both legacy NORM and undisturbed NOR rich sites. Thorium activity concentration levels exceeded screening levels for radioactive waste material given by Norwegian Pollution Control Act. Based on sequential extraction results, mobility of {sup 232}Th and trace elements were low, although higher at legacy NORM than at undisturbed NOR rich sites. Uranium was present at considerable levels (up to 50 %) in pH and redox sensitive soil fraction, as well as bound to soil organic compounds. However, no further transport towards biggest water source Norsjoe Lake was observed, as concentration levels of all investigated elements in water samples were extremely low. Long-term surveys of outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rates, thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in the air demonstrated elevated values (up to 9.2 μGy/h, 5000 Bq/m{sup 3} and 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively) with significant seasonal variation. Calculated annual exposure doses to humans due to outdoor exposure could exceed 10 mSv, i.e., be higher than 1 mSv dose constraint given by ICRP. Roughly summarized with previously published data on indoor doses for Fen village population, total annual exposure

  11. RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES IN RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED AREAS OF TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chichura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. The analyses of radiation hygienic monitoring conducted in Tula region territories affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident regarding cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the local foodstuffs and the analyses of populational annual effective dose. The materials and methods. The survey was conducted in Tula Region since 1997 to 2015. Over that period, more than fifty thousand samples of the main foodstuffs from the post-Chernobyl contaminated area were analyzed. Simultaneously with that, the external gamma - radiation dose rate was measured in the fixed control points. The dynamics of cesium -137 and strontium-90 content in foodstuffs were assessed along with the maximum values of the mean annual effective doses to the population and the contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures into the structure of the annual effective collective dose to the population. The results. The amount of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in the local foodstuffs was identified. The external gamma- radiation dose rate values were found to be stable and not exceeding the natural fluctuations range typical for the middle latitudes of Russia’s European territory. The maximum mean annual effective dose to the population reflects the stable radiation situation and does not exceed the permissible value of 1 mSv. The contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures of the population has been continuously reducing as well as the average individual dose to the population per one medical treatment under the annual increase of the medical treatments quantities. The conclusion. There is no exceedance of the admissible levels of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 content in the local foodstuffs. The mean annual effective dose to the population has decreased which makes it possible to transfer the settlements affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident to normal life style. This is covered by the draft concept of the settlements’ transfer to normal life style.

  12. The twenty-second screening for thyroid disorders in radiation-contaminated areas of the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tanekazu [Kawasaki Coll. of Allied Health Professions, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Monobe, Manami

    2000-12-01

    One hundred and ninety-one people who reside in radiation-contaminated areas of the Ukraine near the site of the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were screened in 1999. The ages of people screened ranged from 1 to 74 years. Diffuse goiter was palpable in 67.5%, and nodular goiter in 3.1%. Thyroid cancer was detected in only one suspicious case. Among the people with diffuse goiter, however, there were positive anti-thyroglobulin hemagglutination tests (TGHA) in 6.7% and positive anti-microsome hemagglutination tests (MCHA) in 16.7% of cases. In addition, urinary iodine concentrations and daily urinary excretion were low. Thus, it is thought that the majority of diffuse goiters in this area are not due to autoimmune thyroiditis but to iodine deficiency. At present, no definite conclusion can be drawn on the relationship between the large number of diffuse goiters and radioactive contamination. Further studies are required. (author)

  13. Human body area factors for radiation exchange analysis: standing and walking postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookuk; Tuller, Stanton E

    2011-09-01

    Effective radiation area factors (f (eff)) and projected area factors (f (p)) of unclothed Caucasians' standing and walking postures used in estimating human radiation exchange with the surrounding environment were determined from a sample of adults in Canada. Several three-dimensional (3D) computer body models were created for standing and walking postures. Only small differences in f (eff) and f (p) values for standing posture were found between gender (male or female) and body type (normal- or over-weight). Differences between this study and previous studies were much larger: ≤0.173 in f (p) and ≤0.101 in f (eff). Directionless f (p) values for walking posture also had only minor differences between genders and positions in a stride. However, the differences of mean directional f (p) values of the positions dependent on azimuth angles were large enough, ≤0.072, to create important differences in modeled radiation receipt. Differences in f (eff) values were small: 0.02 between the normal-weight male and female models and up to 0.033 between positions in a stride. Variations of directional f (p) values depending on solar altitudes for walking posture were narrower than those for standing posture. When both standing and walking postures are considered, the mean f (eff) value, 0.836, of standing (0.826) and walking (0.846) could be used. However, f (p) values should be selected carefully because differences between directional and directionless f (p) values were large enough that they could influence the estimated level of human thermal sensation.

  14. 45 CFR 308.3 - Optional program areas of review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are trying to manage their resources to achieve the best performance possible. A program direction... to make the program more efficient and effective; (2) Efforts to improve client services; (3...

  15. Atmospheric radiation measurement unmanned aerospace vehicle (ARM-UAV) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, W.R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    ARM-UAV is part of the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program and is addressing the largest source of uncertainty in predicting climatic response: the interaction of clouds and the sun`s energy in the Earth`s atmosphere. An important aspect of the program is the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) as the primary airborne platform. The ARM-UAV Program has completed two major flight series: The first series conducted in April, 1994, using an existing UAV (the General Atomics Gnat 750) consisted of eight highly successful flights at the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. The second series conducted in September/October, 1995, using two piloted aircraft (Egrett and Twin Otter), featured simultaneous measurements above and below clouds and in clear sky. Additional flight series are planned to continue study of the cloudy and clear sky energy budget in the Spring and Fall of 1996 over the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversions in rats: A comparison of the protective effects of area postrema lesions with differing doses of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossenkopp, K.P.; Giugno, L. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1989-10-01

    Lesions which destroy the area postrema (AP) and damage the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) attenuate or abolish conditioned taste aversions (CTA) induced by a variety of pharmacological agents as well as exposure to radiation. In the present experiment, 4 groups of male rats received lesions of AP and 4 groups were given sham lesions. One sham-lesioned and one AP-lesioned group were given a single pairing of 1-hr access to a novel 0.10% sodium saccharin solution followed immediately with exposure to 0, 100, 200, or 400 rad of gamma radiation, respectively. Four days later all groups were given daily two-bottle preference tests (saccharin vs. water) on 4 consecutive days. The sham-lesioned groups exposed to the radiation (100, 200, or 400 rad) developed profound aversions to the saccharin on all test days (p less than 0.001). In contrast, all of the AP-lesioned groups as well as the sham-irradiated (0 rad) sham-lesioned group exhibited strong, comparable (p greater than 0.30) preferences for saccharin. Thus, lesion of AP abolished the radiation-induced CTA at all dose levels of radiation. These results raise the possibility of pharmacological intervention at the level of AP to prevent radiation-induced CTA in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy.

  17. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L. (comps.)

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  18. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, CP 04510 (Mexico); Ruby, Espejo Fonseca [Instituto de Enfermedades de la Mama FUCAM-AC, CP 04980 (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  19. Measurements of gamma radiation levels and spectra in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, B. T.; Brozek, K. P.; Angell, C. T.; Norman, E. B.

    2011-10-01

    Much of the radiation received by an average person is emitted by naturally-occurring radioactive isotopes from the thorium, actinium, and uranium decay series, or potassium. In this study, we have measured gamma radiation levels at various locations in the San Francisco Bay Area and the UC Berkeley campus from spectra taken using an ORTEC NOMAD portable data acquisition system and a large-volume coaxial HPGe detector. We have identified a large number of gamma rays originating from natural sources. The most noticeable isotopes are 214Bi, 40K, and 208Tl. We have observed variations in counting rates by factors of two to five between different locations due to differences in local conditions - such as building, concrete, grass, and soil compositions. In addition, in a number of outdoor locations, we have observed 604-, 662-, and 795-keV gamma rays from 134,137Cs, which we attribute to fallout from the recent Fukushima reactor accident. The implications of these results will be discussed. This work was supported in part by a grant from the U. S. Dept. of Homeland Security.

  20. Measurements and simulations of the BLM response to a radiation field inside the CERF target area

    CERN Document Server

    Lebbos, E; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Ferrari, A; Kramer, D; Nordt, A; Roeed, K; Roesler, S; Sapinski, M; Vlachoudis, V; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2010-01-01

    The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility is installed in one of the secondary beam lines (H6) of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), in the North Experimental Area at CERN. This facility is used as a reference for testing, inter-comparing and calibrating passive and active instruments. In May 2009, the SPS provided a mixed hadron beam (protons, pions and kaons) during a few days, in order to perform several measurements with different devices such as the Radiation Protection Monitor used for residual dose rates due to Induced Radioactivity in the LHC (PMI), the Secondary Emission Monitor used for high beam losses (SEM), the Radiation Monitor for electronics (RadMon), and the Beam Loss Monitor for the LHC (BLM). This report focuses on the measurements of the BLM response during this year’s operation at CERF. The measurements evaluate the sensitivity of the BLM signal to the particle energy spectrum, with special attention to the contribution coming from thermal neutrons. For this purpose, meas...

  1. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.

  2. New Areas for Preventive Programing: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph

    Crisis intervention programs for persons experiencing the sudden death of family members or surviving natural disasters have been advocated as methods of primary prevention, although few have actually been implemented. A program utilizing nurses to deliver grief intervention to parents losing a baby to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) was…

  3. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

  4. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under...

  5. Adaptive response of blood lymphocytes of inhabitants residing in high background radiation areas of ramsar- micronuclei, apoptosis and comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shahla; Taghavi-Dehaghani, Mahnaz; Gharaati, Mohammad R; Masoomi, Reza; Ghiassi-Nejad, Mehdi

    2006-11-01

    The hot springs in certain areas of Ramsar contain (226)Ra and (222)Rn. The effects of natural radiation on the inhabitants of these areas and the inhabitant's radiosensitivity or adaptive responses were studied. One group of volunteers from areas with high natural background radiation and another group from areas with normal background radiation were chosen as the case and control group respectively. The frequency of micronuclei, apoptosis, and DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured following gamma irradiation (4 Gy). The incidence of micronuclei in the case group was significantly lower than that in the control group while their frequency of apoptosis was higher (P < 0.05). However, the rates of induced DNA damage and repair were significantly higher in the case group (P < 0.05). Smaller number of micronuclei and higher levels of apoptosis in the case group could be the result of higher resistance to radiation stress and a more rigorous checkpoint at cell division. However, regarding the alkaline labile sites, the individuals in the case group are more sensitive and susceptible to DNA damage. The results of micronuclei, apoptosis and repair studies suggest that an adaptive response might be induced in people residing in areas with high background radiation.

  6. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Program [1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Management Program summarizes last year's water receipts, distribution, and general marsh conditions. Using past records of waterfowl use and productivity...

  7. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water management Program [1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Management Program summarizes last year's -water receipts, distribution and general marsh conditions . Anticipated water flows are made from cooperative...

  8. FFY 2012-2015 transportation improvement program for the Dubuque, Iowa, Illinois and Wisconsin urbanized area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    "A Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) is the Dubuque Metropolitan Area : Transportation Study (DMATS) 4- year financial implementation program listing of : transportation improvement projects eligible for Federal funding. It is DMATS : transpor...

  9. Integrating Other Areas of Learning into the Language Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Mariel

    1996-01-01

    Presents modules and learning activities taken from other learning areas useful in the Australian second-language classroom. Argues that general and specific subject areas can stimulate dialogue and interest as well as cultural and social awareness, provide new language structures, enrich vocabulary and extend the use of idiomatic expressions, and…

  10. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deva Jayanthi, D., E-mail: d.devajayanthi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629001 (India); Maniyan, C.G. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Perumal, S. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: {yields} The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. {yields} The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. {yields} As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. {yields} Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. {yields} These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  11. Integrity of the National Resident Matching Program for Radiation Oncology: National Survey of Applicant Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Charles R., E-mail: thomasch@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, OHSU Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kusano, Aaron S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of radiation oncology applicants and to evaluate the prevalence of behaviors that may be in conflict with established ethical standards. Methods and Materials: An anonymous survey was sent to all 2013 applicants to a single domestic radiation oncology residency program through the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP). Questions included demographics, survey of observed behaviors, and opinions regarding the interview and matching process. Descriptive statistics were presented. Characteristics and experiences of respondents who matched were compared with those who did not match. Results: Questionnaires were returned by 87 of 171 applicants for a 51% response rate. Eighty-two questionnaires were complete and included for analysis. Seventy-eight respondents (95.1%) reported being asked at least 1 question in conflict with the NRMP code of conduct. When asked where else they were interviewing, 64% stated that this query made them uncomfortable. Forty-five respondents (54.9%) reported unsolicited post-interview contact by programs, and 31 (37.8%) felt pressured to give assurances. Fifteen respondents (18.3%) reported being told their rank position or that they were “ranked to match” prior to Match day, with 27% of those individuals indicating this information influenced how they ranked programs. Half of respondents felt applicants often made dishonest or misleading assurances, one-third reported that they believed their desired match outcome could be improved by deliberately misleading programs, and more than two-thirds felt their rank position could be improved by having faculty from their home institutions directly contact programs on their behalf. Conclusions: Radiation oncology applicants report a high prevalence of behaviors in conflict with written NRMP policies. Post-interview communication should be discouraged in order to enhance fairness and support the professional development of future

  12. Development of a residency program in radiation oncology physics: an inverse planning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rao F H; Dunscombe, Peter B

    2016-03-08

    Over the last two decades, there has been a concerted effort in North America to organize medical physicists' clinical training programs along more structured and formal lines. This effort has been prompted by the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP) which has now accredited about 90 residency programs. Initially the accreditation focused on standardized and higher quality clinical physics training; the development of rounded professionals who can function at a high level in a multidisciplinary environment was recognized as a priority of a radiation oncology physics residency only lately. In this report, we identify and discuss the implementation of, and the essential components of, a radiation oncology physics residency designed to produce knowledgeable and effective clinical physicists for today's safety-conscious and collaborative work environment. Our approach is that of inverse planning, by now familiar to all radiation oncology physicists, in which objectives and constraints are identified prior to the design of the program. Our inverse planning objectives not only include those associated with traditional residencies (i.e., clinical physics knowledge and critical clinical skills), but also encompass those other attributes essential for success in a modern radiation therapy clinic. These attributes include formal training in management skills and leadership, teaching and communication skills, and knowledge of error management techniques and patient safety. The constraints in our optimization exercise are associated with the limited duration of a residency and the training resources available. Without compromising the knowledge and skills needed for clinical tasks, we have successfully applied the model to the University of Calgary's two-year residency program. The program requires 3840 hours of overall commitment from the trainee, of which 7%-10% is spent in obtaining formal training in nontechnical "soft skills".

  13. A framework for quality improvement and patient safety education in radiation oncology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Anamaria; Greenwalt, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In training future radiation oncologists, we must begin to focus on training future QI specialists. Our patients are demanding better quality and safer care, and accrediting bodies are requiring it. We must equip radiation oncology trainees to be leaders in this new world. To that end, a QI/PS educational program should contain 2 components: a didactic portion focused on teaching basic QI tools as well as an overview of the quality and safety goals of the institution, and an experiential component, ideally a resident-led QI project mentored by an expert faculty member and that is linked to the department's and institution's goals.

  14. Rapid access palliative radiation therapy programs: an efficient model of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Kristopher; Linden, Kelly; Balboni, Tracy; Chow, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Palliating symptoms of advanced and metastatic cancers are one of the most common indications for radiation therapy (RT), and the demand for palliative RT is increasing. Dedicated rapid access palliative RT programs improve access to care, and can deliver RT in a more efficient and evidence-based manner than standard RT programs. In this narrative review, we discuss the role of palliative RT in comprehensive cancer care, and challenges that have faced patients trying to access it. We describe how rapid access programs developed to address these challenges and provide an overview of dedicated programs worldwide. Finally, we show how these programs can serve as models for multidisciplinary care and education, and sources of exciting research opportunities in clinical care and advanced technologies.

  15. The Very High Background Radiation Area in Ramsar, Iran: Public Health Risk or Signal for a Regulatory Paradigm Shift?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P. Andrew [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Mortazavi, S.M. Javad [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Medical Physics Dept.

    2001-07-01

    Ramsar, a city on the Caspian Sea in northern Iran hosts the highest measured natural background radiation levels in the world. These are due to the local geology and hydrogeology and, in some places, deliver radiation doses far in excess of those recommended for radiation workers. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy/yr and the highest recorded doses are about 260 mGy/yr. These high radiation levels are due to the deposition of {sup 226}Ra in local rocks and, because these rocks are used in the construction of many local houses, interior radiation levels are often similar to those found outside. The presence of areas such as Ramsar raises an interesting public health policy question: Is it necessary to relocate the inhabitants to areas of lower natural background radiation levels in the interests of public health? According to the linear, no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, there is no doubt that relocating the population of Ramsar will result in a reduction in cancer incidence. Therefore, under any reasonable policy based on the LNT hypothesis, the public health is best served by relocating many of Ramsar's inhabitants to other areas along the Caspian Sea. At present, there is no reliable epidemiological data on cancer incidence among the inhabitants of Ramsar's high background radiation areas (HBRAs), but local physicians feel that local cancer incidence rates are lower than in neighboring cities. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that there is a statistically significant radio adaptation in the inhabitants of Ramsar. Interestingly, it seems that the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of the inhabitants of Ramsar is no higher than the control areas. This important finding suggests that the cancer rate in Ramsar should be no higher than in other comparable parts of Iran. In other HBRAs such as Yangjiang, China it has been reported that mortality from all cancers and those from

  16. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  17. Intraoperative C-arm radiation affecting factors and reduction by an intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Weigl, Daniel Martin; Becker, Tali; Katz, Kalman; Konen, Osnat

    2010-06-01

    The increase in the utilization of fluoroscopy during surgical procedures carries with it an inherent increase in the exposure of both patients and surgical staff to ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability to reduce radiation doses by the implementation of an intervention program targeted at the staff operating the fluoroscopy machinery and attempting to make a behavioral change in its utilization. (1) Fluoroscopy technique was optimized after a series of simulation fluoroscopies. (2) A series of lectures was given to all staff operating fluoroscopy equipment (surgeons and x-ray technicians). (3) Directives for the reduction of radiation were included in the preoperative briefing, a sign was displayed next to the fluoroscopy screen, and radiation data was discussed in postoperative conferences. The index procedure chosen for the study was closed reduction and percutaneous fixation of Gartland III supracondylar humerus fractures. Fluoroscopy time and dosage were compared in 43 cases before the intervention program (group A) and in 40 cases after the program (group B). Reduction accuracy was assessed by the Bauman angle, humerocapitellar angle, and rotation index. The mean fluoroscopy time was 122 seconds (6-565) in group A and 54 seconds (1-188) in group B with a P value of 0.001. Radiation emission was 202 (5-1210) millirems in group A and 90 millirems (10-237) in group B (P=0.005). The mean fluoroscopy time for a surgery performed by a resident was 126 seconds (27-431) with 211 (38-766) millirems of radiation. The presence of a senior surgeon reduced these figures to 75 seconds (1-565) (P=0.003) and 127 millirems (5-1210) (P=0.001). The effect of the intervention program was similar regardless of the level of training of the surgical staff. Reduction accuracy and complication rate were no different in the 2 groups. Radiation exposure is significantly affected by surgical and fluoroscopic techniques and by the surgeons' level of

  18. Status and Update of the RaDIATE Collaboration R&D Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab

    2017-07-01

    The Radiation Damage In Accelerator Target Environments (RaDIATE) collaboration was founded in 2012 and currently consists of over 50 participants and 11 institutions globally. Due to the increasing power of future proton accelerator sources in target facilities, there is a critical need to further understand the physical and thermo-mechanical radiation response of target facility materials. Thus, the primary objective of the RaDIATE collaboration is to draw on existing expertise in the nuclear materials and accelerator targets fields to generate new and useful materials data for application within the accelerator and fission/fusion communities. Current research activities of the collaboration include post irradiation examination (PIE) of decommissioned components from existing beamlines such as the NuMI beryllium beam window and graphite NT-02 target material. PIE of these components includes advanced microstructural analyses (SEM/TEM, EBSD, EDS) and micro-mechanics technique such as nano-indentation, to help characterize any microstructural radiation damage incurred during operation. New irradiation campaigns of various candidate materials at both low and high energy beam facilities are also being pursued. Beryllium helium implantation studies at the University of Surrey as well as high energy proton irradiation of various materials at Brookhaven National Laboratory’s BLIP facility have been initiated. The program also extends to beam-induced thermal shock experiments using high intensity beam pulses at CERN’s HiRadMat facility, followed by advanced PIE activities to evaluate thermal shock resistance of the materials. Preliminary results from ongoing research activities, as well as the future plans of the RaDIATE collaboration R&D program will be discussed.

  19. Modeling of Space Radiation Exposure Estimation Program for Pilots, Crew and Passengers on Commercial Flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid increase of the concern on the space radiation effect on pilots, crew and passengers at the commercial aircraft altitude (~ 10 km recently. It is because domestic airline companies, Korean Air and Asiana Airlines have just begun operating the polar routes over the North Pole since 2006 and 2009 respectively. CARI-6 and CARI-6M are commonly used space radiation estimation programs which are provided officially by the U.S. federal aviation administration (FAA. In this paper, the route doses and the annual radiation doses for Korean pilots and cabin crew were estimated by using CARI-6M based on 2012 flight records. Also the modeling concept was developed for our own space radiation estimation program which is composed of GEANT4 and NRLMSIS00 models. The GEANT4 model is used to trace the incident particle transports in the atmosphere and the NRLMSIS00 model is used to get the background atmospheric densities of various neutral atoms at the aircraft altitude. Also presented are the results of simple integration tests of those models and the plan to include the space weather variations through the solar proton event (SPE prediction model such as UMASEP and the galactic cosmic ray (GCR prediction model such as Badhwar-O’Neill 2010.

  20. Solar Radiation at Surface for Typical Cities in the Arid and Semi-Arid Area in Xinjiang, China Based on Satellite Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihua, Fang; Haichen, Liu; Jiamin, Huang; Yunqi, Zhang; Jun, Hu; Yonghang, Chen; Yanming, Kang; Xue, Wang; Chengjie, Huang

    2017-05-01

    Xinjiang, a region of China with arid and semi-arid areas, has abundant solar incidence with 166.5×104 km2 and diverse underlying surface. The meager number of surface radiation observatories cannot meet the need for efficient exploration of solar energy. In this study we classified Xinjiang into three regions: southern Xinjiang, northern Xinjiang and Tu-Ha region and applied satellite data to provide the surface solar radiation’s temporal distribution for 10 typical cities. The study is focused on seasonal, annual and variations of all sky downward shortwave radiation flux at surface based on 24-year satellite dataset GEWEX-SRB from the WCRP/GEWEX (World Climate Research Program/Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) from 1984 to 2007. The results are as follows. In general, the monthly average solar radiation flux for the cities in the Tu-Ha region was the largest followed by the south Xinjiang and northern Xinjiang. The solar radiation in the most northern cities were less than 150.0 W/m2 in winter, the minimum is 138.7 W/m2, while the other cities were greater than 150.0 W/m2. The maximum of monthly solar flux for the Tu-Ha region, southern and northern Xinjiang was 400.0 W/m2.

  1. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  2. Establishment of a special program of radiation monitoring in the storage of radioactive waste from the Cabril; Establecimiento de un programa especial de vigilancia radiologica en el almacenamiento de residuos radiactivos de El Cabril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Fuentes, L.; Pinilla Matos, J. L.; Ortiz Rames, M. T.

    2011-07-01

    At the Center for Radioactive Waste Storage of low and intermediate level of the Cabril, has developed a Special Surveillance Program (ENP) radiation from the outer areas within the site, in order to identify and eliminate potential areas of possible contamination.

  3. Averaged Solar Radiation Pressure Modeling for High Area-to-Mass Ratio Objects in Geostationary Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Roshan Thomas

    Space Situational Awareness is aimed at providing timely and accurate information of the space environment. This was originally done by maintaining a catalog of space objects states (position and velocity). Traditionally, a cannonball model would be used to propagate the dynamics. This can be acceptable for an active satellite since its attitude motion can be stabilized. However, for non-functional space debris, the cannonball model would disappoint because it is attitude independent and the debris is prone to tumbling. Furthermore, high area-to-mass ratio objects are sensitive to very small changes in perturbations, particularly those of the non-conservative kind. This renders the cannonball model imprecise in propagating the orbital motion of such objects. With the ever-increasing population of man-made space debris, in-orbit explosions, collisions and potential impacts of near Earth objects, it has become imperative to modify the traditional approach to a more predictive, tactical and exact rendition. Hence, a more precise orbit propagation model needs to be developed which warrants a better understanding of the perturbations in the near Earth space. The attitude dependency of some perturbations renders the orbit-attitude motion to be coupled. In this work, a coupled orbit-attitude model is developed taking both conservative and non-conservative forces and torques into account. A high area-to-mass ratio multi-layer insulation in geostationary space is simulated using the coupled dynamics model. However, the high fidelity model developed is computationally expensive. This work aims at developing a model to average the short-term solar radiation pressure force to perform computationally better than the cannonball model and concurrently have a comparable fidelity to the coupled orbit-attitude model.

  4. Development of new on line statistical program for the Korean society for radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Si Yeol; Ahn, Seung Do; Choi, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Weon Kuu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Kangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwan Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To develop new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to collect and extract medical data in radiation oncology more efficiently. The statistical program is a web-based program. The directory was placed in a sub-folder of the homepage of KOSRO and its web address is http://www.kosro.or.kr/asda. The operating systems server is Linux and the webserver is the Apache HTTP server. For database (DB) server, MySQL is adopted and dedicated scripting language is the PHP. Each ID and password are controlled independently and all screen pages for data input or analysis are made to be friendly to users. Scroll-down menu is actively used for the convenience of user and the consistence of data analysis. Year of data is one of top categories and main topics include human resource, equipment, clinical statistics, specialized treatment and research achievement. Each topic or category has several subcategorized topics. Real-time on-line report of analysis is produced immediately after entering each data and the administrator is able to monitor status of data input of each hospital. Backup of data as spread sheets can be accessed by the administrator and be used for academic works by any members of the KOSRO. The new on-line statistical program was developed to collect data from nationwide departments of radiation oncology. Intuitive screen and consistent input structure are expected to promote entering data of member hospitals and annual statistics should be a cornerstone of advance in radiation oncology.

  5. Estimation of radiation exposure from lung cancer screening program with low-dose computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan [Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with Low-dose Computed Tomography (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer mortality in a high-risk population. Recently, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) gave a B recommendation for annual LDCT screening for individuals at high-risk. With the promising results, Korea developed lung cancer screening guideline and is planning a pilot study for implementation of national lung cancer screening. With widespread adoption of lung cancer screening with LDCT, there are concerns about harms of screening, including high false-positive rates and radiation exposure. Over the 3 rounds of screening in the NLST, 96.4% of positive results were false-positives. Although the initial screening is performed at low dose, subsequent diagnostic examinations following positive results additively contribute to patient's lifetime exposure. As with implementing a large-scale screening program, there is a lack of established risk assessment about the effect of radiation exposure from long-term screening program. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate cumulative radiation exposure of annual LDCT lung cancer screening program over 20-year period.

  6. A Pilot Training Program and Evaluation of Training for an Area Agency on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy; Campbell, Richard

    A preliminary training and evaluation program was initiated by the Houston Area Agency on Aging. Several pilot training programs were tested, and information was gathered on the current and desired training status of personnel in service-providing agencies. Inspection of obective and subjective reports suggests that future training programs should…

  7. Mammography with and without radiolucent positioning sheets : Comparison of projected breast area, pain experience, radiation dose and technical image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Janine; ten Voorde, Marloes; van Engen, Ruben E.; van Landsveld-Verhoeven, Cary; Pijnappel, Ruud; Droogh-de Greve, Kitty; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare projected breast area, image quality, pain experience and radiation dose between mammography performed with and without radiolucent positioning sheets. Methods: 184 women screened in the Dutch breast screening programme (May-June 2012) provided written informed consent to have

  8. No reduction of radiation dose following the introduction of dose-area product measurement in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, A.S.; Vleggaar, F.P.; Erpecum, K.J. van; Timmerman, A.M.D.E.; Siersema, P.D.; Oldenburg, B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During radiological examinations such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is recommended to record the dose-area product (DAP) to reduce the patient's and the physician's exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the effect of DAP measurement on the total

  9. Program Area of Interest: Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

    2006-02-01

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2005 through December 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  10. Tanks focus area multiyear program plan FY97-FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major tank remediation problem with approximately 332 tanks storing over 378,000 ml of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Most of the tanks have significantly exceeded their life spans. Approximately 90 tanks across the DOE complex are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents are potentially explosive. These tanks must be remediated and made safe. How- ever, regulatory drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Therefore, the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) began operation in October 1994. The focus area manages, coordinates, and leverages technology development to provide integrated solutions to remediate problems that will accelerate safe and cost-effective cleanup and closure of DOE`s national tank system. The TFA is responsible for technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), INEL (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: safety, characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, immobilization, and closure.

  11. Cancer Mortality Among People Living in Areas With Various Levels of Natural Background Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyński, Ludwik; Fornalski, Krzysztof W; Feinendegen, Ludwig E

    2015-01-01

    There are many places on the earth, where natural background radiation exposures are elevated significantly above about 2.5 mSv/year. The studies of health effects on populations living in such places are crucially important for understanding the impact of low doses of ionizing radiation. This article critically reviews some recent representative literature that addresses the likelihood of radiation-induced cancer and early childhood death in regions with high natural background radiation. The comparative and Bayesian analysis of the published data shows that the linear no-threshold hypothesis does not likely explain the results of these recent studies, whereas they favor the model of threshold or hormesis. Neither cancers nor early childhood deaths positively correlate with dose rates in regions with elevated natural background radiation.

  12. Community Radiation Monitoring Program annual report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

    1991-07-01

    The events of FY 1990 indicate that another successful year in the evolution of the Community Radiation Monitoring Program is in the books. The agencies and organizations involved in the program have developed a sound and viable working relationship, and it appears that the major objectives, primarily dispelling some of the concerns over weapons testing and radiation on the part of the public, are being effectively addressed. The program is certainly a dynamic operation, growing and changing to meet perceived needs and goals as more experience is gained through our work. The change in focus on our public outreach efforts will lead us to contacts with more students and schools, service clubs and special interest groups in the future, and will refine, and hopefully improve, our communication with the public. If that can be accomplished, plus perhaps influencing a few more students to stay in school and even grow up to be scientists, engineers and better citizens, we will be closer to having achieved our goals. It is important to note that the success of the program has occurred only because the people involved, from the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Desert Research Institute, the University of Utah and the Station Managers and Alternates work well and hard together. Our extended family'' is doing a good job. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

  14. High background radiation areas of Ramsar in Iran: evaluation of DNA damage by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, J R; Mohammadi, Sh; Amini, M; Ghiassi-Nejad, M

    2006-01-01

    The hot springs in special areas in Ramsar, a northern coastal town in Iran, contain (226)Ra and (222)Rn. The natural radiation effects, radiosensitivity or adaptive responses, on the inhabitants of high natural radiation in Ramsar were studied. The single cell gel electrophoresis was used to monitor DNA damages. Three groups of volunteers were selected, one from high natural background radiation areas as the case group and two from normal background radiation areas as controls (control 1 and control 2). The latter one had the similar living situation to case group while the other (control 2) had different living situation from the other groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) were separated and irradiated by (60)Co source at five different gamma doses. It was found that the spontaneous level of DNA damage and the induced DNA damage in all challenging doses in case group was considerably higher than control groups (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the repair rate in those volunteers, who received less than 10.2 mSv/y was significantly more than the control groups. In the contrary, individuals who live in homes with more than 10.2 mSv/y had incomplete repair. Additionally the plasma and urinary levels of vitamin C were measured spectrophotometrically. Although the concentration of vitamin C of plasma was equal in case and control 1 groups, the urinary level of vitamin C was found to be lower in the case group.

  15. New Approach to Microclimate Parameter Selection for the Production Area with Heat Supply Systems Based on Gas Infrared Radiators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurilenko N. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There presented experimental research results for the heat transfer behavior in the areas with the radiant heating systems based on the gas infrared radiators. The model of heat-gravitational convection is formulated, that conforms to the transformation conditions of radiant energy coming from the radiators. A new approach to the parameter selection of the indoor climate with the radiant heating systems is developed based on the analysis and collation of experimental data for the temperature patterns and that of the heat flows of the object of research.

  16. ATEN, a didactic program to study gamma radiation attenuation through matter

    CERN Document Server

    Paniagua, J; Rio, M D; Jiménez, A; Baeza, A; Miro, C

    1995-01-01

    A simulation model is described, which is based on the Monte-Carlo technique, for the computer study of the attenuation which gamma radiation undergoes as it interacts with matter. The interaction modes that were considered are exclusively the photoelectric, Compton, and pair production effects. A computer program, ATEN, has been developed for this model, which allows one to obtain the attenuation coefficient of an absorbing material for gamma radiation of known energy, using cross sections of those processes considered in the model for energies between 0.1 and 10 MeV. ATEN was developed for didactic purposes and was designed to be used as an interesting support for laboratory practical classes for undergraduates in their first university courses. (author)

  17. An overview of global solar radiation measurements in Ghardaia area, south Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gairaa, Kacem; Bakelli, Yahia [Applied Research Unit for Renewables Energies, Ouargla Road, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of actual solar radiation data measurements in Ghardaia site (32.360 N, 3.810 W, 450 m above MSL). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year from 1 January-31December 2005. The data thus recorded are compared with corresponding data of the 22-year average of NASA's surface meteorology and solar energy-model. Hourly, daily and monthly solar radiation was made from five-minute recorded by EKO Pyranometer. The highest measured daily and monthly mean solar radiation was found to be 369 and 326 (W/m2), and the highest five minute averaged solar radiation values up to 1268 (W/m2) were observed in the summer season from May to September, and the yearly average daily energy input was 21.83 (MJ/m2/day). Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average temperature variations are discussed. The collected data indicate that Ghardaia has a strong potential for solar energy applications.

  18. Determination of atmospheric parameters to estimate global radiation in areas of complex topography: Generation of global irradiation map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batlles, F.J.; Bosch, J.L. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Tovar-Pescador, J. [Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Martinez-Durban, M. [Dpto. Ingenieria Lenguajes y Computacion, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Ortega, R. [Dpto. Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Miralles, I. [Dpto. Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Granada, 28071 Granada (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    Incoming shortwave solar radiation is an important parameter in environmental applications. A detailed spatial and temporal analysis of global solar radiation on the earth surface is needed in many applications, ranging from solar energy uses to the study of agricultural, forest and biological processes. At local scales, the topography is the most important factor in the distribution of solar radiation on the surface. The variability of the elevation, the surface orientation and the obstructions due to elevations are a source of great local differences in insolation and, consequently, in other variables as ground temperature. For this reason, several models based on GIS techniques have been recently developed, integrating topography to obtain the solar radiation on the surface. In this work, global radiation is analyzed with the Solar Analyst, a model implemented on ArcView, that computes the topographic parameters: altitude, latitude, slope and orientation (azimuth) and shadow effects. Solar Analyst uses as input parameters the diffuse fraction and the transmittance. These parameters are not usually available in radiometric networks in mountainous areas. In this work, a method to obtain both parameters from global radiation is proposed. Global radiation data obtained in two networks of radiometric stations is used: one located in Sierra Magina Natural Park (Spain) with 11 stations and another one located on the surroundings of Sierra Nevada Natural Park (Spain) with 14 stations. Daily solar irradiation is calculated from a digital terrain model (DTM), the daily diffuse fraction, K, and daily atmospheric transmittivity, {tau}. Results provided by the model have been compared with measured values. An overestimation for high elevations is observed, whereas low altitudes present underestimation. The best performance was also reported during summer months, and the worst results were obtained during winter. Finally, a yearly global solar irradiation map has been

  19. Federal employees health benefits program; medically underserved areas for 1998--OPM. Notice of medically underserved areas for 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-02

    The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has completed its annual calculation of the States that qualify as Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for the calendar year 1998. This is necessary to comply with a provision of FEHB law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in states with critical shortages of primary care physicians. Accordingly, for calendar year 1998, OPM's calculations show that the following States are Medically Underserved Areas under the FEHB Program: Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, South Carolina, South Dakota, West Virginia, and Wyoming. North Dakota has been removed from that list, with no new additions for 1998.

  20. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program, Medically Underserved Areas for 1999--OPM. Notice of medically underserved areas for 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-03

    The Office of Personnel Management has completed its annual calculation of the States that qualify as Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for the calendar year 1999. This is necessary to comply with a provision of FEHB law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in states with critical shortages of primary care physicians. Accordingly, for calendar year 1999, OPM's calculations show that the following States are Medically Underserved Areas under the FEHB Program: Alabama, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Wyoming. West Virginia has been removed from the 1998 list, and Idaho and North Dakota have been added.

  1. Radiation protection in pediatric interventional cardiology: An IAEA PILOT program in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, Eliseo; Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Leyton, Fernando; Durán, Ariel; Nader, Alejandro

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work is to present a methodology and some initial results for a pilot program on radiation protection (RP) in pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The starting point of the program was a workshop involving several pediatric cardiologists leading this specialty in 11 Latin American countries. The workshop included a pilot RP training course and additional sessions during which the objectives of the program and the methodology to collect and process data on patient and staff radiation doses were discussed. Special attention was dedicated to agree on a common quality control (QC) protocol for the x-ray and imaging systems used in the different catheterization laboratories. The preliminary data showed that only 64% of the cardiologists used their personal dosimeters regularly and that only 36% were aware of their personal dose values. The data on pediatric interventional activity were collected from 10 centers from nine different countries. A total of 2,429 procedures (50% diagnostic and 50% therapeutic) were carried out during 2009 in these centers. Patient dose data were available in only a few centers and were not analyzed on a regular basis in any of the catheterization laboratories involved. Plans were developed for a basic QC protocol of the x-ray systems and construction of a Latin American database on pediatric cardiology with patient and staff dose values with the idea in mind of obtaining distributions of these dose values before promoting several optimization strategies.

  2. EDISTR: a computer program to obtain a nuclear decay data base for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillman, L.T.

    1980-01-01

    This report provides documentation for the computer program EDISTR. EDISTR uses basic radioactive decay data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File developed and maintained by the Nuclear Data Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as input, and calculates the mean energies and absolute intensities of all principal radiations associated with the radioactive decay of a nuclide. The program is intended to provide a physical data base for internal dosimetry calculations. The principal calculations performed by EDISTR are the determination of (1) the average energy of beta particles in a beta transition, (2) the beta spectrum as function of energy, (3) the energies and intensities of x-rays and Auger electrons generated by radioactive decay processes, (4) the bremsstrahlung spectra accompanying beta decay and monoenergetic Auger and internal conversion electrons, and (5) the radiations accompanying spontaneous fission. This report discusses the theoretical and empirical methods used in EDISTR and also practical aspects of the computer implementation of the theory. Detailed instructions for preparing input data for the computer program are included, along with examples and discussion of the output data generated by EDISTR.

  3. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area : Annual Water Management Program : January 1, 1972 to December 31, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1972 Annual Water Management Program for the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area summarizes the water receipts, distribution, and marsh conditions attributed to...

  4. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area : Annual Water Management Program : January 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1973 Annual Water Management Program for the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area summarizes the water receipts, distribution, and marsh conditions attributed to...

  5. A computer based learning program for radiation therapy; Ein Computerlernprogramm fuer Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, T.; Kruell, A.; Schmidt, R. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie; Dobrucki, W.; Malys, B.; Box, W. [MultiMedia Lab., Inst. Hochschule-Wirtschaft Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-06-01

    Many textbooks about radiation therapy for the education of medical, technical and scientific staff are available. But they are restricted to transfer of knowledge via text and figures. On the other hand movies and animated pictures can give you a more realistic impression of the procedures and technical equipment of a radiation therapy department. Therefore, an interactive multimedia teaching program was developed at the Universitaets-Krankenhaus Eppendorf for the department of radiation therapy. The electronic textbook runs under `MS Windows 3.1 {sup trademark} ` (with multimedia extensions) and `MS Windows 95 {sup trademark} `, contains eight chapters and can be used without any preliminary knowledge. The program has been tested by medical personnel, nurses, physicists and physicians and was generally welcome. The program was designed for people with different levels of education to reach as many users as possible. It was not created to replace textbooks but was designed for their supplement. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Ausbildung von medizinischem technischem und wissenschaftlichem Personal im Bereich der Strahlentherapie steht eine Vielzahl von Lehrbuechern zur Verfuegung. Sie vermitteln Wissen nur in Form von Texten und Abbildungen. Filme und Animationen koennen hingegen die Arbeitsablaeufe und die Funktionsweise der Apparaturen einer Strahlentherapieabteilung anschaulich zeigen. Aus diesem Grund wurde am Universitaets-Krankenhaus Eppendorf ein interaktives multimedials Lernprogramm fuer die Abteilung fuer Strahlentherapie entwickelt. Das elektronische Buch ist unter `MS Windows 3.1 {sup trademark} ` (mit Multimedia-Erweiterungen) und `MS Windows 95 {sup trademark} ` lauffaehig, umfasst insgesamt acht Kapitel und kann ohne Vorkenntnisse benutzt werden. Das Programm ist von vielen MTA, Schwesternschuelerinnen, Krankenschwestern, Physikern und Aerzten getestet und durchweg positiv aufgenommen worden. Es wurde bewusst eine breit gefaechterte Zielgruppe gewaehlt, um

  6. Sensitivity to Antibiotics of Bacteria Exposed to Gamma Radiation Emitted from Hot Soils of the High Background Radiation Areas of Ramsar, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Zarei, Samira; Taheri, Mohammad; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Ranjbar, Sahar; Momeni, Fatemeh; Masoomi, Samaneh; Ansari, Leila; Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Taeb, Shahram; Zarei, Sina; Haghani, Masood

    2017-04-01

    Over the past several years our laboratories have investigated different aspects of the challenging issue of the alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics induced by physical stresses. To explore the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in samples of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to gamma radiation emitted from the soil samples taken from the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, northern Iran. Standard Kirby-Bauer test, which evaluates the size of the zone of inhibition as an indicator of the susceptibility of different bacteria to antibiotics, was used in this study. The maximum alteration of the diameter of inhibition zone was found for K. pneumoniae when tested for ciprofloxacin. In this case, the mean diameter of no growth zone in non-irradiated control samples of K. pneumoniae was 20.3 (SD 0.6) mm; it was 14.7 (SD 0.6) mm in irradiated samples. On the other hand, the minimum changes in the diameter of inhibition zone were found for S. typhimurium and S. aureus when these bacteria were tested for nitrofurantoin and cephalexin, respectively. Gamma rays were capable of making significant alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. It can be hypothesized that high levels of natural background radiation can induce adaptive phenomena that help microorganisms better cope with lethal effects of antibiotics.

  7. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related to radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere, particularly the interactions among clouds and aerosols. ARM obtains continuous measurements and conducts field campaigns to provide data products that aid in the improvement and further development of climate models. All of the measurement campaigns include a suite of solar measurements. The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports ARM's full suite of stations in a number of ways, including troubleshooting issues that arise as part of the data-quality reviews; managing engineering changes to the standard setup; and providing calibration services and assistance to the full fleet of solar-related instruments, including pyranometers, pyrgeometers, pyrheliometers, as well as the temperature/relative humidity probes, multimeters, and data acquisition systems that are used in the calibrations performed at the Southern Great Plains Radiometer Calibration Facility. This paper discusses all aspects related to the support provided to the calibration of the instruments in the solar monitoring fleet.

  8. Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Exposure, Oxidative Stress and Epigenetic Programing of Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharmalingam, Sujeenthar; Sreetharan, Shayenthiran; Kulesza, Adomas V; Boreham, Douglas R; Tai, T C

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure from medical diagnostic imaging has greatly increased over the last few decades. Approximately 80% of patients who undergo medical imaging are exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR). Although there is widespread consensus regarding the harmful effects of high doses of radiation, the biological effects of low-linear energy transfer (LET) LDIR is not well understood. LDIR is known to promote oxidative stress, however, these levels may not be large enough to result in genomic mutations. There is emerging evidence that oxidative stress causes heritable modifications via epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation, histone modification, noncoding RNA regulation). These epigenetic modifications result in permanent cellular transformations without altering the underlying DNA nucleotide sequence. This review summarizes the major concepts in the field of epigenetics with a focus on the effects of low-LET LDIR (stress on epigenetic gene modification. In this review, we show evidence that suggests that LDIR-induced oxidative stress provides a mechanistic link between LDIR and epigenetic gene regulation. We also discuss the potential implication of LDIR exposure during pregnancy where intrauterine fetal development is highly susceptible to oxidative stress-induced epigenetic programing.

  9. Mammography with and without radiolucent positioning sheets: Comparison of projected breast area, pain experience, radiation dose and technical image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Janine; Voorde, Marloes Ten; Engen, Ruben E van; Landsveld-Verhoeven, Cary van; Pijnappel, Ruud; Greve, Kitty Droogh-de; Heeten, Gerard J den; Broeders, Mireille J M

    2015-10-01

    To compare projected breast area, image quality, pain experience and radiation dose between mammography performed with and without radiolucent positioning sheets. 184 women screened in the Dutch breast screening programme (May-June 2012) provided written informed consent to have one additional image taken with positioning sheets. 5 cases were excluded (missing data). Pain was scored using the Numeric Rating Scale. Radiation dose was estimated using the Dance model and projected breast area using computer software. Two radiologists and two radiographers assessed image quality. With positioning sheets significantly more pectoral muscle, lateral and medial breast tissue was projected (CC-views) and more and deeper depicted pectoral muscle (MLO-views). In contrast, visibility of white and darker areas was better on images without positioning sheets, radiologists were therefore better able to detect abnormalities (MLO-views). Women experienced more pain with positioning sheets (MLO-views only, mean difference NRS 0.98; SD 1.71; p=0,00). Mammograms with positioning sheets showed more breast tissue. Increased breast thickness after compression with sheets resulted in less visibility of white and darker areas and thus reduced detection of abnormalities. Also, women experienced more pain (MLO-views) due to the sheet material. A practical consideration is the fact that more subcutaneous fat tissue and skin are being pulled forward leading to folds in the nipple area. On balance, improvement to the current design is required before implementation in screening practice can be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. AREA MONITORING OF AMBIENT DOSE RATES IN PARTS OF SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA USING A GPS-INTEGRATED RADIATION SURVEY METER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeyode, I C; Rabiu, J A; Alatise, O O; Makinde, V; Akinboro, F G; Al-Azmi, D; Mustapha, A O

    2017-04-01

    A radiation monitoring system comprising a Geiger-Muller counter connected to a smart phone via Bluetooth was used for a dose rate survey in some parts of south-western Nigeria. The smart phone has the Geographical Positioning System, which provides the navigation information and saves it along with the dose rate data. A large number of data points was obtained that shows the dose rate distribution within the region. The results show that the ambient dose rates in the region range from 60 to 520 nSv -1 and showed a bias that is attributable to the influence of geology on the ambient radiation dose in the region. The geology influence was demonstrated by superimposing the dose rate plot and the geological map of the area. The potential applications of the device in determining baseline information and in area monitoring, e.g. for lost or abandoned sources, radioactive materials stockpiles, etc., were discussed in the article, particularly against the background of Nigeria's plan to develop its nuclear power program. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. DNA Radiation Environments Program - Spring 1990 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.T (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Whitaker, S.Y. (Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1990 2-m Box Experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. MASH was developed as the Department of Defense and NATO code system for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside the steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The measurements were performed by APRF, Bubble Technology Industries, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Establishment Technique Central de l'Armement, and Harry Diamond Laboratory. Calculations were carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was standing in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-IOOR bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. DNA mandated that C/M values of {plus minus}20% define the acceptable limits for the comparison of the dose and reduction factor data and for qualifying the MASH code in replicating integral parameters.

  12. DNA Radiation Environments Program Spring 1991 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Whitaker, S.Y. [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1991 2-m Box experiments that were performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. The MASH code system was developed for the Department of Defense and NATO for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the 2-m Box experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose rates and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside a borated polyethylene lined steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-100R bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. The calculated and measured neutron and gamma-ray dose rates and reduction factors agreed on the average within the {plus_minus}20% limits mandated by DNA and demonstrate the capability of the MASH code system in reproducing measured data in nominally shielded assemblies.

  13. DNA Radiation Environments Program Spring 1991 2-meter box experiments and analyses. [DEfense Nuclear Agency (DNA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Whitaker, S.Y. (Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1991 2-m Box experiments that were performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. The MASH code system was developed for the Department of Defense and NATO for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the 2-m Box experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose rates and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside a borated polyethylene lined steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-100R bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. The calculated and measured neutron and gamma-ray dose rates and reduction factors agreed on the average within the [plus minus]20% limits mandated by DNA and demonstrate the capability of the MASH code system in reproducing measured data in nominally shielded assemblies.

  14. DNA Radiation Environments Program - Spring 1990 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.T [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Whitaker, S.Y. [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1990 2-m Box Experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. MASH was developed as the Department of Defense and NATO code system for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside the steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The measurements were performed by APRF, Bubble Technology Industries, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Establishment Technique Central de l`Armement, and Harry Diamond Laboratory. Calculations were carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was standing in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-IOOR bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. DNA mandated that C/M values of {plus_minus}20% define the acceptable limits for the comparison of the dose and reduction factor data and for qualifying the MASH code in replicating integral parameters.

  15. 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study ImplementationPlan - Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. J. Knepp.

    1999-04-19

    The 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Implementation Plan - Environmental Restoration Program (Implementation Plan) addresses approximately 700 soil waste sites (and associated structures suchas pipelines) resulting from the discharge of liquids and solids fromprocessing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs,burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program. The Implementation Plan outlines the frameworkfor implementing assessment activities in the 200 Areas to ensure consistency in documentation, level of characterization, and decisionmaking. The Implementation Plan also consolidates background information and other typical work plan materials, to serve as a single referenceable source for this type of information.

  16. NIST Accelerator Facilities And Programs In Support Of Industrial Radiation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, F. B.; Desrosiers, M. F.; Hudson, L. T.; Coursey, B. M.; Bergstrom, P. M.; Seltzer, S. M.

    2003-08-01

    NIST's Ionizing Radiation Division maintains and operates three electron accelerators used in a number of applications including waste treatment and sterilization, radiation hardness testing, detector calibrations and materials modification studies. These facilities serve a large number of governmental, academic and industrial users as well as an active intramural research program. They include a 500 kV cascaded-rectifier accelerator, a 2.5 MV electron Van de Graaff accelerator and a 7 to 32 MeV electron linac, supplying beams ranging in energy from a few keV up to 32 MeV. In response to the recent anthrax incident, NIST along with the US Postal Service and the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) are working to develop protocols and testing procedures for the USPS mail sanitization program. NIST facilities and personnel are being employed in a series of quality-assurance measurements for both electron- and photon-beam sanitization. These include computational modeling, dose verification and VOC (volatile organic compounds) testing using megavoltage electron and photon sources.

  17. Skier and Snowboarder Motivations and Knowledge Related to Voluntary Environmental Programs at an Alpine Ski Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Needham, Mark D.

    2011-11-01

    Many alpine ski areas have recently adopted voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) such as using recycling, renewable energy, and biofuels to help reduce their environmental impacts. Studies have addressed the performance of these VEPs in mitigating environmental impacts of this industry, but little is known about visitor awareness and perceptions of these programs. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring skier and snowboarder knowledge of VEPs at a ski area and the influence of these programs on their motivations to visit this area currently and behavioral intentions to visit again in the future. Data were obtained from an onsite survey at the Mt. Bachelor ski area in Oregon, USA ( n = 429, 89.7% response rate). Few skiers and snowboarders were knowledgeable of VEPs at this area and fewer than 20% were motivated to visit on their current trip because of these programs. Other attributes such as scenery, snow conditions, and access were more important for influencing visitation. Up to 38% of skiers and snowboarders, however, intend to visit this ski area more often if it adopts and promotes more VEPs. Managers can use these results to inform communication and marketing of their environmental programs and performance to visitors. Additional implications for management and future research are discussed.

  18. Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals living in high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, F; Rajabpour, M R; Haeri, S A; Kanda, R; Hayata, I; Nakamura, S; Sugahara, T; Ahmadpour, M J

    2011-11-01

    In order to investigate the biological effects of exposure to low-dose radiation and to assess the dose-effect relationship in residents of high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of Ramsar, cytogenetic investigation of unstable-type aberrations was performed in 15 healthy elderly women in a HBRA of Ramsar, Talesh mahalle, and in 10 elderly women living in a nearby control area with normal background radiation. In total, 77,714 cells were analyzed; 48,819 cells in HBRA residents and 28,895 cells in controls. On average, 3,108 cells per subject were analyzed (range 1,475-5,007 cells). Significant differences were found in the frequency of dicentric plus centric rings in 100 cells (0.207 ± 0.103 vs. 0.047 ± 0.027, p Ramsar, no positive correlation was found between the frequency of dicentric plus centric ring aberrations and the cumulative dose of the inhabitants estimated by direct individual dosimetry; however, obvious trends of increase with age appeared in the control group. Based on these results, individuals residing in HBRAs of Ramsar have an increased frequency of detectable abnormalities in unstable aberrations.

  19. Natural radionuclide and radiological assessment of building materials in high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Moghaddam, Masoud Vahabi; Fathabadi, Nasrin

    2013-04-01

    Building materials, collected from different sites in Ramsar, a northern coastal city in Iran, were analyzed for their natural radionuclide contents. The measurements were carried out using a high resolution high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bqkg(-1), 187 Bqkg(-1), and 1350 Bqkg(-1), respectively. The radiological hazards incurred from the use of these building materials were estimated through various radiation hazard indices. The result of this survey shows that values obtained for some samples are more than the internationally accepted maximum limits and as such, the use of them as a building material pose significant radiation hazard to individuals.

  20. Exclusion Area Radiation Release during the MIT Reactor Design Basis Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-06

    only three elements; Xenon , Krypton, and Iodine. In Chapter 2, the entire spectrum of possible fission products will be considered. The calculations...this would lower the inhalation (thyroid) dose, it will be conservatively assumed that no precipitation occurs for the duration of the release. 3.10 Beta...radiation dose received by the thyroid is de- pendent on the amount of isotope inhaled , the fraction which is transported to the thyroid, the energy absorbed

  1. A Profile of Academic Training Program Directors and Chairs in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Lynn D., E-mail: Lynn.wilson@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, Smilow Cancer Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, UMDNJ-RWJMS, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To identify objective characteristics and benchmarks for program leadership in academic radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: A study of the 87 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education radiation oncology training program directors (PD) and their chairs was performed. Variables included age, gender, original training department, highest degree, rank, endowed chair assignment, National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, and Hirsch index (H-index). Data were gathered from online sources such as departmental websites, NIH RePORTER, and Scopus. Results: There were a total of 87 PD. The median age was 48, and 14 (16%) were MD/PhD. A total of 21 (24%) were female, and rank was relatively equally distributed above instructor. Of the 26 professors, at least 7 (27%) were female. At least 24 (28%) were working at the institution from which they had received their training. A total of 6 individuals held endowed chairs. Only 2 PD had active NIH funding in 2012. The median H-index was 12 (range, 0-51) but the index dropped to 9 (range, 0-38) when those who served as both PD and chair were removed from the group. A total of 76 chairs were identified at the time of the study. The median age was 55, and 9 (12%) were MD/PhD. A total of 7 (9%) of the chairs were female, and rank was professor for all with the exception of 1 who was listed as “Head” and was an associate professor. Of the 76 chairs, at least 10 (13%) were working at the institution from which they received their training. There were a total of 21 individuals with endowed chairs. A total of 13 (17%) had NIH funding in 2012. The median H-index was 29 (range, 3-60). Conclusions: These data provide benchmarks for individuals and departments evaluating leadership positions in the field of academic radiation oncology. Such data are useful for evaluating leadership trends over time and comparing academic radiation oncology with other specialties.

  2. Spatial and temporal variations of albedo and absorbed solar radiation during 2009 - 2016 from IKOR-M satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherviakov, Maksim; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Spiryakhina, Anastasia; Shishkina, Elena; Surkova, Yana; Kulkova, Eugenia

    2017-04-01

    This report describes Earth's radiation budget IKOR-M satellite program which has been started in Russia. The first satellite "Meteor-M» No 1 of this project was put into orbit in September, 2009. The IKOR-M radiometer is a satellite instrument that measures reflected shortwave radiation (0.3-4.0 µm). It was created in Saratov State University and installed on Russian hydrometeorological satellites "Meteor-M" No 1 and No 2. Radiometer IKOR-M designed for satellite monitoring of the outgoing reflected short-wave radiation, which is one of the components of Earth's radiation budget. Such measurements can be used to derive Earth's surface albedo and absorbed solar radiation. This information also can be used in different models of long-term weather forecasts and in researches of climate change trends (Sklyarov et al., 2016). Satellite "Meteor-M" No 1 and No 2 are heliosynchronous that allows observing from North to South Poles. The basic products of data processing are given in the form of global maps of distribution outgoing short-wave radiation (OSR), albedo and absorbed solar radiation (ASR). Such maps were made for each month during observation period. The IKOR-M product archive is available online at all times. A searchable catalogue of data products is continually updated and users may search and download data products via the Earth radiation balance components research laboratory website (http://www.sgu.ru/structure/geographic/metclim/balans) as soon as they become available. Two series of measurements from two different IKOR-M are available. The first radiometer had worked from October, 2009 to August, 2014 and second - from August, 2014 to the present. Therefore, there is a period when both radiometers work at the same time. Top-of-atmosphere fluxes deduced from the "Meteor-M" No 1 measurements in August, 2014 show very good agreement with the fluxes determined from "Meteor-M" No 2 (Bogdanov et al., 2016). The effect of aging is investigated for first IKOR

  3. Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. Program overview of fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The mission of the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project is to provide essential information about the solar radiation resource to users and planners of solar technologies so that they can make informed and timely decisions concerning applications of those technologies. The project team accomplishes this by producing and disseminating relevant and reliable information about solar radiation. Topics include: Variability of solar radiation, measurements of solar radiation, spectral distribution of solar radiation, and assessment of the solar resource. FY 1993 accomplishments are detailed.

  4. Accurate tissue area measurements with considerably reduced radiation dose achieved by patient-specific CT scan parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandberg, J.; Bergelin, E.; Sjostrom, L.

    2008-01-01

    as compared with the integral dose by the standard diagnostic technique. The CT numbers of muscle tissue remained unchanged with reduced radiation dose. Image noise was on average 20.9 HU (Hounsfield units) for subjects with diameters of 31-35 cm and 11.2 HU for subjects with diameters in the range of 36......A low-dose technique was compared with a standard diagnostic technique for measuring areas of adipose and muscle tissue and CT numbers for muscles in a body composition application. The low-dose technique was intended to keep the expected deviation in the measured area of adipose and muscle tissue...... to dose technique. 17 patients - chosen to cover a wide range of diameters (31-47 cm) for both abdomen and thighs - were examined using both techniques. Tissue areas were compared, as were CT numbers...

  5. Excellence in Radiation Research for the 21st Century (EIRR21): description of an innovative research training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P'ng, Christine; Ito, Emma; How, Christine; Bezjak, Andrea; Bristow, Rob; Catton, Pam; Fyles, Anthony; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Jaffray, David; Kelley, Shana; Wong, Shun; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2012-08-01

    To describe and assess an interdisciplinary research training program for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and clinical fellows focused on radiation medicine; funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research since 2003, the program entitled "Excellence in Radiation Research for the 21st Century" (EIRR21) aims to train the next generation of interdisciplinary radiation medicine researchers. Online surveys evaluating EIRR21 were sent to trainees (n=56), mentors (n=36), and seminar speakers (n=72). Face-to-face interviews were also conducted for trainee liaisons (n=4) and participants in the international exchange program (n=2). Overall response rates ranged from 53% (mentors) to 91% (trainees). EIRR21 was well received by trainees, with the acquisition of several important skills related to their research endeavors. An innovative seminar series, entitled Brainstorm sessions, imparting "extracurricular" knowledge in intellectual property protection, commercialization strategies, and effective communication, was considered to be the most valuable component of the program. Networking with researchers in other disciplines was also facilitated owing to program participation. EIRR21 is an innovative training program that positively impacts the biomedical community and imparts valuable skill sets to foster success for the future generation of radiation medicine researchers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Shading areas, sky-view factor and UV radiation in urban canopy of Moscow city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, P. I.; Samsonov, T. E.; Zhdanova, E. Yu.; Chubarova, N. Ye.

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of this investigation is to develop a kind of "urban reanalysis" - the database of meteorological and radiation fields under Moscow megalopolis with high spatial resolution. Sky View Factor (SVF) is widely used for evaluating the solar irradiance attenuation in urban canopy. In this study we suggested raster-based calculation of SVF. We applied this technique for evaluating specific features in UV irradiance at Moscow megalopolis conditions. We showed that relative frequency of SVF over the territory of Moscow higher than 80% is observed in more than 86% of cases. The maps of UV losses due to sky obscuring over the territory of Moscow have been obtained for different seasons.

  7. Selective Mobile Communication within a Coverage Area Bounded by Radiating Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Behairy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is often desirable to control mobile phone services in areas where complete silence is either expected or mandatory, including schools, places of worship, hospitals, and prisons. In contrast to conventional techniques, such as jammers or Faraday cages, we present a novel technique to selectively control mobile phone services within a desired area. Our solution enables the area’s keeper to allow mobile phones on a whitelist to freely use mobile services without disruption while denying services to all other mobile phones that are within the boundaries of the desired area to be controlled. Our solution uses a base station controller to identify all mobile devices located within the area to be controlled, while an antenna is placed inside the area to attract all mobile devices in the area to connect to the base station controller. In previous work, we proposed a system that uses directional antennas for the attraction technique. In this work, we show that replacement of the directional antennas with a leaky feeder antenna enables more accurate control of mobile phone services in and around the area to be controlled. Simulations and experiments of the leaky feeder technique confirm its precise control of mobile phone services within the desired areas.

  8. Final Technical Report for Chief Scientist for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg M. McFarquhar

    2011-10-21

    The major responsibilities of the PI were identified as 1) the formulation of campaign plans, 2) the representation of AVP in various scientific communities inside and outside of ARM and the associated working groups, 3) the coordination and selection of the relative importance of the three different focus areas (routine observations, IOPs, instrument development program), 4) the examination and quality control of the data collected by AVP, and 5) providing field support for flight series. This report documents the accomplishments in each of these focus areas for the 3 years of funding for the grant that were provided.

  9. Fuel consumption and fire emissions estimates using Fire Radiative Power, burned area and statistical modelling on the fire event scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Leimbach, David; Guenther, Felix; Barradas, Carol; Hoffmann, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrieved by infrared sensors, such as flown on several polar orbiting and geostationary satellites, has been shown to be proportional to fuel consumption rates in vegetation fires, and hence the total radiative energy released by a fire (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE) is proportional to the total amount of biomass burned. However, due to the sparse temporal coverage of polar orbiting and the coarse spatial resolution of geostationary sensors, it is difficult to estimate fuel consumption for single fire events. Here we explore an approach for estimating FRE through temporal integration of MODIS FRP retrievals over MODIS-derived burned areas. Temporal integration is aided by statistical modelling to estimate missing observations using a generalized additive model (GAM) and taking advantage of additional information such as land cover and a global dataset of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), as well as diurnal and annual FRP fluctuation patterns. Based on results from study areas located in savannah regions of Southern and Eastern Africa and Brazil, we compare this method to estimates based on simple temporal integration of FRP retrievals over the fire lifetime, and estimate the potential variability of FRP integration results across a range of fire sizes. We compare FRE-based fuel consumption against a database of field experiments in similar landscapes. Results show that for larger fires, this method yields realistic estimates and is more robust when only a small number of observations is available than the simple temporal integration. Finally, we offer an outlook on the integration of data from other satellites, specifically FireBird, S-NPP VIIRS and Sentinel-3, as well as on using higher resolution burned area data sets derived from Landsat and similar sensors.

  10. Challenges of Family Physician Program in Urban Areas: A Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet Sarvestani, Raheleh; Najafi Kalyani, Majid; Alizadeh, Fariba; Askari, Alireza; Ronaghy, Hossain; Bahramali, Ehsan

    2017-07-01

    Family physicians play an essential role and act as a communicational bridge between people and the healthcare system in providing healthcare services efficiently and equitably. This study aimed at exploring the challenges of the family physician program in urban areas in Iran in 2015. This research had a descriptive exploratory design with a qualitative content analysis approach. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews between 2014 and 2015. Seventeen physicians enrolling in family physician program for at least two years were selected through purposeful sampling. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data. Coding and analysis of the interview data generated two categories and seven subcategories related to the challenges of the family physician program. The categories were poor infrastructure and poor incentive mechanism. Our findings captured a good picture of family physician program in urban areas to better clarify the challenges of the program and provide a foundation to plan and implement appropriate changes. Thus, our findings will give policymakers a deeper perception to confront the challenges of the family physician program in urban areas.

  11. Effects of reduced natural background radiation on Drosophila melanogaster growth and development as revealed by the FLYINGLOW program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morciano, Patrizia; Iorio, Roberto; Iovino, Daniela; Cipressa, Francesca; Esposito, Giuseppe; Porrazzo, Antonella; Satta, Luigi; Alesse, Edoardo; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella; Cenci, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Natural background radiation of Earth and cosmic rays played a relevant role during the evolution of living organisms. However, how chronic low doses of radiation can affect biological processes is still unclear. Previous data have indicated that cells grown at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, L'Aquila) of National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) of Italy, where the dose rate of cosmic rays and neutrons is significantly reduced with respect to the external environment, elicited an impaired response against endogenous damage as compared to cells grown outside LNGS. This suggests that environmental radiation contributes to the development of defense mechanisms at cellular level. To further understand how environmental radiation affects metabolism of living organisms, we have recently launched the FLYINGLOW program that aims at exploiting Drosophila melanogaster as a model for evaluating the effects of low doses/dose rates of radiation at the organismal level. Here, we will present a comparative data set on lifespan, motility and fertility from different Drosophila strains grown in parallel at LNGS and in a reference laboratory at the University of L'Aquila. Our data suggest the reduced radiation environment can influence Drosophila development and, depending on the genetic background, may affect viability for several generations even when flies are moved back to normal background radiation. As flies are considered a valuable model for human biology, our results might shed some light on understanding the effect of low dose radiation also in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF URBAN AREA (TECHNOSPHERE ON VARIATIONS OF ELECTROPHYSICAL AND RADIATION QUANTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Nagorskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The detail analysis of results of simultaneous monitoring of the same electrophysical, meteorological and radiation quantities inside and outside of buildings with the aim of revealing of technosphere influence on behavior of these quantities is presented. It was obtained that all controlled quantities could be divided into three groups for which: 1 presence of building does not change spectral and temporal variation pattern of quantity (magnetic field, atmospheric pressure; 2 presence of building partially changes spectral and temporal variation pattern of quantity (γ-background, temperature; 3 presence of building fully changes spectral and temporal variation pattern (relative air humidity, characteristics of turbulence and wind, electric field intensity, the number of light ions of both sighs, α- and β-background. It is necessary to take into account obtained results when investigate the influence of heliophysical parameters and radioactivity on biological objects and systems.

  14. Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

    2008-09-30

    The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

  15. Survey of Gamma Dose and Radon Exhalation Rate from Soil Surface of High Background Natural Radiation Areas in Ramsar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is a radioactive gas and the second leading cause of death due to lung cancer after smoking. Ramsar is known for having the highest levels of natural background radiation on earth. Materials and Methods: In this research study, 50 stations of high radioactivity areas of Ramsar were selected in warm season of the year. Then gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were measured.Results: Results showed that gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were in the range of 51-7100 nSv/hr and 9-15370 mBq/m2s, respectively.Conclusion: Compare to the worldwide average 16 mBq/m2s, estimated average annual effective of Radon exhalation rate in the study area is too high.

  16. Area program in population genetics. Final report, November 1, 1975-August 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, E.H.Y.; Gershowitz, H.; Meisler, M.H.; Mohrenweiser, H.W.; Neel, J.V.; Rothman, E.D.; Sing, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Research results are summarized for the following task areas: (1) Amerindian mutation rates; (2) pilot study of monitoring populations for the frequency of mutation; (3) interdigitation with the biochemical genetics study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (Hiroshima, Japan); (4) intraindividual variation in erythrocyte blood group antigens as indicators of somatic mutation; (5) in vitro studies of somatic cell mutation rates; (6) development of approaches to the study of mutation rates; and (7) statistical problems associated with the study of mutation and selection. (ACR)

  17. Priority setting for bird conservation in Mexico: the role of the Important Bird Areas program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma. del Coro Arizmendi; Laura Marquez Valdelamar; Humberto Berlanga

    2005-01-01

    Many species in Mexico are threatened and in need of protection. At least seventy species are considered to be globally threatened, yet conservation actions have been scarce and not coordinated. In 1996 BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas Program was initiated in Mexico to identify a network of the most important places in Mexico for birds, with the...

  18. 50 CFR 648.60 - Sea scallop area access program requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.60 Sea scallop area access program....83(a)(1), and the additional restrictions for Atlantic cod, haddock, and yellowtail flounder... (d)(4). (A) Atlantic cod. Such vessel may bring onboard and possess only up to 100 lb (45.4 kg) of...

  19. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  20. An overview of equivalent doses in eye lens of occupational radiation workers in medical, industrial and nuclear areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, A.R.; Silva, F.C.A. da; Hunt, J.G., E-mail: alexandre.r.lima@terra.com.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (BraziL)

    2013-07-01

    Some epidemiological evidences were recently reviewed by the ICRP and it was suggested that, for the eye lens, the absorbed dose threshold for induction of late detriments is about 0.5 Gy. On this basis, on 2011, the ICRP has recommended changes to the occupational dose limit in planned exposure situations, reducing the eye lens dose equivalent limit of 150 mSv to 20 mSv per year, on average, during the period of 5 years, with exposure not exceeding 50 mSv in a single year. Following the ICRP recommendation, the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) adopted immediately the new limit to the eyes lens. This study aimed to show an overview about the doses in eye lens of occupational radiation workers in situations of planned exposures in the medical, industrial and nuclear areas, emphasizing the greatest radiological risks applications. It was observed that there are some limitations, such as example, to use individual monitor calibrated on Hp(3), to assess the equivalent dose in the eye lens. This limitation obstructs some experimental studies and monitoring of the levels of radiation received in the eye lens of radiation workers. Recent studies have showed that the lenses of eyes monitoring of workers, mainly in the planned exposure, must be follow-up. However, such researches were obtained only in medical exposures, mainly in interventional medicine procedures. Studies with planned exposure on nuclear and industrial areas are really needed and will be very important due to the new recommended by ICRP dose limits. (author)

  1. Radioactivity levels in the mostly local foodstuff consumed by residents of the high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabadi, Nasrin; Salehi, Ali Akbar; Naddafi, Kazem; Kardan, Mohammad Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nodehi, Ramin Nabizadeh; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Shooshtari, Molood Gooniband; Hosseini, Saeedeh Sadat; Karimi, Mahtab

    2017-04-01

    Among High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRAs) all over the world, the northern coastal city of Ramsar has been considered enormously important. Many studies have measured environmental radioactivity in Ramsar, however, no survey has been undertaken to measure concentrations in the diets of residents. This study determined the 226Ra activity concentration in the daily diet of people of Ramsar. The samples were chosen from both normal and high level natural radiation areas and based on the daily consumption patterns of residents. About 150 different samples, which all are local and have the highest consumption, were collected during the four seasons. In these samples, after washing and drying and pretreatment, the radionuclide was determined by α-spectrometry. The mean radioactivity concentration of 226Ra ranged between 5 ± 1 mBq kg-1 wet weight (chino and meat) to 725 ± 480 mBq kg-1 for tea dry leaves. The 226Ra activity concentrations compared with the reference values of UNSCEAR appear to be higher in leafy vegetables, milk and meat product. Of the total daily dietary 226Ra exposure for adults in Ramsar, the largest percentage was from eggs. The residents consuming eggs from household chickens may receive an elevated dose in the diet. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Factors that influence the success of conservation programs in communal property areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Bunge-Vivier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the natural vegetation in Mexico is managed collectively within common property systems. The appropriation and continuity of government programs related to the conservation of land that is communally used is proposed to depend on the level of organization of the communities and the interaction between the local and governmental institutions, as well as the benefits derived from conservation projects. Patterns of what drives the conservation of common natural resources were analyzed in order to propose improvements to conservation policy. Changes in primary and secondary vegetation cover in common and private properties were identified by performing a historical spatial analysis. Questionnaires were used to survey 32 populations of seven states of the Mexican Republic to determine the conservation status of common property resources, as well as the ability of the community to continue conservation activities initially undertaken by government programs. Some 53% of the primary and secondary vegetation in Mexico is found in common property areas, but the change from primary and secondary vegetation to other uses is the same for common and private property. Communities with a high level of conservation of communal areas and with the ability to continue conservation projects were those that had dedicated the areas to recreation and conservation, had stronger community organization and were less marginalized. A recognition of the heterogeneity of the socioeconomic and cultural context of communities with common property is necessary to design governmental conservation programs that achieve long-term conservation. To meet the needs of a region that is both degraded and marginalized, the creation of synergies between programs that combat poverty and programs that promote conservation is needed. In addition, the continuation of payments with public funds for work that preserves or rehabilitates natural areas is needed, thereby

  3. Pelvic (between the hips) radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation treatment area on your body is large. Alternative Names Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical ...

  4. Estimate of the area occupied by reforestation programs in Rio de Janeiro state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Barbosa Amorim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was based on a preliminary survey and inventory of existing reforestation programs in Rio de Janeiro state, through geoprocessing techniques and collection of field data. The reforested area was found to occupy 18,426.96 ha, which amounts to 0.42% of the territory of the state. Much of reforestation programs consists of eucalyptus (98%, followed by pine plantations (0.8%, and the remainder is distributed among 10 other species. The Médio Paraíba region was found to contribute the most to the reforested area of the state (46.6%. The estimated volume of eucalyptus timber was nearly two million cubic meters. This study helped crystallize the ongoing perception among those militating in the forestry sector of Rio de Janeiro state that the planted area and stock of reforestation timber is still incipient in the state.

  5. Communication on radiation risk as an area of conflict between radiological, sociological and perceptional issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Taghizadegan, R. [University of Technology Vienna, Atominstitute of Austrian Universities, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Risk communication in radiation protection must not be considered as a single discipline, but is based upon an effective interaction of different scientific fields. This implies that radiological and sociological issues as well as risk perception are to be taken into account. However, communication is not straightforward, as the fields have different objectives, are different in terminology, apply different approaches to solve problems, and are using different languages. Issues to be addressed in this paper are among others: possible meanings and definitions of the term 'risk', handling of uncertainty and variability of parameters as risk factors, importance of doses delivered in the far future, reasonable application of the dose commitment concept, and perception of small numbers. Other issues are sociological issues as interests of stakeholders and involved parties, importance of public opinion, media and cultural prototypes, bias in different groups of advocate. As communication will become effective only if the different contributing parties adjust their way of thinking and their language to the requirements of others without modification of their knowledge, guidance for interaction is important. The paper will review possible approaches suitable for better communication. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of multiple forcing data sets for precipitation and shortwave radiation over major land areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Lu, Hui; Yang, Kun; He, Jie; Wang, Wei; Wright, Jonathon S.; Li, Chengwei; Han, Menglei; Li, Yishan

    2017-11-01

    Precipitation and shortwave radiation play important roles in climatic, hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. Several global and regional forcing data sets currently provide historical estimates of these two variables over China, including the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) and the China Meteorological Forcing Dataset (CMFD). The CN05.1 precipitation data set, a gridded analysis based on CMA gauge observations, also provides high-resolution historical precipitation data for China. In this study, we present an intercomparison of precipitation and shortwave radiation data from CN05.1, CMFD, CLDAS and GLDAS during 2008-2014. We also validate all four data sets against independent ground station observations. All four forcing data sets capture the spatial distribution of precipitation over major land areas of China, although CLDAS indicates smaller annual-mean precipitation amounts than CN05.1, CMFD or GLDAS. Time series of precipitation anomalies are largely consistent among the data sets, except for a sudden decrease in CMFD after August 2014. All forcing data indicate greater temporal variations relative to the mean in dry regions than in wet regions. Validation against independent precipitation observations provided by the Ministry of Water Resources (MWR) in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River indicates that CLDAS provides the most realistic estimates of spatiotemporal variability in precipitation in this region. CMFD also performs well with respect to annual mean precipitation, while GLDAS fails to accurately capture much of the spatiotemporal variability and CN05.1 contains significant high biases relative to the MWR observations. Estimates of shortwave radiation from CMFD are largely consistent with station observations, while CLDAS and GLDAS greatly overestimate shortwave radiation. All three forcing data sets capture the key features of the

  7. Investigation of administrative obstacles to family physician program in urban areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Javan noughabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health is regarded as one of the basic rights of each person in society; so governments are obligated to provide it equally for everyone. The best way to achieve this goal is the establishment of health insurance with the orientation of family physician and the strategic referral system. Yet, such programs will not be successful without encouraging people to participate and changing social behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the administrative obstacles and problems to family physician program in urban areas of Iran. This study was a qualitative research conducted. A purposive sampling method was employed and the data were gathered via semi-structured interview with open-ended questions and document examination. All the interviews were recorded digitally and immediately transcribed verbatim. They were finally analyzed based on framework analysis. The participants' detailed descriptions showed that systemic, environmental, and human related factors were the main obstacles to the implementation of family physician plan. Since the success and performance of each program effectively cannot be obtained without people’s acceptance and collaboration, the necessity of training and giving information rapidly and timely to the residents in urban areas is felt more than ever. Also, making authorities aware of the obstacles expressed by people can be helpful in harmonizing the program with people’s requests; and can result in overcoming the challenges and obstacles facing the program.

  8. LLNL Radiation Protection Program (RPP) Rev 9.2, Implementation of 10 CFR 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingleton, K. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) originally issued Part 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection, on January 1, 1994. This regulation, hereafter referred to as “the Rule”, required DOE contractors to develop and maintain a DOE-approved Radiation Protection Program (RPP); DOE approved the initial Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) RPP (Rev 2) on 6/29/95. DOE issued a revision to the Rule on December 4, 1998 and approved LLNL’s revised RPP (Rev 7.1) on 11/18/99. DOE issued a second Rule revision on June 8, 2007 (effective July 9, 2007) and on June 13, 2008 approved LLNL’s RPP (Rev 9.0) which contained plans and measures for coming into compliance with the 2007 Rule changes. DOE issued a correction to the Rule on April 21, 2009.

  9. Global transcriptome profile reveals abundance of DNA damage response and repair genes in individuals from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Jain

    Full Text Available The high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA of Kerala coast in south west India is unique for its wide variation in the background radiation dose (15.0 mGy/year] to find out differentially expressed genes and their biological significance in response to chronic low dose radiation exposure. Our results revealed a dose dependent increase in the number of differentially expressed genes with respect to different background dose levels. Gene ontology analysis revealed majority of these differentially expressed genes are involved in DNA damage response (DDR signaling, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, histone/chromatin modification and immune response. In the present study, 64 background dose responsive genes have been identified as possible chronic low dose radiation signatures. Validation of 30 differentially expressed genes was carried out using fluorescent based universal probe library. Abundance of DDR and DNA repair genes along with pathways such as MAPK, p53 and JNK in higher background dose groups (> 5.0mGy/year indicated a possible threshold dose for DDR signaling and are plausible reason of observing in vivo radio-adaptive response and non-carcinogenesis in HLNRA population. To our knowledge, this is the first study on molecular effect of chronic low dose radiation exposure on human population from high background radiation areas at transcriptome level using high throughput approach. These findings have tremendous implications in understanding low dose radiation biology especially, the effect of low dose radiation exposure in humans.

  10. Using Baldrige Performance Excellence Program Approaches in the Pursuit of Radiation Oncology Quality Care, Patient Satisfaction and Workforce Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward eSternick

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act was signed into law in 1987 to advance U.S. business competitiveness and economic growth. Administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, the Act created the Baldrige National Quality Program, recently renamed the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program. The comprehensive analytical approaches referred to as the Baldrige Healthcare Criteria, are very well-suited for the evaluation and sustainable improvement of radiation oncology management and operations. A multidisciplinary self-assessment approach is used for radiotherapy program evaluation and development in order to generate a fact-based, knowledge-driven system for improving quality of care, increasing patient satisfaction, enhancing leadership effectiveness, building employee engagement and boosting organizational innovation. This methodology also provides a valuable framework for benchmarking an individual radiation oncology practice’s operations and results against guidelines defined by accreditation and professional organizations and regulatory agencies.

  11. Using baldrige performance excellence program approaches in the pursuit of radiation oncology quality care, patient satisfaction, and workforce commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternick, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act was signed into law in 1987 to advance US business competitiveness and economic growth. Administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Act created the Baldrige National Quality Program, recently renamed the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program. The comprehensive analytical approaches referred to as the Baldrige Healthcare Criteria, are very well-suited for the evaluation and sustainable improvement of radiation oncology management and operations. A multidisciplinary self-assessment approach is used for radiotherapy program evaluation and development in order to generate a fact-based, knowledge-driven system for improving quality of care, increasing patient satisfaction, enhancing leadership effectiveness, building employee engagement, and boosting organizational innovation. This methodology also provides a valuable framework for benchmarking an individual radiation oncology practice's operations and results against guidelines defined by accreditation and professional organizations and regulatory agencies.

  12. Characterization of the daily evolutions of global solar radiation and temperature in six climatic areas of the Madeira archipelago (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, P.; Vazquez, M. [Solar Energy Lab, Univ. of Vigo, ETSI Industriales, Vigo (Spain); Magro, C. [Lab. Regional de Engenharia Civil, Governo Regional da Madeira, Sao Martinho, Funchal (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to characterize the daily evolution of horizontal global solar radiation and temperature in six climatic areas of the Madeira archipelago, from the daily data recorded in six corresponding meteorological stations. An average characteristic day is obtained for each month of the year in the four-year data period 2002-2005. In relation to solar radiation, a characteristic day is defined as the day of the month with the Sun trajectory closest to the daily average Sun trajectory of the month and the daily global horizontal solar irradiation equal to the daily average of the month. It is assumed a sine-type evolution of the global irradiances along the day. In relation to temperature, a characteristic day is also assumed to have a sine-type evolution along the daylight hours of the day, with the minimum and maximum values at sunrise and two hours after noon, respectively. The characteristic minimum and maximum values are obtained averaging the daily minimum and maximum values of the month, respectively. (orig.)

  13. Exposure to (226)Ra from consumption of vegetables in the high level natural radiation area of Ramsar-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiassi-Nejad, M; Beitollahi, M M; Asefi, M; Reza-Nejad, F

    2003-01-01

    The vegetable-to-soil concentration ratio (CR) for (226)Ra and the related effective dose were studied in Talesh Mahalleh, a district of the city of Ramsar in Iran with a high level of natural radiation (HLNR). Maximum and minimum CR were measured in leafy and root vegetables with average values of 1.6 x 10(-2) and 4.0 x 10(-3), respectively. The mean effective dose resulting from (226)Ra due to consumption of edible vegetables by adults in the critical group in this region was estimated to be 72.3 microSv a(-1). This value is about 12 times greater than the average of effective dose resulting from this radionuclide due to combined intake of all foods and drinking water in normal background areas.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF RADIATION DANGER EXPERIENCE AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF THE POPULATION FROM CONTAMINATED AREAS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of evaluation of social-psychological consequences of radiation danger experience among different age groups of the population from contaminated areas of Russia (Oryol, Kaluga, Bryansk, Tula areas among whom the unfavorable emotional and personal changes were registered due to subjective features of perception of radiation threat have been represented (“risk” group. Experimental sample of the research consisted of 1 544 people from Russia. One of the main results of this research is establishment of the fact that adverse emotional and personal changes in connection with subjective features of perception of radiation threat were revealed for 53,9% of respondents of advanced age and more than 20% of respondents of middle and young age from contaminated areas of Russia. Among the respondents from contaminated areas of Belarus, about a third surveyed from each age group get to “risk” group.

  15. The Atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM program network of microwave radiometers: instrumentation, data, and retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Cadeddu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Climate Research Facility of the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program operates a network of ground-based microwave radiometers. Data and retrievals from these instruments have been available to the scientific community for almost 20 yr. In the past five years the network has expanded to include a total of 22 microwave radiometers deployed in various locations around the world. The new instruments cover a frequency range between 22 and 197 GHz and are consistently and automatically calibrated. The latest addition to the network is a new generation of three-channel radiometers, currently in the early stage of deployment at all ARM sites. The network has been specifically designed to achieve increased accuracy in the retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV and cloud liquid water path (LWP with the long-term goal of providing the scientific community with reliable, calibrated radiometric data and retrievals of important geophysical quantities with well-characterized uncertainties. The radiometers provide high-quality, continuous datasets that can be utilized in a wealth of applications and scientific studies. This paper presents an overview of the microwave instrumentation, calibration procedures, data, and retrievals that are available for download from the ARM data archive.

  16. The Theater High Altitude Area Defense program: an interim examination of its acquisition strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis is an examination of the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) program's implementation of the User Operational Evaluation System (UOES) acquisition strategy. The Missile Defense Act of 1991 imposed significant schedule risk on THAAD's development, necessitating the UOES strategy. The UOES risk management issues are analyzed using DOD's risk management guidance. This guidance incorporates some current methods, applica...

  17. U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office quality assurance program document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for safe disposal of TRU waste, and establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. To help in fulfilling this mission and to ensure that risks and environmental impacts are identified and minimized, and that safety, reliability, and performance are optimized, CAO`s policy is to establish and maintain an effective quality assurance (QA) program that supports compliance with applicable Federal, State, and local regulations, and DOE orders and requirements. This document establishes QA program requirements for all programs, projects, and activities sponsored by CAO.

  18. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY2005 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, G F; Genetti, V; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Kersting, A B; Lindvall, R E; Moran, J E; Nimz, G J; Ramon, E C; Rose, T P; Shuller, L; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2007-03-23

    This report describes FY 2005 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area Project (UGTA). These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The report is organized on a topical basis and contains five chapters that highlight technical work products produced by CBND. However, it is important to recognize that most of this work involves collaborative partnerships with the other HRMP and UGTA contract organizations. These groups include the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and Bechtel Nevada (BN).

  19. Calibrating an optical scanner for quality assurance of large area radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadzhinova, A.; Hildén, T.; Berdova, M.; Lauhakangas, R.; Heino, J.; Tuominen, E.; Franssila, S.; Hæggström, E.; Kassamakov, I.

    2014-11-01

    A gas electron multiplier (GEM) is a particle detector used in high-energy physics. Its main component is a thin copper-polymer-copper sandwich that carries Ø =70  ±  5 µm holes. Quality assurance (QA) is needed to guarantee both long operating life and reading fidelity of the GEM. Absence of layer defects and conformity of the holes to specifications is important. Both hole size and shape influence the detector’s gas multiplication factor and hence affect the collected data. For the scanner the required lateral measurement tolerance is ± 5 µm. We calibrated a high aspect ratio optical scanning system (OSS) to allow ensuring the quality of large GEM foils. For the calibration we microfabricated transfer standards, which were imaged with the OSS and which were compared to corresponding scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The calibration fulfilled the ISO/IEC 17025 and UKAS M3003 requirements: the calibration factor was 1.01  ±  0.01, determined at 95% confidence level across a 950  ×  950 mm2 area. The proposed large-scale scanning technique can potentially be valuable in other microfabricated products too.

  20. Master of Science (MSc) Program in Radiation Biology: An Interdepartmental Course Bridging the Gap between Radiation-Related Preclinical and Clinical Disciplines to Prepare Next-Generation Medical Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie E; Kessel, Carmen; Wilkens, Jan J; Multhoff, Gabriele; Schmid, Thomas E; Vaupel, Peter; Trott, Klaus-Rüdiger; Berberat, Pascal; Atkinson, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Radiation biology is a highly interdisciplinary field at the interface of biology, physics, and medicine. It is characterized by rapid advances in biological and technical knowledge. The potential for using these advances to optimize medical care, radiation protection, and related fields can be exploited only with complementary activities to support the education of young academics. A small number of academic institutions have committed resources into radiation-related courses and curricula; however, few offer a comprehensive interdepartmental research and training program. At the Technical University of Munich (TUM), a full Master of Science (MSc) course in radiation biology has been established. This article describes the TUM MSc radiation biology program, discusses the scope of the field, the teaching goals, and the interdisciplinary curriculum. Detailed information on the full MSc program can be found continuously updated at www.radonc.med.tum.de/masterradiationbiology.

  1. Historical review of personnel dosimetry development and its use in radiation protection programs at Hanford 1944 to the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1987-02-01

    This document is an account of the personnel dosimetry programs as they were developed and practiced at Hanford from their inception in 1943 to 1944 to the 1980s. This history is divided into sections covering the general categories of external and internal measurement methods, in vivo counting, radiation exposure recordkeeping, and calibration of personnel dosimeters. The reasons and circumstances surrounding the inception of these programs at Hanford are discussed. Information about these programs was obtained from documents, letters, and memos that are available in our historical records; the personnel files of many people who participated in these programs; and from the recollections of many long-time, current, and past Hanford employees. For the most part, the history of these programs is presented chronologically to relate their development and use in routine Hanford operations. 131 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Exploration Technology Developments Program's Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Darty, Ronald C.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Primary Objective: 1) A computational tool to accurately predict electronics performance in the presence of space radiation in support of spacecraft design: a) Total dose; b) Single Event Effects; and c) Mean Time Between Failure. (Developed as successor to CR ME96.) Secondary Objectives: 2) To provide a detailed description of the natural radiation environment in support of radiation health and instrument design: a) In deep space; b) Inside the magnetosphere; and c) Behind shielding.

  3. Performance evaluation of the conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection in the small industrial gauges and industrial radiography areas; Sistema de avaliacao de desempenho em radioprotecao das industrias convencionais brasileiras nas areas de medidores nucleares e radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joyra Amaral dos

    1999-08-01

    This works evaluates by punctuation the performance in conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection area which make use of small industrial gauges and industrial radiography. It proposes, procedures for industry self-evaluation, besides a new radiation protection plans pattern for the small industrial gauges area. The data source where inspection reports of Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute/Nuclear Energy Commission conventional Brazilian industries' radiation protection plans, beyond visitation to the inspection place. The performance evaluation has been realized both in the administrative and operational aspects of the industries. About of 60% of the industries have a satisfactory register control which does not happen to the operational control. The performance evaluation advantage is that industries may self-evaluate, foreseeing Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute's regulation inspections, correcting its irregularities, automatically improving its services. The number of industries which have obtained satisfactory performance in both areas is below 70%, both in administrative and operational aspects. Such number can be considered a low one as it is radiation protection. The procedures propose in this work aim to improve such a situation. (author)

  4. Radiation Protection in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, P. M.

    1964-01-01

    The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the last of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. A radioactive fallout study program has been established involving the systematic collection of air and precipitation samples from 24 locations, soil samples from 23 locations, fresh-milk samples from 16 locations, wheat samples from nine areas and human-bone specimens from various hospitals throughout Canada. A whole-body-counting facility and a special study of fallout in Northern areas have also been initiated. For any age group, the highest average strontium-90 concentration in human bone so far reported has been less than four picocuries per gram of calcium compared with the maximum permissible level of 67 derived from the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. By the end of 1963 a general downward trend of levels of radioactivity detected in other parts of the program has been observed. Programs to assess the contribution to the radiation exposure of members of the population from medical x-rays, nuclear reactor operations and natural background-radiation sources have also been described. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in Canadian public hospitals has been estimated to be 25.8 mrem. Results from the reactor-environment monitoring programs have not suggested the presence of radioactivity beyond that contributed from fallout. PMID:14143681

  5. Temperature based daily incoming solar radiation modeling based on gene expression programming, neuro-fuzzy and neural network computing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeras, G.; López, J. J.; Kisi, O.; Shiri, J.

    2012-04-01

    The correct observation/estimation of surface incoming solar radiation (RS) is very important for many agricultural, meteorological and hydrological related applications. While most weather stations are provided with sensors for air temperature detection, the presence of sensors necessary for the detection of solar radiation is not so habitual and the data quality provided by them is sometimes poor. In these cases it is necessary to estimate this variable. Temperature based modeling procedures are reported in this study for estimating daily incoming solar radiation by using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) for the first time, and other artificial intelligence models such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Traditional temperature based solar radiation equations were also included in this study and compared with artificial intelligence based approaches. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) RMSE-based skill score (SSRMSE), MAE-based skill score (SSMAE) and r2 criterion of Nash and Sutcliffe criteria were used to assess the models' performances. An ANN (a four-input multilayer perceptron with ten neurons in the hidden layer) presented the best performance among the studied models (2.93 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). A four-input ANFIS model revealed as an interesting alternative to ANNs (3.14 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). Very limited number of studies has been done on estimation of solar radiation based on ANFIS, and the present one demonstrated the ability of ANFIS to model solar radiation based on temperatures and extraterrestrial radiation. By the way this study demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of GEP models to model solar radiation based on daily atmospheric variables. Despite the accuracy of GEP models was slightly lower than the ANFIS and ANN models the genetic programming models (i.e., GEP) are superior to other artificial intelligence models in giving a simple explicit equation for the

  6. Evaluation of daily intake for some elements of radiation protection concern by inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H.E. Monged

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr were determined in common foodstuffs consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area (GCA. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Highest contributions for the intake of micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb intake. The medium daily intakes for the adult inhabitants of GCA from the analyzed elements were reported. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of GCA could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of GCA may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in perhaps higher internal radiation dose. The lower intake values obtained for thorium and uranium, which suggests that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than what may be concluded from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP data. Concerning micronutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by diet; however, for Cr and Zn they are lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations and consumption rates, broad bean is the foodstuff that provided the highest ingestion rates of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn, being therefore a very important source of micronutrients.

  7. Plutonium stabilization and disposition focus area, FY 1999 and FY 2000 multi-year program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Consistent with the Environmental Management`s (EM`s) plan titled, ``Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure``, and ongoing efforts within the Executive Branch and Congress, this Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Plutonium Focus Area was written to ensure that technical gap projects are effectively managed and measured. The Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) defines and manages technology development programs that contribute to the effective stabilization of nuclear materials and their subsequent safe storage and final disposition. The scope of PFA activities includes the complete spectrum of plutonium materials, special isotopes, and other fissile materials. The PFA enables solutions to site-specific and complex-wide technology issues associated with plutonium remediation, stabilization, and preparation for disposition. The report describes the current technical activities, namely: Plutonium stabilization (9 studies); Highly enriched uranium stabilization (2 studies); Russian collaboration program (2 studies); Packaging and storage technologies (6 studies); and PFA management work package/product line (3 studies). Budget information for FY 1999 and FY 2000 is provided.

  8. SU-F-P-05: Initial Experience with an Independent Certification Program for Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solberg, T [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Robar, J [Capital District Health Authority, Halifax, NS (Canada); Gevaert, T [University Hospital Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Todorovic, M [Universitats-Klinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Howe, J [Associates In Medical Physics, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The ASTRO document “Safety is no accident: A FRAMEWORK FOR QUALITY RADIATION ONCOLOGY AND CARE” recommends external reviews of specialized modalities. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the implementation of such a program for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body radiation Therapy (SBRT). Methods: The margin of error for SRS and SBRT delivery is significantly smaller than that of conventional radiotherapy and therefore requires special attention and diligence. The Novalis Certified program was created to fill an unmet need for specialized SRS / SBRT credentialing. A standards document was drafted by a panel of experts from several disciplines, including medical physics, radiation oncology and neurosurgery. The document, based on national and international standards, covers requirements in program structure, personnel, training, clinical application, technology, quality management, and patient and equipment QA. The credentialing process was modeled after existing certification programs and includes an institution-generated self-study, extensive document review and an onsite audit. Reviewers generate a descriptive report, which is reviewed by a multidisciplinary expert panel. Outcomes of the review may include mandatory requirements and optional recommendations. Results: 15 institutions have received Novalis Certification, including 3 in the US, 7 in Europe, 4 in Australia and 1 in Asia. 87 other centers are at various stages of the process. Nine reviews have resulted in mandatory requirements, however all of these were addressed within three months of the audit report. All reviews have produced specific recommendations ranging from programmatic to technical in nature. Institutions felt that the credentialing process addressed a critical need and was highly valuable to the institution. Conclusion: Novalis Certification is a unique peer review program assessing safety and quality in SRS and SBRT, while recognizing

  9. Feasibility of a pedometer-based walking program for survivors of breast and head and neck cancer undergoing radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Pantea Amin; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; Haennel, Robert; Parliament, Matthew B; McNeely, Margaret L

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a pedometer-based walking program for people with breast cancer and head and neck cancer (HNC) undergoing radiation therapy treatment. Participants were given a pedometer and prescribed a home-based walking program that included an individualized weekly step-count goal during the 3- to 5-week course of radiation therapy. Feasibility was determined by calculating recruitment rate, completion rate, and rate of adherence. Secondary outcomes included 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, step count, physical activity level, and psychological outcomes of depression, happiness, self-esteem, and sleep quality. A total of 21 participants were recruited. All participants completed the study; adherence to prescribed step counts was 91% at follow-up. Analysis found a significant improvement in happiness, as measured by the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (mean difference 0.3, p=0.003), and a borderline significant improvement in 6MWT distance (mean difference 35 m, p=0.008). This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of a pedometer-based walking program for survivors of breast cancer and HNC undergoing radiation therapy.

  10. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  11. 100 Area process improvement program for the period November 1954--April 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinker, P.H.; Bupp, L.P.

    1954-11-19

    This is the second of a series of documents issued quarterly. The documents present, for critical examination by management and for the information of related groups, that portion of the future 100 Area technical program which relates directly and more or less immediately to the Technical-Manufacturing efforts to increase both power levels and production. An attempt is made to describe and justify the key production tests planned for the following six month period. Only those tests necessary for the relief of technical and process limitations and vital to the slug improvement program are included. Best estimates of changes in current Process Specifications during the ensuing six months are also given. To further longer range planning, power level forecasts based on foreseeable changes of technical limits and scheduled physical changes of the water plants and reactors are extended several years into the future.

  12. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  13. [RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AT THE AREA OF THE LOCATION OF THE FAR EASTERN CENTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT (FEC "DALRAO"--BRANCH OF FSUE "ROSRAO")].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, S M; Shandala, N K; Akhromeev, S V; Gimadova, T I; Seregin, V A; Titov, A V; Biryukova, N G

    2015-01-01

    Intensification ofactivities in the field of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW) management in the Far East region of Russia assumes an increase of the environmental load on the territories adjacent to the enterprise and settlements. To ensure radiation safety during works on SNF and radioactive waste management in the standard mode of operation and during the rehabilitation works in the contaminated territories, there is need for the optimization of the existing system of radiation-hygienic monitoring, aimed at the implementation of complex dynamic observation of parameters of radiation-hygienic situation and radiation amount of the population living in the vicinity of the Far Eastern Center for Radioactive Waste Management (FEC "DALRAO"). To solve this problem there is required a significant amount of total and enough structured information on the character of the formation of the radiation situation, the potential ways of the spread of man-made pollution to the surrounding area, determining the radiation load on the population living in the vicinity of the object. In this paper there are presented the results of field studies of the radiation situation at the plant FEC "DALRAO", which were obtained during the course of expedition trips in 2009-2012.

  14. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2010 results. During 2010, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 10 and August 10, 2010; at UE5PW-2 on March 10, August 10, and August 25, 2010; and at UE5PW-3 on March 31, August 10, and August 25, 2010. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, April 26, August 9, and November 9, 2010. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2010 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  15. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-02-11

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2012 results. During 2012, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 21, August 7, August 21, and September 11, 2012, and static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 19, June 6, August 2, and October 15, 2012. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Final results from samples collected in 2012 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  16. [Pervasive developmental disorders screening program in the health areas of Salamanca and Zamora in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Primo, P; Santos Borbujo, J; Martín Cilleros, M V; Martínez Velarte, M; Lleras Muñoz, S; Posada de la Paz, M; Canal Bedia, R

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the results of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) screening program currently ongoing in the public health services in the health area of Salamanca and Zamora, Spain, in terms of feasibility, reliability and costs, with the purpose of extending the program at regional and national levels. A total of 54 paediatric teams (nurses and paediatricians) from the provinces of Salamanca and Zamora participated in the training sessions for the PDD Screening Programme in September 2005, and agreed to administer the questionnaire M-CHAT(1) to all parents attending their clinics in any of these two visits: 18 months and/or 24 months within the Well-baby Check-up Program. A total of 9,524 children have participated up to December 2012. Additionally, we evaluated the participation and opinions of the paediatric teams using questionnaires, and costs per positive case have estimated. Out of a total of 852 (8.9%) children determined as PDD high-risk with the M-CHAT questionnaire results, 61 (7.1%) were confirmed as positive with the M-CHAT follow-up interview. Of these, 22 were diagnosed with a PDD and 31 other disorders of childhood onset according to DSM-IV-TR(2). Almost three-quarters (74%) of respondents felt the program was totally feasible, and 22% viable, but with reservations (n=54). This study has been able to show for the first time in Spain, the feasibility of a population-based PDD screening program within the public health system. Training in social and communicative development, and dissemination of the early signs of PDD among paediatricians, as well as the use of the M-CHAT, is essential for progress in the early detection of these disorders. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Eight-year evaluation of a combined fluoride program in a nonfluoride area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, H S; Meyers, R J; Heifetz, S B; Driscoll, W S; Li, S H

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the long-term effects of a combination of self-applied fluoride methods among schoolchildren living in a rural area with low concentrations of fluoride in drinking water. Participating children rinse weekly with a 0.2% sodium fluoride solution and ingest daily a 1-mg fluoride tablet in school under supervision of their teachers, and received fluoride toothpaste and toothbrushes for use at home. In 1980, dental examinations of children ages 6-14, who had continuously participated in the program for 1 to 8 years, depending on their school grade, had an overall mean caries prevalence of 3.22 DMFS, 49% lower than the corresponding mean score of 6.31 DMFS for children of the same ages at the baseline examination. The preventive program inhibited decay in all types of tooth surfaces: 37% in occlusal, 41% in buccolingual, and a striking 86% in mesiodistal. At each succeeding follow-up survey, benefits have continued to improve; the reductions in caries prevalence were 18% after 2 years, 35% after 4 years, 45% after 6 years, and 49% after 8 years. Findings in approximal tooth surfaces have also continued to improve as the length of the program has increased; reductions in caries in mesiodistal surfaces were 32%, 69%, 85%, and 86% after 2,4,6, and 8 years, respectively. Internal analyses of data indicate that the decline in dental caries prevalence resulted from the fluoride program and not from an unexplained natural decline in caries prevalence. The self-applied combined fluoride regimen used in this program has been shown to produce a pronounced anticaries effect.

  18. The assessment of cytotoxic T cell and natural killer cells activity in residents of high and ordinary background radiation areas of Ramsar-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Borzoueisileh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective radiation dose of human from natural sources is about 2.4 mSv/y and the dose limit for radiation workers is 20 mSv/y. Ramsar, a city in Iran, has been the subject of concern in the last forty years for a high level of radiation measured in some spots as high as 260 mSv/y. Carcinogenesis is one of the most studied effects of radiation especially in high doses. Recent studies showed that the high level of natural radiation received by inhabitants of this area, paradoxically don′t have significant health effect. Natural killer (NK cells and cytotoxic T cells are the most important cells in tumor immune surveillance and CD107a is a widely expressed intracellular protein located in the lysosomal/endosomal membrane. CD107a transiently located on the cell membrane can be used as a marker of CD8 + T cell degranulation following stimulation. It is also expressed, to a lower extent, on activated NK cells. In this study, 60 healthy people were selected randomly and their consent obtained and confounding factors such as sex, age, life-styles was matched then the count of activated NK and CD8 + cells was compared in high and normal background radiation areas inhabitants of Ramsar. After filling the questionnaire and measurement of background radiation, blood samples of 30 healthy people from each region were analyzed immediately by means of flowcytometry. The leukocytes and their subsets were not significantly different between two groups and the count of active cells was higher in control group. The result shows that the changes in immune system occur due to radiation and maybe it is as a result of higher radiosensitivity of activated cells.

  19. The assessment of cytotoxic T cell and natural killer cells activity in residents of high and ordinary background radiation areas of Ramsar-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Abediankenari, Saeid; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah

    2013-01-01

    The effective radiation dose of human from natural sources is about 2.4 mSv/y and the dose limit for radiation workers is 20 mSv/y. Ramsar, a city in Iran, has been the subject of concern in the last forty years for a high level of radiation measured in some spots as high as 260 mSv/y. Carcinogenesis is one of the most studied effects of radiation especially in high doses. Recent studies showed that the high level of natural radiation received by inhabitants of this area, paradoxically don't have significant health effect. Natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells are the most important cells in tumor immune surveillance and CD107a is a widely expressed intracellular protein located in the lysosomal/endosomal membrane. CD107a transiently located on the cell membrane can be used as a marker of CD8 + T cell degranulation following stimulation. It is also expressed, to a lower extent, on activated NK cells. In this study, 60 healthy people were selected randomly and their consent obtained and confounding factors such as sex, age, life-styles was matched then the count of activated NK and CD8 + cells was compared in high and normal background radiation areas inhabitants of Ramsar. After filling the questionnaire and measurement of background radiation, blood samples of 30 healthy people from each region were analyzed immediately by means of flowcytometry. The leukocytes and their subsets were not significantly different between two groups and the count of active cells was higher in control group. The result shows that the changes in immune system occur due to radiation and maybe it is as a result of higher radiosensitivity of activated cells.

  20. The implementation and assessment of a quality and safety culture education program in a large radiation oncology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Kristina D; Volz, Edna; Bellerive, Marc; Bergendahl, Howard W; Gabriel, Peter E; Maity, Amit; Hahn, Stephen M; Vapiwala, Neha

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the American Society for Radiation Oncology launched a national campaign to improve patient safety in radiation therapy. One recommendation included the expansion of educational programs dedicated to quality and safety. We subsequently implemented a quality and safety culture education program (Q-SCEP) in our large radiation oncology department. The purpose of this study is to describe the design, implementation, and impact of this Q-SCEP. In 2010, we instituted a comprehensive Q-SCEP, consisting of a longitudinal series of lectures, meetings, and interactive workshops. Participation was mandatory for all department members across all network locations. Electronic surveys were administered to assess employee engagement, knowledge retention, preferred learning styles, and the program's overall impact. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Survey on Patient Safety Culture was administered. Analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. Between 2010 and 2015, 100% of targeted staff participated in Q-SCEP. Thirty-three percent (132 of 400) and 30% (136 of 450) responded to surveys in 2012 and 2014, respectively. Mean scores improved from 73% to 89% (P safety culture education was critical to performing their jobs well. Full course compliance was achieved despite the sizable number of personnel and treatment centers. Periodic assessments demonstrated high knowledge retention, which significantly improved over time in nearly all department divisions. Additionally, our AHRQ patient safety grade remains high and continues to improve. These results will be used to further enhance ongoing internal safety initiatives and to inform future innovative efforts. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2000 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L; Eaton, G F; Hakemi, N L; Hudson, G B; Hutcheon, I D; Lau, C A; Kersting, A B; Kenneally, J M; Moran, J E; Phinney, D L; Rose, T P; Smith, D K; Sylwester, E R; Wang, L; Williams, R; Zavarin, M

    2001-07-01

    This report highlights the results of FY 2000 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. This is the latest in a series of annual reports published by LLNL-ANCD to document recent investigations of radionuclide migration and transport processes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The HRMP is sponsored by Defense Programs (DP) at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOENV), and supports DP operations at the NTS through studies of radiochemical and hydrologic processes that are relevant to the DP mission. Other organizations that support the HRMP include Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPS), and Bechtel Nevada (BN). The UGTA Project is sponsored by the Environmental Management (EM) program at DOENV; its goal is to determine the extent of radionuclide contamination in groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing at the NTS. The project strategy follows guidelines set forth in a Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Participating contractors include LLNL (both ANCD and the Energy and Environmental Sciences Directorate), LANL, USGS, DRI, BN, and IT Corporation (with subcontract support from Geotrans Inc.).

  2. Development of a quality assurance program for ionizing radiation secondary calibration laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, H.T. II; Taylor, A.R. Jr. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    For calibration laboratories, routine calibrations of instruments meeting stated accuracy goals are important. One method of achieving the accuracy goals is to establish and follow a quality assurance program designed to monitor all aspects of the calibration program and to provide the appropriate feedback mechanism if adjustments are needed. In the United States there are a number of organizations with laboratory accreditation programs. All existing accreditation programs require that the laboratory implement a quality assurance program with essentially the same elements in all of these programs. Collectively, these elements have been designated as a Measurement Quality Assurance (MQA) program. This paper will briefly discuss the interrelationship of the elements of an MQA program. Using the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) as an example, it will focus on setting up a quality control program for the equipment in a Secondary Calibration Laboratory.

  3. Proposed framework for the Western Area Power Administration Environmental Risk Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; DiMassa, F.V.; Pelto, P.J.; Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Roybal, A.L. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) views environmental protection and compliance as a top priority as it manages the construction, operation, and maintenance of its vast network of transmission lines, substations, and other facilities. A recent Department of Energy audit of Western`s environmental management activities recommends that Western adopt a formal environmental risk program. To accomplish this goal, Western, in conjunction with Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is in the process of developing a centrally coordinated environmental risk program. This report presents the results of this design effort, and indicates the direction in which Western`s environmental risk program is heading. Western`s environmental risk program will consist of three main components: risk communication, risk assessment, and risk management/decision making. Risk communication is defined as an exchange of information on the potential for threats to human health, public safety, or the environment. This information exchange provides a mechanism for public involvement, and also for the participation in the risk assessment and management process by diverse groups or offices within Western. The objective of risk assessment is to evaluate and rank the relative magnitude of risks associated with specific environmental issues that are facing Western. The evaluation and ranking is based on the best available scientific information and judgment and serves as input to the risk management process. Risk management takes risk information and combines it with relevant non-risk factors (e.g., legal mandates, public opinion, costs) to generate risk management options. A risk management tool, such as decision analysis, can be used to help make risk management choices.

  4. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Westgate

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  5. Nevada Test Site 2009 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-01-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2009 results. During 2009, groundwater at each of the three pilot wells was sampled on March 10, 2009, and August 18, 2009, and water levels at each of the three pilot wells were measured on February 17, May 6, August 17, and November 10, 2009. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2009 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  6. Nevada Test Site 2001 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2001 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Due to detections of TOC and TOX in some samples collected in 2000, a plan, as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), was executed to collect an increased number and type of samples in 2001. Results from all samples collected in 2001 were below ILs. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 RWMS and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year.

  7. 2003 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2003 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semi-annually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), tritium, and major cations/anions. Results from all samples collected in 2003 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and confirm that any previous detections of TOC and TOX were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevations. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes a Cumulative Chronology for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the current groundwater sampling procedure.

  8. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    2002-04-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported.

  9. Evaluation of the Specialized, Volunteer Transportation Program of the Area IV Agency on Aging and Community Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    This report contains an evaluation of a specialized volunteer, rural : transportation program implemented in April of 1986. The Area IV Agency on : Aging and Community Services received a grant from the Urban Mass Transit : Administration for this pr...

  10. The role of the EPA radiation quality assurance program in the measurement quality assurance accreditation program for radioassay laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, T.M. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    As the nature and extent of radiological contamination becomes better documented and more public, radioanalytical laboratories are faced with a constantly expanding variety of new and difficult analytical requirements. Concurrent with those requirements is the responsibility to provide customers, regulatory officials, or the public with defensible data produced in an environment of verifiable, controlled quality. To meet that need, a quality assurance accreditation program for radioassay laboratories has been proposed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The standard will provide the organizational framework and functional requirements needed to assure the quality of laboratory outputs. Under the proposed program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Laboratory Intercomparison Program plays a key role as a reference laboratory. The current and proposed roles of the EPA Intercomparison Program are discussed, as are the functional relationships between EPA, the accreditating organization, and the service and monitoring laboratories.

  11. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2006 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culham, H W; Eaton, G F; Genetti, V; Hu, Q; Kersting, A B; Lindvall, R E; Moran, J E; Blasiyh Nuno, G A; Powell, B A; Rose, T P; Singleton, M J; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2008-04-08

    This report describes FY 2006 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area Project (UGTA). These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The report is organized on a topical basis and contains four chapters that highlight technical work products produced by CBND. However, it is important to recognize that most of this work involves collaborative partnerships with the other HRMP and UGTA contract organizations. These groups include the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and National Security Technologies (NSTec). Chapter 1 is a summary of FY 2006 sampling efforts at near-field 'hot' wells at the NTS, and presents new chemical and isotopic data for groundwater samples from four near-field wells. These include PM-2 and U-20n PS 1DDh (CHESHIRE), UE-7ns (BOURBON), and U-19v PS No.1ds (ALMENDRO). Chapter 2 is a summary of the results of chemical and isotopic measurements of groundwater samples from three UGTA environmental monitoring wells. These wells are: ER-12-4 and U12S located in Area 12 on Rainier

  12. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-27

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2011 results. During 2011, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 8, August 2, August 24, and October 19, 2011; at UE5PW-2 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011; and at UE5PW-3 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, June 7, August 1, and October 17, 2011. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Initial total organic carbon and total organic halides results for samples collected in August 2011 were above previous measurements and, in some cases, above the established investigation limits. However, after field sample pumps and tubing were disinfected with Clorox solution, the results returned to normal levels. Final results from samples collected in 2011 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  13. Evaluation of a Radiation Worker Safety Training Program at a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiation safety course was evaluated using the Kirkpatrick criteria of training evaluation as a guide. Thirty-nine employees were given the two-day training course and were compared with 15 employees in a control group who did not receive the training. Cognitive results show an immediate gain in knowledge, and substantial retention at 6 months. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of applications to current radiation safety training was well as follow-on training research and development requirements.

  14. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-01

    analyzed for toxicity characteristic contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Beginning with the sample from July 31, 2013, pH and specific conductance were also measured. Leachate analysis results show no evidence of contamination. Results for toxicity characteristic contaminants are all below regulatory levels and analysis quantification limits. No quantifiable PCB levels were detected in any sample. Results for pH and specific conductance are also within expected ranges. After analysis, leachate was pumped from the collection tank and used in Cell 18 for dust control. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  15. Decrease in radiation-induced biological effects due to prior radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Ken; Ohnishi, Takeo [Nara Medical Univ., Nara (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    We are constantly exposed to environmental radiation. ICRP recommends annual limitations of radiation exposure of 1 and 50 mSv for the general public and for radiation workers, respectively. Initially, there were doubts about different limitations between the two groups based on radiation sensitivity. Regarding the dose/effect relationship, two discrepant hypotheses are the linear no-threshold theory and non-linear with threshold theory, which form the basis of the current radiation protection programs. The radioadaptive response fully occurs near the range of natural radiation and radiation-related working area. This response is a biological defense mechanism in which low dose and low dose-rate irradiation elicits cellular resistance to the genotoxic effects of subsequent irradiation. However, its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This article reviews the trends in research and our recent findings on decreases in radiation-induced biological effects due to prior radiation exposure.

  16. 34 CFR 403.113 - How does a State allocate funds under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program to area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... School Vocational Education Program to area vocational education schools and intermediate educational... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED...? Secondary, Postsecondary, and Adult Vocational Education Programs § 403.113 How does a State allocate funds...

  17. 77 FR 22061 - FTA Section 5307 Urbanized Area Formula Program: Allocation of Funding Caps for Treating Fuel and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Federal Transit Administration FTA Section 5307 Urbanized Area Formula Program: Allocation of Funding Caps.... Based on the $100,000,000 cap on use of this provision, FTA has allocated funding caps to program... allocate the available resources, FTA has determined funding caps for all requesting UZAs and States (see...

  18. Estimating Roof Solar Energy Potential in the Downtown Area Using a GPU-Accelerated Solar Radiation Model and Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, as a clean and renewable resource is becoming increasingly important in the global context of climate change and energy crisis. Utilization of solar energy in urban areas is of great importance in urban energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. However, available spaces for solar panel installation in cities are quite limited except for building roofs. Furthermore, complex urban 3D morphology greatly affects sunlit patterns on building roofs, especially in downtown areas, which makes the determination of roof solar energy potential a challenging task. The object of this study is to estimate the solar radiation on building roofs in an urban area in Shanghai, China, and select suitable spaces for installing solar panels that can effectively utilize solar energy. A Graphic Processing Unit (GPU-based solar radiation model named SHORTWAVE-C simulating direct and non-direct solar radiation intensity was developed by adding the capability of considering cloud influence into the previous SHORTWAVE model. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data was used as the input of the SHORTWAVE-C model and to investigate the morphological characteristics of the study area. The results show that the SHORTWAVE-C model can accurately estimate the solar radiation intensity in a complex urban environment under cloudy conditions, and the GPU acceleration method can reduce the computation time by up to 46%. Two sites with different building densities and rooftop structures were selected to illustrate the influence of urban morphology on the solar radiation and solar illumination duration. Based on the findings, an object-based method was implemented to identify suitable places for rooftop solar panel installation that can fully utilize the solar energy potential. Our study provides useful strategic guidelines for the selection and assessment of roof solar energy potential for urban energy planning.

  19. A dynamic programming approach to water allocation for seasonally dry area, based on stochastic soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Porporato, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    seasonally dry areas, which are widely distributed in the world, are usually facing an intensive disparity between the lack of natural resource and the great demand of social development. In dry seasons of such areas, the distribution/allocation of water resource is an extremely critical and sensitive issue, and conflicts often occur due to lack of appropriate water allocation scheme. Among the many uses of water, the need of agricultural irrigation water is highly elastic, but this factor has not yet been made full use to free up water from agriculture use. The primary goal of this work is to design an optimal distribution scheme of water resource for dry seasons to maximize benefits from precious water resources, considering the high elasticity of agriculture water demand due to the dynamic of soil moisture affected by the uncertainty of precipitation and other factors like canopy interception. A dynamic programming model will be used to figure out an appropriate allocation of water resources among agricultural irrigation and other purposes like drinking water, industry, and hydropower, etc. In this dynamic programming model, we analytically quantify the dynamic of soil moisture in the agricultural fields by describing the interception with marked Poisson process and describing the rainfall depth with exponential distribution. Then, we figure out a water-saving irrigation scheme, which regulates the timetable and volumes of water in irrigation, in order to minimize irrigation water requirement under the premise of necessary crop yield (as a constraint condition). And then, in turn, we provide a scheme of water resource distribution/allocation among agriculture and other purposes, taking aim at maximizing benefits from precious water resources, or in other words, make best use of limited water resource.

  20. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A. [and others

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  1. TFA Tank Focus Area - multiyear program plan FY98-FY00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 80 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) national technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE`s technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across organizations that fund tank technology development EM, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30), Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and Science and Technology (EM-50).

  2. TFA Tanks Focus Area Multiyear Program Plan FY00-FY04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BA Carteret; JH Westsik; LR Roeder-Smith; RL Gilchrist; RW Allen; SN Schlahta; TM Brouns

    1999-10-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 68 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked contamination to the soil. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program. for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's five major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) (New York). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across EM organizations that fund tank technology development, including the Offices of Waste

  3. Contributions of the ARM Program to Radiative Transfer Modeling for Climate and Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlawer, Eli J.; Iacono, Michael J.; Pincus, Robert; Barker, Howard W.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Mitchell, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate climate and weather simulations must account for all relevant physical processes and their complex interactions. Each of these atmospheric, ocean, and land processes must be considered on an appropriate spatial and temporal scale, which leads these simulations to require a substantial computational burden. One especially critical physical process is the flow of solar and thermal radiant energy through the atmosphere, which controls planetary heating and cooling and drives the large-scale dynamics that moves energy from the tropics toward the poles. Radiation calculations are therefore essential for climate and weather simulations, but are themselves quite complex even without considering the effects of variable and inhomogeneous clouds. Clear-sky radiative transfer calculations have to account for thousands of absorption lines due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases, which are irregularly distributed across the spectrum and have shapes dependent on pressure and temperature. The line-by-line (LBL) codes that treat these details have a far greater computational cost than can be afforded by global models. Therefore, the crucial requirement for accurate radiation calculations in climate and weather prediction models must be satisfied by fast solar and thermal radiation parameterizations with a high level of accuracy that has been demonstrated through extensive comparisons with LBL codes. See attachment for continuation.

  4. A Commentary on: "A History of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 1998-2008".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Antone L

    2015-04-01

    This commentary provides a very brief overview of the book "A History of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 1998-2008" ( http://lowdose.energy.gov ). The book summarizes and evaluates the research progress, publications and impact of the U.S. Department of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research Program over its first 10 years. The purpose of this book was to summarize the impact of the program's research on the current thinking and low-dose paradigms associated with the radiation biology field and to help stimulate research on the potential adverse and/or protective health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. In addition, this book provides a summary of the data generated in the low dose program and a scientific background for anyone interested in conducting future research on the effects of low-dose or low-dose-rate radiation exposure. This book's exhaustive list of publications coupled with discussions of major observations should provide a significant resource for future research in the low-dose and dose-rate region. However, because of space limitations, only a limited number of critical references are mentioned. Finally, this history book provides a list of major advancements that were accomplished by the program in the field of radiation biology, and these bulleted highlights can be found in last part of chapters 4-10.

  5. North Carolina Toxic Substance Incidents Program 2010-2015: Identifying Areas for Injury Prevention Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiffert, Samantha; Etienne, Suze; Hirsch, Annie; Langley, Ricky

    2017-08-06

    The National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP) is a surveillance system designed to capture acute toxic substance releases, factors contributing to the release, and any associated injuries. North Carolina has participated since 2010, when NTSIP was established. This article will present a descriptive statistical summary from 2010 to 2015 focused on releases that resulted in injuries in order to identify areas for public health prevention efforts. Of the 1690 toxic releases in North Carolina, 155 incidents resulted in injuries and 500 people were injured. Carbon monoxide injured the greatest number of people. Of the incidents that resulted in injuries, 68 occurred at private vehicles or residences (44%), injuring 124 people (25%). Over half of events where at least one responder was injured occurred at private vehicles or residences. Events occurring at private residences did not have a significant relationship between evacuations and injuries, while for industry-related events, the odds of an evacuation being ordered were 8.18 times greater (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 5.19, 12.89) when there were injuries associated with an event. Intervention efforts should focus on preventing responder injuries while responding to private residence releases and educating the general public on how to prevent injuries by self-evacuating areas where hazardous chemicals have been released.

  6. NASA/ARMY/BELL XV-15 Tiltrotor Low-Noise Terminal Area Operations Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bryan D.; Conner, David A.; Decker, William A.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Klein, Peter D.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the noise reduction potential for tiltrotor aircraft, a series of three XV- 15 acoustic flight tests were conducted over a five-year period by a NASA/Army/Bell Helicopter team. Lower hemispherical noise characteristics for a wide range of steady-state terminal area type operating conditions were measured during the Phase I test and indicated that the takeoff and level flight conditions were not significant contributors to the total noise of tiltrotor operations. Phase I results were also used to design low-noise approach profiles that were tested later during the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests. These latter phases used large area microphone arrays to directly measure ground noise footprints. Approach profiles emphasized noise reduction while maintaining handling qualities sufficient for tiltrotor commercial passenger ride comfort and flight safety under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) conditions. This paper will discuss the weather, aircraft, tracking, guidance, and acoustic instrumentation systems, as well as the approach profile design philosophy, and the overall test program philosophy. Acoustic results are presented to document the variation in tiltrotor noise due to changes in operating condition, indicating the potential for significant noise reduction using the unique tiltrotor capability of nacelle tilt. Recommendations are made for a final XV-15 test to define the acoustic benefits of the automated approach capability which has recently been added to this testbed aircraft.

  7. North Carolina Toxic Substance Incidents Program 2010–2015: Identifying Areas for Injury Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiffert, Samantha; Etienne, Suze; Hirsch, Annie

    2017-01-01

    The National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP) is a surveillance system designed to capture acute toxic substance releases, factors contributing to the release, and any associated injuries. North Carolina has participated since 2010, when NTSIP was established. This article will present a descriptive statistical summary from 2010 to 2015 focused on releases that resulted in injuries in order to identify areas for public health prevention efforts. Of the 1690 toxic releases in North Carolina, 155 incidents resulted in injuries and 500 people were injured. Carbon monoxide injured the greatest number of people. Of the incidents that resulted in injuries, 68 occurred at private vehicles or residences (44%), injuring 124 people (25%). Over half of events where at least one responder was injured occurred at private vehicles or residences. Events occurring at private residences did not have a significant relationship between evacuations and injuries, while for industry-related events, the odds of an evacuation being ordered were 8.18 times greater (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 5.19, 12.89) when there were injuries associated with an event. Intervention efforts should focus on preventing responder injuries while responding to private residence releases and educating the general public on how to prevent injuries by self-evacuating areas where hazardous chemicals have been released. PMID:29051448

  8. Nevada Test Site 2002 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2002 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Results from all samples collected in 2002 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act(RCRA) regulated unit within the RWMS-5 and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  9. Evaluation of DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa seeds growing in soil of high background radiation areas of Ramsar-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghirzadeh, M; Gharaati, M R; Mohammadi, Sh; Ghiassi-Nejad, M

    2008-10-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to serve as in situ monitors for environmental genotoxins. We have used the alkaline comet assay for detecting induced DNA damage in Allium cepa to estimate the impact of high levels of natural radiation in the soils of inhabited zones of Ramsar. The average specific activity of natural radionuclides measured in the soil samples for 226Ra was 12,766 Bq kg(-1) whereas in the control soils was in the range of 34-60 Bq kg(-1). A positive strong significant correlation of the DNA damage in nuclei of the root cells of A. cepa seeds germinated in the soil of high background radiation areas with 226Ra specific activity of the soil samples was observed. The results showed high genotoxicity of radioactively contaminated soils. Also the linear increase in the DNA damage indicates that activation of repair enzymes is not triggered by exposure to radiation in HBRA.

  10. Evaluation of DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa seeds growing in soil of high background radiation areas of Ramsar - Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghirzadeh, M. [Department of Basic Science, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharaati, M.R. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Sh. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Applications Research School, Tehran 11365-3486 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: smohammadi@aeoi.org.ir; Ghiassi-Nejad, M. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Plants are unique in their ability to serve as in situ monitors for environmental genotoxins. We have used the alkaline comet assay for detecting induced DNA damage in Allium cepa to estimate the impact of high levels of natural radiation in the soils of inhabited zones of Ramsar. The average specific activity of natural radionuclides measured in the soil samples for {sup 226}Ra was 12,766 Bq kg{sup -1} whereas in the control soils was in the range of 34-60 Bq kg{sup -1}. A positive strong significant correlation of the DNA damage in nuclei of the root cells of A. cepa seeds germinated in the soil of high background radiation areas with {sup 226}Ra specific activity of the soil samples was observed. The results showed high genotoxicity of radioactively contaminated soils. Also the linear increase in the DNA damage indicates that activation of repair enzymes is not triggered by exposure to radiation in HBRA.

  11. An urban area minority outreach program for K-6 children in space science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P.; Garza, O.; Lindstrom, M.; Allen, J.; Wooten, J.; Sumners, C.; Obot, V.

    The Houston area has minority populations with significant school dropout rates. This is similar to other major cities in the United States and elsewhere in the world where there are significant minority populations from rural areas. The student dropout rates are associated in many instances with the absence of educational support opportuni- ties either from the school and/or from the family. This is exacerbated if the student has poor English language skills. To address this issue, a NASA minority university initiative enabled us to develop a broad-based outreach program that includes younger children and their parents at a primarily Hispanic inner city charter school. The pro- gram at the charter school was initiated by teaching computer skills to the older chil- dren, who in turn taught parents. The older children were subsequently asked to help teach a computer literacy class for mothers with 4-5 year old children. The computers initially intimidated the mothers as most had limited educational backgrounds and En- glish language skills. To practice their newly acquired computer skills and learn about space science, the mothers and their children were asked to pick a space project and investigate it using their computer skills. The mothers and their children decided to learn about black holes. The project included designing space suits for their children so that they could travel through space and observe black holes from a closer proxim- ity. The children and their mothers learned about computers and how to use them for educational purposes. In addition, they learned about black holes and the importance of space suits in protecting astronauts as they investigated space. The parents are proud of their children and their achievements. By including the parents in the program, they have a greater understanding of the importance of their children staying in school and the opportunities for careers in space science and technology. For more information on our overall

  12. Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas – CETUP*2016 Summer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbinska, Barbara [Texas A& M University Corpus Christi, Madison, SD (United States)

    2017-02-15

    For last six years Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas (CETUP*) successfully provided a stimulating environment for creative thinking and open communication between researches of varying ages and nationalities in dynamic atmosphere of intense scientific interactions. Ongoing and proposed Neutrino and Dark Matter experiments are expected to unveil the answers to fundamental questions about the Universe. CETUP*2016 was focused exactly on these subjects bringing together experts in dark matter, neutrino physics, particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmology from around the world. Scientists invited to participate in the program not only provided theoretical support to the underground science, but they also examined core questions including: What is the nature of dark matter?, What is the origin of the neutrino masses?, How well do we know the neutrino parameters?, How have neutrinos shaped the evolution of the universe?, , What are the fundamental underlying symmetries of the Universe? Is there a Grand Unified Theory of the Universe? and many others. The 2016 CETUP* summer program consisted of three sessions (June 6 – July 16, 2016) covering various aspects of theoretical and experimental neutrino physics, unification and dark matter. The two week long session on Physics and Instrumentation of the Near Detector for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments (June 6 – June 16) was followed by the two week long Neutrino Physics/Unification session: “From Grand Unification to String Theory and Back” (June 20 – July 2). The program ended with two week long session on Dark Matter Physics (July 4 – July 16). This six-week long program allowed for thorough discussions and an effective and comprehensive analysis of topics related to Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Neutrino Physics including astrophysical neutrinos, near and far detector physics, neutrino interactions, Higgs Boson, Inflation, Leptogenesis and many others that will advance

  13. Alterations in lipids & lipid peroxidation in rats fed with flavonoid rich fraction of banana (Musa paradisiaca) from high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kripa; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2005-12-01

    A group of villages in Kollam district of Kerala, southern part of India are exposed to a higher dose of natural radiation than global average. Yet no adverse health effects have been found in humans, animals and plants in these areas. The present study was carried out to understand whether radiation affects the quantity and quality of flavonoids in plants grown in this area of high radiation, and to assess the effect of feeding flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) of the two varieties of banana to rats on their biochemical parameters like lipids, lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzyme levels. A total of 42 albino rats were equally divided into 7 groups. Rats fed laboratory diet alone were grouped under group I (normal control). Groups II and V received flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) from the fruits of two varieties of Musa paradisiaca, Palayamkodan and Rasakadali respectively from normal background radiation area (Veli) and treated as controls. Rats of groups III and IV received FRF of Palayamkodan from high background radiation areas (HBRAs) - Neendakara and Karunagappally respectively while groups VI and VII received FRF of Rasakadali from HBRAs. At the end of the experimental period of 45 days, lipids, lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes from liver, heart and kidney were analyzed. FRF of Palayamkodan and Rasakadali varieties showed significant hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. But these activities were found to be lowered in plants grown in HBRAs, particularly in Karunagappally area. Of the two, Palayamkodan variety was more effective in reducing lipids and lipid peroxides. MDA and hydroperoxides were significantly diminished in rats given FRF of banana from Veli (control area) only. FRF from plants grown in HBRAs exerted inhibition in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats and this inhibitory effect was maximum in rats fed FRF from Karunagappally. Banana grown in HBRAs is of lower quality with less efficient antioxidant system

  14. Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: (1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; (2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; (3) The lake morphometry; (4) The lake ecosystem; (5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake

  15. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  16. Final Scientific / Technical Report, Geothermal Resource Exploration Program, Truckhaven Area, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layman Energy Associates, Inc.

    2006-08-15

    With financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Layman Energy Associates, Inc. (LEA) has completed a program of geothermal exploration at the Truckhaven area in Imperial County, California. The exploratory work conducted by LEA included the following activities: compilation of public domain resource data (wells, seismic data, geologic maps); detailed field geologic mapping at the project site; acquisition and interpretation of remote sensing imagery such as aerial and satellite photographs; acquisition, quality control and interpretation of gravity data; and acquisition, quality control and interpretation of resistivity data using state of the art magnetotelluric (MT) methods. The results of this exploratory program have allowed LEA to develop a structural and hydrologic interpretation of the Truckhaven geothermal resource which can be used to guide subsequent exploratory drilling and resource development. Of primary significance, is the identification of an 8 kilometer-long, WNW-trending zone of low resistivity associated with geothermal activity in nearby wells. The long axis of this low resistivity zone is inferred to mark a zone of faulting which likely provides the primary control on the distribution of geothermal resources in the Truckhaven area. Abundant cross-faults cutting the main WNW-trending zone in its western half may indicate elevated fracture permeability in this region, possibly associated with thermal upwelling and higher resource temperatures. Regional groundwater flow is inferred to push thermal fluids from west to east along the trend of the main low resistivity zone, with resource temperatures likely declining from west to east away from the inferred upwelling zone. Resistivity mapping and well data have also shown that within the WNW-trending low resistivity zone, the thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary section above granite basement ranges from 1,900–2,600 meters. Well data indicates the lower part of this

  17. Research planning for supported Radiation Protection research Jul 1995 -Dec 1996; Forskningsplan foer utlagd straalskyddsforskning 1995/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Plans for the period include the following areas: Radiation centered epidemiology, Dosimetry, Radiation biology, Medical diagnostics and therapy, Radioecology, Accidents/preparedness, Dose reductions in nuclear power plants, Natural radiation, UV-radiation, Electromagnetic fields and other. The total budget for the programs amounts to about 24 MSEK.

  18. Independent regulatory examination of radiation situation in the areas of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes storage in the Russian far east.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, N K; Kiselev, S M; Lucyanec, A I; Titov, A V; Seregin, V A; Isaev, D V; Akhromeev, S V

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the findings of the radiation situation analysis on-site near Sysoeva and Razbojnik Bays. The results of radiation monitoring performed by radiological laboratory of DalRAO and studies performed by the experts from the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre have been used in the course of analysis. On the industrial sites, gamma dose rate reaches 60 µSv h(-1), and the specific activities of man-made radionuclides in soil reach 2.5 × 10(4) Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs, 7.6 × 10(3) Bq kg(-1) for (90)Sr and 2.0 × 10(3) Bq kg(-1) for (60)Co. Beyond the industrial sites, there are three local parts of the area on the coast and in the off-shore water area, contaminated with man-made radionuclides. Gamma dose rate reaches 8 µSv h(-1). The radionuclide contents in soil at this area reach 3.6 × 10(3), 2.8 × 10(3) and 19 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Сs, (90)Sr and (60)Со, respectively. At the remaining part of the area nearby Sysoeva Bay, the radiation situation complies with natural background.

  19. USAREUR Local Training Areas (LTAs). Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) FY09 Status Report: Sustainable Range Program (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    project methodology and cost estimate, each project has a description, Benefits to Training, Impact if Not Funded, and a graphics page that...form of large waterlogged hollows from M1 tanks and other heavy vehicle usage. Because it is located in a forested area that lacks adequate direct...the west side of Poedeldorf LTA becomes flooded on either side, and the trail itself becomes waterlogged , because of a lack of drainage ditches

  20. The effect of a behavioral activation program on improving mental and physical health complaints associated with radiation stress among mothers in Fukushima: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Kotaro; Sekiya, Yuki; Asai, Yumi; Umeda, Maki; Horikoshi, Naoko; Yasumura, Seiji; Yabe, Hirooki; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-11-08

    Mothers living with small children in Fukushima prefecture may experience radiation anxiety and related symptoms after the Fukushima Dai'ich Nuclear Power Plant Accident. A behavioral activation (BA) program was developed to improve their psychosomatic symptoms. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effectiveness of a BA program for improving psychological distress and physical symptoms among mothers with preschool children in Fukushima-prefecture 3 years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Participants were recruited from mothers living with a preschool child(ren) in Fukushima city and surrounding areas though a newspaper advertisement, posters, and flyers. Participants allocated to the intervention group received a newly developed group-based BA program, which consisted of two 90- min lessons with a 1-week interval. Psychological distress and physical symptoms as a primary outcome, and radiation anxiety and positive well-being (liveliness and life satisfaction) as a secondary outcome, were measured at baseline, 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Participants were randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group (18 and 19, respectively). The BA program showed a marginally significant intervention effect on psychological distress (p = 0.051) and physical symptoms (p = 0.07) at 1-month follow-up, while the effect became smaller at 3-month follow-up. The effect sizes at 1-month were medium to large (-0.72 and -0.56, respectively). There was a significant intervention effect on increasing liveliness at 3-month follow-up (p = 0.02); and there were marginally significant effects on life satisfaction at 1- and 3-month follow-ups (both p = 0.09). This BA program may be effective for improving psychological distress, physical symptoms, and well-being, at least for a short duration, among mothers with preschool children after the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima, while a further large

  1. Multidisciplinary approaches to radiation-balanced lasers (MARBLE): a MURI program by AFOSR (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2017-02-01

    An overview of the diverse research activities under the newly funded MURI project by AFOSR will be presented. The main goal is to advance the science of radiation-balanced lasers, also known as athermal lasers, in order to mitigate the thermal degradation of the high-power laser beams. The MARBLE project involves researchers from four universities and spans research activities in rare-earth doped crystals and fibers to semiconductor disc lasers.

  2. Comparison of Onsite Versus Online Chart Reviews as Part of the American College of Radiation Oncology Accreditation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepel, Jaroslaw T; Heron, Dwight E; Mundt, Arno J; Yashar, Catheryn; Feigenberg, Steven; Koltis, Gordon; Regine, William F; Prasad, Dheerendra; Patel, Shilpen; Sharma, Navesh; Hebert, Mary; Wallis, Norman; Kuettel, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Accreditation based on peer review of professional standards of care is essential in ensuring quality and safety in administration of radiation therapy. Traditionally, medical chart reviews have been performed by a physical onsite visit. The American College of Radiation Oncology Accreditation Program has remodeled its process whereby electronic charts are reviewed remotely. Twenty-eight radiation oncology practices undergoing accreditation had three charts per practice undergo both onsite and online review. Onsite review was performed by a single reviewer for each practice. Online review consisted of one or more disease site-specific reviewers for each practice. Onsite and online reviews were blinded and scored on a 100-point scale on the basis of 20 categories. A score of less than 75 was failing, and a score of 75 to 79 was marginal. Any failed charts underwent rereview by a disease site team leader. Eighty-four charts underwent both onsite and online review. The mean scores were 86.0 and 86.9 points for charts reviewed onsite and online, respectively. Comparison of onsite and online reviews revealed no statistical difference in chart scores ( P = .43). Of charts reviewed, 21% had a marginal (n = 8) or failing (n = 10) score. There was no difference in failing charts ( P = .48) or combined marginal and failing charts ( P = .13) comparing onsite and online reviews. The American College of Radiation Oncology accreditation process of online chart review results in comparable review scores and rate of failing scores compared with traditional on-site review. However, the modern online process holds less potential for bias by using multiple reviewers per practice and allows for greater oversight via disease site team leader rereview.

  3. How would we deal with radiation related issues in high school educational programs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, Kuniko [Attached High School of Akita Keizai Houka Univ., Akita (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Current educational curriculum will be more improved and the materials in schools will be somewhat different by the year of 2002 when students have two days off in a week. It is a well known fact that recent Japanese people's level of understanding about Science and Technology is the second from the bottom among OECD nations and, as a matter of fact, few schools are dealing with scientific issues such as atomic energy or radiation. High school teachers need to survey what students know about atomic power and radiation, how deep they studied in previous schools and what kind of interest they have in conservation of world energy sources or environmental issues discussed today. Through questionnaires to 328 students, it became clear that they were most interesting to the effect of radiation or radioactivity on any kind of things in the environment, and that they want to know solutions for those problems such as greenhouse effect, ozone layers and Garbage disposal. (M. Suetake)

  4. 10 CFR 835.501 - Radiological areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiological areas. 835.501 Section 835.501 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.501 Radiological areas. (a) Personnel entry control shall be maintained for each radiological area. (b) The degree of control shall be...

  5. Global Health in Radiation Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodin, Danielle; Yap, Mei Ling; Grover, Surbhi

    2017-01-01

    programs. However, formalized training and career promotion tracks in global health within radiation oncology have been slow to emerge, thereby limiting the sustained involvement of students and faculty, and restricting opportunities for leadership in this space. We examine here potential structures...... and benefits of formalized global health training in radiation oncology. We explore how defining specific competencies in this area can help trainees and practitioners integrate their activities in global health within their existing roles as clinicians, educators, or scientists. This would also help create...... and funding models might be used to further develop and expand radiation oncology services globally....

  6. Radiation emergency response in Illinois, Alabama, and Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, D.K.; Chester, R.O.

    1978-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine state radiation emergency response and to locate any areas of emergency planning in need of improvement. This report briefly presents a summary of laws and defining documents governing radiation emergency response, describes the existing and projected need for such response, and presents the authors' analyses of the evolution of state response plans and their application to radiation incidents. Three states' programs are discussed in detail: Illinois, Alabama, and Texas. These states were selected because they have quite different emergency-response programs. Therefore, these state programs provide a wide variety of approaches to state radiation emergency response.

  7. Atomic structure from large-area, low-dose exposures of materials: A new route to circumvent radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.C., E-mail: jannik.meyer@univie.ac.at; Kotakoski, J.; Mangler, C.

    2014-10-15

    Beam-induced structural modifications are a major nuisance in the study of materials by high-resolution electron microscopy. Here, we introduce a new approach to circumvent the radiation damage problem by a statistical treatment of large, noisy, low-dose data sets of non-periodic configurations (e.g. defects) in the material. We distribute the dose over a mixture of different defect structures at random positions and with random orientations, and recover representative model images via a maximum likelihood search. We demonstrate reconstructions from simulated images at such low doses that the location of individual entities is not possible. The approach may open a route to study currently inaccessible beam-sensitive configurations. - Highlights: • A new approach to circumvent radiation damage. • Statistical treatment of large noisy data sets. • Analysis of radiation sensitive material defects.

  8. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: medically underserved areas for 1992--Office of Personnel Management. Notice of medically underserved areas for 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-30

    The Office of Personnel Management has completed its annual determination of the States that qualify as Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar year 1992. This determination is necessary to comply with a provision of FEHB law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in States with critical shortages of primary care physicians. Accordingly, for calendar year 1992, OPM has determined that the following States are Medically Underserved Areas under the FEHB Program: Alabama, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, West Virginia, and Wyoming. This list is the same as that for 1991, with the exception of the addition of Alabama.

  9. Comparison of top of the atmosphere GERB measured radiances with independent radiative transfer simulations obtained at the Valencia Anchor Station area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez Blazquez, A.; Alonso, S.; Bodas-Salcedo, A.; Dewitte, S.; Domenech, C.; Gimeno, J.; Harries, J.; Jorge Sanchez, J.; Labajo, A.; Loeb, N. G.; Pino, D.; Sanchis, A. D.; Smith, G. L.; Szewczyk, Z. P.; Tarruella, R.; Torrobella, J.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiances as measured by the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on board the METEOSAT-8 (METEOSAT Second Generation) satellite to equivalent independent radiances obtained from radiative transfer simulations performed using surface and atmospheric measured parameters gathered during the GERB Surface Ground Validation Campaign at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) reference area in February 2004. In this paper we try to extend the methodology previously developed and tested for the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument in the framework of the SEVIRI and GERB Cal/val Area for Large scale field ExperimentS (SCALES) project, to validate GERB much lower spatial resolution data (pixel size of the order of 60 x 60 km2 over the VAS). The study also includes the selection of atmospheric profiles from on-purpose radiosonde and GPS (Global Positioning System) data, a BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) estimation for the large-scale study area and Streamer radiative transfer simulations of TOA shortwave and longwave radiances.

  10. Radiation Protection at Light Water Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Prince, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This book is aimed at Health Physicists wishing to gain a better understanding of the principles and practices associated with a light water reactor (LWR) radiation protection program. The role of key program elements is presented in sufficient detail to assist practicing radiation protection professionals in improving and strengthening their current program. Details related to daily operation and discipline areas vital to maintaining an effective LWR radiation protection program are presented. Programmatic areas and functions important in preventing, responding to, and minimizing radiological incidents and the importance of performing effective incident evaluations and investigations are described. Elements that are integral in ensuring continuous program improvements are emphasized throughout the text.

  11. Personal radiation detector at a high technology readiness level that satisfies DARPA's SN-13-47 and SIGMA program requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, D.; Knafo, Y.; Manor, A.; Seif, R.; Ghelman, M.; Ellenbogen, M.; Pushkarsky, V.; Ifergan, Y.; Semyonov, N.; Wengrowicz, U.; Mazor, T.; Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.; Osovizky, A.

    2015-06-01

    There is a need to develop new personal radiation detector (PRD) technologies that can be mass produced. On August 2013, DARPA released a request for information (RFI) seeking innovative radiation detection technologies. In addition, on December 2013, a Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) for the SIGMA program was released. The RFI requirements focused on a sensor that should possess three main properties: low cost, high compactness and radioisotope identification capabilities. The identification performances should facilitate the detection of a hidden threat, ranging from special nuclear materials (SNM) to commonly used radiological sources. Subsequently, the BAA presented the specific requirements at an instrument level and provided a comparison between the current market status (state-of-the-art) and the SIGMA program objectives. This work presents an optional alternative for both the detection technology (sensor with communication output and without user interface) for DARPA's initial RFI and for the PRD required by the SIGMA program. A broad discussion is dedicated to the method proposed to fulfill the program objectives and to the selected alternative that is based on the PDS-GO design and technology. The PDS-GO is the first commercially available PRD that is based on a scintillation crystal optically coupled with a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), a solid-state light sensor. This work presents the current performance of the instrument and possible future upgrades based on recent technological improvements in the SiPM design. The approach of utilizing the SiPM with a commonly available CsI(Tl) crystal is the key for achieving the program objectives. This approach provides the appropriate performance, low cost, mass production and small dimensions; however, it requires a creative approach to overcome the obstacles of the solid-state detector dark current (noise) and gain stabilization over a wide temperature range. Based on the presented results, we presume that

  12. Production and fabrication of vanadium alloys for the radiative divertor program of DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.R.; Smith, J.P.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1996-04-01

    V-4Cr-4-Ti alloy has been recently selected for use in the manufacture of a portion of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor modification, as part of an overall DIII-D vanadium alloy deployment effort developed by General Atomics (GA) in conjunction with the Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ANL or ORNL). The goal of this work is to produce a production-scale heat of the alloy and fabricate it into product forms for the manufacture of a portion of the Radiative Divertor (RD) for the DIII-D tokamak, to develop the fabrications technology for manufacture of the vanadium alloy radiative Divertor components, and to determine the effects of typical tokamak environments in the behavior of the vanadium alloy. The production of a {approx}1300-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is currently in progress at Teledyne Wah Chang of Albany, oregon (TWCA) to provide sufficient material for applicable product forms. Two unalloyed vanadium ingots for the alloy have already been produced by electron beam melting of raw processes vanadium. Chemical compositions of one ingot and a portion of the second were acceptable, and Charpy V-Notch (CVN) impact test performed on processed ingot samples indicated ductile behavior. Material from these ingots are currently being blended with chromium and titanium additions, and will be vacuum-arc remelted into a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy ingot and converted into product forms suitable for components of the DIII-D RD structure. Several joining methods selected for specific applications in fabrication of the RD components are being investigated, and preliminary trials have been successful in the joining of V-alloy to itself by both resistance and inertial welding processes and to Inconel 625 by inertial welding.

  13. Social and economic research program for the Geysers-Calistoga known geothermal resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C.; O' Banion, K.

    1979-03-27

    The purpose of this study is to assess the economic and social effects of projected geothermal resource development for both direct use and electric power generation and to analyze local regulatory policy options designed to mitigate adverse effects. The key issues are land use, fiscal and public infrastructure systems, demography, and the local economy. The study has seven elements: a computer-based inventory and analysis of land characteristics, constraints, sensitivity, and suitability for various land uses; projections of direct and electric geothermal development; primary and induced economic activity using an input-output model; demographic changes; the land and infrastructural demand created; an assessment of the economic and social effects of various configurations in land use that could result; and an analysis of various local regulatory policy options to mitigate adverse effects. The study is a cooperative effort among two national laboratories, a regional agency, and the four Geysers-area counties (Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma). The assessment results are intended to guide Department of Energy planners on the environmental consequences of program implementation. The regulatory policy analysis is intended for local officials who are implementing development-management policy.

  14. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Villaescusa, J I [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Avda Campanar, 21 46009 Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Salas, M D [Public Health General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain); Cuevas, M D [Assistential Service General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-02-07

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10{sup -6}, 6 x 10{sup -4}] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10{sup -3}. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs.

  15. Use of portable exposure meters for comparing mobile phone base station radiation in different types of areas in the cities of Basel and Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Huss, Anke; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vermeulen, Roel; Röösli, Martin

    2014-01-15

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) are highly variable and differ considerably within as well as between areas. Exposure assessment studies characterizing spatial and temporal variation are limited so far. Our objective was to evaluate sources of data variability and the repeatability of daily measurements using portable exposure meters (PEMs). Data were collected at 12 days between November 2010 and January 2011 with PEMs in four different types of urban areas in the cities of Basel (BSL) and Amsterdam (AMS). Exposure from mobile phone base stations ranged from 0.30 to 0.53 V/m in downtown and business areas and in residential areas from 0.09 to 0.41 V/m. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that measurements from various days were highly reproducible (measurement duration of approximately 30 min) with only 0.6% of the variance of all measurements from mobile phone base station radiation being explained by the measurement day and only 0.2% by the measurement time (morning, noon, afternoon), whereas type of area (30%) and city (50%) explained most of the data variability. We conclude that mobile monitoring of exposure from mobile phone base station radiation with PEMs is useful due to the high repeatability of mobile phone base station exposure levels, despite the high spatial variation. © 2013.

  16. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Gajiwala, Astrid; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    The banking of tissues such bone and skin began in India in the 1980s and 1990s. Although eye banking started in 1945 there was little progress in this field for the next five decades. As part of the IAEA/RCA program to use ionising radiation for the sterilisation of biological tissues in Asia and the Pacific Region, the Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) in 1986 decided to set up a tissue bank in Mumbai funded by the Government of India. The TMH Tissue Bank became operational in January 1988, and stands as a pioneering effort in the country to provide safe, clinically useful and cost-effective human allografts for transplantation. It uses the IAEA International Standards on Tissue Banking. All the grafts are sterilised terminally by exposure to a dose of 25 kGy of gamma radiation, which has been validated as recommended by the IAEA Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilisation of Tissues Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control. The TMH Tissue Bank is registered with the Maharashtra State Health Authorities, and in May 2004, it became India's first Tissue Bank to receive ISO 9001:2000 certification of its Quality Management System. From 1989 to September 2007, the TMH Tissue Bank has supplied 11,369 allografts to 310 surgeons operating in 69 hospitals in Mumbai and 56 hospitals in other parts of India. These numbers have been limited by difficulties with the retrieval of tissues from deceased donors due to inadequate resources and tissue donation policies of hospitals. As the Government of India representative in the IAEA program, the TMH Tissue Bank has promoted and co-coordinated these activities in the country and the development of tissue banks using radiation sterilisation of tissue grafts. Towards this end it has been engaged in training personnel, drawing up project proposals, and supporting the establishment of a Tissue Retrieval Centre in Mumbai. Currently it networks with the Zonal Transplant Co-ordination Centre of the Government of

  17. Simulation analysis of the spread of fire through the program Fire Dynamics Simulator FDS in areas of fire of nuclear power plants; Analisis de simulacion de la propagacion de incendios mediante el programa Fire Dynamics Simulator FDS en areas de fuego de Centrales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salellas, J.; Zamora, I.; Fabbri, M.; Colomer, C.; Castillo, R.; Fradera, J.

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the analysis of the spread of fire through Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation with the Fire Dynamics Simulator program is to determine the identification of the affected computers and determine the livability in the areas of fire as fire postulates. The simulation with Fire Dynamics Simulator allows the evolution and spread of flame and smoke behavior in an instant in time, determining the exact moment that damage is caused by radiation or temperature to equipment and operation according to the level of toxicity and temperature of the fire area. (Author)

  18. Expanding the Lessons Learned Program to Include Corps Support Command Commanders and Theater Army Area Command Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-10

    INTRODUCTION The Oral History Program’s purpose is to supplement oFficial histories , to isolate successful command, leadership and managerial...of -the program is to capture the experience of senior leaders in the areas of command, leadership , and management . The individual is interviewed...used to gain insight into command and management techniques and to further research in military history . In June of 1984, the Chief of Staff, General

  19. A Comprehensive Quality Assurance Program for Personnel and Procedures in Radiation Oncology: Value of Voluntary Error Reporting and Checklists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalapurakal, John A., E-mail: j-kalapurakal@northwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Zafirovski, Aleksandar; Smith, Jeffery; Fisher, Paul; Sathiaseelan, Vythialingam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Barnard, Cynthia [Department of Quality Strategies, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Rademaker, Alfred W. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Rave, Nick [Department of Physicians Services, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Mittal, Bharat B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: This report describes the value of a voluntary error reporting system and the impact of a series of quality assurance (QA) measures including checklists and timeouts on reported error rates in patients receiving radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A voluntary error reporting system was instituted with the goal of recording errors, analyzing their clinical impact, and guiding the implementation of targeted QA measures. In response to errors committed in relation to treatment of the wrong patient, wrong treatment site, and wrong dose, a novel initiative involving the use of checklists and timeouts for all staff was implemented. The impact of these and other QA initiatives was analyzed. Results: From 2001 to 2011, a total of 256 errors in 139 patients after 284,810 external radiation treatments (0.09% per treatment) were recorded in our voluntary error database. The incidence of errors related to patient/tumor site, treatment planning/data transfer, and patient setup/treatment delivery was 9%, 40.2%, and 50.8%, respectively. The compliance rate for the checklists and timeouts initiative was 97% (P<.001). These and other QA measures resulted in a significant reduction in many categories of errors. The introduction of checklists and timeouts has been successful in eliminating errors related to wrong patient, wrong site, and wrong dose. Conclusions: A comprehensive QA program that regularly monitors staff compliance together with a robust voluntary error reporting system can reduce or eliminate errors that could result in serious patient injury. We recommend the adoption of these relatively simple QA initiatives including the use of checklists and timeouts for all staff to improve the safety of patients undergoing radiation therapy in the modern era.

  20. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area FY 1999 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D K; Eaton, G F; Rose, T P; Moran, J E; Brachmann, A; McAninch, J E; Kersting, A B; Romanovski, V V; Martinelli, R E; Werner, J K Jr

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the results from fiscal year (FY) 1999 technical studies conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area (UGTA) work-for-others project. This report is the latest in a series of annual reports published by LLNL to document the migration of radionuclides and controls of radionuclide movement at the Nevada Test Site. The FY 1999 studies highlighted in this report are: (1) Chapter 1 provides the results from flow-through leaching of nuclear melt glasses at 25 C and near-neutral pH using dilute bicarbonate groundwaters. (2) Chapter 2 reports on a summary of the size and concentration of colloidal material in NTS groundwaters. (3) Chapter 3 discusses the collaboration between LLNL/ANCD (Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division) and the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) to develop a technique for analyzing NTS groundwater for 99-Technicium ({sup 99}Tc) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Since {sup 99}Tc is conservative like tritium in groundwater systems, and is not sorbed to geologic material, it has the potential for being an important tool for radionuclide migration studies. (4) Chapter 4 presents the results of secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements of the in-situ distribution of radionuclides in zeolitized tuffs from cores taken adjacent to nuclear test cavities and chimneys. In-situ measurements provide insight to the distribution of specific radionuclides on a micro-scale, mineralogical controls of radionuclide sorption, and identification of migration pathways (i.e., matrix diffusion, fractures). (5) Chapter 5 outlines new analytical techniques developed in LLNL/ANCD to study hydrologic problems at the NTS using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). With costs for thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) increasing relative to sample preparation time and facility support, ICP-MS technology

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report: October 1 - December 31, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-03-02

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  2. Program THEK energy production units of average power and using thermal conversion of solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    General studies undertaken by the C.N.R.S. in the field of solar power plants have generated the problem of building energy production units in the medium range of electrical power, in the order of 100 kW. Among the possible solutions, the principle of the use of distributed heliothermal converters has been selected as being, with the current status of things, the most advantageous solution. This principle consists of obtaining the conversion of concentrated radiation into heat by using a series of heliothermal conversion modules scattered over the ground; the produced heat is collected by a heat-carrying fluid circulating inside a thermal loop leading to a device for both regulation and storage.

  3. News from the Library: Facilitating access to a program for radiation shielding - the Library can help

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    MicroShield® is a comprehensive photon/gamma ray shielding and dose assessment programme. It is widely used for designing shields, estimating source strength from radiation measurements, minimising exposure to people, and teaching shielding principles.   Integrated tools allow the graphing of results, material and source file creation, source inference with decay (dose-to-Bq calculations accounting for decay and daughter buildup), the projection of exposure rate versus time as a result of decay, access to material and nuclide data, and decay heat calculations. The latest version is able to export results using Microsoft Office (formatted and colour-coded for readability). Sixteen geometries accommodate offset dose points and as many as ten standard shields plus source self-shielding and cylinder cladding are available. The library data (radionuclides, attenuation, build-up and dose conversion) reflect standard data from ICRP 38 and 107* as well as ANSI/ANS standards and RSICC publicat...

  4. Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project: Phase 2 soils program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, R.D.; Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    To help estimate population doses of radiation from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site, soil samples were collected throughout the western United States. Each sample was prepared by drying and ball-milling, then analyzed by gamma-spectrometry to determine the amount of {sup 137}Cs it contained. Most samples were also analyzed by chemical separation and alpha-spectrometry to determine {sup 239 + 240}Pu and by isotope mass spectroscopy to determine the ratios of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu to {sup 239}Pu. The total inventories of cesium and plutonium at 171 sites were computed from the results. This report describes the sample collection, processing, and analysis, presents the analytical results, and assesses the quality of the data. 10 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Production and fabrication of vanadium alloys for the radiative divertor program of DIII-D - Annual report input for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.R.; Smith, J.P.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1996-10-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected for use in the manufacture of a portion of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor (RD) upgrade. The production of a 1200-kg ingot of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been completed at Teledyne Wah Chang of Albany, Oregon (TWCA) to provide {approximately}800-kg of applicable product forms, and two billets have been extruded from the ingot. Chemical compositions of the ingot and both extruded billets were acceptable. Material from these billets will be converted into product forms suitable for components of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor structure. Joining of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for its use in the RD Program, and research into several joining methods for fabrication of the RD components, including resistance seam, friction, and electron beam welding, is continuing. Preliminary trials have been successful in the joining of V-alloy to itself by electron beam, resistance, and friction welding processes and to Inconel 625 by friction welding.

  6. Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas - CETUP*2013 Summer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbinska, Barbara [Dakota State Univ., Madison, SD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In response to an increasing interest in experiments conducted at deep underground facilities around the world, in 2010 the theory community has proposed a new initiative - a Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas (CETUP*). The main goal of CETUP* is to bring together people with different talents and skills to address the most exciting questions in particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics, geosciences, and geomicrobiology. Scientists invited to participate in the program do not only provide theoretical support to the underground science, they also examine underlying universal questions of the 21st century including: What is dark matter?, What are the masses of neutrinos?, How have neutrinos shaped the evolution of the universe?, How were the elements from iron to uranium made?, What is the origin and thermal history of the Earth? The mission of the CETUP* is to promote an organized research in physics, astrophysics, geoscience, geomicrobiology and other fields related to the underground science via individual and collaborative research in dynamic atmosphere of intense scientific interactions. Our main goal is to bring together scientists scattered around the world, promote the deep underground science and provide a stimulating environment for creative thinking and open communication between researches of varying ages and nationalities. CETUP*2014 included 5 week long program (June 24 – July 26, 2013) covering various theoretical and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics. Two week long session focused on Dark Matter (June 24-July 6) was followed by two week long program on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (July 15-26). The VIIth International Conference on Interconnections between Particle Physics and Cosmology (PPC) was sandwiched between these sessions (July 8-13) covering the subjects of dark matter, neutrino physics, gravitational waves, collider physics and other from both

  7. Measurement of the area of venous ulcers using two software programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Thaís Dresch; Lima, Suzinara Beatriz Soares de; Lopes, Luis Felipe Dias; Borges, Eline de Lima; Weiller, Teresinha Heck; Fonseca, Graziele Gorete Portella da

    2016-12-19

    to compare the measurement area of venous ulcers using AutoCAD(r) and Image Tool software. this was an assessment of reproducibility tests conducted in a angiology clinic of a university hospital. Data were collected from 21 patients with venous ulcers, in the period from March to July of 2015, using a collection form and photograph of wounds. Five nurses (evaluators) of the hospital skin wound study group participated. The wounds were measured using both software programs. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient, concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. The study met the ethical aspects in accordance with current legislation. the size of ulcers varied widely, however, without significant difference between the measurements; an excellent intraclass and concordance correlation was found between both software programs, which seem to be more accurate when measuring a wound area >10 cm². the use of both software programs is appropriate for measurement of venous ulcers, appearing to be more accurate when used to measure a wound area > 10 cm². comparar a mensuração de área de úlceras venosas por meio dos softwares AutoCAD(r) e Image Tool. trata-se de um estudo de avaliação de reprodutibilidade de testes, realizado em um ambulatório de angiologia de um hospital universitário. Os dados foram coletados de 21 pacientes com úlceras venosas, no período de março a julho de 2015, por meio de formulário de coleta e fotografia das feridas. Cinco enfermeiros (avaliadores) do Grupo de Estudos de Lesões de Pele do hospital participaram da pesquisa. As feridas foram mensuradas em ambos os softwares. Os dados foram analisados por meio do Coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, Coeficiente de correlação de concordância e procedimento de Bland e Altman. A pesquisa respeitou os aspectos éticos de acordo com a legislação vigente. os tamanhos das úlceras apresentaram grande amplitude, porém, sem diferença significativa entre

  8. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masakazu; Chunlei, Bi; Kawamura, Takao; Kishimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tomotaka; Muroi, Takahiko; Odaira, Tomoaki; Ohta, Yuji; Takeda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yushu; Morimoto, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Fabrication and Characterization of Ni/4H-SiC Schottky Diode Radiation Detectors with a Sensitive Area of up to 4 cm2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yue Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC detectors of an Ni/4H-SiC Schottky diode structure and with sensitive areas of 1–4 cm2 were fabricated using high-quality lightly doped epitaxial 4H-SiC material, and were tested in the detection of alpha particles and pulsed X-rays/UV-light. A linear energy response to alpha particles ranging from 5.157 to 5.805 MeV was obtained. The detectors were proved to have a low dark current, a good energy resolution, and a high neutron/gamma discrimination for pulsed radiation, showing the advantages in charged particle detection and neutron detection in high-temperature and high-radiation environments.

  10. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2001-2002 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, T P; Kersting, A B; Harris, L J; Hudson, G B; Smith, D K; Williams, R W; Loewen, D R; Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Ryerson, F J; Pawloski, G A; Laue, C A; Moran, J E

    2003-08-15

    This report contains highlights of FY 2001 and 2002 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work emphasizes the Defense Programs goal of responsible management of natural resources at the NTS, while UGTA-funded work focuses on defining the extent of radionuclide contamination in NTS groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing. The report is organized on a topical basis, and contains eight chapters that reflect the range of technical work performed by LLNL-ANCD in support of HRMP and UGTA. Chapter 1 describes recent hot well sampling efforts at the NTS, and presents the results of chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from six near-field wells. These include the Cambric (UE-5n), Bilby (U-3cn PS No.2), Bourbon (UE-7nS), Nash (UE-2ce), Tybo/Benham (ER-20-5 No.3), and Almendro (U-19v PS No.1ds) sites. The data generated by the hot well program is vital to the development and validation of contaminant transport models at the NTS. Chapter 2 discusses the results of xenon isotope measurements of groundwater samples from the six near-field wells described in Chapter 1. This work demonstrates that fission xenon is present in the water at levels that are readily measurable and highlights the significant differences in xenon concentrations and isotopic abundances at different sites. These differences provide insight into the early cooling history of nuclear test cavities, and may assist in predicting the distribution of the source term in the near-field environment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the distribution

  11. Seasonal and interannual variation of radiation and energy fluxes over a rain-fed cropland in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Yu, Ye; Chen, Jinbei; Zhang, Tangtang; Li, Zhenchao

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the land-atmosphere interactions over the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau is important due to its special climate and unique underlying surface. In this study, two years' micrometeorological and energy flux observations from the Pingliang Land Surface Process & Severe Weather Research Station, CAS were used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variations of radiation budget and energy fluxes over a rain-fed cropland in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, with an emphasis on the influence of rain, soil moisture and agricultural production activities (such as crop type and harvest time) on the energy partitioning as well as the surface energy balance. The results revealed large annual variations in the seasonal distribution of precipitation, which gave rise to significant seasonal and interannual variations in soil moisture. Soil moisture was the main factor affecting radiation budget and energy partitioning. There was a negatively linear relationship between the albedo and the soil moisture. The main consumer of available energy varied among months and years with an apparent water stress threshold value of ca. 0.12 m3 m- 3, and the evapotranspiration was suppressed especially during the growing season. On an annual scale, the largest consumer of midday net radiation was sensible heat flux in 2010-2011, while it was latent heat flux in 2011-2012, which accounted for about 35% and 40% of the net radiation, respectively. The agricultural activity altered the sensitivity and variability of albedo to soil moisture, as well as energy partitioning patterns. The surface energy budget closures during Dec. 2010-Nov. 2011 and Dec. 2011-Nov. 2012 were 77.6% and 73.3%, respectively, after considering the soil heat storage. The closure was comparable to other sites in ChinaFLUX (49% to 81% of 8 sites). The patterns of energy partitioning and the water stress threshold found in the semi-arid cropland could be used to evaluate and improve land surface models.

  12. Profile of Enrollments by Instructional Program Areas: A Study of Traditional and Non-Traditional Choice of Disciplines by Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Marian Jean

    Women have traditionally entered courses of study congruent with social sex-role stereotypes. Two critical questions were examined with regard to their choice of college major--whether traditional or non-traditional. Women and men enrolled in 22 instructional program areas in the University of Wisconsin system for the years 1973-74 and 1977-78…

  13. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  14. [THE FUNCTIONAL CONSTITUENT OF A BIOLOGICAL COMPONENT IN PROGRAMS FOR TRAINING SPECIALISTS IN THE AREA OF PARASITOLOGY FOR ACCREDITATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Yu; Andreeva, N D

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the functional aspects of a biological component in programs for training specialists in the area of Parasitology for accreditation within the current enactments, including those on modernization of public health and additional professional education. The working program of the module "Fundamental Disciplines" has been used as an example to outline approaches to molding a medical parasitologist's capacity and readiness to solve professional tasks on the basis of knowledge of fundamental disciplines: biology, immunology, and medical geography. Education fundamentalization is shown to suggest more unsupervised work of a learner in the teaching process. The fundamental constituent of a biological component of the 'programs for training learners in the specialty of Parasitology for accreditation is shown in the interaction of all sections of this area with special and allied subjects.

  15. Use of partnership strategies to build radiation oncology disparities research programs in five Western Pennsylvania communities: an organizational case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenlander, Keith H; Heron, Dwight E; Schenken, Larry L

    2009-01-01

    Many cancer treatment and prevention trials as well as surveillance programs suffer from a disproportionately low rate of accrual and a high rate of noncompliance or dropouts of racial minorities and the poor. One suggested strategy to help remediate this trend is to directly involve those targeted populations within the development, implementation, and evaluation of these services. The Radiation Oncology Community Outreach Group (ROCOG) and Neighborhood Cancer Care Cooperative (NCCC) are designed based upon this type of highly collaborative organizational structure, consistent with the general principles of community-based participatory research. Funded by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Disparities Research Partnership program, ROCOG/NCCC provide oncology-focused, community hospital-based initiatives intended to help close the cancer disparities gap. This article presents a descriptive case study of the organizational and political process that preceded our grant proposal submission, the potential benefits and difficulties associated with our extensive collaborative model, and an example of how highly competitive health care organizations can become partners in narrowly focused initiatives aimed at a greater social good.

  16. Product kerma in the air-area and radiation dose in dental radiodiagnosis; Produto kerma ar-area e dose efetiva em radiodiagnostico odontologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alessandro Martins da, E-mail: amcosta@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    The main purpose of patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology is to determine dosimetric quantities for the establishment and use of reference levels and comparative risk assessment. In recent publications the use of the air kerma-area product, PKA, has been suggested in dental radiology, as this quantity is more closely related to risk. The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary survey of PKA and effective dose in different types of dental examinations. The future perspective is a large-scale survey for the establishment and use of diagnostic reference levels in dentistry in Brazil. (author)

  17. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident. PMID:27583855

  18. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: The Fukushima health management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-08-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident.

  19. In-Space technology experiments program. A high efficiency thermal interface (using condensation heat transfer) between a 2-phase fluid loop and heatpipe radiator: Experiment definition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohner, John A.; Dempsey, Brian P.; Herold, Leroy M.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station elements and advanced military spacecraft will require rejection of tens of kilowatts of waste heat. Large space radiators and two-phase heat transport loops will be required. To minimize radiator size and weight, it is critical to minimize the temperature drop between the heat source and sink. Under an Air Force contract, a unique, high-performance heat exchanger is developed for coupling the radiator to the transport loop. Since fluid flow through the heat exchanger is driven by capillary forces which are easily dominated by gravity forces in ground testing, it is necessary to perform microgravity thermal testing to verify the design. This contract consists of an experiment definition phase leading to a preliminary design and cost estimate for a shuttle-based flight experiment of this heat exchanger design. This program will utilize modified hardware from a ground test program for the heat exchanger.

  20. A large-scale measurement, analysis and modelling of electromagnetic radiation levels in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base stations in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Teoman; Yüceer, Mehmet; Abbasov, Teymuraz

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyses the electric field radiating from the GSM/UMTS base stations located in central Malatya, a densely populated urban area in Turkey. The authors have conducted both instant and continuous measurements of high-frequency electromagnetic fields throughout their research by using non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks. Over 15,000 instant and 13,000,000 continuous measurements were taken throughout the process. The authors have found that the normal electric field radiation can increase ∼25% during daytime, depending on mobile communication traffic. The authors' research work has also demonstrated the fact that the electric field intensity values can be modelled for each hour, day or week with the results obtained from continuous measurements. The authors have developed an estimation model based on these values, including mobile communication traffic (Erlang) values obtained from mobile phone base stations and the temperature and humidity values in the environment. The authors believe that their proposed artificial neural network model and multivariable least-squares regression analysis will help predict the electric field intensity in an environment in advance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Scoping the context of programs and services for maintaining wellness of older people in rural areas of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, K S; McKenna, L; Francis, K

    2014-09-01

    Ageing and problems concerning the aged are an increasing and concerning reality in developing and underdeveloped countries such as Indonesia. Improving service quality is important to promote and maintain wellness of older persons, especially in rural areas. To explore programs and services offered to the elderly in a rural area of Indonesia to support them in promoting and maintaining their wellness. To describe roles and practices of health professionals and teams responsible for delivering services to older people. Action research was used with mixed method data collection (interview and survey). Results demonstrated that activities related to the elderly health programs were limited due to budget and facilities. Practices of health staff for elderly in the community focused on intervention tasks, rather than prevention. Lack of available information on the range of programs and services implemented in Indonesia for the elderly in community settings was a limitation of this study. Programs and services for older people have been implemented in Indonesia. However, these do not yet meet their needs, especially in rural areas. There is a need for greater focus on health promotion and illness prevention. Findings contribute to development of international knowledge in community health nursing, as these issues may not be only relevant to Indonesia. It is timely for governments, including in Indonesia, to evaluate health workforce needs in the community and appropriate educational qualifications for delivering optimal health services for older people. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  2. MAJOR OUTCOMES OF THE WORK PERFORMED BY ST. PETERSBURG RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF RADIATION HYGIENE AFTER PROFESSOR P. V. RAMZAEV ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL TARGETED PROGRAM “MITIGATION OF THE RADIATION ACCIDENTS’CONSEQUENCES UNTIL 2015” AND OF THE “JOINT ACTIVITIES PROGRAM ON MITIGATION OF THE CHERNOBYL DISASTER WITHIN THE UNION STATE FOR THE PERIOD UNTIL 2016“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents major results of the work performed by St. Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P. V. Ramzaev on public contracts signed within the implementation of the Federal targeted program “ Mitigation of the radiation accidents’ consequences for the period until 2015” ( Direction IV “ Streamlining of monitoring systems and their elements and situation forecasting on radioactively contaminated territories paragraph 14 “The analyses and comprehensive evaluation of radiation situation changes on radioactively contaminated territories “ aimed at compilation of radioactively contaminated zones’ settlements list and Direction VI “Awareness raising and social -psychological rehabilitation of radiation- affected residents”, paragraph 20 “Creation of unified informational system on ensuring population’s radiation safety and overcoming radiation accidents’ consequences via development of the federal and regional informational resources’ systems” and “ Joint activities program on mitigation of the Chernobyl disaster within the Union State for the period until 2016” ( Direction II “ Streamlining of unified radiation protection system in radioactively contaminated territories” paragraph 2.1 “ The harmonization of requirements, methods and technologies aimed at mitigation of Russian and Belorussian population’s internal and external exposure, the development of radiation control and monitoring unified system”, sub-paragraph 2.1.1 “The development of unified assessment and forecast system for population exposure doses and rationing of radionuclide – containing foodstuffs, agricultural products and forest preserves based on the international approaches” over the period from 2011 to 2015.

  3. Shared financial management of Community programs and its implementation in the EU area

    OpenAIRE

    Jedličková, Vladislava

    2008-01-01

    The issue of migration within the European Union has grown in member countries to considerable size. Management representatives of EU institutions have decided to address this situation. They established community program Solidarity and management of migration flows. The European Commission has decided that for the financial management of this program will be used the principle of shared management. The principle of shared financial management is the delegation of powers and responsibilities ...

  4. Pengaruh Program Kemitraan Terhadap Sosial Ekonomi Mitra Binaan PTPN III Sub Area Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Fazuani, Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Partnership program is the empowerment and improving of local economy through the provision of partnership loans for working capital and investment. This program aims to improve the competence of small micro business comunity to become strong and independent. Through the partnership the company provides coaching support in the form of business management training, marketing asistance (promotion/exhibition) and others. Coaching small business by the State-Owned Enterprises was implemented sinc...

  5. Safe-Taipei a Program Project for Strong Motions, Active Faults, and Earthquakes in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    Strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region, which is often attacked by large earthquakes. Several cities, including three mega-cities, i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaoshung, have been constructed on western Taiwan, where is lying on thick sediments. These cities, with a high-population density, are usually a regional center of culture, economics, and politics. Historically, larger-sized earthquakes, e.g. the 1935 Hsingchu—Taichung earthquake and the 1999 Chi—Chi earthquake, often caused serious damage on the cities. Hence, urban seismology must be one of the main subjects of Taiwan's seismological community. Since 2005, a program project, sponsored by Academia Sinica, has been launched to investigate seismological problems in the Taipei Metropolitan Area. This program project is performed during the 2005—2007 period. The core research subjects are: (1) the deployment of the Taipei Down-hole Seismic Array; (2) the properties of earthquakes and active faults in the area; (3) the seismogenic-zone structures, including the 3-D velocity and Q structures, of the area; (4) the characteristics of strong-motions and sites affects; and (5) strong-motion prediction. In addition to academic goals, the results obtained from the program project will be useful for seismic hazard mitigation not only for the area but also for others.

  6. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Low Level Radiation Research Laboratory, Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Kollam (India); Madhusoodhanan, M. [Victoria Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Kollam (India); Jagadeesan, C.K. [Directorate of Health Services, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Das, Birajalaxmi [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Mumbai (India); Andrews, V.J.

    2015-11-15

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent. (orig.)

  7. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Sudheer, K R; Andrews, V J; Madhusoodhanan, M; Jagadeesan, C K; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2015-11-01

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤ 1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent.

  8. Radiation Dosage for Percutaneous PAD Treatment is Different in Cardiovascular Disciplines: Results From an Eleven Year Population Based Registry in the Metropolitan Area of Hamburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, C-A; Rieß, H C; Heidemann, F; Diener, H; Rohlffs, F; Hohnhold, R; Debus, E S

    2017-02-01

    The worldwide prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) has evolved to an intervention as the primary treatment option and therefore radiation is used with escalating incidence. Dose area product (DAP) correlates well with the total energy imparted to the patient during fluoroscopic interventions. This study aims to determine whether there are any associations among stage of disease, gender, age, and expertise on the radiation dose in single endovascular treatments of PAD. This study was a prospective, mandatory, population based cross-sectional registry design. In total, 24,000 invasive percutaneous endovascular treatments of PAD conducted in the metropolitan area of Hamburg (Germany) were consecutively collected between January 2004 and December 2015. DAP was analysed by discipline conducting the procedure, Fontaine classification, patient gender, and age. Statistically significant differences in median DAP values were found. The lowest median DAP values were observed in surgical centres (7.1 vs. 18.0 Gy*cm2, p<.001) and in endovascular revascularisations (ER) following multidisciplinary consultation (11.6 vs. 23.4 Gy*cm2, p<.001). Considering the treatment of intermittent claudication, men had statistically significantly higher DAP values compared with women. Furthermore, lower median DAP values were observed in higher age groups, with lowest dosages in octogenarians. This is the first large population based study on DAP during ER for PAD. Several significant differences in median DAP values were observed, although patient stratification was comparable. Pre-operative therapy strategy planning can lead to lower DAP values, emphasising the importance of further vascular research and quality improvement projects targeting this topic. To date, available evidence is limited and therefore there is no accepted range of DAP levels. However, the ever increasing use of fluoroscopic interventions means that further investigation into radiation exposure to patients

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report. October 1 - December 31, 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY2010 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1987.20 hours (0.90 x 2208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1876.80 hours (0.85 x 2208). The first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continued through this quarter, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208). The second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) began deployment this quarter to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The experiment officially began November 15, but most of the instruments were up and running by November 1. Therefore, the OPSMAX time for the AMF2 was 1390.80 hours (.95 x 1464 hours) for November and December (61 days). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It

  10. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  11. Estimation of radiation exposure in low-dose multislice computed tomography of the heart and comparison with a calculation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, C.; Muehlenbruch, G.; Wildberger, J.E.; Schmidt, T.; Guenther, R.W.; Mahnken, A.H. [University of Technology of Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Leidecker, C. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Medical Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Suess, C. [Siemens Medical Solutions Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the achievable organ dose savings in low-dose multislice computed tomography (MSCT) of the heart using different tube voltages (80 kVp, 100 kVp, 120 kVp) and compare it with calculated values. A female Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in five different positions to assess the mean doses within representative organs (thyroid gland, thymus, oesophagus, pancreas, liver). Radiation exposure was performed on a 16-row MSCT scanner with six different routine scan protocols: a 120-kV and a 100-kV CT angiography (CTA) protocol with the same collimation, two 120-kV Ca-scoring (CS) protocols with different collimations and two 80-kV CS protocols with the same collimation as the 120-kV CS protocols. Each scan protocol was repeated five times. The measured dose values for the organs were compared with the values calculated by a commercially available computer program. Directly irradiated organs, such as the esophagus, received doses of 34.7 mSv (CTA 16 x 0.75 120 kVp), 21.9 mSv (CTA 16 x 0.75 100 kVp) and 4.96 mSv (CS score 12 x 1.5 80 kVp), the thyroid as an organ receiving only scattered radiation collected organ doses of 2.98 mSv (CTA 16 x 0.75 120 kVp), 1.97 mSv (CTA 16 x 0.75 100 kVp) and 0.58 mSv (CS score 12 x 1.5 80 kVp). The measured relative organ dose reductions from standard to low-kV protocols ranged from 30.9% to 55.9% and were statistically significant (P<0.05). The comparison with the calculated organ doses showed that the calculation program can predict the relative dose reduction of cardiac low photon-energy protocols precisely. (orig.)

  12. Project Radiation protection East. Status Report, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snihs, J.O.; Sundewall, H.; Grapengiesser, S. [STEGRA Consultants (Sweden); Bennerstedt, T. [TeknoTelje (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    Project Radiation Protection East is a Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994 radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in the project. This report presents a summary over some 140 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. 12 tabs.

  13. South Carolina: Charleston County Area Project Impact Environmental Education Program (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Charleston County Area Project Impact is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement. The project is under the direction of the Charleston County Building Services Department, in Charleston, S.C.

  14. A program to compute the area of an irregular polygon on a spheroidal surface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivakholundu, K.M.; Prabaharan, N.

    stream_size 10201 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Comput_Geosci_24_823.pdf.txt stream_source_info Comput_Geosci_24_823.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 SHORT NOTE A PROGRAM... FTS.IAMG.ORG PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The input polygon coordinates are converted to seconds and the latitudical origin is shifted by add- ing 90 36000 to avoid a negative latitude value (as in the situation of the southern hemisphere). Further computations...

  15. GIF++: A new CERN Irradiation Facility to test large-area particle detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC program

    CERN Document Server

    Guida, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade is setting a new challenge for particle detector technologies. The increase in luminosity will produce a higher particle background with respect to present conditions. To study performance and stability of detectors at LHC and future HL-LHC upgrades, a new dedicated facility has been built at CERN: the new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). The GIF++ is a unique place where high energy charged particle beams (mainly muons) are combined with gammas from a 14 TBq 137Cesium source which simulates the background radiation expected at the LHC experiments. Several centralized services and infrastructures are made available to the LHC detector community to facilitate the different R&D; programs.

  16. Radiation Protection Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  17. Progress report on the regulatory cooperation program between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia. Final report of projects and other activities completed in 2008-2009 and plans for 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudak, S. F.; Sneve, M. K.; Kiselev, M.; Shandala, N. K.

    2011-06-15

    This report sets out the progress made in the projects and related activities carried out in the period 2008 - 2009 within the Regulatory Cooperation Program between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia. The progress described follows directly from previous work carried out within the Regulatory Cooperation Program, as set out in earlier NRPA reports and in accordance with the Norwegian Government's Plan of Action to improve nuclear and radiation safety in Northwest Russia. The work was carried out by specialists of the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, with support from other Russian organisations and specialists as well as experts from the NRPA. Five main projects are described, each of which has contributed to the improvement of regulatory supervision by the FMBA over the sites operated by SevRAO in the Northwest of Russia, including the Sites for Temporary Storage at Andreyev Bay and Gremikha, and the Regional Centre for Waste Conditioning and Long-term Storage at Saida Bay. The main activities of interest include recovery and secure the safe condition of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from inadequate storage facilities and ensuring their continued future safe storage. The topics covered by these projects include: Control of Occupational Exposure and Optimisation During Hazardous Operations through the Development of Databases on Radiation Situation and Individual Occupational Exposure (DOSEMAP). The software for a mapping database of radiation situation parameters at SevRAO Facilities has been developed. A computer scheme of workshops in new Complex facilities for the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management, the design of which is already available, has been developed. The software for the database on individual doses to the SevRAO workers has also been developed. Two draft guidance documents have been prepared: 'Application of the database on the radiation

  18. A spatial stochastic programming model for timber and core area management under risk of fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Wei; Michael Bevers; Dung Nguyen; Erin Belval

    2014-01-01

    Previous stochastic models in harvest scheduling seldom address explicit spatial management concerns under the influence of natural disturbances. We employ multistage stochastic programming models to explore the challenges and advantages of building spatial optimization models that account for the influences of random stand-replacing fires. Our exploratory test models...

  19. 75 FR 16229 - Urbanized Area Formula Program: Notice of Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Administrative Services Help Desk, at 202-366-4865. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Henrika Buchanan-Smith... National Transit Database on a regular basis. With regard to their use as determinants, formulas such as... Management and Air Quality (CMAQ) program, are not statutory factors for consideration under the section 5307...

  20. Effect of a focused and directed continuing education program on prehospital skill maintenance in key resuscitation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Robert A; Abbott, Cynthia A

    2007-10-01

    US Army Medics (formerly MOS 91B) received training similar to EMT-B level but were not required to be certified. Medics additionally received training in such skills as intravenous (i.v.) line insertion and fluid resuscitation. Continuing education, although encouraged, was not required. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a focused and directed psychomotor skills continuing education program in maintaining skills performance over a 6-month period in four key resuscitation areas. The education effect was the focus of the analysis. The study population was a convenience sample of medics with 1-4 years experience assigned to field units at Ft. Hood, TX. Subjects received a pretest evaluation of skills performance in four key areas using standard NREMT skill sheets. Scores on skill evaluations represent the percentage of steps correctly performed. After pretest evaluations, subjects were required to complete a comprehensive and focused continuing education program that emphasized skill practice. After the 6-month pretest, a post-test was conducted. Pre- and post-test scores for each student were matched. A one-tailed Student's t-test was used to compare results before and after the intervention, with statistical significance set at p skills of i.v. insertion, airway management, patient assessment, and bleeding control was 79 +/- 11, 73 +/- 14, 44 +/- 22, and 57 +/- 13, respectively. The post-test performance for these same skills increased (p education program that emphasizes skill practice in key resuscitation areas can improve skills performance.

  1. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    2001-04-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported.

  2. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Herrera, Paulina; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    The Tissue Banking Project in Chile started as an idea in 1996. Before 1996 in Chile there were only a few small bone banks working with their own standards of quality. The first tissue bank (LPTR) was established in 1998, with the technical and financial support of the IAEA. Since 2001, the laboratory began to produce tissues for clinical use, starting with the processing of 6 amniotic membranes, 2 femoral heads and 19 batches of pig skin. In 2002, the laboratory began the processing of human skin. Five students from Chile have graduated from training courses carried out in Singapore and in Buenos Aires under the IAEA training program since 1998. The amount of tissues produced and sterilized using ionizing radiation by the LPTR in the last years was 320,000 cm(2) of human skin, 553,600 cm(2) of pig skin, 5,400 cm(2) of amniotic membrane, 49 femoral heads, 3 large bones and 300 g of bovine bone. The patients treated with sterilized tissues produced by the LPTR were 200 deep burns treated with human skin and pig skin, 40 bone transplants from femoral heads, 77 ophthalmologic patients treated with amniotic membrane and 150 bovine bone transplants for dental treatments.

  3. MILDOS - A Computer Program for Calculating Environmental Radiation Doses from Uranium Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strange, D. L.; Bander, T. J.

    1981-04-01

    The MILDOS Computer Code estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This code is multi-purposed and can be used to evaluate population doses for NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. Emissions of radioactive materials from fixed point source locations and from area sources are modeled using a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model, which utilizes user-provided wind frequency data. Mechanisms such as deposition of particulates, resuspension. radioactive decay and ingrowth of daughter radionuclides are included in the transport model. Annual average air concentrations are computed, from which subsequent impacts to humans through various pathways are computed. Ground surface concentrations are estimated from deposition buildup and ingrowth of radioactive daughters. The surface concentrations are modified by radioactive decay, weathering and other environmental processes. The MILDOS Computer Code allows the user to vary the emission sources as a step function of time by adjustinq the emission rates. which includes shutting them off completely. Thus the results of a computer run can be made to reflect changing processes throughout the facility's operational lifetime. The pathways considered for individual dose commitments and for population impacts are: • Inhalation • External exposure from ground concentrations • External exposure from cloud immersion • Ingestioo of vegetables • Ingestion of meat • Ingestion of milk • Dose commitments are calculated using dose conversion factors, which are ultimately based

  4. Natural radioactivity and radiation hazard assessment of phosphate mining, Quseir-Safaga area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim; El-Shershaby, Amal; Zeidan, Ibrahim; El-Ahll, Lina Sayed

    2016-06-01

    Quseir-Safaga area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, includes Duwi Formation, which contains uranium-bearing phosphate beds. The present work used the integrated carborne γ-ray spectrometric data, X-ray analysis and HPGe γ-ray spectrometer data to investigate the radioactive zones at this area. Carborne γ-ray spectrometric survey revealed an increase of equivalent uranium, up to 182 ppm. Maps were drawn to show the results of the three radioelements K, eU, eTh and the eU/eTh ratio. The eU and (eU/eTh) maps reveal that there are twelve important anomalies, associated mainly with phosphate mines. The Hamrawein mines at the northwestern part in the study area seem to represent the highest U-anomalies. Twelve phosphate samples were collected from the determined twelve anomalies. They were analyzed with HPGe detector gamma-ray spectrometer. It was found that the results of radioelement concentrations by carborne survey agree well with that obtained by HPGe. Both of them show that phosphate mines effectively contribute to eU anomalies, occurring in the study area. Meanwhile, 40K, 238U and 232Th concentrations in phosphate samples range from 91 to 169, 864 to 3104 and 28.4 to 106 Bq/kg respectively. The highest concentration of 238U (3104 Bq/kg) occurs in the north of the studied area, close to Hamrawein city. The average concentration of 238U in the analyzed samples is 1766 Bq/kg, which is 53 times higher than the worldwide average value reaching 33 Bq/kg. The highest 232Th concentration value reaching 106 Bq/kg is 2.4 times higher than the worldwide value attaining 45 Bq/kg. The absorbed dose rate for the phosphate samples shows the highest value reaching 1468 nGy/h. This is more than 25 times the worldwide average value 58 nGy/h. The annual effective absorbed dose is also high and reached 1.8 mSv/y, which is about twice higher than the permitted value for public exposure of 1.0 mSv/y. The maximum external hazardous index value of 9.2 is more than nine times the unity

  5. Impact of an interprofessional education program on developing skilled graduates well-equipped to practise in rural and underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Ratie; Daniels, Priscilla S; Adonis, Tracy-Ann; Karuguti, Wallace M

    2014-01-01

    Poverty, limited access to resources and a lack of infrastructure characterise the division of rural areas from urban South Africa. Low numbers of social welfare professionals compound the problem. With education linked inextricably in social responsibility, higher education institutions (HEIs) are called upon increasingly to create conditions that encourage students and graduates to practise in more socially responsible ways, involving more than mere disciplinary expertise or technical knowledge, and that consider the problems of rural areas. Use of interprofessional education (IPE) programs, based on teamwork, could enable HEIs to train and guide health sciences students in how best to cooperate with each other and combine their skills to mutual benefit. This would enable them to develop professional skills facilitated by interactive engagement within community settings. Referencing experience gained in Australia and elsewhere, the Faculty of Community and Health Sciences (FCHS) at the University of Western Cape (UWC) has developed and applied an IPE program for South Africa. Students were placed in interdisciplinary groups in a rural and underserved municipality of the Western Cape - 17 students participated in a study on the effectiveness of this program. A quantitative self-administered questionnaire, followed by qualitative focus group discussions, established student perceptions of their IPE experience, how the experience influenced their intentions for or against future practice in rural and underserved areas, and their interest in future interprofessional collaboration and practice. More than 75% of the participating students agreed that they had learnt to develop knowledge base, procedural and healthcare practice presentation skills, along with preparing written community health histories. Student willingness to practise in rural areas was evidenced, citing community- and resource-based factors as determinants; however, concerns that some community

  6. Design of exploration and minerals-data-collection programs in developing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper considers the practical problem of applying economic analysis to designing minerals exploration and data collection strategies for developing countries. Formal decision rules for the design of government exploration and minerals-data-collection programs are derived by using a minerals-industry planning model that has been extended to include an exploration function. Rules derived are applicable to centrally planned minerals industries as well as market-oriented minerals sectors. They pertain to the spatial allocation of exploration effort and to the allocation of activities between government and private concerns for market-oriented economies. Programs characterized by uniform expenditures, uniform information coverage across regions, or uniform-density grid drilling progrmas are shown to be inferior to the strategy derived. Moreover, for market-oriented economies, the economically optimal mix in exploration activities between private and government data collection would require that only private firms assess local sites and that government agencies carry out regional surveys. ?? 1981.

  7. Graduate survey of the South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium family practice residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carek, P J; Abercrombie, S; Baughman, O; Buehler, J; Goforth, G; Hester, W; Lammie, J; Snape, P

    2001-06-01

    The results of this study demonstrate several interesting characteristics of the graduates of the SC AHEC associated family medicine residency programs: 45 percent practice in South Carolina, 63 percent live further than 120 miles from their residency program, 96 percent are satisfied with their specialty choice, and 56 percent are involved in teaching medical students and residents. Furthermore, these graduates have the following tendencies: to practice in the traditional solo or group practice; to practice in a suburban community, town or rural community and a setting size less than a population of 100,000 persons; to care for the aging adult and geriatric population; to provide nursing home care; and to utilize house calls to provide patient care). As the current health care system continues to be redesigned, this information will be essential for assessment and planning purposes.

  8. Technical program plan for the transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Hundreds of aging nuclear materials processing facilities within the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Complex are now being shut down and deactivated. These facilities, situated throughout the United States, will require a monumental effort to clean up safely and with minimal environmental insult. Current cleanup technologies tend to be labor intensive and expensive, they produce an unacceptably large volume of waste, and they expose workers to radioactive and other hazardous substances. This document describes an emerging program designed to develop and demonstrate new technical approaches to the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) program for DOE`s nuclear materials processing facilities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), the program seeks to integrate the strengths of DOE`s technical, managerial, and systems engineering capabilities with those of industry, universities, and other government agencies. Once developed, these technologies will help to provide US industry with a competitive edge in the worldwide market that exists for improved environmental restoration and D&D services.

  9. Programs for calibration-based Monte Carlo simulation of recharge areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starn, J Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C

    2012-01-01

    One use of groundwater flow models is to simulate contributing recharge areas to wells or springs. Particle tracking can be used to simulate these recharge areas, but in many cases the modeler is not sure how accurate these recharge areas are because parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and recharge have errors associated with them. The scripts described in this article (GEN_LHS and MCDRIVER_LHS) use the Python scripting language to run a Monte Carlo simulation with Latin hypercube sampling where model parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and recharge are randomly varied for a large number of model simulations, and the probability of a particle being in the contributing area of a well is calculated based on the results of multiple simulations. Monte Carlo simulation provides one useful measure of the variability in modeled particles. The Monte Carlo method described here is unique in that it uses parameter sets derived from the optimal parameters, their standard deviations, and their correlation matrix, all of which are calculated during nonlinear regression model calibration. In addition, this method uses a set of acceptance criteria to eliminate unrealistic parameter sets. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Phaopeng, N. [Office of Atoms for Peace - OAP (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  11. The radiative impact of desert dust on orographic rain in the Cévennes–Vivarais area: a case study from HyMeX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Flamant

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study is focused on Intensive Observation Period (IOP 14 of the Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment first Special Observing Period (HyMeX SOP 1 that took place from 17 to 19 October 2012 and was dedicated to the study of orographic rain in the Cévennes–Vivarais (CV target area. During this IOP a dense dust plume originating from northern Africa (the Maghreb and Sahara was observed to be transported over the Balearic Islands towards the south of France. The plume was characterized by an aerosol optical depth between 0.2 and 0.8 at 550 nm, highly variable in time and space over the western Mediterranean Basin. The impact of this dust plume, the biggest event observed during the 2-month-long HyMeX SOP 1, on the precipitation over the CV area has been analyzed using high-resolution simulations from the convection permitting mesoscale model Meso-NH (mesoscale non-hydrostatic model validated against measurements obtained from numerous instruments deployed specifically during SOP 1 (ground-based/airborne water vapor and aerosol lidars, airborne microphysics probes as well as space-borne aerosol products. The 4-day simulation reproduced realistically the temporal and spatial variability (including the vertical distribution of the dust. The dust radiative impact led to an average 0.6 K heating at the altitude of the dust layer in the CV area (and up to +3 K locally and an average 100 J kg−1 increase of most unstable convective available potential energy (and up to +900 J kg−1 locally with respect to a simulation without prescribed dust aerosols. The rainfall amounts and location were only marginally affected by the dust radiative effect, even after 4 days of simulation. The transient nature of this radiative effect in dynamical environments such as those found in the vicinity of heavy precipitation events in the Mediterranean is not sufficient to impact 24 h of accumulated rainfall in the dust simulation.

  12. Analysis of the impact of fault mechanism radiation patterns on macroseismic fields in the epicentral area of 1998 and 2004 Krn Mountains earthquakes (NW Slovenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosar, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Two moderate magnitude (Mw = 5.6 and 5.2) earthquakes in Krn Mountains occurred in 1998 and 2004 which had maximum intensity VII-VIII and VI-VII EMS-98, respectively. Comparison of both macroseismic fields showed unexpected differences in the epicentral area which cannot be explained by site effects. Considerably, different distribution of the highest intensities can be noticed with respect to the strike of the seismogenic fault and in some localities even higher intensities have been estimated for the smaller earthquake. Although hypocentres of both earthquakes were only 2 km apart and were located on the same seismogenic Ravne fault, their focal mechanisms showed a slight difference: almost pure dextral strike-slip for the first event and a strike-slip with small reverse component on a steep fault plane for the second one. Seismotectonically the difference is explained as an active growth of the Ravne fault at its NW end. The radiation patterns of both events were studied to explain their possible impact on the observed variations in macroseismic fields and damage distribution. Radiation amplitude lobes were computed for three orthogonal directions: radial P, SV, and SH. The highest intensities of both earthquakes were systematically observed in directions of four (1998) or two (2004) large amplitude lobes in SH component (which corresponds mainly to Love waves), which have significantly different orientation for both events. On the other hand, radial P direction, which is almost purely symmetrical for the strike-slip mechanism of 1998 event, showed for the 2004 event that its small reverse component of movement has resulted in a very pronounced amplitude lobe in SW direction where two settlements are located which expressed higher intensities in the case of the 2004 event with respect to the 1998 one. Although both macroseismic fields are very complex due to influences of multiple earthquakes, retrofitting activity after 1998, site effects, and sparse

  13. Hygienic characteristics of radiation situation in the water area of The Ladoga Lake during salvaging of the radioactively contaminated experimental vessel “KIT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1991, a salvage operation of the waterlogged radioactive contaminated vessel in the water area of lake Ladoga was carried out. In 1953-1954, new radiological weapons or new radiological warfare agenst were tested on this vessel. By the beginning of works, the experimental vessel was on the ooze in the half-flooded condition at a depth of 4,5-6 meters. There were approximate 2000 m3 of contaminated water and silt, mixed with oil products inside the vessel. The aims of the study are to perform:1 the hygienic assessment of radiation situation on the place of the vessel berthing before, during and after ship salvaging; 2 the radiation risk assessment for the population of the region. The assessment of the radiological situation on the board and at the place of the vessel berthing was carried out on the base of dosimetric, spectrometric and radiochemistry surveys. The gamma ray exposure rate at a height of 1 m from the superstructures and main deck outer surfaces was on average 0,14 μSv/h andit did not exceeded 0,30 μSv/h. On the place of the vessel berthing, an increasing of concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239,240 in samples of water, bottom sediments, and algae has been determined. Object posed no radiation hazard to the population of the region. However, some inhabitants, despite the ban, visited the vessel for recreation and fishing. Their potential exposure dose could reach 0,5 mSv/y. Ship salvaging included salvage pontoon launching, ship’s bottom isolation, liquid waste pumping from the vessel to the special tanker, ship raising and dockage, liquid waste remediation, discharge of remediated water in the water area of lake Ladoga, solidification of liquid waste remained in the vessel’s rooms. Liquid waste remediation and strict radiation control of each process prohibited significant hygienic degradation of the radiation situation in the water area of the lake Ladoga. An insignificant increasing of levels

  14. Characterizing the natural radiation levels throughout the main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul area, northern Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilal, Mohamed; Aissa, Mosa

    2015-02-01

    The concentrations of equivalent eU, eTh, and K% were determined together with soil gas radon values and carborne gamma-ray survey in order to define the natural radioactivity levels throughout main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul region. Forty five soil and rock samples were collected from various lithofacies in each geological unit, and analyzed by γ-ray spectrometric technique for determining the concentration values of major radioelements. Such radiometric data could be used to differentiate between various lithologies of the investigated rocks. Although no distinct radioactive anomalies were found in the area, the radiometric profiles showed some minor variations with slightly higher values than the normal level. Despite the low radioactivity and the lack of rocks diversity in the surveyed area, it was possible to classify some certain rock types based on their radiometric response. The relationships between eU, eTh and their ratios were discussed for the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene formations, in order to evaluate the degree of uranium distribution and remobilization. The overall results of this radiometric survey were generally low, and lying within the range of the normal background levels in Syrian. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Training on radiation protection in university area. Experience of Technical University of Catalonia; Formacion en Proteccion Radiologica desde el ambito universitario. Experiencia desde la Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, X.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the different agents that are involved in training on Radiation Protection in Spain. The main circumstances which can introduce new challenges in radiation protection practices are reviewed, namely the planned modifications in the regulation framework, the mobility of European workers, the consequences of deregulation of the electric system, the moratorium of the Spanish nuclear programme and the changes in Spanish studies resulting from implementation of the European Higher Education Area. In relation to the contributions that university groups can develop in this field, the author makes some suggestions according to his own experience in the Technical University of Catalonia. It is emphasized that this contribution must be characterized by its quality, credibility and independence. It should include activities such as development of R and D studies, the implementation of accredited laboratories, organization of post-graduate courses, preparation of teaching materials and technical publications, and collaboration with public institutions, scientific and professional societies and other organizations. Finally, the other new activity that is stressed is related to the efforts required to improve information and communication to the stake holders and a growing social interest. (Author)

  16. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY LEVEL AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL SAMPLES FROM A HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA ON EASTERN COAST OF INDIA (ODISHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S K; Kierepko, R; Sorimachi, A; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Tokonami, S; Prasad, G; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out to determine the radioactivity concentration of soil samples from different sites of a high background radiation area in the eastern coast of India, Odisha state. The dose rate measured in situ varied from 0.25 to 1.2 µSv h-1 The gamma spectrometry measurements indicated Th series elements as the main contributors to the enhanced level of radiation and allowed the authors to find the mean level of the activity concentration (±SD) for 226Ra, 228Th and 40K as 130±97, 1110±890 and 360±140 Bq kg-1, respectively. Human exposure from radionuclides occurring outdoor was estimated based on the effective dose rate, which ranged from 0.14±0.02 to 2.15±0.26 mSv and was higher than the UNSCEAR annual worldwide average value 0.07 mSv. Additionally, X-ray fluorescence analysis provided information about the content of major elements in samples and indicated the significant amount of Ti (7.4±4.9 %) in soils. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Impacts of Aerosols on UV Radiation and Ozone Formation and Analysis of Chemical Processes using a 3-D Chemical Transport Model in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, R.; Frey, S.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The influence of aerosols on UV radiation is investigated by calculating the photolysis rate coefficients using the NCAR tropospheric ultraviolet and visible radiation model (TUV) constrained by aerosol extinction vertical profiles as well as other optical properties provided by Lidar and spectroradiometer observations. The calculated photolysis rates are validated by measured values for key species. The computed photolysis rates are incorporated into a 3-D chemical transport model CAMx (Environ) to assess the impacts of aerosols on O3 formation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Understanding the chemical processes governing O3 formation and the sensitivity of O3 to emissions reductions is a key issue in formulating an effective O3 control strategy . We performed episodic simulations using the CAMx model and analyzed the chemical processes in terms of the budgets of free radicals, NOy and O3, and O3 production rate and efficiency, which gave us useful information about important chemical processes controlling O3 production and sensitivity to precursor reductions. We analyzed as well the effects of chemistry, transport and deposition on O3 production in Mexico City.

  18. Program Plan for Revision of the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, James R.

    2005-12-07

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Saltstone Project, are embarking on the next revision to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) performance assessment (PA). This program plan has been prepared to outline the general approach, scope, schedule and resources for the PA revision. The plan briefly describes the task elements of the PA process. It discusses critical PA considerations in the development of conceptual models and interpretation of results. Applicable quality assurance (QA) requirements are identified and the methods for implementing QA for both software and documentation are described. The plan identifies project resources supporting the core team and providing project oversight. Program issues and risks are identified as well as mitigation of those risks. Finally, a preliminary program schedule has been developed and key deliverables identified. A number of significant changes have been implemented since the last PA revision resulting in a new design for future SDF disposal units. This revision will encompass the existing and planned disposal units, PA critical radionuclides and exposure pathways important to SDF performance. An integrated analysis of the overall facility layout, including all disposal units, will be performed to assess the impact of plume overlap on PA results. Finally, a rigorous treatment of uncertainty will be undertaken using probabilistic simulations. This analysis will be reviewed and approved by DOE-SR, DOE-HQ and potentially the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This revision will be completed and ready for the start of the DOE review at the end of December 2006. This work supports a Saltstone Vault 2 fee-bearing milestone. This milestone includes completion of the Vault 2 module of the PA revision by the end of FY06.

  19. An Analysis of the Fulton Industrial Area: A Market for Parkway’s Industrial Medicine Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-30

    those with high or very high interest. a- -- ~ . j~------------ - - ______J- 122 Questions Appearing on the Questionnarie : "This is a two-part question...of Colonial Shoe Company, Incorporated. ŕ" _ _ _ _ - -. - - - - - - -U 159 CAPITAL FOODS Organizational Background *Capital Foods is a wholesale...grocer firm In the business for distributing meats, produce, eggs, seafood, frozen foods . and sundry items to Atlanta area grocers and food markets. The

  20. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Hazardous Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    imperative that the community address the range of values, and have agreement, before a disaster strikes. Pre-event clearance level concurrence is...on the cleanup of specific sites: those containing only cesium-137 (Goiania) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides ( Chernobyl ...targets and consider initiatives to enhance the quality of life of the residents of the contaminated areas. Recovery experience from the Chernobyl

  1. PROGRAM OF MANUFACTURED PRODUCTION AND TAX AREA BY MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Naranjo-Cantabrana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises gathered in the Manufacturing Industry Program, Maquila and Export Services (IMMEX, by presidential decree published on November 1st, 2006 in the Official Federal Newspaper, enjoyed tax benefits through December 2013: exemption of the payment of IVA tax, temporary tax import into goods for maquila operation, partial exemption of ISR tax and IETU tax; tax exemption of permanent establishment. Since January 1st. 2014, their fiscal environment has changed. At work its being reflected about the new fiscal provisions and their effect on 6825 IMMEX companies in the country, regarding its location, people hired directly and surrogated, paid salaries, social security contributions, days and hours worked.

  2. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-09-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair-as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) 'in-the-city-control' people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  3. Predictive Models of Duration of Ground Delay Programs in New York Area Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Initially planned GDP duration often turns out to be an underestimate or an overestimate of the actual GDP duration. This, in turn, results in avoidable airborne or ground delays in the system. Therefore, better models of actual duration have the potential of reducing delays in the system. The overall objective of this study is to develop such models based on logs of GDPs. In a previous report, we described descriptive models of Ground Delay Programs. These models were defined in terms of initial planned duration and in terms of categorical variables. These descriptive models are good at characterizing the historical errors in planned GDP durations. This paper focuses on developing predictive models of GDP duration. Traffic Management Initiatives (TMI) are logged by Air Traffic Control facilities with The National Traffic Management Log (NTML) which is a single system for automated recoding, coordination, and distribution of relevant information about TMIs throughout the National Airspace System. (Brickman, 2004 Yuditsky, 2007) We use 2008-2009 GDP data from the NTML database for the study reported in this paper. NTML information about a GDP includes the initial specification, possibly one or more revisions, and the cancellation. In the next section, we describe general characteristics of Ground Delay Programs. In the third section, we develop models of actual duration. In the fourth section, we compare predictive performance of these models. The final section is a conclusion.

  4. Journey Toward High Reliability: A Comprehensive Safety Program to Improve Quality of Care and Safety Culture in a Large, Multisite Radiation Oncology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Kristina Demas; Volz, Edna; Maity, Amit; Gabriel, Peter E; Solberg, Timothy D; Bergendahl, Howard W; Hahn, Stephen M

    2016-05-01

    High-reliability organizations (HROs) focus on continuous identification and improvement of safety issues. We sought to advance a large, multisite radiation oncology department toward high reliability through the implementation of a comprehensive safety culture (SC) program at the University of Pennsylvania Department of Radiation Oncology. In 2011, with guidance from safety literature and experts in HROs, we designed an SC framework to reduce radiation errors. All state-reported medical events (SRMEs) from 2009 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed and plotted on a control chart. Changes in SC grade were assessed using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey. Outcomes measured included the number of radiation treatment fractions and days between SRMEs, as well as SC grade. Multifaceted safety initiatives were implemented at our main academic center and across all network sites. Postintervention results demonstrate increased staff fundamental safety knowledge, enhanced peer review with an electronic system, and special cause variation of SRMEs on control chart analysis. From 2009 to 2016, the number of days and fractions between SRMEs significantly increased, from a mean of 174 to 541 days (P patient SC grade over time. Our journey toward becoming an HRO has led to the development of a robust SC through a comprehensive safety framework. Our multifaceted initiatives, focusing on culture and system changes, can be successfully implemented in a large academic radiation oncology department to yield measurable improvements in SC and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Trends in incidence rates of tobacco-related cancer, selected areas, SEER Program, United States, 1992-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polednak, Anthony P

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends in incidence rates for tobacco-related cancers may vary geographically because of variation in socioeconomic status and in history of comprehensive state tobacco control programs (starting with California in 1989). Recent trends in risk factors are likely to affect cancer incidence rates at the youngest ages Trends in age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers most strongly associated with tobacco (ie, lung, oral cavity-pharynx, and bladder cancers) were analyzed for 1992 through 2004 in 11 areas (the states of Connecticut, Hawaii, Iowa, Utah, and New Mexico, and the metropolitan areas of Atlanta, Georgia; Detroit, Michigan; Los Angeles County, California; San Francisco-Oakland, California; San Jose-Monterey, California; and Seattle-Puget Sound, Washington) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. The 8 states differed in poverty rate of the population and in history of statewide tobacco control efforts as measured by an initial outcomes index (IOI) for the 1990s and a strength of tobacco control (SoTC) index for 1999 through 2000. Annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rate was calculated for whites and blacks separately and by sex for each SEER area. Among whites, the largest declines for lung cancer were in the 3 SEER areas of California, which were the only areas with significant (negative) APCs for oral cavity-pharynx cancer (but not for bladder cancer). For blacks, significant (negative) APCs for both lung and oral cavity-pharynx cancers were found in 4 of 5 areas with useful data but only 1 of 3 areas for bladder cancer. The strongest correlations of APCs for whites were for lung and oral cavity-pharynx cancers with the IOIs for the early 1990s and with the SoTC (due to the influence of California, which had the highest SoTC). Lung and oral cavity-pharynx cancer incidence rates among whites aged 15 to 54 years declined more in California than in other areas, possibly because of comprehensive state tobacco control

  6. Parking strategy in the pollution control program of an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygax, H. [Office de la protection de l`environment, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Swiss legislation requires, in case of excessive air pollutant levels, the regions (cantons) to adopt a plan for the implementation of national air quality standards. Within the field of transport, if low emission technologies on motor vehicles are insufficient, measures to control and restrict motor vehicle traffic must be considered. Regarding parking measures, the Swiss Federal Court has accepted management and reduction of parking facilities as legally inforceable emission limitation for air pollutant abatement. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a parking policy in a city within a small urban area. (author)

  7. A Community Energy Transition Model for Urban Areas: The Energy Self-Reliant Village Program in Seoul, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While community energy initiatives are on the rise, community actions for energy transition in Asian countries have rarely been studied. While it is difficult for community energy initiatives to develop spontaneously in Seoul, there are some success stories there. This study places these successes in context. It analyzes municipal documents, including unpublished materials from municipal meetings, in order to examine how the Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG created enabling conditions for promoting community energy initiatives. This study also conducted interviews to explore unsolved issues related to the Energy Self-Reliant Village (ESV program. The SMG encouraged collective action through financial, administrative, and informational support. Also, this study found that Seoul’s ESV program fostered communities by raising the sense of locality and responsibility and community spirit through various educational programs. The ESV program supported the continuity of community by providing guidelines that relieved the burden on community members. The SMG played a significant role in promoting community engagement in energy transition by affecting internal and external conditions. This study provides meaningful insights that other municipalities, especially large urban areas, can follow to foster community actions for energy transition.

  8. SU-F-R-11: Designing Quality and Safety Informatics Through Implementation of a CT Radiation Dose Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, JM [Clinical Imaging Physics Group and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Samei, E [Clinical Imaging Physics Group and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Departments of Physics, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering, and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Recent legislative and accreditation requirements have driven rapid development and implementation of CT radiation dose monitoring solutions. Institutions must determine how to improve quality, safety, and consistency of their clinical performance. The purpose of this work was to design a strategy and meaningful characterization of results from an in-house, clinically-deployed dose monitoring solution. Methods: A dose monitoring platform was designed by our imaging physics group that focused on extracting protocol parameters, dose metrics, and patient demographics and size. Compared to most commercial solutions, which focus on individual exam alerts and global thresholds, the program sought to characterize overall consistency and targeted thresholds based on eight analytic interrogations. Those were based on explicit questions related to protocol application, national benchmarks, protocol and size-specific dose targets, operational consistency, outliers, temporal trends, intra-system variability, and consistent use of electronic protocols. Using historical data since the start of 2013, 95% and 99% intervals were used to establish yellow and amber parameterized dose alert thresholds, respectively, as a function of protocol, scanner, and size. Results: Quarterly reports have been generated for three hospitals for 3 quarters of 2015 totaling 27880, 28502, 30631 exams, respectively. Four adult and two pediatric protocols were higher than external institutional benchmarks. Four protocol dose levels were being inconsistently applied as a function of patient size. For the three hospitals, the minimum and maximum amber outlier percentages were [1.53%,2.28%], [0.76%,1.8%], [0.94%,1.17%], respectively. Compared with the electronic protocols, 10 protocols were found to be used with some inconsistency. Conclusion: Dose monitoring can satisfy requirements with global alert thresholds and patient dose records, but the real value is in optimizing patient

  9. Natural radioactivity and radiation hazards assessment of soil samples from the area of Tuzla and Lukavac, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumović, Amira; Adrović, Feriz; Kasić, Amela; Hankić, Ema

    2015-01-01

    The results of activity concentration measurements of natural occurring radioactive nuclides (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, and (40)K in surface soil samples collected in the area of cities Tuzla and Lukavac, northeast region of Bosnia and Herzegovina were presented. Soil sampling was conducted at the localities that are situated in the vicinity of industrial zones of these cities. The measured activity was in the range from (8 ± 4) to (95 ± 28) Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from (0.41 ± 0.06) to (4.6 ± 0.7) Bq kg(-1) for (235)U, from (7 ± 1) to (66 ± 7) Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, from (6 ± 1) to (55 ± 6) Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, and from (83 ± 12) to (546 ± 55) Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity for people living near industrial zones, the absorbed dose rate, the annual effective dose and the radium equivalent activity have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values.

  10. Assessment of effective radiation dose of an extremity CBCT, MSCT and conventional X ray for knee area using MOSFET dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Juha; Kiljunen, Timo; Wolff, Jan; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the organ and effective doses in the knee area resulting from different commercially available multislice computed tomography devices (MSCT), one cone beam computed tomography device (CBCT) and one conventional X-ray radiography device using MOSFET dosemeters and an anthropomorphic RANDO knee phantom. Measurements of the MSCT devices resulted in effective doses ranging between 27 and 48 µSv. The CBCT measurements resulted in an effective dose of 12.6 µSv. The effective doses attained using the conventional radiography device were 1.8 µSv for lateral and 1.2 µSv for anterior-posterior projections. The effective dose resulting from conventional radiography was considerably lower than those recorded for the CBCT and MSCT devices. The MSCT effective dose results were two to four times higher than those measured on the CBCT device. This study demonstrates that CBCT can be regarded as a potential low-dose 3D imaging technique for knee examinations.

  11. Nine years of publications on strengths and weaknesses of Family Physician Program in rural area of Iran: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important duties of a family physician is to provide primary health care. This is completely considered in the Family Physician Program for a target population. The aim of this study was to systematically review the Family Physician and Referral System strength and weakness in rural area of Iran. Methods: In this systematic review, Scientific Information Database (SID, Science Direct, and PubMed databases were searched and Google search engine was employed using key words such as family medicine, family physician, and referral system for the period of January 2005 to June 2013, both in English and Persian. For identifying duplicated references, Endnote Software was used and for summarizing results of fully assessed articles extraction table was employed. Results: Strengths and weaknesses of Family Physician Program and referral system in rural areas of Iran were extracted from 28 studies. In total, 115 weaknesses (3.96 per study and 103 strengths (3.55 per study were obtained. Content analysis was used and 218 items were summarized into 29 items. Strengths of Family Physician Program were: access of villagers to health services, filling health document for clients, improving services for pregnant mothers, and family planning; while its obvious weaknesses included repeated unnecessary referral of clients as well as lack of providing job stability. Conclusion: Results of studies conducted in Iran showed that Family Physician and Referral System in rural area of Iran could not be successful enough and has many shortcomings. Therefore, a growing body of effective changes must be made for a better performance and to obtain better outcomes.

  12. Mass Releases of Genetically Modified Insects in Area-Wide Pest Control Programs and Their Impact on Organic Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guy Reeves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass release of irradiated insects to reduce the size of agricultural pest populations of the same species has a more than 50-year record of success. Using these techniques, insect pests can be suppressed without necessarily dispersing chemical insecticides into the environment. Ongoing release programs include the suppression of medfly at numerous locations around the globe (e.g., California, Chile and Israel and the pink bollworm eradication program across the southern USA and northern Mexico. These, and other successful area-wide programs, encompass a large number of diverse organic farms without incident. More recently, mass release techniques have been proposed that involve the release of genetically modified insects. Given that the intentional use of genetically modified organisms by farmers will in many jurisdictions preclude organic certification, this prohibits the deliberate use of this technology by organic farmers. However, mass releases of flying insects are not generally conducted by individual farmers but are done on a regional basis, often without the explicit consent of all situated farms (frequently under the auspices of government agencies or growers’ collectives. Consequently, there exists the realistic prospect of organic farms becoming involved in genetically modified insect releases as part of area-wide programs or experiments. Herein, we describe genetically modified insects engineered for mass release and examine their potential impacts on organic farmers, both intended and unintended. This is done both generally and also focusing on a hypothetical organic farm located near an approved experimental release of genetically modified (GM diamondback moths in New York State (USA.

  13. Comparison of Sea Floor Character in Two Areas Mapped by the California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    Since the California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program (CSCMP) began in 2008 multibeam echo sounder (MBES) data have been acquired in all mainland State Waters (shoreline to 3 nautical miles). As of this writing a suite of map products derived from the data has been published for 22 of the network of 83 CSCMP map blocks along the mainland coast. These publications provide the first opportunity to contrast physical habitats in different areas; here we compare the seafloor character in a set of 6 blocks along the mainland coast of the Santa Barbara Channel (Hueneme Canyon to Refugio Beach), with that of a similarly sized subset of blocks along the more energetic coast of Northern California (Salt Point to Drakes Bay). Seafloor character, one of the products being produced for the CSCMP, is a raster with a small number of substrate classes (soft-flat, hard-flat, and hard-rugose) designed for inclusion in multi-variant analysis of fisheries data that include visual observations of substrate type. Seafloor character is derived with bottom-video supervised maximum likelihood classification of MBES backscatter intensity data and vector ruggedness derived from the MBES bathymetry data. Typically areas of fine-grained sand and mud with infauna occupy the soft-flat areas, hard-flat areas are a mix of low-relief coarse sediment and flat bedrock pavement with sparse epifauna, and hard-rugose areas are highly valued rocky reef habitat with a diverse assemblage of epifauna. In the Northern California area waters less than 100 m deep the percentage of hard-rugose habitat is 8% of the seafloor whereas in the Santa Barbara area it is 0.2%. In both areas Marine Protected Areas contain a higher percentage of hard-rugose habitat than is found in the larger surrounding region. The scarcity of hard-rugose habitat in the Santa Barbara area increases the value of protected habitat in the Channel Islands bounding the channel as well as artificial habitat created by offshore oil rigs.

  14. An exploratory analysis to determine priority areas for lead poisoning prevention education programs in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Kaitlyn; Cummings, Madeline; Visker, Joseph; Cox, Carol

    2015-03-01

    Lead is a strong poison and toxic to many vital organs and body systems especially in the central nervous system of children, who are more vulnerable to lead poisoning than adults. The purpose of the study described in this article was to examine the relationship between elevated blood lead level (BLL) cases of children in the state of Missouri and pre-1980 home construction, lead mine proximity, and median household income and to determine counties and areas for statewide prevention education. Results of the regression analysis indicated that these combined variables were significant predictors (F[3,111] = 19.106, p lead cases. In addition to screening in identified counties, Missouri's statewide plan should expand to include prevention education in all low-income counties.

  15. Nevada Test Site Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program: Report No. 2. Areas 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, R.D.; Kordas, J.F.

    1985-09-01

    Radionuclide activity was measured by in situ spectrometry at 349 locations in Areas 2 and 4 of the Nevada Test Site. The data were analyzed by kriging and other methods to estimate the total inventory and distribution of six man-made radionuclides that were present in measurable amounts. Isotope ratios in soil samples were then used to infer the inventories of three other radionuclides. The estimated inventories were: /sup 241/Am, 8 curies; /sup 238/Pu, 18 curies; /sup 239,240/Pu, 51 curies; /sup 60/Co, 7 curies; /sup 137/Cs, 34 curies; /sup 90/Sr, 71 curies; /sup 152/Eu, 35 curies; /sup 154/Eu, 6 curies; and /sup 155/Eu, 3 curies.

  16. The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity and c-Fos expression in cortical and subcortical areas in a rat model of picrotoxin-induced seizure proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, E; Bregains, J; Relova-Quinteiro, J L; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Jorge-Barreiro, F J; Ares-Pena, F J

    2009-05-01

    The action of the pulse-modulated GSM radiofrequency of mobile phones has been suggested as a physical phenomenon that might have biological effects on the mammalian central nervous system. In the present study, GSM-exposed picrotoxin-pretreated rats showed differences in clinical and EEG signs, and in c-Fos expression in the brain, with respect to picrotoxin-treated rats exposed to an equivalent dose of unmodulated radiation. Neither radiation treatment caused tissue heating, so thermal effects can be ruled out. The most marked effects of GSM radiation on c-Fos expression in picrotoxin-treated rats were observed in limbic structures, olfactory cortex areas and subcortical areas, the dentate gyrus, and the central lateral nucleus of the thalamic intralaminar nucleus group. Nonpicrotoxin-treated animals exposed to unmodulated radiation showed the highest levels of neuronal c-Fos expression in cortical areas. These results suggest a specific effect of the pulse modulation of GSM radiation on brain activity of a picrotoxin-induced seizure-proneness rat model and indicate that this mobile-phone-type radiation might induce regional changes in previous preexcitability conditions of neuronal activation.

  17. Waterway wide area tactical coverage and homing (WaterWATCH) program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, Gerald; Cleveland, Tammy; Araujo, Lisa; Spohr, Robert; Umansky, Mark

    2008-04-01

    The Congressional and Army sponsored WaterWATCH TM Program has developed and demonstrated a fully integrated shallow water port and facility monitoring system. It provides fully automated monitoring of domains above and below the surface of the water using primarily off-the-shelf sensors and software. The system is modular, open architecture and IP based, and elements can be mixed and matched to adapt to specific applications. The sensors integrated into the WaterWATCH TM system include cameras, radar, passive and active sonar, and various motion detectors. The sensors were chosen based on extensive requirements analyses and tradeoffs. Descriptions of the system and individual sensors are provided, along with data from modular and system level testing. Camera test results address capabilities and limitations associated with using "smart" image analysis software with stressing environmental issues such as bugs, darkness, rain and snow. Radar issues addressed include achieving range and resolution requirements. The passive sonar capability to provide near 100% true positives with zero false positives is demonstrated. Testing results are also presented to show that inexpensive active sonar can be effective against divers with or without SCUBA gear and that false alarms due to fish can be minimized. A simple operator interface has also been demonstrated.

  18. Structure of the thyroid pathology in the radiation exposed areas of Leningrad region: late consequences of Chernobyl accident after 20 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, A.; Uspenskaya, A.; Bychenkova, E.; Chinchuk, I.; Novokshonov, K.; Chernikov, R.; Sleptsov, I.; Bubnov, A.; Fedotov, Y.; Makarin, V.; Karelina, Y. [Endocrinology, NWRMC FHSDA, ST-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident large areas of the USSR were contaminated with fallout, it has been proved that I{sup 131} caused higher incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Further observation for over 20 years showed retention of high annual prevalence of this pathology among the population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ultimate result of the influence of I{sup 131} on the thyroid gland. The study included 454 women living in localities affected by the Chernobyl accident in April-May 1986 (case) and 909 women living in fallout-free localities (ICCIDD method). The incidence of malignant thyroid tumors among the inhabitants of the contaminated territories is higher than in the control area. This phenomenon can not be unambiguously attributed to radiation induced cancers, but requires further investigation, perhaps by the method of carrying out continuous and all-round prophylactic medical examination. High incidence of autoimmune changes can be considered to have been caused by the action of I{sup 131} and prophylactic supplement with stable iodine

  19. Annual intakes of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in staple foodstuffs from a high background radiation area in the southwest region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ele Abiama, P; Ben-Bolie, G H; Amechmachi, N; Najib, F; El Khoukhi, T; Owono Ateba, P

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K were determined in five most consumed vegetables in a high-level background radiation area (HLBRA) in the southwest region of Cameroon. A total of 25 foodstuff samples collected from Akongo, Ngombas, Awanda, Bikoué and Lolodorf rural districts were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentration values of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K were respectively 2.30, 1.50 and 140.40 Bq kg(-1) fresh-weights. The effective dose for individual consumption of the investigated foodstuff types was calculated on an estimated annual intake of such diets in the study area. The estimated total daily effective doses from the ingestion of the investigated foodstuffs for each studied long-life natural radionuclide were respectively 0.41 μSv for (226)Ra, 0.84 μSv for (228)Ra and 0.71 μSv for (40)K. The total annual effective dose was estimated at 0.70 mSv y(-1). (228)Ra (44%) and (40)K (36%) were found to be the main sources for internal irradiation which is very likely due to the specific uptake of these radionuclides by the studied plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coupled Simulations of the Synchrotron Radiation and Induced Desorption Pressure Profiles for the HL-LHC Triplet Area and Interaction Points

    CERN Document Server

    Kersevan, R; Bregliozzi, G

    2014-01-01

    The HiLumi-LHC machine upgrade has officially started as an approved LHC project (see dedicated presentations at this conference on the subject). One important feature of the upgrade is the installation of very high-gradient triplet magnets for focusing the beams at the collision points of the two high-luminosity detectors ATLAS and CMS. Other important topics are new superconducting D1 and D2 magnets, installation of crab cavities and new tertiary collimators, and re-shuffling of the dispersion suppression area. Based on the current magnetic lattice set-up and beam orbits, a detailed study of the emission of synchrotron radiation (SR) and related photon-induced desorption (PID) has been carried out. A significant amount of SR photons are generated by the two off-axis beams in the common vacuum chamber of the triplet area, about 57 m in length. Ray-tracing Montecarlo codes Synrad+ and Molflow+ have been employed in this study. The related PID pressure profiles are shown, together with simulations using the co...

  1. IR Thermography NDE of ISS Radiator Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, William; Morton, Richard; Wilson, Walter; Reynolds, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The presentation covers an active and a passive infrared (IR) thermography for detection of delaminations in the radiator panels used for the International Space Station (ISS) program. The passive radiator IR data was taken by a NASA astronaut in an extravehicular activity (EVA) using a modified FLIR EVA hand-held camera. The IR data could be successfully analyzed to detect gross facesheet disbonds. The technique used the internal hot fluid tube as the heat source in analyzing the IR data. Some non-flight ISS radiators were inspected using an active technique of IR flash thermography to detect disbond of face sheet with honeycomb core, and debonds in facesheet overlap areas. The surface temperature and radiated heat emission from flight radiators is stable during acquisition of the IR video data. This data was analyzed to detect locations of unexpected surface temperature gradients. The flash thermography data was analyzed using derivative analysis and contrast evolutions. Results of the inspection are provided.

  2. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. ARRRG and FOOD: computer programs for calculating radiation dose to man from radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Roswell, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    The computer programs ARRRG and FOOD were written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from the radionuclides in the environment and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. Using ARRRG, radiation doses to man may be calculated for radionuclides released to bodies of water from which people might obtain fish, other aquatic foods, or drinking water, and in which they might fish, swim or boat. With the FOOD program, radiation doses to man may be calculated from deposition on farm or garden soil and crops during either an atmospheric or water release of radionuclides. Deposition may be either directly from the air or from irrigation water. Fifteen crop or animal product pathways may be chosen. ARRAG and FOOD doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. Doses calculated are a one-year dose and a committed dose from one year of exposure. The exposure is usually considered as chronic; however, equations are included to calculate dose and dose commitment from acute (one-time) exposure. The equations for calculating internal dose and dose commitment are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated farm fields or shorelines are calculated assuming an infinite flat plane source of radionuclides. A factor of two is included for surface roughness. A modifying factor to compensate for finite extent is included in the shoreline calculations.

  3. Research and development program, fiscal year 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-04-01

    The biomedical program of the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology for FY 1970 is conducted within the scope of the following categories: Somatic Effects of Radiation; Combating Detrimental Effects of Radiation; Molecular and Cellular Level Studies; Environmental Radiation Studies; Radiological and Health Physics and Instrumentation; Cancer Research; and Selected Beneficial Applications. The overall objectives of the Laboratory within these areas of the Biology and Medicine Program may be summarized as follows: (1) investigation of the effects of ionizing radiation on systems of biological significance and on living organisms; (2) assessment and study of the immediate and long term consequences of the environmental radioactivity on flora, fauna, and man; (3) development of beneficial uses of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances in medicine and biology; and (4) the conduct of training and educational activities in fields related to the biological and medical aspects of radiation.

  4. [Efficiency of a pharmaceutical care program for long-acting parenteral antipsychotics in the health area of Santiago de Compostela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Mourelle, Raquel; Parrondo, Carmen Durán; López-Pardo Pardo, Estrella; Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In the healthcare area of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), the therapeutic subgroup "other antipsychotics" represented the fifth largest outpatient expenditure in 2013. More than half of this expenditure corresponded to long-acting parenteral forms of paliperidone and risperidone. Over a 12-month period, the implementation of a pharmaceutical care program based on process management and coordination of actions between health professionals in both levels of care represented savings of € 636,391.01 for the organization and a direct saving of € 16,767.36 and 9,008 trips to the pharmacy for patients. This study shows the efficiency of the program, which was facilitated by its situation in an area of integrated management and the use the unified medical records and electronic prescription, elements that will enable the future implementation of similar programmes. The new registries and healthcare interventions will allow reliable evaluation of their effectiveness in terms of treatment adherence, relapses and hospitalisations. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving the estimation of solar radiation in areas with complex topography using DEM; Mejora en la estimacion de la irradiancia solar en zonas de topografia compleja mediante utilizacion de MDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar-Pescador, J.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.; Molina, A.; Batlles, F. J.; Lopez, G.

    2004-07-01

    A feasible development of renewable energy in complex terrain areas needs for a reliable estimation of the available solar energy resources. Usually, estimation of the solar energy in areas where no direct measurements are available is carried out by interpolation techniques; but this kind of techniques can not be used in complex terrain areas. In order to analyze the behavior of solar radiation we have located 14 stations within the Sierra Nevada National Park, in a very complex terrain area. A Principal Component Analysis was carried out to obtain common spatio-temporal pattern of variability between stations and to try to analysis these common patterns on the light of the topographical characteristics. Results show the importance of using the topographical information and that orientation of the slopes is a key parameter in explaining the variability of the solar radiation in complex terrain areas. The use of DEM allows taking into account topographical information, such as the slope, in the physical models for solar radiation estimates, improving the estimations of solar radiation in this areas. (Author)

  6. Birding for and with People: Integrating Local Participation in Avian Monitoring Programs within High Biodiversity Areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Berlanga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological monitoring is a powerful tool for understanding ecological patterns and processes, implementing sound management practices, and determining wildlife conservation strategies. In Mexico, regional long-term bird monitoring has been undertaken only over the last decade. Two comprehensive programs have incorporated bird monitoring as the main tool for assessing the impact of human productive activities on birds and habitats at local and regional levels: the Integrated Ecosystem Management (IEM and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Mexico (CBMM. These programs are implemented in supremely important biodiverse regions in the southern and southeastern states of Mexico. Bird monitoring activities are based on the recruitment and participation of local people linked to sustainable productive projects promoted by the CBMM or IEM. Through a series of training workshops delivered by specialists, local monitors receive equipment and coordinate to become part of a large monitoring network that facilitates regional covertures. This data currently being obtained by local people will enable the mid- and long-term assessment of the impacts of sustainable human productive activities on birds and biodiversity. Community-based bird monitoring programs are a promising opportunity for enhancing scientific knowledge, improving sustainable practices, and supporting wildlife conservation in areas of high biodiversity.

  7. Fortran programs for computation of optical properties of the sea from radiation data collected by in situ spectrometers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Sathyendranath, S.

    biological parameters are collected. When these experiments are synchronized with the satellite passes, the radiation data collected in the appropriate channels (i.e. those in which the satellite sensor receives the radiation from the sea), become... attenuation coefficient for down- welling light for any uppermost slab of water, i.e. one of the two layers selected for computation of K is the surface layer \\[computed using Eq. (5)\\], R(g)=the seasurface reflectance \\[computed using Eq. (I)\\], ZENW...

  8. Determination of sediment provenance by unmixing the mineralogy of source-area sediments: The "SedUnMix" program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John T.; Eberl, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Along the margins of areas such as Greenland and Baffin Bay, sediment composition reflects a complex mixture of sources associated with the transport of sediment in sea ice, icebergs, melt-water and turbidite plumes. Similar situations arise in many contexts associated with sediment transport and with the mixing of sediments from different source areas. The question is: can contributions from discrete sediment (bedrock) sources be distinguished in a mixed sediment by using mineralogy, and, if so, how accurately? To solve this problem, four end-member source sediments were mixed in various proportions to form eleven artificial mixtures. Two of the end-member sediments are felsic, and the other two have more mafic compositions. End member and mixed sediment mineralogies were measured for the quantitative X-ray diffraction (qXRD). The proportions of source sediments in the mixtures then were calculated using an Excel macro program named SedUnMix, and the results were evaluated to determine the robustness of the algorithm. The program permits the unmixing of up to six end members, each of which can be represented by up to 5 alternative compositions, so as to better simulate variability within each source region. The results indicate that we can track the relative percentages of the four end members in the mixtures. We recommend, prior to applying the technique to down-core or to other provenance problems, that a suite of known, artificial mixtures of sediments from probable source areas be prepared, scanned, analyzed for quantitative mineralogy, and then analyzed by SedUnMix to check the sensitivity of the method for each specific unmixing problem. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V..

  9. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  10. Estimation of daily global solar radiation in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area: A combinational application of statistical downscaling method and Bayesian inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Kotera, A.; Khang, N. D.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term daily global solar radiation (GSR) data of the same quality in the 20th century has been needed as a baseline to assess the climate change impact on paddy rice production in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area (MKD: 104.5-107.5oE/8.2-11.2oN). However, though sunshine duration data is available, the accessibility of GSR data is quite poor in MKD. This study estimated the daily GSR in MKD for 30-yr (1978- 2007) by applying the statistical downscaling method (SDM). The estimates of GSR was obtained from four different sources: (1) the combined equations with the corrected reanalysis data of daily maximum/minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sea level pressure, and precipitable water; (2) the correction equation with the reanalysis data of downward shortwave radiation; (3) the empirical equation with the observed sunshine duration; and (4) the observation at one site for short term. Three reanalysis data, i.e., NCEP-R1, ERA-40, and JRA-25, were used. Also the observed meteorological data, which includes many missing data, were obtained from 11 stations of the Vietnamese Meteorological Agency for 28-yr and five stations of the Global Summary of the Day for 30-yr. The observed GSR data for 1-yr was obtained from our station. Considering the use of data with many missing data for analysis, the Bayesian inference was used for this study, which has the powerful capability to optimize multiple parameters in a non-linear and hierarchical model. The Bayesian inference provided the posterior distributions of 306 parameter values relating to the combined equations, the empirical equation, and the correction equation. The preliminary result shows that the amplitude of daily fluctuation of modeled GSR was underestimated by the empirical equation and the correction equation. The combination of SDM and Bayesian inference has a potential to estimate the long- term daily GSR of the same quality even though in the area where the observed data is quite limited.

  11. Measurement of individual doses of radiation by personal dosimeter is important for the return of residents from evacuation order areas after nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Orita

    Full Text Available To confirm the availability of individual dose evaluation for the return of residents after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP, we evaluated individual doses of radiation as measured by personal dosimeters in residents who temporarily stayed in Evacuation Order Areas in Kawauchi village, which is partially located within a 20 km radius of the FNPP. We also compared individual doses with the external radiation doses estimated from the ambient dose rates and with doses estimated from the concentrations of radionuclides in the soil around each individual's house. Individual doses were significantly correlated with the ambient doses in front of the entrances to the houses (r = 0.90, p<0.01, in the backyards (r = 0.41, p<0.01 and in the nearby fields (r = 0.80, p<0.01. The maximum cumulative ambient doses in the backyards and fields around the houses were 6.38 and 9.27 mSv/y, respectively. The maximum cumulative individual dose was 3.28 mSv/y, and the median and minimum doses were 1.35 and 0.71 mSv/y. The estimated external effective doses from concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples ranged from 0.03 to 23.42 mSv/y. The individual doses were moderately correlated with external effective doses in the backyards (r = 0.38, p<0.01 and in the fields (r = 0.36, p<0.01; however, the individual doses were not significantly correlated with the external effective doses in front of the entrances (r = 0.01, p = 0.92. Our study confirmed that individual doses are low levels even in the evacuation order area in Kawauchi village, and external effective dose levels are certainly decreasing due to the decay of artificial radionuclides and the decontamination of contaminated soil. Long-term follow-up of individual doses as well as internal-exposure doses, environmental monitoring and reconstruction of infrastructure are needed so that residents may return to their hometowns after a nuclear disaster.

  12. Tribal Grant Program Area Polygons with Project Officer and Tribal Contact Information, US EPA Region 9, 2015, Regional Tribal Operations Committee

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains information pertaining to EPA Region 9 project officers and their areas of oversight, EPA Region 9 grant program recipients and grant types,...

  13. On the reduction of internal radiation doses due to the ingestion of CS-137 in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, P.; Schlager, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich (Germany); Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B. [BELRAD, Minsk, (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. Of the two million Belarussian children, approximately 80000 live in regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident by a {sup 137}Cs deposition of more than 185 kBq/m. A German-Belarussian project is investigating radiation doses of children in those regions since several years. In a recent paper [1] it has been shown, that the annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs -137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. Means of dose reduction such as remediation of agricultural land had been investigated in the past and generally already contribute to a reduction of food contamination. Also the use of clean food and the control of food contamination has generally proven its effectiveness and the latter is exercised by official authorities and private initiatives. In situations, where this is not sufficient, the clarification of the usefulness of additional means, such as the cure-like application of pectin preparations, makes sense. A dose lowering effect is presumed by Belarussian and Ukrainian scientists. In the framework of the present German-Belarussian project special attention is given to the cure-like application of a Belarussian pectin-preparation (Vitapect). Vitapect consists of apple pectins with added vitamins, mineral nutrients and flavour substances. It is currently in use in Belarus in accordance with legal regulations and licensed by the Belarus authorities. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapect for a two -week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of

  14. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  15. Radiation health research, 1986 - 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A collection of 225 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by NASA during the period 1986 through 1990 is reported. Each abstract was categorized within one of four discipline areas: physics, biology, risk assessment, and microgravity. Topic areas within each discipline were assigned as follows: Physics - atomic physics, nuclear science, space radiation, radiation transport and shielding, and instrumentation; Biology - molecular biology, cellular radiation biology, tissue, organs and organisms, radioprotectants, and plants; Risk assessment - radiation health and epidemiology, space flight radiation health physics, inter- and intraspecies extrapolation, and radiation limits and standards; and Microgravity. When applicable subareas were assigned for selected topic areas. Keywords and author indices are provided.

  16. Effects of an integrated yoga program in modulating psychological stress and radiation-induced genotoxic stress in breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Birendranath; Vadiraj, H S; Ram, Amritanshu; Rao, Raghavendra; Jayapal, Manikandan; Gopinath, Kodaganur S; Ramesh, B S; Rao, Nalini; Kumar, Ajay; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Hegde, Sridevi; Nagendra, H R; Prakash Hande, M

    2007-09-01

    Effects of an integrated yoga program in modulating perceived stress levels, anxiety, as well as depression levels and radiation-induced DNA damage were studied in 68 breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Two psychological questionnaires--Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)--and DNA damage assay were used in the study. There was a significant decrease in the HADS scores in the yoga intervention group, whereas the control group displayed an increase in these scores. Mean PSS was decreased in the yoga group, whereas the control group did not show any change pre- and postradiotherapy. Radiation-induced DNA damage was significantly elevated in both the yoga and control groups after radiotherapy, but the postradiotherapy DNA damage in the yoga group was slightly less when compared to the control group. An integrated approach of yoga intervention modulates the stress and DNA damage levels in breast cancer patients during radiotherapy.

  17. Comparison of air kerma area product and air kerma meter calibrations for X-ray radiation qualities used in diagnostic radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdakis, C. J.; Csete, I.; Daures, J.; Jarvinen, H.; Mihailescu, L.-C.; Sochor, V.; Novak, L.; Pedersen, M.; Kosunen, A.; Toroi, P.; Denoziere, M.; Büermann, L.; Megzifene, A.; Einarsson, G.; Ferrari, P.; dePooter, J.; Bjerke, H.; Brodecki, M.; Cardoso, J.; Bercea, S.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Compel, J.; Glavič-Cindro, D.; Ginjaume, M.; Persson, L.; Grindborg, J.-E.

    2015-01-01

    The EURAMET #1177 project, identified as EURAMET RI(I) - S9 comparison, was the first EURAMET wide scale supplementary comparison in the field of diagnostic radiology for air kerma area product, PKA, and air kerma, K. It was conducted with the goal of testing the measurement and calibration capabilities for PKA and K, as well as of supporting the relevant CMCs of the participating laboratories. Two commercial KAP meters and an ionization chamber were selected as transfer instruments and circulated between the 22 European participants. The measurements were performed from April 2011 until July 2012. The stability and the performance of the transfer instruments were tested by the pilot laboratory (IRCL/GAEC-EIM) and few other laboratories as well. The test results revealed that the energy (radiation quality), Q, irradiation area, A, and air kerma rate, dot K dependences of response of the transfer KAP meters influence the comparison of the results when different measurement conditions were pertained and therefore, appropriate correction factors were obtained and applied to the reported calibration results of the laboratories, when necessary. The comparison reference values (CRVs) for each instrument were determined as the weighted mean of the calibration coefficients of the three participating primary laboratories. The relative standard uncertainty of the CRVs were in the range of (0.4 - 1.6)% depending on the transfer instruments and beam qualities. The comparison result as the ratio of the corrected calibration coefficient of participant and the respective CRV, and its uncertainty were calculated for all beam qualities and transfer instruments. The informative degrees of equivalence (DoE) were calculated for the refrence RQR 5 beam quality. In case of air kema area product measurements the results for the RADCAL PDC KAP meter were used. The 216 KAP meter calibration results of the two different transfer instruments in terms of air kerma area product were consistent

  18. [Evaluation of nutritional status of school-age children after implementation of "Nutrition Improvement Program" in rural area in Hunan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhu-Juan; Mao, Guang-Xu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nutritional status of school-age children in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area" (hereinafter referred to as "Nutrition Improvement Program"). The nutritional status of school-age children aged 6-14 years was evaluated after the implementation of the "Nutrition Improvement Program" and the changing trend of the children's nutritional status was analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed on the monitoring data of the school-age children aged 6-14 years in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015, which came from "The Nutrition and Health Status Monitoring and Evaluation System of Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area". In 2015, female students aged 6-7 years in rural area in Hunan, China had a significantly greater body length than the rural average in China (PNutrition Improvement Program", the prevalence rate of growth retardation decreased (PNutrition Improvement Program" has achieved some success, but the nutritional status of school-age children has not improved significantly. Overweight/obesity and malnutrition are still present. Therefore, to promote the nutritional status of school-age children it is recommended to improve the measures for the "Nutrition Improvement Program".

  19. Assessment of natural and artificial radiation dose in the city urban area of Goiania, Goias, Brazil: results of Campinas - Centro and Sul regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nivaldo C.; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T.Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C., E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: edertzg@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Santos, Eliane E.; Pimenta, Lucinei R.; Costa, Heliana F., E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lucinei@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    An assessment of external gamma dose was carried out in some urban areas in the city of Goiania - GO - Brazil, allowing to infer the contribution of this component to the average annual effective dose value for the population leaving in that region. The measurements were done using a vehicle with a mobile radioactivity measurement system, Thermo-Eberline FHT 1376, consisting of plastic scintillation detector and a Global Position System (GPS), which is able to collect gamma dose rate as well as the local spatial coordinates. These data, associated with those from national census, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistic, were analyzed using the ArcGIS software, a well known Geographical Information System - GIS. As the main result, radiometric maps were produced, illustrating how effective dose values are distributed within the selected areas and also correlating the collective dose values for these populations. Around 57,000 geo referenced effective dose values were measured in the so-called Campinas-Centro and Sul Regions, which are two of the seven regions Goiania is divided in for administrative purposes. The dose rates ranging from 10.4 to 192.7 nSv/h with an average of 22.4 nSv/h, which means 0.20 mSv/year as the annual effective dose. This values are lower than the worldwide average effective dose value of 0.46 mSv/year for outdoor exposures from terrestrial radiation sources) and lower than the previous average values found in Brazil for the regions of Pocos de Caldas, Guarapari, Andradas and Caldas. Actually, the average value is comparable with those observed in the Ribeirao Preto - SP - Brazil City. (author)

  20. Effects of radiation therapy on the structure and function of the pelvic floor muscles of patients with cancer in the pelvic area: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphanie; Ouellet, Marie-Pier; Moffet, Hélène; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Dumoulin, Chantale

    2016-04-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is often recommended in the treatment of pelvic cancers. Following RT, a high prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunctions (urinary incontinence, dyspareunia, and fecal incontinence) is reported. However, changes in pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) after RT remain unclear. The purpose of this review was to systematically document the effects of RT on the PFM structure and function in patients with cancer in the pelvic area. An electronic literature search using Pubmed Central, CINAHL, Embase, and SCOPUS was performed from date of inception up to June 2014. The following keywords were used: radiotherapy, muscle tissue, and pelvic floor. Two reviewers selected the studies in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement (PRISMA). Out of the 369 articles screened, 13 met all eligibility criteria. The methodological quality was assessed using the QualSyst scoring system, and standardized mean differences were calculated. Thirteen studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria, from which four were of good methodological quality. One presented strong evidence that RT affects PFM structure in men treated for prostate cancer. Four presented high-level evidence that RT affects PFM function in patients treated for rectal cancer. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and lack of descriptive statistics. There is some evidence that RT has detrimental impacts on both PFMs' structure and function. A better understanding of muscle damage and dysfunction following RT treatment will improve pelvic floor rehabilitation and, potentially, prevention of its detrimental impacts.

  1. Toward Integral Higher Education Study Programs in the European Higher Education Area: A Programmatic and Strategic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Molz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay somehow arbitrarily freezes my ongoing attempt to grasp thepresent situation and future possibilities of higher education courses, programs,institutions and initiatives that are inspired by integral and likeminded approaches. Thefocus in this essay is on the European Higher Education Area and its specifics, whereassome implicit or explicit comparisons with the USA are made. My reflections aretriggered by the recurrent observation that in Europe there seems to be i more demandthan offer of integrally oriented higher education programs, ii an imbalance betweenoverused but little successful and underused but potentially more promising strategies toimplement such programs, iii little or no learning from past failures, and iv little mutualawareness, communication and collaboration between different activists and initiatives inthis field.The context for this essay is i the current societal macroshift, ii the unfolding ofacademic level integral and likeminded research worldwide, and iii the large scalereform of the European Higher Education systems brought about by the Bologna process,its (false promises and the potential it nevertheless has for realizing examples of a moreintegral higher education. On this basis the consequences for attempts to overcome arelatively stagnant state of affairs in Europe are discussed. Given that; most past attemptsto implement programs inspired by an integral worldview have failed from the start, ordisappeared after a relatively short period, or are marginalised or becoming remainstreamed,this essay aims to devise a potentially more promising strategic corridorand describes the contours of the results that could be brought about when following adevelopmental trajectory within this corridor. This futurising exercise is inspired byprinciples shared by many integral and likeminded approaches, especially thereconsideration, integration and transcendence of premodern, modern and postmodernstructures and practices

  2. Evaluation of operational efficiency of the national anti-malaria program in "High-Risk" rural areas of Vadodara district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solanki D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria was and is a major scourge in India contributing more than three-fourths of the total cases in the Southeast Asian (SEA region. Malaria is largely infl uenced by the local environmental conditions but can be kept in check if the operational implementation of the National Antimalaria Program: (NAMP is effective. Keeping in mind the context of the situation in Gujarat, there was an urgent need to carry out a study to assess the operational aspects of the ongoing malaria control program. Objectives: To assess the operational aspects of NAMP in "highrisk" areas of rural Vadodara, seeking bottlenecks and possible correlation to the malaria situation in those areas. Materials and Methods: From 269 "high-risk" villages, 20 villages were selected randomly from 10 Talukas. 40 slide (smear--negative, 19 slide (smear--positive, 10 laboratory technicians, 10 MultiPurpose Workers (MPW Supervisors and 18 MultiPurpose (MPW and 18 Voluntary Workers were interviewed. The performance of the malaria clinic and the NAMP staff was evaluated using a point system. Results and Conclusions: The monthly blood examination rate (MBER targets could not be achieved in 8 out of 10 primary health centers (PHCs by active surveillance workers (AS workers. The mean time interval between blood smear collection (BSC and its receipt in the laboratory was 7.1 days. 46% of smear-negative patients having received presumptive treatment (PT and 22% of smear-positive patients receiving radical treatment (RT were supervised. Administration of "adequate" presumptive treatment and radical treatment to the above two sets of individuals was 65% and 58% respectively. Overall, the performance of 50% of malaria clinics and 94% of villages was poor to average. The study has found enough evidence to conclude that there were lapses in the operation of the NAMP.

  3. The impact of Radiation Protection National Program in medical diagnostic with X-rays in Mexico; El impacto del programa nacional de proteccion radiologica en el diagnostico medico con rayos X en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Raul; Azorin, Joel; Jaimes, Uriel; Montalvo, Gustavo; Verdejo, Maricela [Secretaria de Salud, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Direccion General de Salud Ambiental. Direccion de Riesgos Radiologicos]. E-mail: rramirez78@yahoo.com; urieljs@yahoo.com; mverdejo@intersky.com

    2001-07-01

    In September and October of 1997, four Official Mexican Norms were published, to assurance the existence of programs of Radiologic Security and Quality Assurance in the use and operation of sources that generate ionizing radiation in medical diagnostic with X-ray. With these norms, the Secretary of Health, through the General Direction of Environmental Health and with a specific project supported by IAEA, started a program of verification in the national level to the establishments of medical diagnostic with X-ray, in which was evaluated the conditions of more than 2000 establishments and the parameters of more than 4000 equipment. To do it, have the equipment of monitoring and quality control, moreover a formulary that have the following sections: general, Occupationally Exposed Personal, manuals, general operation, dark room, storage area, interpretation room, X-ray room, shielding and test of quality control in X-ray equipment. The impact of this program, led to the correction of the problems detected in 65 % of the verified establishments. In this work, an analysis about the situation in that the establishment was found is shown, the corrections performed in each case and the impact associated with the quality assurance. (author)

  4. Development of the standard system for integrated radiation management and an efficient safety manual for the complex radiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Eun Je; Kim, Jong Soo; Ju, Young Jin

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop the effective radiation safety management system from a diversified and complex radiation sources and facilities. In this study, radiation safety management organization, safety risk factors, protection object and protection requirements of medical, industrial, research, and other radiation facilities were analyzed. After analyzing, the flow of individual radiation working process was ordered. In this study, after we analyzed radiation protection organization using complex radiation source and safety risk factors of radiation facilities and protection object and protection requirements, each individual task analysis was illustrated, i.e, process-mapping. The basic type and characteristics of hardware to facilitate the radiation protection was introduced and software between devices was designed in the form of flow-chart. The standardized process mapping will be utilized as a basic flow chart of individual working process such as access control of radiation control area. These flow charts based on the detail analysis of the work will reduce an error and failure in development of radiation protection control program in each institute. In addition, a standardized management procedures of radiation management will be provided.

  5. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  6. Life Planning Resource Guide. A Resource for Teaching the Life Planning Core Course Area of Ohio's Work and Family Life Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Joanna; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist vocational home economics teachers in implementing the life planning course that is one of the six core course areas of Ohio's Work and Family Life program. Included in the guide are an introduction providing an overview of the practical problems proposed in the life planning core course area, four process modules,…

  7. Nutrition and Wellness Resource Guide. A Resource for Teaching the Nutrition and Wellness Core Course Area of Ohio's Work and Family Life Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Joanna; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist vocational home economics teachers in implementing the nutrition and wellness course that is one of the six core course areas of Ohio's Work and Family Life program. Included in the guide are an introduction providing an overview of the practical problems proposed in the nutrition and wellness core course area,…

  8. Space radiation health research, 1991-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablin, M. H. (Compiler); Brooks, C. (Compiler); Ferraro, G. (Compiler); Dickson, K. J. (Compiler); Powers, J. V. (Compiler); Wallace-Robinson, J. (Compiler); Zafren, B. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of 227 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by the NASA Space Radiation Health Program for the period 1991-1992. Each abstract has been categorized within one of three discipline areas: Physics, Biology and Risk Assessment. Topic areas within each discipline have been assigned as follows: Physics - Atomic Physics, Theory, Cosmic Ray and Astrophysics, Experimental, Environments and Environmental Models, Solar Activity and Prediction, Experiments, Radiation Transport and Shielding, Theory and Model Development, Experimental Studies, and Instrumentation. Biology - Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Radiation Biology, Transformation, Mutation, Lethality, Survival, DNA Damage and Repair, Tissue, Organs, and Organisms, In Vivo/In Vitro Systems, Carcinogenesis and Life Shortening, Cataractogenesis, Genetics/Developmental, Radioprotectants, Plants, and Other Effects. Risk Assessment - Risk Assessment, Radiation Health and Epidemiology, Space Flight Radiation Health Physics, Inter- and Intraspecies Extrapolation and Radiation Limits and Standards. Section I contains refereed journals; Section II contains reports/meetings. Keywords and author indices are provided. A collection of abstracts spanning the period 1986-1990 was previously issued as NASA Technical Memorandum 4270.

  9. Large-Area Plasma-Panel Radiation Detectors for Nuclear Medicine Imaging to Homeland Security and the Super Large Hadron Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Peter S.; Ball, Robert; Chapman, J. Wehrley; Levin, Daniel S.; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Zhou, Bing; Benhammou, Yan; Etzion, Erez; Moshe, M. Ben; Silver, Yiftah; Beene, James R.; Varner Jr., Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    A new radiation sensor derived from plasma panel display technology is introduced. It has the capability to detect ionizing and non-ionizing radiation over a wide energy range and the potential for use in many applications. The principle of operation is described and some early results presented.

  10. The Scientific and Technological area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification. Critical analysis of the available materials and a case study in Segovia province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Insua, Maria Pilar

    This thesis is focused on the Scientific area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification, one of the Government actions for the attention to diversity in compulsory Secondary Education, established in the General Education Law (LOGSE: Ley de Ordenacion General del Sistema Educativo) of 1990. It has been carried out in Spain. In the thesis two different lines of work can be distinguished: (A) The analysis of material elaborated specifically for the mentioned area. We intent to know what materials have been elaborated and to analyze them; to this purpose we study the material spread in Congresses or Conferences, and also the articles published in magazines or specifically designed to be used in the Scientific area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification until year 2003. The analysis is made after classifying the material according to the format in which it appears (books, CDs, "Didactic Units"). (B) Two case studies, of evaluative character, carried out in two Secondary Schools in the province of Segovia (Spain), one of them in the city and another one in a rural population. The case studies are centered in the Scientific Area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification that last for two years. In the first of these Centers eight students took part in the Program; in the second, a total of seven. Throughout the investigation we observed that students who took part in the Programs obtained good academic results. Programs are proved to be effective in generating processes of academic success in pupils who were previously in situation of school failure and at risk of social exclusion. The success of these programs is fundamentally due to the following reasons: the low number of students involved, the fact that they are focused on basic knowledge, the reduced number of subjects studied. Besides, to offer the students the chance of a closer relationship with a few teachers increases their motivation and involvement in the programs. Key words: Attention to

  11. 78 FR 5813 - 2013 Assuring Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of grant funds for the support of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) radiation protection program. The goal of the 2013 Assuring Radiation Protection will be to coordinate Federal, State, and Tribal activities to achieve effective solutions to present and future radiation control problems. The recipient of this cooperative agreement award will be expected to obtain the States' cooperation and participation on committees and working groups established to deal with individual problems. The recipient will also plan and facilitate an annual meeting and develop and offer educational activities to demonstrate mutually beneficial techniques, procedures, and systems relevant to the mission of assuring radiation protection. The recipient will establish committees, in accordance with Federal statutes and regulations, to address, evaluate, and propose solutions for a wide range of radiation health and protection issues. Examples of relevant areas already identified to be of interest include, but are not limited to: (1) The application of x-rays to the healing arts; (2) the application of non-medical ionizing radiation and medical/non- medical non-ionizing radiation; and (3) the control and mitigation of radiation exposure from all sources.

  12. The value of best-practice guidelines for OSCEs in a postgraduate program in an Australian remote area setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Carol A; Mitchell, Marion L; Henderson, Amanda; Lenthall, Sue; Knight, Sabina; Glover, Pauline; Kelly, Michelle; Nulty, Duncan; Groves, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Nurses in remote areas of Australia are the primary healthcare professionals, who need to be able to deliver comprehensive and culturally sensitive care to clients, many of whom are Indigenous Australians. Adequate and specific preparation for practice is crucial to the quality of care delivered by remote area nurses (RANs). Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) provide an excellent opportunity for student practice in a simulated environment that is safe, authentic, fair and valid when well constructed. Seven integrated best practice guidelines (BPGs), previously developed by project team members to inform OSCEs within educational programs, provided guidance in restructuring the OSCE. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the value of BPGs used in the development, teaching and learning, and evaluation of OSCEs in a rural and remote postgraduate course for RANs. A pre-site visit to the Centre for Remote Health, Alice Springs, Northern Territory, was conducted with modification of the course and previous OSCE according to BPGs. Following delivery of the course and OSCE, evaluations occurred via a mixed method approach. Student surveys (n=15) and focus groups (n=13) and staff interviews (n=5) provided an in-depth analysis of their perceptions of the revised OSCE. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the student sample. The narrative data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Triangulation was achieved with the convergence of the separate data sources focusing on themes and patterns within and between students and tutors. All 15 students and five tutors provided feedback. The majority of student participants had limited experience in working in remote area nursing prior to participation and therefore the opportunities that availed themselves were critical in adequately equipping them with the requisite knowledge, skills and abilities. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) value of common and significant events in OSCE

  13. Biosorption of cadmium by Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain, a novel biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudzadeh, Nasrin [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zakeri, Fardideh [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Radiation Protection Department - Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfabad, Tayebe bagheri [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharafi, Hakimeh [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masoomi, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Hoseein Shahbani; Ahmadian, Gholamreza [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari, E-mail: Akbari@nigeb.ac.ir [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation and characterization of a novel cadmium-biosorbent (Brevundimonas sp. ZF12) from high background radiation areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 caused 50% removal of cadmium at the concentration level of 250 ppm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution pH values used for the reusability study have powerful desorptive features to recover Cd ions sorbed onto the biomass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study carried out so far for the cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by a novel biosorbent Brevundimonas sp. ZF12. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In our opinion, the isolate can be an attractive alternative to remove the cadmium-containing wastewaters. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to screen cadmium biosorbing bacterial strains isolated from soils and hot-springs containing high concentrations of radium ({sup 226}Ra) in Ramsar using a batch system. Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain isolated from the water with high {sup 226}Ra content caused 50% removal of cadmium at a concentration level of 250 ppm. The biosorption equilibrium data are fitted well by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption follows pseudo second-order model. The effect of different physico-chemical parameters like biomass concentration, pH, cadmium concentration, temperature and contact time on cadmium sorption was also investigated using FTIR, SEM and XRD analytical techniques. A high desorption efficiency (above 90%) was obtained using a pH range of 2.0-4.0. Reusability of the biomass was examined under consecutive biosorption-desorption cycles repeated thrice. In conclusion, Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 is proposed as an excellent cadmium biosorbent that may have important applications in Cd removal from wastewaters.

  14. SU-D-201-07: A Survey of Radiation Oncology Residents’ Training and Preparedness to Lead Patient Safety Programs in Clinics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spraker, M; Nyflot, M; Ford, E; Kane, G; Zeng, J; Hendrickson, K [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Safety and quality has garnered increased attention in radiation oncology, and physicians and physicists are ideal leaders of clinical patient safety programs. However, it is not clear whether residency programs incorporate formal patient safety training and adequately equip residents to assume this leadership role. A national survey was conducted to evaluate medical and physics residents’ exposure to safety topics and their confidence with the skills required to lead clinical safety programs. Methods: Radiation oncology residents were identified in collaboration with ARRO and AAPM. The survey was released in February 2016 via email using REDCap. This included questions about exposure to safety topics, confidence leading safety programs, and interest in training opportunities (i.e. workshops). Residents rated their exposure, skills, and confidence on 4 or 5-point scales. Medical and physics residents responses were compared using chi-square tests. Results: Responses were collected from 56 of 248 (22%) physics and 139 of 690 (20%) medical residents. More than two thirds of all residents had no or only informal exposure to incident learning systems (ILS), root cause analysis (RCA), failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), and the concept of human factors engineering (HFE). Likewise, 63% of residents had not heard of RO-ILS. Response distributions were similar, however more physics residents had formal exposure to FMEA (p<0.0001) and felt they were adequately trained to lead FMEAs in clinic (p<0.001) than medical residents. Only 36% of residents felt their patient safety training was adequate, and 58% felt more training would benefit their education. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that, despite increasing desire for patient safety training, medical and physics residents’ exposure to relevant concepts is low. Physics residents had more exposure to FMEA than medical residents, and were more confident in leading FMEA. This suggests that increasing

  15. The development of remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-woo [KAERI - Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup-si (Korea, Republic of); Chonbuk National University, Jeonjoo-Si (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyu-hwan [KINS - Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon-Si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-il [Chonbuk National University, Jeonjoo-Si (Korea, Republic of); Im, Chae-wan [REMTECH, Seoul-Si (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Internet of things (IoT) technology has recently shown a large flow of IT trends in human life. In particular, our lives are now becoming integrated with a lot of items around the 'smart-phone' with IoT, including Bluetooth, Near Field Communication (NFC), Beacons, WiFi, and Global Positioning System (GPS). Our project focuses on the interconnection of radiation dosimetry and IoT technology. The radiation workers at a nuclear facility should hold personal dosimeters such as a Thermo-Luminescence Dosimeter (TLD), an Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter (OSL), pocket ionization chamber dosimeters, an Electronic Personal Dosimeter (EPD), or an alarm dosimeter on their body. Some of them have functions that generate audible or visible alarms to radiation workers in a real working area. However, such devices used in radiation fields these days have no functions for communicating with other areas or the responsible personnel in real time. In particular, when conducting a particular task in a high dose area, or a number of repair works within a radiation field, radiation dose monitoring is important for the health of the workers and the work efficiency. Our project aims at the development of a remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system (RWRD) that can be used to monitor the radiation dose in a nuclear facility for radiation workers and a radiation protection program In this project, a radiation dosimeter is the detection device for personal radiation dose, a smart phone is the mobile wireless communication tool, and, Beacon is the wireless starter for the detection, communication, and position of the worker using BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy). In this report, we report the design of the RWRD and a demonstration case in a real radiation field. (authors)

  16. Balancing radiation benefits and risks: The needs of an informed public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The American public`s perceptions regarding ionizing radiation do not always conform to or correlate with scientific evidence. The ultimate purpose of this coordinated Federal effort and report is to increase the public`s knowledge of the benefits and risks associated with ionizing radiation. This report is divided into five sections. The first section, Introduction, discusses the public`s knowledge of radiation, their perceptions of benefits versus risks, and the Federal government`s role in public education. The section also outlines the charge to the Subpanel. Radiation Issues and Public Reactions discusses several radiation issues important to Federal agencies for which public education programs need to be established or enhanced. Federal Programs describes Federal agencies with public education programs on radiation and the nature of the programs they support. Education Issues and Federal Strategies explores the elements identified by the Subpanel as critical to the development and implementation of an effective Federal program in the area of public education on radiation issues and nuclear technologies. An important issue repeatedly brought up during the public sector presentations to the Subpanel was the perceived lack of Federal credibility on radiation issues in the eyes of the public. To some degree, this concern was factored into all of the recommendations developed by the subpanel. The issues discussed in this section include the fragmented nature of Federal radiation programs and the need to improve credibility, promote agency responsiveness, and support the enhancement of scientific literacy. Finally, under Recommendations, the Subpanel discusses its overall findings and conclusions.

  17. Programmed cell death as a prognostic indicator for radiation therapy in cervical carcinoma patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosle S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In clinical practice, radiation therapy often fails in cervical carcinoma stage IIIB and there is a need to develop a predictive assay for prognosis of radiation treatment outcome in cancer patient. We have attempted to evaluate the relevance of changes in Membrane Fluidity (MF and associated apoptotic cell death in cervical cancer cells after first fractionated dose of radiation therapy to treatment outcome of stage IIIB cervical carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods: Biopsies of 15 patients with histologically proven cervix cancer were collected from the patients before and 24 h after first fractionated radiation dose of 2 grays (Gy. Cell suspension made in Dulbecco′s Modified Eagle′s Medium (DMEM were used for further investigations and cell suspension of cervix cancer patient were used to measure MF by fluorescence polarization method and apoptotic index (AI was determined by Tdt dUTP Nucleotide End Labeling (TUNEL assay. Results: A substantial increase in MF and AI was observed in cervical cancer cells irradiated ex vivo . A significant correlation ( P < 0.001 was found between the changes in AI after first fractionated dose of radiotherapy and treatment outcome of patients. No significant correlation ( P > 0.1 was detected between changes in MF and treatment outcome of patients. Conclusion: Preliminary results showed significant change in MF and a marked increase in percentage apoptosis of cervix cancer cells irradiated ex vivo . The changes in AI after first fractionated dose of radiotherapy in cervical carcinoma patients may provide a predictor of prognosis for radiotherapy in uterine cervical carcinoma patients.

  18. The Integrated Radiation Mapper Assistant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, R.E.; Tripp, L.R. [Odetics, Inc., Anaheim, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Integrated Radiation Mapper Assistant (IRMA) system combines state-of-the-art radiation sensors and microprocessor based analysis techniques to perform radiation surveys. Control of the survey function is from a control station located outside the radiation thus reducing time spent in radiation areas performing radiation surveys. The system consists of a directional radiation sensor, a laser range finder, two area radiation sensors, and a video camera mounted on a pan and tilt platform. THis sensor package is deployable on a remotely operated vehicle. The outputs of the system are radiation intensity maps identifying both radiation source intensities and radiation levels throughout the room being surveyed. After completion of the survey, the data can be removed from the control station computer for further analysis or archiving.

  19. Evaluation of a program to overcome vitamin A and iron deficiencies in areas of poverty in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, R L; Araujo, M B; Machado, R D; Braga, A A; Leite, B V; Oliveira, J R

    1987-03-01

    Randon samples of children from both sexes from Belo Horizonte, the capital City, and from Turmalina, Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were submitted to nutritional evaluation before and after the intervention "Program to Overcome Vitamin A and Iron Deficiencies in Areas of Poverty in Minas Gerais, Brazil". After the first examination, all the children received, with an interval of 180 days, a single oral dose of vitamin A, oral iron sulfate during 50 days, and 200 mg of Mebendazol/day for three days. Thirty days after ending administration of the third dose of medicine, the children were subjected to a new evaluation. In Belo Horizonte, the first evaluation revealed a high prevalence of deficient and low values of vitamin A in preschool children (21.5%) and school children (21.7%). A small prevalence of low hematocrit values was also observed in both groups. Deficient and low values of hemoglobin were found as well in 21.5% of preschool children and in 17.5% of school children. The second evaluation, practiced 30 days after the third dose of medicine, showed a small incidence of low vitamin A values (4.3% in preschool children and 2.9% in school children) and low hemoglobin values (6.5% in preschool children and 2.9% in school children). No deficient values of hemoglobin and vitamin A were observed. Concerning the hematocrit value, only one school child presented a low value at the second evaluation. On the other hand, in Jequitinhonha Valley, five cases of Bitot spot with conjunctival xerosis, two cases of corneal xerosis, and one case of keratomalacia were detected at the first examination. Thirty days after ending the third dose of medicine, only one corneal scar was observed. Only a small number of children with deficient and low levels of vitamin A and hemoglobin was found in the final evaluation (less than 8%), while this number was high at the first evaluation (above 38 and 12%, respectively). These results show the efficiency of the intervention

  20. Dissemination of Go Sun Smart in Outdoor Recreation: Effect of Program Exposure on Sun Protection of Guests at High Altitude Ski Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    WALKOSZ, BARBARA J.; BULLER, DAVID B.; ANDERSEN, PETER A.; SCOTT, MICHAEL D.; DIGNAN, MARK B.; CUTTER, GARY R.; LIU, XIA; MALOY, JULIE A.

    2014-01-01

    Go Sun Smart (GSS) is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun protection behaviors of employees and guests at high altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of GSS, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, upon sun protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy, enhanced versus basic, was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relationship of message exposure to guests’ sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 GSS materials in guest-only areas and 9 GSS materials throughout the area increased guests’ message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not in the low-use ski areas. The importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industry-wide are underscored. PMID:24617350

  1. Dissemination of go sun smart in outdoor recreation: effect of program exposure on sun protection of guests at high-altitude ski areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, Michael D; Dignan, Mark B; Cutter, Gary R; Liu, Xia; Maloy, Julie A

    2014-09-01

    Go Sun Smart is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun-protection behaviors of employees and guests at high-altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of Go Sun Smart, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, on sun-protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure, and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy-enhanced versus basic-was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relation between message exposure and guests' sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 Go Sun Smart materials in guest-only areas and 9 Go Sun Smart materials throughout the area increased guests' message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not within the low-use ski areas. The authors underscore the importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industrywide.

  2. Using Social Network Analysis as a Method to Assess and Strengthen Participation in Health Promotion Programs in Vulnerable Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2017-03-01

    This article provides an example of the application of social network analysis method to assess community participation thereby strengthening planning and implementation of health promotion programming. Community health promotion often takes the form of services that reach out to or are located within communities. The concept of community reflects the idea that people's behavior and well-being are influenced by interaction with others, and here, health promotion requires participation and local leadership to facilitate transmission and uptake of interventions for the overall community to achieve social change. However, considerable uncertainty exists over exact levels of participation in these interventions. The article draws on a mixed methods research within a community development project in a vulnerable neighborhood of a town in Denmark. It presents a detailed analysis of the way in which social network analysis can be used as a tool to display participation and nonparticipation in community development and health promotion activities, to help identify capacities and assets, mobilize resources, and finally to evaluate the achievements. The article concludes that identification of interpersonal ties among people who know one another well as well as more tenuous relationships in networks can be used by community development workers to foster greater cohesion and cooperation within an area.

  3. Radiation protection and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

  4. Assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity levels and radiation hazards and their relation to heavy metals in the industrial area of Port Said city, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, T E; Shendi, E H; Shehata, M A

    2015-02-01

    A detailed gamma ray spectrometry survey was carried out to make an action in environmental impact assessment of urbanization and industrialization on Port Said city, Egypt. The concentrations of the measured radioelements U-238, Th-232 in ppm, and K-40 %, in addition to the total counts of three selected randomly dumping sites (A, B, and C) were mapped. The concentration maps represent a base line for the radioactivity in the study area in order to detect any future radioactive contamination. These concentrations are ranging between 0.2 and 21 ppm for U-238 and 0.01 to 13.4 ppm for Th-232 as well as 0.15 to 3.8 % for K-40, whereas the total count values range from 8.7 to 123.6 uR. Moreover, the dose rate was mapped using the same spectrometer and survey parameters in order to assess the radiological effect of these radioelements. The dose rate values range from 0.12 to 1.61 mSv/year. Eighteen soil samples were collected from the sites with high radioelement concentrations and dose rates to determine the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 using HPGe spectrometer. The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in the measured samples range from 18.03 to 398.66 Bq kg(-1), 5.28 to 75.7 Bq kg(-1), and 3,237.88 to 583.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In addition to analyze heavy metal for two high reading samples (a 1 and a 10) which give concentrations of Cd and Zn elements (a 1 40 ppm and a 10 42 ppm) and (a 1 0.90 ppm and a 10 0.97 ppm), respectively, that are in the range of phosphate fertilizer products that suggested a dumped man-made waste in site A. All indicate that the measured values for the soil samples in the two sites of three falls within the world ranges of soil in areas with normal levels of radioactivity, while site A shows a potential radiological risk for human beings, and it is important to carry out dose assessment program with a specifically detailed monitoring program periodically.

  5. Improving radiation data quality of USDA UV-B monitoring and research program and evaluating UV decomposition in DayCent and its ecological impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maosi

    Solar radiation impacts many aspects of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere. The total solar radiation impacts the atmospheric temperature profile and the Earth's surface radiative energy budget. The solar visible (VIS) radiation is the energy source of photosynthesis. The solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation impacts plant's physiology, microbial activities, and human and animal health. Recent studies found that solar UV significantly shifts the mass loss and nitrogen patterns of plant litter decomposition in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. The potential mechanisms include the production of labile materials from direct and indirect photolysis of complex organic matters, the facilitation of microbial decomposition with more labile materials, and the UV inhibition of microbes' population. However, the mechanisms behind UV decomposition and its ecological impacts are still uncertain. Accurate and reliable ground solar radiation measurements help us better retrieve the atmosphere composition, validate satellite radiation products, and simulate ecosystem processes. Incorporating the UV decomposition into the DayCent biogeochemical model helps to better understand long-term ecological impacts. Improving the accuracy of UV irradiance data is the goal of the first part of this research and examining the importance of UV radiation in the biogeochemical model DayCent is the goal of the second part of the work. Thus, although the dissertation is separated into two parts, accurate UV irradiance measurement links them in what follows. In part one of this work the accuracy and reliability of the current operational calibration method for the (UV-) Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), which is used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP), is improved. The UVMRP has monitored solar radiation in the 14 narrowband UV and VIS spectral channels at 37 sites across U.S. since 1992. The improvements in the quality of the data result

  6. Education and Training Needs in Radiation Oncology in India: Opportunities for Indo-US Collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Surbhi; Chadha, Manjeet; Rengan, Ramesh; Williams, Tim R; Morris, Zachary S; Morgan, David A L; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Hu, Kenneth; Viswanathan, Akila N

    2015-12-01

    To conduct a survey of radiation oncologists in India, to better understand specific educational needs of radiation oncology in India and define areas of collaboration with US institutions. A 20-question survey was distributed to members of the Association of Indian Radiation Oncologists and the Indian Brachytherapy Society between November 2013 and May 2014. We received a total of 132 responses. Over 50% of the physicians treat more than 200 patients per day, use 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional treatment planning techniques, and approximately 50% use image guided techniques. For education needs, most respondents agreed that further education in intensity modulated radiation therapy, image guided radiation therapy, stereotactic radiation therapy, biostatistics, and research methods for medical residents would be useful areas of collaboration with institutions in the United States. Other areas of collaboration include developing a structured training module for nursing, physics training, and developing a second-opinion clinic for difficult cases with faculty in the United States. Various areas of potential collaboration in radiation oncology education were identified through this survey. These include the following: establishing education programs focused on current technology, facilitating exchange programs for trainees in India to the United States, promoting training in research methods, establishing training modules for physicists and oncology nurses, and creating an Indo-US. Tumor Board. It would require collaboration between the Association of Indian Radiation Oncologists and the American Society for Radiation Oncology to develop these educational initiatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Education and Training Needs in Radiation Oncology in India: Opportunities for Indo–US Collaborations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, Surbhi, E-mail: Surbhi.grover@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chadha, Manjeet [Mount Sinai Beth Israel Health System, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Rengan, Ramesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Williams, Tim R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lynn Cancer Institute, Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Boca Raton, Florida (United States); Morris, Zachary S. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Seattle, Washington (United States); Morgan, David A.L. [Breast Services, Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottinghamshire (United Kingdom); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Green Hospital, La Jolla, California (United States); Hu, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU Lagone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: To conduct a survey of radiation oncologists in India, to better understand specific educational needs of radiation oncology in India and define areas of collaboration with US institutions. Methods and Materials: A 20-question survey was distributed to members of the Association of Indian Radiation Oncologists and the Indian Brachytherapy Society between November 2013 and May 2014. Results: We received a total of 132 responses. Over 50% of the physicians treat more than 200 patients per day, use 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional treatment planning techniques, and approximately 50% use image guided techniques. For education needs, most respondents agreed that further education in intensity modulated radiation therapy, image guided radiation therapy, stereotactic radiation therapy, biostatistics, and research methods for medical residents would be useful areas of collaboration with institutions in the United States. Other areas of collaboration include developing a structured training module for nursing, physics training, and developing a second-opinion clinic for difficult cases with faculty in the United States. Conclusion: Various areas of potential collaboration in radiation oncology education were identified through this survey. These include the following: establishing education programs focused on current technology, facilitating exchange programs for trainees in India to the United States, promoting training in research methods, establishing training modules for physicists and oncology nurses, and creating an Indo–US. Tumor Board. It would require collaboration between the Association of Indian Radiation Oncologists and the American Society for Radiation Oncology to develop these educational initiatives.

  8. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be extra careful not to spend time with children or pregnant women. Internal Radiation Therapy Makes You Give Off Radiation With systemic radiation, your body fluids ( urine , sweat, and saliva ) will give off radiation for a while. With ...

  9. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  10. Expenditures for the care of HIV-infected patients in rural areas in China's antiretroviral therapy programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Song

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese government has provided health services to those infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV under the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS care policy since 2003. Detailed research on the actual expenditures and costs for providing care to patients with AIDS is needed for future financial planning of AIDS health care services and possible reform of HIV/AIDS-related policy. The purpose of the current study was to determine the actual expenditures and factors influencing costs for untreated AIDS patients in a rural area of China after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART under the national Free Care Program (China CARES. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Yunnan and Shanxi Provinces, where HAART and all medical care are provided free to HIV-positive patients. Health expenditures and costs in the first treatment year were collected from medical records and prescriptions at local hospitals between January and June 2007. Multivariate linear regression was used to determine the factors associated with the actual expenditures in the first antiretroviral (ARV treatment year. Results Five ARV regimens are commonly used in China CARES: zidovudine (AZT + lamivudine (3TC + nevirapine (NVP, stavudine (D4T + 3TC + efavirenz (EFV, D4T + 3TC + NVP, didanosine (DDI + 3TC + NVP and combivir + EFV. The mean annual expenditure per person for ARV medications was US$2,242 (US$1 = 7 Chinese Yuan (CNY among 276 participants. The total costs for treating all adverse drug events (ADEs and opportunistic infections (OIs were US$29,703 and US$23,031, respectively. The expenses for treatment of peripheral neuritis and cytomegalovirus (CMV infections were the highest among those patients with ADEs and OIs, respectively. On the basis of multivariate linear regression, CD4 cell counts (100-199 cells/μL versus P = 0.02; and ≥200 cells/μL versus P P P = 0.04 and OIs (P = 0.02 were significantly

  11. Planning and Execution of a Marine Methane Hydrate Pressure Coring Program for the Walker Ridge and Green Canyon Areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Gary [Fugro Geoconsulting Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project (and report) is to produce a guide to developing scientific, operational, and logistical plans for a future methane hydrate-focused offshore pressure coring program. This report focuses primarily on a potential coring program in the Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955 blocks where previous investigations were undertaken as part of the 2009 Department of Energy JIP Leg II expedition, however, the approach to designing a pressure coring program that was utilized for this project may also serve as a useful model for planning pressure coring programs for hydrates in other areas. The initial portion of the report provides a brief overview of prior investigations related to gas hydrates in general and at the Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955 blocks in particular. The main content of the report provides guidance for various criteria that will come into play when designing a pressure coring program.

  12. Radiation protection, radiation safety and radiation shielding assessment of HIE-ISOLDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

    2013-07-01

    The high intensity and energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is an upgrade to the existing ISOLDE facility at CERN. The foreseen increase in the nominal intensity and the energy of the primary proton beam of the existing ISOLDE facility aims at increasing the intensity of the produced radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The currently existing ISOLDE facility uses the proton beam from the proton-synchrotron booster with an energy of 1.4 GeV and an intensity up to 2 μA. After upgrade (final stage), the HIE-ISOLDE facility is supposed to run at an energy up to 2 GeV and an intensity up to 4 μA. The foreseen upgrade imposes constrains, from the radiation protection and the radiation safety point of view, to the existing experimental and supply areas. Taking into account the upgraded energy and intensity of the primary proton beam, a new assessment of the radiation protection and radiation safety of the HIE-ISOLDE facility is necessary. Special attention must be devoted to the shielding assessment of the beam dumps and of the experimental areas. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo particle transport simulation program FLUKA was used to perform the computation of the ambient dose equivalent rate distribution and of the particle fluxes in the projected HIE-ISOLDE facility (taking into account the upgrade nominal primary proton beam energy and intensity) and the shielding assessment of the facility, with the aim of identifying in the existing facility (ISOLDE) the critical areas and locations where new or reinforced shielding may be necessary. The consequences of the upgraded proton beam parameters on the operational radiation protection of the facility were studied.

  13. A future vision of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking for Asia and the Pacific and Latin American regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    In order to solve some of the problems that are affecting tissue banking activities in the world, a new program/project proposal could be prepared by the IAEA and interested Member States in order to implement it in 2009. The main objective of the new program/project proposal could be the following: To consolidate tissue banks activities in a selected group of IAEA Member States by increasing the quality of the tissue processing and sterilization methods used. The specific objective to be reached by the new program/project proposal could be the following: To reach international standards in all activities carried out by a selected group of tissue banks, as well as the establishment of a limited regional tissue processing centres in specific regions. The following are the conditions to be met by the interested tissue banks, in order to participate in the new program/project proposal: To process different types of tissues for medical treatment using the ionizing radiation technique for tissue sterilization; To apply at least one of the current version of the IAEA Code of Practice, the IAEA Standards and the IAEA Public Awareness Strategies and to have the support of national health authorities for the use of the remaining IAEA documents in the near future; To have in force agreements with public and private hospitals for the use of the sterilized tissues processed by the bank for medical treatment; To have in place a donor referral system, or has the approval by the national health authorities to adopt such system in the near future; To receive the support from the national health authority to participate in the implementation of the new program/project proposal.

  14. Radiation`96. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The conference program includes eight invited lectures which cover a range of contemporary topics in radiation science and technology. In addition, thirty-two oral papers were presented, along with forty-five posters. The conference handbook contains one-page precis or extended abstracts of all presentations, and is a substantial compendium of current radiation research in Australia.

  15. Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement Fiscal Year 1976 Proposed Program : Facility Location Evaluation for Cheney-Four Lakes Area Service Study Area 76-7.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1975-04-15

    Proposed is construction of approximately 26 miles of 230-kV transmission line from the Four Mounds Area west of Spokane to either Cheney or Four Lakes Substation. Proposed also is construction of a new substation in the Four Mounds area. Depending upon final route location chosen, between 20 and 27 miles of new right-of-way would be required between the proposed Greenwood Substation and either Cheney or Four Lakes Substation. Between 25 and 41 miles of access road would also be required. Depending upon the final route selected, the amount of impact upon forest land would range from zero to 97 acres permanently removed. The amount of land temporarily disrupted for rangeland and cropland would be 8 to 13 acres and 30 to 40 acres, respectively. In addition, between approximately 4 and 8 acres of rangeland would be removed due to construction of the proposed new substation. Other impacts would include the removal of wildlife habitat associated with the above mentioned right-of-way requirements. Disturbance to wildlife during construction would occur. Some erosion and sedimentation would occur. Visual impacts would result from clearing rights-of-way through heavily forested areas. Noise and other disturbances to residents will occur, primarily during construction.

  16. Nanocomposite for Radiation Shielding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) program requires the need for materials that can protect astronauts and spacecrafts from ionizing radiations such as...

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2011-07-25

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-04-11

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  19. Use of a solar panel as a directionally sensitive large-area radiation monitor for direct and scattered x-rays and gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Majid, S

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of a 25.4 X 91 cm solar cell panel used as an x-ray and gamma-ray radiation monitor are presented. Applications for monitoring the primary x-ray beam are described at different values of operating currents and voltages as well as for directional dependence of scattered radiation. Other applications in gamma-ray radiography are also given. The detector showed linear response to both x-ray and gamma-ray exposures. The equipment is rigid, easy to use, relatively inexpensive and requires no power supply or any complex electronic equipment.

  20. The experiences of English as second language radiation therapy students in the undergraduate clinical program: Perceptions of staff and students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolderston, Amanda [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, Room 5-969, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)], E-mail: amanda.bolderston@rmp.uhn.on.ca; Palmer, Cathryne; Flanagan, Wendy; McParland, Neil [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, Room 5-969, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    Introduction: This qualitative study explores the experiences of undergraduate radiation therapy students who have English as a second language (ESL) in the clinical environment, as well as the experiences of staff members who teach these students. Specific study aims were to increase understanding of the issues faced by this subset of students, including identifying potential barriers to clinical learning. Methods and design: A qualitative methodology was utilized with focus groups as the data collection tool to gain insights from students/recent graduates whose primary language was not English, as well as from staff members who educate this group of students in the clinical environment. Two focus groups were conducted; Group 1 (n = 6) consisted of ESL graduates/students and Group 2 (n = 5) consisted of radiation therapy staff members and clinical coordinators who are actively involved in the education of ESL students. Comparative data analysis of the transcribed discussions was carried out using content analysis and categorized according to the emergent themes. Results: Three overarching themes were identified for both groups, 'Communication', 'Differences' and 'Dealing with it...' The primary barrier for ESL students was seen as proficiency in English, which manifested in a number of ways. This resulted in a lack of confidence and a subsequent sense of alienation. External challenges identified were unfamiliarity with Canadian systems and cultural differences. Support strategies identified included the use of mentorship, professional development and external support for teaching staff and journaling, among others. Conclusions: There are identified challenges for ESL students in the clinical environment, thus it is important to provide support for this population to improve learning outcomes. Recommendations for practice, arising from the study as well as the available literature included: allowing extra time, assisting with

  1. US/French Joint Research Program regarding the behavior of polymer base materials subjected to beta radiation. Volume 1. Phase-1 normalization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyant, F.J.; Buckalew, W.H.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.

    1986-06-01

    As part of the ongoing multi-year joint NRC/CEA international cooperative test program to investigate the dose-damage equivalence of gamma and beta radiation on polymer base materials, dosimetry and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) specimens were exchanged, irradiated, and evaluated for property changes at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). The purpose of this Phase-1 test series was to normalize and cross-correlate the results obtained by one research center to the other, in terms of exposure (1.0 MeV accelerated electrons and /sup 60/Co gammas) and postirradiation testing (ultimate elongation and tensile strength, hardness, and density) techniques. The dosimetry and material specimen results indicate good agreement between the two countries regarding the exposure conditions and postirradiation evaluation techniques employed.

  2. A maximum feasible subset algorithm with application to radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman

    1999-01-01

    . The algorithm relies on an iterative constraint removal procedure where constraints are eliminated from a set proposed by solutions to minmax linear programs. The method is illustrated by a simulated example of a linear system with double sided bounds and a case from the area of radiation therapy....

  3. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  4. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated Pest Managment Program to control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using contingent valuation, the perceived value of an area-wide, integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, was estimated. The residents’ maximum willingness-to-pay (WTP) and payment modality was estimat...

  5. 76 FR 22122 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Market Rents in Certain Metropolitan Areas, Discussion of Comments, and Request for Participation AGENCY... establishing the Small Area Fair Market Rent (FMR) Demonstration Project and requesting participation from... an area is the amount that would be needed to pay the gross rent (shelter rent plus utilities) of...

  6. 75 FR 27808 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... many ZIP codes in metropolitan areas. However, the first publication of 5-year ACS data does not begin... the first 5 years of the American Community Survey (ACS) in 5-year aggregations for the areas with... geographic areas than is currently possible using ACS data at one-year or 3-year aggregations. HUD intends to...

  7. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  8. Research and development program, fiscal year 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-04-01

    The biomedical program of the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology for FY 1966 is conducted within the scope of the following categories: Somatic Effects of Radiation; Combating Detrimental Effects of Radiation; Molecular and Cellular Level Studies; Environmental Radiation Studies; Radiological and Health Physics and Instrumentation; Chemical Toxicity; Cancer Research; and Selected Beneficial Applications. The overall objectives of the Laboratory within these areas of the Biology and Medicine program may be summarized as follows: (1) investigation of the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and systems of biological significance; (2) investigation of the dynamic aspects of physiological and biochemical processes in man, animals and plants and how these processes are modified by radiation and related pathological states; (3) the assessment and study of the immediate and long term consequences of the operation or detonation of nuclear devices on the fauna, and flora in man's environment and on man; (4) the development of methods of minimizing or preventing the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation; (5) research in, and development of, beneficial uses of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances in medicine and biology; (6) research in the development of new and more efficient radiation detection devices; (7) research, including field studies, as mutually agreed upon by the Commission and the University, in connection with the conduct of weapon tests and biomedical and civil effects experiments at such tests conducted at continental and overseas test sites; and (8) the conduct of training and educational activities in the biological and medical aspects of radiation and related fields.

  9. Environmental effects on composite airframes: A study conducted for the ARM UAV Program (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Composite materials are affected by environments differently than conventional airframe structural materials are. This study identifies the environmental conditions which the composite-airframe ARM UAV may encounter, and discusses the potential degradation processes composite materials may undergo when subjected to those environments. This information is intended to be useful in a follow-on program to develop equipment and procedures to prevent, detect, or otherwise mitigate significant degradation with the ultimate goal of preventing catastrophic aircraft failure.

  10. Use of Transportable Radiation Detection Instruments to Assess Internal Contamination from Intakes of Radionuclides Part II: Calibration Factors and ICAT Computer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigstein, Robert; Olsher, Richard H; Loomis, Donald A; Ansari, Armin

    2016-12-01

    The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in widespread releases of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring instruments could be used to measure radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for in vitro assessments. The present study derived sets of calibration factors for four instruments: the Ludlum Model 44-2 gamma scintillator, a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Captus 3000 thyroid uptake probe, which contains a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Transportable Portal Monitor Model TPM-903B, which contains two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators; and a generic instrument, such as an ionization chamber, that measures exposure rates. The calibration factors enable these instruments to be used for assessing inhaled or ingested intakes of any of four radionuclides: Co, I, Cs, and Ir. The derivations used biokinetic models embodied in the DCAL computer software system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The three physical instruments were represented by MCNP models that were developed previously. The affected individuals comprised children of five ages who were represented by the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory pediatric phantoms, and adult men and adult women represented by the Adult Reference Computational Phantoms described in Publication 110 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These calibration factors can be used to calculate intakes; the intakes can be converted to committed doses by the use of tabulated dose coefficients. These calibration factors also constitute input data to the ICAT computer program, an interactive Microsoft Windows-based software package that estimates intakes of

  11. AgRISTARS. Project management report: Program review presentation to level 1, interagency coordination committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The AgRISTARS supporting research projects in the areas of data systems, scene radiation, and pattern recognition are reviewed. The objectives, activities, and accomplishments of FY-80 and the objectives and status of FY-81 programs are described.

  12. The implementation of a culturally based HIV sexual risk reduction program for Latino youth in a Denver area high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Trisha E; Castaneda, Charlene Angel; Sainer, Shannon; Martinez, Donna; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Wilkes, Aisha L; Villarruel, Antonia M

    2009-10-01

    In the United States, Latino youth experience disproportionately higher rates of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than non-Latino Whites. As a result, organizations serving Latino youth seek culturally appropriate evidence-based prevention programs that promote sexual abstinence and condom use. Cuídate! is an efficacious HIV sexual risk reduction program for Latino youth aged 13-18. The program incorporates cultural beliefs that are common among Latino youth and associated with sexual risk behavior, and uses these beliefs to frame abstinence and condom use as culturally accepted and effective ways to prevent unintended pregnancy and STIs, including HIV/AIDS. Cuídate! has been successfully delivered in community agencies and after-school programs but has not been integrated into an existing school curriculum. This brief case study describes efforts to implement Cuídate! in a predominantly Latino urban high school in Denver. Ninety-three youth participated in the program from October 2007 to May 2008. Cuídate! was adapted to accommodate the typical class period by delivering program content over a larger number of sessions and extending the total amount of time of the program to allow for additional activities. Major challenges of program implementation included student recruitment and the "opt in" policy for participation. Despite these challenges, Cuídate! was implemented with minor adaptations in a school setting.

  13. A spatial stochastic programming model for timber and core area management under risk of stand-replacing fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Tuan Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Forest harvest scheduling has been modeled using deterministic and stochastic programming models. Past models seldom address explicit spatial forest management concerns under the influence of natural disturbances. In this research study, we employ multistage full recourse stochastic programming models to explore the challenges and advantages of building spatial...

  14. Documentation of a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program study area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traum, Jonathan A.; Phillips, Steven P.; Bennett, George Luther; Zamora, Celia; Metzger, Loren F.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the potential effects of restoration flows on existing drainage problems, anticipated as a result of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program (SJRRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), developed a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) of the SJRRP study area that is within 5 miles of the San Joaquin River and adjacent bypass system from Friant Dam to the Merced River. The primary goal of the SJRRP is to reestablish the natural ecology of the river to a degree that restores salmon and other fish populations. Increased flows in the river, particularly during the spring salmon run, are a key component of the restoration effort. A potential consequence of these increased river flows is the exacerbation of existing irrigation drainage problems along a section of the river between Mendota and the confluence with the Merced River. Historically, this reach typically was underlain by a water table within 10 feet of the land surface, thus requiring careful irrigation management and (or) artificial drainage to maintain crop health. The SJRRPGW is designed to meet the short-term needs of the SJRRP; future versions of the model may incorporate potential enhancements, several of which are identified in this report. The SJRRPGW was constructed using the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW and was built on the framework of the USGS Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) within which the SJRRPGW model domain is embedded. The Farm Process (FMP2) was used to simulate the supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture. The Streamflow-Routing Package (SFR2) was used to simulate the streams and bypasses and their interaction with the aquifer system. The 1,300-square mile study area was subdivided into 0.25-mile by 0.25-mile cells. The sediment texture of the aquifer system, which was used to distribute hydraulic properties by model cell, was refined from that used in the CVHM to better represent

  15. Decline in Radiation Hardened Microcircuit Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Two areas of radiation hardened microcircuit infrastructure will be discussed: 1) The availability and performance of radiation hardened microcircuits, and, and 2) The access to radiation test facilities primarily for proton single event effects (SEE) testing. Other areas not discussed, but are a concern include: The challenge for maintaining radiation effects tool access for assurance purposes, and, the access to radiation test facilities primarily for heavy ion single event effects (SEE) testing. Status and implications will be discussed for each area.

  16. Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement Fiscal Year 1976 Proposed Program : Facility Location Evaluation for Okanogan Area Service Study Area 75-6.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1975-04-15

    Proposed is the construction of a substation west of Okanogan, Washington, a 115-kV line between Okanogan and Tonasket, and a 230-kV line between Bridgeport and Okanogan. Depending on the final route location chosen, between approximately 56 and 63 miles of transmission line from Okanogan to Tonasket and from Bridgeport to Okanogan, most of which would require new right-of-way, would be required. Between 16 and 45 miles of new access road would be required. Land use affected would include temporary impact to between 28 and 50 acres of rangeland and between 3 and 8 acres of forest land. A minimal amount of agricultural land would be impacted as a result of several of the alternative locations. In addition, approximately 4 acres of rangeland would be permanently removed due to construction of the proposed new substation. Other impacts would include the removal of wildlife associated with the above mentioned right-of-way requirements. Disturbance to wildlife during construction would occur. Some erosion and sedimentation would occur. Visual impacts would result from clearing rights-of-way through forested areas. Noise and other disturbances to residents will occur, primarily during construction.

  17. Implementation results of a radiological protection program in the Service of Radiotherapy/CAISM - UNICAMP, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Resultados da implantacao de um programa de protecao radiologica no servico de radioterapia/CAISM - UNICAMP, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Rosangela Franco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos Biomedicos. Area de Fisica Medica; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Protecao Radiologica

    1996-12-31

    The radiation protection conditions in the Service or Radiotherapy/CAISM - UNICAMP are studied. A program of radiation protection composed by a radiation planning for the service, an area and individual monitoring program and a checking program is presented. Geiger Mueller detectors, ionization chambers, specific check lists and the results of about five years of individual monitoring are used in the implementation of the program 6 refs.

  18. Change of the natural radiation exposure due to agriculture and industrial activities in a high natural radioactivity area from Brazil; Modificacao da exposicao a radiacao natural devido a atividades agricolas e industriais numa area de radioatividade natural elevada no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Amaral, E.C. da

    1992-12-31

    The Pocos de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais State one of the biggest alkaline intrusions in the world. This study has shown the expected value for the mean annual radiation exposure due to the agricultural activities ranges from 6 up to 14 mSv/a depending on the age and living habits of the population group. The inhalation exposure of radon, thoron and their progenies represents the largest radiological health hazard (70-90%); this is followed by the external gamma irradiation from soil (10-25%). Ingestion of natural radionuclides with local food is only of minor radiological consequence. It was found that the lethal cancer risk might increase by 4% for a person born at the plateau, living and working there for the rest of her life. For the remote population the consumption the consumption of food products exported from the plateau leads to an expected value for the collective dose of 19 man Sv/a. This corresponding nominally to the small calculated number of 1 additional case of cancer per year. Therefore the main radiation impact of the agricultural activities are not the increased concentrations of natural radionuclides in food products but the fact that they are produced there with human labor and thus increasing the radiation exposure to a large number of farm workers and their families that move for occupational reasons to that region. The radiation exposure due to the mining and milling activities is, in spite of the significant increase of radionuclide activity concentrations in river waters, only of the order of 0.3 mSv/a. However as a recognized industrial source the ICRP dose limitation system has to be applied. Under this aspect the exposure calculated here, 0.3 mSv/a, should be considered as acceptable. (author). 93 refs, 16 figs, 58 tabs.

  19. Quantitative image analysis of gamma-H2AX foci induced by ionizing radiation applying open source programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jorge Ernesto; Lee, Manual; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Valente, Marco; Roch-Lefèvre, Sandrine; García, Omar

    2012-04-01

    To test a CellProfiler pipeline for automated counting and characterization of gamma-H2AX foci in color images of human cultured cells. A431 cells were irradiated and stained for gamma-H2AX foci detection. Sets of color images were analyzed visually, and findings were compared with those using FociCounter and CellProfiler software. The CellProfiler pipeline includes some proprieties not present in FociCounter, such as the automatic detection of nuclei, the detection of touching nuclei and the rejection of nuclei that touch the border of the image. The time required for manual operation is associated with the number of images analyzed visually or by FociCounter but not for the CellProfiler program. CellProfiler reduced manual operation time and is about 4 times faster than semiautomatic detection using FociCounter and 10 times faster than visual counting. We conclude that CellProfiler and FociCounter are reliable tools for measuring gamma-H2AX foci. However, CellProfiler overcomes the limitations of the FociCounter program and is able to detect nuclei automatically, saving considerable manual operation.

  20. RADIATION PROTECTION IN CANADA. III. THE ROLE OF THE RADIATION PROTECTION DIVISION IN SAFEGUARDING THE HEALTH OF THE PUBLIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIRD, P M

    1964-05-09

    The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the last of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. A radioactive fallout study program has been established involving the systematic collection of air and precipitation samples from 24 locations, soil samples from 23 locations, fresh-milk samples from 16 locations, wheat samples from nine areas and human-bone specimens from various hospitals throughout Canada. A whole-body-counting facility and a special study of fallout in Northern areas have also been initiated. For any age group, the highest average strontium-90 concentration in human bone so far reported has been less than four picocuries per gram of calcium compared with the maximum permissible level of 67 derived from the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. By the end of 1963 a general downward trend of levels of radioactivity detected in other parts of the program has been observed. Programs to assess the contribution to the radiation exposure of members of the population from medical x-rays, nuclear reactor operations and natural background-radiation sources have also been described. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in Canadian public hospitals has been estimated to be 25.8 mrem. Results from the reactor-environment monitoring programs have not suggested the presence of radioactivity beyond that contributed from fallout.

  1. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed...... in Euro. The results revealed an estimated total cost of 310 Euro per included child (net present value) in the 3-year program. Half of the costs were attributed to the first year of the program and the costs of manpower constituted 45% of the total costs. When the total cost was reduced with the cost......The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively...

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAM OF EMPOWERMENT OF THE WOMEN RESIDING AT THE COASTAL AREA OF AMPENAN DISTRICT, MATARAM CITY, LOMBOK IMPLEMENTED IN THE FORM OF LIFE SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Listiawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The program of the empowerment of the women living in Mataram City implemented inthe form of life skills including vocational skill, social skill, and personal skill has been carriedout since 2001. In reality, the attempts already made could not improve the well-being of thewomen in Mataram City in general and the women living along the coastal area of Ampenan,South Ampenan District and Banjar District in particular. Based on the background mentionedabove, the researcher was interested in exploring the effectiveness of the program of theempowerment provided in the form life skills. Three problems are formulated in this research.They are (1 how effective the implementation of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area of Ampenan District was?; (2 what factors contributed to theeffectiveness of the empowerment program of the women residing at the coastal area?; (3 whatwere the effects and meanings of the effectiveness of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area? The theories employed to answer the problems formulated above arethe theory of post feminism by Ann Brooks, the theory of social practice by Bourdieu and thetheory of power/knowledge by Foucault. The theories were eclectically applied. The qualitativemethod was employed in this study and the data needed were collected by the techniques ofobservation, in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (hereon abbreviated to FGD,documentation and library research.The results of the study show that (1 the program of the empowerment of the womenliving in the coastal area was ineffective; (2 the factors which contributed to the effectivenessof the empowerment of the women living along the coastal area are economic capital, culturalcapital, socio culture and symbolic culture; (3 the effects of the effectiveness of theempowerment program were on the skills acquired, the income earned, the independenceacquired, the environment where they live and their pattern

  3. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  4. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen measurements collected using CTD, bottle from multiple platforms in the Gulf of Mexico from 1992 through 2008 as part of the Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) (NODC Accession 0069702)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) is a State/Federal/university program for collection, management and dissemination of...

  5. An easy to use ArcMap based texture analysis program for extraction of flooded areas from TerraSAR-X satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Hagemann, Ulrike; Shafapour Tehrany, Mahyat; Prechtel, Nikolas

    2014-02-01

    Extraction of the flooded areas from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and especially TerraSAR-X data is one of the most challenging tasks in the flood management and planning. SAR data due to its high spatial resolution and its capability of all weather conditions makes a proper choice for tropical countries. Texture is considered as an effective factor in distinguishing the classes especially in SAR imagery which records the backscatters that carry information of kind, direction, heterogeneity and relationship of the features. This paper put forward a computer program for texture analysis for high resolution radar data. Texture analysis program is introduced and discussed using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). To demonstrate the ability and correctness of this program, a test subset of TerraSAR-X imagery from Terengganu area, Malaysia was analyzed and pixel-based and object-based classification were attempted. The thematic maps derived by pixel-based method could not achieve acceptable visual interpretation and for that reason no accuracy assessment was performed on them. The overall accuracy achieved by object-based method was 83.63% with kappa coefficient of 0.8. Results on image texture classification showed that the proposed program is capable for texture analysis in TerraSAR-X image and the obtained textural analysis resulted in high classification accuracy. The proposed texture analysis program can be used in many applications such as land use/cover (LULC) mapping, hazard studies and many other applications.

  6. Burned area emergency watershed rehabilitation: Program goals, techniques, effectiveness, and future directions in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Peter R. Robichaud; Jan L. Beyers

    2000-01-01

    Following wildfires, burned areas are assessed by special teams to determine if emergency watershed rehabilitation measures are required to restore watershed function and minimize damage to soil resources. The objective of burned area emergency rehabilitation (BAER) treatments is to restore watershed condition and reduce erosional losses on hillslopes, in channels, and...

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

  8. The National Security Education Program and Its Service Requirement: An Exploratory Study of What Areas of Government and for What Duration National Security Education Program Recipients Have Worked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comp, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Security Education Program, established under the National Security Education Act of 1991, has had a post-funding service requirement in the Federal Government for undergraduate scholarship and graduate fellowship recipients since its inception. The service requirement, along with the concern that the National Security Education…

  9. Users manual. Pursuit program of use licenses of radioactive material or generator equipment of ionizing radiations; Manual del usuario. Programa de seguimiento de licencias de uso de material radiactivo o equipos generadores de radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril M, V.M.; Villarreal, J.E

    1992-05-15

    The objective of the program 'Databases for the pursuit of licenses of use of radioactive material', it consists on the application of a computer system carried out in dbase IV that it allows the control of the all the information related with those licenses for use, possession and storage of radioactive material or generator equipment of ionizing radiations. (Author)

  10. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  11. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  12. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J R; Shirley, D L; Blair, L M

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 61 U.S. universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable students to work in the health physics field. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.

  13. Development of an inter-professional educational program for home care professionals: Evaluation of short-term effects in suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Rumiko; Yoshie, Satoru; Kawagoe, Shohei; Hirahara, Satoshi; Onishi, Hirotaka; Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishinaga, Masanori; Iijima, Katsuya; Tsuji, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the short-term effects of an inter-professional educational program developed for physicians and other home care specialists to promote home care in the community.Methods From March 2012 to January 2013, an inter-professional educational program (IEP) was held four times in three suburban areas (Kashiwa city and Matsudo city in the Chiba prefecture, and Omori district in the Ota ward). This program aimed to motivate physicians to increase the number of home visits and to encourage home care professionals to work together in the same community areas by promoting inter-professional work (IPW). The participants were physicians, home-visit nurses, and other home care professionals recommended by community-level professional associations. The participants attended a 1.5-day multi-professional IEP. Pre- and post-program questionnaires were used to collect information on home care knowledge and practical skills (26 indexes, 1-4 scale), attitudes toward home care practice (4 indexes, 1-6 scale), and IPW (13 indexes, 1-4 scale). Data from all of the participants without labels about the type of professionals were excluded, and both pre-test and post-test responses were used in the analysis. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test and a paired t-test were conducted to compare pre- and post-program questionnaire responses stratified for physicians and other professionals, and the effect size was calculated.Results The total number of participants for the four programs was 256, and data from 162 (63.3%) were analyzed. The physicians numbered 19 (11.7%), while other professionals numbered 143 (88.3%). Attending this program helped participants obtain home care knowledge of IPW and a practical view of home care. Furthermore, indexes about IPW consisted of two factors: cooperation and interaction; non-physician home care professionals increased their interactions with physicians, other professionals increased their cooperation with other professionals, and

  14. A Comparison of Van Allen Belt Radiation Environment Modeling Programs: AE8/AP8 Legacy, AE9/AP9, and SPENVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Evan; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In the space surrounding Earth there exists an active radiation environment consisting mostly of electrons and protons that have been trapped by Earths magnetic field. This radiation, also known as the Van Allen Belts, has the potential to damage man-made satellites in orbit; thus, proper precautions must be taken to shield NASA assets from this phenomenon. Data on the Van Allen Belts has been collected continuously by a multitude of space-based instruments since the beginning of space exploration. Subsequently, using theory to fill in the gaps in the collected data, computer models have been developed that take in the orbital information of a hypothetical mission and output the expected particle fluence and flux for that orbit. However, as new versions of the modeling system are released, users are left wondering how the new version differs from the old. Therefore, we performed a comparison of three different editions of the modeling system: AE8/AP8 (legacy), which is included in the model 9 graphical user interface as an option for ones calculations, AE9/AP9, and the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS), which is an online-based form of AE8/AP8 developed by NASA and the European Space Agency that changed the code to allow the program to extrapolate data to predict fluence and flux at higher energies. Although this evaluation is still ongoing, it is predicted that the model 8 (legacy) and SPENVIS version will have identical outputs with the exception of the extended energy levels from SPENVIS, while model 9 will provide different fluences than model 8 based on additional magnetic field descriptions and on-orbit data.

  15. RADCAL Operations Manual Radiation Calibration Laboratory Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, J.S.

    1998-12-01

    The Life Sciences Division (LSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long