WorldWideScience

Sample records for program area carbon

  1. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  2. Geographic overlaps between priority areas for forest carbon-storage efforts and those for delivering peacebuilding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Augusto Carlos Castro; Mertz, Ole; Sosa, Chrystian C.

    2017-01-01

    carbon and three conflict-related variables suggest that such interactions may exist. Nonetheless, while priority areas for carbon-focused conservation are presumably those at highest risks of deforestation, our research indicates that forests with lower risk of deforestation are typically those affected...

  3. Geographic overlaps between priority areas for forest carbon-storage efforts and those for delivering peacebuilding programs: implications for policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Nunez, Augusto; Mertz, Ole; Sosa, Chrystian C.

    2017-05-01

    Of the countries considering national-level policies for incentivizing reductions in forest-based greenhouse gas emissions (REDD+), some 25 are experiencing (or are emerging from) armed-conflicts. It has been hypothesized that the outcomes of the interactions between carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts could result in either improved or worsened forest conservation and likewise increased or decreased conflict. Hence, for this study we explore potential interactions between forest carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts, with Colombia as a case study. Spatial associations between biomass carbon and three conflict-related variables suggest that such interactions may exist. Nonetheless, while priority areas for carbon-focused conservation are presumably those at highest risks of deforestation, our research indicates that forests with lower risk of deforestation are typically those affected by armed-conflict. Our findings moreover highlight three possible roles played by Colombian forested municipalities in armed groups’ military strategies: venues for battle, hideouts, and sources of natural resources to finance war.

  4. Director of Program Area | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary The Director of a Program Area is accountable to the Vice President of the Program and Partnership Branch for providing strategic intelligence, intellectual leadership and the overall management of the Program Areas personnel (20-35 staff per Program Area).

  5. Carbon benefits from protected areas in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Conversion of forests to other land cover or land use releases the carbon stored in the forests and reduces carbon sequestration potential of the land. The rate of forest conversion could be reduced by establishing protected areas for biological diversity and other conservation goals. The purpose of this study is to quantify the efficiency and potential of forest land protection for mitigating GHG emissions. Results The analysis of related national-level datasets shows that during the period of 1992–2001 net forest losses in protected areas were small as compared to those in unprotected areas: -0.74% and −4.07%, respectively. If forest loss rates in protected and unprotected area had been similar, then forest losses in the protected forestlands would be larger by 870 km2/yr forests, that corresponds to release of 7 Tg C/yr (1 Tg=1012 g). Conversely, and continuing to assume no leakage effects or interactions of prices and harvest levels, about 1,200 km2/yr forests could have remained forest during the period of 1992–2001 if net area loss rate in the forestland outside protected areas was reduced by 20%. Not counting carbon in harvested wood products, this is equivalent to reducing fossil-fuel based carbon emissions by 10 Tg C/yr during this period. The South and West had much higher potentials to mitigate GHG emission from reducing loss rates in unprotected forests than that of North region. Spatially, rates of forest loss were higher across the coastal states in the southeastern US than would be expected from their population change, while interior states in the northern US experienced less forest area loss than would have been expected given their demographic characteristics. Conclusions The estimated carbon benefit from the reduced forest loss based on current protected areas is 7 Tg C/yr, equivalent to the average carbon benefit per year for a previously proposed ten-year $110 million per year tree planting program scenario in the US. If there

  6. Carbon benefits from protected areas in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daolan; Heath, Linda S; Ducey, Mark J

    2013-04-17

    Conversion of forests to other land cover or land use releases the carbon stored in the forests and reduces carbon sequestration potential of the land. The rate of forest conversion could be reduced by establishing protected areas for biological diversity and other conservation goals. The purpose of this study is to quantify the efficiency and potential of forest land protection for mitigating GHG emissions. The analysis of related national-level datasets shows that during the period of 1992-2001 net forest losses in protected areas were small as compared to those in unprotected areas: -0.74% and -4.07%, respectively. If forest loss rates in protected and unprotected area had been similar, then forest losses in the protected forestlands would be larger by 870 km2/yr forests, that corresponds to release of 7 Tg C/yr (1 Tg=1012 g). Conversely, and continuing to assume no leakage effects or interactions of prices and harvest levels, about 1,200 km2/yr forests could have remained forest during the period of 1992-2001 if net area loss rate in the forestland outside protected areas was reduced by 20%. Not counting carbon in harvested wood products, this is equivalent to reducing fossil-fuel based carbon emissions by 10 Tg C/yr during this period. The South and West had much higher potentials to mitigate GHG emission from reducing loss rates in unprotected forests than that of North region. Spatially, rates of forest loss were higher across the coastal states in the southeastern US than would be expected from their population change, while interior states in the northern US experienced less forest area loss than would have been expected given their demographic characteristics. The estimated carbon benefit from the reduced forest loss based on current protected areas is 7 Tg C/yr, equivalent to the average carbon benefit per year for a previously proposed ten-year $110 million per year tree planting program scenario in the US. If there had been a program that could have

  7. Carbon Sequestration in Reforested Areas in China Since 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Liu, J.; Wang, S.; Sun, R.; Shi, X.; Tian, Q.; Xue, J.; Pan, J.; Kang, E.; Zhu, Q.; Zhou, Y.; Yang, L.; Liu, G.; Chen, M.; Thomas, S.; Bryan, R.; Yin, Y.; MacLaren, V.; Zhou, S.; Feng, X.; Wang, C.; Pan, J.

    2004-05-01

    Since July 2002, a 3-year Canada-China joint project was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency and the Chinese Academy of Sciences to assess the current status of China's forests and the impacts of forestry activities on carbon sequestration. From 1973 to 2001, China's total forested area increased from 122 Mha to 159 Mha, owing to large-scale reforestations for the main purpose of soil erosion control. In this project, four local forest sites in Changbaishan, Heihe, Liping and Xingguo in various regions are chosen for intensive assessments of forest and soil stocks. Ground-based measurements of leaf area index (LAI), net primary productivity (NPP), soil texture, vegetation and soil carbon stocks are used to calibrate models. High-resolution remote sensing images from ASTER and ETM are used to map LAI and NPP of these sites and for upscaling to the whole China based on MODIS and VEGETATION images. Remote sensing techniques and carbon cycle models (BEPS, InTEC) developed in Canada are being adapted to China's ecosystems. Preliminary results suggest that new reforested areas since 1970 are now actively sequester carbon, making the overall forested area as a carbon sink in the last few decades. Efforts are being made to reduce uncertainties in the estimation through incorporating new nation-wide datasets of forest age, soil texture and organic matter, nitrogen deposition, etc. At Changbaishan, Liping and Heihe, integrated assessments are being conducted to investigate the impacts of reforestation (Grain-to-Green) programs on the social and economic status of farmers as well as the ecological environment and land use options to maximize carbon sequestraton.

  8. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  9. Northeastern Area Forest Legacy Program Yearbook 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) is to protect environmentally important forest areas that are threatened by conversion to nonforest uses. The Forest Legacy Program is a partnership between participating States and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These two entities work together to identify important forest lands and...

  10. Program for Area Concentration Achievement Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Anthony J.

    The Program for Area Concentration Achievement Testing (PACAT) produces the cooperative assessment instrument known as the Area Concentration Achievement Test (ACAT). The ACAT uses a model designed specifically to measure curricular strengths and weaknesses and to provide this information at the departmental level. PACAT has developed 57…

  11. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Dahal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant. We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions.

  12. Carbon benefits from protected areas in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of forests to other land cover or land use releases the carbon stored in the forests and reduces carbon sequestration potential of the land. The rate of forest conversion could be reduced by establishing protected areas for biological diversity and other conservation goals. The purpose of this study is to quantify the efficiency and potential of forest land...

  13. Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy.

  14. Case Study Evaluation of the Boston Area Carpooling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    The report evaluates a carpooling program in operation in the Boston, Massachusetts area from August, 1973 through August, 1974. The program, entitled the WBZ/ALA Commuter Computer Campaign, was the first program in the nation to promote and organize...

  15. 78 FR 23818 - Urbanized Area Formula Program: Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... inaccurate, and now interprets each provision to require their application at the UZA level. In other words... Program (5337) Rural Area Formula Program (5311) Transit Oriented Development Pilot Program (section 20005...

  16. Valuing blue carbon: carbon sequestration benefits provided by the marine protected areas in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-Barrera, Tatiana G; Maldonado, Jorge H

    2015-01-01

    Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing) organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit's demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation.

  17. Valuing blue carbon: carbon sequestration benefits provided by the marine protected areas in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G Zarate-Barrera

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit's demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation.

  18. Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Honeycomb Cell Area-Dependent Optical Reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udorn, Junthorn; Hatta, Akimitsu; Furuta, Hiroshi

    2016-11-07

    The relationship between the physical structure of carbon nanotube (CNT) honeycomb structures and their total, diffuse, and specular reflectance is investigated for the first time. It is found that CNT honeycomb structures with average cell areas of smaller than 30 μm² show a higher total reflectance. Particularly, a thinner, highly packed CNT (buckypaper) film, along with a larger wall height and higher ratio of wall height to cell area, markedly increase the total reflectance for cell areas smaller than 30 μm², which means that a higher total area of buckypapers in CNT walls and bottom areas increases the total reflectance, including the diffuse reflectance. It is also found that the total reflection of non-absorbed light in CNT honeycomb structures consists primarily of diffuse reflectance.

  19. High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

    2014-01-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

  20. National Estuary Program Study Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 28 National Estuary Programs (NEPs) in the U.S.that implement habitat protection and restoration projects with their partners. This work takes place within...

  1. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program: Proceedings of the carbon dioxide and climate research program conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, L E [ed.

    1980-12-01

    Papers presented at the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program Conference are included in this volume. Topics discussed are: the carbon cycle; modeling the carbon system; climatic response due to increased CO2; climate modeling; the use of paleoclimatic data in understanding climate change; attitudes and implications of CO2; social responses to the CO2 problem; a scenario for atmospheric CO2 to 2025; marine photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle; and the role of tropical forests in the carbon balance of the world. Separate abstracts of nine papers have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  2. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, J R

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  3. Ultrahigh surface area carbon from carbonated beverages: Combining self-templating process and in situ activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Jihua; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Ultrahigh surface area carbons (USACs, e.g., >2000 m2/g) are attracting tremendous attention due to their outstanding performance in energy-related applications. The state-of-art approaches to USACs involve templating or activation methods and all these techniques show certain drawbacks. In this work, a series of USACs with specific surface areas up to 3633 m2/g were prepared in two steps: hydrothermal carbonization (200 °C) of carbonated beverages (CBs) and further thermal treatment in nitrogen (600–1000 °C). The rich inner porosity is formed by a self-templated process during which acids and polyelectrolyte sodium salts in the beverage formulas make some contribution. This strategy covers various CBs such as Coca Cola®, Pepsi Cola®, Dr. Pepper®, and Fanta® and it enables an acceptable product yield (based on sugars), for example: 21 wt% for carbon (2940 m2/g) from Coca Cola®. Being potential electrode materials for supercapacitors, those carbon materials possessed a good specific capacitance (57.2–185.7 F g-1) even at a scan rate of 1000 mV s-1. Thus, a simple and efficient strategy to USACs has been presented.

  4. Beowawe Geothermal Area evaluation program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovenitti, J. L

    1981-03-01

    Several exploration programs were conducted at the Beowawe Geothermal Prospect, Lander and Eureka County, Nevada. Part I, consisting of a shallow temperature hole program, a mercury soil sampling survey, and a self-potential survey were conducted in order to select the optimum site for an exploratory well. Part II consisted of drilling a 5927-foot exploratory well, running geophysical logs, conducting a drill stem test (2937-3208 feet), and a short-term (3-day) flow test (1655-2188 feet). All basic data collected is summarized.

  5. Assessment of Carbon Tetrachloride Groundwater Transport in Support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Technology Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Murray, Christopher J.; Cole, Charles R.; Cameron, Richard J.; Johnson, Michael D.; Skeen, Rodney S.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2001-07-13

    Groundwater modeling was performed in support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program. The ITRD program is facilitated by Sandia National Laboratory for the Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology. This report was prepared to document the results of the modeling effort and facilitate discussion of characterization and remediation options for the carbon tetrachloride plume among the ITRD participants. As a first step toward implementation of innovative technologies for remediation of the carbon tetrachloride (CT) plume underlying the 200-West Area, this modeling was performed to provide an indication of the potential impact of the CT source on the compliance boundary approximately 5000 m distant. The primary results of the modeling bracket the amount of CT source that will most likely result in compliance/non-compliance at the boundary and the relative influence of the various modeling parameters.

  6. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Integrated Program Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    on National Planning Scenarios. 15. SUBJECT TERMS WARRP, Program Management 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18...Agent YELLOW, which is a mixture of the chemical warfare agents Sulfur Mustard and Lewisite, is a liquid with a garlic -like odor. Sulfur mustard

  7. Hypothetical high-surface-area carbons with exceptional hydrogen storage capacities: open carbon frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Bogdan; Firlej, Lucyna; Mohammadhosseini, Ali; Boulet, Pascal; Beckner, Matthew; Romanos, Jimmy; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-09-12

    A class of high-surface-area carbon hypothetical structures has been investigated that goes beyond the traditional model of parallel graphene sheets hosting layers of physisorbed hydrogen in slit-shaped pores of variable width. The investigation focuses on structures with locally planar units (unbounded or bounded fragments of graphene sheets), and variable ratios of in-plane to edge atoms. Adsorption of molecular hydrogen on these structures was studied by performing grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations with appropriately chosen adsorbent-adsorbate interaction potentials. The interaction models were tested by comparing simulated adsorption isotherms with experimental isotherms on a high-performance activated carbon with well-defined pore structure (approximately bimodal pore-size distribution), and remarkable agreement between computed and experimental isotherms was obtained, both for gravimetric excess adsorption and for gravimetric storage capacity. From this analysis and the simulations performed on the new structures, a rich spectrum of relationships between structural characteristics of carbons and ensuing hydrogen adsorption (structure-function relationships) emerges: (i) Storage capacities higher than in slit-shaped pores can be obtained by fragmentation/truncation of graphene sheets, which creates surface areas exceeding of 2600 m(2)/g, the maximum surface area for infinite graphene sheets, carried mainly by edge sites; we call the resulting structures open carbon frameworks (OCF). (ii) For OCFs with a ratio of in-plane to edge sites ≈1 and surface areas 3800-6500 m(2)/g, we found record maximum excess adsorption of 75-85 g of H(2)/kg of C at 77 K and record storage capacity of 100-260 g of H(2)/kg of C at 77 K and 100 bar. (iii) The adsorption in structures having large specific surface area built from small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons cannot be further increased because their energy of adsorption is low. (iv) Additional increase of hydrogen

  8. Carbon dioxide fluxes over an urban park area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordowski, Klaus; Kuttler, Wilhelm

    2010-07-01

    From September 2006 to October 2007 turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide were measured at an urban tower station (26 m above ground level, z/z h = 1.73) in Essen, Germany, using the eddy covariance technique. The site was located at the border between a public park area (70 ha) in the south-west of the station and suburban/urban residential as well as light commercial areas in the north and east of the tower. Depending on the land-use two different sectors ( park and urban) were identified showing distinct differences in the temporal evolution of the surface-atmosphere exchange of CO 2. While urban fluxes appear to be governed by anthropogenic emissions from domestic heating and traffic (average flux 9.3 μmol m -2 s -1), the exchange of CO 2 was steered by biological processes when the park contributed to the flux footprint. The diurnal course during the vegetation period exhibited negative daytime fluxes up to -10 μmol m -2 s -1 on average in summer. Nevertheless, with a mean of 0.8 μmol m -2 s -1 park sector fluxes were slightly positive, thus no net carbon uptake by the surface occurred throughout the year. In order to sum the transport of CO 2 a gap-filling procedure was performed by means of artificial neural network generalisation. Using additional meteorological inputs the daily exchange of CO 2 was reproduced using radial basis function networks (RBF). The resulting yearly sum of 6031 g m -2 a -1 indicates the entire study site to be a considerable source of CO 2.

  9. Carbon savings resulting from the cooling effect of green areas: A case study in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wenqi, E-mail: linwq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Urban-rural Ecological Planning and Green Architecture, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu Tinghai; Zhang Chengguo [Institute of Architectural and Urban Studies, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu Ting [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Urban-rural Ecological Planning and Green Architecture, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Green areas cool the climate of a city, reduce the energy consumption caused by the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and bring along carbon savings. However, the calculation of carbon savings due to the cooling effect of green areas is still not well understood. We have used a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image of Beijing, to identify the cooled areas, compute the possible energy used to maintain the temperature differences between cooled areas and their surrounding heated areas, and calculate the carbon savings owing to the avoidance of energy use. Results show that a total amount of 14315.37 tons carbon savings was achieved in the study area and the amount was related to the biomass, the size and the shape of green areas. These results demonstrate the importance of carbon savings resulting from green areas' cooling effect. - Highlights: > We provide an integral equation for the calculation of energy conservation and carbon savings. > We show that carbon savings is partly influenced by green areas' features. > A strong correlation between biomass, size and shape of green areas and carbon savings. - An integral equation for the calculation of energy conservation and carbon savings; Showing that carbon savings is partly influenced by green areas' features.

  10. National Nanotechnology Initiative Investments by Agency and Program Component Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — Data represents National Nanotechnology Initiative investments by agency and program component area (PCA) from FY 2001 through FY 2010 (requested). While this data...

  11. Tanks focus area multiyear program plan - FY96-FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP) presents the recommended TFA technical program. The recommendation covers a 3-year funding outlook (FY96-FY98), with an emphasis on FY96 and FY97. In addition to defining the recommended program, this document also describes the processes used to develop the program, the implementation strategy for the program, the references used to write this report, data on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank site baselines, details on baseline assumptions and the technical elements, and a glossary.

  12. Methodology proposal for estimation of carbon storage in urban green areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, C.; Mancosu, E.; Roerink, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Methodology proposal for estimation of carbon storage in urban green areas; final report. Subtitle: Final report of task Task 262-5-6 "Carbon sequestration in urban green infrastructure" Project manager Marie Cugny-Seguin. Date: 15-10-2013

  13. Laser Carbonization of PAN-Nanofiber Mats with Enhanced Surface Area and Porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Dennis; Lott, Philipp; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Thomas, Helga; Möller, Martin; Kuehne, Alexander J C

    2016-10-26

    Here we present a novel laser process to generate carbon nanofiber nonwovens from polyacrylonitrile. We produce carbon nanofabrics via electrospinning followed by infrared laser-induced carbonization, facilitating high surface area and well-controlled hierarchical porosity. The process allows precise control of the carbonization conditions and provides high nanoscale porosity. In comparison with classical thermal carbonization, the laser process produces much higher surface areas and smaller pores. Furthermore, we investigate the carbonization performance and the morphology of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers compounded with graphene nanoplatelet fillers.

  14. Carbon savings resulting from the cooling effect of green areas: a case study in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenqi; Wu, Tinghai; Zhang, Chengguo; Yu, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Green areas cool the climate of a city, reduce the energy consumption caused by the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and bring along carbon savings. However, the calculation of carbon savings due to the cooling effect of green areas is still not well understood. We have used a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image of Beijing, to identify the cooled areas, compute the possible energy used to maintain the temperature differences between cooled areas and their surrounding heated areas, and calculate the carbon savings owing to the avoidance of energy use. Results show that a total amount of 14315.37 tons carbon savings was achieved in the study area and the amount was related to the biomass, the size and the shape of green areas. These results demonstrate the importance of carbon savings resulting from green areas' cooling effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rational design of high-surface-area carbon nanotube/microporous carbon core-shell nanocomposites for supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuanyuan; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Jitong; Qiao, Wenming; Ling, Licheng; Long, Donghui

    2015-03-04

    All-carbon-based carbon nanotube (CNT)/microporous carbon core-shell nanocomposites, in which a CNT as the core and high-surface-area microporous carbon as the shell, have been prepared by in situ resorcinol-formaldehyde resin coating of CNTs, followed by carbonization and controlled KOH activation. The obtained nanocomposites have very high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas (up to 1700 m(2)/g), narrow pore size distribution (microporous carbon shell can be easily tuned from 20 to 215 nm by changing the carbon precursor/CNT mass ratio. In such a unique core-shell structure, the CNT core could mitigate the key issue related to the low electronic conductivity of microporous carbons. On the other hand, the 1D tubular structure with a short pore-pathway micropore as well as a 3D entangled network could increase the utilization degree of the overall porosity and improve the electrode kinetics. Thus, these CNT/microporous carbon core-shell nanocomposites exhibit a great potential as an electrode material for supercapacitors, which could deliver high specific capacitance of 237 F/g, excellent rate performance with 75% maintenance from 0.1 to 50 A/g, and high cyclability in H2SO4 electrolyte. Moreover, the precisely controlled microporous carbon shells may allow them to serve as excellent model systems for microporous carbons, in general, to illustrate the role of the pore length on the diffusion and kinetics inside the micropores.

  16. Subclinical carbon monoxide poisoning in our health area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, I.G.; Testa, A.F.; Sangrador, C.O.; Garcia, M.T.A.; Berrocal, J.L.S.; Pastor, N.R.; Martin, J.M.; Garcia, L.S.; Garcia, M.C.F.; Maire-Richard, E.G. [Hospital of Virgen Concha, Zamora (Spain)

    2003-08-01

    We present an observation study on the relationship between high levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHB) and subclinical poisoning by carbon monoxide (CO) in our health area. The study was carried out in February and March 2000 in 228 over 18-year-old patients of both sexes who went to the Emergency Room for various reasons. After an informed consent was conceded, a venous blood sample was obtained in order to determine the level of COHB; later, we collected the anthropometric data, the data relative to the tobacco use, and the data of the type of heating at home. The values limit of the COHB obtained were the following: in non smokers, 1.9%; in 1-10 cigarettes/day smokers, 5.2%; in 11-20 cigarettes/day smokers, 6.9%; in {gt}20 cigarettes/day smokers, 9.6%. A COHB high level was observed in 25% of the patients regardless of the smoking habits, being the coal-dust slack brazier the source of most frequent exposure to CO.

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon and organic carbon in mires in the Forsmark area. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [EcoAnalytica, Haegersten (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are the large dissolved carbon pools in mires. They are both related to a number of factors such as groundwater flow, minerogenic influence and peat properties, which all are more or less related to peatland development stage. In a scenario of a release of radionuclides from an underground repository containing radioactive material, behaviour of these pools during the mire ontogeny will be of importance for the understanding of how C-14 will constitute a potential risk to humans and non-human biota. In this pilot study, DIC and DOC concentrations were investigated for three mires representing a potential sequence of peatland development in a coastal area at Forsmark in central Sweden characterized by land upheaval, a flat topography and calcareous content in the soil. The mires where chosen based on difference in height above the sea level, covering approximate 1000 years, and characteristics based on their vegetation. Water samples were collected during August from all three mires at two different depths in the anoxic layer of the mires, by extracting water from peat obtained with a peat corer. DIC concentrations where related to the age of the mires, with the lowest concentrations in the highest located mire. There was a positive correlation between pH and DIC, where the higher DIC concentrations were found in the 'richer' fens. DIC concentrations were also positively related to the conductivity within and between the mires, where conductivity would be a proxy for the dominating cation Ca{sup 2+} associated to the calcareous-influenced groundwater. DOC concentrations were highest in the oldest mire, but were similar in the younger mires. No patterns were found between DIC and DOC, and the peat bulk density. The report ends with suggestions on how a continued study could be improved.

  18. Transport of sediments, carbon and nutrients in areas of reforestation and grassland based on simulated rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Pinheiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil losses, as well as carbon and chemical samples in runoff through areas of pine (Pinus taeda, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dunni and a consortium of pasture with oat (Avena stringosa and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium in the Fragosos river basin, in Concordia, SC. For this, rainfall simulations with mean intensities of 94 mm h-1 were conducted in September and November 2011, in plots of 1 m2 established in the three areas. Runoff, loads carried of the sediment, and carbon and chemical concentrations were quantified in the experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of sediment and organic carbon were higher in the eucalyptus area. The largest concentrations of chemicals for all areas were nitrate, calcium, magnesium and potassium. Total carbon, organic carbon, sediment and nitrate were transported in higher loads in the eucalyptus area. With the exception of nitrate and chloride, the chemical loads carried were higher in the pasture area.

  19. 77 FR 59931 - Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... University of Guam School of Nursing, an Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Program grantee, to coordinate... baccalaureate nursing education program in the Pacific. Its focus is on health careers training and development... only nationally accredited baccalaureate nursing education program in the Pacific. The Guam/Micronesia...

  20. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  1. The Detroit Area Pre-College Engineering Program, Inc. (DAPCEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kenneth

    1990-01-01

    Describes activities of the Detroit Area Pre-College Engineering Program (DAPCEP), which aims to increase the number of middle school and high school minority (Black, Hispanic, and Native American) students who are motivated and prepared academically to choose careers in science, engineering, and other technical fields. Summarizes program…

  2. Carbon balance of rewetted peatland forests in low mountain range areas, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jan Paul; Dotterweich, Markus; Kopf, Christoph; Schüler, Gebhard; Scherzer, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Peatland soils store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Drainage of peatlands, for agricultural or forestry usage, leads to a loss of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere and the former carbon sink becomes a carbon source. Peatland rewetting has become a well applicable management tool to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from peatland soils. However, the impact of rewetting on the carbon balance of drained peatland forest in low mountain range is rare. The aim of this project is to quantify the carbon balance of rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. Worth protecting peatland's with forest called "Brücher" are characteristic of nature in the Hunsrück. Since the 19th century these peatlands have been drained by ditches for spruce forests. The survey of surface area of the peatlands is the first important part of the project. Furthermore, a peatland land register for the national park and adjacent areas will be developed. Based on peatland area and carbon stocks the carbon pools of different degradation stages of these peatland can be investigated. Furthermore, terrestrial laser scan data and geoelectrical measurements will be applied for estimating the carbon pool of the vegetation and the soil. This approach enables us to quantify the whole ecosystem carbon pool. A space-for-time substitution allows for a first estimation of the carbon balance of the rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. The main aim of a comprehensive carbon balancing will be achieved based upon the peatland characteristics and upscaling of carbon stocks from peatlands with different restoration/degradation scenarios. Moreover, the obtained data will be used for a long-term carbon balance monitoring of the rewetted peatlands in this region.

  3. Ocean Margins Program: Closure on the global carbon cycle. Program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riches, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy`s Ocean Margins Program (OMP) is designed to quantitatively assess the importance of coastal ocean systems in the global carbon cycle. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, human energy-related activities have dramatically altered the global carbon cycle, and consequently, this cycle is not presently in a steady-state. To reduce major uncertainties in predicting future global environmental quality, it is imperative to understand the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, the role of anthropogenic activities in disrupting the natural carbon cycle, and the effects of, and feedbacks between, these activities and the natural carbon cycle. Due to continuously increased loading of nutrients to the margins, which, globally, is related to the rate of human population growth and high population densities in coastal states, biological carbon fixation has been stimulated. Depending on the fate of the fixed carbon, this stimulation has the potential to mitigate the anthropogenically derived Co{sub 2}. Determining the factors that control the magnitude of carbon exchanges between the ocean margins and the atmosphere, and the subsequent fate of this carbon, is crucial to predicting the strength and capacity of the oceans to absorb excess anthropogenic atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The goals of the OMP are to: quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that define the cycling, flux, and storage of carbon and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; identify how ocean-margin sources and sinks of carbon change in response to human activities; and determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing atmospheric carbon dioxide and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior of the open ocean.

  4. Carbonate platforms in the Reed Bank area, South China Sea: seismic characteristics, development and controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W.

    2013-12-01

    We identify the seismic characteristics about the carbonate platform and other types of reefs in the Reed Bank area, South China Sea, based on a more than 220 km long multi-channel seismic reflection profile. From the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene Carbonate platforms were well developed featured with high-amplitude continuous reflections at the top and low-amplitude parallel reflections within. Reefal carbonate build-ups continued in structural highs almost up to the Middle Miocene, and even to present in the Reed Bank. The development of carbonate platforms and reefs were controlled by the tectonics and sea level changes in the study area synthetically. During the drifting stage of SCS the Reed Bank area was in a relatively stable condition. An everlasting shallow marine environment and low sediments input favored the formation of carbonate platforms. A sudden thermal subsidence after the cessation of SCS's opening in Early Miocene and the continue rising of sea level made the carbonate platform drown and die. Reed Bank basin is a very promising area for further exploration work. Keywords: carbonate platform, Reed Bank area, Tectonic subsidence, controlling factors, South China Sea Fig 1. Model of hydrocarbon accumulation and transfer with carbonate platform and reef reservoir in the deep water area of the Reed Bank basin. Fig 2 Tectonic subsidence in the Reed Bank Basin

  5. prediction of a delamination area during drilling of carbon composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engi- neering for Industry, 112: 236–239. Mizutani, Y., N'agashima, K., Takemoto, M. and Ono, K. (2000). "Fracture mechanism characterization of cross-ply carbon-fiber composites using acoustic emission analy- sis", NDT &. E International, 33: 101–110. Ravishankar, S. R. and Murthy, ...

  6. Forest Carbon Stocks in Lowland Area of Simien Mountains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead wood, leaf litter, herb and grass (LHG) and soil organic carbon were conducted according to sampling quadrates data and laboratory result. The results shown that, there were twenty species with a density of 2334 trees and shrubs in the study sites which had DBH ≥5 cm. The mean above ground and below ground ...

  7. Carbon Nanotube Areas - Printed on Textile and Paper Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arved C. Hubler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass printing processes are the key technology to produce mass products to the point of one-disposable. Carbon nanotube (CNT based structures were prepared by flexographic printing using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT dispersions in water. The carbon nanotubes were applied to a textile substrate made of polyester and polyamide microfilaments and to both-side coated paper to produce electrically conductive layers that can be used, for example, as heating elements. Carbon nanotube layers with sheet resistivity ranging from 0.12 to 3.00 kΩ/sq were obtained. The ratio of radiation power PS (determined according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law of the printed layers to the electrical power spent, represents the efficiency of the system. The samples on textile substrate with a surface temperature of 169°C have an efficiency of 25%, the paper samples with a surface temperature of 93°C have an efficiency of about 15%.

  8. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  9. Porous carbon with a large surface area and an ultrahigh carbon purity via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui, E-mail: gaojh@hit.edu.cn; Liu, Xin; Pi, Xinxin; Yang, Yuqi; Wu, Shaohua

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Simple templating carbonization method was developed to obtain porous carbons. • Surface etching by KOH activation greatly boosts surface area and carbon purity. • The as-obtained porous carbon delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g{sup −1}. • Symmetric supercapacitor can achieved high energy density and power density. - Abstract: Large surface area and good structural stability, for porous carbons, are two crucial requirements to enable the constructed supercapacitors with high capacitance and long cycling lifespan. Herein, we successfully prepare porous carbon with a large surface area (3175 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and an ultrahigh carbon purity (carbon atom ratio of 98.25%) via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation. As-synthesized MTC-KOH exhibits excellent performances as supercapacitor electrode materials in terms of high specific capacitance and ultrahigh cycling stability. In a three electrode system, MTC-KOH delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1} and still 120 F g{sup −1} at a high rate of 30 A g{sup −1}. There is almost no capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, demonstrating outstanding cycling stability. In comparison, pre-activated MTC with a hierarchical pore structure shows a better rate capability than microporous MTC-KOH. Moreover, the constructed symmetric supercapacitor using MTC-KOH can achieve high energy densities of 8.68 Wh kg{sup −1} and 4.03 Wh kg{sup −1} with the corresponding power densities of 108 W kg{sup −1} and 6.49 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively. Our work provides a simple design strategy to prepare highly porous carbons with high carbon purity for supercapacitors application.

  10. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different

  11. Variable area radial turbine fabrication and test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, C.

    1986-01-01

    A variable area radial turbine with a moveable nozzle sidewall was experimentally evaluated. The turbine was designed for an advanced variable capacity gas turbine rotorcraft engine. The turbine has a mass flow rate of 2.27 kg/sec (5.0 lbs/sec), and a rotor inlet temperature of 1477K (2200 F). Testing was conducted at a reduced inlet temperature, but the aerodynamic parameters and Reynolds numbers were duplicated. Overall performance was obtained for a range of nozzle areas from 50% to 100% of the maximum area. The test program determined the effect on performance of: (1) Moving the hub or shroud sidewall; (2) Sidewall-vane clearance leakage; (3) Vaneless space geometry change; and (4) Nozzle cooling flows. Data were obtained for a range of pressure ratios and speeds and are presented in a number of performance maps.

  12. Chlorophyll 'a' particulate organic carbon and suspended load from the mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Chlorophyll 'a' Particulate Organic Carbon and suspended load were estimated for one year from two distinct mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters, viz. Puthuvypeen and Nettoor. Environmental parameters like tau degrees C, S ppt and pH were also...

  13. Synthesis of High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon Microflowers and Their Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Cao, Minhua

    2015-07-01

    Sustainable carbon materials have received particular attention in CO2 capture and storage owing to their abundant pore structures and controllable pore parameters. Here, we report high-surface-area hierarchically porous N-doped carbon microflowers, which were assembled from porous nanosheets by a three-step route: soft-template-assisted self-assembly, thermal decomposition, and KOH activation. The hydrazine hydrate used in our experiment serves as not only a nitrogen source, but also a structure-directing agent. The activation process was carried out under low (KOH/carbon=2), mild (KOH/carbon=4) and severe (KOH/carbon=6) activation conditions. The mild activated N-doped carbon microflowers (A-NCF-4) have a hierarchically porous structure, high specific surface area (2309 m(2)  g(-1)), desirable micropore size below 1 nm, and importantly large micropore volume (0.95 cm(3)  g(-1)). The remarkably high CO2 adsorption capacities of 6.52 and 19.32 mmol g(-1) were achieved with this sample at 0 °C (273 K) and two pressures, 1 bar and 20 bar, respectively. Furthermore, this sample also exhibits excellent stability during cyclic operations and good separation selectivity for CO2 over N2. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Properties that influence the specific surface areas of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, M Eileen; Ruda-Eberenz, Toni A; Chai, Ming; Andrews, Ronnee; Hatfield, Randal L

    2013-11-01

    Commercially available carbon nanotubes and nanofibers were analyzed to examine possible relationships between their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface areas (SSAs) and their physical and chemical properties. Properties found to influence surface area were number of walls/diameter, impurities, and surface functionalization with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Characterization by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis indicates that SSA can provide insight on carbon nanomaterials properties, which can differ vastly depending on synthesis parameters and post-production treatments. In this study, how different properties may influence surface area is discussed. The materials examined have a wide range of surface areas. The measured surface areas differed from product specifications, to varying degrees, and between similar products. Findings emphasize the multiple factors that influence surface area and mark its utility in carbon nanomaterial characterization, a prerequisite to understanding their potential applications and toxicities. Implications for occupational monitoring are discussed.

  15. Enhanced specific surface area by hierarchical porous graphene aerogel/carbon foam for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhaopeng; Li, Weixin; Fang, Wei; He, Xuan; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Wanqiu; Sun, Zhimin

    2017-12-01

    In this work, graphene aerogel/carbon foam is prepared by in situ inducing graphene aerogels in the pores of carbon foam. This novel hierarchical porous structure possesses a higher specific surface area as the introduction of graphene aerogels in carbon foam increases the proportion of micropores thus making it a superior candidate as electrodes for supercapacitors. The characterization and comparison of various properties of carbon foam and graphene aerogels/carbon foam have been investigated systematically. The result shows that specific surface area is up to 682.8 m2/g compared with initial carbon foam which increased about 55%, and the pore distribution curve shows more pore volume at 0.3 nm for F-CF/GA. It is demonstrated that the introduction of graphene aerogels not only increases the specific surface area, but also improves the conductivity, thus resulting in the reduction of the internal resistance and the improvement of the electrochemical performance. Consequently, graphene aerogel/carbon foam shows an excellent specific capacitance of 193.1 F/g at 1 A/g which is 72% higher than that of carbon foam acted as electrodes for supercapacitors.

  16. Prediction of a delamination area during drilling of carbon composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to non-destructively monitor and evaluate the delamination damage during a drilling operation is of interest to the scientific and the industrial community. This paper discusses the development of an empirical model that relates the feed rate to the delamination-crack area in order to enable the user determine the ...

  17. Wellfield strategy and recommendations for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-04-01

    On December 20, 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) requested the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Field Office (RL) to proceed with the detailed planning, including nonintrusive field work, required to implement an Expedited Response Action (ERA) for removing carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The request was based on concerns that the carbon tetrachloride residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this ERA is to minimize carbon tetrachloride migration within the unsaturated zone beneath and,away from the carbon tetrachloride disposal sites in the 200 West Area.

  18. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Stands under the Grain for Green Program in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangang Chen

    Full Text Available The Grain for Green Program (GGP is the largest afforestation and reforestation project in China in the early part of this century. To assess carbon sequestration in stands under the GGP in Southwest China, the carbon stocks and their annual changes in the GGP stands in the region were estimated based on the following information: (1 collected data on the annually planted area of each tree species under the GGP in Southwest China from 1999 to 2010; (2 development of empirical growth curves and corresponding carbon estimation models for each species growing in the GPP stands; and (3 parameters associated with the stands such as wood density, biomass expansion factor, carbon fraction and the change rate of soil organic carbon content. Two forest management scenarios were examined: scenario A, with no harvesting, and scenario B, with logging at the customary rotation followed by replanting. The results showed that by the years 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050 and 2060, the expected carbon storage of the GGP stands in Southwest China is 139.58 TgC, 177.50-207.55 TgC, 196.86-259.65 TgC, 240.45-290.62 TgC and 203.22-310.03 TgC (T = 1012, respectively. For the same years, the expected annual change in carbon stocks is 7.96 TgCyr-1, -7.95-5.95 TgCyr-1, -0.10-4.67 TgCyr-1, 4.31-2.24 TgCyr-1 and -0.02-1.75 TgCyr-1, respectively. This indicates that the stands significantly contribute to forest carbon sinks in this region. In 2060, the estimated carbon stocks in the seven major species of GGP stands in Southwest China are 4.16-13.01 TgC for Pinus armandii, 6.30-15.01 TgC for Pinus massoniana, 11.51-13.44 TgC for Cryptomeria fortunei, 15.94-24.13 TgC for Cunninghamia lanceolata, 28.05 TgC for Cupressus spp., 5.32-15.63 TgC for Populus deltoides and 5.87-14.09 TgC for Eucalyptus spp. The carbon stocks in these seven species account for 36.8%-41.4% of the total carbon stocks in all GGP stands over the next 50 years.

  19. ORGANIC CARBON AND CARBON STOCK: RELATIONS WITH PHYSICAL INDICATORS AND SOIL AGGREGATION IN AREAS CULTIVATED WITH SUGAR CANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tolentino de Lima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon and carbon stock influence, directly or indirectly, most of soil aggregate stability indicators. The objective of this study was to quantify the production of dry biomass (DB, total organic carbon (TOC and carbon stock (CStk in soil, and to evaluate their influence on some indicators of aggregation in an Oxisol at a Cerrado biome in Uberaba-MG, Brazil. The design was completely randomized blocks, in two evaluation periods: three and six cuts, at six depths (0-0.1, 0.1-0.2, 0.2-0.3, 0.3-0.4, 0.4-0.5 and 0.5-0.6 m. It was evaluated: soil density (SD, volumetric humidity (VH, aggregate stability index (AEI, weighted mean diameter (WDA, mean diameter (GDA, index of aggregates with diameter greater than 2 mm (AI and sensitivity index (SI, replicated by 4. The best AEI of the soil and the highest TOC contents were found in the most superficial layers, 0 to 0.2 m, for both cuttings. The greater values of TOC and CStk, occurred at the sixth cut area, where there was a higher amount of DB on soil surface. The higher levels of organic matter did not provide higher AEI in the area of sixth cut, when compared to that of the third cut. The TOC and CStk levels in both areas generally had a positive influence on soil aggregation indicators for both cuts.

  20. Facile synthesis of ultrahigh-surface-area hollow carbon nanospheres for enhanced adsorption and energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Tang, Zhiwei; Huang, Siqi; Chen, Luyi; Liang, Yeru; Mai, Weicong; Zhong, Hui; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai

    2015-01-01

    Exceptionally large surface area and well-defined nanostructure are both critical in the field of nanoporous carbons for challenging energy and environmental issues. The pursuit of ultrahigh surface area while maintaining definite nanostructure remains a formidable challenge because extensive creation of pores will undoubtedly give rise to the damage of nanostructures, especially below 100 nm. Here we report that high surface area of up to 3,022 m2 g−1 can be achieved for hollow carbon nanospheres with an outer diameter of 69 nm by a simple carbonization procedure with carefully selected carbon precursors and carbonization conditions. The tailor-made pore structure of hollow carbon nanospheres enables target-oriented applications, as exemplified by their enhanced adsorption capability towards organic vapours, and electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors and sulphur host materials for lithium–sulphur batteries. The facile approach may open the doors for preparation of highly porous carbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications. PMID:26072734

  1. A small subset of protected areas are a highly significant source of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Murray B.; Mitchard, Edward T. A.

    2017-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) aim to protect multiple ecosystem services. However, not all are well protected. For the first time, using published carbon and forest loss maps, we estimate carbon emissions in large forest PAs in tropical countries (N = 2018). We found 36 ± 16 Pg C stored in PA trees, representing 14.5% of all tropical forest biomass carbon. However the PAs lost forest at a mean rate of 0.18% yr-1 from 2000-2012. Lower protection status areas experienced higher forest losses (e.g. 0.39% yr-1 in IUCN cat III), yet even highest status areas lost 0.13% yr-1 (IUCN Cat I). Emissions were not evenly distributed: 80% of emissions derived from 8.3% of PAs (112 ± 49.5 Tg CO2 yr-1 n = 171). Unsurprisingly the largest emissions derived from PAs that started with the greatest total forest area; accounting for starting forest area and relating that to carbon lost using a linear model (r2 = 0.41), we found 1.1% outlying PAs (residuals >2σ N = 23), representing 1.3% of the total PA forest area, yet causing 27.3% of all PA emissions. These results suggest PAs have been a successful means of protecting biomass carbon, yet a subset causing a disproportionately high share of emissions should be an urgent priority for management interventions.

  2. Total and size-resolved particle number and black carbon concentrations near an industrial area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Moerman, M.; Zandveld, P.; Henzing, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Total and size-resolved particle number and black carbon concentrations were investigated in urban areas of the city of Rotterdam (the Netherlands) situated near an industrial area. Several monitoring campaigns were conducted in the period 2011-2014 at three local locations and at a regional

  3. 25 CFR 2.19 - Action by Area Directors and Education Programs officials on appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by Area Directors and Education Programs officials... Programs officials on appeal. (a) Area Directors, Area Education Programs Administrators, Agency...—Indian Affairs/Director (Indian Education Programs) shall render written decisions in all cases appealed...

  4. A superhigh discharge capacity induced by a synergetic effect between high-surface-area carbons and a carbon paper current collector in a lithium-oxygen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guang-Sheng; Huang, Shi-Ting; Zhao, Ning; Cui, Zhong-Hui; Guo, Xiang-Xin

    2015-08-01

    This paper invesitages the synergetic effect between high-surface-area carbons, such as Ketjan Black (KB) or Super P (SP) carbon materials, and low-surface-area carbon paper (CP) current collectors and it also examines their influence on the discharge performance of nonaqueous Li-O2 cells. Ultra-large specific discharge capacities are found in the KB/CP cathodes, which are much greater than those observed in the individual KB or CP cathodes. Detailed analysis indicates that such unexpectedly large capacities result from the synergetic effect between the two components. During the initial discharges of KB or SP materials, a large number of superoxide radical species in the electrolytes and Li2O2 nuclei at the CP surfaces are formed, which activate the CP current collectors to contribute considerable capacities. These results imply that CP could be a superior material for current collectors in terms of its contribution to the overall discharge capacity. On the other hand, we should be careful to calculate the specific capacities of the oxygen cathodes when using CP as a current collector; i.e., ignoring the contribution from the CP may cause overstated discharge capacities. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KGZD-EW-202-2), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB921004), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. U1232111).

  5. 1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-08-01

    Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980`s, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site.

  6. Carbonate reservoirs modified by magmatic intrusions in the Bachu area, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration in carbonate rocks was extremely successful in recent years in the Ordovician in Tarim Basin, NW China. Here, we investigate the carbonate reservoirs in the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin through petrological and geochemical studies combined with oil and gas exploration data. Geochemical analysis included the major, trace, and rare earth elements; fluid inclusion thermometry; clay mineral characterization; and carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate rocks. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions of Well He-3 in the Bachu area indicate three groups, 60–80 °C, 90–130 °C, and 140–170 °C, and suggest that the carbonate rocks experienced modification due to heating events. The porosity in the reservoir is defined by fractures and secondary pores, and there is a notable increase in the porosity of the carbonate reservoirs in proximity to magmatic intrusion, particularly approximately 8–10 m from the intrusive rocks. The development of secondary pores was controlled by lithofacies and corrosion by various fluids. We identify supercritical fluids with high density (138.12–143.97 mg/cm3 in the Bachu area. The negative correlations of δ13C (−2.76‰ to −0.97‰ and δ18O (−7.91‰ to −5.07‰ suggest that the carbonate rocks in the study area were modified by high-salinity hydrothermal fluid. The formation of clay minerals, such as illite and montmorillonite, caused a decrease in porosity. Our study demonstrates the effect of magmatic intrusions in modifying the reservoir characteristics of carbonate rocks and has important implications for oil and gas exploration.

  7. Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program: the Galileo area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, R.D.; Kordas, J.F.

    1983-12-28

    The Galileo area is the first region of the Nevada Test Site to be surveyed by the Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP). This report describes in detail the use of soil sampling and in situ spectrometry to estimate radionuclide activities at selected sampling locations; the descriptions of these methods will be used as a reference for future RIDP reports. The data collected at Galileo were analyzed by kriging and the polygons of influence method to estimate the total inventory and the distribution of six man-made radionuclides. The results of the different statistical methods agree fairly well, although the data did not give very good estimates of the variogram for kriging, and further study showed the results of kriging to be highly dependent on the variogram parameters. The results also showed that in situ spectrometry gives better estimates of radionuclide activity than soil sampling, which tends to miss highly radioactive particles associated with vegetation. 18 references, 28 figures, 11 tables.

  8. Challenges for Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from the Transport Sector in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    The transport sector is a large contributor of harmful gaseous and particulate emissions in many urban areas. Black carbon is a component of short-lived particulate matter emitted predominantly by freight, public transport, and heavy- duty trucks. Controlling the emissions of black carbon from the transport sector is important for mitigating its impacts on climate, ecosystems, and human health. However, reducing the emissions of black carbon from mobile sources may be a challenging task in many developing urban areas due to economic, social, and technical constrains. Several emissions control technologies offer a proven approach for reducing emissions of black carbon from diesel-powered mobile sources, but the accurate quantification of associated emissions benefits in developing urban areas is not well documented. We describe recent advances for the estimation of black carbon emissions from the transport sector in real world driving conditions and present examples of the potential benefits of implementing various emission control technologies in Mexico. The results can help in the identification of key factors that hinder the implementation of control emissions for reducing emissions of black carbon elsewhere.

  9. Warming climate extends dryness-controlled areas of terrestrial carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chuixiang; Wei, Suhua; Hendrey, George

    2014-07-01

    At biome-scale, terrestrial carbon uptake is controlled mainly by weather variability. Observational data from a global monitoring network indicate that the sensitivity of terrestrial carbon sequestration to mean annual temperature (T) breaks down at a threshold value of 16°C, above which terrestrial CO2 fluxes are controlled by dryness rather than temperature. Here we show that since 1948 warming climate has moved the 16°C T latitudinal belt poleward. Land surface area with T > 16°C and now subject to dryness control rather than temperature as the regulator of carbon uptake has increased by 6% and is expected to increase by at least another 8% by 2050. Most of the land area subjected to this warming is arid or semiarid with ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to drought and land degradation. In areas now dryness-controlled, net carbon uptake is ~27% lower than in areas in which both temperature and dryness (T areas may be triggering a positive feedback accelerating global warming. Continued increases in land area with T > 16°C has implications not only for positive feedback on climate change, but also for ecosystem integrity and land cover, particularly for pastoral populations in marginal lands.

  10. U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litynski, J.; Plasynski, S.; Spangler, L.; Finley, R.; Steadman, E.; Ball, D.; Nemeth, K.J.; McPherson, B.; Myer, L.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has formed a nationwide network of seven regional partnerships to help determine the best approaches for capturing and permanently storing gases that can contribute to global climate change. The Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are tasked with determining the most suitable technologies, regulations, and infrastructure for carbon capture, transport, and storage in their areas of the country and parts of Canada. The seven partnerships include more than 350 state agencies, universities, national laboratories, private companies, and environmental organizations, spanning 42 states, two Indian nations, and four Canadian provinces. The Regional Partnerships initiative is being implemented in three phases: ???Characterization Phase (2003-2005): The objective was to collect data on CO2 sources and sinks and develop the human capital to support and enable future carbon sequestration field tests and deployments. The completion of this Phase was marked by release of the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada-Version 1 which included a common methodology for capacity assessment and reported over 3,000GT of storage capacity in saline formations, depleted oil and gas fields, and coal seams.???Validation Phase (2005-2009): The objective is to plan and implement small-scale (1??million tons of CO2) Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects, which will demonstrate that large volumes of CO2 can be injected safely, permanently, and economically into geologic formations representative of large storage capacity. Even though the RCSP Program is being implemented in three phases, it should be viewed as an integrated whole, with many of the goals and objectives transitioning from one phase to the next. Accomplishments and results from the Characterization Phase have helped to refine goals and activities in the Validation and Deployment Phases. The RCSP Program encourages and requires open information sharing among

  11. Mapping soil organic carbon stock in the area of Neamtu Catchment, Northeastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaban, Ana-Ioana; Bobric, Elena-Diana; Breaban, Iuliana-Gabriela; Rusu, Eugen

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of soil organic carbon stocks and its spatial extent is directly influenced by the land cover. The aim of the study is to quantify both the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and stocks under different soil types and land uses in an area of 41.808,04 ha in northeastern part of Romania. It has been studied the evolution of carbon stocks over time, taking into account the change of land use between 1990-2012 under 5 classes: forests, pastures, arable land, orchard and built spaces. Common soils are Cambisols, Fluvisols, Phaezems, and Luvisols, forest being the predominant land use. The most important loss of soil organic carbon occurs as a result of changes in the supply of biomass supplying litter and therefore the process of bioaccumulation. The samples were collected from 100 representative soil profiles and analyzed with Analytik Jena multi N/C 2100 with HT 1300 solid module. Based on the soil organic carbon, C/N ratio and texture the values of those parameters varied from high values in Ao and Bv horizons to lower values in C horizon. In order to model soil organic carbon concentration were used different interpolation techniques (regression and ordinary -kriging, IDW) at different sampling densities for each depth to 100 cm, using a Gaussian approach to estimate the uncertainty. It is noticeable that soil organic carbon had a positive correlation with different types of land uses and a negative correlation with the elevation, being a decreasing trend of the carbon stocks sequestered in biomass, litter and soil. In the upper part of the profiles, the soil organic carbon stock considerably varied for forest land between 6.5-7.23 kg C/sqm) and agricultural land (3.67-4.65 kg C/sqm). The kriging regression evidenced a good variability of the calculated root mean square errors of the predicted soil organic carbon stocks.

  12. A highly permeable and enhanced surface area carbon-cloth electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, Y. K.; An, L.; Wei, L.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a high-performance porous electrode, made of KOH-activated carbon-cloth, is developed for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The macro-scale porous structure in the carbon cloth formed by weaving the carbon fibers in an ordered manner offers a low tortuosity (∼1.1) and a broad pore distribution from 5 μm to 100 μm, rendering the electrode a high hydraulic permeability and high effective ionic conductivity, which are beneficial for the electrolyte flow and ion transport through the porous electrode. The use of KOH activation method to create nano-scale pores on the carbon-fiber surfaces leads to a significant increase in the surface area for redox reactions from 2.39 m2 g-1 to 15.4 m2 g-1. The battery assembled with the present electrode delivers an energy efficiency of 80.1% and an electrolyte utilization of 74.6% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, as opposed to an electrolyte utilization of 61.1% achieved by using a conventional carbon-paper electrode. Such a high performance is mainly attributed to the combination of the excellent mass/ion transport properties and the high surface area rendered by the present electrode. It is suggested that the KOH-activated carbon-cloth electrode is a promising candidate in redox flow batteries.

  13. Carbon storage in Swedish bedrock - current status regarding potential storage areas and geophysical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, B.; Juhojuntti, N. G.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is increasingly considered as an option to reduce the release of CO2 to the atmosphere. There is today a significant interest from Swedish heavy industry in CCS-technology. Large point sources are found within process industry related to e.g. production of paper and steel (operating under European Union regulations). There is also significant emission of CO2 from burning of biomass for energy production. However, this process is considered to be climate neutral and thus the emissions are not included in the carbon trading schemes. Based on recent work at the Geological Survey of Sweden and by other organizations we discuss the possibilities for geological storage of CO2 in Sweden, including the locations of the potential storage sites and the main CO2 emitters. In this context, we also review the relevant geophysical data available at the Geological Survey, focusing on the seismic data but also including gravity and magnetic data. Deep saline aquifers are presently considered as the most realistic storage alternative in Sweden. Sedimentary bedrock containing such layers and which could be suitable for CO2 storage is mainly found within the southern Baltic Sea and around southernmost Sweden, close to Denmark. The knowledge about the sedimentary bedrock in these areas is mainly based on seismic measurements and drilling in connection with hydrocarbon prospecting during the 70’s and the 80’s. Approximately 40.000 km’s of seismic reflection profiles were acquired, mostly in the potential CO2 storage areas mentioned above. Data from these profiles are now archived at the Geological Survey, and currently the magnetic tapes (8000-9000 reels) are being transcribed to modern storage media, a work that will likely be finished during 2011. Despite the hydrocarbon prospecting in these areas there are remaining uncertainties regarding the suitability of the sedimentary bedrock for CO2 storage, in particular related to the porosity and

  14. The New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program: A Model for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Burger; D. J. Adams; T. Post; L. Sommers; B. Swift

    2005-01-01

    The New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program, modeled after the National Audubon Society?s Important Bird Areas Program, is based on legislation signed by Governor Pataki in 1997. New York is the first state in the nation to enact such a program. The BCA Program seeks to provide a comprehensive, ecosystem approach to conserving birds and their habitats on...

  15. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-27

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2011 results. During 2011, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 8, August 2, August 24, and October 19, 2011; at UE5PW-2 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011; and at UE5PW-3 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, June 7, August 1, and October 17, 2011. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Initial total organic carbon and total organic halides results for samples collected in August 2011 were above previous measurements and, in some cases, above the established investigation limits. However, after field sample pumps and tubing were disinfected with Clorox solution, the results returned to normal levels. Final results from samples collected in 2011 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  16. Functionalization and Area-Selective Deposition of Magnetic Carbon-Coated Iron Nanoparticles from Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Widenkvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A route to area-selective deposition of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles, involving chemical modification of the surface of the particles, is described. Partial oxidative etching of the coating introduces carboxylic groups, which then are esterified. The functionalized particles can be selectively deposited on the Si areas of Si/SiO2 substrates by a simple dipping procedure. Nanoparticles and nanoassemblies have been analyzed using SEM, TEM, and XPS.

  17. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2010 results. During 2010, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 10 and August 10, 2010; at UE5PW-2 on March 10, August 10, and August 25, 2010; and at UE5PW-3 on March 31, August 10, and August 25, 2010. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, April 26, August 9, and November 9, 2010. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2010 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  18. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-02-11

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2012 results. During 2012, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 21, August 7, August 21, and September 11, 2012, and static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 19, June 6, August 2, and October 15, 2012. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Final results from samples collected in 2012 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  19. High surface area carbon for bifunctional air electrodes applied in zinc-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, H. [on leave from NTT Laboratories (Japan); Mueller, S.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Bifunctional air electrodes with high surface area carbon substrates showed low reduction overpotential, thus are promising for enhancing the energy efficiency and power capability of zinc-air batteries. The improved performance is attributed to lower overpotential due to diffusion of the reaction intermediate, namely the peroxide ion. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  20. Amazon forest carbon dynamics predicted by profiles of canopy leaf area and light environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. C. Stark; V. Leitold; J. L. Wu; M. O. Hunter; C. V. de Castilho; F. R. C. Costa; S. M. McMahon; G. G. Parker; M. Takako Shimabukuro; M. A. Lefsky; M. Keller; L. F. Alves; J. Schietti; Y. E. Shimabukuro; D. O. Brandao; T. K. Woodcock; N. Higuchi; P. B de Camargo; R. C. de Oliveira; S. R. Saleska

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forest structural variation across heterogeneous landscapes may control above-ground carbon dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that canopy structure (leaf area and light availability) – remotely estimated from LiDAR – control variation in above-ground coarse wood production (biomass growth). Using a statistical model, these factors predicted biomass growth...

  1. A preliminary carbon budget for two oligotrophic hardwater lakes in the Forsmark area, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Eva [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology

    2001-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is responsible for management and disposal of Swedish radioactive waste. The company is planning to construct repositories that will keep radioactive waste away from humans for hundreds of thousands of years. In a safety assessment of the repositories hypothetical releases are used to evaluate the robustness of the repositories. It is important to know how the radioactive nuclides would react if they were released and by which way they could enter the living biota. SFR are responsible for the disposal of low radioactive waste and close to the nuclear plant in Forsmark there is a storage for low radioactive waste. At the moment this storage is located in the bedrock far below the sea level but due to land-rise in the area it will in the future be located above sea level. Hence, it is of importance to know how the surface ecosystems in the area are functioning. A carbon budget for the aquatic ecosystem above SFR in Oeresundsgrepen exist, but it is also important to have a carbon budget for the surface systems in the Forsmark area since SFR in the future will be situated above sea level. Carbon budgets can be used to get a picture of how an ecosystem functions. The carbon flow shows how carbon is transported through a food web from lower trophic levels, e.g. plants and bacteria to higher trophic levels such as fish. Oligotrophic hardwater lakes are the most important lakes in the Forsmark area. This report aims to give a picture of a potential flow of carbon through the ecosystem in two oligotrophic hard-water lakes, Lake Haellefjaerd and Lake Eckarfjaerden. Macrophyte, mainly Chara, were calculated to make up the largest part of the biomass and production in both lakes. Benthic bacteria and microphytobenthos (benthic photosynthesising microorganisms) were other large contributors to the production. Benthic bacteria were found responsible for a major part of respiration and, hence, consumption of carbon in the

  2. Assessment of Carbon Status in Marine Protected Area of Payung Island Waters, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ida Sunaryo Purwiyanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 is a greenhouse gas that receive more attention than the other gases because the properties of carbon easily deformed and diffuseed. Changes in the concentration of CO2 in the water will impact on changes in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that affect sea surface temperatures. It continuously will result in a change of marine capture fisheries. Payung Island is one of the important areas in South Sumatra that acts as the provider of the fishery. This because Payung Island is located in the mouth of Musi and Telang River covered by mangrove, has a very important ecological function. However, the condition of the carbon in the waters of the Payung Island has not explored further. This elementary study is to determine status on Payung Island waters as a sink or source of CO2. The study was conducted in June until August 2015. The research stages include surface water sampling, measurement of the CO2 in the atmosphere, the analysis of the concentration of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC and Total Alkalinity (TA, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 calculation.  Atmospheric CO2 were measured insitu, while the DIC and TA were analyzed using titration methods. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 obtained from the calculation using the software CO2Calc using data of  DIC, TA, nutrients and atmospheric CO2. The results showed that the content of DIC and TA on the Payung Island waters has similar distribution pattern  i.e. high in areas close to the river, and getting lower in the area which were closer to the sea. The comparisons between pCO2 atmosphere and pCO2 waters showed that Payung Island waters generally act as a carbon sink in area towards the sea but however, in the territorial waters adjacent to the river as a source of carbon.   Keywords: carbon, marine protected area, Payung Island waters

  3. 45 CFR 308.3 - Optional program areas of review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are trying to manage their resources to achieve the best performance possible. A program direction... to make the program more efficient and effective; (2) Efforts to improve client services; (3...

  4. Identification of areas in Brazil that optimize conservation of forest carbon, jaguars, and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros, Alan E; MacDonald, Ewan A; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; Paula, Rogério C; Nijhawan, Sahil; Malhi, Y; MacDonald, David W

    2014-04-01

    A major question in global environmental policy is whether schemes to reduce carbon pollution through forest management, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), can also benefit biodiversity conservation in tropical countries. We identified municipalities in Brazil that are priorities for reducing rates of deforestation and thus preserving carbon stocks that are also conservation targets for the endangered jaguar (Panthera onca) and biodiversity in general. Preliminary statistical analysis showed that municipalities with high biodiversity were positively associated with high forest carbon stocks. We used a multicriteria decision analysis to identify municipalities that offered the best opportunities for the conservation of forest carbon stocks and biodiversity conservation under a range of scenarios with different rates of deforestation and carbon values. We further categorized these areas by their representativeness of the entire country (through measures such as percent forest cover) and an indirect measure of cost (number of municipalities). The municipalities that offered optimal co-benefits for forest carbon stocks and conservation were termed REDDspots (n = 159), and their spatial distribution was compared with the distribution of current and proposed REDD projects (n = 135). We defined REDDspots as the municipalities that offer the best opportunities for co-benefits between the conservation of forest carbon stocks, jaguars, and other wildlife. These areas coincided in 25% (n = 40) of municipalities. We identified a further 95 municipalities that may have the greatest potential to develop additional REDD+ projects while also targeting biodiversity conservation. We concluded that REDD+ strategies could be an efficient tool for biodiversity conservation in key locations, especially in Amazonian and Atlantic Forest biomes. ©2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiato, Rocco A. [Accelergy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Sharma, Ramesh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Allen, Mark [Accelergy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States). Integrated Carbon Solutions; Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Macur, Richard [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences; Cameron, Jemima [Australian Energy Company Ltd., Hovea (Australia). Australian American Energy Corporation (AAEC)

    2013-12-01

    Integrated carbon-to-liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO2 Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO2, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub-bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal-Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat-camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger

  6. Towards Regional, Error-Bounded Landscape Carbon Storage Estimates for Data-Deficient Areas of the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willcock, Simon; Phillips, Oliver L.; Platts, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    estimates for the same study area extracted from five published Africa-wide or global studies show a mean carbon storage value of ∼50% of that reported using our regional values, with four of the five studies reporting lower carbon storage values. This suggests that carbon storage may have been...

  7. NCRP Vision for the Future and Program Area Committee Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, John D

    2017-02-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) believes that the most critical need for the nation in radiation protection is to train, engage, and retain radiation professionals for the future. Not only is the pipeline shrinking, but for some areas there is no longer a pipe! When the call comes to respond, there may be no one to answer the phone! The NCRP "Where are the Radiation Professionals?" initiative, Council Committee (CC) 2, and this year's annual meeting are to focus our efforts to find solutions and not just reiterate the problems. Our next major initiative is CC 1, where the NCRP is making recommendations for the United States on all things dealing with radiation protection. Our last publication was NCRP Report No. 116, Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, in 1993-time for an update. NCRP has seven active Program Area Committees on biology and epidemiology, operational concerns, emergency response and preparedness, medicine, environmental issues and waste management, dosimetry, and communications. A major scientific research initiative is the Million Person Study of Low Dose Radiation Health Effects. It includes workers from the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons test participants (atomic veterans), industrial radiographers, and early medical workers such as radiologists and technologists. This research will answer the one major gap in radiation risk evaluation: what are the health effects when the exposure occurs gradually over time? Other cutting edge initiatives include a re-evaluation of science behind recommendations for lens of the eye dose limits, recommendations for emergency responders on dosimetry after a major radiological incident, guidance to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration with regard to possible central nervous system effects from galactic cosmic rays (the high energy, high mass particles bounding through space), re-evaluating the population exposure to medical radiation (NCRP Report No

  8. Hierarchical porous carbon with ultrahigh surface area from corn leaf for high-performance supercapacitors application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Li, Chengfei; Chen, Yue

    2017-02-01

    A new class of hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) with ultrahigh surface area is successfully fabricated by carefully selecting biomass carbon precursors and activation reagent, through which corn leaf (CL) with natural well-defined macropore channels is used as the carbon precursor, and H3PO4 is used as the active agent by virtue of its pore-widening effect. The as-prepared CL-based HPC (CLHPC) with a H3PO4/semi-carbonized CL mass ratio of 2 (CLHPC-2) demonstrates the highest specific surface area of 2507 m2 g-1 donated by 28.3% of micropore and 71.6% of mesopore, while maintaining the channel-like macroporous structure derived from the well-defined natural structure in CL. The combination of the hierarchical porous structure and ultrahigh surface area enables rapid electrolyte diffusion and sufficient active sites for charge accumulation. As a result, CLHPC-2 exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, such as high specific capacitance of 230 F g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A g-1, excellent high-rate capability (retention of 91% from 0.1 to 5 A g-1), and good cycling stability (99% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles).

  9. Warming climate extends dryness-controlled areas of terrestrial carbon sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Chuixiang Yi; Suhua Wei; George Hendrey

    2014-01-01

    At biome-scale, terrestrial carbon uptake is controlled mainly by weather variability. Observational data from a global monitoring network indicate that the sensitivity of terrestrial carbon sequestration to mean annual temperature (T) breaks down at a threshold value of 16°C, above which terrestrial CO2 fluxes are controlled by dryness rather than temperature. Here we show that since 1948 warming climate has moved the 16°C T latitudinal belt poleward. Land surface area with T > 16°C and now ...

  10. Nevada Test Site 2009 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-01-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2009 results. During 2009, groundwater at each of the three pilot wells was sampled on March 10, 2009, and August 18, 2009, and water levels at each of the three pilot wells were measured on February 17, May 6, August 17, and November 10, 2009. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2009 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  11. Nevada Test Site 2001 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2001 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Due to detections of TOC and TOX in some samples collected in 2000, a plan, as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), was executed to collect an increased number and type of samples in 2001. Results from all samples collected in 2001 were below ILs. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 RWMS and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year.

  12. 2003 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2003 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semi-annually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), tritium, and major cations/anions. Results from all samples collected in 2003 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and confirm that any previous detections of TOC and TOX were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevations. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes a Cumulative Chronology for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the current groundwater sampling procedure.

  13. Gross changes in forest area shape the future carbon balance of tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bookkeeping models are used to estimate land-use and land-cover change (LULCC carbon fluxes (ELULCC. The uncertainty of bookkeeping models partly arises from data used to define response curves (usually from local data and their representativeness for application to large regions. Here, we compare biomass recovery curves derived from a recent synthesis of secondary forest plots in Latin America by Poorter et al. (2016 with the curves used previously in bookkeeping models from Houghton (1999 and Hansis et al. (2015. We find that the two latter models overestimate the long-term (100 years vegetation carbon density of secondary forest by about 25 %. We also use idealized LULCC scenarios combined with these three different response curves to demonstrate the importance of considering gross forest area changes instead of net forest area changes for estimating regional ELULCC. In the illustrative case of a net gain in forest area composed of a large gross loss and a large gross gain occurring during a single year, the initial gross loss has an important legacy effect on ELULCC so that the system can be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere long after the initial forest area change. We show the existence of critical values of the ratio of gross area change over net area change (γAnetAgross, above which cumulative ELULCC is a net CO2 source rather than a sink for a given time horizon after the initial perturbation. These theoretical critical ratio values derived from simulations of a bookkeeping model are compared with observations from the 30 m resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper data of gross and net forest area change in the Amazon. This allows us to diagnose areas in which current forest gains with a large land turnover will still result in LULCC carbon emissions in 20, 50 and 100 years.

  14. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  15. Tropical protected areas reduced deforestation carbon emissions by one third from 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebber, Daniel P; Butt, Nathalie

    2017-10-25

    Tropical deforestation is responsible for around one tenth of total anthropogenic carbon emissions, and tropical protected areas (PAs) that reduce deforestation can therefore play an important role in mitigating climate change and protecting biodiversity and ecosystem services. While the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation has been estimated, the impact on global carbon emissions remains unquantified. Here we show that tropical PAs overall reduced deforestation carbon emissions by 4.88 Pg, or around 29%, between 2000 and 2012, when compared to expected rates of deforestation controlling for spatial variation in deforestation pressure. The largest contribution was from the tropical Americas (368.8 GgC y(-1)), followed by Asia (25.0 GgC y(-1)) and Africa (12.7 GgC y(-1)). Variation in PA effectiveness is largely driven by local factors affecting individual PAs, rather than designations assigned by governments.

  16. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

  17. New Areas for Preventive Programing: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph

    Crisis intervention programs for persons experiencing the sudden death of family members or surviving natural disasters have been advocated as methods of primary prevention, although few have actually been implemented. A program utilizing nurses to deliver grief intervention to parents losing a baby to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) was…

  18. Microbial Carbon Substrate Utilization Differences among High- and Average-Yield Soybean Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Adams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr. yields greater than 6719 kg ha−1 have only recently and infrequently been achieved, little is known about the soil microbiological environment related to high-yield soybean production. Soil microbiological properties are often overlooked when assessing agronomic practices for optimal production. Therefore, a greater understanding is needed regarding how soil biological properties may differ between high- and average-yielding areas within fields. The objectives of this study were to (i evaluate the effects of region on soil microbial carbon substrate utilization differences between high- (HY and average-yield (AY areas and (ii assess the effect of yield area on selected microbiological property differences. Replicate soil samples were collected from the 0–10 cm depth from yield-contest-entered fields in close proximity that had both a HY and an AY area. Samples were collected immediately prior to or just after soybean harvest in 2014 and 2015 from each of seven geographic regions within Arkansas. Averaged across yield area, community-level carbon substrate utilization and Shannon’s and Simpson’s functional diversity and evenness were greater (p < 0.05 in Region 7 than all other regions. Averaged across regions, Shannon’s functional diversity and evenness were greater (p < 0.05 in HY than in AY areas. Principal component analysis demonstrated that a greater variety of carbon substrates were used in HY than AY areas. These results may help producers understand the soil microbiological environment in their own fields that contribute to or hinder achieving high-yielding soybeans; however, additional parameters may need to be assessed for a more comprehensive understanding of the soil environment that is associated with high-yielding soybean.

  19. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

  20. New Energy Efficient Housing Has Reduced Carbon Footprints in Outer but Not in Inner Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottelin, Juudit; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2015-08-18

    Avoiding urban sprawl and increasing density are often considered as effective means to mitigate climate change through urban planning. However, there have been rapid technological changes in the fields of housing energy and private driving, and the development is continuing. In this study, we analyze the carbon footprints of the residents living in new housing in different urban forms in Finland. We compare the new housing to existing housing stock. In all areas, the emissions from housing energy were significantly lower in new buildings. However, in the inner urban areas the high level of consumption, mostly due to higher affluence, reverse the gains of energy efficient new housing. The smallest carbon footprints were found in newly built outer and peri-urban areas, also when income level differences were taken into account. Rather than strengthening the juxtaposition of urban and suburban areas, we suggest that it would be smarter to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of both modes of living and develop a more systemic strategy that would result in greater sustainability in both areas. Since such strategy does not exist yet, it should be researched and practically developed. It would be beneficial to focus on area specific mitigation measures.

  1. Popcorn-Derived Porous Carbon Flakes with an Ultrahigh Specific Surface Area for Superior Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianhua; Jiang, Kun; Wei, Rui; Tahir, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoge; Shen, Ming; Wang, Xiaozhi; Cao, Chuanbao

    2017-09-13

    Popcorn-derived porous carbon flakes have been successfully fabricated from the biomass of maize. Utilizing the "puffing effect", the nubby maize grain turned into materials with an interconnected honeycomb-like porous structure composed of carbon flakes. The following chemical activation method enabled the as-prepared products to possess optimized porous structures for electrochemical energy-storage devices, such as multilayer flake-like structures, ultrahigh specific surface area (SBET: 3301 m2 g-1), and a high content of micropores (microporous surface area of 95%, especially the optimized sub-nanopores with the size of 0.69 nm) that can increase the specific capacitance. The as-obtained sample displayed excellent specific capacitance of 286 F g-1 at 90 A g-1 for supercapacitors. Moreover, the unique porous structure demonstrated an ideal way to improve the volumetric energy density performance. A high energy density of 103 Wh kg-1 or 53 Wh L-1 has been obtained in the case of ionic liquid electrolyte, which is the highest among reported biomass-derived carbon materials and will satisfy the urgent requirements of a primary power source for electric vehicles. This work may prove to be a fast, green, and large-scale synthesis route by using the large nubby granular materials to synthesize applicable porous carbons in energy-storage devices.

  2. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under...

  3. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Due to Forest Fires in Bukit Batu Area, Bengkalis Regency, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita, Sofia; Ariful Amri, T.; Abu Hanifah, T.; Furnando, Edo; Lukas, Amos

    2017-05-01

    High concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the major cause of global warming. This study focuses on estimation of carbon emissions from forest fires in Indonesia, especially Bukit Batu area, Bengkalis Regency. Peatlands in this area are widely used as an agricultural cultivation and plantations. The aim of this study is to measure the concentration of CO2 emitted based on the relationship of physical and chemical properties of peat soil. Measurements carried out on these peatlands with different vegetation covered, i.e. bush land, palm plantations and secondary forests. Methods used in this research were Infrared Gas Analyzer and Gas Chromatography. The average of CO2 emissions obtained of bush land, palm plantations, and secondary forest were 497.4 ppm; 523. 2 ppm; and 457.2 ppm, respectively.

  4. A template-free, ultra-adsorbing, high surface area carbonate nanostructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Forsgren

    Full Text Available We report the template-free, low-temperature synthesis of a stable, amorphous, and anhydrous magnesium carbonate nanostructure with pore sizes below 6 nm and a specific surface area of ∼ 800 m(2 g(-1, substantially surpassing the surface area of all previously described alkali earth metal carbonates. The moisture sorption of the novel nanostructure is featured by a unique set of properties including an adsorption capacity ∼50% larger than that of the hygroscopic zeolite-Y at low relative humidities and with the ability to retain more than 75% of the adsorbed water when the humidity is decreased from 95% to 5% at room temperature. These properties can be regenerated by heat treatment at temperatures below 100°C.The structure is foreseen to become useful in applications such as humidity control, as industrial adsorbents and filters, in drug delivery and catalysis.

  5. Quantifying Carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Limin; Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Cosgrove-Davies, Mac; Samad, Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Scaling-up adoption of renewable energy technology, such as solar home systems, to expand electricity access in developing countries can accelerate the transition to low-carbon economic development. Using a purposely collected national household survey, this study quantifies the carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh. Three key findings are generated...

  6. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Program [1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Management Program summarizes last year's water receipts, distribution, and general marsh conditions. Using past records of waterfowl use and productivity...

  7. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water management Program [1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Management Program summarizes last year's -water receipts, distribution and general marsh conditions . Anticipated water flows are made from cooperative...

  8. FFY 2012-2015 transportation improvement program for the Dubuque, Iowa, Illinois and Wisconsin urbanized area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    "A Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) is the Dubuque Metropolitan Area : Transportation Study (DMATS) 4- year financial implementation program listing of : transportation improvement projects eligible for Federal funding. It is DMATS : transpor...

  9. Integrating Other Areas of Learning into the Language Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Mariel

    1996-01-01

    Presents modules and learning activities taken from other learning areas useful in the Australian second-language classroom. Argues that general and specific subject areas can stimulate dialogue and interest as well as cultural and social awareness, provide new language structures, enrich vocabulary and extend the use of idiomatic expressions, and…

  10. Daily burned area and carbon emissions from boreal fires in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraverbeke, S.; Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.

    2015-06-01

    Boreal fires burn into carbon-rich organic soils, thereby releasing large quantities of trace gases and aerosols that influence atmospheric composition and climate. To better understand the factors regulating boreal fire emissions, we developed a statistical model of carbon consumption by fire for Alaska with a spatial resolution of 450 m and a temporal resolution of 1 day. We used the model to estimate variability in carbon emissions between 2001 and 2012. Daily burned area was mapped using imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer combined with perimeters from the Alaska Large Fire Database. Carbon consumption was calibrated using available field measurements from black spruce forests in Alaska. We built two nonlinear multiplicative models to separately predict above- and belowground carbon consumption by fire in response to environmental variables including elevation, day of burning within the fire season, pre-fire tree cover and the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR). Higher belowground carbon consumption occurred later in the season and for mid-elevation forests. Topographic slope and aspect did not improve performance of the belowground carbon consumption model. Aboveground and belowground carbon consumption also increased as a function of tree cover and the dNBR, suggesting a causal link between the processes regulating these two components of carbon consumption. Between 2001 and 2012, the median carbon consumption was 2.54 kg C m-2. Burning in land-cover types other than black spruce was considerable and was associated with lower levels of carbon consumption than for pure black spruce stands. Carbon consumption originated primarily from the belowground fraction (median = 2.32 kg C m-2 for all cover types and 2.67 kg C m-2 for pure black spruce stands). Total carbon emissions varied considerably from year to year, with the highest emissions occurring during 2004 (69 Tg C), 2005 (46 Tg C), 2009 (26 Tg C), and 2002 (17 Tg C) and a

  11. Density and stability of soil organic carbon beneath impervious surfaces in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zongqiang; Wu, Shaohua; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

    2014-01-01

    Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0-20 cm) under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (Psoils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct = C1+C0(1-e-kt)). The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks.

  12. Density and stability of soil organic carbon beneath impervious surfaces in urban areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongqiang Wei

    Full Text Available Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0-20 cm under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (P<0.05 positive correlation between the densities of SOC and total nitrogen (N in the open soils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct = C1+C0(1-e-kt. The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks.

  13. Modeling soil organic carbon change across Australian wheat growing areas, 1960-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Huang, Yao; Wang, Enli; Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in Australian wheat-growing areas were simulated from 1960 to 2010 using Agro-C, a calibrated and validated biogeophysical model. Previously published data from field measurements were used to parameterize the Agro-C model. Model simulations show a decreasing trend in SOC over the last 50 years, mainly attributable to relatively low organic carbon (C) inputs. The rate of decrease in SOC tended to slow in the last two decades due primarily to an increase in wheat yields, which resulted in an increase in C input. Overall, we estimate that Australian wheat-growing areas, covering an area of 15.09 million hectares (Mha), lost 156 (86-222, 95% confidence interval) Tg C in the topsoil (to 30 cm depth) from 1960 to 2010. Approximately 80% of the SOC loss occurred in the period between the 1960s and the 1980s. Spatially, the SOC loss in areas with relatively high temperature and low precipitation, such as Queensland, the northern part of New South Wales and Western Australia, was more significant than that in other areas. We suggest that the loss of SOC could be halted, or even reversed, with an additional input of organic C into the soil at a minimum rate of 0.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1).

  14. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  15. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2006 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culham, H W; Eaton, G F; Genetti, V; Hu, Q; Kersting, A B; Lindvall, R E; Moran, J E; Blasiyh Nuno, G A; Powell, B A; Rose, T P; Singleton, M J; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2008-04-08

    This report describes FY 2006 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area Project (UGTA). These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The report is organized on a topical basis and contains four chapters that highlight technical work products produced by CBND. However, it is important to recognize that most of this work involves collaborative partnerships with the other HRMP and UGTA contract organizations. These groups include the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and National Security Technologies (NSTec). Chapter 1 is a summary of FY 2006 sampling efforts at near-field 'hot' wells at the NTS, and presents new chemical and isotopic data for groundwater samples from four near-field wells. These include PM-2 and U-20n PS 1DDh (CHESHIRE), UE-7ns (BOURBON), and U-19v PS No.1ds (ALMENDRO). Chapter 2 is a summary of the results of chemical and isotopic measurements of groundwater samples from three UGTA environmental monitoring wells. These wells are: ER-12-4 and U12S located in Area 12 on Rainier

  16. North Carolina Toxic Substance Incidents Program 2010-2015: Identifying Areas for Injury Prevention Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiffert, Samantha; Etienne, Suze; Hirsch, Annie; Langley, Ricky

    2017-08-06

    The National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP) is a surveillance system designed to capture acute toxic substance releases, factors contributing to the release, and any associated injuries. North Carolina has participated since 2010, when NTSIP was established. This article will present a descriptive statistical summary from 2010 to 2015 focused on releases that resulted in injuries in order to identify areas for public health prevention efforts. Of the 1690 toxic releases in North Carolina, 155 incidents resulted in injuries and 500 people were injured. Carbon monoxide injured the greatest number of people. Of the incidents that resulted in injuries, 68 occurred at private vehicles or residences (44%), injuring 124 people (25%). Over half of events where at least one responder was injured occurred at private vehicles or residences. Events occurring at private residences did not have a significant relationship between evacuations and injuries, while for industry-related events, the odds of an evacuation being ordered were 8.18 times greater (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 5.19, 12.89) when there were injuries associated with an event. Intervention efforts should focus on preventing responder injuries while responding to private residence releases and educating the general public on how to prevent injuries by self-evacuating areas where hazardous chemicals have been released.

  17. North Carolina Toxic Substance Incidents Program 2010–2015: Identifying Areas for Injury Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiffert, Samantha; Etienne, Suze; Hirsch, Annie

    2017-01-01

    The National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP) is a surveillance system designed to capture acute toxic substance releases, factors contributing to the release, and any associated injuries. North Carolina has participated since 2010, when NTSIP was established. This article will present a descriptive statistical summary from 2010 to 2015 focused on releases that resulted in injuries in order to identify areas for public health prevention efforts. Of the 1690 toxic releases in North Carolina, 155 incidents resulted in injuries and 500 people were injured. Carbon monoxide injured the greatest number of people. Of the incidents that resulted in injuries, 68 occurred at private vehicles or residences (44%), injuring 124 people (25%). Over half of events where at least one responder was injured occurred at private vehicles or residences. Events occurring at private residences did not have a significant relationship between evacuations and injuries, while for industry-related events, the odds of an evacuation being ordered were 8.18 times greater (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 5.19, 12.89) when there were injuries associated with an event. Intervention efforts should focus on preventing responder injuries while responding to private residence releases and educating the general public on how to prevent injuries by self-evacuating areas where hazardous chemicals have been released. PMID:29051448

  18. Nevada Test Site 2002 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2002 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Results from all samples collected in 2002 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act(RCRA) regulated unit within the RWMS-5 and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  19. Towards regional, error-bounded landscape carbon storage estimates for data-deficient areas of the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Willcock

    Full Text Available Monitoring landscape carbon storage is critical for supporting and validating climate change mitigation policies. These may be aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, or increasing terrestrial carbon storage at local, regional and global levels. However, due to data-deficiencies, default global carbon storage values for given land cover types such as 'lowland tropical forest' are often used, termed 'Tier 1 type' analyses by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. Such estimates may be erroneous when used at regional scales. Furthermore uncertainty assessments are rarely provided leading to estimates of land cover change carbon fluxes of unknown precision which may undermine efforts to properly evaluate land cover policies aimed at altering land cover dynamics. Here, we present a repeatable method to estimate carbon storage values and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI for all five IPCC carbon pools (aboveground live carbon, litter, coarse woody debris, belowground live carbon and soil carbon for data-deficient regions, using a combination of existing inventory data and systematic literature searches, weighted to ensure the final values are regionally specific. The method meets the IPCC 'Tier 2' reporting standard. We use this method to estimate carbon storage over an area of33.9 million hectares of eastern Tanzania, reporting values for 30 land cover types. We estimate that this area stored 6.33 (5.92-6.74 Pg C in the year 2000. Carbon storage estimates for the same study area extracted from five published Africa-wide or global studies show a mean carbon storage value of ∼50% of that reported using our regional values, with four of the five studies reporting lower carbon storage values. This suggests that carbon storage may have been underestimated for this region of Africa. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining regionally appropriate carbon storage estimates, and shows how such values can be produced

  20. Black carbon contributes to organic matter in young soils in the Morteratsch proglacial area (Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eckmeier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most glacier forefields of the European Alps are being progressively exposed since the glaciers reached their maximum expansion in the 1850s. Global warming and climate changes additionally promote the exposure of sediments in previously glaciated areas. In these proglacial areas, initial soils have started to develop so that they may offer a continuous chronosequence from 0 to 150-yr-old soils. The build-up of organic matter is an important factor of soil formation, and not only autochthonous but also distant sources might contribute to its accumulation in young soils and surfaces of glacier forefields. Only little is known about black carbon in soils that develop in glacier forefields, although charred organic matter could be an important component of organic carbon in Alpine soils. The aim of our study was to examine whether black carbon (BC is present in the initial soils of a proglacial area, and to estimate its relative contribution to soil organic matter. We investigated soil samples from 35 sites distributed over the whole proglacial area of Morteratsch (Upper Engadine, Switzerland, covering a chronosequence from 0 to 150 yr. BC concentrations were determined in fine earth using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA marker method. We found that charred organic matter occurred in the whole area, and that it was a main compound of soil organic matter in the youngest soils, where total Corg concentrations were very low. The absolute concentrations of BC in fine earth were generally low but increased in soils that had been exposed for more than 40 yr. Specific initial microbial communities may profit from this additional C source during the first years of soil evolution and potentially promote soil development in its early stage.

  1. Influence of Leaf Area Index Prescriptions on Simulations of Heat, Moisture, and Carbon Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Jatin; Decker, Mark; Exbrayat, Jean-Francois; Pitman, Andy J.; Carouge, Claire; Evans, Jason P.; Abramowitz, Gab; Mocko, David

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-area index (LAI), the total one-sided surface area of leaf per ground surface area, is a key component of land surface models. We investigate the influence of differing, plausible LAI prescriptions on heat, moisture, and carbon fluxes simulated by the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLEv1.4b) model over the Australian continent. A 15-member ensemble monthly LAI data-set is generated using the MODIS LAI product and gridded observations of temperature and precipitation. Offline simulations lasting 29 years (1980-2008) are carried out at 25 km resolution with the composite monthly means from the MODIS LAI product (control simulation) and compared with simulations using each of the 15-member ensemble monthly-varying LAI data-sets generated. The imposed changes in LAI did not strongly influence the sensible and latent fluxes but the carbon fluxes were more strongly affected. Croplands showed the largest sensitivity in gross primary production with differences ranging from -90 to 60 %. PFTs with high absolute LAI and low inter-annual variability, such as evergreen broadleaf trees, showed the least response to the different LAI prescriptions, whilst those with lower absolute LAI and higher inter-annual variability, such as croplands, were more sensitive. We show that reliance on a single LAI prescription may not accurately reflect the uncertainty in the simulation of the terrestrial carbon fluxes, especially for PFTs with high inter-annual variability. Our study highlights that the accurate representation of LAI in land surface models is key to the simulation of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Hence this will become critical in quantifying the uncertainty in future changes in primary production.

  2. Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Berger, T.; Gebel, J.; Münch, W.

    2013-07-01

    We present a comprehensive, interdisciplinary project which demonstrates that large-scale plantations of Jatropha curcas - if established in hot, dry coastal areas around the world - could capture 17-25 t of carbon dioxide per hectare per year from the atmosphere (over a 20 yr period). Based on recent farming results it is confirmed that the Jatropha curcas plant is well adapted to harsh environments and is capable of growing alone or in combination with other tree and shrub species with minimal irrigation in hot deserts where rain occurs only sporadically. Our investigations indicate that there is sufficient unused and marginal land for the widespread cultivation of Jatropha curcas to have a significant impact on atmospheric CO2 levels at least for several decades. In a system in which desalinated seawater is used for irrigation and for delivery of mineral nutrients, the sequestration costs were estimated to range from 42-63 EUR per tonne CO2. This result makes carbon farming a technology that is competitive with carbon capture and storage (CCS). In addition, high-resolution simulations using an advanced land-surface-atmosphere model indicate that a 10 000 km2 plantation could produce a reduction in mean surface temperature and an onset or increase in rain and dew fall at a regional level. In such areas, plant growth and CO2 storage could continue until permanent woodland or forest had been established. In other areas, salinization of the soil may limit plant growth to 2-3 decades whereupon irrigation could be ceased and the captured carbon stored as woody biomass.

  3. A synthesis method for cobalt doped carbon aerogels with high surface area and their hydrogen storage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, H.Y.; Buckley, C.E. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, WA (Australia); CSIRO National Hydrogen Materials Alliance, CSIRO Energy Centre, 10 Murray Dwyer Circuit, Steel River Estate, Mayfield West, NSW 2304 (Australia); Sheppard, D.A.; Paskevicius, M. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, WA (Australia); Hanna, N. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Waterford, WA (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Carbon aerogels doped with nanoscaled Co particles were prepared by first coating activated carbon aerogels using a wet-thin layer coating process. The resulting metal-doped carbon aerogels had a higher surface area ({proportional_to}1667 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) and larger micropore volume ({proportional_to}0.6 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}) than metal-doped carbon aerogels synthesised using other methods suggesting their usefulness in catalytic applications. The hydrogen adsorption behaviour of cobalt doped carbon aerogel was evaluated, displaying a high {proportional_to}4.38 wt.% H{sub 2} uptake under 4.6 MPa at -196 C. The hydrogen uptake capacity with respect to unit surface area was greater than for pure carbon aerogel and resulted in {proportional_to}1.3 H{sub 2} (wt. %) per 500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. However, the total hydrogen uptake was slightly reduced as compared to pure carbon aerogel due to a small reduction in surface area associated with cobalt doping. The improved adsorption per unit surface area suggests that there is a stronger interaction between the hydrogen molecules and the cobalt doped carbon aerogel than for pure carbon aerogel. (author)

  4. Mobility of toxic elements in carbonate sediments from a mining area in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Alvarez, Natalia; Głaz, Lukasz; Dmowski, Krzysztof; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The Bolesław-Bukowno mining area in Poland is highly polluted by elements such as Zn, Pb, Cd and As. The reactivity and mobility of toxic elements such as Tl are poorly known. Here, we studied by sequential extraction the mobility of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Pb, Tl and Zn in sediments from two water reservoirs near Bukowno. Results show that available As, Co, Mn, Pb and Zn are found in carbonate minerals. Available Cd, Cu and Tl are found in sulphides and organic matter. The extractability of As, Cr, Mo and Tl was rather poor. By contrast, 85 % of total Cd, Pb and Zn was mobile. We discuss Tl and Mo association in carbonate sediments from ore deposits.

  5. Regional impacts of a program for private forest carbon offset sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius M. Adams; Ralph Alig; Greg Latta; Eric M. White

    2011-01-01

    Policymakers are examining wide range of alternatives for climate change mitigation, including carbon offset sales programs, to enhance sequestration in the forest sector. Under an offset sales program, on-the-ground forestry could change as result of both afforestation and modifications in the management of existing forests. These effects could vary markedly by region...

  6. Tree Diversity Enhances Stand Carbon Storage but Not Leaf Area in a Subtropical Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Castro-Izaguirre

    Full Text Available Research about biodiversity-productivity relationships has focused on herbaceous ecosystems, with results from tree field studies only recently beginning to emerge. Also, the latter are concentrated largely in the temperate zone. Tree species diversity generally is much higher in subtropical and tropical than in temperate or boreal forests, with reasons not fully understood. Niche overlap and thus complementarity in the use of resources that support productivity may be lower in forests than in herbaceous ecosystems, suggesting weaker productivity responses to diversity change in forests. We studied stand basal area, vertical structure, leaf area, and their relationship with tree species richness in a subtropical forest in south-east China. Permanent forest plots of 30 x 30 m were selected to span largely independent gradients in tree species richness and secondary successional age. Plots with higher tree species richness had a higher stand basal area. Also, stand basal area increases over a 4-year census interval were larger at high than at low diversity. These effects translated into increased carbon stocks in aboveground phytomass (estimated using allometric equations. A higher variability in tree height in more diverse plots suggested that these effects were facilitated by denser canopy packing due to architectural complementarity between species. In contrast, leaf area was not or even negatively affected by tree diversity, indicating a decoupling of carbon accumulation from leaf area. Alternatively, the same community leaf area might have assimilated more C per time interval in more than in less diverse plots because of differences in leaf turnover and productivity or because of differences in the display of leaves in vertical and horizontal space. Overall, our study suggests that in species-rich forests niche-based processes support a positive diversity-productivity relationship and that this translates into increased carbon storage in long

  7. Tree Diversity Enhances Stand Carbon Storage but Not Leaf Area in a Subtropical Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Izaguirre, Nadia; Chi, Xiulian; Baruffol, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Ma, Keping; Schmid, Bernhard; Niklaus, Pascal A

    2016-01-01

    Research about biodiversity-productivity relationships has focused on herbaceous ecosystems, with results from tree field studies only recently beginning to emerge. Also, the latter are concentrated largely in the temperate zone. Tree species diversity generally is much higher in subtropical and tropical than in temperate or boreal forests, with reasons not fully understood. Niche overlap and thus complementarity in the use of resources that support productivity may be lower in forests than in herbaceous ecosystems, suggesting weaker productivity responses to diversity change in forests. We studied stand basal area, vertical structure, leaf area, and their relationship with tree species richness in a subtropical forest in south-east China. Permanent forest plots of 30 x 30 m were selected to span largely independent gradients in tree species richness and secondary successional age. Plots with higher tree species richness had a higher stand basal area. Also, stand basal area increases over a 4-year census interval were larger at high than at low diversity. These effects translated into increased carbon stocks in aboveground phytomass (estimated using allometric equations). A higher variability in tree height in more diverse plots suggested that these effects were facilitated by denser canopy packing due to architectural complementarity between species. In contrast, leaf area was not or even negatively affected by tree diversity, indicating a decoupling of carbon accumulation from leaf area. Alternatively, the same community leaf area might have assimilated more C per time interval in more than in less diverse plots because of differences in leaf turnover and productivity or because of differences in the display of leaves in vertical and horizontal space. Overall, our study suggests that in species-rich forests niche-based processes support a positive diversity-productivity relationship and that this translates into increased carbon storage in long-lived woody

  8. Literacy in Action: A Carbon-Neutral Field Program at Cornell University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A.; Derry, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Cornell Earth and Environmental Systems (EES) Field Program is a semester-length undergraduate field program located on the island of Hawai`i. The Hawaiian Islands are the world’s most dynamic natural laboratory and the premier location for Earth systems research and education. While there are compelling reasons for students and faculty to travel from the US mainland to Hawai`i, the air and ground travel that comprises the program carries a large carbon footprint. This liability is also an extraordinary educational opportunity. For the past two years EES students have been challenged to make the program carbon-neutral. They are asked to devise a set of criteria for a credible and defensible zero-CO2 footprint and then to put their plan into action. The C-neutral project consists of three elements: (1) quantifying CO2 emissions, (2) reducing emissions wherever possible, and (3) offsetting emissions that cannot be eliminated. In quantifying emissions six areas are identified: air travel, ground travel, domestic electricity, natural gas, food, and waste. Emissions reductions include all of the standard “carpool--turn it down--turn it off “ conservation behaviors, with special emphasis on food and waste; eating local and organic, shopping at re-use centers, and compost and recycling of garbage. Our program facility utilizes solar hot water and is equipped with neither heat nor air conditioning, thus domestic energy use is low. Students tabulate all of our energy use and calculate the resulting CO2 emissions for all program participants for a period of four months. The CO2 offsetting strategy is conducted in collaboration with a native ecosystem restoration project. Students participate in all aspects of forest restoration, including seed collection, germination and outplanting of native plant species and removal of invasive pest species. The initial goal of this locally-supported project was to restore degraded pasture to native forest. The EES students have

  9. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was

  10. A Pilot Training Program and Evaluation of Training for an Area Agency on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy; Campbell, Richard

    A preliminary training and evaluation program was initiated by the Houston Area Agency on Aging. Several pilot training programs were tested, and information was gathered on the current and desired training status of personnel in service-providing agencies. Inspection of obective and subjective reports suggests that future training programs should…

  11. Hydrothermally fluoritized Ordovician carbonates as reservoir rocks in the Tazhong area, central Tarim Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhijun Jin; Dongya Zhu [Exploration and Production Institute, Beijing (China); Xuefeng Zhang; Wenxuan Hu; Yucai Song [Nanjing University (China). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2006-01-15

    Reservoir rocks at the Tazhong 45 oil pool, central Tarim Basin, consist of fluoritized carbonate strata of Middle-Late Ordovician age. Petrological observations indicate that the fluorite replaces calcite. Several other hydrothermal minerals accompany the fluorite and include pyrite, quartz, sphalerite and chlorite. Two generations of fluid inclusions are present in the fluorite. Homogenization temperatures (Th) for primary inclusions are mostly between 260{sup o}C and 310{sup o}C, representing the temperature of the hydrothermal fluid responsible for fluorite precipitation. Th for secondary inclusions range from 100{sup o}C to 130{sup o}C, and they represent the hydrocarbon charging temperature as shown by the presence of hydrocarbons trapped in some secondary inclusions. The mineral assemblage and the homogenization temperatures of primary fluid inclusions indicate that the precipitation of fluorite is related to hydrothermal activity in the Tazhong area. Strontium isotope analyses imply that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for fluorite precipitation are related to late-stage magmatic activity, and felsic magmas were generated by mixing of mafic magma and crustal materials during the Permian. Theoretical calculations show that the molecular volume of a carbonate rock decreases by 33.5% when calcite is replaced by fluorite, and the volume shrinkage can greatly enhance reservoir porosity by the formation of abundant intercrystalline pores. Fluoritization has thus greatly enhanced the reservoir quality of Ordovician carbonates in the Tazhong 45 area, so that the fluorite and limestone host rocks in the area have become an efficient hydrocarbon reservoir. According to the modelled burial and thermal history of the Tazhong 45 well, and the homogenization temperatures of secondary fluid inclusions in the fluorite, hydrocarbon charging at the Tazhong 45 reservoir took place in the Tertiary. (author)

  12. Sediment Properties as Important Predictors of Carbon Storage in Zostera marina Meadows: A Comparison of Four European Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dahl

    Full Text Available Seagrass ecosystems are important natural carbon sinks but their efficiency varies greatly depending on species composition and environmental conditions. What causes this variation is not fully known and could have important implications for management and protection of the seagrass habitat to continue to act as a natural carbon sink. Here, we assessed sedimentary organic carbon in Zostera marina meadows (and adjacent unvegetated sediment in four distinct areas of Europe (Gullmar Fjord on the Swedish Skagerrak coast, Askö in the Baltic Sea, Sozopol in the Black Sea and Ria Formosa in southern Portugal down to ~35 cm depth. We also tested how sedimentary organic carbon in Z. marina meadows relates to different sediment characteristics, a range of seagrass-associated variables and water depth. The seagrass carbon storage varied greatly among areas, with an average organic carbon content ranging from 2.79 ± 0.50% in the Gullmar Fjord to 0.17 ± 0.02% in the area of Sozopol. We found that a high proportion of fine grain size, high porosity and low density of the sediment is strongly related to high carbon content in Z. marina sediment. We suggest that sediment properties should be included as an important factor when evaluating high priority areas in management of Z. marina generated carbon sinks.

  13. Increase of porosity by combining semi-carbonization and KOH activation of formaldehyde resins to prepare high surface area carbons for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimböckel, Ruben; Kraas, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Frank; Fröba, Michael

    2018-01-01

    A series of porous carbon samples were prepared by combining a semi-carbonization process of acidic polymerized phenol-formaldehyde resins and a following chemical activation with KOH used in different ratios to increase specific surface area, micropore content and pore sizes of the carbons which is favourable for supercapacitor applications. Samples were characterized by nitrogen physisorption, powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the amount of KOH, combined with the semi-carbonization step had a remarkable effect on the specific surface area (up to SBET: 3595 m2 g-1 and SDFT: 2551 m2 g-1), pore volume (0.60-2.62 cm3 g-1) and pore sizes (up to 3.5 nm). The carbons were tested as electrode materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) in a two electrode setup with tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile as electrolyte. The prepared carbon material with the largest surface area, pore volume and pore sizes exhibits a high specific capacitance of 145.1 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. With a high specific energy of 31 W h kg-1 at a power density of 33028 W kg-1 and a short time relaxation constant of 0.29 s, the carbon showed high power capability as an EDLC electrode material.

  14. Large-area thin self-supporting carbon foils with MgO coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarz, A

    2002-01-01

    Large area self-supporting carbon foils in the thickness of range of 8-22 mu g/cm sup 2 , coated with approximately 4 mu g/cm sup 2 MgO have been prepared by e-gun evaporation. They were mounted on frames with apertures of 130 cm sup 2. Problems related to the parting agent preparation, floating procedure, and mounting onto frames are discussed. Special precautions necessary to avoid damage during foil drying, storage and transportation are suggested.

  15. Assessment of Carbon Status in Marine Protected Area of Payung Island Waters, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ida Sunaryo Purwiyanto; Fitri Agustriani

    2017-01-01

    CO2 is a greenhouse gas that receive more attention than the other gases because the properties of carbon easily deformed and diffuseed. Changes in the concentration of CO2 in the water will impact on changes in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that affect sea surface temperatures. It continuously will result in a change of marine capture fisheries. Payung Island is one of the important areas in South Sumatra that acts as the provider of the fishery. This because Payung Island is located i...

  16. Mobility of toxic elements in carbonate sediments from a mining area in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina-Alvarez, N.; et al

    2014-01-01

    The Bolesław–Bukowno mining area in Poland is highly polluted by elements such as Zn, Pb, Cd and As. The reactivity and mobility of toxic elements such as Tl are poorly known. Here, we studied by sequential extraction the mobility of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Pb, Tl and Zn in sediments from two water reservoirs near Bukowno. Results show that available As, Co, Mn, Pb and Zn are found in carbonate minerals. Available Cd, Cu and Tl are found in sulphides and organic matter. The extractability...

  17. Characterization and use of high surface area activated carbons prepared from cane pith for liquid-phase adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, R.-L. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China) and Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li 360, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: trl@nuu.edu.tw; Tseng, S.-K. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China)

    2006-08-25

    Carbonaceous adsorbents with controllable surface areas were chemically activated with KOH at 780 deg. C from char that had been carbonized from cane pith at 450 deg. C. The pore properties including the BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and mean pore diameter of these activated carbons were characterized and derived using the t-plot method based on N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. The activated cane pith carbons, with KOH/char ratios of 2-6, exhibited BET surface areas ranging from 912 to 2299 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed that the surface morphology of honeycombed holes on all activated cane pith carbons was significantly influenced by the KOH/char ratio. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms of acid blue 74, methylene blue, basic brown 1, p-nitrophenol, p-chlorophenol, p-cresol, and phenol from water at 30 deg. C on the activated carbons were studied. The adsorption kinetics were suitably described by a simplified kinetic model, the Elovich equation. All adsorption equilibrium isotherms were in agreement with the Langmuir equation, and were used to compare the covered area (S {sub c}/S {sub p}) of the activated carbons at different KOH/char ratios. The high-surface-area activated carbons were proven to be promising adsorbents for pollution control and for other applications.

  18. Program Area of Interest: Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

    2006-02-01

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2005 through December 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  19. Energy storage on ultrahigh surface area activated carbon fibers derived from PMIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Muñiz, Alberto; Suárez-García, Fabián; Martínez-Alonso, Amelia; Tascón, Juan M D; Kyotani, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    High-performance carbon materials for energy storage applications have been obtained by using poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide), PMIA, as a precursor through the chemical activation of the carbonized aramid fiber by using KOH. The yield of the process of activation was remarkably high (25-40 wt%), resulting in activated carbon fibers (ACFs) with ultrahigh surface areas, over 3000 m(2) g(-1) , and pore volumes exceeding 1.50 cm(3) g(-1) , keeping intact the fibrous morphology. The porous structure and the surface chemical properties could easily be controlled through the conditions of activation. The PMIA-derived ACFs were tested in two types of energy storage applications. At -196 °C and 1 bar, H2 uptake values of approximately 3 t% were obtained, which, in combination with the textural properties, rendered it a good candidate for H2 adsorption at high pressure and temperature. The performance of the ACFs as electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors was also investigated. Specific capacitance values between 297 and 531 g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) were obtained in aqueous electrolyte (1 H2 SO4 ), showing different behaviors depending on the surface chemical properties. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. High-surface-area carbon molecular sieves for selective CO(2) adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahby, Anass; Ramos-Fernández, José M; Martínez-Escandell, Manuel; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2010-08-23

    A series of carbon molecular sieves (CMSs) has been prepared, either as powders or monoliths, from petroleum pitch using potassium hydroxide as the activating agent. The CMS monoliths are prepared without the use of a binder based on the self-sintering ability of the mesophase pitch. Characterization results show that these CMSs combine a large apparent surface area (up to ca. 3100 m(2) g(-1)) together with a well-developed narrow microporosity (V(n) up to ca. 1.4 cm(3) g(-1)). The materials exhibit high adsorption capacities for CO(2) at 1 bar and 273 K (up to ca. 380 mg CO(2) g sorbent(-1)). To our knowledge, this is the best result obtained for CO(2) adsorption using carbon-based materials. Furthermore, although the CO(2) adsorption capacity for activated carbons has usually been considered lower than that of zeolites, the reported values exceed the total amount adsorbed on traditional 13X and 5A zeolites (ca. 230 mg and 180 mg CO(2) g sorbent(-1), respectively), under identical experimental conditions. Additionally, the narrow pore openings found in the CMS samples (ca. 0.4 nm) allows for the selective adsorption of CO(2) from molecules of similar dimensions (e.g., CH(4) and N(2)).

  1. Tanks focus area multiyear program plan FY97-FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major tank remediation problem with approximately 332 tanks storing over 378,000 ml of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Most of the tanks have significantly exceeded their life spans. Approximately 90 tanks across the DOE complex are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents are potentially explosive. These tanks must be remediated and made safe. How- ever, regulatory drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Therefore, the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) began operation in October 1994. The focus area manages, coordinates, and leverages technology development to provide integrated solutions to remediate problems that will accelerate safe and cost-effective cleanup and closure of DOE`s national tank system. The TFA is responsible for technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), INEL (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: safety, characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, immobilization, and closure.

  2. Effects of different soil types in natural Mediterranean areas on soil organic carbon (SOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Silva, Ana; Lozano García, Beatriz; Parras Alcántara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Effects of different soil types in natural Mediterranean areas on soil organic carbon (SOC) Ana Requejo1, Beatriz Lozano-García1, Luis Parras Alcántara1 1 Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Science, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence - ceiA3, University of Córdoba, Spain. The carbon content of the atmosphere can be influenced by soils, since they can store carbon or emit large quantities of CO2. C sequestration into soils is one of the most important ecosystems services because of its role in climate regulation (IPPC, 2007). Thereof, agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can contribute to C sequestration through photosynthesis and its carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras Alcántara et al., 2013). Dehesa is a multifunctional agro-sylvo-pastoral system and typical landscape of southern and central Spain and southern Portugal. It is an anthropogenic system dedicated to the combined production of black iberian pigs, a variety of foods, fuel, coal, and cork. Besides, it acts as well in the production of endangered species as wildlife habitat and as sustainable hunting areas. These dehesa areas are defined by a relationship between productivity and conservation of forest oaks, providing environmental benefits such as carbon capture and storage. The area focused in this study is the Cardeña-Montoro Nature Reserve, located within the Sierra Morena (Córdoba, South Spain). The most representative soils in Cardeña-Montoro Nature Reserve are Cambisols, Regosols, Leptosols and Fluvisols according to IUSS Working Group WRB (2006). They are characterized by a low fertility, poor physical conditions and marginal capacity for agricultural use, along with low organic matter content due to climate conditions (semiarid Mediterranean climate) and soil texture (sandy). Several studies have shown that land use affects the SOC concentration (Lozano-García et al., 2016; Khaledian et al., 2016). Based on this

  3. Carbon dioxide fluxes dynamics comparison in Moscow urban forest and adjacent urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In the beginning of the 2014 in northern district of Moscow was installed eddy covariance tower on the edge of Timiryazevskiy urban forest and Timiryazevskiy district of Moscow. Tower 34m high was constructed inside the territory of LOD (Lesnaya Opytnaya Dacha) experimental station in the south-eastern part of the forest. Main tree species of urban forest and neighboring urban areas are Acer Plantanoides, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula, Quercus robur, Pinus sylvestris. Forest itself is mixed with some small plots dominated only by deciduous or coniferous species, whether trees in urban areas was mainly deciduous. Mean canopy height is about 30m. in both forest and urban areas. The soil cover of the studied sections is represented by sod-podzolic soils with different degree of development of the humus horizon. All soils have well-developed profile of sod-podzolic soil with low power litter (only in forest area) and developed humus-accumulative horizon with high humus content (3,24%) Carbon dioxide daily fluxes from investigated area was calculated for six months of 2014 (from April till October) utilizing eddy covariance method. Most (90%) of fluxes footprints was no longer than 500m for all wind directions during the time of monitoring. Forest in 500m radius around tower is a zone of active recreation with several roads and wide path network. On the other hand closest to tower urban area characterized by a low-rise buildings (in most cases no more than 5 floors) which are mainly administration ones and have wide green areas around them very few roads and low traffic. As a result difference in calculated fluxes was not so dramatic, as it was expected. Diurnal carbon dioxide fluxes dynamics was pretty the same for all months except August, due to long period without precipitation and higher soil moisture under the forest canopy. Estimated daily fluxes values was higher in forest areas for the whole period of investigation, except August, and ranged from -2 to 8 g C CO

  4. [Simulation of water and carbon fluxes in harvard forest area based on data assimilation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Long; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Model simulation and in situ observation are the two most important means in studying the water and carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems, but have their own advantages and shortcomings. To combine these two means would help to reflect the dynamic changes of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes more accurately. Data assimilation provides an effective way to integrate the model simulation and in situ observation. Based on the observation data from the Harvard Forest Environmental Monitoring Site (EMS), and by using ensemble Kalman Filter algorithm, this paper assimilated the field measured LAI and remote sensing LAI into the Biome-BGC model to simulate the water and carbon fluxes in Harvard forest area. As compared with the original model simulated without data assimilation, the improved Biome-BGC model with the assimilation of the field measured LAI in 1998, 1999, and 2006 increased the coefficient of determination R2 between model simulation and flux observation for the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration by 8.4% and 10.6%, decreased the sum of absolute error (SAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of NEE by 17.7% and 21.2%, and decreased the SAE and RMSE of the evapotranspiration by 26. 8% and 28.3%, respectively. After assimilated the MODIS LAI products of 2000-2004 into the improved Biome-BGC model, the R2 between simulated and observed results of NEE and evapotranspiration was increased by 7.8% and 4.7%, the SAE and RMSE of NEE were decreased by 21.9% and 26.3%, and the SAE and RMSE of evapotranspiration were decreased by 24.5% and 25.5%, respectively. It was suggested that the simulation accuracy of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes could be effectively improved if the field measured LAI or remote sensing LAI was integrated into the model.

  5. Differences on soil organic carbon stock estimation according to sampling type in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. In addition, SOC is a soil property subject to changes and highly variable in space and time. Consequently, the scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems. In this line, soil organic matter configuration plays an important role in the Soil System (Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014). Internationally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. In this sense, many soil researchers have studied this parameter (SOC). However, many of these studies were carried out arbitrarily using entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons or soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness). As a result, the indiscriminate use of both methodologies implies differences with respect to SOC stock (SOCS) quantification. This scenario has been indicated and warned for different researchers (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in the Cardeña and Montoro Natural Park (Spain). This nature reserve is a forested area with 385 km2 in southern Spain. Thirty-seven sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The results obtained show an overestimation of SOCS when SCS sampling approach is used compared to ESP. This supports that methodology selection is very important to SOCS quantification. This research is an assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., 2014

  6. Topography effect on soil organic carbon pool in Mediterranean natural areas (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozan-García, Beatriz; Galán-Espejo, Arantxa

    2014-05-01

    quantify the relationships between topographical parameters and soil properties. Researchers suggested some promising indicators such as pH, organic matter, exchangeable cations, total exchangeable basis, ratio of primary to secondary minerals, free oxides, carbonates and physical properties such as, particle size distribution, moisture content, color, bulk density and depth to specific horizon. If we considered SOC and TN how indicators of soil quality it is necessary to explain the relationship between the soil properties and topographic position, furthermore, is necessary establish indicator of the soil quality. In this regard, the stratification ratio (SR) is the most used. Soil development in this region is genetically complicated by three important soil forming factors: relief, fragility of this environment and absence of good vegetation (erosion by water) and the use and management (CT). Very little literature is published on soil variability and its relationship with topographic positions within such fragile environment. There are few reports on stratification of the SOC, TN and C:N ratio as affected by topography in natural areas. In this context, the objectives of this study were; assess the SOC in the soils, its vertical distribution in the profile and analyze the accumulation and SR of SOC along a topographic gradient and their relationship to soil depth in arid Mediterranean climate in Spain.

  7. High-surface-area nanoporous boron carbon nitrides for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portehault, David; Giordano, Cristina; Antonietti, Markus [Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Department of Colloid Chemistry Research, Potsdam (Germany); Gervais, Christel; Sanchez, Clement [UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7574 Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, College de France, Paris (France); Senkovska, Irena; Kaskel, Stefan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2010-06-09

    Nano- and mesoporous boron carbon nitrides with very high surface areas up to 1560 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} are obtained by pyrolysis of a graphitic carbon nitride mpg-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} infiltrated with a borane complex. This reactive hard-templating approach provides easy composition and texture tuning by temperature adjustment between 800 and 1400 C. The process yields B{sub x}C{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub v}H{sub w} materials as direct copies of the initial template with controlled compositions of 0.15{<=}x{<=}0.36, 0.10{<=}y{<=}0.12, 0.14{<=}z{<=}0.32, and 0.11{<=}v{<=}0.28. The nano and mesoporosities can also be tuned in order to provide hierarchical materials with specific surface areas ranging from 610 to 1560 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Such high values, coupled with resistance against air oxidation up to 700 C, suggest potential materials for gas storage and as catalyst supports. Indeed, it is demonstrated that these compounds exhibit high and tunable H{sub 2} uptakes from 0.55 to 1.07 wt.% at 77 K and 1 bar, thus guiding further search of materials for hydrogen storage. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Low-Surface-Area Hard Carbon Anode for Na-Ion Batteries via Graphene Oxide as a Dehydration Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, W; Bommier, C; Jian, ZL; Li, X; Carter, R; Vail, S; Lu, YH; Lee, JJ; Ji, XL

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m(2)/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burnoff of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. The obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.

  9. Low-surface-area hard carbon anode for na-ion batteries via graphene oxide as a dehydration agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Bommier, Clement; Jian, Zelang; Li, Xin; Carter, Rich; Vail, Sean; Lu, Yuhao; Lee, Jong-Jan; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m(2)/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burnoff of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. The obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.

  10. Size distributions, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Timonen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the results of one year long measurement period of the size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, inorganic ions and gravimetric mass of particulate matter. Measurements were done at an urban background station (SMEAR III by using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI. The site is located in northern European boreal region in Helsinki, Finland. The WSOC size distribution measurements were completed with the chemical analysis of inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC and monosaccharide anhydrides from the filter samples (particle aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm, PM1. Gravimetric mass concentration varied during the MOUDI samplings between 3.4 and 55.0 μg m−3 and the WSOC concentrations were between 0.3 and 7.4 μg m−3. On average, water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM, WSOC multiplied by 1.6 to convert the analyzed carbon mass to organic matter mass comprised 25±7.7% and 7.5±3.4% of aerosol PM1 mass and the PM1–10 mass, respectively. Inorganic ions contributed 33±12% and 28±19% of the analyzed PM1 and PM1–10 aerosol mass.

    Five different aerosol categories corresponding to different sources or source areas were identified (long-range transport aerosols, biomass burning aerosols from wild land fires and from small-scale wood combustion, aerosols originating from marine areas and from the clean arctic areas. Categories were identified mainly using levoglucosan concentration level for wood combustion and air mass backward trajectories for other groups. Clear differences in WSOC concentrations and size distributions originating from different sources or source areas were observed, although there are also many other factors which might affect the results. E.g. the local conditions and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and aerosols as well as various transformation processes are likely

  11. Near surface carbon dioxide within the urban area of Essen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Sascha; Kuttler, Wilhelm

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the allocation between carbon dioxide concentrations, by mobile measurements at 1.5 m a.g.l., within the urban canopy layer regarding different conditions: anticyclonic and cyclonic weather situations, on weekdays, at different times of the day and in different seasons. During winter 2002/2003 (December-February) and summer 2003 (June-August) 20 high frequency spatial and temporal mobile measurements of carbon dioxide were taken in the city of Essen (51° 28‧N, 7° 0‧E, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany). The route of the taken measurements started in the southern part of the city and ended after 63 km in the north of Essen, considering all different kinds of its land utilization. The contribution of motor vehicles to the carbon dioxide concentration was being determined by calculating the relation of carbon dioxide to other atmospheric substances, such as CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3. All atmospheric substances were captured at the same time and height with a measurement frequency of 1 Hz and a maximum travel speed of 30 km h -1 (8 m s -1). The results of each mobile measurement were condensed to average values for homogeneous route sections. This facilitated a comparison of the urban CO 2 concentration between the CO 2-data of a rural station and the results of a base line station maintained by the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA). With assistance of different statistical methods it was possible to testify that the determined CO 2-data are representative for the situation of the air quality in the city of Essen. The results of this investigation have shown that it is neither generally possible to describe the urban area as a permanent anthropogenic source for CO 2 nor to call it an urban CO 2 dome as it is often mentioned in literature (e.g. Idso et al., 1998, 2001). A comparison of the carbon dioxide mixing ratio of the city of Essen and the rural station, maintained by the Dept. of Applied Climatology and Landscape

  12. CO2-rich geothermal areas in Iceland as natural analogues for geologic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Brown, G. E.; Arnorsson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration into mafic rocks via silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation has been suggested as a way to mitigate industrial CO2 emissions by storing CO2 in a stable form. Experimental observations of irreversible reaction of basalt with supercritical or gaseous and aqueous CO2 have resulted in carbonate precipitation, but there are no universal trends linking the extent of mineralization and type of reaction products to the bulk rock composition, glass percentage or mineralogy of the starting material. Additionally, concern exists that CO2 leakage from injection sites and migration through the subsurface may induce mineral dissolution and desorption of trace elements, potentially contaminating groundwater. This study investigates low-temperature (≤180°C) basaltic geothermal areas in Iceland with an anomalously high input of magmatic CO2 as natural analogues of the geochemical processes associated with the injection of CO2 into mafic rocks and possible leakage. Fluids that contain >4 mmol/kg total CO2 are common along the divergent Snæfellsnes Volcanic Zone in western Iceland and within the South Iceland Seismic Zone in southwest Iceland. The meteorically derived waters contain up to 80 mmol/kg dissolved inorganic carbonate (DIC). The aqueous concentration of major cations and trace elements is greater than that in Icelandic surface and groundwater and increases with DIC and decreasing pH. Concentrations of As and Ni in some samples are several times the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for safe drinking water. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that waters approach saturation with respect to calcite and/or aragonite, kaolinite and amorphous silica, and are undersaturated with respect to plagioclase feldspar, clinozoisite and Ca-zeolites. Petrographic study of drill cuttings from wells that intersect the CO2-rich areas indicates that the sites have undergone at least two stages of hydrothermal alteration: initial high

  13. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  14. Impact of vegetation types on soil organic carbon stocks SOC-S in Mediterranean natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Cantudo-Pérez, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle because they can either emit large quantities of CO2 or on the contrary they can act as a store for carbon. Agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can achieve this effect through photosynthesis and the carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). The Mediterranean evergreen oak Woodland (MEOW - dehesa) is a type of pasture with scattered evergreen and deciduous oak stands in which cereals are often grown under the tree cover. It is a system dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork as well as to hunting. These semi-natural areas still preserve some of the primitive vegetation of the Mediterranean oak forests. The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. These Iberian open woodland rangelands (dehesas) have been studied from different points of view: hydrologically, with respect to soil organic matter content, as well as in relation to gully erosion, topographical thresholds, soil erosion and runoff production, soil degradation and management practices…etc, among others. The soil organic carbon stock capacity depends not only on abiotic factors such as the mineralogical composition and the climate, but also on soil use and management (Parras et al., 2014 and 2015). In Spanish soils, climate, use and management strongly affect the carbon variability, mainly in soils in dry Mediterranean climates characterized by low organic carbon content, weak structure and readily degradable soils. Hontoria et al. (2004) emphasized that the climate and soil use are two factors that greatly influence carbon content in the Mediterranean climate. This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability in MEOW - dehesa with cereals, olive grove and Mediterranean oak forest

  15. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Graphitic Carbon Materials, Chemistry and Physics of - Formal Schedule and Speaker/Poster Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertig, Herbert A. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on GRAPHITIC CARBON MATERIALS, CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF was held at the Davidson College, Davidson, North Carolina, June 17 – 22, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 95 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Of the 95 attendees, 41 voluntarily responded to a general inquiry regarding ethnicity which appears on our registration forms. Of the 41 respondents, 49% were Minorities – 5% Hispanic, 44% Asian and 0% African American. Approximately 2% of the participants at the 2012 meeting were women. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, "free time" was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field. Carbon materials play an extremely important role in our society. They not only constitute the largest supply of energy we use today (i.e., coal) but also are the bases of many important technologies ranging from pencils, adsorbents, and metal strengtheners, to batteries and many others. Recent studies on graphitic carbon, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have further revealed novel optical and electrical properties, making it possible to use them for new applications in renewable energy as well as

  16. Federal employees health benefits program; medically underserved areas for 1998--OPM. Notice of medically underserved areas for 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-02

    The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has completed its annual calculation of the States that qualify as Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for the calendar year 1998. This is necessary to comply with a provision of FEHB law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in states with critical shortages of primary care physicians. Accordingly, for calendar year 1998, OPM's calculations show that the following States are Medically Underserved Areas under the FEHB Program: Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, South Carolina, South Dakota, West Virginia, and Wyoming. North Dakota has been removed from that list, with no new additions for 1998.

  17. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program, Medically Underserved Areas for 1999--OPM. Notice of medically underserved areas for 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-03

    The Office of Personnel Management has completed its annual calculation of the States that qualify as Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for the calendar year 1999. This is necessary to comply with a provision of FEHB law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in states with critical shortages of primary care physicians. Accordingly, for calendar year 1999, OPM's calculations show that the following States are Medically Underserved Areas under the FEHB Program: Alabama, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Wyoming. West Virginia has been removed from the 1998 list, and Idaho and North Dakota have been added.

  18. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area : Annual Water Management Program : January 1, 1972 to December 31, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1972 Annual Water Management Program for the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area summarizes the water receipts, distribution, and marsh conditions attributed to...

  19. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area : Annual Water Management Program : January 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1973 Annual Water Management Program for the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area summarizes the water receipts, distribution, and marsh conditions attributed to...

  20. The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships program: a collaborative approach to carbon management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litynski, John T; Klara, Scott M; McIlvried, Howard G; Srivastava, Rameshwar D

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) concept, which is a first attempt to bring the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) carbon sequestration program activities into the "real world" by using a geographically-disposed-system type approach for the U.S. Each regional partnership is unique and covers a unique section of the U.S. and is tasked with determining how the research and development activities of DOE's carbon sequestration program can best be implemented in their region of the country. Although there is no universal agreement on the cause, it is generally understood that global warming is occurring, and many climate scientists believe that this is due, in part, to the buildup of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere. This is evident from the finding presented in the National Academy of Science Report to the President on Climate Change which stated "Greenhouse gases are accumulating in Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities, causing surface air temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures to rise. Temperatures are, in fact, rising. The changes observed over the last several decades are likely mostly due to human activities, ...". In the United States, emissions of CO(2) originate mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production, transportation, and other industrial processes. Roughly one third of U.S. anthropogenic CO(2) emissions come from power plants. Reduction of CO(2) emissions through sequestration of carbon either in geologic formations or in terrestrial ecosystems can be part of the solution to the problem of global warming. However, a number of steps must be accomplished before sequestration can become a reality. Cost effective capture and separation technology must be developed, tested, and demonstrated; a database of potential sequestration sites must be established; and techniques must be developed to measure, monitor, and verify the sequestered CO(2). Geographical differences in

  1. [Spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon and nutrients in low mountain area of Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Hai-Yan; Dai, Wei; Yang, Xiao-Iuan; Li, Xu

    2014-09-01

    Soil samples were collected in Jincang Forest Farm, Wangqing Forestry Bureau to study spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrients. Geostatistics was used to predict their spatial distribution in the study area, and the prediction results were interpolated using regression-kriging and ordinary kriging. Multiple linear regression was used to study the relationship between SOC and spatial factors. The results showed the SOC density (SOCD) at 0-60 cm was (16.14 ± 4.58) kg · m(-2). Soil organic carbon decreased significantly with the soil depth. With the increasing soil depth, total N, total P, total K, available P and readily available K concentrations decreased. Stepwise regression analysis showed that SOC had good correlation with elevation and cosine of aspect, with the determination coefficient of 0.34 and 0.39, respectively (P model and exponential model. Compared with ordinary kriging, the prediction accuracy was improved by 18%-58% using regression-kriging. Regression-kriging interpolation was also applied to study spatial heterogeneity of soil total N.

  2. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  3. [Dynamics of unprotected soil organic carbon with the restoration process of Pinus massoniana plantation in red soil erosion area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Mao-Kui; Xie, Jin-Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Xiang; Zeng, Hong-Da; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Xi-Xiang; Xu, Chao; Chen, Tan; Fu, Lin-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By the method of spatiotemporal substitution and taking the bare land and secondary forest as the control, we measured light fraction and particulate organic carbon in the topsoil under the Pinus massoniana woodlands of different ages with similar management histories in a red soil erosion area, to determine their dynamics and evaluate the conversion processes from unprotected to protected organic carbon. The results showed that the content and storage of soil organic carbon increased significantly along with ages in the process of vegetation restoration (P carbon content and distribution proportion to the total soil organic carbon increased significantly (P carbon mostly accumulated in the form of unprotected soil organic carbon during the initial restoration period, and reached a stable level after long-term vegetation restoration. Positive correlations were found between restoration years and the rate constant for C transferring from the unprotected to the protected soil pool (k) in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, which demonstrated that the unprotected soil organic carbon gradually transferred to the protected soil organic carbon in the process of vegetation restoration.

  4. Comparison of sorption capacity and surface area of activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas fruit pericarp and seed coat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Ameen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons were prepared from fruit pericarp and seed coat of Jatropha curcas using KOH and NaCl as activating agents leading to the production of four samples of activated carbons JPS, JPP, JCS and JCP. The adsorption capacity based on adsorption of methylene blue was determined for each sample. A further study of adsorptive properties of the most efficient activated carbon (JPS was made by contacting it with standard solutions of methylene blue, acetic acid and potassium permanganate. The effects of mass of active carbon used, initial concentration of the solute and the pH of the solution on adsorption performance were investigated. Ash content and percentage fixed carbon were determined for two of the activated carbons (JPS and JCS with the highest adsorptive capacity. Equilibrium study on adsorption was carried out and the adsorption data were analyzed using the Langmuir isotherm. The results obtained indicate that activated carbons from the fruit pericarp and the seed coat of J. curcas can be used as high performance adsorbents with the fruit pericarp activated carbon showing the higher adsorption capacity. The adsorption data fitted well to the Langmuir model and adsorptive area of 824–910 m2/g was obtained for the activated carbon.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i2.2

  5. Carbonate filler resources of the Bjelopavlići area, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Darko M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate filler is an important mineral commodity, with rather diverse industrial applications. The Bjelopavlići area in Montenegro is rich in chemically pure limestone, which was preliminary explored in the field, and further on mineralogical, petrographic, geochemical and technological properties were studied. The obtained results have proven the high quality of limestone from the studied deposits, as it can be used for paints&varnishes, rubber&plastics, metallurgy, foundry, sugar, fertilizers and animal feed industry. Several deposits have very pure limestone, that can be also used for paper, glass, pharmacy and soil neutralisation. The potential resources of high quality limestone are around 23 million tons. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI176016

  6. Mammals in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Population density, ecological data and carbon budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truve, Johan; Cederlund, Goeran [Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB, Ramsberg (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. Two of the major goals are to: 1) monitor dynamics of population density over several years; 2) obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclides. This report contributes to the major goals by presenting: Results from surveys of mammal abundance in the study sites near Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and a comparison with data from other surveys. A summary of traits associated to demography, resource selection and spatial distribution. A model framework that can be used to model the future development of populations. A plausible future scenario for mammal species. Mammal contribution to fluxes of energy and material in the ecosystem. Estimated harvest rates of mammals in the study sites. General conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that population densities of the most common species are in the same range as many other populations. Lynx, wild boar, red deer and fallow deer are expanding in the areas. Marine mammals have not been surveyed but at least grey seals are important top consumers in the coastal ecosystem. Red listed species resident in the areas are Lynx, Otter, Whiskered bat, Natterer's bat, Nathusius' pipistrelle and Harbour seal. Annual production of the mammal species that were surveyed was 40-50 mg carbon/m2 and year. Hunters harvest nearly half of the production each year. Future developments for the populations are briefly discussed and a model framework that can be used to make better quantitative predictions is presented.

  7. A life cycle carbon dioxide inventory of the Million Trees Los Angeles Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Alissa Kendall

    2014-01-01

    PurposeThis study seeks to answer the question, “Will the Million Trees LA (Million Trees Los Angeles, MTLA) program be a carbon dioxide (CO2) sink or source?” Because there has never been a full accounting of CO2 emissions, it is unclear if urban tree planting initiatives (TPIs) are likely to be...

  8. Electrochemical synthesis of elongated noble metal nanoparticles, such as nanowires and nanorods, on high-surface area carbon supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Blyznakov, Stoyan; Vukmirovic, Miomir

    2015-08-04

    Elongated noble-metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. The method involves the formation of a plurality of elongated noble-metal nanoparticles by electrochemical deposition of the noble metal on a high surface area carbon support, such as carbon nanoparticles. Prior to electrochemical deposition, the carbon support may be functionalized by oxidation, thus making the manufacturing process simple and cost-effective. The generated elongated nanoparticles are covalently bound to the carbon support and can be used directly in electrocatalysis. The process provides elongated noble-metal nanoparticles with high catalytic activities and improved durability in combination with high catalyst utilization since the nanoparticles are deposited and covalently bound to the carbon support in their final position and will not change in forming an electrode assembly.

  9. Leaf Area Index, Biomass Carbon and Growth Rate of Radiata Pine Genetic Types and Relationships with LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. McGaughey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between discrete-return light detection and ranging (LiDAR data and radiata pine leaf area index (LAI, stem volume, above ground carbon, and carbon sequestration were developed using 10 plots with directly measured biomass and leaf area data, and 36 plots with modelled carbon data. The plots included a range of genetic types established on north- and south-facing aspects. Modelled carbon was highly correlated with directly measured crown, stem, and above ground biomass data, with r = 0.92, 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. LiDAR canopy percentile height (P30 and cover, based on all returns above 0.5 m, explained 81, 88, and 93% of the variation in directly measured crown, stem, and above ground live carbon and 75, 89 and 88% of the modelled carbon, respectively. LAI (all surfaces ranged between 8.8–19.1 in the 10 plots measured at age 9 years. The difference in canopy percentile heights (P95–P30 and cover based on first returns explained 80% of the variation in total LAI. Periodic mean annual increments in stem volume, above ground live carbon, and total carbon between ages 9 and 13 years were significantly related to (P95–P30, with regression models explaining 56, 58, and 55%, respectively, of the variation in growth rate per plot. When plot aspect and genetic type were included with (P95–P30, the R2 of the regression models for stem volume, above ground live carbon, and total carbon increment increased to 90, 88, and 88%, respectively, which indicates that LiDAR regression equations for estimating stock changes can be substantially improved by incorporating supplementary site and crop data.

  10. Estimating urban trees and carbon stock potentials for mitigating climate change in Lagos: Case of Ikeja Government Reserved Area (GRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, P. O.; Faderin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban trees are a component of the urban infrastructure which offers diverse services including environmental, aesthetic and economic. The accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere resulting from the indiscriminate distribution of human populations and urban activities with the unsustainable consumption of natural resources contributes to global environmental change especially in coastal cities like Lagos. Carbon stocks and sequestration by urban trees are increasingly recognized to play significant roles for mitigating climate change. This paper focuses on the estimation of carbon stock and sequestration through biomass estimation and quantification in Ikeja GRA, Lagos. Ikeja possesses a characteristic feature as a microcosm of Lagos due to the wide range of land uses. A canopy assessment of tree population was carried out using itree canopy software. A GPS survey was used to collect an inventory of all trees showing their location, spatial distribution and other attributes. The analysis of the carbon storage and sequestration potential of both actual and potential tree planting sites involved biomass estimations from tree allometry equations. Trees were identified at species level and measurements of their dendrometric values were recorded and integrated into the GIS database to estimate biomass of trees and carbon storage. The trees in the study area were estimated to have a biomass of 441.9 mg and carbon storage of 221.395 kg/tree. By considering the potential tree planting sites the estimated carbon stored increased to 11,352.73 kg. Carbon sequestration value in the study area was found to be 1.6790 tonnes for the existing trees and 40.707 tonnes for the potential tree planting sites (PTPS). The estimation of carbon storage and sequestration values of trees are important incentives for carbon accounting/footprints and monitoring of climate change mitigation which has implications for evaluation and monitoring of urban ecosystem.

  11. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  12. 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study ImplementationPlan - Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. J. Knepp.

    1999-04-19

    The 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Implementation Plan - Environmental Restoration Program (Implementation Plan) addresses approximately 700 soil waste sites (and associated structures suchas pipelines) resulting from the discharge of liquids and solids fromprocessing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs,burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program. The Implementation Plan outlines the frameworkfor implementing assessment activities in the 200 Areas to ensure consistency in documentation, level of characterization, and decisionmaking. The Implementation Plan also consolidates background information and other typical work plan materials, to serve as a single referenceable source for this type of information.

  13. Vegetation Structure and Carbon Stocks of Two Protected Areas within the South-Sudanian Savannas of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Savannas and adjacent vegetation types like gallery forests are highly valuable ecosystems contributing to several ecosystem services including carbon budgeting. Financial mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation can provide an opportunity for developing countries to alleviate poverty through conservation of its forestry resources. However, for availing such opportunities carbon stock assessments are essential. Therefore, a research study for this purpose was conducted at two protected areas (Nazinga Game Ranch and Bontioli Nature Reserve in Burkina Faso. Similarly, analysis of various vegetation parameters was also conducted to understand the overall vegetation structure of these two protected areas. For estimating above ground biomass, existing allometric equations for dry tropical woody vegetation types were used. Compositional structure was described by applying tree species and family importance indices. The results show that both sites collectively contain a mean carbon stock of 3.41 ± 4.98 Mg·C·ha−1. Among different savanna vegetation types, gallery forests recorded the highest mean carbon stock of 9.38 ± 6.90 Mg·C·ha−1. This study was an attempt at addressing the knowledge gap particularly on carbon stocks of protected savannas—it can serve as a baseline for carbon stocks for future initiatives such as REDD+ within these areas.

  14. Skier and Snowboarder Motivations and Knowledge Related to Voluntary Environmental Programs at an Alpine Ski Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Needham, Mark D.

    2011-11-01

    Many alpine ski areas have recently adopted voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) such as using recycling, renewable energy, and biofuels to help reduce their environmental impacts. Studies have addressed the performance of these VEPs in mitigating environmental impacts of this industry, but little is known about visitor awareness and perceptions of these programs. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring skier and snowboarder knowledge of VEPs at a ski area and the influence of these programs on their motivations to visit this area currently and behavioral intentions to visit again in the future. Data were obtained from an onsite survey at the Mt. Bachelor ski area in Oregon, USA ( n = 429, 89.7% response rate). Few skiers and snowboarders were knowledgeable of VEPs at this area and fewer than 20% were motivated to visit on their current trip because of these programs. Other attributes such as scenery, snow conditions, and access were more important for influencing visitation. Up to 38% of skiers and snowboarders, however, intend to visit this ski area more often if it adopts and promotes more VEPs. Managers can use these results to inform communication and marketing of their environmental programs and performance to visitors. Additional implications for management and future research are discussed.

  15. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Woodborne

    Full Text Available Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L. trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  16. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodborne, Stephan; Gandiwa, Patience; Hall, Grant; Patrut, Adrian; Finch, Jemma

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  17. Using ANN and EPR models to predict carbon monoxide concentrations in urban area of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forecasting of air pollutants has become a popular topic of environmental research today. For this purpose, the artificial neural network (AAN technique is widely used as a reliable method for forecasting air pollutants in urban areas. On the other hand, the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR model has recently been used as a forecasting tool in some environmental issues. In this research, we compared the ability of these models to forecast carbon monoxide (CO concentrations in the urban area of Tabriz city. Methods: The dataset of CO concentrations measured at the fixed stations operated by the East Azerbaijan Environmental Office along with meteorological data obtained from the East Azerbaijan Meteorological Bureau from March 2007 to March 2013, were used as input for the ANN and EPR models. Results: Based on the results, the performance of ANN is more reliable in comparison with EPR. Using the ANN model, the correlation coefficient values at all monitoring stations were calculated above 0.85. Conversely, the R2 values for these stations were obtained <0.41 using the EPR model. Conclusion: The EPR model could not overcome the nonlinearities of input data. However, the ANN model displayed more accurate results compared to the EPR. Hence, the ANN models are robust tools for predicting air pollutant concentrations.

  18. Internal wave deposits in Jurassic Kermanshah pelagic carbonates and radiolarites (Kermanshah area, West Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Asad; Gharaie, Mohamad Hosein Mahmudy; Bádenas, Beatriz

    2014-12-01

    We report eventites generated by turbulence events triggered by breaking internal waves in Jurassic pelagic muds deposited in a graben area located between the Arabian and Bisotoun carbonate platforms, at the Kermanshah basin (West Iran). The 43 m-thick studied Pliensbachian-Aalenian succession at Kermanshah includes sponge spicule-radiolarian limestones and cherts with cm- to dm-thick intercalations of pyroclastic beds and coarse-grained deposits formed by neritic-derived grains and reworked pelagic material. Breaking of internal waves in localized areas reworked the available sediment on sea floor, including the erosion of cohesive pelagic muds and the resuspension of neritic-derived grains, which were resedimented from the Bisotoun platform most probably by storms or turbidity currents. The generated internal wave deposits include: flat- and round pebble limestone conglomerates, formed by deposition of pelagic clasts and neritic-derived grains near the breaker zone; laminated packstone-grainstones deposited by high-energy, upslope (swash) and downslope (backswash) flows; cm-thick packstone-grainstones with asymmetrical starved ripples and hummocy crossstratification, generated downdip by waning of backwash flows and internal wave oscillatory flows. These internal wave deposits predominate in the Pliensbachian-early Toarcian, and were related to internal waves developed along a thermocline linked to climate warming and excited by submarine volcanic eruptions, storms or tectonic shaking.

  19. Characterization of atmospheric black carbon and co-pollutants in urban and rural areas of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Valle, M.; Coz, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Močnik, G.; Pandis, S. N.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Alastuey, A.; Díaz, E.; Pérez, R. M.; Artíñano, B.

    2017-11-01

    A one-year black carbon (BC) experimental study was performed at three different locations (urban traffic, urban background, rural) in Spain with different equivalent BC (eBC) source characteristics by means of multi-wavelength Aethalometers. The Aethalometer model was used for the source apportionment study, based on the difference in absorption spectral dependence of emissions from biomass burning (bb) and fossil fuel (ff) combustion. Most studies use a single bb and ff absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) pair (AAEbb and AAEff), however in this work we use a range of AAE values associated with fossil fuel and biomass burning based on the available measurements, which represents more properly all conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the source specific AAE was carried out to determine the most appropriate AAE values, being site dependent and seasonally variable. Here we present a methodology for the determination of the ranges of AAEbb and AAEff by evaluating the correlations between the source apportionment of eBC using the Aethalometer model with four biomass burning tracers measured at the rural site. The best combination was AAEbb = [1.63-1.74] and AAEff = [0.97-1.12]. Mean eBC values (±SD) obtained during the period of study were 3.70 ± 3.73 μg m-3 at the traffic urban site, 2.33 ± 2.96 μg m-3 at the urban background location, and 2.61 ± 5.04 μg m-3 in the rural area. High contributions of eBC to the PM10 mass were found (values up to 21% in winter), but with high eBC/PM10 variability. The hourly mean eBCff and eBCbb concentrations varied from 0 to 51 μg m-3 and from 0 to 50 μg m-3 at the three sites, respectively, exhibiting distinct seasonal and daily patterns. The fossil fuel combustion was the dominant eBC source at the urban sites, while biomass burning dominated during the cold season (88% of eBCbb) in the rural area. Daily PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume air samplers and analyzed for OC and EC. Analysis of biomass

  20. Improved performance of Pd electrocatalyst supported on ultrahigh surface area hollow carbon spheres for direct alcohol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng Ping; Wang, Zhenyou; Li, Yongliang; Li, Changming; Zhang, Xin; Shen, Pei Kang

    Ultrahigh surface area hollow carbon spheres (HCSs) with open micropores and nanochannels have been prepared by combined methods of hydrothermal and intermittent microwave heating (IMH) for the first time. It is found that the addition of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (P123) leads to a large BET surface area of 1249.3 m 2 g -1. The catalytic activity of Pd supported on HCS is over 3 times higher than that on Pd supported on commercial Vulcan XC-72 carbon at the same Pd loadings. It is proven that the higher catalytic activity is contributed from the formation of the high electrochemical active surface area (EASA) which is due to the hollow carbon structure with open micropores and nanochannels.

  1. High-Surface-Area, Emulsion-Templated Carbon Foams by Activation of polyHIPEs Derived from Pickering Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T. Woodward

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon foams displaying hierarchical porosity and excellent surface areas of >1400 m2/g can be produced by the activation of macroporous poly(divinylbenzene. Poly(divinylbenzene was synthesized from the polymerization of the continuous, but minority, phase of a simple high internal phase Pickering emulsion. By the addition of KOH, chemical activation of the materials is induced during carbonization, producing Pickering-emulsion-templated carbon foams, or carboHIPEs, with tailorable macropore diameters and surface areas almost triple that of those previously reported. The retention of the customizable, macroporous open-cell structure of the poly(divinylbenzene precursor and the production of a large degree of microporosity during activation leads to tailorable carboHIPEs with excellent surface areas.

  2. Carbon storage potential in Pleistocene volcanic rocks of the Magnesia area (Central Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Magganas, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Porfyrio and Mikrothives volcanoes in the Magnesia area (SE Thessaly, Central Greece) are located a few km (˜8 and 12 km respectively) south-southwest of the industrial area of Volos city and are relatively small in size (˜3 and 10 km2 respectively). They are closely associated with other scattered volcanic centers of Late-Pleistocene-Quaternary age, appearing at the western shores of Pagasitikos gulf and at the Northern Euboikos gulf (e.g. Achilleion, Lichades, Agios Ioannis). This volcanic activity is attributed to back-arc extensional volcanism and may be further associated with propagation tectonics of the North Anatolian fault [1,2,3]. Volcanic rocks from the Porfyrio and Mikrothives mostly consist of basaltic and trachyandesitic lavas and pyroclastic tuffs. Porous basaltic lavas (10-15% porosity) exhibit porphyritic textures with a holocrystalline trachytic groundmass. The groundmass consists of lath-shaped plagioclase crystals, alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene, olivine, oxide minerals (ilmenite, titanomagnetite and magnetite), along with other accessory minerals such as quartz, calcite, apatite and pyrite. Phenocrysts are mostly subhedral and anhedral clinopyroxene crystals (mostly augite and less often diopside), olivine and less often plagioclase and quartz. Cr-spinel crystals have been identified within olivine phenocrysts. Pyroclastic tuffs exhibit vesicular textures, with their porosity varying between 20 and 40%. Their groundmass is hypocrystalline vesicular being either trachytic or aphanitic, often enriched in oxide minerals. Phenocrysts are less frequent compared to the lava samples, most often being feldspars. In some samples, pores are partially filled with secondary calcite. From recent literature it is well known that CO2 can be injected, trapped and retained within the pore spaces of volcanic rocks, forming chemically stable carbonate minerals [4,5,6,7]. The Porfyrio and Mikrothives volcanics can be considered as potential sites for

  3. [Hydrochemistry and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Stable Isotope of Shibing Dolomite Karst Area in Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi-zhen; Lan, Jia-cheng; Yuan, Dao-xian; Wang, Yun; Yang, Long; Ao, Xiang-hong

    2015-06-01

    Totally 49 water samples were collected in Shibing Dolomite Karst World Natural Heritage Site in Guizhou Province to analyze the characteristics and controlling factors of both the surface and underground waters, as well as the features and their origins of the dissolved inorganic carbon isotope. It was found that the pH of the study area was neutral to alkaline with low concentrations of total dissolved solids. The cations were dominated by Ca2+, Mg2 and anions by HCO3-, featured by HCO3-Ca x Mg type water. The ratios of Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2-) in the allogenic water from the shale area in the northern catchment were higher than those in autogenic water from the dolomite karst area, so did the concentration of Si. The SIc and SId of the allogenic waters in the shale area were negative. After the waters entered into and flew by the dolomite karst area, both the SIc and SId increased to over 0. It could be told by the water chemistry that the hydrochemistry was little impacted by the rainfall and human activities. The Gibbs plot revealed that the chemical composition of the waters was mainly controlled by rock weathering. The δ(13)C(DIC) of the surface waters ranged from -8.27% to -11.55% per hundred, averaging -9.45% per hundredo, while that of the underground waters ranged from -10.57% per hundred to -15.59% per hundred, averaging -12.04% per hundred, which was lighter than that of surface water. For the distribution features, it was found the δ(13)C(DIC), of the upper reaches of branches of Shangmuhe River was lighter than that of the lower reach, while that of the main river Shangmuhe River was relatively complex. Based on the mass balance of stable isotopes and the δ(13)C(DIC), the ratio of the origin of DIC of the ground water was calculated. It was found that 51.2% was from soil CO2, and 48.8% was from the rock itself.

  4. Soil organic carbon and biological fertility in a Mediterranean forest area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Benedetti, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The study was performed at Castelporziano Estate, a natural ecosystem with high environmental value, and not concerned with any direct sources of pollution. However, it is situated near the city of Rome, some industrial plants, the international airport of Fiumicino, and some highways that can represent an external source of pollutants. Castelporziano lies in Central Italy at the western outskirts of Rome, about 20 km from the city centre and in front of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Soil morphology is mainly plain (30 m mean elevation) with sandy materials of alluvial nature, and only the inner part is formed of volcanic and alluvial materials with a slight elevation above the sea level (85 m). The total area is about 6000 ha, the climate is Mediterranean, total rainfall is 700 mm, and mean temperatures range from 4 ° C in winter and 30 ° C in summer. The vegetation is typically Mediterranean, mainly oaks, mixed broadleaf groves, and Mediterranean maquis along the seacoast. Areas with reforestation of pines, as well as corkwoods, pastures, and small agricultural fields are also present. Soils were sampled at five different sites: QI, forest of Quercus ilex L.; MM, Mediterranean maquis; PP, Pinus pinea L. reforestation (60 years old); MF, mixed hygrophilous back-dune forest; AR, arable land. Five soil samples from each site were collected (0-20 cm of depth), about 2 m far from each other. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total N (Ntot), microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), basal and cumulative respiration (Cbas and Ccum), the metabolic quotient (qCO2), and the mineralisation quotient (qM) were determined. The index of biological fertility (IBF), a comprehensive indicator considering SOM, Cbas, Ccum, Cmic, qCO2 and qM was also calculated for the different land uses. Five intervals of values have been set for each parameter, and a score increasing from 1 to 5 has been assigned to each interval; the algebraic sum of the score for each parameter gives the classes of biological fertility.

  5. Brazilian environmental legislation and scenarios for carbon balance in Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) in dairy livestock regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, M. C.; Fonseca, L. D.; Andrade, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed at mapping some categories of Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) for natural regeneration of semideciduous forests in the regions of Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, Minas Gerais State (Figure 1), and from this to establish what impact the deployment of APP over area of pastures and subsequently milk production and carbon sequestration, considering areas of pasture as one of major factors for the dairy farming in the regions concerned. From the altimetric information from MDE, it was possible to extract morphological and morphometrical data to estimate the areas of APP. We used imagery of MODIS/Terra for extraction of the pastures areas from the vegetation index data NDVI to intersect with the estimated area of APP. In a linear or deterministic scenario of deployment of APPs over in the pasture areas considering that wich are proportionately responsible for sizing the herd, and thus for the milk production in extensive livestock, despite the existence of numerous other factors, there would be an impact 12% in the production of Campo das Vertentes region and 21.5% for the Zona da Mata. In this scenario, according to the carbon balance of forests and livestock, there would be a positive balance with the deployment of areas of permanent preservation and, subsequent promotion of natural regeneration. Considering the current grazing area of the Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, 1.6 million hectares, with the carbon balance estimated at 1 ton/hectare/year, 300,000 hectares would have a balance of 5 ton/hectare/year in whole cycle of 40 years, totaling 200 tons carbon by hectare, or additional 48 million tons fixed, considering 4 tons more than pastures in the case of semideciduous forest. At the end of the cycle or forest climax, there would still be positive carbon balance, estimated as a balance of 2 ton/hectare/year. However, despite the higher carbon balance for the semideciduous forest, compared to livestock, it is important to

  6. Sulfur-doped nanoporous carbon spheres with ultrahigh specific surface area and high electrochemical activity for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Simin; Cai, Yijin; Zhao, Xiao; Liang, Yeru; Zheng, Mingtao; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Jiang, Sanping; Liu, Yingliang; Xiao, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Development of facile and scalable synthesis process for the fabrication of nanoporous carbon materials with large specific surface areas, well-defined nanostructure, and high electrochemical activity is critical for the high performance energy storage applications. The key issue is the dedicated balance between the ultrahigh surface area and highly porous but interconnected nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of new sulfur doped nanoporous carbon sphere (S-NCS) with the ultrahigh surface area up to 3357 m2 g-1 via a high-temperature hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent KOH activation process. The as-prepared S-NCS which integrates the advantages of ultrahigh porous structure, well-defined nanospherical and modification of heteroatom displays excellent electrochemical performance. The best performance is obtained on S-NCS prepared by the hydrothermal carbonization of sublimed sulfur and glucose, S-NCS-4, reaching a high specific capacitance (405 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1) and outstanding cycle stability. Moreover, the symmetric supercapacitor is assembled by S-NCS-4 displays a superior energy density of 53.5 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 74.2 W kg-1 in 1.0 M LiPF6 EC/DEC. The synthesis method is simple and scalable, providing a new route to prepare highly porous and heteroatom-doped nanoporous carbon spheres for high performance energy storage applications.

  7. Carbon Sequestration in Protected Areas: A Case Study of an Abies religiosa (H.B.K. Schlecht. et Cham Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo I. Fragoso-López

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of global climate change have highlighted forest ecosystems as a key element in reducing the amount of atmospheric carbon through photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to estimate the amount of carbon content and its percentage capture in a protected Abies religiosa forest in which the study area was zoned with satellite image analysis. Dendrometric and epidometric variables were used to determine the volume and increase of aerial biomass, and stored carbon and its capture rate using equations. The results indicate that this forest contains an average of 105.72 MgC ha−1, with an estimated sequestration rate of 1.03 MgC ha−1 yr−1. The results show that carbon capture increasing depends on the increase in volume. Therefore, in order to achieve the maximum yield in a forest, it is necessary to implement sustainable forest management that favors the sustained use of soil productivity.

  8. Crisp and fuzzy integer programming models for optimal carbon sequestration retrofit in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, R.R.; Ng, D.K.S.; Foo, D.C.Y.; Aviso, K.B. [De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines)

    2010-12-15

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the interim technologies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from stationary sources such as power plant and large industrial facilities. CCS allows for continued utilization of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, natural gas and oil), which are still relatively inexpensive and reliable in comparison to inherently low-carbon renewable resources (e.g. wind, solar etc.). On the other hand, retrofitting power plants for carbon capture (CC) entails major capital costs as well as reduction of thermal efficiency and power output. This paper presents integer programming optimization models for planning the retrofit of power plants at the regional, sectoral or national level. In addition to the base case (i.e., non-fuzzy or crisp) formulation, two fuzzy extensions are given to account for the inherent conflict between environmental and economic goals, as well as parametric uncertainties pertaining to the emerging CC technologies. Case studies are shown to illustrate the modeling approach.

  9. Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy of the Llandovery in northern peri-Gondwana: new data from the Barrandian area, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Frýda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The first complete δ13Corg record of the uppermost Hirnantian to lower Telychian strata of the Barrandian area (northern peri-Gondwana is presented based on 168 new samples. The new data from the study area reveal that the evolution of the Llandoverian organic carbon isotope reservoir was similar to that on other palaeoplates, but it differs from the development of the coeval carbonate carbon isotope reservoir in the absence of two δ13C excursions (i.e. the early Aeronian positive excursion in the upper part of the Demirastrites triangulatus graptolite Biozone and a negative excursion occurring close to the boundary between the Cystograptus vesiculosus and Coronograptus cyphus graptolite biozones.

  10. Challenges of Family Physician Program in Urban Areas: A Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet Sarvestani, Raheleh; Najafi Kalyani, Majid; Alizadeh, Fariba; Askari, Alireza; Ronaghy, Hossain; Bahramali, Ehsan

    2017-07-01

    Family physicians play an essential role and act as a communicational bridge between people and the healthcare system in providing healthcare services efficiently and equitably. This study aimed at exploring the challenges of the family physician program in urban areas in Iran in 2015. This research had a descriptive exploratory design with a qualitative content analysis approach. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews between 2014 and 2015. Seventeen physicians enrolling in family physician program for at least two years were selected through purposeful sampling. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data. Coding and analysis of the interview data generated two categories and seven subcategories related to the challenges of the family physician program. The categories were poor infrastructure and poor incentive mechanism. Our findings captured a good picture of family physician program in urban areas to better clarify the challenges of the program and provide a foundation to plan and implement appropriate changes. Thus, our findings will give policymakers a deeper perception to confront the challenges of the family physician program in urban areas.

  11. Optimal design methodologies under the carbon emission trading program using MIP, GA, SA, and TS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadegheih, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Yazd University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, an adaptation of MIP, GA, SA, and TS to network planning under the carbon emission trading program is described and computational results are given. As will be shown, the results are very encouraging. The cost function of this problem consists of the capital investment cost in discrete form, the cost of transmission losses, the power generation costs and carbon emission costs. The optimization model has the ability to minimize the total costs and provides the best solutions, which are both cost-effective and environmentally friendly. This method of solution is demonstrated on the real problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed procedure is compared with that of the most well-known as mixed-integer programming. (author)

  12. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  13. Green Recovery: A Program to Create Good Jobs & Start Building a Low-Carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Pollin; Heidi Garrett-Peltier; James Heintz; Helen Scharber

    2008-01-01

    September 2008As the nation debates its energy future, this report shows that the U.S. can create two million jobs by investing in a rapid green economic recovery program, which will strengthen the economy, increase energy independence, and fight global warming.Green Recovery – A Program to Create Good Jobs and Start Building a Low-Carbon Economy was prepared by PERI under commission by the Center for American Progress and released by a coalition of labor and environmental groups. Focusing on...

  14. [Variation of soil organic carbon under different vegetation types in Karst Mountain areas of Guizhou Province, southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hong-kai; Long, Jian

    2011-09-01

    This paper studied the variation characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and different particle sizes soil particulate organic carbon (POC) in normal soil and in micro-habitats under different vegetation types in typical Karst mountain areas of southwest Guizhou. Under different vegetation types, the SOC content in normal soil and in micro-habitats was all in the order of bare land forest, with the variation range being 7.18-43.42 g x kg(-1) in normal soil and being 6.62-46.47 g x kg(-1) and 9.01-52.07 g x kg(-1) in earth surface and stone pit, respectively. The POC/MOC (mineral-associated organic carbon) ratio under different vegetation types was in the order of bare land forest stone pit was the highest, as compared to that in normal soil and in earth surface. In the process of bare land-grass-shrub-forest, the contents of different particle sizes soil POC increased, while the SOC mainly existed in the forms of sand- and silt organic carbon, indicating that in Karst region, soil carbon sequestration and SOC stability were weak, soil was easily subjected to outside interference and led to organic carbon running off, and thus, soil quality had the risk of decline or degradation.

  15. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield; Robert E. Hoehn; Elizabeth. Lapoint

    2013-01-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine...

  16. Priority setting for bird conservation in Mexico: the role of the Important Bird Areas program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma. del Coro Arizmendi; Laura Marquez Valdelamar; Humberto Berlanga

    2005-01-01

    Many species in Mexico are threatened and in need of protection. At least seventy species are considered to be globally threatened, yet conservation actions have been scarce and not coordinated. In 1996 BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas Program was initiated in Mexico to identify a network of the most important places in Mexico for birds, with the...

  17. 50 CFR 648.60 - Sea scallop area access program requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.60 Sea scallop area access program....83(a)(1), and the additional restrictions for Atlantic cod, haddock, and yellowtail flounder... (d)(4). (A) Atlantic cod. Such vessel may bring onboard and possess only up to 100 lb (45.4 kg) of...

  18. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  19. Heteroatom Polymer-Derived 3D High-Surface-Area and Mesoporous Graphene Sheet-Like Carbon for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Haiyang; Wei, Min; D'Aloia, Alyssa; Wu, Gang

    2016-11-09

    Current supercapacitors suffer from low energy density mainly due to the high degree of microporosity and insufficient hydrophilicity of their carbon electrodes. Development of a supercapacitor capable of simultaneously storing as much energy as a battery, along with providing sufficient power and long cycle stability would be valued for energy storage applications and innovations. Differing from commonly studied reduced graphene oxides, in this work we identified an inexpensive heteroatom polymer (polyaniline-PANI) as a carbon/nitrogen precursor, and applied a controlled thermal treatment at elevated temperature to convert PANI into 3D high-surface-area graphene-sheet-like carbon materials. During the carbonization process, various transition metals including Fe, Co, and Ni were added, which play critical roles in both catalyzing the graphitization and serving as pore forming agents. Factors including post-treatments, heating temperatures, and types of metal were found crucial for achieving enhanced capacitance performance on resulting carbon materials. Using FeCl3 as precursor along with optimal heating temperature 1000 °C and mixed acid treatment (HCl+HNO3), the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 1645 m(2)g(-1) was achieved on the mesopore dominant graphene-sheet-like carbon materials. The unique morphologies featured with high-surface areas, dominant mesopores, proper nitrogen doping, and 3D graphene-like structures correspond to remarkably enhanced electrochemical specific capacitance up to 478 Fg(-1) in 1.0 M KOH at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1). Furthermore, in a real two-electrode system of a symmetric supercapacitor, a specific capacitance of 235 Fg(-1) using Nafion binder is obtained under a current density of 1 Ag(-1) by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests in 6.0 M KOH. Long-term cycle stability up to 5000 cycles by using PVDF binder in electrode was systematically evaluated as a function of types of metals and current densities.

  20. Identifying potential sources of variability between vegetation carbon storage estimates for urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Zoe G; Dallimer, Martin; Edmondson, Jill L; Leake, Jonathan R; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-12-01

    Although urbanisation is a major cause of land-use change worldwide, towns and cities remain relatively understudied ecosystems. Research into urban ecosystem service provision is still an emerging field, yet evidence is accumulating rapidly to suggest that the biological carbon stores in cities are more substantial than previously assumed. However, as more vegetation carbon densities are derived, substantial variability between these estimates is becoming apparent. Here, we review procedural differences evident in the literature, which may be drivers of variation in carbon storage assessments. Additionally, we quantify the impact that some of these different approaches may have when extrapolating carbon figures derived from surveys up to a city-wide scale. To understand how/why carbon stocks vary within and between cities, researchers need to use more uniform methods to estimate stores and relate this quantitatively to standardised 'urbanisation' metrics, in order to facilitate comparisons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The U. S. DOE Carbon Storage Program: Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, D.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is taking steps to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions through clean energy innovation, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) research. The Office of Fossil Energy Carbon Storage Program is focused on ensuring the safe and permanent storage and/or utilization of CO2 captured from stationary sources. The Program is developing and advancing geologic storage technologies both onshore and offshore that will significantly improve the effectiveness of CCS, reduce the cost of implementation, and be ready for widespread commercial deployment in the 2025-2035 timeframe. The technology development and field testing conducted through this Program will be used to benefit the existing and future fleet of fossil fuel power generating and industrial facilities by creating tools to increase our understanding of geologic reservoirs appropriate for CO2 storage and the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The Program is evaluating the potential for storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, saline formations, unmineable coal, organic-rich shale formations, and basalt formations. Since 1997, DOE's Carbon Storage Program has significantly advanced the CCS knowledge base through a diverse portfolio of applied research projects. The Core Storage R&D research component focuses on analytic studies, laboratory, and pilot- scale research to develop technologies that can improve wellbore integrity, increase reservoir storage efficiency, improve management of reservoir pressure, ensure storage permanence, quantitatively assess risks, and identify and mitigate potential release of CO2 in all types of storage formations. The Storage Field Management component focuses on scale-up of CCS and involves field validation of technology options, including large-volume injection field projects at pre-commercial scale to confirm system performance and economics. Future research involves commercial-scale characterization for regionally significant storage locations

  2. Paleofacies of Eocene Lower Ngimbang Source Rocks in Cepu Area, East Java Basin based on Biomarkers and Carbon-13 Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Elok A.; Rachman, Faisal; Satyana, Awang H.; Fahrudin; Setyawan, Reddy

    2018-02-01

    The Eocene Lower Ngimbang carbonaceous shales are geochemically proven hydrocarbon source rocks in the East Java Basin. Sedimentary facies of source rock is important for the source evaluation that can be examined by using biomarkers and carbon-13 isotopes data. Furthermore, paleogeography of the source sedimentation can be reconstructed. The case study was conducted on rock samples of Lower Ngimbang from two exploration wells drilled in Cepu area, East Java Basin, Kujung-1 and Ngimbang-1 wells. The biomarker data include GC and GC-MS data of normal alkanes, isoprenoids, triterpanes, and steranes. Carbon-13 isotope data include saturate and aromatic fractions. Various crossplots of biomarker and carbon-13 isotope data of the Lower Ngimbang source samples from the two wells show that the source facies of Lower Ngimbang shales changed from transitional/deltaic setting at Kujung-1 well location to marginal marine setting at Ngimbang-1 well location. This reveals that the Eocene paleogeography of the Cepu area was composed of land area in the north and marine setting to the south. Biomarkers and carbon-13 isotopes are powerful data for reconstructing paleogeography and paleofacies. In the absence of fossils in some sedimentary facies, these geochemical data are good alternatives.

  3. Study on the Preparation Process and Influential Factors of Large Area Environment-friendly Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiyun; Xu, Shisen; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Hongjian; Ren, Yongqiang

    2017-07-01

    Low-cost and high-performance matrix materials used in mass production of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) were prepared by automatic casting machine with α-LiAlO2 powder material synthesized by gel-solid method, and distilled water as solvent. The single cell was assembled for generating test, and the good performance of the matrix was verified. The paper analyzed the factors affecting aqueous tape casting matrix preparation, such as solvent content, dispersant content, milling time, blade height and casting machine running speed, providing a solid basis for the mass production of large area environment-friendly matrix used in molten carbonate fuel cell.

  4. Levels of exhaled carbon monoxide measured during an intervention program predict 1-year smoking cessation: a retrospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Huei-Guan; Pan, Sheng-Wei; Yu, Wen-Kuang; Chen, Wei-Chih; Ho, Li-Ing; Ko, Hsin-Kuo

    2017-10-16

    Life-long smoking cessation is a critical public health objective, but it is difficult for numerous people. This study aimed to identify the independent predictors of 1-year abstinence in smokers motivated to quit and participating in an intervention program. This 6-year retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in smokers who participated in an intervention program. The exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) was sequentially measured on day 1, 8, 15, and 22 of the intervention program. The primary outcome measure was smoking status at 1 year of follow-up. A total of 162 participants were enrolled and divided into a successful quit group (n = 52) and unsuccessful quit group (n = 110). Using a multivariate logistic regression analysis, we reported that the intention to quit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.475, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.169-1.862, P-value = 0.001), varenicline use (AOR = 3.199, 95% CI = 1.290-7.934, P -value = 0.012) and the exhaled CO level on day 8 (AOR = 0.937, 95% CI = 0.885-0.992, P-value = 0.025) independently predicted 1-year smoking cessation. Moreover, the level of exhaled CO smoking cessation (area under curve 0.761, sensitivity 88.2%, and specificity 57.8%, P-value intervention programs to achieve a higher rate of long-term smoking cessation. IDENTIFYING PREDICTORS OF SUCCESS: Researchers in Korea identify key predictors that pinpoint people most likely to quit smoking successfully during intervention programs. Millions are spent each year supporting people to quit smoking. However, successful quitters remain in the minority, with only 9-35 per cent of those in intervention programs abstaining for at least a year. Hsin-Kuo Ko at Taipei Veterans General Hospital and co-workers identified key independent indicators of successful abstinence in 162 smokers attending an intervention program. Alongside having a high intention to quit and using varenicline medication, a potential predictor

  5. Factors that influence the success of conservation programs in communal property areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Bunge-Vivier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the natural vegetation in Mexico is managed collectively within common property systems. The appropriation and continuity of government programs related to the conservation of land that is communally used is proposed to depend on the level of organization of the communities and the interaction between the local and governmental institutions, as well as the benefits derived from conservation projects. Patterns of what drives the conservation of common natural resources were analyzed in order to propose improvements to conservation policy. Changes in primary and secondary vegetation cover in common and private properties were identified by performing a historical spatial analysis. Questionnaires were used to survey 32 populations of seven states of the Mexican Republic to determine the conservation status of common property resources, as well as the ability of the community to continue conservation activities initially undertaken by government programs. Some 53% of the primary and secondary vegetation in Mexico is found in common property areas, but the change from primary and secondary vegetation to other uses is the same for common and private property. Communities with a high level of conservation of communal areas and with the ability to continue conservation projects were those that had dedicated the areas to recreation and conservation, had stronger community organization and were less marginalized. A recognition of the heterogeneity of the socioeconomic and cultural context of communities with common property is necessary to design governmental conservation programs that achieve long-term conservation. To meet the needs of a region that is both degraded and marginalized, the creation of synergies between programs that combat poverty and programs that promote conservation is needed. In addition, the continuation of payments with public funds for work that preserves or rehabilitates natural areas is needed, thereby

  6. Estimate of the area occupied by reforestation programs in Rio de Janeiro state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Barbosa Amorim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was based on a preliminary survey and inventory of existing reforestation programs in Rio de Janeiro state, through geoprocessing techniques and collection of field data. The reforested area was found to occupy 18,426.96 ha, which amounts to 0.42% of the territory of the state. Much of reforestation programs consists of eucalyptus (98%, followed by pine plantations (0.8%, and the remainder is distributed among 10 other species. The Médio Paraíba region was found to contribute the most to the reforested area of the state (46.6%. The estimated volume of eucalyptus timber was nearly two million cubic meters. This study helped crystallize the ongoing perception among those militating in the forestry sector of Rio de Janeiro state that the planted area and stock of reforestation timber is still incipient in the state.

  7. Implications of biocrust removal on soil organic carbon losses by water erosion in a badlands area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Raúl Román, José; Miralles, Isabel; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Cantón, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semiarid ecosystems, soils are characterized by having low organic carbon (OC) content and low fertility. In these systems, runoff, often generated in interplant soils, plays a crucial role in OC redistribution from source (interplant) areas to sink (vegetation) patches. Far from being bare, interplant soils in most arid and semiarid ecosystems are commonly covered by communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, known as biocrusts, which may reach up to 80% of soil cover. Biocrusts fix atmospheric C and increase the soil OC pool by several folds respect bare soils. In addition, biocrusts form a film on the surface that strongly protects soils against water erosion and prevents from OC losses. However, the role of BSCs in reducing OC losses associated to runoff and erosion may depend on the type and development of biocrust. On the other hand, loss of BSCs provoked by frequent disturbances in arid and semiarid areas leads to an increase in runoff and erosion, which may have important effects on OC losses and nutrient impoverishment in interplant areas. Despite their recognized role, very few studies have explicitly evaluated OC losses from runoff and erosion in soils covered by different types of biocrusts and, more importantly, the effects of biocrust disturbance on OC losses. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of two biocrust types (cyanobacteria and lichens) as well as of biocrust removal on dissolved and sediment OC losses, in a badlands site of southeastern Spain. Runoff and erosion after rain were measured in small field plots (1 m2) during one hydrological year and water samples collected for determination of dissolved OC and OC bonded to sediments. Our results showed that total OC losses decreased with biocrust development and that biocrust removal caused a dramatic increase in OC losses. The first rain after biocrust removal contributed the most to OC losses as runoff and, more noticeable, erosion greatly increased

  8. Identifying potential sources of variability between vegetation carbon storage estimates for urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Dallimer, Martin; Edmondson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    Although urbanisation is a major cause of land-use change worldwide, towns and cities remain relatively understudied ecosystems. Research into urban ecosystem service provision is still an emerging field, yet evidence is accumulating rapidly to suggest that the biological carbon stores in cities....... Additionally, we quantify the impact that some of these different approaches may have when extrapolating carbon figures derived from surveys up to a city-wide scale. To understand how/why carbon stocks vary within and between cities, researchers need to use more uniform methods to estimate stores and relate...

  9. Soil Carbon and Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio Change under Tree Canopy, Tall Grass, and Turf Grass Areas of Urban Green Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, S J; Ossola, A; Threlfall, C G; Hahs, A K; Williams, N S G

    2016-01-01

    Soils in urban green spaces are an important carbon (C) store, but urban soils with a high carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio can also buffer N eutrophication from fertilizer use or atmospheric deposition. The influence of vegetation management practices on soil C cycling and C/N ratios in urban green spaces is largely unknown. In 2013, we collected replicate ( = 3) soil samples from tree canopy, tall grass, and short turf grass areas ( = 3) at four random plot locations ( = 4) established in 13 golf courses ( = 13). At each sample point, soil was separated into 0- to 0.1-, 0.1- to 0.2-, and 0.2- to 0.3-m depths (total = 1404). Linear mixed models investigated the relationships between soil properties, vegetation attributes, and green space age. Tree canopy soil was less compacted (1.07 g cm) than grassy areas (1.32 g cm). Similarly, tree canopy soil had mean C/N ratios of 17.2, as compared with between 14.2 and 15.3 in grassy areas. Soil properties in tree canopy areas were best explained by tree basal area and understory vegetation volume. Soil C/N increased with increasing understory vegetation, and the difference in soil C/N between tree canopy and short turf grass areas increased over time. The soil properties in tree canopy areas of urban green space mean they can increasingly buffer the localized use of N fertilizers and atmospheric N deposition. Managers of urban green spaces concerned about N pollution of groundwater and waterways could consider planting trees in suitable topographic locations and promoting understory vegetation and surface litter accumulation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Epoxy composites filled with high surface area-carbon fillers: Optimization of electromagnetic shielding, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhir, P.; Paddubskaya, A.; Plyushch, A.; Volynets, N.; Maksimenko, S.; Macutkevic, J.; Kranauskaite, I.; Banys, J.; Ivanov, E.; Kotsilkova, R.; Celzard, A.; Fierro, V.; Zicans, J.; Ivanova, T.; Merijs Meri, R.; Bochkov, I.; Cataldo, A.; Micciulla, F.; Bellucci, S.; Lambin, Ph.

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of electrical, electromagnetic (EM), mechanical, and thermal properties of epoxy resin composites filled with 0.25-2.0 wt. % of carbon additives characterized by high surface area, both nano-sized, like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon black (CBH), and micro-sized exfoliated graphite (EG), was performed. We found that the physical properties of both CNTs- and CBH-based epoxy resin composites increased all together with filler content and even more clearly for CBH than for CNTs. In the case of EG-based composites, good correlation between properties and filler amount was observed for concentrations below 1.5 wt. %. We conclude that CBH and, to a lower extent, EG could replace expensive CNTs for producing effective EM materials in microwave and low-frequency ranges, which are, in addition, mechanically and thermally stable.

  11. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  12. Design of templated nanoporous carbon electrode materials with substantial high specific surface area for simultaneous determination of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shenghai; Shi, Hongyan; Feng, Xun; Xue, Kaiwen; Song, Wenbo

    2013-04-15

    Nanoporous carbon materials have attracted significant interests in the design of electrodes for electrocatalysis and biosensors. Here, three templated nanoporous carbons (TNCs) materials with substantial different specific surface area were designed and synthesized by a nanocasting method, in which mesoporous silicates and acid were used as template and catalyst, respectively. The TNCs were then used as electrode materials for simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) at physiological pH. The correlations between specific surface area, edge-plane defect sites in TNCs and their distinguishing ability towards AA, DA, and UA were investigated. For TNCs with substantial larger specific surface area and more defect sites, the oxidation peaks of AA, DA and UA were separated well and their oxidation currents increased remarkably. A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for simultaneous detection of those biomolecules was achieved by designing TNCs1 with the largest specific surface area and the most defect sites as the electrode material. The sensitivity of AA, DA and UA at the sensor is 0.012, 4.031, 0.605 μA/μM respectively. Results suggest that TNCs1 is promising in biomolecules simultaneous detection. This work may also be valuable for scientists who search for excellent carbon materials for biosensing and electrocatalysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantifying forest disturbance and regrowth in support of the North American Carbon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Forest disturbance and regrowth are assumed to be significant forces modulating North American carbon balance. Quantifying the carbon fluxes of forest changes requires the changes be assessed with appropriate spatial and temporal details. The Landsat imagery archive accumulated since 1972 provides a unique data source for carrying out this work over the last 30+ years. Through two NASA funded projects "North American Forest Disturbance and Regrowth since 1972 (NAFDR)" and "Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS)", Landsat images are being used to assess forest changes across the North American continent. In the NAFDR project, dense time series (quasi-2-year) of Landsat images are being compiled to quantify forest changes for statistically sampled locations selected to permit national estimates of disturbance and regrowth. In the LEDAPS project, wall-to-wall North American Landsat images acquired and orthorectified under the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program for the 1970s, 1990s and 2000 are being used to examine forest change for the entire North American continent between these 3 decades. The change products derived through the two projects will be cross-calibrated using field plot data collected through the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. Results from the two projects should provide spatially and temporally comprehensive assessments of forest disturbance history of the North American continent, therefore allowing more accurate estimation of the carbon flux arising from such changes.

  14. Climate and land use changes effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a Mediterranean semi-natural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2017-02-01

    A thorough knowledge of the effects of climate and land use changes on the soil carbon pool is critical to planning effective strategies for adaptation and mitigation in future scenarios of global climate and land use change. In this study, we used CarboSOIL model to predict changes in soil organic carbon stocks in a semi-natural area of Southern Spain in three different time horizons (2040, 2070, 2100), considering two general circulation models (BCM2 and ECHAM5) and three IPCC scenarios (A1b, A2, B2). The effects of potential land use changes from natural vegetation (Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland) to agricultural land (olive grove and cereal) on soil organic carbon stocks were also evaluated. Predicted values of SOC contents correlated well those measured (R2 ranging from 0.71 at 0-25cm to 0.97 at 50-75cm) showing the efficiency of the model. Results showed substantial differences among time horizons, climate and land use scenarios and soil depth with larger decreases of soil organic carbon stocks in the long term (2100 time horizon) and particularly in olive groves. The combination of climate and land use scenarios (in particular conversion from current 'dehesa' to olive groves) resulted in yet higher losses of soil organic carbon stocks, e.g. -30, -15 and -33% in the 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75cm sections respectively. This study shows the importance of soil organic carbon stocks assessment under both climate and land use scenarios at different soil sections and point towards possible directions for appropriate land use management in Mediterranean semi natural areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of administrative obstacles to family physician program in urban areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Javan noughabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health is regarded as one of the basic rights of each person in society; so governments are obligated to provide it equally for everyone. The best way to achieve this goal is the establishment of health insurance with the orientation of family physician and the strategic referral system. Yet, such programs will not be successful without encouraging people to participate and changing social behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the administrative obstacles and problems to family physician program in urban areas of Iran. This study was a qualitative research conducted. A purposive sampling method was employed and the data were gathered via semi-structured interview with open-ended questions and document examination. All the interviews were recorded digitally and immediately transcribed verbatim. They were finally analyzed based on framework analysis. The participants' detailed descriptions showed that systemic, environmental, and human related factors were the main obstacles to the implementation of family physician plan. Since the success and performance of each program effectively cannot be obtained without people’s acceptance and collaboration, the necessity of training and giving information rapidly and timely to the residents in urban areas is felt more than ever. Also, making authorities aware of the obstacles expressed by people can be helpful in harmonizing the program with people’s requests; and can result in overcoming the challenges and obstacles facing the program.

  16. Carbon Papers and Aerogels Based on Graphene Layers and Chitosan: Direct Preparation from High Surface Area Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Vincenzina; Guerra, Silvia; Brambilla, Luigi; Maggio, Mario; Serafini, Andrea; Conzatti, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandra; Galimberti, Maurizio

    2017-12-11

    In this work, carbon papers and aerogels based on graphene layers and chitosan were prepared. They were obtained by mixing chitosan (CS) and a high surface area nanosized graphite (HSAG) in water in the presence of acetic acid. HSAG/CS water dispersions were stable for months. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of few graphene layers in water suspensions. Casting or lyophilization of such suspensions led to the preparation of carbon paper and aerogel, respectively. In X-ray spectra of both aerogels and carbon paper, peaks due to regular stacks of graphene layers were not detected: graphene with unaltered sp 2 structure was obtained directly from graphite without the use of any chemical reaction. The composites were demonstrated to be electrically conductive thanks to the graphene. Chitosan thus makes it possible to obtain monolithic carbon aerogels and flexible and free-standing graphene papers directly from a nanosized graphite by avoiding oxidation to graphite oxide and successive reduction. Strong interaction between polycationic chitosan and the aromatic substrate appears to be at the origin of the stability of HSAG/CS adducts. Cation-π interaction is hypothesized, also on the basis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy findings. This work paves the way for the easy large-scale preparation of carbon papers through a method that has a low environmental impact and is based on a biosourced polymer, graphene, and water.

  17. [Soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zha, Tong-Gang; Wang, Yi-Kun; Wang, Gao-min

    2013-03-01

    Based on the field survey and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area. In the two plantations, the contents of soil macro-aggregates decreased with soil depth. In P. tabulaeformis plantation, soil macro-aggregates (>0.25 mm) occupied the majority, accounting for 71% -77% of the total; whereas in Q. variabilis plantation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of soil macro-aggregates and micro-aggregates (soil aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation were significantly higher than those in Q. variabilis plantation, and the fractal dimension (D) of the soil water-stable aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation was lower than that in Q. variabilis plantation, suggesting that P. tabulaeformis plantation was more favorable for the soil aggregate stability than Q. variabilis plantation. Also in the two plantations, the organic carbon content in soil water-stable aggregates decreased with soil depth. The organic carbon content in soil macro-aggregates was significantly higher in P. tabulaeformis plantation (58% -83%) than in Q. variabilis plantation (49% -66% ). It was suggested that in Beijing area, P. tabulaeformis plantation was more beneficial to the soil organic carbon protection, as compared with Q. variabilis plantation.

  18. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S Y; Napier, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 5 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The Committee completed a number of reports in these subject areas, most recently NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. Historically this Committee addressed emerging issues of the nation pertaining to radioactivity or radiation in the environment or radioactive waste issues due either to natural origins or to manmade activities.

  19. Preparation, Surface and Pore Structure of High Surface Area Activated Carbon Fibers from Bamboo by Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High surface area activated carbon fibers (ACF have been prepared from bamboo by steam activation after liquefaction and curing. The influences of activation temperature on the microstructure, surface area and porosity were investigated. The results showed that ACF from bamboo at 850 °C have the maximum iodine and methylene blue adsorption values. Aside from the graphitic carbon, phenolic and carbonyl groups were the predominant functions on the surface of activated carbon fiber from bamboo. The prepared ACF from bamboo were found to be mainly type I of isotherm, but the mesoporosity presented an increasing trend after 700 °C. The surface area and micropore volume of samples, which were determined by application of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and t-plot methods, were as high as 2024 m2/g and 0.569 cm3/g, respectively. It was also found that the higher activation temperature produced the more ordered microcrystalline structure of ACF from bamboo.

  20. The Theater High Altitude Area Defense program: an interim examination of its acquisition strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis is an examination of the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) program's implementation of the User Operational Evaluation System (UOES) acquisition strategy. The Missile Defense Act of 1991 imposed significant schedule risk on THAAD's development, necessitating the UOES strategy. The UOES risk management issues are analyzed using DOD's risk management guidance. This guidance incorporates some current methods, applica...

  1. U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office quality assurance program document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for safe disposal of TRU waste, and establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. To help in fulfilling this mission and to ensure that risks and environmental impacts are identified and minimized, and that safety, reliability, and performance are optimized, CAO`s policy is to establish and maintain an effective quality assurance (QA) program that supports compliance with applicable Federal, State, and local regulations, and DOE orders and requirements. This document establishes QA program requirements for all programs, projects, and activities sponsored by CAO.

  2. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY2005 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, G F; Genetti, V; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Kersting, A B; Lindvall, R E; Moran, J E; Nimz, G J; Ramon, E C; Rose, T P; Shuller, L; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2007-03-23

    This report describes FY 2005 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area Project (UGTA). These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The report is organized on a topical basis and contains five chapters that highlight technical work products produced by CBND. However, it is important to recognize that most of this work involves collaborative partnerships with the other HRMP and UGTA contract organizations. These groups include the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and Bechtel Nevada (BN).

  3. Hydrogen storage on high-surface-area carbon monoliths for Adsorb hydrogen Gas Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Yuchoong; Pfeifer, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Carbon briquetting can increase hydrogen volumetric storage capacity by reducing the useless void volume resulting in a better packing density. It is a robust and efficient space-filling form for an adsorbed hydrogen gas vehicle storage tank. To optimize hydrogen storage capacity, we studied three fabrication process parameters: carbon-to-binder ratio, compaction temperature, and pyrolysis atmosphere. We found that carbon-to-binder ratio and pyrolysis atmosphere have influences on gravimetric excess adsorption. Compaction temperature has large influences on gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity. We have been able to optimize these parameters for high hydrogen storage. All monolith uptakes (up to 260 bar) were measured by a custom-built, volumetric, reservoir-type instrument.

  4. Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Carbon Aerogels of High-Surface Area and Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Peña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work carbon aerogels were synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition method (CCVD. Ferrocene were employed as a source both of catalytic material (Fe and of carbon. Gaseous hydrogen and argon were used as reductant and carrier gas, respectively. The products of reaction were collected over alumina. The morphology and textural properties of the soot produced in the reaction chamber were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and N2 physisorption (BET and BHJ methods. After the evaluation of the porous structure of the synthesized products, 780 ± 20 m2/g of SBET and 0.55 ± 0.02 cm3/g of VBJH were found. The presence of iron carbide and the partial oxidation of carbon nanostructures were revealed by XPS.

  5. Calculating Soil Wetness, Evapotranspiration and Carbon Cycle Processes Over Large Grid Areas Using a New Scaling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers

    2012-01-01

    Soil wetness typically shows great spatial variability over the length scales of general circulation model (GCM) grid areas (approx 100 km ), and the functions relating evapotranspiration and photosynthetic rate to local-scale (approx 1 m) soil wetness are highly non-linear. Soil respiration is also highly dependent on very small-scale variations in soil wetness. We therefore expect significant inaccuracies whenever we insert a single grid area-average soil wetness value into a function to calculate any of these rates for the grid area. For the particular case of evapotranspiration., this method - use of a grid-averaged soil wetness value - can also provoke severe oscillations in the evapotranspiration rate and soil wetness under some conditions. A method is presented whereby the probability distribution timction(pdf) for soil wetness within a grid area is represented by binning. and numerical integration of the binned pdf is performed to provide a spatially-integrated wetness stress term for the whole grid area, which then permits calculation of grid area fluxes in a single operation. The method is very accurate when 10 or more bins are used, can deal realistically with spatially variable precipitation, conserves moisture exactly and allows for precise modification of the soil wetness pdf after every time step. The method could also be applied to other ecological problems where small-scale processes must be area-integrated, or upscaled, to estimate fluxes over large areas, for example in treatments of the terrestrial carbon budget or trace gas generation.

  6. How do soil organic carbon stocks change after cropland abandonment in Mediterranean humid mountain areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal-Romero, E.; Cammeraat, E.; Pérez-Cardiel, E.; Lasanta, T.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions. Afforestation is increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and is considered one of the most

  7. Dissolved organic carbon in the INDEX area of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; DeSousa, S.N.

    . The samples were not filtered in order to avoid any contamination. Total organic carbon (TOC) was analysed by Shimadzu TOC-5000 (precision, 5%) analyser using HTCO by platinum catalyst. The system blank and instrument blank were determined using UV oxidised...

  8. The FRUELA cruises.. A carbon flux study in productive areas of the Antarctic Peninsula (December 1995-February 1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, Ricardo; Estrada, Marta

    The FRUELA (name of an 8th century king of Asturias) project, part of the Spanish contribution to the study of biogeochemical carbon fluxes in the Southern Ocean, was based on two consecutive cruises of the B.I.O.; Hespérides which took place in the Bransfield and Gerlache Straits and Belligshausen Sea between early December and early February of Austral summer 1995-1996. In addition to the cruises, data were obtained from an array of sediment traps deployed for one year in the Western Bransfield Strait Basin. The basic objectives of FRUELA were the quantification of carbon standing stocks and fluxes through the main components of the "biological pump" and the determination of carbon fluxes across different water column boundaries, including the transfer of CO 2 between the atmosphere and the ocean, the export of particulate carbon (PC) out of the euphotic zone, the vertical flux of PC in deep waters and the accumulation of carbon in sediments. The main hydrographical features found in the study region were the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Currrent (SbyACC) and the Bransfield Front. Three major zones, with contrasting physico-chemical and biological characteristics were considered: Bellingshausen, including the Northwest Bellingshausen Sea and comprising the SbyACC, Bransfield, including the Western Bransfield Strait and the northeastern part of the Gerlache Strait, and Gerlache, with the rest of the Gerlache Strait. This paper summarizes the distribution of different properties and rate processes in these zones and discusses the major findings of the cruise concerning carbon fluxes. Our results indicate that, during the summer period, the studied area could be considered as a sink for atmospheric carbon. The amount of PC exported out of the photic layer was a moderate fraction of primary production and a low fraction of the suspended PC; high chlorophyll a systems dominated by microphytoplankton showed higher PC export fluxes than low

  9. An application of plot-scale NDVI in predicting carbon dioxide exchange and leaf area index in heterogeneous subarctic tundra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagg, J.; Lafleur, P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the flow of carbon into and out of tundra ecosystems. It is necessary to accurately predict carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) exchange in the Tundra because of the impacts of climate change on carbon stored in permafrost. Understanding the relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation and CO{sub 2} exchange may explain how small-scale variation in vegetation community extends to remotely sensed estimates of landscape characteristics. In this study, CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured with a portable chamber in a range of Tundra vegetation communities. Biomass and leaf area were measured with destructive harvest, and NDVI was obtained using a hand-held infrared camera. There was a weak correlation between NDVI and leaf area index in some vegetation communities, but a significant correlation between NDVI and biomass, including mosses. NDVI was found to be strongly related to photosynthetic activity and net CO{sub 2} uptake in all vegetation groups. However, NDVI related to ecosystem respiration only in wet sedge. It was concluded that at plot scale, the ability of NDVI to predict ecosystem properties and CO{sub 2} exchange in heterogeneous Tundra vegetation is variable.

  10. Deployment of Low-Cost, Carbon Dioxide Sensors throughout the Washington Metropolitan Area - The Capital Climate Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Kristen M.; Bailey, D. Michelle; Houston Miller, J.

    2016-04-01

    According to the IPCC from 1995 to 2005, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations increased by 19 ppm, the highest average growth rate recorded for any decade since measurements began in the 1950s. Due to its ability to influence global climate change, it is imperative to continually monitor carbon dioxide emission levels, particularly in urban areas where some estimate in excess of 75% of total greenhouse gas emissions occur. Although high-precision sensors are commercially available, these are not cost effective for mapping a large spatial area. A goal of this research is to build out a network of sensors that are accurate and precise enough to provide a valuable data tool for accessing carbon emissions from a large, urban area. This publically available greenhouse gas dataset can be used in numerous environmental assessments and as validation for remote sensing products. It will also be a valuable teaching tool for classes at our university and will promote further engagement of K-12 students and their teachers through education and outreach activities. Each of our sensors (referred to as "PiOxides") utilizes a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor for the detection of carbon dioxide along with a combination pressure/temperature/humidity sensor. The collection of pressure and temperature increases the accuracy and precision of the CO2 measurement. The sensors communicate using a serial interfaces with a Raspberry Pi microcontroller. Each PiOxide is connected to a website that leverages recent developments in open source GIS tools. In this way, data from individual sensors can be followed individually or aggregated to provide real-time, spatially-resolved data of CO2 trends across a broad area. Our goal for the network is to expand across the entire DC/Maryland/Virginia Region through partnerships with private and public schools. We are also designing GHG Bluetooth beacons that may be accessed by mobile phone users in their vicinity. In two additional

  11. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  12. Plutonium stabilization and disposition focus area, FY 1999 and FY 2000 multi-year program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Consistent with the Environmental Management`s (EM`s) plan titled, ``Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure``, and ongoing efforts within the Executive Branch and Congress, this Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Plutonium Focus Area was written to ensure that technical gap projects are effectively managed and measured. The Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) defines and manages technology development programs that contribute to the effective stabilization of nuclear materials and their subsequent safe storage and final disposition. The scope of PFA activities includes the complete spectrum of plutonium materials, special isotopes, and other fissile materials. The PFA enables solutions to site-specific and complex-wide technology issues associated with plutonium remediation, stabilization, and preparation for disposition. The report describes the current technical activities, namely: Plutonium stabilization (9 studies); Highly enriched uranium stabilization (2 studies); Russian collaboration program (2 studies); Packaging and storage technologies (6 studies); and PFA management work package/product line (3 studies). Budget information for FY 1999 and FY 2000 is provided.

  13. Optimization of sodium carbonate texturization on large-area crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, N.; Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda, Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Borchert, D. [Auf der Reihe 2, Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Fraunhofer Institut, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2007-12-14

    This work describes a texturization method for monocrystalline silicon solar cells based on a mixture of sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate solutions. A specific solution has been found that results in an optimal etching rate, the lowest surface reflectance and a homogeneous density of pyramidal structures on the silicon surface. The subsequent phosphorus diffusion with rapid thermal processes has been modified in order to drastically reduce the process time and, simultaneously, to obtain a high homogeneity of the sheet resistance values and improved photocarriers lifetimes. 100 x 100 mm solar cells with an efficiency of 15.8% have been obtained compared to an efficiency of 14.7% for the reference cell. (author)

  14. How do soil organic carbon stocks change after cropland abandonment in Mediterranean humid mountain areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, E; Cammeraat, E; Pérez-Cardiel, E; Lasanta, T

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions. Afforestation is increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and is considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. Given the large quantity of CO2 that soils release annually, it is important to understand disturbances in vegetation and soil resulting from land use changes. The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, permanent pastureland, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, were analysed. SOC dynamics have been studied in the bulk soil, and in the fractions separated according to two methodologies: (i) aggregate size distribution, and (ii) density fractionation, and rates of carbon mineralization have been determined by measuring CO2 evolution using an automated respirometer. The results showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10cm), (ii) when all the profiles were considered no significant differences were observed between pastureland and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) pastureland should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration experiments did not show evidence of SOC stabilization. SOC mineralization was higher in the top layers and values decreased with depth. These results gain insights into which type of land management is most appropriate after land abandonment for SOC

  15. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  16. 100 Area process improvement program for the period November 1954--April 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinker, P.H.; Bupp, L.P.

    1954-11-19

    This is the second of a series of documents issued quarterly. The documents present, for critical examination by management and for the information of related groups, that portion of the future 100 Area technical program which relates directly and more or less immediately to the Technical-Manufacturing efforts to increase both power levels and production. An attempt is made to describe and justify the key production tests planned for the following six month period. Only those tests necessary for the relief of technical and process limitations and vital to the slug improvement program are included. Best estimates of changes in current Process Specifications during the ensuing six months are also given. To further longer range planning, power level forecasts based on foreseeable changes of technical limits and scheduled physical changes of the water plants and reactors are extended several years into the future.

  17. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  18. Active control over carbon deposition on diagnostic components and in remote areas of ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litnovsky, A.; Philipps, V.; Wienhold, P.; Matveeva, M.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Sergienko, G.; Schmitz, O.; Samm, U.; Stoschus, H.; Schulz, C.; Marot, L.; Romanyuk, A.; De Temmerman, G.; Laengner, M.; Breuer, U.; Stark, A.

    2011-01-01

    In future fusion devices like ITER deposition of impurities will likely occur in areas, remote from plasma and on the sensitive components of optical diagnostics, like mirrors and windows. Deposition in remote areas may lead to the tritium retention and therefore represent a safety issue. Deposition

  19. Adsorption and correlations of selected aromatic compounds on a KOH-activated carbon with large surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Zhu, Lianghong; Yang, Jingjing; Lin, Daohui

    2017-10-17

    Knowledge of adsorption mechanism and behavior of organic compounds by KOH-activated carbons (KOH-ACs) from wastewater is crucial to its environmental application in wastewater treatment as adsorbent. A superior adsorbent, KOH-activated carbon (KOH-AC), with large surface area (3143m2/g), total pore volume of 2.03cm3/g, relatively low micropore fraction of 53.2%, and having adsorption capacities of organic compounds up to >1000mg/g, was prepared. It is an adsorbent significantly different with common ACs because the molecular sieving effect, widely observed for common ACs, is insignificant for KOH-AC. This difference could be attributed to the lower micropore fraction of KOH-AC than common ACs. A negative relationship of adsorption capacity of 25 aromatic compounds (including phenols, anilines, nitrobenzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) with chemical melting point was observed, suggesting that adsorption is dependent on the packing efficiency and stacking density of molecules on KOH-AC. A linear solvation energy relationships of adsorption affinity of 25 aromatic compounds with solute solvatochromic parameters was also observed, that can be used to quantify the contributions of π-π interaction, hydrogen-bonding interaction and hydrophobic effect to adsorption on KOH-AC. Combined with the reported results of adsorption of organic compounds on carbon nanotubes and biochars, it was also observed that external surface area of adsorbents is controlling the packing efficiency and stacking density of molecules on adsorbents and thus affecting adsorption capacity of organic compounds. Moreover, micropore surface area and the fraction of micropores are the adsorbent properties mainly affecting adsorption affinity of organic compounds. The observations and the developed correlations in this study would be helpful in the application of KOH-AC as superior adsorbent by enhancing the understanding of adsorption mechanisms of organic compounds on KOH-AC and by giving a

  20. The Contributions To The Study Of Carbon Monoxide Pollution Due To Car Traffic In A Densely Populated Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin, Borza

    2015-07-01

    Air quality monitoring is the most important environmental factor to be considered because it is the fastest way that helps pollutant transport into the environment. The development of human society has led to a negative anthropogenic and technogenic impact on air quality, resulting into a significant series of adverse effects on human health, flora, fauna and ecosystems in general. In this paper it is presentd the research work performed to monitor carbon monoxide emissions from motor vehicles in traffic, in a densely populated area in Sibiu. Also, in the paper it is described, the research findings conducted in accordance with national and European legislation. In our research we used GIS software, Geomedia Professional.

  1. [Pervasive developmental disorders screening program in the health areas of Salamanca and Zamora in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Primo, P; Santos Borbujo, J; Martín Cilleros, M V; Martínez Velarte, M; Lleras Muñoz, S; Posada de la Paz, M; Canal Bedia, R

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the results of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) screening program currently ongoing in the public health services in the health area of Salamanca and Zamora, Spain, in terms of feasibility, reliability and costs, with the purpose of extending the program at regional and national levels. A total of 54 paediatric teams (nurses and paediatricians) from the provinces of Salamanca and Zamora participated in the training sessions for the PDD Screening Programme in September 2005, and agreed to administer the questionnaire M-CHAT(1) to all parents attending their clinics in any of these two visits: 18 months and/or 24 months within the Well-baby Check-up Program. A total of 9,524 children have participated up to December 2012. Additionally, we evaluated the participation and opinions of the paediatric teams using questionnaires, and costs per positive case have estimated. Out of a total of 852 (8.9%) children determined as PDD high-risk with the M-CHAT questionnaire results, 61 (7.1%) were confirmed as positive with the M-CHAT follow-up interview. Of these, 22 were diagnosed with a PDD and 31 other disorders of childhood onset according to DSM-IV-TR(2). Almost three-quarters (74%) of respondents felt the program was totally feasible, and 22% viable, but with reservations (n=54). This study has been able to show for the first time in Spain, the feasibility of a population-based PDD screening program within the public health system. Training in social and communicative development, and dissemination of the early signs of PDD among paediatricians, as well as the use of the M-CHAT, is essential for progress in the early detection of these disorders. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Eight-year evaluation of a combined fluoride program in a nonfluoride area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, H S; Meyers, R J; Heifetz, S B; Driscoll, W S; Li, S H

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the long-term effects of a combination of self-applied fluoride methods among schoolchildren living in a rural area with low concentrations of fluoride in drinking water. Participating children rinse weekly with a 0.2% sodium fluoride solution and ingest daily a 1-mg fluoride tablet in school under supervision of their teachers, and received fluoride toothpaste and toothbrushes for use at home. In 1980, dental examinations of children ages 6-14, who had continuously participated in the program for 1 to 8 years, depending on their school grade, had an overall mean caries prevalence of 3.22 DMFS, 49% lower than the corresponding mean score of 6.31 DMFS for children of the same ages at the baseline examination. The preventive program inhibited decay in all types of tooth surfaces: 37% in occlusal, 41% in buccolingual, and a striking 86% in mesiodistal. At each succeeding follow-up survey, benefits have continued to improve; the reductions in caries prevalence were 18% after 2 years, 35% after 4 years, 45% after 6 years, and 49% after 8 years. Findings in approximal tooth surfaces have also continued to improve as the length of the program has increased; reductions in caries in mesiodistal surfaces were 32%, 69%, 85%, and 86% after 2,4,6, and 8 years, respectively. Internal analyses of data indicate that the decline in dental caries prevalence resulted from the fluoride program and not from an unexplained natural decline in caries prevalence. The self-applied combined fluoride regimen used in this program has been shown to produce a pronounced anticaries effect.

  3. Global 1-degree Maps of Forest Area, Carbon Stocks, and Biomass, 1950-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides global forest area, forest growing stock, and forest biomass data at 1-degree resolution for the period 1950-2010. The data set is based on a...

  4. LandCarbon Conterminous United States Burned Area and Severity Mosaics 2001-2050 Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The burn area and severity data were stochastically generated using a probabilistic ignition model and mechanistic fire-spread model. The ignition model consisted of...

  5. Identifying grain-size dependent errors on global forest area estimates and carbon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    Satellite-derived coarse-resolution data are typically used for conducting global analyses. But the forest areas estimated from coarse-resolution maps (e.g., 1 km) inevitably differ from a corresponding fine-resolution map (such as a 30-m map) that would be closer to ground truth. A better understanding of changes in grain size on area estimation will improve our...

  6. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program: flux of organic carbon by rivers to the oceans. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 15 papers presented in this workshop report. The state of knowledge about the role of rivers in the transport, storage and oxidation of carbon is the subject of this report. (KRM)

  7. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2000 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L; Eaton, G F; Hakemi, N L; Hudson, G B; Hutcheon, I D; Lau, C A; Kersting, A B; Kenneally, J M; Moran, J E; Phinney, D L; Rose, T P; Smith, D K; Sylwester, E R; Wang, L; Williams, R; Zavarin, M

    2001-07-01

    This report highlights the results of FY 2000 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. This is the latest in a series of annual reports published by LLNL-ANCD to document recent investigations of radionuclide migration and transport processes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The HRMP is sponsored by Defense Programs (DP) at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOENV), and supports DP operations at the NTS through studies of radiochemical and hydrologic processes that are relevant to the DP mission. Other organizations that support the HRMP include Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPS), and Bechtel Nevada (BN). The UGTA Project is sponsored by the Environmental Management (EM) program at DOENV; its goal is to determine the extent of radionuclide contamination in groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing at the NTS. The project strategy follows guidelines set forth in a Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Participating contractors include LLNL (both ANCD and the Energy and Environmental Sciences Directorate), LANL, USGS, DRI, BN, and IT Corporation (with subcontract support from Geotrans Inc.).

  8. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle. Agriculture contributes to carbon sequestration through photosynthesis and the incorporation of carbon into carbohydrates. Soil management is one of the best tools for climate change mitigation. Small increases or decreases in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices, may result in a significant net exchange of carbon between the soil carbon pool and the atmosphere. In the last decades arable crops (AC) have been transformed into olive grove cultivations (OG) or vineyards (V) in Mediterranean areas. A field study was conducted to determine long-term effects of land use change (LUC) (AC by OG and V) on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr) in Mediterranean conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS An unirrigated farm in Montilla-Moriles (Córdoba, Spain) cultivated under conventional tillage (animal power with lightweight reversible plows and non-mineral fertilization or pesticides) was selected for study in 1965. In 1966, the farm was divided into three plots with three different uses (AC, OG and V). The preliminary analyses were realized in 1965 for AC (AC1), and the second analyses were realized in 2011 for AC (AC2 - winter crop rotation with annual wheat and barley, receiving mineral fertilization or pesticides), OG (annual passes with disk harrow and cultivator in the spring, followed by a tine harrow in the summer receiving mineral fertilization and weed control with residual herbicides), and V (with three or five chisel passes a year from early spring to early autumn with mineral fertilization or pesticides.). In all cases (AC1, AC2, OG and V) were collected soil entire profiles. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, bulk density, SOC, TN, C:N ratio, stocks and SRs. The statistical significance of the differences in the variables between land use practices was tested using the

  9. Game Changing Development Program - Next Generation Life Support Project: Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide Using Ion Exchange Membrane Electrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jiao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the Phase I research and development work performed during the March 13, 2015 to July 13, 2016 period. The proposal for this work was submitted in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH14ZOA001N, "Space Technology Research, Development, Demonstration, and Infusion 2014 (SpaceTech-REDDI-2014)," Appendix 14GCD-C2 "Game Changing Development Program, Advanced Oxygen Recovery for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Appendix" The Task Agreement for this Phase I work is Document Control Number: GCDP-02-TA-15015. The objective of the Phase I project was to demonstrate in laboratories two Engineering Development Units (EDU) that perform critical functions of the low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis and the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide into carbon and carbon dioxide. The low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was built by the University of Delaware with Dr. Feng Jiao as the principal investigator in charge of this EDU development (under NASA Contract NNC15CA04C). The carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was built by the NASA Glenn Research Center with Kenneth Burke as the principal investigator and overall project leader for the development of both EDUs. Both EDUs were successfully developed and demonstrated the critical functions for each process. The carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center and the carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was delivered to the NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center.

  10. Soybeans Grown in the Chernobyl Area Produce Fertile Seeds that Have Increased Heavy Metal Resistance and Modified Carbon Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V.; Uvackova, Lubica; Rashydov, Namik M.; Hajduch, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis. PMID:23110204

  11. Soybeans grown in the Chernobyl area produce fertile seeds that have increased heavy metal resistance and modified carbon metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Klubicová

    Full Text Available Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  12. [Impact of Rocky Desertification Treatment on Underground Water Chemistry and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Isotope in Karst Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi-zhen; Xiong, Kang-ning; Lan, Jia-cheng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Long

    2015-05-01

    Five springs representing different land-use types and different karst rocky desertification treatment models were chosen at the Huajiang Karst Rocky Desertification Treatment Demonstration Site in Guanling-Zhenfeng Counties in Guizhou, to analyze the features of underground water chemistry and dissolved inorganic carbon isotopes (δ13C(DIC)) and reveal the effect of rocky desertification treatment on karstification and water quality. It was found that, the underground water type of the research area was HCO3-Ca; the water quality of the springs which were relatively less affected by human activities including Shuijingwan Spring (SJW) , Gebei Spring (GB), and Maojiawan Spring (MJW) was better than those relatively more affected by human activities including Diaojing Spring (DJ) and Tanjiazhai Spring (TJZ) , the main ion concentrations and electrical conductivity of which were higher; pH, SIc and pCO2 were sensitive to land-use types and rocky desertification treatment, which could be shown by the higher pH and SIc and lower pCO2 in MJW than those in the other four springs; (Ca(2+) + Mg2+)/HCO(3-) of SJW, MJW and GB were nearly 1:1, dominated by carbonate rock weathering by carbon acid, while the (Ca(2+) + Mg2+) of DJ and TJZ was much higher than HCO3-, suggesting that sulfate and nitrate might also dissolve carbonate rock because of the agricultural activities; δ13C(DIC) was lighter in wet season because of the higher biological activities; the average δ13C(DIC) was in the order of DJ (-12.79 per thousand) desertification and lighter after the rocky desertification are treated and controlled.

  13. [Spatial distribution, mechanism and management strategies of carbon source and sink of urban residential area: a case in Guanzhong Region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Wei; Wei, Shu-Jing; Wang, Ya-Mei; Wen, Zheng-Min

    2014-03-01

    Urban residential area is an important component of urban ecosystem. Its carbon process will have an important impact on carbon cycle and carbon balance of urban ecosystem. In this paper, the data of CO2 emission and absorption in Guanzhong area were collected by case ana-lysis, literature consulting and questionnaires and surveys to analyze its sources and the spatial distribution characteristics. The results showed that building materials production and renovation of residential area had the most CO2 emission, and building materials had much larger CO2 emission compared with everyday means of subsistence. Only 40% -52% of total carbon emission occurred within the residential area, while the rest was in the peripheral area. The spatial distance variation of carbon source, the spatial differences of carbon component and the spatial distribution by spheres and zoning were observed. As for CO2 absorption, only 9%-17% CO2 emission could be absorbed in the residential area, and the others had to be imposed to the outer space, showing hierarchical grading rules and spatial variation. Some space management techniques and intervention measures were put forward.

  14. Facile Synthesis of Ultrahigh-Surface-Area Hollow Carbon Nanospheres and their Application in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shao-Zhong; Yao, Yuechao; Huang, Lin; Wu, Hongliang; Peng, Biaolin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiaohua; Yu, Liang; Liu, Shiyu; Tu, Wenxuan; Lan, Tongbin; Zeng, Xierong; Zou, Jizhao

    2017-12-13

    Hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNs) with specific surface areas up to 2949 m2  g-1 and pore volume up to 2.9 cm3  g-1 were successfully synthesized from polyaniline-co-polypyrrole hollow nanospheres by carbonization and CO2 activation. The cavity diameter and wall thickness of HCNs can be easily controlled by activation time. Owing to their large inner cavity and enclosed structure, HCNs are desirable carriers for encapsulating sulfur. To better understand the effects of pore characteristics and sulfur contents on the performances of lithium-sulfur batteries, three composites of HCNs and sulfur are prepared and studied in detail. The composites of HCNs with moderate specific surface areas and suitable sulfur content present a better performance. The first discharge capacity of this composite reaches 1401 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C. Even after 200 cycles, the discharge capacity remains at 626 mAh g-1 . © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Soil organic carbon distribution in Mediterranean areas under a climate change scenario via multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Obregón-Romero, Rafael

    2017-08-15

    Over time, the interest on soil studies has increased due to its role in carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, which could contribute to decreasing atmospheric CO 2 rates. In many studies, independent variables were related to soil organic carbon (SOC) alone, however, the contribution degree of each variable with the experimentally determined SOC content were not considered. In this study, samples from 612 soil profiles were obtained in a natural protected (Red Natura 2000) of Sierra Morena (Mediterranean area, South Spain), considering only the topsoil 0-25cm, for better comparison between results. 24 independent variables were used to define it relationship with SOC content. Subsequently, using a multiple linear regression analysis, the effects of these variables on the SOC correlation was considered. Finally, the best parameters determined with the regression analysis were used in a climatic change scenario. The model indicated that SOC in a future scenario of climate change depends on average temperature of coldest quarter (41.9%), average temperature of warmest quarter (34.5%), annual precipitation (22.2%) and annual average temperature (1.3%). When the current and future situations were compared, the SOC content in the study area was reduced a 35.4%, and a trend towards migration to higher latitude and altitude was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Parras-Alcántara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC, but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC to olive grove (OG and vineyards (V. A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years of LUC (AC by OG and V and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (TN, C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O., in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr, an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011. This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively. With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs, the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.

  17. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, L.; Martín-Carrillo, M.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-05-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O.), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs), the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.

  18. Proposed framework for the Western Area Power Administration Environmental Risk Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; DiMassa, F.V.; Pelto, P.J.; Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Roybal, A.L. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) views environmental protection and compliance as a top priority as it manages the construction, operation, and maintenance of its vast network of transmission lines, substations, and other facilities. A recent Department of Energy audit of Western`s environmental management activities recommends that Western adopt a formal environmental risk program. To accomplish this goal, Western, in conjunction with Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is in the process of developing a centrally coordinated environmental risk program. This report presents the results of this design effort, and indicates the direction in which Western`s environmental risk program is heading. Western`s environmental risk program will consist of three main components: risk communication, risk assessment, and risk management/decision making. Risk communication is defined as an exchange of information on the potential for threats to human health, public safety, or the environment. This information exchange provides a mechanism for public involvement, and also for the participation in the risk assessment and management process by diverse groups or offices within Western. The objective of risk assessment is to evaluate and rank the relative magnitude of risks associated with specific environmental issues that are facing Western. The evaluation and ranking is based on the best available scientific information and judgment and serves as input to the risk management process. Risk management takes risk information and combines it with relevant non-risk factors (e.g., legal mandates, public opinion, costs) to generate risk management options. A risk management tool, such as decision analysis, can be used to help make risk management choices.

  19. Studies on removal of metribuzin, bromacil, 2,4-D and atrazine from water by adsorption on high area carbon cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayranci, Erol; Hoda, Numan

    2004-08-09

    The removal of pesticides such as metribuzin, bromacil, 2,4-d and atrazine from aqueous solutions was studied by adsorption on high area carbon cloth. The adsorption process was followed by in situ UV-spectrophotometric technique in a specially designed adsorption cell. Spectroscopic data of the pesticides were determined in separate experiments. The extent of adsorption was quantified by calculating the amount of adsorbate adsorbed per unit area of the carbon cloth and the percentage coverage at the carbon-cloth surface. The order of extent of adsorption of the pesticides studied was found as metribuzin metribuzin.

  20. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Westgate

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  1. Proceedings of the 13th biennial conference on carbon. Extended abstracts and program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    Properties of carbon are covered including: mechanical and frictional properties; chemical reactivity and surfaces; aerospace applications; carbonization and graphitization; industrial applications; electrical and thermal properties; biomaterials applications; fibers and composites; nuclear applications; activated carbon and adsorption; advances in carbon characterization; and micromechanics and modeling. (GHT)

  2. Litter and Soil Carbon Stock in Cultivated and Natural Area of Intergrated Forest for Conservation Education of Wan Abdul Rachman Great Forest Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni Dellta Ellannia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intergrated Forest for Conservation Education of Wan Abdul Rachman (IFCE WAR Great Forest Park is a conservation forest zone which has natural area and cultivated area. The natural area in Wan Abdul Rachman Great Forest Park consists of secondary forest, whereas the cultivated area consists of agroforestry with cacao plants and agroforestry with coffee plants. The different land use in both areas caused the difference in carbon sink specifically in litter and soil. The research was aimed to study the difference of litter and soil carbon stock in natural and cultivated area in IFCE WAR Great Forest Park. The observation plots included in the current study was determined using purposive sampling method. The research was conducted in June until August 2015. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance and continued with honestly significant difference test. The results showed that there was no difference of litter carbon stock in cultivated area and natural area in IFCE WAR Great Forest Park, whereas the soil carbon stock in natural area was higher than that in cultivated area.

  3. Surface area dependence of calcium isotopic reequilibration in carbonates: Implications for isotopic signatures in the weathering zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, N. M.; Druhan, J. L.; Potrel, A.; Jacobson, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of dynamic equilibrium carries the implicit assumption of continued isotopic exchange between a mineral and the surrounding fluid. While this effect has received much attention in the marine paleoproxy literature, it has been relatively overlooked in application to the terrestrial environment. In weathering systems, a potential consequence is that rapid reequilibration may alter or erase isotopic signatures generated during secondary mineral formation. The extent and timescale over which isotopic signatures are reset in these hydrologic systems is unknown. Using reactive transport modeling, we show isotopic reequilibration under conditions reflecting terrestrial hydrologic settings to be significant and dependent on the reactive surface area of the solid. In particular, we suggest that the non-traditional stable isotopes commonly used in application to carbonates (e.g., Ca, Mg, Sr) are sensitive to these effects due to their rapid reaction rates. We aim to characterize the dependence of Ca isotopic reequilibration on surface area during calcite precipitation via batch experiments conducted at ambient temperature over 48-hour time periods. Calcite precipitation was performed in a closed batch reactor utilizing a controlled free-drift method. The batch reactors contained mixed supersaturated solutions of CaCl2 and NaHCO3 at an initial pH of 8.54. Precipitation was initiated by seed inoculation of calcite crystals with two distinct, pre-constrained surface areas. All experiments achieved the same final state of chemical equilibrium, but as expected, the fastest approach to equilibrium occurred for experiments employing calcite seeds with the highest surface area. This implies that differences in equilibrated Ca isotope ratios (δ44/40Ca) should reflect differences in surface area. This prediction is upheld by models of the experiments, indicating a measureable difference in δ44Ca during calcite precipitation where the higher surface area corresponds to

  4. Evaluation of the Specialized, Volunteer Transportation Program of the Area IV Agency on Aging and Community Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    This report contains an evaluation of a specialized volunteer, rural : transportation program implemented in April of 1986. The Area IV Agency on : Aging and Community Services received a grant from the Urban Mass Transit : Administration for this pr...

  5. Carbon dioxide and radon gas hazard in the Alban Hills area (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubien, S. E.; Ciotoli, G.; Lombardi, S.

    2003-04-01

    The sudden and catastrophic, or slow and continuous, release at surface of naturally occurring toxic gases like CO 2, H 2S and Rn poses a serious health risk to people living in geologically active regions. In general this problem receives little attention from local governments, although public concern is raised periodically when anomalous toxic-gas concentrations suddenly kill humans or livestock. For example, elevated CO 2 concentrations have been linked to the death of at least 10 people in the central Italian region of Lazio over the last 20 years, while it was the CO 2 asphyxiation of 30 cows in a heavily populated area near Rome in 1999 which prompted the present soil-gas study into the distribution of the local health risk. A detailed geochemical survey was carried out in an area of about 4 km 2 in the Ciampino and Marino districts, whereby a total of 274 soil-gas samples were collected and analysed for more than 10 major and trace gas species. Data were then processed using both statistical and geostatistical methods, and the resulting maps were examined in order to highlight areas of elevated risk. General trends of elevated CO 2 and Rn concentrations imply the presence of preferential pathways (i.e. faults and fractures) along which deep gases are able to migrate towards the surface. The CO 2 and Rn anomalous trends often correspond to and are usually elongated parallel to the Apennine mountain range, the controlling structural feature in central Italy. Because of this fundamental anisotropy in the factors controlling the soil-gas distribution, it was found that a geostatistical approach using variogram analysis allowed for a better interpretation of the data. With regard to the health risk to local inhabitants, it was found that although some high risk areas had been zoned as parkland, others had been heavily developed for residential purposes. For example, many new houses were found to have been built on ground which has soil-gas CO 2 concentrations of

  6. Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon and the Influencing Factors in An Oasis Farmland Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon(SOC of a typical oasis farmland in middle part of Manasi county of Xinjiang was used as the research ob原 ject. Using remote sensing and lab analysis techniques, influences of soil texture, terrain, land uses, and crop types on SOC content of farmland were studied. Results showed that the SOC distribution in farmland of Manasi was mainly determined by comprehensive natural environmental factors. The SOC content decreased along with the increasing soil depth. For soil textures, the SOC content from high to low was clay loam>powder loam>silty loam. Slope direction had significantly positive correlations with SOC contents at 0~30 cm and 30~60 cm, while altitude and SOC content at 60~100 cm were significantly positive correlation. The SOC content of orchard was the highest, and the uncultivated land was the lowest under different land-use patterns. For different crop planting systems, the order of SOC content was corn field >wine grapes field>cotton field, and the difference was significant.

  7. The drawbacks and opportunities of carbon charges in metropolitan areas. A spatial general equilibrium approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tscharaktschiew, Stefan; Hirte, Georg [Faculty of Traffic Sciences, Institute of Transport and Economics, Chair of Spatial Economics and Regional Science, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In cities there is a variety of economic and spatial forces that may influence to what extent a travel-related CO{sub 2} emission pricing can be an effective instrument to contribute to the achievement of CO{sub 2} reduction goals. Therefore, we examine the effectiveness and impact of CO{sub 2} emission charges using a spatial general equilibrium model of an urban economy, calibrated according to an average German city. Our analyses suggest that the imposition of a Pigouvian type CO{sub 2} emission charge on urban passenger travel may be able to reduce emissions by about 1%-11%, depending on the estimated social damage cost of carbon dioxide. Such a policy increases urban welfare mainly on account of a reduction of congestion costs. However, pricing congestion directly not only provides higher urban welfare but also higher emission reductions. Pricing congestion and CO{sub 2} emissions simultaneously allows to achieve a wide range of emission reduction goals. If, however, the reduction goal is very ambitious the emission charge must be raised to higher levels. Then, distortions in the urban markets and in spatial travel decisions lower labor supply and thus urban production, income of city residents, federal tax revenue, income of landowners outside the city, all together implying losses in welfare. (author)

  8. Hydrogeochemistry and geothermometry of deep thermal water in the carbonate formation in the main urban area of Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pingheng; Cheng, Qun; Xie, Shiyou; Wang, Jianli; Chang, Longran; Yu, Qin; Zhan, Zhaojun; Chen, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Many geothermal reservoirs in Chongqing in southwestern China are located in carbonate rock aquifers and exploited through drilling. Water samples from 36 geothermal wells have been collected in the main urban area of Chongqing. Chemical types of the thermal water samples are Ca·Mg-SO4 and Ca-SO4. High contents of Ca2+ and SO42- in the thermal water samples are derived from the dissolution of evaporates. Furthermore, the HCO3- concentration is constrained by the common ion effect. Drilling depth has no effect on the physical and chemical characteristics according to the results of a t-test. The geothermal reservoir's temperature can be estimated to be 64.8-93.4 °C (average 82 °C) using quartz and improved SiO2 geothermometers. Values of δD and δ18O for the thermal water samples indicate that the thermal water resources originate from local precipitation with a recharge elevation between 838 and 1130 m and an annual air temperature between 10.4 and 13.9 °C. A conceptual model of regional scale groundwater flow for the thermal water is proposed. The thermal water mainly originates from the meteoric water recharged in the elevated areas of northeastern Tongluoshan and Huayingshan by means of percolation through exposed carbonate before becoming groundwater. The groundwater is heated at depth and moves southwest along the fault and the anticlinal core in a gravity-driven regime. The thermal water is exposed in the form of artesian hot springs in river cutting and low-elevation areas or in wells.

  9. CMP aerogels: ultrahigh-surface-area carbon-based monolithic materials with superb sorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ran; Zhang, Na; Xu, Hua; Mao, Nannan; Duan, Wenjie; Wang, Jinying; Zhao, Qiuchen; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Jin

    2014-12-17

    Monolithic conjugated microporous polymer (CMP) aerogels are obtained in an extremely facile way by selection of adequate reaction conditions and a freeze-drying technique. The aerogels possess an ultrahigh specific surface area and hierarchical interconnected pores, exhibiting superb gas/oil adsorption performance compared with all microporous organic polymers to date. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. 34 CFR 403.113 - How does a State allocate funds under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program to area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... School Vocational Education Program to area vocational education schools and intermediate educational... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED...? Secondary, Postsecondary, and Adult Vocational Education Programs § 403.113 How does a State allocate funds...

  11. 77 FR 22061 - FTA Section 5307 Urbanized Area Formula Program: Allocation of Funding Caps for Treating Fuel and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Federal Transit Administration FTA Section 5307 Urbanized Area Formula Program: Allocation of Funding Caps.... Based on the $100,000,000 cap on use of this provision, FTA has allocated funding caps to program... allocate the available resources, FTA has determined funding caps for all requesting UZAs and States (see...

  12. A dynamic programming approach to water allocation for seasonally dry area, based on stochastic soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Porporato, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    seasonally dry areas, which are widely distributed in the world, are usually facing an intensive disparity between the lack of natural resource and the great demand of social development. In dry seasons of such areas, the distribution/allocation of water resource is an extremely critical and sensitive issue, and conflicts often occur due to lack of appropriate water allocation scheme. Among the many uses of water, the need of agricultural irrigation water is highly elastic, but this factor has not yet been made full use to free up water from agriculture use. The primary goal of this work is to design an optimal distribution scheme of water resource for dry seasons to maximize benefits from precious water resources, considering the high elasticity of agriculture water demand due to the dynamic of soil moisture affected by the uncertainty of precipitation and other factors like canopy interception. A dynamic programming model will be used to figure out an appropriate allocation of water resources among agricultural irrigation and other purposes like drinking water, industry, and hydropower, etc. In this dynamic programming model, we analytically quantify the dynamic of soil moisture in the agricultural fields by describing the interception with marked Poisson process and describing the rainfall depth with exponential distribution. Then, we figure out a water-saving irrigation scheme, which regulates the timetable and volumes of water in irrigation, in order to minimize irrigation water requirement under the premise of necessary crop yield (as a constraint condition). And then, in turn, we provide a scheme of water resource distribution/allocation among agriculture and other purposes, taking aim at maximizing benefits from precious water resources, or in other words, make best use of limited water resource.

  13. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A. [and others

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  14. TFA Tank Focus Area - multiyear program plan FY98-FY00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 80 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) national technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE`s technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across organizations that fund tank technology development EM, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30), Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and Science and Technology (EM-50).

  15. TFA Tanks Focus Area Multiyear Program Plan FY00-FY04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BA Carteret; JH Westsik; LR Roeder-Smith; RL Gilchrist; RW Allen; SN Schlahta; TM Brouns

    1999-10-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 68 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked contamination to the soil. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program. for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's five major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) (New York). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across EM organizations that fund tank technology development, including the Offices of Waste

  16. Bacteria, colloids and organic carbon in groundwater at the Bangombe site in the Oklo area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes how microorganisms, colloids and organic matter were sampled from groundwater from six boreholes at the Bangombe site in the Oklo region and subsequently analyzed. For analysis of microorganisms, DNA was extracted from groundwater, amplified and cloned and information available in the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used for mapping diversity and distribution of bacteria. Each borehole was dominated by species that did not dominate in any of the other boreholes, a result that probably reflects documented differences in the geochemical environment. Analyses of sampled colloids included SEM and ICP-MS analysis of colloids on membrane and single particle analysis of samples in bottles. The colloid concentration was rather low in these Na-Mg-Ca-HCO{sub 3} type waters. Trace element results show that transition metals and some heavy metals are associated with the colloid phase. Distribution coefficients of trace elements between the water and colloid phases were estimated. For example for uranium, an average of 200 pg/ml was detected in the water, and 40 pg/ml was detected in the colloid phase. A K{sub p} value of 2* 10{sup 6} ml/g was calculated, considering (colloid) = 100 ng/ml. Groundwater samples were collected for analysis of the concentration of organic carbon (TOC), humic substances and metals associated with the humic substances. TOC varied in the range 4-14 mg/l in three boreholes, one borehole had a TOC<1.5 mg/l. The metal speciation study indicated that a large fraction, 8-67% of uranium was bound to the humic matter compared to the fractions of Ca and Fe (<0.4% and 0.02-10%, resp.). 60 refs, 8 figs, 16 tabs.

  17. Land use change and management effects on soil organic carbon stock and soil quality in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Both land use and management affects to soil properties and soil quality. On the one hand, land use change from natural vegetation to agricultural land often is a key factor that influences to soil. On the other hand, under semiarid climatic conditions, intensive tillage increases soil organic matter losses, reduces soil quality, and contributes to climate change due to increased CO2 emissions. MATERIAL AND METHODS A field study was conducted to determine the land use change [Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland (MEOW-dehesa) to olive grove (OG) and cereal (C), all of them managed under conventional tillage and under conservationist practices] effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and the soil quality [through Stratification Ratios (SR)] in Los Pedroches valley, southern Spain. RESULTS Results for the present study indicate that in MEOW-dehesa management practices had little effect on SOC storage. The stratification ratio was >2 in both management systems, so, soils under MEOW-dehesa had high quality. Nevertheless, in OG and C conservationist practices increased SOC stocks. Therefore, conservationist practices contributed to a better soil quality and to increased carbon sequestration and, consequently, this management is an excellent alternative to conventional tillage. A change in land use from MEOW-dehesa to OG or C under conservationist practices appeared to increase the SOC. When calculated for the total soil profile these differences were equivalent to 20-25 Mg ha-1 of SOC. This is potentially very important for many agricultural soils in the Mediterranean area which are typically very poor in organic matter. These differences in the SOC stock were not apparent when the change in land use occurred under conventional tillage; even in the land use change from MEOW-dehesa to C the SOC stock was reduced. This suggests that management in addition to change in land use is an important consideration and particularly the degree of soil disturbance

  18. NASA/ARMY/BELL XV-15 Tiltrotor Low-Noise Terminal Area Operations Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bryan D.; Conner, David A.; Decker, William A.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Klein, Peter D.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the noise reduction potential for tiltrotor aircraft, a series of three XV- 15 acoustic flight tests were conducted over a five-year period by a NASA/Army/Bell Helicopter team. Lower hemispherical noise characteristics for a wide range of steady-state terminal area type operating conditions were measured during the Phase I test and indicated that the takeoff and level flight conditions were not significant contributors to the total noise of tiltrotor operations. Phase I results were also used to design low-noise approach profiles that were tested later during the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests. These latter phases used large area microphone arrays to directly measure ground noise footprints. Approach profiles emphasized noise reduction while maintaining handling qualities sufficient for tiltrotor commercial passenger ride comfort and flight safety under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) conditions. This paper will discuss the weather, aircraft, tracking, guidance, and acoustic instrumentation systems, as well as the approach profile design philosophy, and the overall test program philosophy. Acoustic results are presented to document the variation in tiltrotor noise due to changes in operating condition, indicating the potential for significant noise reduction using the unique tiltrotor capability of nacelle tilt. Recommendations are made for a final XV-15 test to define the acoustic benefits of the automated approach capability which has recently been added to this testbed aircraft.

  19. An urban area minority outreach program for K-6 children in space science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P.; Garza, O.; Lindstrom, M.; Allen, J.; Wooten, J.; Sumners, C.; Obot, V.

    The Houston area has minority populations with significant school dropout rates. This is similar to other major cities in the United States and elsewhere in the world where there are significant minority populations from rural areas. The student dropout rates are associated in many instances with the absence of educational support opportuni- ties either from the school and/or from the family. This is exacerbated if the student has poor English language skills. To address this issue, a NASA minority university initiative enabled us to develop a broad-based outreach program that includes younger children and their parents at a primarily Hispanic inner city charter school. The pro- gram at the charter school was initiated by teaching computer skills to the older chil- dren, who in turn taught parents. The older children were subsequently asked to help teach a computer literacy class for mothers with 4-5 year old children. The computers initially intimidated the mothers as most had limited educational backgrounds and En- glish language skills. To practice their newly acquired computer skills and learn about space science, the mothers and their children were asked to pick a space project and investigate it using their computer skills. The mothers and their children decided to learn about black holes. The project included designing space suits for their children so that they could travel through space and observe black holes from a closer proxim- ity. The children and their mothers learned about computers and how to use them for educational purposes. In addition, they learned about black holes and the importance of space suits in protecting astronauts as they investigated space. The parents are proud of their children and their achievements. By including the parents in the program, they have a greater understanding of the importance of their children staying in school and the opportunities for careers in space science and technology. For more information on our overall

  20. Overview of the NASA Earth Science Division (ESD) Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, B.; Davis, K. J.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, G.; DiGangi, J. P.; Dobler, J. T.; Fried, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Lin, B.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N. L.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; O'Dell, C.; Sweeney, C.; Yang, M. Y.

    2016-12-01

    In late 2014 the Earth Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate selected a proposal led by Penn State University and NASA Langley Research Center for an Earth Venture Suborbital Mission (EVS-2). The Mission, entitled Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) America, is aimed at greatly enhancing the understanding of the role of transport in determining the distribution of atmospheric CO2 and relating these observations back to regional sources and sinks of CO2. To address these objectives, this project uses active remote sensing of CO2 at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community in addition to in situ observations. ACT-America will consist of five airborne campaigns to measure regional CO2 distributions and evaluate transport processes under various meteorological conditions. This coordinated program will measure CO2, CH4, related trace gases and meteorological conditions in three different regions: Mid-Atlantic, Mid-West, and Southeast. Data will be collected using two airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2). The airborne instrument suite includes three lidars (two for CO2 column measurements and one for aerosol and cloud profiling) as well as several in-situ systems for greenhouse gas and meteorological measurements. The first science campaign conducted in the summer of 2016 is now successfully completed. This presentation provides a review of the instruments, rationale, and approach for ACT-America as well as an overview of operations and a few sample results from the first campaign.

  1. LiDAR-Assisted Multi-Source Program (LAMP for Measuring Above Ground Biomass and Forest Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Kauranne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest measurement for purposes like harvesting planning, biomass estimation and mitigating climate change through carbon capture by forests call for increasingly frequent forest measurement campaigns that need to balance cost with accuracy and precision. Often this implies the use of remote sensing based measurement methods. For any remote-sensing based methods to be accurate, they must be validated against field data. We present a method that combines field measurements with two layers of remote sensing data: sampling of forests by airborne laser scanning (LiDAR and Landsat imagery. The Bayesian model-based framework presented here is called Lidar-Assisted Multi-source Programme—or LAMP—for Above Ground Biomass estimation. The method has two variants: LAMP2 which splits the biomass estimation task into two separate stages: forest type stratification from Landsat imagery and mean biomass density estimation of each forest type by LiDAR models calibrated on field plots. LAMP3, on the other hand, estimates first the biomass on a LiDAR sample using models calibrated with field plots and then uses these LiDAR-based models to generate biomass density estimates on thousands of surrogate plots, with which a satellite image based model is calibrated and subsequently used to estimate biomass density on the entire forest area. Both LAMP methods have been applied to a 2 million hectare area in Southern Nepal, the Terai Arc Landscape or TAL to calculate the emission Reference Levels (RLs that are required for the UN REDD+ program that was accepted as part of the Paris Climate Agreement. The uncertainty of these estimates is studied with error variance estimation, cross-validation and Monte Carlo simulation. The relative accuracy of activity data at pixel level was found to be 14 per cent at 95 per cent confidence level and the root mean squared error of biomass estimates to be between 35 and 39 per cent at 1 ha resolution.

  2. Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas – CETUP*2016 Summer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbinska, Barbara [Texas A& M University Corpus Christi, Madison, SD (United States)

    2017-02-15

    For last six years Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas (CETUP*) successfully provided a stimulating environment for creative thinking and open communication between researches of varying ages and nationalities in dynamic atmosphere of intense scientific interactions. Ongoing and proposed Neutrino and Dark Matter experiments are expected to unveil the answers to fundamental questions about the Universe. CETUP*2016 was focused exactly on these subjects bringing together experts in dark matter, neutrino physics, particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmology from around the world. Scientists invited to participate in the program not only provided theoretical support to the underground science, but they also examined core questions including: What is the nature of dark matter?, What is the origin of the neutrino masses?, How well do we know the neutrino parameters?, How have neutrinos shaped the evolution of the universe?, , What are the fundamental underlying symmetries of the Universe? Is there a Grand Unified Theory of the Universe? and many others. The 2016 CETUP* summer program consisted of three sessions (June 6 – July 16, 2016) covering various aspects of theoretical and experimental neutrino physics, unification and dark matter. The two week long session on Physics and Instrumentation of the Near Detector for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments (June 6 – June 16) was followed by the two week long Neutrino Physics/Unification session: “From Grand Unification to String Theory and Back” (June 20 – July 2). The program ended with two week long session on Dark Matter Physics (July 4 – July 16). This six-week long program allowed for thorough discussions and an effective and comprehensive analysis of topics related to Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Neutrino Physics including astrophysical neutrinos, near and far detector physics, neutrino interactions, Higgs Boson, Inflation, Leptogenesis and many others that will advance

  3. Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: (1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; (2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; (3) The lake morphometry; (4) The lake ecosystem; (5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake

  4. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  5. Final Scientific / Technical Report, Geothermal Resource Exploration Program, Truckhaven Area, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layman Energy Associates, Inc.

    2006-08-15

    With financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Layman Energy Associates, Inc. (LEA) has completed a program of geothermal exploration at the Truckhaven area in Imperial County, California. The exploratory work conducted by LEA included the following activities: compilation of public domain resource data (wells, seismic data, geologic maps); detailed field geologic mapping at the project site; acquisition and interpretation of remote sensing imagery such as aerial and satellite photographs; acquisition, quality control and interpretation of gravity data; and acquisition, quality control and interpretation of resistivity data using state of the art magnetotelluric (MT) methods. The results of this exploratory program have allowed LEA to develop a structural and hydrologic interpretation of the Truckhaven geothermal resource which can be used to guide subsequent exploratory drilling and resource development. Of primary significance, is the identification of an 8 kilometer-long, WNW-trending zone of low resistivity associated with geothermal activity in nearby wells. The long axis of this low resistivity zone is inferred to mark a zone of faulting which likely provides the primary control on the distribution of geothermal resources in the Truckhaven area. Abundant cross-faults cutting the main WNW-trending zone in its western half may indicate elevated fracture permeability in this region, possibly associated with thermal upwelling and higher resource temperatures. Regional groundwater flow is inferred to push thermal fluids from west to east along the trend of the main low resistivity zone, with resource temperatures likely declining from west to east away from the inferred upwelling zone. Resistivity mapping and well data have also shown that within the WNW-trending low resistivity zone, the thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary section above granite basement ranges from 1,900–2,600 meters. Well data indicates the lower part of this

  6. High surface area bio-waste based carbon as a superior electrode for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Makhan; Bhattarai, Arjun; Ulaganathan, Mani; Wai, Nyunt; Oo, Moe Ohnmar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Lim, Tuti Mariana

    2017-09-01

    Activated carbon (AC) with high surface area (1901 m2 g-1) is synthesized from low cost bio-waste orange (Citrus sinensis) peel for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The composition, structure and electrochemical properties of orange peel derived AC (OP-AC) are characterized by elemental analyzer, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. CV results show that OP-AC coated bipolar plate demonstrates improved electro-catalytic activity in both positive and negative side redox couples than the pristine bipolar plate electrode and this is ascribed to the high surface area of OP-AC which provides effective electrode area and better contact between the porous electrode and bipolar plate. Consequently, the performance of VRB in a static cell shows higher energy efficiency for OP-AC electrode than the pristine electrode at all current densities tested. The results suggest the OP-AC to be a promising electrode for VRB applications and can be incorporated into making conducting plastics electrode to lower the VRB cell stack weight and cost.

  7. Construction of high-energy-density supercapacitors from pine-cone-derived high-surface-area carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Kaliyappan; Amaresh, Samuthirapandiyan; Lee, Sol Nip; Sun, Xueliang; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Lee, Young-Gi; Lee, Yun Sung

    2014-05-01

    Very high surface area activated carbons (AC) are synthesized from pine cone petals by a chemical activation process and subsequently evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications in a nonaqueous medium. The maximum specific surface area of ∼3950 m(2)  g(-1) is noted for the material treated with a 1:5 ratio of KOH to pine cone petals (PCC5), which is much higher than that reported for carbonaceous materials derived from various other biomass precursors. A symmetric supercapacitor is fabricated with PCC5 electrodes, and the results showed enhanced supercapacitive behavior with the highest energy density of ∼61 Wh kg(-1). Furthermore, outstanding cycling ability is evidenced for such a configuration, and ∼90 % of the initial specific capacitance after 20,000 cycles under harsh conditions was observed. This result revealed that the pine-cone-derived high-surface-area AC can be used effectively as a promising electrode material to construct high-energy-density supercapacitors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Ultrahigh surface area meso/microporous carbon formed with self-template for high-voltage aqueous supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Jiangtao; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Haibiao; Pan, Feng

    2017-10-01

    A new hierarchically porous carbon has been synthesized with self-template of silica phase from a commercial silicone resin by pyrolysis and subsequent NaOH activation. The obtained carbon materials achieve an ultrahigh specific surface area (2896 m2 g-1) with abundant mesopores. The C800 sample demonstrates excellent performance in supercapacitors, with a high capacitance of 322 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and outstanding rate capability (182 F g-1 at 100 A g-1) in a three-electrode system using 6.0 mol L-1 KOH electrolyte. The energy density is improved by widening the voltage window using 1.0 mol L-1 alkali metal nitrate solutions (LiNO3, NaNO3, KNO3) in which the strong solvation of alkali metal cations and nitrate anions effectively reduce the activity of water. In a symmetric supercapacitor, the maximum operating voltage is essentially restricted by the potential of positive electrode and the total capacitance is dominated by the capacitance of the anion at the positive electrode. The symmetric supercapacitors based on C800 deliver a high energy density of 22.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 0.23 kW kg-1 in 1.0 mol L-1 LiNO3 with a voltage of 1.8 V and long-term stability with a retention of 89.87% after 10000 cycles.

  9. Effect of substrate material on the growth and field emission characteristics of large-area carbon nanotube forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummethala, Raghunandan; Wenger, Daniela; Tedde, Sandro F.; Täschner, Christine; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd; Eckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a promising replacement for tungsten filaments as electron emitters in conventional x-ray sources, owing to their higher aspect ratio, superior mechanical stability, chemical inertness, and high electrical and thermal conductivities. Conditions for realizing the best emission behavior from CNTs have been formulated over the last few years. In this paper, we report the relatively less-investigated factor, namely, the influence of the nature of substrate material on the growth as well as field emission characteristics of large-area multiwalled CNTs for their practical application in medical x-ray sources. We compare the morphology of CNTs on a variety of substrates such as stainless steel, copper, molybdenum, graphite, few-layer graphene, and carbon nanowalls grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition following a simple drop-coating of catalyst. We find that CNTs grown on stainless steel and graphite show the best combination of emission characteristics under pulsed operation mode. These studies are helpful in selecting the optimum substrate material for field emission applications. Ex situ studies on field emission degradation of CNTs are presented towards the end.

  10. Effect of substrate material on the growth and field emission characteristics of large-area carbon nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummethala, Raghunandan; Täschner, Christine; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Wenger, Daniela; Tedde, Sandro F. [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Technology Centre, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Department Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2016-01-28

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a promising replacement for tungsten filaments as electron emitters in conventional x-ray sources, owing to their higher aspect ratio, superior mechanical stability, chemical inertness, and high electrical and thermal conductivities. Conditions for realizing the best emission behavior from CNTs have been formulated over the last few years. In this paper, we report the relatively less-investigated factor, namely, the influence of the nature of substrate material on the growth as well as field emission characteristics of large-area multiwalled CNTs for their practical application in medical x-ray sources. We compare the morphology of CNTs on a variety of substrates such as stainless steel, copper, molybdenum, graphite, few-layer graphene, and carbon nanowalls grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition following a simple drop-coating of catalyst. We find that CNTs grown on stainless steel and graphite show the best combination of emission characteristics under pulsed operation mode. These studies are helpful in selecting the optimum substrate material for field emission applications. Ex situ studies on field emission degradation of CNTs are presented towards the end.

  11. USAREUR Local Training Areas (LTAs). Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) FY09 Status Report: Sustainable Range Program (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    project methodology and cost estimate, each project has a description, Benefits to Training, Impact if Not Funded, and a graphics page that...form of large waterlogged hollows from M1 tanks and other heavy vehicle usage. Because it is located in a forested area that lacks adequate direct...the west side of Poedeldorf LTA becomes flooded on either side, and the trail itself becomes waterlogged , because of a lack of drainage ditches

  12. Simulation of low-carbon tourism in world natural and cultural heritage areas: An application to Shizhong District of Leshan City in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Jiuping, E-mail: xujiuping@scu.edu.cn [Low Carbon Technology and Economy Research Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yao Liming; Mo Liwen [Low Carbon Technology and Economy Research Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2011-07-15

    The national goal of 40-45% mitigation of the 2005 level intensity of carbon by 2020 was announced by the Chinese government at the Copenhagen Conference. Every industry in China is preparing to realize this national reduction target. Some attempts have been made to achieve low-carbon development in a few industries, but relatively little work has linked low-carbon development to tourism. This article concentrates on how to develop low-carbon tourism using a quantitative approach. Firstly, the tourism system including some mutual influence factors is investigated and some historical data are given in support for the research of their quantitative relationship. Secondly, a differential dynamic system model with fuzzy coefficients is proposed to predict tourism revenue, energy consumption, waste emissions and the carbon intensity. Finally, an application to Shizhong District of Leshan City in China (LCSD), as a representative of a world natural and cultural heritage area, is presented to show the trend of modern tourism in a low-carbon economy and prove the effectiveness of the proposed model. - Highlights: > The system of low-carbon tourism is described. > A differential dynamic model with fuzzy coefficients is developed. > Carbon intensity in the tourism system will gradually decrease. > Some suggestions about developing low-carbon tourism are exhibited.

  13. Investigation on the Plasma-Induced Emission Properties of Large Area Carbon Nanotube Array Cathodes with Different Morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large area well-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT arrays with different morphologies were synthesized by using a chemical vapor deposition. The plasma-induced emission properties of CNT array cathodes with different morphologies were investigated. The ratio of CNT height to CNT-to-CNT distance has considerable effects on their plasma-induced emission properties. As the ratio increases, emission currents of CNT array cathodes decrease due to screening effects. Under the pulse electric field of about 6 V/μm, high-intensity electron beams of 170–180 A/cm2 were emitted from the surface plasma. The production mechanism of the high-intensity electron beams emitted from the CNT arrays was plasma-induced emission. Moreover, the distribution of the electron beams was in situ characterized by the light emission from the surface plasma.

  14. Pelagic nitrogen dynamics in the Vietnamese upwelling area according to stable nitrogen and carbon isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loick, Natalie; Dippner, Joachim; Doan, Hai Nhu; Liskow, Iris; Voss, Maren

    2007-04-01

    Upwelling and nitrogen (N) fixation provide new N for primary production off southern central Vietnam. Here we evaluate the roles of both N sources for zooplankton nutrition by comparing δ15N and δ13C values in nitrate, particulate organic matter (POM), and six net-plankton size fractions from monsoon and intermonsoon seasons. The δ13C values in POM and the net-plankton size fractions differed by 2-4‰ at any time. We assume that plankton from the POM filters was dominated by nano-and picoplankton as opposed to micro- and mesoplankton in the net-samples. The implications of this are discussed in terms of size differential pathways of C and N in the planktonic food web. We used δ15N to estimate the differences in N nutrition between the actual upwelling region and the oligotrophic area further offshore. The δ15N values of the net-plankton size fractions were depleted in δ15N by ca. 2‰ outside compared to inside the upwelling area during the monsoon season. We attribute these patterns to the additional utilization of N derived from N fixation. The concomitant findings of high N fixation rates reported earlier and low subthermocline nitrate (nitrate sub) values of 2.9-3.6‰ support this conclusion. Net-plankton δ15N values increased with size, pointing to the dominance of higher trophic levels in the larger size fractions. According to a two source mixing model N fixation may have provided up to 13% of the N demand in higher trophic levels.

  15. Diurnal and seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in ecosystems in the Zhangye oasis area, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and understanding the response of key environmental factors in various ecosystems are critical to understanding regional carbon budgets and ecosystem behaviors. For this study, CO2 fluxes were measured in a variety of ecosystems with an eddy covariance observation matrix between June 2012 and September 2012 in the Zhangye oasis area of Northwest China. The results show distinct diurnal variations in the CO2 fluxes in vegetable field, orchard, wetland, and maize cropland. Diurnal variations of CO2 fluxes were not obvious, and their values approached zero in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. Additionally, daily variations in the Gross Primary Production (GPP, Ecosystem Respiration (Reco and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE were not obvious in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. In contrast, the distributions of the GPP, Reco, and NEE show significant daily variations, that are closely related to the development of vegetation in the maize, wetland, orchard, and vegetable field ecosystems. All of the ecosystems are characterized by their carbon absorption during the observation period. The ability to absorb CO2 differed significantly among the tested ecosystems. We also used the Michaelis-Menten equation and exponential curve fitting methods to analyze the impact of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR on the daytime CO2 flux and impact of air temperature on Reco at night. The results show that PAR is the dominant factor in controlling photosynthesis with limited solar radiation, and daytime CO2 assimilation increases rapidly with PAR. Additionally, the carbon assimilation rate was found to increase slowly with high solar radiation. The light response parameters changed with each growth stage for all of the vegetation types, and higher light response values were observed during months or stages when the plants grew quickly. Light saturation points are different for different

  16. Boric acid-mediated B,N-codoped chitosan-derived porous carbons with a high surface area and greatly improved supercapacitor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zheng; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Mengdi; Fan, Xiaoming; Yu, Chang; Yang, Juan; Xiao, Nan; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-03-01

    This work reports an efficient strategy to synthesize B,N-codoped porous carbons with a high specific surface area using chitosan as the carbon precursor with the help of boric acid, featuring a high specific capacitance, large operation voltage and excellent cycle stability for supercapacitors.This work reports an efficient strategy to synthesize B,N-codoped porous carbons with a high specific surface area using chitosan as the carbon precursor with the help of boric acid, featuring a high specific capacitance, large operation voltage and excellent cycle stability for supercapacitors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, additional figures and tables see DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00081e

  17. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. The role of tropical forests on the world carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.; Lugo, A. E.; Liegel, B. [eds.

    1980-08-01

    Tropical forests constitute about half of the world's forest and are characterized by rapid rates of organic matter turnover and high storages of organic matter. Tropical forests are considered to be one of the most significant terrestrial elements in the equation that balances the carbon cycle of the world. As discussed in the paper by Tosi, tropical and subtropical latitudes are more complex in terms of climate and vegetation composition than temperate and boreal latitudes. The implications of the complexity of the tropics and the disregard of this complexity by many scientists is made evident in the paper by Brown and Lugo which shows that biomass estimates for tropical ecosystems have been overestimated by at least 100%. The paper by Brown shows that that rates of succession in the tropics are extremely rapid in terms of the ability of moist and wet forests to accumulate organic matter. Yet, in arid tropical Life Zones succession is slow. This leads to the idea that the question of whether tropical forests are sinks or sources of carbon must be analyzed in relation to Life Zones and to intensities of human activity in these Zones. The paper by Lugo presents conceptual models to illustrate this point and the paper by Tosi shows how land uses in the tropics also correspond to Life Zone characteristics. The ultimate significance of land use to the question of the carbon balance in a large region is addressed in the paper by Detwiler and Hall.

  18. Designing of a Fleet-Leader Program for Carbon Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L.N.; Phoenix, S. Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases on board spacecraft when mass saving is a prime requirement. Substantial weight savings can be achieved compared to all metallic pressure vessels. For example, on the space shuttle, replacement of all metallic pressure vessels with Kevlar COPVs resulted in a weight savings of about 30 percent. Mass critical space applications such as the Ares and Orion vehicles are currently being planned to use as many COPVs as possible in place of all-metallic pressure vessels to minimize the overall mass of the vehicle. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads during long periods of a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is, therefore, important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since it is practically impossible to show by experimental testing the reliability of flight quality vessels. Also, it is a common practice to set aside flight quality vessels as "fleet leaders" in a test program where these vessels are subjected to slightly accelerated operating conditions so that they lead the actual flight vessels both in time and load. The intention of fleet leaders is to provide advanced warning if there is a serious design flaw in the vessels so that a major disaster in the flight vessels can be averted with advance warning. On the other hand, the accelerating conditions must be not so severe as to be prone to false alarms. The primary focus of the present paper is to provide an analytical basis for designing a viable fleet leader program for carbon COPVs. The analysis is based on a stress rupture behavior model incorporating Weibull statistics and power-law sensitivity of life to fiber stress level.

  19. Monitoring of carbon-dioxide production in the seismoactive area of West Bohemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tomáš; Vlček, Josef; Woith, Heiko; Heinicke, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Geodynamically active area of West Bohemia is interesting not only due to its earthquake swarms occurrence but also due to the massive degassing of CO2 of magmatic origin occurring in dry mofettes and mineral springs. A continuous monitoring of CO2 amount has started in 2009 and a well pronounced increase of gas flow was observed in relation to the 2014 seismic sequence, which has been attributed to the fault-valve behavior. At present six monitoring stations with online data transfer are in operation, which combine various methods of gas flow monitoring in order to assure robust and reliable data series. In this paper we show the decreasing trend of gas flow since the 2014 aftershock sequences observed at different stations and compare various approached for quantification of gas flow. The reliability of chamber-type and venturi-type gas flow meters depends on ambient temperature conditions, namely during freezing periods, which makes the measurement unstable in time. Accordingly we designed alternative methods to measure CO2 amount by quantifying the fraction of gas bubbles in water column in stable temperature conditions of borehole or mofette. This is carried our by two different approaches - the first is based on measuring the density of two-phase fluid (water with bubbles) in the well by differential pressure gauge. The second measures electric conductivity of the two-phase fluid. We analyse the obtained time series in terms of their dependence on ambient conditions (namely the air pressure and temperature), mutual relations of the gas-related quantities (flow, wellhead pressure, bubble fraction in water) relations and interpret the present trend of gas production and its possible relation to seismic activity.

  20. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: medically underserved areas for 1992--Office of Personnel Management. Notice of medically underserved areas for 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-30

    The Office of Personnel Management has completed its annual determination of the States that qualify as Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar year 1992. This determination is necessary to comply with a provision of FEHB law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in States with critical shortages of primary care physicians. Accordingly, for calendar year 1992, OPM has determined that the following States are Medically Underserved Areas under the FEHB Program: Alabama, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, West Virginia, and Wyoming. This list is the same as that for 1991, with the exception of the addition of Alabama.

  1. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project Part 1: Overview and experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntzinger, D.N. [Northern Arizona University; Schwalm, C. [Northern Arizona University; Michalak, A.M [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford; Schaefer, K. [National Snow and Ice Data Center; King, A.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wei, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Jacobson, A. [National Snow and Ice Data Center; Liu, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Cook, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Post, W.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Berthier, G. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE); Hayes, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Huang, M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ito, A. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; Lei, H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lu, C. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Mao, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Peng, C.H. [University of Quebec at Montreal, Institute of Environment Sciences; Peng, S. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE); Poulter, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE); Riccuito, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shi, X. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tian, H. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Wang, W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center, Moffett Field; Zeng, N. [University of Maryland; Zhao, F. [University of Maryland; Zhu, Q. [Laboratory for Ecological Forecasting and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

  2. Preparation of High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Spent Phenolic Resin by Microwave Heating and KOH Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Song; Zhang, Libo; Zhang, Shengzhou; Xia, Hongying; Peng, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    The spent phenolic resin is as raw material for preparing high surface area activated carbon (HSAAC) by microwave-assisted KOH activation. The effects of microwave power, activation duration and impregnation ratio (IR) on the iodine adsorption capability and yield of HSAAC were investigated. The surface characteristics of HSAAC were characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The operating variables were optimized utilizing the response surface methodology (RSM) and were identified to be microwave power of 700 W, activation duration of 15 min and IR of 4, corresponding to a yield of 51.25 % and an iodine number of 2,384 mg/g. The pore structure parameters of the HSAAC, i. e., Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter were estimated to be 4,269 m2/g, 2.396 ml/g and 2.25 nm, respectively, under optimum conditions. The findings strongly support the feasibility of microwave-assisted KOH activation for preparation of HSAAC from spent phenolic resin.

  3. Carboniferous and older carbonate rocks: Lithofacies, extent, and reservoir quality: Chapter CC in The oil and gas resource potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1999-01-01

    Carboniferous and older carbonate rocks are potential hydrocarbon reservoir facies for four plays in the 1002 area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. These rocks include several units in the pre-Carboniferous basement and the Carboniferous Lisburne Group. Data from exploratory wells west of the 1002 area, outcrops south of the 1002 area, seismic lines, and well logs are synthesized herein to infer carbonate lithofacies, extent, and reservoir character beneath the northeastern Arctic coastal plain.A chiefly shallow-water basement carbonate succession of Late Proterozoic through Early Devonian age (Katakturuk Dolomite, Nanook Limestone, and Mount Copleston Limestone) is interpreted to be present beneath much of the south-central 1002 area; it reaches 3,700 m thick in outcrop and is the primary reservoir for the Deformed Franklinian Play. A more heterogeneous lithologic assemblage of uncertain age forms basement in the northwestern part of the 1002 area; well data define three subunits that contain carbonate intervals 5- 50 m thick. These strata are prospective reservoirs for the Undeformed Franklinian Play and could also be reservoirs for the Niguanak- Aurora Play. Regional lithologic correlations suggest a Cambrian-Late Proterozoic(?) age for subunits one and two, and a slightly younger, later Cambrian-Silurian age for subunit three. Seismic and well data indicate that subunit one overlies subunit two and is overlain by subunit three. The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Lisburne Group, a predominantly carbonate platform succession as much as 1 km thick, is projected beneath the southernmost part of the 1002 area and is a potential reservoir for the Ellesmerian Thrust-belt and Niguanak-Aurora Plays.Carbonate rocks in the 1002 area probably retain little primary porosity but may have locally well developed secondary porosity. Measured reservoir parameters in basement carbonate strata are low (porosity generally ≤ 5%; permeability ≤ 0.2 md) but drill

  4. The role of protected areas in land use/land cover change and the carbon cycle in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Yuyu; Liu, Yaling; Le Page, Yannick

    2018-02-05

    Protected areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous United States. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous United States from 1700 to 2005. More than 3 million km2 of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere. PAs had experienced little LULCC as they were generally established in the 20th century after most of the agricultural expansion had occurred. PAs initially acted as a carbon source due to land use legacies, but their accumulated carbon budget switched to a carbon sink in the 1960s, sequestering an estimated 1,642 Tg C over 1700–2005, or 13.4% of carbon losses in non-PAs. We also find that PAs maintain larger carbon stocks and continue sequestering carbon in recent years (2001–2005), but at a lower rate due to increased heterotrophic respiration as well as lower productivity associated to aging ecosystems. It is essential to continue efforts to maintain resilient, biodiverse ecosystems and avoid large-scale disturbances that would release large amounts of carbon in PAs.

  5. The role of protected areas in land use/land cover change and the carbon cycle in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Yuyu; Liu, Yaling; Le Page, Yannick

    2018-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous United States. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous United States from 1700 to 2005. More than 3 million km 2 of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere. PAs had experienced little LULCC as they were generally established in the 20th century after most of the agricultural expansion had occurred. PAs initially acted as a carbon source due to land use legacies, but their accumulated carbon budget switched to a carbon sink in the 1960s, sequestering an estimated 1,642 Tg C over 1700-2005, or 13.4% of carbon losses in non-PAs. We also find that PAs maintain larger carbon stocks and continue sequestering carbon in recent years (2001-2005), but at a lower rate due to increased heterotrophic respiration as well as lower productivity associated to aging ecosystems. It is essential to continue efforts to maintain resilient, biodiverse ecosystems and avoid large-scale disturbances that would release large amounts of carbon in PAs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Social and economic research program for the Geysers-Calistoga known geothermal resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C.; O' Banion, K.

    1979-03-27

    The purpose of this study is to assess the economic and social effects of projected geothermal resource development for both direct use and electric power generation and to analyze local regulatory policy options designed to mitigate adverse effects. The key issues are land use, fiscal and public infrastructure systems, demography, and the local economy. The study has seven elements: a computer-based inventory and analysis of land characteristics, constraints, sensitivity, and suitability for various land uses; projections of direct and electric geothermal development; primary and induced economic activity using an input-output model; demographic changes; the land and infrastructural demand created; an assessment of the economic and social effects of various configurations in land use that could result; and an analysis of various local regulatory policy options to mitigate adverse effects. The study is a cooperative effort among two national laboratories, a regional agency, and the four Geysers-area counties (Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma). The assessment results are intended to guide Department of Energy planners on the environmental consequences of program implementation. The regulatory policy analysis is intended for local officials who are implementing development-management policy.

  7. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through stormwater basins designed for groundwater recharge in urban area: Assessment of retention efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Simon, Laurent; Maazouzi, Chafik; Foulquier, Arnaud; Delolme, Cécile; Marmonier, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has been developed in many countries to limit the risk of urban flooding and compensate for reduced groundwater recharge in urban areas. The environmental performances of MAR systems like infiltration basins depend on the efficiency of soil and vadose zone to retain stormwater-derived contaminants. However, these performances need to be finely evaluated for stormwater-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) that can affect groundwater quality. Therefore, this study examined the performance of MAR systems to process DOM during its transfer from infiltration basins to an urban aquifer. DOM characteristics (fluorescent spectroscopic properties, biodegradable and refractory fractions of dissolved organic carbon -DOC-, consumption by micro-organisms during incubation in slow filtration sediment columns) were measured in stormwater during its transfer through three infiltration basins during a stormwater event. DOC concentrations sharply decreased from surface to the aquifer for the three MAR sites. This pattern was largely due to the retention of biodegradable DOC which was more than 75% for the three MAR sites, whereas the retention of refractory DOC was more variable and globally less important (from 18% to 61% depending on MAR site). Slow filtration column experiments also showed that DOC retention during stormwater infiltration through soil and vadose zone was mainly due to aerobic microbial consumption of the biodegradable fraction of DOC. In parallel, measurements of DOM characteristics from groundwaters influenced or not by MAR demonstrated that stormwater infiltration increased DOC quantity without affecting its quality (% of biodegradable DOC and relative aromatic carbon content -estimated by SUVA254-). The present study demonstrated that processes occurring in soil and vadose zone of MAR sites were enough efficient to limit DOC fluxes to the aquifer. Nevertheless, the enrichments of DOC concentrations measured in groundwater below

  8. Respiration of bivalves from three different deep-sea areas: Cold seeps, hydrothermal vents and organic carbon-rich sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripounoff, A.; Caprais, J. C.; Decker, C.; Le Bruchec, J.; Noel, P.; Husson, B.

    2017-08-01

    We studied bivalves (vesicomyids and mytilids) inhabiting four different areas of high sulfide and methane production: (1) in the Gulf of Guinea, two pockmarks (650 m and 3150 m depth) and one site rich in organic sediments in the deepest zone (4950 m average depth), (2) at the Azores Triple Junction on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, one hydrothermal site (Lucky Strike vent field, 1700 m depth). Two types of Calmar benthic chambers were deployed, either directly set into the sediment (standard Calmar chamber) or fitted with a tank to isolate organisms from the sediment (modified Calmar chamber), to assess gas and solute exchanges in relation to bivalve bed metabolism. Fluxes of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, ammonium and methane were measured. At the site with organic-rich sediments, oxygen consumption by clams measured in situ with the standard benthic chamber was variable (1.3-6.7 mmol m-2 h-1) as was total carbon dioxide production (1-9.6 mmol m-2 h-1). The observed gas and solute fluxes were attributed primarily to bivalve respiration (vesicomyids or mytilids), but microbial and geochemical processes in the sediment may be also responsible for some of variations in the deepest stations. The respiration rate of isolated vesicomyids (16.1-0.25.7 μmol g-1 dry weight h-1) was always lower than that of mytilids (33 μmol g-1 dry weight h-1). This difference was attributed to the presence of a commensal scaleworm in the mytilids. The respiratory coefficient (QR) ≥1 indicated high levels of anaerobic metabolism. The O:N index ranged from 5 to 25, confirming that vesicomyids and mytilids, living in symbiosis with bacteria, have a protein-based food diet.

  9. Expanding the Lessons Learned Program to Include Corps Support Command Commanders and Theater Army Area Command Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-10

    INTRODUCTION The Oral History Program’s purpose is to supplement oFficial histories , to isolate successful command, leadership and managerial...of -the program is to capture the experience of senior leaders in the areas of command, leadership , and management . The individual is interviewed...used to gain insight into command and management techniques and to further research in military history . In June of 1984, the Chief of Staff, General

  10. Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory D. Johnson; Chad W. LeBeau; Ryan Nielsen; Troy Rintz; Jamey Eddy; Matt Holloran

    2012-03-27

    This study was conducted to obtain baseline data on use of the proposed Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area (SRWRA) in Carbon County, Wyoming by greater sage-grouse. The first two study years were designed to determine pre-construction seasonally selected habitats and population-level vital rates (productivity and survival). The presence of an existing wind energy facility in the project area, the PacifiCorp Seven Mile Hill (SMH) project, allowed us to obtain some information on initial sage-grouse response to wind turbines the first two years following construction. To our knowledge these are the first quantitative data on sage-grouse response to an existing wind energy development. This report presents results of the first two study years (April 1, 2009 through March 30, 2011). This study was selected for continued funding by the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative Sage-Grouse Collaborative (NWCC-SGC) and has been ongoing since March 30, 2011. Future reports summarizing results of this research will be distributed through the NWCC-SGC. To investigate population trends through time, we determined the distribution and numbers of males using leks throughout the study area, which included a 4-mile radius buffer around the SRWRA. Over the 2-year study, 116 female greater sage-grouse were captured by spotlighting and use of hoop nets on roosts surrounding leks during the breeding period. Radio marked birds were located anywhere from twice a week to once a month, depending on season. All radio-locations were classified to season. We developed predictor variables used to predict success of fitness parameters and relative probability of habitat selection within the SRWRA and SMH study areas. Anthropogenic features included paved highways, overhead transmission lines, wind turbines and turbine access roads. Environmental variables included vegetation and topography features. Home ranges were estimated using a kernel density estimator. We developed resource selection

  11. Social Network and Content Analysis of the North American Carbon Program as a Scientific Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Ihli, Monica; Hendrick, Oscar; Delgado-Arias, Sabrina; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Griffith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) was formed to further the scientific understanding of sources, sinks, and stocks of carbon in Earth's environment. Carbon cycle science integrates multidisciplinary research, providing decision-support information for managing climate and carbon-related change across multiple sectors of society. This investigation uses the conceptual framework of com-munities of practice (CoP) to explore the role that the NACP has played in connecting researchers into a carbon cycle knowledge network, and in enabling them to conduct physical science that includes ideas from social science. A CoP describes the communities formed when people consistently engage in shared communication and activities toward a common passion or learning goal. We apply the CoP model by using keyword analysis of abstracts from scientific publications to analyze the research outputs of the NACP in terms of its knowledge domain. We also construct a co-authorship network from the publications of core NACP members, describe the structure and social pathways within the community. Results of the content analysis indicate that the NACP community of practice has substantially expanded its research on human and social impacts on the carbon cycle, contributing to a better understanding of how human and physical processes interact with one another. Results of the co-authorship social network analysis demonstrate that the NACP has formed a tightly connected community with many social pathways through which knowledge may flow, and that it has also expanded its network of institutions involved in carbon cycle research over the past seven years.

  12. Paleogene carbonate microfacies and sandstone provenance (Gamba area, South Tibet): Stratigraphic response to initial India-Asia continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; An, Wei; Wang, Jiangang

    2015-05-01

    The Paleogene marine strata in the Gamba area of south Tibet comprise carbonates of the Zongpu Formation and siliciclastic rocks of the Enba and Zhaguo Formations, documenting the final stages of marine deposition in the Tethyan Himalaya. The ∼350-m-thick Zongpu Formation was dated as late Danian to Ypresian based on larger benthic foraminifers. Thirteen distinct microfacies identify three sedimentary environments. Mudstone, wackestone with Udoteacean algae, bioclastic-peloidal packstone, packstone with Rotaliids and green algae, floatstone with Alveolina and Orbitolites were deposited in restricted lagoonal environments. Bioclastic packstone and grainstone with Rotaliids were deposited in high-energy shoal environments. Floatstones with Nummulitids or Alveolinids were deposited in shallow open-marine environments. The Zongpu Formation was accumulated on a carbonate ramp. It documents two deepening-upward sequences separated by an unconformity corresponding to the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary and marked by a conglomerate with limestone clasts. The overlying Enba Formation comprises greenish grey calcareous shales intercalated with litho-quartzose sandstones in the upper part and capped by subaerial litho-quartzose red beds of the Zhaguo Formation. Petrographic analysis, detrital zircon geochronology and Hf isotopic data indicate that detritus in the Enba and Zhaguo Formations, deposited on the Indian passive margin, was derived from the Asian active margin in the north. These clastic units were thus deposited after the onset of the India-Asia continental collision in the early Himalayan foreland basin. Major lithological and paleoenvironmental changes occurred at three stratigraphic levels: the Jidula/Zongpu boundary (∼62 Ma), the Paleocene/Eocene boundary (∼56 Ma) and the Zongpu/Enba boundary (∼51 Ma). Our provenance study confirms that the India-Asia collision was already under way during the deposition of the Enba Member (i.e., by ∼51 Ma) and, along with

  13. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area FY 1999 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D K; Eaton, G F; Rose, T P; Moran, J E; Brachmann, A; McAninch, J E; Kersting, A B; Romanovski, V V; Martinelli, R E; Werner, J K Jr

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the results from fiscal year (FY) 1999 technical studies conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area (UGTA) work-for-others project. This report is the latest in a series of annual reports published by LLNL to document the migration of radionuclides and controls of radionuclide movement at the Nevada Test Site. The FY 1999 studies highlighted in this report are: (1) Chapter 1 provides the results from flow-through leaching of nuclear melt glasses at 25 C and near-neutral pH using dilute bicarbonate groundwaters. (2) Chapter 2 reports on a summary of the size and concentration of colloidal material in NTS groundwaters. (3) Chapter 3 discusses the collaboration between LLNL/ANCD (Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division) and the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) to develop a technique for analyzing NTS groundwater for 99-Technicium ({sup 99}Tc) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Since {sup 99}Tc is conservative like tritium in groundwater systems, and is not sorbed to geologic material, it has the potential for being an important tool for radionuclide migration studies. (4) Chapter 4 presents the results of secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements of the in-situ distribution of radionuclides in zeolitized tuffs from cores taken adjacent to nuclear test cavities and chimneys. In-situ measurements provide insight to the distribution of specific radionuclides on a micro-scale, mineralogical controls of radionuclide sorption, and identification of migration pathways (i.e., matrix diffusion, fractures). (5) Chapter 5 outlines new analytical techniques developed in LLNL/ANCD to study hydrologic problems at the NTS using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). With costs for thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) increasing relative to sample preparation time and facility support, ICP-MS technology

  14. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - KClO4/Carbon Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-31

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO4 and activated carbon—KClO4/C mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of two solids. The mixture was found to be insensitive to impact, friction, and thermal stimulus, and somewhat sensitive to spark discharge. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study has the potential to suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. The results are compared among the laboratories and then compared to historical data from various sources. The testing performers involved for the KClO4/carbon mixture are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand how to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

  15. Fetal programming: maternal nutrition and role of one-carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan Sakerlal; Deshmukh, Urmila Shailesh

    2012-06-01

    India is world's capital for low birth weight (LBW), which is ascribed to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) rather than prematurity. An average Indian mother is short and thin and gives birth to a light and thin baby. Maternal undernutrition is thought to be a major factor in the aetiology of IUGR, and the undernutrition is usually thought to be a low macronutrient intake. The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (PMNS) showed that the Indian babies were thin but fat (more adipose) compared to European babies, and that maternal intake of micronutrient-rich foods was a strong determinant of fetal size. Two thirds of the mothers had low vitamin B(12) concentrations, folate deficiency was rare, and high circulating concentrations of homocysteine predicted IUGR. Follow up of these children revealed that higher maternal folate in pregnancy predicted higher adiposity and insulin resistance at 6 years of age. The most insulin resistant children were born to mothers who were vitamin B(12) deficient and had high folate concentrations. Thus, PMNS suggests an important role for maternal one-carbon (1C) metabolism in fetal growth and programming of diabetes risk. This could be due to the role of 1C metabolism in synthesis of nucleic acids, genomic stability and the epigenetic regulation of gene function. In addition, methionine has important role in protein synthesis. These ideas are supported by animal studies. The next logical step in India will be to improve 1C metabolism in adolescents to effect intergenerational prevention of adiposity, diabetes and other related conditions.

  16. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program. A comprehensive plan. Part I. The global carbon cycle and climatic effects of increasing carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slade, David H.

    1980-08-01

    Initial plans for research of the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) and climate issue were prepared in 1978 and were reviewed extensively at that time by federal agencies and members of the scientific community. Since then the plans have been used to guide early phases of the Department of Energy's and the nation's efforts related to this issue. This document represents a revision of the 1978 plan to (a) reflect recent ideas and strategies for carbon cycle research, and (b) expand the scope of research on climatic responses to increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO/sub 2/. The revised plan takes into account a number of investigations already being supported by various agencies, and it attempts to build on or add to existing research where there is a crucial need for information directly related to the CO/sub 2/ issue. It should be recognized that this document is the first section of a comprehensive plan on the overall consequences of increasing concentrations of CO/sub 2/, and includes guidelines for research on the Global Carbon Cycle and Climatic Effects of Increasing CO/sub 2/.

  17. Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas - CETUP*2013 Summer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbinska, Barbara [Dakota State Univ., Madison, SD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In response to an increasing interest in experiments conducted at deep underground facilities around the world, in 2010 the theory community has proposed a new initiative - a Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas (CETUP*). The main goal of CETUP* is to bring together people with different talents and skills to address the most exciting questions in particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics, geosciences, and geomicrobiology. Scientists invited to participate in the program do not only provide theoretical support to the underground science, they also examine underlying universal questions of the 21st century including: What is dark matter?, What are the masses of neutrinos?, How have neutrinos shaped the evolution of the universe?, How were the elements from iron to uranium made?, What is the origin and thermal history of the Earth? The mission of the CETUP* is to promote an organized research in physics, astrophysics, geoscience, geomicrobiology and other fields related to the underground science via individual and collaborative research in dynamic atmosphere of intense scientific interactions. Our main goal is to bring together scientists scattered around the world, promote the deep underground science and provide a stimulating environment for creative thinking and open communication between researches of varying ages and nationalities. CETUP*2014 included 5 week long program (June 24 – July 26, 2013) covering various theoretical and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics. Two week long session focused on Dark Matter (June 24-July 6) was followed by two week long program on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (July 15-26). The VIIth International Conference on Interconnections between Particle Physics and Cosmology (PPC) was sandwiched between these sessions (July 8-13) covering the subjects of dark matter, neutrino physics, gravitational waves, collider physics and other from both

  18. Measurement of the area of venous ulcers using two software programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Thaís Dresch; Lima, Suzinara Beatriz Soares de; Lopes, Luis Felipe Dias; Borges, Eline de Lima; Weiller, Teresinha Heck; Fonseca, Graziele Gorete Portella da

    2016-12-19

    to compare the measurement area of venous ulcers using AutoCAD(r) and Image Tool software. this was an assessment of reproducibility tests conducted in a angiology clinic of a university hospital. Data were collected from 21 patients with venous ulcers, in the period from March to July of 2015, using a collection form and photograph of wounds. Five nurses (evaluators) of the hospital skin wound study group participated. The wounds were measured using both software programs. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient, concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. The study met the ethical aspects in accordance with current legislation. the size of ulcers varied widely, however, without significant difference between the measurements; an excellent intraclass and concordance correlation was found between both software programs, which seem to be more accurate when measuring a wound area >10 cm². the use of both software programs is appropriate for measurement of venous ulcers, appearing to be more accurate when used to measure a wound area > 10 cm². comparar a mensuração de área de úlceras venosas por meio dos softwares AutoCAD(r) e Image Tool. trata-se de um estudo de avaliação de reprodutibilidade de testes, realizado em um ambulatório de angiologia de um hospital universitário. Os dados foram coletados de 21 pacientes com úlceras venosas, no período de março a julho de 2015, por meio de formulário de coleta e fotografia das feridas. Cinco enfermeiros (avaliadores) do Grupo de Estudos de Lesões de Pele do hospital participaram da pesquisa. As feridas foram mensuradas em ambos os softwares. Os dados foram analisados por meio do Coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, Coeficiente de correlação de concordância e procedimento de Bland e Altman. A pesquisa respeitou os aspectos éticos de acordo com a legislação vigente. os tamanhos das úlceras apresentaram grande amplitude, porém, sem diferença significativa entre

  19. Parameterizing water quality analysis and simulation program (WASP) for carbon-based nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphenes are among the most popular carbon-based nanomaterials due to their unique electronic, mechanic and structural properties. Exposure modeling of these nanomaterials in the aquatic environment is necessary to predict the fate of these materials. ...

  20. Norwegian family forest owners' willingness to participate in carbon offset programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel E. Habesland; Michael A. Kilgore; Dennis R. Becker; Stephanie A. Snyder; Birger Solberg; Hanne K. Sjolie; Berit H. Lindstad

    2016-01-01

    Forests act as carbon sinks and can make significant contributions to climate change mitigation efforts. In Norway, family forest owners own 80% of productive forestland and play a central role in the management of the country's forests. Yet little is known about whether these landowners would be interested in increasing carbon sequestration on their land and...

  1. Compound Cycle Turbofan Engine (CCTE). Task IX. Carbon-Slurry Fuel Combustion Evaluation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    residue was a cenosphere . This behavior was probably the result of convective and radiative heat losses, which tended to quench the reaction at the outer...size as the ultimate particle size in the carbon black (0.3 pkm). (g) Cenospheres were observed as carbon residue in some cases. It is postulated that

  2. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2001-2002 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, T P; Kersting, A B; Harris, L J; Hudson, G B; Smith, D K; Williams, R W; Loewen, D R; Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Ryerson, F J; Pawloski, G A; Laue, C A; Moran, J E

    2003-08-15

    This report contains highlights of FY 2001 and 2002 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work emphasizes the Defense Programs goal of responsible management of natural resources at the NTS, while UGTA-funded work focuses on defining the extent of radionuclide contamination in NTS groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing. The report is organized on a topical basis, and contains eight chapters that reflect the range of technical work performed by LLNL-ANCD in support of HRMP and UGTA. Chapter 1 describes recent hot well sampling efforts at the NTS, and presents the results of chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from six near-field wells. These include the Cambric (UE-5n), Bilby (U-3cn PS No.2), Bourbon (UE-7nS), Nash (UE-2ce), Tybo/Benham (ER-20-5 No.3), and Almendro (U-19v PS No.1ds) sites. The data generated by the hot well program is vital to the development and validation of contaminant transport models at the NTS. Chapter 2 discusses the results of xenon isotope measurements of groundwater samples from the six near-field wells described in Chapter 1. This work demonstrates that fission xenon is present in the water at levels that are readily measurable and highlights the significant differences in xenon concentrations and isotopic abundances at different sites. These differences provide insight into the early cooling history of nuclear test cavities, and may assist in predicting the distribution of the source term in the near-field environment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the distribution

  3. An Analysis of Decoupling and Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions from the Transportation Sector in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector is the major green-house gas emitter and most rapidly growing sector in terms of consuming energy in China. Understanding the driving forces behind carbon emission is a prerequisite for reducing carbon emissions and finding a balance between economic growth and carbon emissions. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of the factors which influence the level of carbon emissions from the transportation sector in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH area, China, using decomposition model, combined with a decoupling elasticity index. The results of our study indicate that: (1 changes in the level of carbon emissions from the transportation sector are not always synchronized with changes in economic growth. (2 The decoupling state between the carbon emissions and economic growth of Tianjin and Beijing can be roughly divided into two phases. The first phase was during the 2005 to 2009 period, when the decoupling state was pessimistic. The second phase was from 2009 to 2013, when the decoupling state became better overall and was mainly dominated by weak decoupling. Conversely, the decoupling state of Hebei was mainly weak during this period. (3 Economic growth and population size play positive roles in increasing the levels of transportation-related carbon emissions in BTH. However, the energy structure is a negative force. The effect of energy intensity always plays a negative role in Tianjin and Hebei, but positive in Beijing. The industrial structure effect shows a fluctuating trend, but the cumulative effect value is negative, and negative interaction is prominent. Finally, this paper gives some suggestions on how to develop low-carbon transport in BTH area.

  4. Promotion of renewable energy to mitigate impact of heavy use of carbon energy on society and climate change in Central Sub-Saharan Africa remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa owns important renewable energy potential and is still heavily using carbon energy. This is having a negative impact on the climate and on the environment. Given the local cost of carbon energy, the purchase power of people, the availability and the reserve of carbon energy in the area, this resource is being heavily used. This practice is harmful to the climate and is also resulting on poor effort to promote renewable energy in remote areas. The important renewable energy potential is still suffering from poor development. The purpose of this paper is among other things aiming at showing the rate of carbon energy use and its potential impact on climate and environment. We will also ensure that the renewable energy resources of Central Sub-Saharan Africa are known and are subject to be used optimally to help mitigate climate change. After showing some negative impacts of carbon energy used in the area, the work also suggests actions to promote and sustain the development of renewable energy. Based on the knowledge of the Central African energy sector, this paper will identify actions for reduce access to carbon energy and improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure and the promotion of energy efficiency. We will show all type of carbon energy used, the potential for solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development. After a swot analysis of the situation, identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. Finally, suggestions will be made to help the region develop a vision aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon case study will be examined as illustration. Analysis will be made from data collected in the field. |End Text|

  5. Network Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions From On-road Sources in the Portland OR, (USA) Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, governments at multiple levels are developing policies to decrease anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The City of Portland (Oregon) and Multnomah County have adopted a Climate Action Plan with a stated goal of reducing emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. The transportation sector alone accounts for about 40% of total emissions in the Portland metropolitan area. Here we show a new street-level model of on-road mobile CO2 emissions for the Portland, OR metropolitan region. The model uses hourly traffic counter recordings made by the Portland Bureau of Transportation at 9,352 sites over 21 years (1986-2006), augmented with freeway loop detector data from the Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing (PORTAL) transportation data archive. We constructed a land use regression model to fill in traffic network gaps with traffic counts as the dependent variable using GIS data such as road class (32 categories) and population density. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model was used to estimate transportation CO2 emissions. The street-level emissions can be aggregated and gridded and used as input to atmospheric transport models for comparison with atmospheric measurements. This model also provides an independent assessment of top-down inventories that determine emissions from fuel sales, while being an important component of our ongoing effort to assess the effectiveness of emission mitigation strategies at the urban scale.

  6. Marine carbonate embayment system in an Eolian dune terrain, Permian Upper Minnelusa Formation, Rozet Area, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achauer, C.W.

    1987-05-01

    The eolian origin for Minnelusa sandstones has been stressed in numerous published articles. However, the dolomites that are interbedded with the eolian sandstones have received little attention. Isopach mapping of one of the dolomite units (Dolomite I) reflects a marine embayment system whose individual embayments range from 1/2 to 1 mi in width and trend primarily in a northwest direction. Consistently the embayment dolomites pinch out against the flanks of reworked, low relief, broad, eolian dune ridges. So far, 108 mi/sup 2/ of the Dolomite I marine embayment system have been mapped, but the overall extent of the system is undoubtedly much greater. Dolomite I is rarely cored, but cores from stratigraphically higher embayment dolomites in the upper Minnelusa show that these dolomites display the following, shoaling-upward sequence: (1) subtidal, sparingly fossiliferous dolomite; (2) intertidal, algal-laminated or brecciated or mud-cracked dolomite; and (3) very thin, supratidal, nodular anhydrite. The embayments, therefore, became the sites of marine sabkhas located between eolian dunes. Two main conclusions emerge from this study: (1) the juxtaposition of eolian sandstones and marine dolomites in a tectonically stable area suggests that eustatic sea level changes and a very arid climate were responsible for the marked environmental and lithologic changes observed in the upper Minnelusa, and (2) arid, coastal, evaporitic sabkhas bordered by eolian dunes are known from a number of modern and ancient cases, but marine carbonate embayments and associated evaporitic sabkhas that penetrate deeply into eolian sandstone terrains are rare.

  7. Profile of Enrollments by Instructional Program Areas: A Study of Traditional and Non-Traditional Choice of Disciplines by Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Marian Jean

    Women have traditionally entered courses of study congruent with social sex-role stereotypes. Two critical questions were examined with regard to their choice of college major--whether traditional or non-traditional. Women and men enrolled in 22 instructional program areas in the University of Wisconsin system for the years 1973-74 and 1977-78…

  8. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  9. Evaluating of the spatial heterogeneity of soil loss tolerance and its effects on erosion risk in the carbonate areas of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss tolerance (T value is one of the criteria in determining the necessity of erosion control measures and ecological restoration strategy. However, the validity of this criterion in subtropical karst regions is strongly disputed. In this study, T value is calculated based on soil formation rate by using a digital distribution map of carbonate rock assemblage types. Results indicated a spatial heterogeneity and diversity in soil loss tolerance. Instead of only one criterion, a minimum of three criteria should be considered when investigating the carbonate areas of southern China because the one region, one T value concept may not be applicable to this region. T value is proportionate to the amount of argillaceous material, which determines the surface soil thickness of the formations in homogenous carbonate rock areas. Homogenous carbonate rock, carbonate rock intercalated with clastic rock areas and carbonate/clastic rock alternation areas have T values of 20, 50 and 100 t/(km2 a, and they are extremely, severely and moderately sensitive to soil erosion. Karst rocky desertification (KRD is defined as extreme soil erosion and reflects the risks of erosion. Thus, the relationship between T value and erosion risk is determined using KRD as a parameter. The existence of KRD land is unrelated to the T value, although this parameter indicates erosion sensitivity. Erosion risk is strongly dependent on the relationship between real soil loss (RL and T value rather than on either erosion intensity or the T value itself. If RL > > T, then the erosion risk is high despite of a low RL. Conversely, if T > > RL, then the soil is safe although RL is high. Overall, these findings may clarify the heterogeneity of T value and its effect on erosion risk in a karst environment.

  10. Evaluating of the spatial heterogeneity of soil loss tolerance and its effects on erosion risk in the carbonate areas of southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Bai, Xiao Yong; Jie Wang, Shi; Qin, Luo Yi; Chao Tian, Yi; Jie Luo, Guang

    2017-05-01

    Soil loss tolerance (T value) is one of the criteria in determining the necessity of erosion control measures and ecological restoration strategy. However, the validity of this criterion in subtropical karst regions is strongly disputed. In this study, T value is calculated based on soil formation rate by using a digital distribution map of carbonate rock assemblage types. Results indicated a spatial heterogeneity and diversity in soil loss tolerance. Instead of only one criterion, a minimum of three criteria should be considered when investigating the carbonate areas of southern China because the one region, one T value concept may not be applicable to this region. T value is proportionate to the amount of argillaceous material, which determines the surface soil thickness of the formations in homogenous carbonate rock areas. Homogenous carbonate rock, carbonate rock intercalated with clastic rock areas and carbonate/clastic rock alternation areas have T values of 20, 50 and 100 t/(km2 a), and they are extremely, severely and moderately sensitive to soil erosion. Karst rocky desertification (KRD) is defined as extreme soil erosion and reflects the risks of erosion. Thus, the relationship between T value and erosion risk is determined using KRD as a parameter. The existence of KRD land is unrelated to the T value, although this parameter indicates erosion sensitivity. Erosion risk is strongly dependent on the relationship between real soil loss (RL) and T value rather than on either erosion intensity or the T value itself. If RL > > T, then the erosion risk is high despite of a low RL. Conversely, if T > > RL, then the soil is safe although RL is high. Overall, these findings may clarify the heterogeneity of T value and its effect on erosion risk in a karst environment.

  11. High surface area microporous carbon materials for cryogenic hydrogen storage synthesized using new template-based and activation-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P; Hu, Qingyuan

    2009-05-20

    High surface area microporous carbon materials were synthesized using new, simple, and innovative approaches based on traditional template and chemical activation methods. The resulting surface area and porosity were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-type measurements and analysis, and the hydrogen storage capacity was determined using excess hydrogen adsorption measurements at 77 K and up to 40 bar hydrogen pressure. For our direct one-step aerosol-assisted template-based synthesis method of mixing the template precursor and carbon precursor solutions, a specific surface area value of up to nearly 2000 m(2) g(-1) and an excess hydrogen storage capacity of 4.2 wt% was observed. For our chemical activation-based synthesis method of homogeneously mixing the chemical activation reagent into the carbon precursor solution, a specific surface area value of nearly 3000 m(2) g(-1) and an excess hydrogen adsorption capacity of nearly 5.8 wt% were observed. The surface area and hydrogen uptake results varied systematically with the synthesis parameters, and we observed a strong correlation between the BET values of the specific surface area and the excess hydrogen adsorption capacity.

  12. [THE FUNCTIONAL CONSTITUENT OF A BIOLOGICAL COMPONENT IN PROGRAMS FOR TRAINING SPECIALISTS IN THE AREA OF PARASITOLOGY FOR ACCREDITATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Yu; Andreeva, N D

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the functional aspects of a biological component in programs for training specialists in the area of Parasitology for accreditation within the current enactments, including those on modernization of public health and additional professional education. The working program of the module "Fundamental Disciplines" has been used as an example to outline approaches to molding a medical parasitologist's capacity and readiness to solve professional tasks on the basis of knowledge of fundamental disciplines: biology, immunology, and medical geography. Education fundamentalization is shown to suggest more unsupervised work of a learner in the teaching process. The fundamental constituent of a biological component of the 'programs for training learners in the specialty of Parasitology for accreditation is shown in the interaction of all sections of this area with special and allied subjects.

  13. Surface areas of turbostratic graphitic carbons prepared from a resin using nickel particles, 20 nm, as graphitization catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, A.; Inoue, E.; Otani, S.; Marsh, H.

    1981-11-01

    Nickel particles were used to graphitize catalytically a non-graphitizing carbon to create a turbostratic graphitic material called the T/SUB/s-component. This method was examined by X-ray diffraction. Coals on heat treatment to temperatures >1270 K form T/SUB/s-component carbons. Therefore, considerations of the properties of the T/SUB/s-component carbon may have relevance to considerations of the operational performances of blast furnace coke. (22 refs.)

  14. Effects of grazing intensity on soil labile organic carbon fractions in a desert steppe area in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jixin; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Grazing can cause changes in soil carbon (C) level. This study aimed to elucidate the response of soil labile organic carbon (SLOC) under four different grazing intensities: non grazing (NG), 0 sheep·ha(-1); light grazing (LG), 0.91 sheep·ha(-1); moderate grazing (MG), 1.82 sheep·ha(-1), and heavy grazing (HG), 2.73 sheep·ha(-1). Results showed that there was no significant difference in total soil organic carbon (TOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) content from three soil depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-45 cm) under different grazing intensities. However, the SLOC including particulate organic carbon (POC), light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), and readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) content at a depth of 0-15 cm decreased with the increasing grazing intensity among LG, MG and HG. The SLOC content at depths of 15-30 cm under the NG and LG were significantly higher than that under the MG and the HG. The TOC and SLOC content decreased with increasing depths of soil horizons, but SIC content increased. The variation trend of the density of different soil carbon fractions and the ratio of individual SLOC fractions to TOC were similar to that of the soil carbon content of corresponding fractions. These results indicated that MG and HG treatments caused C loss at 0-30 cm; and SLOC was more sensitive than TOC in response to different grazing intensities.

  15. Effects of grazing intensity on soil labile organic carbon fractions in a desert steppe area in Inner Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jixin; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Grazing can cause changes in soil carbon (C) level. This study aimed to elucidate the response of soil labile organic carbon (SLOC) under four different grazing intensities: non grazing (NG), 0 sheep·ha-1; light grazing (LG), 0.91 sheep·ha-1; moderate grazing (MG), 1.82 sheep·ha-1, and heavy grazing (HG), 2.73 sheep·ha-1. Results showed that there was no significant difference in total soil organic carbon (TOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) content from three soil depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm,...

  16. Spatial Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in the Coastal Area of Mid-Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Pu, Lijie; Liao, Qilin; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Xue; Mao, Tianying; Xu, Chenxing

    2017-07-14

    Soils play an important role in sequestrating atmospheric CO₂. Coastal tidal flats have been intensively reclaimed for food security and living spaces worldwide. We aimed to identify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) following coastal reclamation and their spatial variation in the coastal area of mid-Eastern China to provide information for coastal cropland management. We measured SOC and TN of 463 soil samples in the coastal plain of mid-Eastern China. The results showed that SOC and TN increased highly from the uncultivated coastal tidal flat (2.49 g·kg-1 and 0.21 g·kg-1, respectively) to the cropland (10.73 g·kg-1 and 1.3 g·kg-1, respectively). After long-term cultivation, SOC and TN in the old farmland (12.98 g·kg-1 and 1.49 g·kg-1, respectively) were greater than those in the young farmland (5.76 g·kg-1 and 0.86 g·kg-1, respectively). The density of SOC in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland, and old farmland were 0.68 kg·C·m-2, 1.52 kg·C·m-2, and 3.31 kg·C·m-2, respectively. The density of TN in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland and old farmland were 0.05 kg·N·m-2, 0.23 kg·N·m-2, and 0.38 kg·N·m-2, respectively. The C/N (11.17) in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat was highest comparing to that in the young and old farmland due to lower nitrogen. The C/N increased from 6.78 to 8.71 following cultivation. Reclaimed coastal tidal flats had high carbon and nitrogen sequestration potential that not only mitigated the threat of global warming, but also improved soil fertility for crop production. Coastal management of cropland should consider the spatial distribution of SOC and TN to improve ecosystem services of coastal soils.

  17. Assessment of Current Energy Consumption Practices, Carbon Emissions and Indoor Air Pollution in Samagaun, Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Suwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nepal is one of the lowest energy consuming countries in the world. More than 85 percent of its total energy comes from traditional biomass energy such as forests, agricultural residues and by-products from crops. Due to increasing per capita energy consumption, natural resources are being depleted with heavy emissions of GHGs in the atmosphere, which causes global warming. The main objective of the study was to investigate current energy consumption practices, to estimate particulate matter and carbon emissions from current practices and to recommend the most suitable alternative energy technologies. The fieldwork was based on primary and secondary data with a design methodology. Firewood burning was found to be the major source of energy used for cooking purposes in Samagaun. The use of this traditional fuel has negative environmental implications, such as deforestation, indoor air pollution and it ultimately affects human health. The results show that traditional cooking stoves (TCS are used more than improved cooking stoves (ICS. The total amount of firewood used per day by TCS is 2135 kg/day, and by ICS it is 349 kg/day. The average amount of firewood consumed by traditional and improved cooking stoves per day is 62.79 kg and 43.63 kg, respectively. The annual per capita firewood consumption of TCS and ICS is 4401.9 kg and 3266.7 kg, respectively. The calculation shows that per capita firewood consumption by TCS users is 1.3 times higher than that of ICS users. The annual per capita carbon emissions from TCS and ICS is 8055.47 kg CO2e and 5978.15 kg CO2e, respectively. This calculation shows that ICS emits 1.3 times less CO2 into the atmosphere than the TCS. The average mean particulate concentration at normal atmospheric conditions for a traditional cooking stove was found to be 2866 μg/Nm3 and for an improved cooking stove 1333 μg/Nm3, both of which far exceed the national standard of 230 μg/m3 TSP. Based on the study results, metallic

  18. Spatial Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in the Coastal Area of Mid-Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Lijie; Liao, Qilin; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Xue; Mao, Tianying; Xu, Chenxing

    2017-01-01

    Soils play an important role in sequestrating atmospheric CO2. Coastal tidal flats have been intensively reclaimed for food security and living spaces worldwide. We aimed to identify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) following coastal reclamation and their spatial variation in the coastal area of mid-Eastern China to provide information for coastal cropland management. We measured SOC and TN of 463 soil samples in the coastal plain of mid-Eastern China. The results showed that SOC and TN increased highly from the uncultivated coastal tidal flat (2.49 g·kg−1 and 0.21 g·kg−1, respectively) to the cropland (10.73 g·kg−1 and 1.3 g·kg−1, respectively). After long-term cultivation, SOC and TN in the old farmland (12.98 g·kg−1 and 1.49 g·kg−1, respectively) were greater than those in the young farmland (5.76 g·kg−1 and 0.86 g·kg−1, respectively). The density of SOC in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland, and old farmland were 0.68 kg·C·m−2, 1.52 kg·C·m−2, and 3.31 kg·C·m−2, respectively. The density of TN in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland and old farmland were 0.05 kg·N·m−2, 0.23 kg·N·m−2, and 0.38 kg·N·m−2, respectively. The C/N (11.17) in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat was highest comparing to that in the young and old farmland due to lower nitrogen. The C/N increased from 6.78 to 8.71 following cultivation. Reclaimed coastal tidal flats had high carbon and nitrogen sequestration potential that not only mitigated the threat of global warming, but also improved soil fertility for crop production. Coastal management of cropland should consider the spatial distribution of SOC and TN to improve ecosystem services of coastal soils. PMID:28708078

  19. Research issues and supporting research of the National Program on Carbon Dioxide, Environment and Society, fiscal year 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    This report outlines and summarizes the research conducted in the United States under the auspices of the CO/sub 2/ program. The Program encompasses six primary categories which, in turn, are divided into 18 research subcategories and 51 research issues. The research program was designed to describe the research which should be conducted regardless of institutional or even national sponsorship. Project descriptions have been collected and classified according to the research issue to which they most directly apply and have been inserted immediately following the applicable issue description. This provides, for the first time, a detailed view of the nation's effort in addressing the carbon dioxide question in FY 1980.

  20. An update of ERC`s carbonate fuel cell development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooque, M.; Bernard, R.; Doyon, J.; Paetsch, L.; Patel, P.; Skok, A.; Yuh, C.; Steinfield, G.; O`Shea, T.

    1992-09-01

    Energy Research Corporation`s molten carbonate fuel goals are commericalization of the MW-class natural gas units and 100 MW-class coal gas/natural gas dual fuel units (long-term). Accomplishments have been made in stack height scale-up, issues relevant to attaining a long useful life for the carbonate fuel cell have been resolved, and organizational and financial aspects of power plant demonstration have been addressed. 10 figs, 7 refs. (DLC)

  1. An update of ERC's carbonate fuel cell development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooque, M.; Bernard, R.; Doyon, J.; Paetsch, L.; Patel, P.; Skok, A.; Yuh, C.; Steinfield, G.; O' Shea, T.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Research Corporation's molten carbonate fuel goals are commericalization of the MW-class natural gas units and 100 MW-class coal gas/natural gas dual fuel units (long-term). Accomplishments have been made in stack height scale-up, issues relevant to attaining a long useful life for the carbonate fuel cell have been resolved, and organizational and financial aspects of power plant demonstration have been addressed. 10 figs, 7 refs. (DLC)

  2. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  3. Controllable Nitrogen Doping of High-Surface-Area Microporous Carbons Synthesized from an Organic-Inorganic Sol-Gel Approach for Li-S Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huichao; Wei, Yanju; Wang, Jitong; Qiao, Wenming; Ling, Licheng; Long, Donghui

    2015-09-30

    High-surface-area microporous carbons with controllable nitrogen doping were prepared via a novel organic-inorganic sol-gel approach, using phenolic resol and hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) as carbon precursors, and partially hydrolyzed tetraethoxysilane as silica template. The pore structures of microporous carbons were completely replicated from a thin silica framework and could be tailored greatly by changing the organic/inorganic ratio. The nitrogen atoms doped into the carbon framework were issued from high-nitrogen-content HMMM precursors, and the nitrogen content could be adjusted in a wide range by changing the phenolic resol/HMMM ratio. Moreover, the porous structure and nitrogen content could be simultaneously controlled, allowing the preparation of a series of microporous carbons with almost the same microstructures (BET surface areas of ca.1900 m(2)·g(-1)and pore volumes of ca. 1.2 cm(3)·g(-1), and the same pore size distributions) but with different nitrogen contents (0-12 wt %). These results provided a general method to synthesize nitrogen-doped microporous carbons and allowed these materials to serve as a model system to illustrate the role of nitrogen content on the performance of the carbons. When used as the supports for sulfur cathodes, only an appropriate nitrogen content of ca. 6.3 wt % was found to effectively improve sulfur utilization and cycle life of the sulfur cathodes. The resulting sulfur cathodes could deliver an outstanding reversible discharge capacity of 1054 mAh·g(-1) at 0.5 C after 100 cycles.

  4. The Development and Application of a Harmonized Burned Area Data Set for North America to Assess the Effects of Fire Disturbance on the Continental Carbon Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Hayes, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Fires burn an annual average of about 40,000 km2 in Canada and the U.S., making it an important feature of North American ecosystems through renewing ecosystem conditions and vegetation dynamics. Fire disturbances substantially modify ecosystem carbon dynamics both temporally and spatially. Ecosystems generally lose carbon for several years to decades following fire disturbance, but our understanding of the duration and dynamics of post-disturbance carbon fluxes remains limited. Owing to the prevailing collection of inventory data for fire burn area, intensity, distribution, and associated carbon-related parameters in North America, we are able to more accurately estimate carbon dynamics following fire disturbances. In our study, we integrated four major fire datasets (i.e., U.S. Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity dataset, Bureau of Land Management Alaska Fire Service dataset, and Canadian National Fire Database, and GFEDv3.1 fire dataset) and other auxiliary data to generate a comprehensive and continuous burned area history dataset, which covers the 1920 to 2012 time period and is gridded at quarter-degree resolution for the North American continent. Driven by this new dataset, we used the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM6.0) to simulate the impacts of fire disturbance on carbon dynamics across North American ecosystems. The results indicate that large amount of carbon was emitted due to fire disturbances during the study period, especially for the boreal ecosystems with slow recovery. The modeling results were also evaluated with the field measurements along a fire chronosequence and compared to estimates from other approaches.

  5. Biomass-derived nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tailored hierarchical porosity and high specific surface area for high energy and power density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junting; Niu, Jin; Liu, Mengyue; Ji, Jing; Dou, Meiling; Wang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Porous carbon materials with hierarchical structures attract intense interest for the development of high-performance supercapacitors. Herein, we demonstrate a facile and efficient strategy to synthesize nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbons with tailored porous structure combined with high specific surface area (SSA), which involves a pre-carbonization and a subsequent carbonization combined with KOH activation of silkworm cocoon precursors. Through adjusting the mass ratio of the activator (KOH) to pre-carbonized precursor in the activation process, the hierarchically porous carbon prepared at the mass ratio of 2 (referred to as NHPC-2) possesses a high defect density and a high SSA of 3386 m2 g-1 as well as the relatively high volumetric proportion of mesopores and macropores (45.5%). As a result, the energy density and power density of the symmetric supercapacitor based on NHPC-2 electrode are as high as 34.41 Wh kg-1 and 31.25 kW kg-1 in organic-solvent electrolyte, and are further improved to 112.1 Wh kg-1 and 23.91 kW kg-1 in ionic-liquid electrolyte.

  6. Urban soil organic carbon and its spatial heterogeneity in comparison with natural and agricultural areas in the Moscow region.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, V.I.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Vasenev, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    Soils hold the largest carbon stock in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is formed under a combination of bioclimatic and land-use conditions. Therefore, one would expect changes in SOC stocks with land use changes like urbanization. So far, the majority of regional studies on SOC

  7. Towards Regional, Error-Bounded Landscape Carbon Storage Estimates for Data-Deficient Areas of the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willcock, Simon; Phillips, Oliver L.; Platts, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring landscape carbon storage is critical for supporting and validating climate change mitigation policies. These may be aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, or increasing terrestrial carbon storage at local, regional and global levels. However, due to data-deficiencies, default...... global carbon storage values for given land cover types such as ‘lowland tropical forest’ are often used, termed ‘Tier 1 type’ analyses by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Such estimates may be erroneous when used at regional scales. Furthermore uncertainty assessments...... are rarely provided leading to estimates of land cover change carbon fluxes of unknown precision which may undermine efforts to properly evaluate land cover policies aimed at altering land cover dynamics. Here, we present a repeatable method to estimate carbon storage values and associated 95% confidence...

  8. Scoping the context of programs and services for maintaining wellness of older people in rural areas of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, K S; McKenna, L; Francis, K

    2014-09-01

    Ageing and problems concerning the aged are an increasing and concerning reality in developing and underdeveloped countries such as Indonesia. Improving service quality is important to promote and maintain wellness of older persons, especially in rural areas. To explore programs and services offered to the elderly in a rural area of Indonesia to support them in promoting and maintaining their wellness. To describe roles and practices of health professionals and teams responsible for delivering services to older people. Action research was used with mixed method data collection (interview and survey). Results demonstrated that activities related to the elderly health programs were limited due to budget and facilities. Practices of health staff for elderly in the community focused on intervention tasks, rather than prevention. Lack of available information on the range of programs and services implemented in Indonesia for the elderly in community settings was a limitation of this study. Programs and services for older people have been implemented in Indonesia. However, these do not yet meet their needs, especially in rural areas. There is a need for greater focus on health promotion and illness prevention. Findings contribute to development of international knowledge in community health nursing, as these issues may not be only relevant to Indonesia. It is timely for governments, including in Indonesia, to evaluate health workforce needs in the community and appropriate educational qualifications for delivering optimal health services for older people. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  9. Impact of different fertilizers on carbonate weathering in a typical karst area, Southwest China: a field column experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Liu, Changli; Han, Guilin; Liu, Congqiang

    2017-09-01

    Carbonate weathering, as a significant vector for the movement of carbon both between and within ecosystems, is strongly influenced by agricultural fertilization, since the addition of fertilizers tends to change the chemical characteristics of soil such as the pH. Different fertilizers may exert a different impact on carbonate weathering, but these discrepancies are as yet not well-known. In this study, a field column experiment was conducted to explore the response of carbonate weathering to the addition of different fertilizers. We compared 11 different treatments, including a control treatment, using three replicates per treatment. Carbonate weathering was assessed by measuring the weight loss of limestone and dolostone tablets buried at the bottom of soil-filled columns. The results show that the addition of urea, NH4NO3, NH4HCO3, NH4Cl and (NH4)2CO3 distinctly increased carbonate weathering, which was attributed to the nitrification of NH4+. The addition of Ca3(PO4)2, Ca-Mg-P and K2CO3 induced carbonate precipitation due to the common ion effect. The addition of (NH4)3PO4 and NaNO3 had a relatively small impact on carbonate weathering in comparison to those five NH4-based fertilizers above. The results of NaNO3 treatment raise a new question: the negligible impact of nitrate on carbonate weathering may result in an overestimation of the impact of N fertilizer on CO2 consumption by carbonate weathering on the regional/global scale if the effects of NO3 and NH4 are not distinguished.

  10. Shared financial management of Community programs and its implementation in the EU area

    OpenAIRE

    Jedličková, Vladislava

    2008-01-01

    The issue of migration within the European Union has grown in member countries to considerable size. Management representatives of EU institutions have decided to address this situation. They established community program Solidarity and management of migration flows. The European Commission has decided that for the financial management of this program will be used the principle of shared management. The principle of shared financial management is the delegation of powers and responsibilities ...

  11. Pengaruh Program Kemitraan Terhadap Sosial Ekonomi Mitra Binaan PTPN III Sub Area Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Fazuani, Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Partnership program is the empowerment and improving of local economy through the provision of partnership loans for working capital and investment. This program aims to improve the competence of small micro business comunity to become strong and independent. Through the partnership the company provides coaching support in the form of business management training, marketing asistance (promotion/exhibition) and others. Coaching small business by the State-Owned Enterprises was implemented sinc...

  12. Safe-Taipei a Program Project for Strong Motions, Active Faults, and Earthquakes in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    Strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region, which is often attacked by large earthquakes. Several cities, including three mega-cities, i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaoshung, have been constructed on western Taiwan, where is lying on thick sediments. These cities, with a high-population density, are usually a regional center of culture, economics, and politics. Historically, larger-sized earthquakes, e.g. the 1935 Hsingchu—Taichung earthquake and the 1999 Chi—Chi earthquake, often caused serious damage on the cities. Hence, urban seismology must be one of the main subjects of Taiwan's seismological community. Since 2005, a program project, sponsored by Academia Sinica, has been launched to investigate seismological problems in the Taipei Metropolitan Area. This program project is performed during the 2005—2007 period. The core research subjects are: (1) the deployment of the Taipei Down-hole Seismic Array; (2) the properties of earthquakes and active faults in the area; (3) the seismogenic-zone structures, including the 3-D velocity and Q structures, of the area; (4) the characteristics of strong-motions and sites affects; and (5) strong-motion prediction. In addition to academic goals, the results obtained from the program project will be useful for seismic hazard mitigation not only for the area but also for others.

  13. Linking Carbon Fluxes with Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Indices for Leaf Area and Aboveground Biomass Through Footprint Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, C.; Clark, K.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Skowronski, N.; Schmid, H. E.

    2010-12-01

    A major challenge of bottom-up scaling is that in-situ flux observations are spatially limited. Thus, to achieve valid regional exchange rates, models are used to interpolate and extrapolate to the vegetational/spatial domain covered by these observations. To parameterize these models from flux data, efforts must be made to select data that best represents the region being modeled as well as linking the fluxes to remotely-sensed data products that can be produced from site to regional scales. Because most long-term flux stations are not in spatially extensive, homogeneous locations, this requirement is often a challenge. However, this requirement can be met by selecting observation periods whose flux footprints are statistically representative of the type of ecosystem identified in the model. The flux footprint function indicates the time-varying surface “field-of-view” (or spatial sampling window) of an eddy-flux sensor, oriented mostly in upwind direction. For each observation period, the modeled flux footprint window is overlain with a high-resolution vegetation index map to determine a footprint-weighted vegetation index for which the observation is representative. Using flux-footprint analysis to link fluxes to models using just an enhanced vegetation index (EVI) map shows a positive trend between EVI and eddy covariance measured fluxes, but the link is not strong. Leaf area is linked with carbon (C) uptake, but forests tend to maximize leaf area, as determined through remote sensing, early on with forests having similar leaf areas across a wide range of ages. Adding another remotely-sensed dataset, aboveground biomass map (AGB), helps capture the processes of lower productivity rates (as biomass increases per unit of leaf area there is a decline, due to the forest ageing) and the C losses due to respiration, both heterotrophic and autotrophic (linked to live and detrital biomass pools). Adding biomass from LIDAR and a combined EVI-biomass layer to examine

  14. Carbon concentrations of components of trees in 10-year-old Populus davidiana stands within the Desertification Combating Program of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huitao; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Zhang, Xiang; Xu, Quanhong; Yang, Xue; Xiao, Dengpan; Zhao, Yanxia

    2016-12-01

    Most studies do not consider the potential variation in carbon concentration among the different tree components of the same species in regional scale. This study examined the carbon concentrations of the components (i.e., foliage, branch, stem, and root) in a 10-year-old poplar species ( Populus davidiana Dode) from the Desertification Combating Program of Northern China. The highest and lowest carbon concentrations were found in the stem and foliage, respectively. There was a significant difference in carbon concentrations among the different tree components. All of the observed carbon concentrations of tree components were lower than those predicted using the conversion factor of 0.5 applied to component biomass. Stem carbon made up 59.7% of the total tree biomass carbon. The power equation estimating proportion of tree biomass carbon against the independent variable of diameter at breast height explained more than 90% of the variability in allocation of carbon among tree components. Tree height, as a second independent variable is also discussed. Our results suggest that the difference in organic carbon concentration among tree components should be incorporated into accurately develop forest carbon budget. Moreover, further investigations on how the diameter at breast height equation developed in the present study performs across broader scales are required.

  15. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  16. An Optimization Model of Carbon Sinks in CDM Forestry Projects Based on Interval Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Zhao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the first general optimization model for complex systems with uncertain parameters and decision variables represented as intervals in CDM forestry projects. We work through a specific example of the optimization method developed for a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM forestry project in Inner Mongolia, China. This model is designed to optimize the carbon sink capacity of the new forests, and can deal with uncertainties in the carbon sink capacity, average annual rainfall, ecological parameters, and biological characteristics of tree species. The uncertain inputs are presented in the form of intervals, as are several of the optimized output variables. Compared with the project’s originally recommended scheme, the optimized model will absorb and fix between 1,142 and 885,762 tonnes of extra carbon dioxide. Moreover, the ecological and environmental benefits of the project are also raised to various extents.

  17. South Carolina: Charleston County Area Project Impact Environmental Education Program (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Charleston County Area Project Impact is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement. The project is under the direction of the Charleston County Building Services Department, in Charleston, S.C.

  18. A program to compute the area of an irregular polygon on a spheroidal surface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivakholundu, K.M.; Prabaharan, N.

    stream_size 10201 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Comput_Geosci_24_823.pdf.txt stream_source_info Comput_Geosci_24_823.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 SHORT NOTE A PROGRAM... FTS.IAMG.ORG PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The input polygon coordinates are converted to seconds and the latitudical origin is shifted by add- ing 90 36000 to avoid a negative latitude value (as in the situation of the southern hemisphere). Further computations...

  19. Human Impacts and Management of Carbon Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.; Edmonds, J.; Socolow, R.; Surles, T.

    1999-08-20

    The energy system dominates human-induced carbon flows on our planet. Globally, six billion tons of carbon are contained in the fossil fuels removed from below the ground every year. More than 90% of the carbon in fossil fuels is used for energy purposes, with carbon dioxide as the carbon product and the atmosphere as the initial destination for the carbon dioxide. Significantly affecting the carbon flows associated with fossil fuels is an immense undertaking. Four principal technological approaches are available to affect these carbon flows: (1) Fossil fuels and other energy resources can be utilized more efficiently; (2) Energy sources other than fossil fuels can be used; (3) Carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels can be trapped and redirected, preventing it from reaching the atmosphere (fossil carbon sequestration); and (4) One can work outside the energy system to remove carbon dioxide biologically from the atmosphere (biological carbon sequestration). An optimum carbon management strategy will surely implement all four approaches and a wise R&D program will have vigorous sub-programs in all four areas. These programs can be effective by integrating scenario analyses into the planning process. A number of future scenarios must be evaluated to determine the need for the new technologies in a future energy mix. This planning activity must be an iterative process. At present, R&D in the first two areas--energy efficiency and non-fossil fuel energy resources--is relatively well developed. By contrast, R&D in the third and the fourth areas--the two carbon sequestration options--is less well developed. The task before the workshop was to recommend ways to initiate a vigorous carbon sequestration research program without compromising the strength of the current programs in the first two areas. We recommend that this task be fulfilled by initiating several new programs in parallel. First, we recommend that a vigorous carbon sequestration program be launched

  20. Comment on "Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation" by Becker et al. (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, M.

    2014-01-01

    Becker et al. (2013) argue that an afforestation of 0.73 × 109 ha with Jatropha curcas plants would generate an additional terrestrial carbon sink of 4.3 PgC yr-1, enough to stabilise the atmospheric mixing ratio of carbon dioxide (CO2) at current levels. However, this is not consistent with the dynamics of the global carbon cycle. Using a well-established global carbon cycle model, the effect of adding such a hypothetical sink leads to a reduction of atmospheric CO2 levels in the year 2030 by 25 ppm compared to a reference scenario. However, the stabilisation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration requires a much larger additional sink or corresponding reduction of anthropogenic emissions.

  1. A spatial stochastic programming model for timber and core area management under risk of fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Wei; Michael Bevers; Dung Nguyen; Erin Belval

    2014-01-01

    Previous stochastic models in harvest scheduling seldom address explicit spatial management concerns under the influence of natural disturbances. We employ multistage stochastic programming models to explore the challenges and advantages of building spatial optimization models that account for the influences of random stand-replacing fires. Our exploratory test models...

  2. 75 FR 16229 - Urbanized Area Formula Program: Notice of Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Administrative Services Help Desk, at 202-366-4865. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Henrika Buchanan-Smith... National Transit Database on a regular basis. With regard to their use as determinants, formulas such as... Management and Air Quality (CMAQ) program, are not statutory factors for consideration under the section 5307...

  3. Effect of a focused and directed continuing education program on prehospital skill maintenance in key resuscitation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Robert A; Abbott, Cynthia A

    2007-10-01

    US Army Medics (formerly MOS 91B) received training similar to EMT-B level but were not required to be certified. Medics additionally received training in such skills as intravenous (i.v.) line insertion and fluid resuscitation. Continuing education, although encouraged, was not required. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a focused and directed psychomotor skills continuing education program in maintaining skills performance over a 6-month period in four key resuscitation areas. The education effect was the focus of the analysis. The study population was a convenience sample of medics with 1-4 years experience assigned to field units at Ft. Hood, TX. Subjects received a pretest evaluation of skills performance in four key areas using standard NREMT skill sheets. Scores on skill evaluations represent the percentage of steps correctly performed. After pretest evaluations, subjects were required to complete a comprehensive and focused continuing education program that emphasized skill practice. After the 6-month pretest, a post-test was conducted. Pre- and post-test scores for each student were matched. A one-tailed Student's t-test was used to compare results before and after the intervention, with statistical significance set at p skills of i.v. insertion, airway management, patient assessment, and bleeding control was 79 +/- 11, 73 +/- 14, 44 +/- 22, and 57 +/- 13, respectively. The post-test performance for these same skills increased (p education program that emphasizes skill practice in key resuscitation areas can improve skills performance.

  4. Three-dimensional cheese-like carbon nanoarchitecture with tremendous surface area and pore construction derived from corn as superior electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Deng, Dian; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Ick Soo

    2017-07-01

    Highly porous carbon nanoarchitectures (HPCNs) were derived from biomass materials, namely, corn fibers (CF), corn leafs (CL), and corn cobs (CC). We surprisingly found that by a very simple activation process the CF, CL, and CC materials can be transformed into exciting two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanoarchitectures with excellent physicochemical properties. FESEM and HRTEM results confirmed a three different carbon forms (such as foams-like carbon, carbon sheets with several holes and cheese-like carbon morphology) of HPCNs. Huge surface area (2394-3475 m2/g) with excellent pore properties of HPCNs was determined by BET analysis. Well condensed graphitic plans of HPCNs were confirmed by XRD, XPS and Raman analyses. As an electrode material, HPCNs demonstrated a maximum specific capacitance (Cs) of 575 F/g in 1.0 M H2SO4 with good stability over 20,000 cycles. The CC-700 °C showed a tremendous Cs of 375 F/g even at 20000th cycles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest Cs by the biomass derived activated carbons in aqueous electrolytes. The CC-700 °C exhibited excellent charge-discharge behavior at various current densities (0.5-10 A g-1). Notably, CC-700 °C demonstrated an excellent Cs of 207 F/g at current density of 10 A g-1. An extraordinary change-discharge behavior was noticed at low current density of 0.5 A g-1.

  5. Mass-transport-controlled, large-area, uniform deposition of carbon nanofibers and their application in gas diffusion layers of fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian; Xie, Zhiyong; Huang, Qizhong; Chen, Guofen; Hou, Ming; Yi, Baolian

    2015-05-07

    The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (α). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and α was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At α = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of the CNF film were uniform across the substrate surface, whereas the growth uniformity decreased with increasing α, suggesting that the large-area CNF deposition processes were mass-transport-controlled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas diffusion processes revealed the homogeneous distributions of the carbon-source-gas concentration, pressure, and velocity near the substrate surface at α = 0°, which were the important factors in achieving the mass-transport-limited uniform CNF growth. The homogeneity of the field distributions decreased with increasing α, in accordance with the variation in the growth uniformity with α. When used as a micro-porous layer, the uniform CNF film enabled higher proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in comparison with commercial carbon black by virtue of its improved electronic and mass-transport properties confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results.

  6. Test of the suitability of ECOPATH/ECOSIM modelling software as a compliment to estimate flows of carbon, C-14 and radionuclides in the Oeregrundsgrepen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Johannes [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2004-04-01

    In this study it was evaluated whether the ECOPATH with ECOSIM software could be used as a standard platform to facilitate for radioecologists to construct and study transport and accumulation of radionuclides in aquatic food webs. The evaluation was based upon: 1) a previously published food web model of carbon/carbon-14 flow for the Oeregrundsgrepen area, Baltic Sea, 2) a generic model, 3) an ECOSIM model and 4) an ECOTRACE model. The results presented clearly shows that there is great potential for a successful development of this scientific approach in the future. The original carbon flows and assumptions was easily incorporated into the ECOPATH with ECOSIM modelling environment. The carbon flows differed only negligible between the two models, except for the benthic flows, which was more accurately described in this study. Further, by using ECOPATH it was easily discovered that the growth efficiencies used in the original model was quite high, being 47% for most of the heterotrophs, which are high from an ecological point of view. However, that is probably due to differences in how the carbon flows have been estimated in the original versus the present study. It is likely, however that the carbon demand has been underestimated in the original model. The generic model was parameterised from data available through the software as well from the diets and assumptions used in the original carbon model. The use of these parameters resulted in carbon flows, which was between 0.7 to 11 times the flows estimated by the ECOPATH model. The difference was greatest for primary producers being 3.7 to 11 times the original flows. Thus, depending on the question one is addressing it was suggested that the use of generic parameters is best for making test models of carbon and radionuclide flows in ecosystems, where the data set for validation is limited. Finally, the ECOPATH and ECOSIM model was well suited to drive a C-14 flow model, such as ECOTRACER for each of the

  7. Impact of an interprofessional education program on developing skilled graduates well-equipped to practise in rural and underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Ratie; Daniels, Priscilla S; Adonis, Tracy-Ann; Karuguti, Wallace M

    2014-01-01

    Poverty, limited access to resources and a lack of infrastructure characterise the division of rural areas from urban South Africa. Low numbers of social welfare professionals compound the problem. With education linked inextricably in social responsibility, higher education institutions (HEIs) are called upon increasingly to create conditions that encourage students and graduates to practise in more socially responsible ways, involving more than mere disciplinary expertise or technical knowledge, and that consider the problems of rural areas. Use of interprofessional education (IPE) programs, based on teamwork, could enable HEIs to train and guide health sciences students in how best to cooperate with each other and combine their skills to mutual benefit. This would enable them to develop professional skills facilitated by interactive engagement within community settings. Referencing experience gained in Australia and elsewhere, the Faculty of Community and Health Sciences (FCHS) at the University of Western Cape (UWC) has developed and applied an IPE program for South Africa. Students were placed in interdisciplinary groups in a rural and underserved municipality of the Western Cape - 17 students participated in a study on the effectiveness of this program. A quantitative self-administered questionnaire, followed by qualitative focus group discussions, established student perceptions of their IPE experience, how the experience influenced their intentions for or against future practice in rural and underserved areas, and their interest in future interprofessional collaboration and practice. More than 75% of the participating students agreed that they had learnt to develop knowledge base, procedural and healthcare practice presentation skills, along with preparing written community health histories. Student willingness to practise in rural areas was evidenced, citing community- and resource-based factors as determinants; however, concerns that some community

  8. Hydrographic Areas Within the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of sub delineations of the hydrographic area (HA) boundaries and polygons drawn at 1:1,000,000 scale for the Great Basin supplemented by...

  9. Design of exploration and minerals-data-collection programs in developing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper considers the practical problem of applying economic analysis to designing minerals exploration and data collection strategies for developing countries. Formal decision rules for the design of government exploration and minerals-data-collection programs are derived by using a minerals-industry planning model that has been extended to include an exploration function. Rules derived are applicable to centrally planned minerals industries as well as market-oriented minerals sectors. They pertain to the spatial allocation of exploration effort and to the allocation of activities between government and private concerns for market-oriented economies. Programs characterized by uniform expenditures, uniform information coverage across regions, or uniform-density grid drilling progrmas are shown to be inferior to the strategy derived. Moreover, for market-oriented economies, the economically optimal mix in exploration activities between private and government data collection would require that only private firms assess local sites and that government agencies carry out regional surveys. ?? 1981.

  10. Graduate survey of the South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium family practice residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carek, P J; Abercrombie, S; Baughman, O; Buehler, J; Goforth, G; Hester, W; Lammie, J; Snape, P

    2001-06-01

    The results of this study demonstrate several interesting characteristics of the graduates of the SC AHEC associated family medicine residency programs: 45 percent practice in South Carolina, 63 percent live further than 120 miles from their residency program, 96 percent are satisfied with their specialty choice, and 56 percent are involved in teaching medical students and residents. Furthermore, these graduates have the following tendencies: to practice in the traditional solo or group practice; to practice in a suburban community, town or rural community and a setting size less than a population of 100,000 persons; to care for the aging adult and geriatric population; to provide nursing home care; and to utilize house calls to provide patient care). As the current health care system continues to be redesigned, this information will be essential for assessment and planning purposes.

  11. The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program Validation Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litynski, John T; Plasynski, Sean; McIlvried, Howard G; Mahoney, Christopher; Srivastava, Rameshwar D

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the Validation Phase (Phase II) of the Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships initiative. In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy created a nationwide network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) to help determine and implement the technology, infrastructure, and regulations most appropriate to promote carbon sequestration in different regions of the nation. The objectives of the Characterization Phase (Phase I) were to characterize the geologic and terrestrial opportunities for carbon sequestration; to identify CO(2) point sources within the territories of the individual partnerships; to assess the transportation infrastructure needed for future deployment; to evaluate CO(2) capture technologies for existing and future power plants; and to identify the most promising sequestration opportunities that would need to be validated through a series of field projects. The Characterization Phase was highly successful, with the following achievements: established a national network of companies and professionals working to support sequestration deployment; created regional and national carbon sequestration atlases for the United States and portions of Canada; evaluated available and developing technologies for the capture of CO(2) from point sources; developed an improved understanding of the permitting requirements that future sequestration activities will need to address as well as defined the gap in permitting requirements for large scale deployment of these technologies; created a raised awareness of, and support for, carbon sequestration as a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation option, both within industry and among the general public; identified the most promising carbon sequestration opportunities for future field tests; and established protocols for project implementation, accounting, and management. Economic evaluation was started and is continuing and will be a factor in project selection. During the

  12. Technical program plan for the transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Hundreds of aging nuclear materials processing facilities within the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Complex are now being shut down and deactivated. These facilities, situated throughout the United States, will require a monumental effort to clean up safely and with minimal environmental insult. Current cleanup technologies tend to be labor intensive and expensive, they produce an unacceptably large volume of waste, and they expose workers to radioactive and other hazardous substances. This document describes an emerging program designed to develop and demonstrate new technical approaches to the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) program for DOE`s nuclear materials processing facilities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), the program seeks to integrate the strengths of DOE`s technical, managerial, and systems engineering capabilities with those of industry, universities, and other government agencies. Once developed, these technologies will help to provide US industry with a competitive edge in the worldwide market that exists for improved environmental restoration and D&D services.

  13. Programs for calibration-based Monte Carlo simulation of recharge areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starn, J Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C

    2012-01-01

    One use of groundwater flow models is to simulate contributing recharge areas to wells or springs. Particle tracking can be used to simulate these recharge areas, but in many cases the modeler is not sure how accurate these recharge areas are because parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and recharge have errors associated with them. The scripts described in this article (GEN_LHS and MCDRIVER_LHS) use the Python scripting language to run a Monte Carlo simulation with Latin hypercube sampling where model parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and recharge are randomly varied for a large number of model simulations, and the probability of a particle being in the contributing area of a well is calculated based on the results of multiple simulations. Monte Carlo simulation provides one useful measure of the variability in modeled particles. The Monte Carlo method described here is unique in that it uses parameter sets derived from the optimal parameters, their standard deviations, and their correlation matrix, all of which are calculated during nonlinear regression model calibration. In addition, this method uses a set of acceptance criteria to eliminate unrealistic parameter sets. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL LEVELS AND DISTRIBUTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN BUCHAREST URBAN AREA CASE STUDY: 1. 07. 2006 – 31.03.2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU NICOLAE CRISTIAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide in the vicinity of or inside urban and industrial areas can substantially exceed environmental background levels and can be detrimental to human health and welfare. In this period of analysis (July 2006 – March 2007, the maximum allowable concentration (MAC was exceeded especially at Mihai Bravu and Cercul Militar. The accompanying diagrams showing the time evolution and charts revealing the spatial distribution of CO ambient air concentrations (based on GIS techniques can be useful instruments in identifying the potential risk areas, like the important streets in the center of Bucharest.

  15. Investigation of the effect of the Colorado vehicle inspection program on carbon monoxide emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    In order to demonstrate ability to meet air quality standards set by the Federal Government, specifically, by the Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.), Colorado implemented an Automobile Inspection and Readjustment (A.I.R.) program. As the A.I.R. program matured it became evident, through continued monitoring, covert investigations, and preliminary studies, that major discrepancies existed in the program's data and that Colorado would not be able to show sufficient reductions in vehicle emissions using the present program standards. The focus of this study was to explore those discrepancies and pinpoint where they may be occurring. To do so, the researcher collected data from a roadside pullover survey and compared this data with that reported by the A.I.R. mechanics. The following research questions were asked: (1) What is the actual effect of the A.I.R. program on emissions. (2) What is the reported effect of the A.I.R. program on CO emissions. (3) Are cars being pre-tuned to reduce CO emissions prior to the reported initial readings. (4) Are cars being readjusted after the A.I.R. inspection. Major results revealed that apparently no actual CO reductions were realized as a consequence of the A.I.R. program. Evidence showed that vehicles were not pre-tuned to reduce emissions prior to the reported initial reading, and that vehicles were not readjusted after the A.I.R. inspection.

  16. Identification of Skills Needed for Central Areas of Green and Low-Carbon Economy, for the Needs of Labor Market, in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Holm

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EU has set sustainable growth as a goal for 2020, by which a transition to a more resource efficient greener and competitive economy should be achieved. This requires new skills in business life. We have studied how vocational education and training and higher education may serve as a promoter of a green and low-carbon economy in Finland. Based on results from interviews of companies three main areas were chosen. These areas were decentralized renewable energy production, use of organic by-products and promotion of energy efficiency in properties. Education in vocational education and training and universities of applied sciences, for the selected areas, was mapped in 2014-15. The results were presented on workshops, where knowledge supply chains for a green economy on the selected areas were developed. If was found that cooperation between different fields and levels of education is important, as the new skills often emerge at the interfaces.

  17. Greenhouse Gases Emission and Potential Carbon Sequestration: A Case Study of Semi-arid Area in South India

    OpenAIRE

    K Lenin Babu; Raju, K. V.

    2009-01-01

    Global warming and climate change have made adoption measures essential, more so in semi arid regions. Kolar district is typical of semi arid regions with a low Development Index in Karnataka State. Greenhouse gases emissions from various sectors are in tune of 2717 kilotons, however, with a significant potential in the district for Carbon Emission Reduction (15,572 tCO2) and carbon Sequestration measures (3,508,010 tons CO2e) under Kyoto Protocol. If developed, revenues from these measures c...

  18. Expression of the Middle-Late Miocene "Carbonate Crash" and "Biogenic Bloom" in the Benguela Current Upwelling Area of the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diester-Haass, L.; Meyers, P. A.; Bauman, S. C.

    2001-05-01

    The middle-late Miocene "carbonate crash" - several episodes with significant drops in concentrations and accumulation rates of CaCO3 - occurred between 13 and 9 Ma in the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Carribean Sea (Lyle et al., 1995; Roth et al., 2000). This event is followed by a "biogenic bloom" - a strong increase in biogenous production that has been described in the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans. In order to explain these two events, the questions of whether they are confined to tropical upwelling areas, whether they also occur in coastal upwelling areas, or whether they are global phenomena must be answered. We have explored the expression of these events during the evolution of the Benguela Current upwelling system. Sediment sequences from ODP Sites 1085 and 1087 record several drops in carbonate concentrations in the middle and early late Miocene that culminate in a major depression at 9.5-9.0 Ma and that are synchronous with the "carbonate crash" in the equatorial Pacific (Lyle et al., 1995). Climatic changes in SW Africa, reflected by an increase in delivery terrigenous sediment components and by a larger proportion of kaolinite, and oceanic changes, indicated by an expansion of the oxygen minimum zone, accompany this event. Oxygen depletion starts during early carbonate depressions and has a maximum during the major CaCO3 depression. Marine biological productivity, as reconstructed from concentrations of organic carbon and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, is at a minimum in the middle-early late Miocene. However, it increases 3-6 fold at 6.5 Ma, a shift that is synchronous with the "biogenic bloom" in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (Farrell et al., 1995). We attribute this important paleoceanographic change to a strengthening of latitudinal temperature gradients and corresponding vertical mixing by zonal winds during the onset of North Atlantic Deep Water flow, which led to more vigorous deep ventilation and emergence of

  19. Program Plan for Revision of the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, James R.

    2005-12-07

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Saltstone Project, are embarking on the next revision to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) performance assessment (PA). This program plan has been prepared to outline the general approach, scope, schedule and resources for the PA revision. The plan briefly describes the task elements of the PA process. It discusses critical PA considerations in the development of conceptual models and interpretation of results. Applicable quality assurance (QA) requirements are identified and the methods for implementing QA for both software and documentation are described. The plan identifies project resources supporting the core team and providing project oversight. Program issues and risks are identified as well as mitigation of those risks. Finally, a preliminary program schedule has been developed and key deliverables identified. A number of significant changes have been implemented since the last PA revision resulting in a new design for future SDF disposal units. This revision will encompass the existing and planned disposal units, PA critical radionuclides and exposure pathways important to SDF performance. An integrated analysis of the overall facility layout, including all disposal units, will be performed to assess the impact of plume overlap on PA results. Finally, a rigorous treatment of uncertainty will be undertaken using probabilistic simulations. This analysis will be reviewed and approved by DOE-SR, DOE-HQ and potentially the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This revision will be completed and ready for the start of the DOE review at the end of December 2006. This work supports a Saltstone Vault 2 fee-bearing milestone. This milestone includes completion of the Vault 2 module of the PA revision by the end of FY06.

  20. An Analysis of the Fulton Industrial Area: A Market for Parkway’s Industrial Medicine Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-30

    those with high or very high interest. a- -- ~ . j~------------ - - ______J- 122 Questions Appearing on the Questionnarie : "This is a two-part question...of Colonial Shoe Company, Incorporated. ŕ" _ _ _ _ - -. - - - - - - -U 159 CAPITAL FOODS Organizational Background *Capital Foods is a wholesale...grocer firm In the business for distributing meats, produce, eggs, seafood, frozen foods . and sundry items to Atlanta area grocers and food markets. The

  1. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Hazardous Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    imperative that the community address the range of values, and have agreement, before a disaster strikes. Pre-event clearance level concurrence is...on the cleanup of specific sites: those containing only cesium-137 (Goiania) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides ( Chernobyl ...targets and consider initiatives to enhance the quality of life of the residents of the contaminated areas. Recovery experience from the Chernobyl

  2. PROGRAM OF MANUFACTURED PRODUCTION AND TAX AREA BY MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Naranjo-Cantabrana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises gathered in the Manufacturing Industry Program, Maquila and Export Services (IMMEX, by presidential decree published on November 1st, 2006 in the Official Federal Newspaper, enjoyed tax benefits through December 2013: exemption of the payment of IVA tax, temporary tax import into goods for maquila operation, partial exemption of ISR tax and IETU tax; tax exemption of permanent establishment. Since January 1st. 2014, their fiscal environment has changed. At work its being reflected about the new fiscal provisions and their effect on 6825 IMMEX companies in the country, regarding its location, people hired directly and surrogated, paid salaries, social security contributions, days and hours worked.

  3. Evasion of CO2 and dissolved carbon in river waters of three small catchments in an area occupied by small family farms in the eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Silva da Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available CO2 effluxes from streams and rivers have been hypothesized to be a critical pathway of carbon flow from the biosphere back to the atmosphere. This study was conducted in three small Amazonian catchments to evaluate carbon evasion and dynamics, where land-use change has occurred on small family-farms. Monthly field campaigns were conducted from June 2006 to May 2007 in the Cumaru (CM, Pachibá (PB and São João (SJ streams. Electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen measurements were done in situ, while water samples were collected to determine dissolved organic carbon (DOC and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations, as well as carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2 and CO2 evasion fluxes. Instantaneous discharge measured by a current meter was used to calculate DOC fluxes. Considering all the sites, DOC, DIC, pCO2, and CO2 flux measurements ranged as follows, respectively: 0.27 - 12.13 mg L-1; 3.5 - 38.9 mg L-1; 2,265 - 26,974 ppm; and 3.39 - 75.35 μmol m-2 s-1. DOC annual flux estimates for CM, SJ and PB were, respectively, 281, 245, and 169 kg C ha-1. CO2 evasion fluxes had an average of 22.70 ± 1.67 μmol m-2 s-1. These CO2 evasion fluxes per unit area were similar to those measured for major Amazonian rivers, thus confirming our hypothesis that small streams can evade substantial quantities of CO2. As secondary vegetation is abundant as a result of family farming management in the region, we conclude that this vegetation can be a major driver of an abundant carbon cycle.

  4. Predictive Models of Duration of Ground Delay Programs in New York Area Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Initially planned GDP duration often turns out to be an underestimate or an overestimate of the actual GDP duration. This, in turn, results in avoidable airborne or ground delays in the system. Therefore, better models of actual duration have the potential of reducing delays in the system. The overall objective of this study is to develop such models based on logs of GDPs. In a previous report, we described descriptive models of Ground Delay Programs. These models were defined in terms of initial planned duration and in terms of categorical variables. These descriptive models are good at characterizing the historical errors in planned GDP durations. This paper focuses on developing predictive models of GDP duration. Traffic Management Initiatives (TMI) are logged by Air Traffic Control facilities with The National Traffic Management Log (NTML) which is a single system for automated recoding, coordination, and distribution of relevant information about TMIs throughout the National Airspace System. (Brickman, 2004 Yuditsky, 2007) We use 2008-2009 GDP data from the NTML database for the study reported in this paper. NTML information about a GDP includes the initial specification, possibly one or more revisions, and the cancellation. In the next section, we describe general characteristics of Ground Delay Programs. In the third section, we develop models of actual duration. In the fourth section, we compare predictive performance of these models. The final section is a conclusion.

  5. Trends in incidence rates of tobacco-related cancer, selected areas, SEER Program, United States, 1992-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polednak, Anthony P

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends in incidence rates for tobacco-related cancers may vary geographically because of variation in socioeconomic status and in history of comprehensive state tobacco control programs (starting with California in 1989). Recent trends in risk factors are likely to affect cancer incidence rates at the youngest ages Trends in age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers most strongly associated with tobacco (ie, lung, oral cavity-pharynx, and bladder cancers) were analyzed for 1992 through 2004 in 11 areas (the states of Connecticut, Hawaii, Iowa, Utah, and New Mexico, and the metropolitan areas of Atlanta, Georgia; Detroit, Michigan; Los Angeles County, California; San Francisco-Oakland, California; San Jose-Monterey, California; and Seattle-Puget Sound, Washington) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. The 8 states differed in poverty rate of the population and in history of statewide tobacco control efforts as measured by an initial outcomes index (IOI) for the 1990s and a strength of tobacco control (SoTC) index for 1999 through 2000. Annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rate was calculated for whites and blacks separately and by sex for each SEER area. Among whites, the largest declines for lung cancer were in the 3 SEER areas of California, which were the only areas with significant (negative) APCs for oral cavity-pharynx cancer (but not for bladder cancer). For blacks, significant (negative) APCs for both lung and oral cavity-pharynx cancers were found in 4 of 5 areas with useful data but only 1 of 3 areas for bladder cancer. The strongest correlations of APCs for whites were for lung and oral cavity-pharynx cancers with the IOIs for the early 1990s and with the SoTC (due to the influence of California, which had the highest SoTC). Lung and oral cavity-pharynx cancer incidence rates among whites aged 15 to 54 years declined more in California than in other areas, possibly because of comprehensive state tobacco control

  6. Lateral and vertical distribution of soil organic carbon in recently deglaciated areas of Elephant Point (Livingstone island, Maritime Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Ana; Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Lizaga, Iván

    2017-04-01

    In Maritime Antarctica important environmental changes are affecting ice-free environments of the South Shetland Islands and the northern Antarctica Peninsula. In the Elephant Point Peninsula (Livingstone Island) a rapid glacier retreat during the last decades has exposed already around 20% of its 1.16 km2 surface. Despite soil development is taken place in these new created lands little is known on the characteristics and properties of soils on different parent materials and landforms. One of the main soil properties is the organic carbon but the SOC pool dynamics in Antarctica environments is still poorly understood. This work aims to gain knowledge on the lateral and vertical variations of soil organic carbon (SOC) and organic carbon fractions in surface profiles that have been exposed succeeding the phases of glacier retreat. To this purpose a sampling scheme following the direction of the glacier retreat was established along a moraine extending from the western to the eastern coastlines and a sequence of Holocene marine terraces in Elephant Point. To assess the lateral and vertical variations of SOC and SOC fractions a total of 10 sites were sampled until a depth of 12 cm then sectioned at 3 cm depth intervals. According to its chemical stability and turnover times, SOC can be divided into the active carbon fraction (ACF) composed of labile aliphatic and carboxyl groups with turnover rates of days to few years and a more stable refractory aromatic carbon fraction (SCF) with turnover rates from few years to centuries, highly resistant to microbial and chemical decomposition. The SOC content (%) was measured at 550 °C by the dry combustion method using a LECO, RC-612 multiphase carbon analyser. For the characterization of the active and stable carbon fractions the temperature of the furnace was stepped at 350 °C and 550 °C, respectively. Estimates of SOC and SOC fractions inventories (kg m-2) were done to assess their stocks on the different landforms. SOC

  7. Parking strategy in the pollution control program of an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygax, H. [Office de la protection de l`environment, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Swiss legislation requires, in case of excessive air pollutant levels, the regions (cantons) to adopt a plan for the implementation of national air quality standards. Within the field of transport, if low emission technologies on motor vehicles are insufficient, measures to control and restrict motor vehicle traffic must be considered. Regarding parking measures, the Swiss Federal Court has accepted management and reduction of parking facilities as legally inforceable emission limitation for air pollutant abatement. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a parking policy in a city within a small urban area. (author)

  8. Area program in population genetics. Final report, November 1, 1975-August 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, E.H.Y.; Gershowitz, H.; Meisler, M.H.; Mohrenweiser, H.W.; Neel, J.V.; Rothman, E.D.; Sing, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Research results are summarized for the following task areas: (1) Amerindian mutation rates; (2) pilot study of monitoring populations for the frequency of mutation; (3) interdigitation with the biochemical genetics study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (Hiroshima, Japan); (4) intraindividual variation in erythrocyte blood group antigens as indicators of somatic mutation; (5) in vitro studies of somatic cell mutation rates; (6) development of approaches to the study of mutation rates; and (7) statistical problems associated with the study of mutation and selection. (ACR)

  9. A Community Energy Transition Model for Urban Areas: The Energy Self-Reliant Village Program in Seoul, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While community energy initiatives are on the rise, community actions for energy transition in Asian countries have rarely been studied. While it is difficult for community energy initiatives to develop spontaneously in Seoul, there are some success stories there. This study places these successes in context. It analyzes municipal documents, including unpublished materials from municipal meetings, in order to examine how the Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG created enabling conditions for promoting community energy initiatives. This study also conducted interviews to explore unsolved issues related to the Energy Self-Reliant Village (ESV program. The SMG encouraged collective action through financial, administrative, and informational support. Also, this study found that Seoul’s ESV program fostered communities by raising the sense of locality and responsibility and community spirit through various educational programs. The ESV program supported the continuity of community by providing guidelines that relieved the burden on community members. The SMG played a significant role in promoting community engagement in energy transition by affecting internal and external conditions. This study provides meaningful insights that other municipalities, especially large urban areas, can follow to foster community actions for energy transition.

  10. Nine years of publications on strengths and weaknesses of Family Physician Program in rural area of Iran: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important duties of a family physician is to provide primary health care. This is completely considered in the Family Physician Program for a target population. The aim of this study was to systematically review the Family Physician and Referral System strength and weakness in rural area of Iran. Methods: In this systematic review, Scientific Information Database (SID, Science Direct, and PubMed databases were searched and Google search engine was employed using key words such as family medicine, family physician, and referral system for the period of January 2005 to June 2013, both in English and Persian. For identifying duplicated references, Endnote Software was used and for summarizing results of fully assessed articles extraction table was employed. Results: Strengths and weaknesses of Family Physician Program and referral system in rural areas of Iran were extracted from 28 studies. In total, 115 weaknesses (3.96 per study and 103 strengths (3.55 per study were obtained. Content analysis was used and 218 items were summarized into 29 items. Strengths of Family Physician Program were: access of villagers to health services, filling health document for clients, improving services for pregnant mothers, and family planning; while its obvious weaknesses included repeated unnecessary referral of clients as well as lack of providing job stability. Conclusion: Results of studies conducted in Iran showed that Family Physician and Referral System in rural area of Iran could not be successful enough and has many shortcomings. Therefore, a growing body of effective changes must be made for a better performance and to obtain better outcomes.

  11. Mass Releases of Genetically Modified Insects in Area-Wide Pest Control Programs and Their Impact on Organic Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guy Reeves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass release of irradiated insects to reduce the size of agricultural pest populations of the same species has a more than 50-year record of success. Using these techniques, insect pests can be suppressed without necessarily dispersing chemical insecticides into the environment. Ongoing release programs include the suppression of medfly at numerous locations around the globe (e.g., California, Chile and Israel and the pink bollworm eradication program across the southern USA and northern Mexico. These, and other successful area-wide programs, encompass a large number of diverse organic farms without incident. More recently, mass release techniques have been proposed that involve the release of genetically modified insects. Given that the intentional use of genetically modified organisms by farmers will in many jurisdictions preclude organic certification, this prohibits the deliberate use of this technology by organic farmers. However, mass releases of flying insects are not generally conducted by individual farmers but are done on a regional basis, often without the explicit consent of all situated farms (frequently under the auspices of government agencies or growers’ collectives. Consequently, there exists the realistic prospect of organic farms becoming involved in genetically modified insect releases as part of area-wide programs or experiments. Herein, we describe genetically modified insects engineered for mass release and examine their potential impacts on organic farmers, both intended and unintended. This is done both generally and also focusing on a hypothetical organic farm located near an approved experimental release of genetically modified (GM diamondback moths in New York State (USA.

  12. Comparison of Sea Floor Character in Two Areas Mapped by the California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    Since the California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program (CSCMP) began in 2008 multibeam echo sounder (MBES) data have been acquired in all mainland State Waters (shoreline to 3 nautical miles). As of this writing a suite of map products derived from the data has been published for 22 of the network of 83 CSCMP map blocks along the mainland coast. These publications provide the first opportunity to contrast physical habitats in different areas; here we compare the seafloor character in a set of 6 blocks along the mainland coast of the Santa Barbara Channel (Hueneme Canyon to Refugio Beach), with that of a similarly sized subset of blocks along the more energetic coast of Northern California (Salt Point to Drakes Bay). Seafloor character, one of the products being produced for the CSCMP, is a raster with a small number of substrate classes (soft-flat, hard-flat, and hard-rugose) designed for inclusion in multi-variant analysis of fisheries data that include visual observations of substrate type. Seafloor character is derived with bottom-video supervised maximum likelihood classification of MBES backscatter intensity data and vector ruggedness derived from the MBES bathymetry data. Typically areas of fine-grained sand and mud with infauna occupy the soft-flat areas, hard-flat areas are a mix of low-relief coarse sediment and flat bedrock pavement with sparse epifauna, and hard-rugose areas are highly valued rocky reef habitat with a diverse assemblage of epifauna. In the Northern California area waters less than 100 m deep the percentage of hard-rugose habitat is 8% of the seafloor whereas in the Santa Barbara area it is 0.2%. In both areas Marine Protected Areas contain a higher percentage of hard-rugose habitat than is found in the larger surrounding region. The scarcity of hard-rugose habitat in the Santa Barbara area increases the value of protected habitat in the Channel Islands bounding the channel as well as artificial habitat created by offshore oil rigs.

  13. An exploratory analysis to determine priority areas for lead poisoning prevention education programs in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Kaitlyn; Cummings, Madeline; Visker, Joseph; Cox, Carol

    2015-03-01

    Lead is a strong poison and toxic to many vital organs and body systems especially in the central nervous system of children, who are more vulnerable to lead poisoning than adults. The purpose of the study described in this article was to examine the relationship between elevated blood lead level (BLL) cases of children in the state of Missouri and pre-1980 home construction, lead mine proximity, and median household income and to determine counties and areas for statewide prevention education. Results of the regression analysis indicated that these combined variables were significant predictors (F[3,111] = 19.106, p lead cases. In addition to screening in identified counties, Missouri's statewide plan should expand to include prevention education in all low-income counties.

  14. Nevada Test Site Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program: Report No. 2. Areas 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, R.D.; Kordas, J.F.

    1985-09-01

    Radionuclide activity was measured by in situ spectrometry at 349 locations in Areas 2 and 4 of the Nevada Test Site. The data were analyzed by kriging and other methods to estimate the total inventory and distribution of six man-made radionuclides that were present in measurable amounts. Isotope ratios in soil samples were then used to infer the inventories of three other radionuclides. The estimated inventories were: /sup 241/Am, 8 curies; /sup 238/Pu, 18 curies; /sup 239,240/Pu, 51 curies; /sup 60/Co, 7 curies; /sup 137/Cs, 34 curies; /sup 90/Sr, 71 curies; /sup 152/Eu, 35 curies; /sup 154/Eu, 6 curies; and /sup 155/Eu, 3 curies.

  15. Waterway wide area tactical coverage and homing (WaterWATCH) program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, Gerald; Cleveland, Tammy; Araujo, Lisa; Spohr, Robert; Umansky, Mark

    2008-04-01

    The Congressional and Army sponsored WaterWATCH TM Program has developed and demonstrated a fully integrated shallow water port and facility monitoring system. It provides fully automated monitoring of domains above and below the surface of the water using primarily off-the-shelf sensors and software. The system is modular, open architecture and IP based, and elements can be mixed and matched to adapt to specific applications. The sensors integrated into the WaterWATCH TM system include cameras, radar, passive and active sonar, and various motion detectors. The sensors were chosen based on extensive requirements analyses and tradeoffs. Descriptions of the system and individual sensors are provided, along with data from modular and system level testing. Camera test results address capabilities and limitations associated with using "smart" image analysis software with stressing environmental issues such as bugs, darkness, rain and snow. Radar issues addressed include achieving range and resolution requirements. The passive sonar capability to provide near 100% true positives with zero false positives is demonstrated. Testing results are also presented to show that inexpensive active sonar can be effective against divers with or without SCUBA gear and that false alarms due to fish can be minimized. A simple operator interface has also been demonstrated.

  16. Large-area fluidic assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes through dip-coating and directional evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilnam; Kang, Tae June

    2017-12-01

    We present a simple and scalable fluidic-assembly approach, in which bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are selectively aligned and deposited by directionally controlled dip-coating and solvent evaporation processes. The patterned surface with alternating regions of hydrophobic polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) (height 100 nm) strips and hydrophilic SiO2 substrate was withdrawn vertically at a constant speed ( 3 mm/min) from a solution bath containing SWCNTs ( 0.1 mg/ml), allowing for directional evaporation and subsequent selective deposition of nanotube bundles along the edges of horizontally aligned PDMS strips. In addition, the fluidic assembly was applied to fabricate a field effect transistor (FET) with highly oriented SWCNTs, which demonstrate significantly higher current density as well as high turn-off ratio (T/O ratio 100) as compared to that with randomly distributed carbon nanotube bundles (T/O ratio <10).

  17. Mass-transport-controlled, large-area, uniform deposition of carbon nanofibers and their application in gas diffusion layers of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian; Xie, Zhiyong; Huang, Qizhong; Chen, Guofen; Hou, Ming; Yi, Baolian

    2015-04-01

    The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (α). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and α was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At α = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of the CNF film were uniform across the substrate surface, whereas the growth uniformity decreased with increasing α, suggesting that the large-area CNF deposition processes were mass-transport-controlled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas diffusion processes revealed the homogeneous distributions of the carbon-source-gas concentration, pressure, and velocity near the substrate surface at α = 0°, which were the important factors in achieving the mass-transport-limited uniform CNF growth. The homogeneity of the field distributions decreased with increasing α, in accordance with the variation in the growth uniformity with α. When used as a micro-porous layer, the uniform CNF film enabled higher proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in comparison with commercial carbon black by virtue of its improved electronic and mass-transport properties confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results.The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (α). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and α was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At α = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of

  18. Death Valley Lower Carbonate Aquifer Monitoring Program Wells Down gradient of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inyo County

    2006-07-26

    Inyo County has participated in oversight activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository since 1987. The overall goal of these studies are the evaluation of far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, or radionuclides into Inyo County, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Our oversight and completed Cooperative Agreement research, and a number of other investigators research indicate that there is groundwater flow between the alluvial and carbonate aquifers both at Yucca Mountain and in Inyo County. In addition to the potential of radionuclide transport through the LCA, Czarnecki (1997), with the US Geological Survey, research indicate potential radionuclide transport through the shallower Tertiary-age aquifer materials with ultimate discharge into the Franklin Lake Playa in Inyo County. The specific purpose of this Cooperative Agreement drilling program was to acquire geological, subsurface geology, and hydrologic data to: (1) establish the existence of inter-basin flow between the Amargosa Basin and Death Valley Basin; (2) characterize groundwater flow paths in the LCA through Southern Funeral Mountain Range, and (3) Evaluation the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and the major springs in Death Valley through the LCA.

  19. Land-use conversion and changing soil carbon stocks in China's 'Grain-for-Green' Program: a synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Liu, Guo-Bin; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2014-11-01

    The establishment of either forest or grassland on degraded cropland has been proposed as an effective method for climate change mitigation because these land use types can increase soil carbon (C) stocks. This paper synthesized 135 recent publications (844 observations at 181 sites) focused on the conversion from cropland to grassland, shrubland or forest in China, better known as the 'Grain-for-Green' Program to determine which factors were driving changes to soil organic carbon (SOC). The results strongly indicate a positive impact of cropland conversion on soil C stocks. The temporal pattern for soil C stock changes in the 0-100 cm soil layer showed an initial decrease in soil C during the early stage (5 years) coincident with vegetation restoration. The rates of soil C change were higher in the surface profile (0-20 cm) than in deeper soil (20-100 cm). Cropland converted to forest (arbor) had the additional benefit of a slower but more persistent C sequestration capacity than shrubland or grassland. Tree species played a significant role in determining the rate of change in soil C stocks (conifer stock change after cropland conversion with higher initial soil C stock sites having a negative effect on soil C accumulation. Soil C sequestration significantly increased with restoration age over the long-term, and therefore, the large scale of land-use change under the 'Grain-for-Green' Program will significantly increase China's C stocks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Efficiency of a pharmaceutical care program for long-acting parenteral antipsychotics in the health area of Santiago de Compostela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Mourelle, Raquel; Parrondo, Carmen Durán; López-Pardo Pardo, Estrella; Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In the healthcare area of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), the therapeutic subgroup "other antipsychotics" represented the fifth largest outpatient expenditure in 2013. More than half of this expenditure corresponded to long-acting parenteral forms of paliperidone and risperidone. Over a 12-month period, the implementation of a pharmaceutical care program based on process management and coordination of actions between health professionals in both levels of care represented savings of € 636,391.01 for the organization and a direct saving of € 16,767.36 and 9,008 trips to the pharmacy for patients. This study shows the efficiency of the program, which was facilitated by its situation in an area of integrated management and the use the unified medical records and electronic prescription, elements that will enable the future implementation of similar programmes. The new registries and healthcare interventions will allow reliable evaluation of their effectiveness in terms of treatment adherence, relapses and hospitalisations. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Lessons learned from the DC-10 carbon-epoxy rudder program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    With the DC-10 carbon-epoxy rudder, the Douglas Aircraft Company achieved one of the greatest percentage weight savings associated with composite structures. Apart from minor damage from lightning strikes, the 15 rudders put into service have experienced virtually trouble-free operation for about a decade. This paper explains why a multirib, postbuckled skin design was used for the DC-10 composite rudder, how it was justified, and how it would have compared with more conventional sandwich design concepts. Special attention is devoted to the reasons why, for such postbuckled designs, it is better to allow the skin to wrinkle and unload itself than to reinforce it and make it resist buckling until some higher load level is attained. With minor changes in the manufacturing technique, this design concept is ideal for the control surfaces on many aircraft. The paper includes suggestions on how to make even better composite control surfaces in the future.

  2. Carbon Dynamics of Reclaimed Coal Mine Soil under Agricultural Use: A Chronosequence Study in the Dongtan Mining Area, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Qu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC plays an essential role in the early stages of pedogenisis and ecological restoration in reclaimed mine soils. Dynamic changes in the SOC content are essential for assessing the quality of reclaimed mine soils and the effect of ecological restoration. To objectively assess the carbon dynamics of reclaimed soils, we selected the surface (0–20 cm soil of farmland under agricultural use (soybean–wheat rotation from a reclamation chronosequence (R4: 4 years of reclamation, R7: 7 years of reclamation, R10: 10 years of reclamation and R13: 13 years of reclamation in the Dongtan Mining Area, Shandong Province, China. The adjacent normal, unaffected farmland was used as a control (CK. The results showed that the SOC content gradually increased with the reclamation age until it reached 7.98 g·kg−1 for R13, which accounted for 76% of that of the CK. However, the total carbon contents of the reclaimed soils did not significantly differ from and even appeared higher than that of the CK. This is mainly because the inorganic carbon contents of the reclaimed soils ranged from 2.98 to 12.61 g·kg−1, all of which were significantly higher than the 0.87 g·kg−1 obtained for the CK. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC content and the microbial quotient significantly increased with the reclamation age of the soil, and both parameters were markedly higher for R13 than for the CK. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC content and its ratio to the SOC were significantly higher for R4–R13 than for the CK and DOC/SOC gradually decreased with the reclamation age. Both the reclamation age and the temperature had positive effects on the soil basal respiration (SBR. The SBR rate constantly increased with the reclamation age and was markedly higher at 25 °C than at 15 °C. The temperature sensitivity (Q10 of the SBR showed a clearly decreasing trend for the reclamation chronosequence, but its value remained higher for R13 than for the CK (2

  3. Birding for and with People: Integrating Local Participation in Avian Monitoring Programs within High Biodiversity Areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Berlanga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological monitoring is a powerful tool for understanding ecological patterns and processes, implementing sound management practices, and determining wildlife conservation strategies. In Mexico, regional long-term bird monitoring has been undertaken only over the last decade. Two comprehensive programs have incorporated bird monitoring as the main tool for assessing the impact of human productive activities on birds and habitats at local and regional levels: the Integrated Ecosystem Management (IEM and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Mexico (CBMM. These programs are implemented in supremely important biodiverse regions in the southern and southeastern states of Mexico. Bird monitoring activities are based on the recruitment and participation of local people linked to sustainable productive projects promoted by the CBMM or IEM. Through a series of training workshops delivered by specialists, local monitors receive equipment and coordinate to become part of a large monitoring network that facilitates regional covertures. This data currently being obtained by local people will enable the mid- and long-term assessment of the impacts of sustainable human productive activities on birds and biodiversity. Community-based bird monitoring programs are a promising opportunity for enhancing scientific knowledge, improving sustainable practices, and supporting wildlife conservation in areas of high biodiversity.

  4. Removal of Cr{sup 6+} from wastewater via adsorption with high-specific-surface-area nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon derived from silkworm cocoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junting; Zhang, Zhengping; Ji, Jing; Dou, Meiling, E-mail: douml@mail.buct.edu.cn; Wang, Feng, E-mail: wangf@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon was prepared from silkworm cocoon. • The NHPC possesses a unique porous structure and a high specific surface area. • The NHPC presents superior adsorption performance for Cr (VI). • The NHPC exhibits an excellent recyclability for the removal of Cr (VI). - Abstract: The development of highly efficient adsorbents is an effective way to remove Cr{sup 6+} from wastewater for environment protection. Herein, a high-specific-surface-area nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon (NHPC) derived from silkworm cocoon was synthesized and applied as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Cr{sup 6+} from wastewater. The resultant NHPC possesses a specific surface area as high as 3134 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and a unique hierarchical porous structure with a large number of small mesopores (2–4 nm) and micropores (0.8–2 nm) embedded in the sidewall of bowl-like macropores (200–300 nm), in which sufficient exposure of adsorption sites and high-flow transfer of Cr{sup 6+} ions can be achieved. As a result, the NHPC exhibits a remarkable adsorption performance with a larger adsorption capacity (366.3 mg g{sup −1}), a higher adsorption rate (4 × 10{sup −2} g mg{sup −1} min{sup −1}) and a superior recyclability in comparison with the commercial adsorbent (Norit CGP). Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic, which fits well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. This biomass-based porous carbon with well-defined hierarchical porous structure can be applied as a promising adsorbent for the removal of Cr{sup 6+} from wastewater.

  5. Structure, provenance and residence time of terrestrial organic carbon: insights from Programmed temperature Pyrolysis-Combustion of river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X.; Galy, V.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Roe, K. M.; Williams, E. K.

    2010-12-01

    The terrestrial organic carbon (OC) represents one of the largest reservoirs of C on earth and thus plays a crucial role in the global C cycle, participating to the regulation of atmospheric chemistry. While degradation of sedimentary OC (petrogenic C) is a source of CO2 for the atmosphere, burial of biospheric C (e.g. plant debris and soil OC) is a long-term sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Over short timescales, the atmospheric CO2 level is also sensitive to variations of the residence time of carbon in continental reservoirs. Fluvial transport plays a crucial role in the organic carbon cycle, constituting the connection between the different reservoirs and promoting the transfer of C from one reservoir to the other. Moreover, thanks to the integrating effect of erosion, studying river sediments allows the spatial and temporal integration of organic carbon exchanges occurring in a given basin. OC transported by rivers (riverine OC) is known to be extremely heterogeneous in nature and reactivity, however; ranging from extremely refractory petrogenic C (e.g. graphite) to soil complex OC to labile vegetation debris. Here we use a recently developed method, a programmed-temperature pyrolysis-combustion system (PTP-CS) coupled to multiisotopic analysis, to determine the reactivity, age and nature of OC in river sediments. The method takes advantage of the wide range of reactivity and radiocarbon content of different components of riverine OC. We submitted to PTP-CS a set of river sediments from 1) the Ganges-Brahmputra river system and, 2) the lower Mississippi river. Preliminary results highlight the heterogeneous nature of riverine OC. Different components of the riverine OC pool decompose at different temperature and are characterized by extremely variable isotopic compositions. The decomposition of radiocarbon dead petrogenic C at very high temperature allows estimating the respective contribution of biospheric and petrogenic C. Moreover, biospheric OC appears to

  6. Determination of sediment provenance by unmixing the mineralogy of source-area sediments: The "SedUnMix" program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John T.; Eberl, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Along the margins of areas such as Greenland and Baffin Bay, sediment composition reflects a complex mixture of sources associated with the transport of sediment in sea ice, icebergs, melt-water and turbidite plumes. Similar situations arise in many contexts associated with sediment transport and with the mixing of sediments from different source areas. The question is: can contributions from discrete sediment (bedrock) sources be distinguished in a mixed sediment by using mineralogy, and, if so, how accurately? To solve this problem, four end-member source sediments were mixed in various proportions to form eleven artificial mixtures. Two of the end-member sediments are felsic, and the other two have more mafic compositions. End member and mixed sediment mineralogies were measured for the quantitative X-ray diffraction (qXRD). The proportions of source sediments in the mixtures then were calculated using an Excel macro program named SedUnMix, and the results were evaluated to determine the robustness of the algorithm. The program permits the unmixing of up to six end members, each of which can be represented by up to 5 alternative compositions, so as to better simulate variability within each source region. The results indicate that we can track the relative percentages of the four end members in the mixtures. We recommend, prior to applying the technique to down-core or to other provenance problems, that a suite of known, artificial mixtures of sediments from probable source areas be prepared, scanned, analyzed for quantitative mineralogy, and then analyzed by SedUnMix to check the sensitivity of the method for each specific unmixing problem. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V..

  7. Saptial and Temporal in Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder Otoliths From Selected Nursery Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) populations have supported large commercial and recreational fisheries along the coast of New England. In recent years, however, the population of this important species has declined precipitously in some areas, especially Narragan...

  8. Distribution and Thermal Maturity of Devonian Carbonate Reservoir Solid Bitumen in Desheng Area of Guizhong Depression, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of solid bitumen in the Devonian carbonate reservoir from well Desheng 1, Guizhong Depression, was investigated by optical microscope and hydrocarbon inclusions analysis. Vb and chemical structure indexes measured by bitumen reflectance, laser Raman microprobe (LRM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were carried out to determine the thermal maturity of solid bitumen. Based on the solid bitumen thermal maturity, the burial and thermal maturity history of Devonian carbonate reservoir were reconstructed by basin modeling. The results indicate that the fractures and fracture-related dissolution pores are the main storage space for the solid bitumen. The equivalent vitrinite reflectance of solid bitumen ranges from 3.42% to 4.43% converted by Vb (% and LRM. The infrared spectroscopy analysis suggests that there are no aliphatic chains detected in the solid bitumen which is rich in aromatics C=C chains (1431–1440 cm−1. The results of Vb (%, LRM, and FTIR analysis demonstrate that the solid bitumen has experienced high temperature and evolved to the residual carbonaceous stage. The thermal evolution of Devonian reservoirs had experienced four stages. The Devonian reservoirs reached the highest reservoir temperature 210–260°C during the second rapid burial-warming stage, which is the main period for the solid bitumen formation.

  9. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight [Petroleum Tech Transfer Council, Oak Hill, VA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  10. Program GICC, final report (March 2005), inventory of carbonaceous aerosol particles from 1860 to 2100 or which carbonaceous aerosol for a significant climatic regional/global impact?; Programme GICC, RAPPORT DEFINITIF (Mars 2005), inventaire d'emissions d'aerosol carbone de 1860 a 2100 ou quelles emissions d'aerosol carbone pour un impact climatique regional/global significatif?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachier, H.; Guinot, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnment, UMR CEA/CNRS 1572 - CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Criqui, P.; Mima, S. [IEPE, 38 - Grenoble (France); Brignon, J.M. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Penner, J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Carmichael, G. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Gadi, R. [National Physical Lab., New Delhi (India); Denier Van der Gon, H. [TNO Hollande (Netherlands); Gregoire, J.M. [JRC, Ispra (Italy); Liousse, C.; Michel, C.; Guillaume, B.; Junker, C

    2007-07-01

    The aim of our program is to determine past, present and future emission inventories of carbonaceous particles from 1860 to 2100 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. Emission inventories for savannah and forest fires have been developed by using burnt area products given by satellite for Asia and Africa. The strong collaboration with the different groups attending this GICC program has allowed to develop the following results. 1- With the improvement of algorithms and new choices for emission factors, emission inventories for black carbon (BC), primary organic carbon (OCp) and total organic carbon (OCtot) have been constructed for the period 1950 to 1997 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. With these new development, biofuel sources have been seen to be significant, especially in the developing countries. 2- Past inventories have been developed for fossil fuel and biofuel sources from 1860 to 1997 by taking into account the evolution of fuel consumption, fuel use and emission factors. 3- Savannah and forest fire inventories have been constructed based on burnt area products, for Africa (1981-1991, 2000) and Asia (2000-2001). These results show the importance of using real time data instead of statistics. 4-Future emission inventory of black carbon by fossil fuel sources has been constructed for 2100 following the IPCC scenario A2 (catastrophic case) and B1 (perfect world). 5-Characterization of biofuel emissions has been realized by organizing an experiment in a combustion chamber where indian and chinese biofuels (fuelwood, agricultural wastes, dung-cake etc..). were burnt, reproducing the burning methods used in these countries. 6-Finally, the differences between the existing inventories of carbonaceous aerosols has been explained. (A.L.B.)

  11. Tribal Grant Program Area Polygons with Project Officer and Tribal Contact Information, US EPA Region 9, 2015, Regional Tribal Operations Committee

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains information pertaining to EPA Region 9 project officers and their areas of oversight, EPA Region 9 grant program recipients and grant types,...

  12. Preparation of nitrogen-doped cotton stalk microporous activated carbon fiber electrodes with different surface area from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk for electrochemical degradation of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunquan; Rong, Zhang; Li, Ye; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng

    Cotton-stalk activated carbon fibers (CSCFs) with controllable micropore area and nitrogen content were prepared as an efficient electrode from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk by steam/ammonia activation. The influence of microporous area, nitrogen content, voltage and initial concentration on the electrical degradation efficiency of methylene blue (MB) was evaluated by using CSCFs as anode. Results showed that the CSCF electrodes exhibited excellent MB electrochemical degradation ability including decolorization and COD removal. Increasing micropore surface area and nitrogen content of CSCF anode leaded to a corresponding increase in MB removal. The prepared CSCF-800-15-N, which has highest N content but lowest microporous area, attained the best degradation effect with 97% MB decolorization ratio for 5 mg/L MB at 12 V in 4 h, implying the doped nitrogen played a prominent role in improving the electrochemical degradation ability. The electrical degradation reaction was well described by first-order kinetics model. Overall, the aforesaid findings suggested that the nitrogen-doped CSCFs were potential electrode materials, and their electrical degradation abilities could be effectively enhanced by controlling the nitrogen content and micropore surface area.

  13. [Evaluation of nutritional status of school-age children after implementation of "Nutrition Improvement Program" in rural area in Hunan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhu-Juan; Mao, Guang-Xu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nutritional status of school-age children in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area" (hereinafter referred to as "Nutrition Improvement Program"). The nutritional status of school-age children aged 6-14 years was evaluated after the implementation of the "Nutrition Improvement Program" and the changing trend of the children's nutritional status was analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed on the monitoring data of the school-age children aged 6-14 years in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015, which came from "The Nutrition and Health Status Monitoring and Evaluation System of Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area". In 2015, female students aged 6-7 years in rural area in Hunan, China had a significantly greater body length than the rural average in China (PNutrition Improvement Program", the prevalence rate of growth retardation decreased (PNutrition Improvement Program" has achieved some success, but the nutritional status of school-age children has not improved significantly. Overweight/obesity and malnutrition are still present. Therefore, to promote the nutritional status of school-age children it is recommended to improve the measures for the "Nutrition Improvement Program".

  14. Toward Integral Higher Education Study Programs in the European Higher Education Area: A Programmatic and Strategic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Molz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay somehow arbitrarily freezes my ongoing attempt to grasp thepresent situation and future possibilities of higher education courses, programs,institutions and initiatives that are inspired by integral and likeminded approaches. Thefocus in this essay is on the European Higher Education Area and its specifics, whereassome implicit or explicit comparisons with the USA are made. My reflections aretriggered by the recurrent observation that in Europe there seems to be i more demandthan offer of integrally oriented higher education programs, ii an imbalance betweenoverused but little successful and underused but potentially more promising strategies toimplement such programs, iii little or no learning from past failures, and iv little mutualawareness, communication and collaboration between different activists and initiatives inthis field.The context for this essay is i the current societal macroshift, ii the unfolding ofacademic level integral and likeminded research worldwide, and iii the large scalereform of the European Higher Education systems brought about by the Bologna process,its (false promises and the potential it nevertheless has for realizing examples of a moreintegral higher education. On this basis the consequences for attempts to overcome arelatively stagnant state of affairs in Europe are discussed. Given that; most past attemptsto implement programs inspired by an integral worldview have failed from the start, ordisappeared after a relatively short period, or are marginalised or becoming remainstreamed,this essay aims to devise a potentially more promising strategic corridorand describes the contours of the results that could be brought about when following adevelopmental trajectory within this corridor. This futurising exercise is inspired byprinciples shared by many integral and likeminded approaches, especially thereconsideration, integration and transcendence of premodern, modern and postmodernstructures and practices

  15. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in evergreen coniferous forests and its significance in carbon and water fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J. M.; Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of carbon and water fluxes at the continental and global scales requires remotely sensed LAI as inputs. For evergreen coniferous forests (ENF), severely underestimated winter LAI has been one of the issues for mostly available remote sensing products, which could cause negative bias in the modeling of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Unlike deciduous trees which shed all the leaves in winter, conifers retains part of their needles and the proportion of the retained needles depends on the needle longevity. In this work, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used to model GPP and ET at eight FLUXNET Canada ENF sites. Two sets of LAI were used as the model inputs: the 250m 10-day University of Toronto (U of T) LAI product Version 2 and the corrected LAI based on the U of T LAI product and the needle longevity of the corresponding tree species at individual sites. Validating model daily GPP (gC/m2) against site measurements, the mean RMSE over eight sites decreases from 1.85 to 1.15, and the bias changes from -0.99 to -0.19. For daily ET (mm), mean RMSE decreases from 0.63 to 0.33, and the bias changes from -0.31 to -0.16. Most of the improvements occur in the beginning and at the end of the growing season when there is large correction of LAI and meanwhile temperature is still suitable for photosynthesis and transpiration. For the dormant season, the improvement in ET simulation mostly comes from the increased interception of precipitation brought by the elevated LAI during that time. The results indicate that model performance can be improved by the application the corrected LAI. Improving the winter RS LAI can make a large impact on land surface carbon and energy budget.

  16. Organic carbon sources across salinity gradients in Chilean Fjords: Reloncaví Fjord ( 41°S) and Southern Patagonian ice fields area ( 48°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placencia, Juan; Llanos, Gustavo; Contreras, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    The organic matter preserved in marine sediments contains contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous and variable source inputs. Allochthonous sources are terrestrial erosion (including anthropogenic material) of relatively labile and refractory material, while autochthonous sources including marine phytoplankton. In order to establish the sources of the organic matter (allochthonous/autochthonous) and how organic carbon is distributed along a salinity gradient, on this study we examined of organic Carbon/Nitrogen molar ratios (C:N), isotopic composition (δ13C) and n-alkanes (n-C24 to n-C34) in surface sediments from two continuous systems: river-fjord-ocean in Northern Patagonia (41°S-43°S), and glacier-fjord-ocean in central Patagonia (47°S-50°S). The continental inner fjord areas are characterized with sediment enriched in allochthonous organic carbon and high C:N (8-12) and low δ13C values (-23‰ to -26‰). Towards the Pacific Ocean, low C:N (6-7) and high δ13C values (-20‰ to -22‰) suggest prevalent autochthonous marine sources. Estuarine waters with salinity between 2 psu and 30 psu were associated with high C:N and low δ13C values together with odd over even long-chain n-alkane predominance (n-C31, n-C29 and n-C27) in surface sediments. All geochemical proxies suggest a great contribution of terrigenous input by glacier origin rivers, mainly from terrestrial plants in both areas. Our study provides a framework to guide future researches on environmental and climate change on these systems. This study was supported by the Chilean Navy's Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service, the Chilean National Oceanographic Committee through the Grants CONA C19F1308 and C20F1404, and the Research Office at Universidad Católica de la Ssma. Concepción.

  17. Application of optimized large surface area date stone (Phoenix dactylifera ) activated carbon for rhodamin B removal from aqueous solution: Box-Behnken design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Mohammed; Khanday, Waheed Ahmad; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Nurul Syuhada Binti; Akhtar, Mohammad Nishat; Nizami, Maniruddin

    2017-05-01

    Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology was used to study the effect of adsorption process parameters for Rhodamine B (RhB) removal from aqueous solution through optimized large surface area date stone activated carbon. The set experiments with three input parameters such as time (10-600min), adsorbent dosage (0.5-10g/L) and temperature (25-50°C) were considered for statistical significance. The adequate relation was found between the input variables and response (removal percentage of RhB) and Fisher values (F- values) along with P-values suggesting the significance of various term coefficients. At an optimum adsorbent dose of 0.53g/L, time 593min and temperature 46.20°C, the adsorption capacity of 210mg/g was attained with maximum desirability. The negative values of Gibb's free energy (ΔG) predicted spontaneity and feasibility of adsorption; whereas, positive Enthalpy change (ΔH) confirmed endothermic adsorption of RhB onto optimized large surface area date stone activated carbons (OLSADS-AC). The adsorption data were found to be the best fit on the Langmuir model supporting monolayer type of adsorption of RhB with maximum monolayer layer adsorption capacity of 196.08mg/g. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri, area...

  19. Evaluation of operational efficiency of the national anti-malaria program in "High-Risk" rural areas of Vadodara district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solanki D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria was and is a major scourge in India contributing more than three-fourths of the total cases in the Southeast Asian (SEA region. Malaria is largely infl uenced by the local environmental conditions but can be kept in check if the operational implementation of the National Antimalaria Program: (NAMP is effective. Keeping in mind the context of the situation in Gujarat, there was an urgent need to carry out a study to assess the operational aspects of the ongoing malaria control program. Objectives: To assess the operational aspects of NAMP in "highrisk" areas of rural Vadodara, seeking bottlenecks and possible correlation to the malaria situation in those areas. Materials and Methods: From 269 "high-risk" villages, 20 villages were selected randomly from 10 Talukas. 40 slide (smear--negative, 19 slide (smear--positive, 10 laboratory technicians, 10 MultiPurpose Workers (MPW Supervisors and 18 MultiPurpose (MPW and 18 Voluntary Workers were interviewed. The performance of the malaria clinic and the NAMP staff was evaluated using a point system. Results and Conclusions: The monthly blood examination rate (MBER targets could not be achieved in 8 out of 10 primary health centers (PHCs by active surveillance workers (AS workers. The mean time interval between blood smear collection (BSC and its receipt in the laboratory was 7.1 days. 46% of smear-negative patients having received presumptive treatment (PT and 22% of smear-positive patients receiving radical treatment (RT were supervised. Administration of "adequate" presumptive treatment and radical treatment to the above two sets of individuals was 65% and 58% respectively. Overall, the performance of 50% of malaria clinics and 94% of villages was poor to average. The study has found enough evidence to conclude that there were lapses in the operation of the NAMP.

  20. Modifications to the Aerotherm Charring Material Thermal Response and Ablation Program (CMA) for Carbon Ablation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    AREA(N) ’ AS1J CBM 255 RRGAP(N) = AGAP (N)/ASU KT=MATL(N) CBM 256 CALL LOOK(KT+2,TA(N),T12(1,KT),ICPCI,KT),TKP(1,KTLO,O.Y2,02,2) CBM 257 CP(N)=Yv2( 1...IOUN, I RRGAP(N) * AGAP (N) 106 CONTINUE C C BAC4( VALL HlEAT II(ANSII(R USING lIMC TABLES -LIP.SEPT,1915. C TM CURRINT 7IMf C IQ TA131, TIMI VAI III...C(K)-A(K) CON 832 GO TO 50 42 A(K) a-fACT 1*(Vt1 DJ eRO (I)*CP(I) - Allk) * 1AC*ttw(RAýf;(I)44.0OTAfl)*1IfI.M1Sr(1) D(K) O0(K) * 3juSIA(.IlwtTA(I)* A

  1. Life Planning Resource Guide. A Resource for Teaching the Life Planning Core Course Area of Ohio's Work and Family Life Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Joanna; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist vocational home economics teachers in implementing the life planning course that is one of the six core course areas of Ohio's Work and Family Life program. Included in the guide are an introduction providing an overview of the practical problems proposed in the life planning core course area, four process modules,…

  2. Nutrition and Wellness Resource Guide. A Resource for Teaching the Nutrition and Wellness Core Course Area of Ohio's Work and Family Life Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Joanna; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist vocational home economics teachers in implementing the nutrition and wellness course that is one of the six core course areas of Ohio's Work and Family Life program. Included in the guide are an introduction providing an overview of the practical problems proposed in the nutrition and wellness core course area,…

  3. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor ...

  4. Lithofacies Attributes of a Transgressive Carbonate System : The Middle Eocence Seeb Formation, Al Khoud Area, Muscat, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Salad Hersi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Seeb Formation (Middle Eocene is an about 600 m thick transgressive carbonate succession deposited in the Batina and Muscat coastal region of Oman. The formation consists of five informal, but distinct units, and their stacking architecture suggests a deepening-upward, shallow marine depositional setting. Unit I is characterized by cross-bedded, sandy, bioclastic packstones to grainstones deposited in a high energy beach-to-intertidal environment. Unit II consists of indistinctly bedded, nodular, bioclastic (mainly larger foraminifera packstones and wackestones deposited in a logoonal lagoonal environment. Unit III is defined by medium to thickly bedded, bioclastic packestones to grainstones and subordinate, laterally confined conglomerates. Prominent sedimentary structures in Unit III include hummocky and swaly cross-stratificiation, erosional surfaces, dewatering-induced deformations and laterally amalgamating beds. This unit represents sub-tidal sand shoals deposited in a storm-dominated shelf (between the fair-weather wave-base and storm-base. Unit IV is extensively burrowed, nodular, bioclastic wackestone to rudstone which is similar to Unit II in many aspects. Unit IV was deposited on the basinward side of the Unit III sand shoals below the reach of the storm-generated waves and currents. The uppermost Unit V is characterized by poorly-cemented bioclastic (large foraminiferal rudstones with clay and silt-size quartz matrix. Bioclasts are generally intact with no apparent reworking. Deposition of Unit V is also envisaged as a low-energy, outershelf environment.

  5. Mantle helium and carbon isotopes in Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Three Sisters area, Central Oregon: Evidence for renewed volcanic activity or a long term steady state system?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Soest, M.C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Evans, W.C.; Mariner, R.H.

    2002-04-30

    Cold bubbling springs in the Separation Creek area, the locus of current uplift at South Sister volcano show strong mantle signatures in helium and carbon isotopes and CO{sub 2}/{sup 3}He. This suggests the presence of fresh basaltic magma in the volcanic plumbing system. Currently there is no evidence to link this system directly to the uplift, which started in 1998. To the contrary, all geochemical evidence suggests that there is a long-lived geothermal system in the Separation Creek area, which has not significantly changed since the early 1990s. There was no archived helium and carbon data, so a definite conclusion regarding the strong mantle signature observed in these tracers cannot yet be drawn. There is a distinct discrepancy between the yearly magma supply required to explain the current uplift (0.006 km{sup 3}/yr) and that required to explain the discharge of CO{sub 2} from the system (0.0005 km{sup 3}/yr). This discrepancy may imply that the chemical signal associated with the increase in magma supply has not reached the surface yet. With respect to this the small changes observed at upper Mesa Creek require further attention, due to the recent volcanic vent in that area it may be the location were the chemical signal related to the uplift can most quickly reach the surface. Occurrence of such strong mantle signals in cold/diffuse geothermal systems suggests that these systems should not be ignored during volcano monitoring or geothermal evaluation studies. Although the surface-expression of these springs in terms of heat is minimal, the chemistry carries important information concerning the size and nature of the underlying high-temperature system and any changes taking place in it.

  6. Soil organic carbon stocks quantification in Mediterranean natural areas, a trade-off between entire soil profiles and soil control sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Brevik, Eric. C.; Cerdá, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is extremely important in the global carbon (C) cycle; also, SOC is a soil property subject to changes, inasmuch as SOC is highly variable in space and time. The scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems and this is why there is a blooming interest on this topic (Oliveira et al., 2014; Kukal et al., 2015). Soil organic matter play a key role in the Soil System (Fernández-Romero et al., 2014; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015).Globally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. Over time, some researchers have analyzed entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons and other researchers have analyzed soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness), and in each case the benefits of the methodology established was justified. However, very few studies compare both methods (ESP versus SCS). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in The Despeñaperros Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 76.8 km2 forested area in southern Spain. The park is in a Mediterranean environment and is a natural area (free of human disturbance). Thirty-four sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The total SOCS in the Despeñaperros Natural Park was over 28.2% greater when SCS were used compared to ESP, ranging from 0.8144 Tg C to 0.6353 Tg C respectively (1 Tg = 10E12 g). However, when the top soil (surface horizon and superficial section control) was analyzed, this difference increased to

  7. The Scientific and Technological area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification. Critical analysis of the available materials and a case study in Segovia province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Insua, Maria Pilar

    This thesis is focused on the Scientific area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification, one of the Government actions for the attention to diversity in compulsory Secondary Education, established in the General Education Law (LOGSE: Ley de Ordenacion General del Sistema Educativo) of 1990. It has been carried out in Spain. In the thesis two different lines of work can be distinguished: (A) The analysis of material elaborated specifically for the mentioned area. We intent to know what materials have been elaborated and to analyze them; to this purpose we study the material spread in Congresses or Conferences, and also the articles published in magazines or specifically designed to be used in the Scientific area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification until year 2003. The analysis is made after classifying the material according to the format in which it appears (books, CDs, "Didactic Units"). (B) Two case studies, of evaluative character, carried out in two Secondary Schools in the province of Segovia (Spain), one of them in the city and another one in a rural population. The case studies are centered in the Scientific Area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification that last for two years. In the first of these Centers eight students took part in the Program; in the second, a total of seven. Throughout the investigation we observed that students who took part in the Programs obtained good academic results. Programs are proved to be effective in generating processes of academic success in pupils who were previously in situation of school failure and at risk of social exclusion. The success of these programs is fundamentally due to the following reasons: the low number of students involved, the fact that they are focused on basic knowledge, the reduced number of subjects studied. Besides, to offer the students the chance of a closer relationship with a few teachers increases their motivation and involvement in the programs. Key words: Attention to

  8. The value of best-practice guidelines for OSCEs in a postgraduate program in an Australian remote area setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Carol A; Mitchell, Marion L; Henderson, Amanda; Lenthall, Sue; Knight, Sabina; Glover, Pauline; Kelly, Michelle; Nulty, Duncan; Groves, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Nurses in remote areas of Australia are the primary healthcare professionals, who need to be able to deliver comprehensive and culturally sensitive care to clients, many of whom are Indigenous Australians. Adequate and specific preparation for practice is crucial to the quality of care delivered by remote area nurses (RANs). Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) provide an excellent opportunity for student practice in a simulated environment that is safe, authentic, fair and valid when well constructed. Seven integrated best practice guidelines (BPGs), previously developed by project team members to inform OSCEs within educational programs, provided guidance in restructuring the OSCE. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the value of BPGs used in the development, teaching and learning, and evaluation of OSCEs in a rural and remote postgraduate course for RANs. A pre-site visit to the Centre for Remote Health, Alice Springs, Northern Territory, was conducted with modification of the course and previous OSCE according to BPGs. Following delivery of the course and OSCE, evaluations occurred via a mixed method approach. Student surveys (n=15) and focus groups (n=13) and staff interviews (n=5) provided an in-depth analysis of their perceptions of the revised OSCE. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the student sample. The narrative data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Triangulation was achieved with the convergence of the separate data sources focusing on themes and patterns within and between students and tutors. All 15 students and five tutors provided feedback. The majority of student participants had limited experience in working in remote area nursing prior to participation and therefore the opportunities that availed themselves were critical in adequately equipping them with the requisite knowledge, skills and abilities. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) value of common and significant events in OSCE

  9. A decision support model for waste management in support of developing low carbon, eco regions. Case studies of densely populated kampung settlements in urban areas in Jakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candra Dewi, Ova

    2013-06-14

    Due to the various types of waste disposal, treatment, utilization and technologies, decision support model for waste management is needed to assist planners and decision makers in finding most suitable way to manage municipal solid waste efficiently. Many planners and decision makers in the area of municipal solid waste have a lack of thorough understanding of the complex chains of waste management system. Therefore the impact for the environment quality and the public health can only be judged at the rudimentary level. However, most existing models are primarily focusing on cost or environmental analysis. Only few consider other crucial factors such as the demographic condition, the characteristics of urban form and urban infrastructure, land transformation aspects due to urban development. Consequently, such models often meet difficulties to cope with cultural requirement. Based on those reasons, a decision support model to set up alternatives of most appropriate technology for sustainable waste management towards a low carbon eco-city on a regional basis is developed in this PhD study. The Low Carbon- and Eco-Region, in particular the contribution of waste management sector, is a vision of living in low rate of carbon generation, using fewer natural resources, and encouraging energy recovery and/or waste reduction at source by improving the used material quality (up-cycling). This decision support model is constructed mainly based on the cultural requirement and local context of a region and synergize the geographic, environmental, social capital and economics aspects in order to fulfill the needs of the respective region and its society. The method employed in this model is not solely a new developed model, but also an advanced model in material flow analysis (STAN), and life cycle assessment on solid waste system (EASEWASTE) and Geographic Information System (GIS). At the same time the model also assists the stakeholders in improving the environmental quality

  10. UAV-based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes - A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, Marc; Rauneker, Philipp; Sommer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C) export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa), the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation (R² = 0.88) between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) using near-infrared band 11 (899 nm). The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability (75-225 g C m-2) at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part. Soil effects were suppressed by the nearly optimal weather conditions for plant growth in 2014.

  11. UAV-Based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes—A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, Marc; Rauneker, Philipp; Sommer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper, we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C) export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa), the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) using near-infrared band b899. The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part. PMID:26907284

  12. In-treatment tests for the monitoring of proton and carbon-ion therapy with a large area PET system at CNAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, V., E-mail: valeria.rosso@pi.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Battistoni, G. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Belcari, N.; Camarlinghi, N. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Ciocca, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Pavia (Italy); Collini, F. [Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, University of Siena and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Ferretti, S.; Kraan, A.C.; Lucenò, S. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Molinelli, S.; Pullia, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Pavia (Italy); Sportelli, G.; Zaccaro, E.; Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    One of the most promising new radiotherapy techniques makes use of charged particles like protons and carbon ions, rather than photons. At present, there are more than 50 particle therapy centers operating worldwide, and many new centers are being constructed. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is considered a well-established non-invasive technique to monitor range and delivered dose in patients treated with particle therapy. Nuclear interactions of the charged hadrons with the patient tissue lead to the production of β+ emitting isotopes (mainly {sup 15}O and {sup 11}C), that decay with a short lifetime producing a positron. The two 511 keV annihilation photons can be detected with a PET detector. In-beam PET is particularly interesting because it could allow monitoring the ions range also during dose delivery. A large area dual head PET prototype was built and tested. The system is based on an upgraded version of the previously developed DoPET prototype. Each head covers now 15×15 cm{sup 2} and is composed by 9 (3×3) independent modules. Each module consists of a 23×23 LYSO crystal matrix (2 mm pitch) coupled to H8500 PMT and is readout by custom front-end and a FPGA based data acquisition electronics. Data taken at the CNAO treatment facility in Pavia with proton and carbon beams impinging on heterogeneous phantoms demonstrate the DoPET capability to detect the presence of a small air cavity in the phantom.

  13. N- and S-doped high surface area carbon derived from soya chunks as scalable and efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Moumita; Arora, Gunjan; Gautam, Ujjal K.

    2015-02-01

    Highly stable, cost-effective electrocatalysts facilitating oxygen reduction are crucial for the commercialization of membrane-based fuel cell and battery technologies. Herein, we demonstrate that protein-rich soya chunks with a high content of N, S and P atoms are an excellent precursor for heteroatom-doped highly graphitized carbon materials. The materials are nanoporous, with a surface area exceeding 1000 m2 g-1, and they are tunable in doping quantities. These materials exhibit highly efficient catalytic performance toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with an onset potential of -0.045 V and a half-wave potential of -0.211 V (versus a saturated calomel electrode) in a basic medium, which is comparable to commercial Pt catalysts and is better than other recently developed metal-free carbon-based catalysts. These exhibit complete methanol tolerance and a performance degradation of merely ˜5% as compared to ˜14% for a commercial Pt/C catalyst after continuous use for 3000 s at the highest reduction current. We found that the fraction of graphitic N increases at a higher graphitization temperature, leading to the near complete reduction of oxygen. It is believed that due to the easy availability of the precursor and the possibility of genetic engineering to homogeneously control the heteroatom distribution, the synthetic strategy is easily scalable, with further improvement in performance.

  14. UAV-Based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes--A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, Marc; Rauneker, Philipp; Sommer, Michael

    2016-02-19

    The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper, we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C) export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa), the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) using near-infrared band b899. The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part.

  15. UAV-Based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes—A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wehrhan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper, we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa, the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI using near-infrared band b899. The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part.

  16. Evaluation of a program to overcome vitamin A and iron deficiencies in areas of poverty in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, R L; Araujo, M B; Machado, R D; Braga, A A; Leite, B V; Oliveira, J R

    1987-03-01

    Randon samples of children from both sexes from Belo Horizonte, the capital City, and from Turmalina, Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were submitted to nutritional evaluation before and after the intervention "Program to Overcome Vitamin A and Iron Deficiencies in Areas of Poverty in Minas Gerais, Brazil". After the first examination, all the children received, with an interval of 180 days, a single oral dose of vitamin A, oral iron sulfate during 50 days, and 200 mg of Mebendazol/day for three days. Thirty days after ending administration of the third dose of medicine, the children were subjected to a new evaluation. In Belo Horizonte, the first evaluation revealed a high prevalence of deficient and low values of vitamin A in preschool children (21.5%) and school children (21.7%). A small prevalence of low hematocrit values was also observed in both groups. Deficient and low values of hemoglobin were found as well in 21.5% of preschool children and in 17.5% of school children. The second evaluation, practiced 30 days after the third dose of medicine, showed a small incidence of low vitamin A values (4.3% in preschool children and 2.9% in school children) and low hemoglobin values (6.5% in preschool children and 2.9% in school children). No deficient values of hemoglobin and vitamin A were observed. Concerning the hematocrit value, only one school child presented a low value at the second evaluation. On the other hand, in Jequitinhonha Valley, five cases of Bitot spot with conjunctival xerosis, two cases of corneal xerosis, and one case of keratomalacia were detected at the first examination. Thirty days after ending the third dose of medicine, only one corneal scar was observed. Only a small number of children with deficient and low levels of vitamin A and hemoglobin was found in the final evaluation (less than 8%), while this number was high at the first evaluation (above 38 and 12%, respectively). These results show the efficiency of the intervention

  17. Dissemination of Go Sun Smart in Outdoor Recreation: Effect of Program Exposure on Sun Protection of Guests at High Altitude Ski Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    WALKOSZ, BARBARA J.; BULLER, DAVID B.; ANDERSEN, PETER A.; SCOTT, MICHAEL D.; DIGNAN, MARK B.; CUTTER, GARY R.; LIU, XIA; MALOY, JULIE A.

    2014-01-01

    Go Sun Smart (GSS) is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun protection behaviors of employees and guests at high altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of GSS, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, upon sun protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy, enhanced versus basic, was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relationship of message exposure to guests’ sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 GSS materials in guest-only areas and 9 GSS materials throughout the area increased guests’ message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not in the low-use ski areas. The importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industry-wide are underscored. PMID:24617350

  18. Dissemination of go sun smart in outdoor recreation: effect of program exposure on sun protection of guests at high-altitude ski areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, Michael D; Dignan, Mark B; Cutter, Gary R; Liu, Xia; Maloy, Julie A

    2014-09-01

    Go Sun Smart is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun-protection behaviors of employees and guests at high-altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of Go Sun Smart, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, on sun-protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure, and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy-enhanced versus basic-was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relation between message exposure and guests' sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 Go Sun Smart materials in guest-only areas and 9 Go Sun Smart materials throughout the area increased guests' message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not within the low-use ski areas. The authors underscore the importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industrywide.

  19. Estimated probabilities, volumes, and inundation areas depths of potential postwildfire debris flows from Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks, near Marble, Gunnison County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2011-01-01

    During 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gunnison County, initiated a study to estimate the potential for postwildfire debris flows to occur in the drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble, Colorado. Currently (2010), these drainage basins are unburned but could be burned by a future wildfire. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of postwildfire debris-flow occurrence and debris-flow volumes for drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble. Data for the postwildfire debris-flow models included drainage basin area; area burned and burn severity; percentage of burned area; soil properties; rainfall total and intensity for the 5- and 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration-rainfall; and topographic and soil property characteristics of the drainage basins occupied by the four creeks. A quasi-two-dimensional floodplain computer model (FLO-2D) was used to estimate the spatial distribution and the maximum instantaneous depth of the postwildfire debris-flow material during debris flow on the existing debris-flow fans that issue from the outlets of the four major drainage basins. The postwildfire debris-flow probabilities at the outlet of each drainage basin range from 1 to 19 percent for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 3 to 35 percent for 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. The largest probabilities for postwildfire debris flow are estimated for Raspberry Creek (19 and 35 percent), whereas estimated debris-flow probabilities for the three other creeks range from 1 to 6 percent. The estimated postwildfire debris-flow volumes at the outlet of each creek range from 7,500 to 101,000 cubic meters for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 9,400 to 126,000 cubic meters for

  20. Development of internal reforming carbonate fuel cell stack technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooque, M.

    1990-10-01

    Activities under this contract focused on the development of a coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system design and the stack technology consistent with the system design. The overall contract effort was divided into three phases. The first phase, completed in January 1988, provided carbonate fuel cell component scale-up from the 1ft{sup 2} size to the commercial 4ft{sup 2} size. The second phase of the program provided the coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system (CGCFC) conceptual design and carried out initial research and development needs of the CGCFC system. The final phase of the program emphasized stack height scale-up and improvement of stack life. The results of the second and third phases are included in this report. Program activities under Phase 2 and 3 were designed to address several key development areas to prepare the carbonate fuel cell system, particularly the coal-fueled CFC power plant, for commercialization in late 1990's. The issues addressed include: Coal-Gas Related Considerations; Cell and Stack Technology Improvement; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Design Development; Stack Tests for Design Verification; Full-Size Stack Design; Test Facility Development; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Cost Assessment; and Coal-Fueled Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design. All the major program objectives in each of the topical areas were successfully achieved. This report is organized along the above-mentioned topical areas. Each topical area has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  1. Using Social Network Analysis as a Method to Assess and Strengthen Participation in Health Promotion Programs in Vulnerable Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2017-03-01

    This article provides an example of the application of social network analysis method to assess community participation thereby strengthening planning and implementation of health promotion programming. Community health promotion often takes the form of services that reach out to or are located within communities. The concept of community reflects the idea that people's behavior and well-being are influenced by interaction with others, and here, health promotion requires participation and local leadership to facilitate transmission and uptake of interventions for the overall community to achieve social change. However, considerable uncertainty exists over exact levels of participation in these interventions. The article draws on a mixed methods research within a community development project in a vulnerable neighborhood of a town in Denmark. It presents a detailed analysis of the way in which social network analysis can be used as a tool to display participation and nonparticipation in community development and health promotion activities, to help identify capacities and assets, mobilize resources, and finally to evaluate the achievements. The article concludes that identification of interpersonal ties among people who know one another well as well as more tenuous relationships in networks can be used by community development workers to foster greater cohesion and cooperation within an area.

  2. Simulating carbon capture by enhanced weathering with croplands: an overview of key processes highlighting areas of future model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L; Beerling, David J; Quegan, Shaun; Banwart, Steven A

    2017-04-01

    Enhanced weathering (EW) aims to amplify a natural sink for CO 2 by incorporating powdered silicate rock with high reactive surface area into agricultural soils. The goal is to achieve rapid dissolution of minerals and release of alkalinity with accompanying dissolution of CO 2 into soils and drainage waters. EW could counteract phosphorus limitation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in tropical soils, and soil acidification, a common agricultural problem studied with numerical process models over several decades. Here, we review the processes leading to soil acidification in croplands and how the soil weathering CO 2 sink is represented in models. Mathematical models capturing the dominant processes and human interventions governing cropland soil chemistry and GHG emissions neglect weathering, while most weathering models neglect agricultural processes. We discuss current approaches to modelling EW and highlight several classes of model having the potential to simulate EW in croplands. Finally, we argue for further integration of process knowledge in mathematical models to capture feedbacks affecting both longer-term CO 2 consumption and crop growth and yields. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blas, Maite; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC-MSD for a one-year period (2007-2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003-2005, 2010-2011, and 2014-2015years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120pptv) than in VNP (80-100pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential soil organic carbon stocks in semi arid areas under climate change scenarios: an application of CarboSOIL model in northern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Abd-Elmabod, Sameh K.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Anaya-Romero, Maria; De la Rosa, Diego

    2014-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Climate change is predicted to have a large impact on semi arid areas which are often degraded and vulnerable to environmental changes (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2012a; 2012b; 2013). However, these areas might play a key role in mitigation of climate change effects through sequestration of carbon in soils (United Nations, 2011). At the same time, increasing organic carbon in these environments could be beneficial for soil erosion control, soil fertility and, ultimately, food production (Lal, 2004). Several approaches have been carried out to evaluate climate change impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, but soil carbon models are amongst the most effective tools to assess C stocks, dynamics and distribution and to predict trends under climate change scenarios (Jones et al., 2005 ). CarboSOIL is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict SOC contents at standard soil depths of 0 to 25, 25 to 50 and 50-75 cm (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013). CarboSOIL model has been designed as a GIS-integrated tool and is a new component of the agroecological decision support system for land evaluation MicroLEIS DSS (De la Rosa et al., 2004). 2. GENERAL METHODS In this research, CarboSOIL was applied in El-Fayoum depression, a semi arid region located in northern Egypt with a large potential for agriculture (Abd-Elmabod et al, 2012). The model was applied in a total of six soil-units classified according the USDA Soil Taxonomy system within the orders Entisols and Aridisols under different climate climate change scenarios. Global climate models based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Agrawala at al., 2004) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) were applied to predict short-, medium- and long-term trends (2030, 2050 and 2100) of SOC dynamics and sequestration at different soil depths (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75) and land use types (irrigated areas, olive groves, wheat, cotton and other annual

  5. Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Haack

    2009-04-08

    This project was focused upon developing a unique material technology for use in PEM fuel cell bipolar plates. The carbon/carbon composite material developed in this program is uniquely suited for use in fuel cell systems, as it is lightweight, highly conductive and corrosion resistant. The project further focused upon developing the manufacturing methodology to cost-effectively produce this material for use in commercial fuel cell systems. United Technology Fuel Cells Corp., a leading fuel cell developer was a subcontractor to the project was interested in the performance and low-cost potential of the material. The accomplishments of the program included the development and testing of a low-cost, fully molded, net-shape carbon-carbon bipolar plate. The process to cost-effectively manufacture these carbon-carbon bipolar plates was focused on extensively in this program. Key areas for cost-reduction that received attention in this program was net-shape molding of the detailed flow structures according to end-user design. Correlations between feature detail and process parameters were formed so that mold tooling could be accurately designed to meet a variety of flow field dimensions. A cost model was developed that predicted the cost of manufacture for the product in near-term volumes and long-term volumes (10+ million units per year). Because the roduct uses lowcost raw materials in quantities that are less than competitive tech, it was found that the cost of the product in high volume can be less than with other plate echnologies, and can meet the DOE goal of $4/kW for transportation applications. The excellent performance of the all-carbon plate in net shape was verified in fuel cell testing. Performance equivalent to much higher cost, fully machined graphite plates was found.

  6. Response of carbon dioxide exchange to grazing intensity over typical steppes in a semi-arid area of Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Huizhi; Bernhofer, Christian

    2017-05-01

    The eddy covariance technique was used to measure the CO2 flux over four differently grazed Leymus chinensis steppe ecosystems (ungrazed since 1979 (UG79), winter grazed (WG), continuously grazed (CG), and heavily grazed (HG) sites) during four growing seasons (May to September) from 2005 to 2008, to investigate the response of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over grassland ecosystems to meteorological factors and grazing intensity. At UG79, the optimal air temperature for the half-hourly NEE occurred between 17 and 20 °C, which was relatively low for semi-arid grasslands. The saturated NEE (NEEsat) and temperature sensitivity coefficient ( Q 10) of ecosystem respiration (RE) exhibited clear seasonal and interannual variations, which increased with canopy development and the soil water content (SWC, at 5 cm). The total NEE values for the growing seasons from 2005 to 2008 were -32.0, -41.5, -66.1, and -89.8 g C m-2, respectively. Both the amounts and distribution of precipitation during the growing season affected the NEE. The effects of grazing on the CO2 flux increased with the grazing intensity. During the peak growth stage, heavy grazing and winter grazing decreased NEEsat and gross primary production (45 % for HG and 34 % for WG) due to leaf area removal. Both RE and Q 10 were clearly reduced by heavy grazing. Heavy grazing changed the ecosystem from a CO2 sink into a CO2 source, and winter grazing reduced the total CO2 uptake by 79 %. In the early growing season, there was no difference in the NEE between CG and UG79. In addition to the grazing intensity, the effects of grazing on the CO2 flux also varied with the vegetation growth stages and SWC.

  7. Correlation of end tidal carbon dioxide, amplitude spectrum area, and coronary perfusion pressure in a porcine model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nicolas; Metzger, Anja K; Moore, Johanna C; India, Laura; Lick, Michael C; Berger, Paul S; Tang, Wanchun; Benditt, David G; Lurie, Keith G

    2017-09-01

    Amplitude Spectrum Area (AMSA) values during ventricular fibrillation (VF) correlate with myocardial energy stores and predict defibrillation success. By contrast, end tidal CO2 (ETCO2) values provide a noninvasive assessment of coronary perfusion pressure and myocardial perfusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Given the importance of the timing of defibrillation shock delivery on clinical outcome, we tested the hypothesis that AMSA and ETCO2 correlate with each other and can be used interchangably to correlate with myocardial perfusion in an animal laboratory preclinical, randomized, prospective investigation. After 6 min of untreated VF, 12 female pigs (32 ± 1 Kg), isoflurane anesthetized pigs received sequentially 3 min periods of standard (S) CPR, S-CPR+ an impedance threshold device (ITD), and then active compression decompression (ACD) + ITD CPR Hemodynamic, AMSA, and ETCO2 measurements were made with each method of CPR The Spearman correlation and Friedman tests were used to compare hemodynamic parameters. ETCO2, AMSA, coronary perfusion pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure were lowest with STD CPR, increased with STD CPR + ITD and highest with ACD CPR + ITD Further analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between AMSA and ETCO2 (r = 0.37, P = 0.025) and between AMSA and key hemodynamic parameters (P < 0.05). This study established a moderate positive correlation between ETCO2 and AMSA These findings provide the physiological basis for developing and testing a novel noninvasive method that utilizes either ETCO2 alone or the combination of ETCO2 and AMSA to predict when defibrillation might be successful. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, M. R.; Moeinzadeh, S. N.; Tifwa, H. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs.

  9. Influence of soil sampling approaches in the evaluation of soil organic carbon stocks under different land uses in a Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Doro, Luca; Ledda, Luigi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Different approaches of soil sampling can provide significantly different estimates of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCs) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a). Many studies have focused on SOC distribution only in the biologically active layers of topsoil, the IPCC carbon accounting method estimates the change in SOC storage for the top 30 cm of a soil profile, and indeed limited data are available for SOCs below this depth. Moreover, SOC estimates are more uncertain in areas with heterogeneous land uses and pedoclimatic conditions such as Mediterranean environments, which are more prone to land degradation due to SOC degradation and depletion and erosive processes (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). Anyhow, the open question is whether soil should be sampled following the pedogenetic horizons with soil entire soil approach (ESP), or along fixed depth increments using the soil control section method (SCS) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). In addition, SOCs are often not adjusted for the soil volume occupied by coarse fragments as recommended by the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) accordingly to the equation: SOCs = SOC (g kg-1) × bulk density (Mg m-3) × depth (m) × (1 - coarse fragment) × 10. The work deals with the comparison of SOCs using the ESP and SCS approaches, applied to a study area of northeastern Sardinia (Italy) under typical agro-silvo-pastoral systems (Francaviglia et al., 2014). The area lies within a hilly basin where elevation is in the range 275-340 m a.s.l., and slope ranges from 2-6% to 16-30%. The local climate is warm temperate with dry and hot summers, mean annual rainfall is 623 mm (range 367-811mm) and mean annual temperature is 15.0° C (13.8-16.4° C). The area has the same soil type (Haplic Endoleptic Cambisols, Dystric) according to IUSS Working Group WRB (2006), and the following land uses with different levels of cropping intensification were compared: Tilled vineyards (Tv), No-tilled grassed vineyards (Ntgv), Hay crop

  10. Effect of elemental sulfur in precursors on the pore structure and surface chemical characteristics of high-surface area activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Analog sulfur-containing precursors (ASCPs have been prepared by adding a certain amount of elemental sulfur (ES into petroleum coke (PC for synthesis of high-surface area activated carbon (HAC. ASCPs make it feasible to control the speciation and content of sulfur in ASCPs, so as to accurately investigate the influence of ES on the pore structure and surface chemical characteristics of the resultant HAC. The results indicate that ES in ASCPs can react with activator KOH and consume a part of KOH amount, thus leading to the deficiency of actual KOH amount for PC activation, eventually making a decrease in the specific surface area and pore volume of HAC. Interestingly, some of ES in ASCPs is transformed into organic sulfur thioether (C–S–C and sulfate (C–SO4–C or sulfonate (C–SO3–C on HAC surface during the activation process. Therefore, the surface chemical characteristics of HAC are modified correspondingly.

  11. Preparation of graphitic carbon nitride with large specific surface area and outstanding N2 photofixation ability via a dissolve-regrowth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiqiang; Shi, Zhenyu; Li, Qiang; Li, Shuang

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen fixation is the second most important chemical process in nature next to photosynthesis. Here, we report a convenient dissolve-regrowth method for synthesizing graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with a large surface area and nitrogen vacancies by HCl treatment. XRD, N2adsorption, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, EPR, N2-TPD, Photoluminescence and Photocurrent were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The results indicate that HCl treatment does not influence the crystal phase of g-C3N4 but change the morphology and optical property, leading to the smaller particle size, larger surface area and increased bang gap energy. It is deduced by N2-TPD, Photoluminescence, Photocurrent and DFT simulations that the nitrogen vacancies formed by the HCl treatment not only serve as active sites to adsorb and activate N2 molecules but also promote interfacial charge transfer from g-C3N4to N2 molecules. The HCl treated g-C3N4 catalyst exhibits outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability under visible light, which is 13.4-fold higher than that of bulk g-C3N4 without nitrogen vacancy. The possible reaction mechanism is proposed.

  12. Family forest landowners' interest in forest carbon offset programs: Focus group findings from the Lake States, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Mike A. Kilgore; Mae A. Davenport

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were...

  13. Optimization of Preparation Program for Biomass Based Porous Active Carbon by Response Surface Methodology Based on Adsorptive Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With waste walnut shell as raw material, biomass based porous active carbon was made by microwave oven method. The effects of microwave power, activation time and mass fraction of phosphoric acid on adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon in the process of physical activation of active carbon precursor were studied by response surface method and numerical simulation method, the preparation plan of biomass based porous active carbon was optimized, and the optimal biomass based porous active carbon property was characterized. The results show that three factors affect the adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon, but the effect of microwave power is obviously more significant than that of mass fraction of phosphoric acid, and the effect of mass fraction of phosphoric acid is more significant than that of activation time. The optimized preparation conditions are:microwave power is 746W, activation time is 11.2min and mass fraction of phosphoric acid is 85.9% in the process of physical activation of activated carbon precursor by microwave heating method. For the optimal biomass based porous active carbon, the adsorption value of iodine is 1074.57mg/g, adsorption value of methylene blue is 294.4mL/g and gain rate is 52.1%.

  14. Family Forest Landowners' Interest in Forest Carbon Offset Programs: Focus Group Findings from the Lake States, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristell A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Mike A.; Davenport, Mae A.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were held per state with an average of eight participants each (49 total). While landowner participant types varied, overall convergence was reached on several key issues. In general, discussion results found that the current payment amounts offered for carbon credits are not likely, on their own, to encourage participation in carbon markets. Landowners are most interested in other benefits they can attain through carbon management (e.g., improved stand species mix, wildlife, and trails). Interestingly, landowner perceptions about the condition of their own forest land were most indicative of prospective interest in carbon management. Landowners who felt that their forest was currently in poor condition, or did not meet their forest ownership objectives, were most interested in participating. While the initial survey sought landowner opinions about carbon markets, a majority of focus group participants expressed interest in general carbon management as a means to achieve reduced property taxes.

  15. Expenditures for the care of HIV-infected patients in rural areas in China's antiretroviral therapy programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Song

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese government has provided health services to those infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV under the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS care policy since 2003. Detailed research on the actual expenditures and costs for providing care to patients with AIDS is needed for future financial planning of AIDS health care services and possible reform of HIV/AIDS-related policy. The purpose of the current study was to determine the actual expenditures and factors influencing costs for untreated AIDS patients in a rural area of China after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART under the national Free Care Program (China CARES. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Yunnan and Shanxi Provinces, where HAART and all medical care are provided free to HIV-positive patients. Health expenditures and costs in the first treatment year were collected from medical records and prescriptions at local hospitals between January and June 2007. Multivariate linear regression was used to determine the factors associated with the actual expenditures in the first antiretroviral (ARV treatment year. Results Five ARV regimens are commonly used in China CARES: zidovudine (AZT + lamivudine (3TC + nevirapine (NVP, stavudine (D4T + 3TC + efavirenz (EFV, D4T + 3TC + NVP, didanosine (DDI + 3TC + NVP and combivir + EFV. The mean annual expenditure per person for ARV medications was US$2,242 (US$1 = 7 Chinese Yuan (CNY among 276 participants. The total costs for treating all adverse drug events (ADEs and opportunistic infections (OIs were US$29,703 and US$23,031, respectively. The expenses for treatment of peripheral neuritis and cytomegalovirus (CMV infections were the highest among those patients with ADEs and OIs, respectively. On the basis of multivariate linear regression, CD4 cell counts (100-199 cells/μL versus P = 0.02; and ≥200 cells/μL versus P P P = 0.04 and OIs (P = 0.02 were significantly

  16. Planning and Execution of a Marine Methane Hydrate Pressure Coring Program for the Walker Ridge and Green Canyon Areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Gary [Fugro Geoconsulting Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project (and report) is to produce a guide to developing scientific, operational, and logistical plans for a future methane hydrate-focused offshore pressure coring program. This report focuses primarily on a potential coring program in the Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955 blocks where previous investigations were undertaken as part of the 2009 Department of Energy JIP Leg II expedition, however, the approach to designing a pressure coring program that was utilized for this project may also serve as a useful model for planning pressure coring programs for hydrates in other areas. The initial portion of the report provides a brief overview of prior investigations related to gas hydrates in general and at the Walker Ridge 313 and Green Canyon 955 blocks in particular. The main content of the report provides guidance for various criteria that will come into play when designing a pressure coring program.

  17. Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement Fiscal Year 1976 Proposed Program : Facility Location Evaluation for Cheney-Four Lakes Area Service Study Area 76-7.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1975-04-15

    Proposed is construction of approximately 26 miles of 230-kV transmission line from the Four Mounds Area west of Spokane to either Cheney or Four Lakes Substation. Proposed also is construction of a new substation in the Four Mounds area. Depending upon final route location chosen, between 20 and 27 miles of new right-of-way would be required between the proposed Greenwood Substation and either Cheney or Four Lakes Substation. Between 25 and 41 miles of access road would also be required. Depending upon the final route selected, the amount of impact upon forest land would range from zero to 97 acres permanently removed. The amount of land temporarily disrupted for rangeland and cropland would be 8 to 13 acres and 30 to 40 acres, respectively. In addition, between approximately 4 and 8 acres of rangeland would be removed due to construction of the proposed new substation. Other impacts would include the removal of wildlife habitat associated with the above mentioned right-of-way requirements. Disturbance to wildlife during construction would occur. Some erosion and sedimentation would occur. Visual impacts would result from clearing rights-of-way through heavily forested areas. Noise and other disturbances to residents will occur, primarily during construction.

  18. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Arkoma Basin, Kansas Basins, and Midcontinent Rift Basin study areas: Chapter F in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Phillip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2013-01-01

    2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of three storage assessment units (SAUs) in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Arkoma Basin study area, and two SAUs in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Kansas Basins study area. The Arkoma Basin and Kansas Basins are adjacent with very similar geologic units; although the Kansas Basins area is larger, the Arkoma Basin is more structurally complex. The report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are usually provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information herein was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. The Midcontinent Rift Basin study area was not assessed, because no suitable storage formations meeting our size, depth, reservoir quality, and regional seal guidelines were found. Figures in this report show study area boundaries along with the SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one-square mile and are

  19. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Maite de, E-mail: maite.deblas@ehu.eus [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Navazo, Marino [University College of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  20. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  1. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated Pest Managment Program to control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using contingent valuation, the perceived value of an area-wide, integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, was estimated. The residents’ maximum willingness-to-pay (WTP) and payment modality was estimat...

  2. 76 FR 22122 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Market Rents in Certain Metropolitan Areas, Discussion of Comments, and Request for Participation AGENCY... establishing the Small Area Fair Market Rent (FMR) Demonstration Project and requesting participation from... an area is the amount that would be needed to pay the gross rent (shelter rent plus utilities) of...

  3. 75 FR 27808 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... many ZIP codes in metropolitan areas. However, the first publication of 5-year ACS data does not begin... the first 5 years of the American Community Survey (ACS) in 5-year aggregations for the areas with... geographic areas than is currently possible using ACS data at one-year or 3-year aggregations. HUD intends to...

  4. Measurement of Black Carbon, Particle Number and Mass, and Lung-Deposited Surface Area Emission Factors from in-Use Locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Krasowsky, T.; Sioutas, C.; Daher, N.

    2014-12-01

    As pollutant emissions from motor vehicles have vastly decreased over the last decades, the relative contribution from non-road sources has increased. There is a serious lack of real-world emissions measurements for many non-road sources including locomotives. As such, uncertainties in emissions from these sources is high. Locomotives contribute to human exposure of diesel pollutants near ports, railyards, and rail lines. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of locomotive emissions is needed for enhancing the accuracy of emission inventories with corresponding improvements in health risk, air pollution, and climate assessments. Particulate matter emissions from a large sample (N=88) of in-use freight locomotives were measured in the Alameda Corridor, located near the port of Los Angeles. Emission factors for black carbon (BC), particle number (PN), fine particulate mass (PM2.5), and lung-deposited surface area (LDSA) were computed based on 1 Hz measurements of the rise and fall of particulate emissions and CO2 concentrations as the locomotives passed the sampling location. Mean emission factors ± standard deviations were 0.9 ± 0.5 g kg-1 of fuel consumed for BC, (2.1 ± 1.5)x1016 # kg-1 for PN, 1.6 ± 1.3 g kg-1 for PM2.5, and (2.2 ± 1.7)x1013 μm2 kg-1 for LDSA. Emission factors for individual trains were slightly skewed, with the dirtiest 10% of locomotives responsible for 20%, 24%, 28%, and 27% of total BC, PN, PM2.5, and LDSA emissions, respectively. BC versus LDSA emissions from individual locomotives were found to be anti-correlated, suggesting that the highest emitters of black carbon may in fact result in less particle lung-deposited surface area than lower BC emitters. Using results presented here along with previous measurements, we compare for freight trains versus diesel trucks the amount of BC emissions associated with pulling an intermodal freight container over a given distance. Emission factors for locomotives presented here establish a

  5. The implementation of a culturally based HIV sexual risk reduction program for Latino youth in a Denver area high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Trisha E; Castaneda, Charlene Angel; Sainer, Shannon; Martinez, Donna; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Wilkes, Aisha L; Villarruel, Antonia M

    2009-10-01

    In the United States, Latino youth experience disproportionately higher rates of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than non-Latino Whites. As a result, organizations serving Latino youth seek culturally appropriate evidence-based prevention programs that promote sexual abstinence and condom use. Cuídate! is an efficacious HIV sexual risk reduction program for Latino youth aged 13-18. The program incorporates cultural beliefs that are common among Latino youth and associated with sexual risk behavior, and uses these beliefs to frame abstinence and condom use as culturally accepted and effective ways to prevent unintended pregnancy and STIs, including HIV/AIDS. Cuídate! has been successfully delivered in community agencies and after-school programs but has not been integrated into an existing school curriculum. This brief case study describes efforts to implement Cuídate! in a predominantly Latino urban high school in Denver. Ninety-three youth participated in the program from October 2007 to May 2008. Cuídate! was adapted to accommodate the typical class period by delivering program content over a larger number of sessions and extending the total amount of time of the program to allow for additional activities. Major challenges of program implementation included student recruitment and the "opt in" policy for participation. Despite these challenges, Cuídate! was implemented with minor adaptations in a school setting.

  6. A spatial stochastic programming model for timber and core area management under risk of stand-replacing fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Tuan Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Forest harvest scheduling has been modeled using deterministic and stochastic programming models. Past models seldom address explicit spatial forest management concerns under the influence of natural disturbances. In this research study, we employ multistage full recourse stochastic programming models to explore the challenges and advantages of building spatial...

  7. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2//sup -/ induced climate change: a research agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    In adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, mankind is unintentionally conducting a great biological and geophysical experiment. This experiment can be expected to increase scientific understanding of ecological systems and of the processes in the ocean and the atmosphere that partially determine world climate. But from the standpoint of governments and peoples, the major problem to be solved is to understand the nature of the impacts on societies of rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), with the objective of avoiding or ameliorating unfavorable impacts and gaining most benefit from favorable impacts. The research program proposed herein is designed to provide the understanding needed to achieve this objective. It is based on a recognition of the distinctive characteristics of the CO/sub 2/ problem. It is concluded that three kinds of research on the consequences of rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and possible climatic changes are called for: assessment of risks; research to enhance beneficial effects and lessen harmful ones, where this is possible, and to slow down rates of carbon dioxide emission; and study of potential social and institutional responses to projected climatic changes.

  8. Documentation of a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program study area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traum, Jonathan A.; Phillips, Steven P.; Bennett, George Luther; Zamora, Celia; Metzger, Loren F.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the potential effects of restoration flows on existing drainage problems, anticipated as a result of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program (SJRRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), developed a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) of the SJRRP study area that is within 5 miles of the San Joaquin River and adjacent bypass system from Friant Dam to the Merced River. The primary goal of the SJRRP is to reestablish the natural ecology of the river to a degree that restores salmon and other fish populations. Increased flows in the river, particularly during the spring salmon run, are a key component of the restoration effort. A potential consequence of these increased river flows is the exacerbation of existing irrigation drainage problems along a section of the river between Mendota and the confluence with the Merced River. Historically, this reach typically was underlain by a water table within 10 feet of the land surface, thus requiring careful irrigation management and (or) artificial drainage to maintain crop health. The SJRRPGW is designed to meet the short-term needs of the SJRRP; future versions of the model may incorporate potential enhancements, several of which are identified in this report. The SJRRPGW was constructed using the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW and was built on the framework of the USGS Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) within which the SJRRPGW model domain is embedded. The Farm Process (FMP2) was used to simulate the supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture. The Streamflow-Routing Package (SFR2) was used to simulate the streams and bypasses and their interaction with the aquifer system. The 1,300-square mile study area was subdivided into 0.25-mile by 0.25-mile cells. The sediment texture of the aquifer system, which was used to distribute hydraulic properties by model cell, was refined from that used in the CVHM to better represent

  9. Evaluation of lead/carbon devices for utility applications : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmet, Paula S. (MeadWestvaco Corporation,North Charleston, SC)

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the results of a three-phase project that evaluated lead-based energy storage technologies for utility-scale applications and developed carbon materials to improve the performance of lead-based energy storage technologies. In Phase I, lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were compared to other technologies that used the same or similar materials. At the end of Phase I (in 2005) it was found that lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were not yet fully developed and optimized (cost/performance) to be a viable option for utility-scale applications. It was, however, determined that adding carbon to the negative electrode of a standard lead-acid battery showed promise for performance improvements that could be beneficial for use in utility-scale applications. In Phase II various carbon types were developed and evaluated in lead-acid batteries. Overall it was found that mesoporous activated carbon at low loadings and graphite at high loadings gave the best cycle performance in shallow PSoC cycling. Phase III studied cost/performance benefits for a specific utility application (frequency regulation) and the full details of this analysis are included as an appendix to this report.

  10. Mapping Congo Basin vegetation types from 300 m and 1 km multi-sensor time series for carbon stocks and forest areas estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verhegghen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the Congo Basin forests by delivering a detailed map of vegetation types with an improved spatial discrimination and coherence for the whole Congo Basin region. A total of 20 land cover classes were described with the standardized Land Cover Classification System (LCCS developed by the FAO. Based on a semi-automatic processing chain, the Congo Basin vegetation types map was produced by combining 19 months of observations from the Envisat MERIS full resolution products (300 m and 8 yr of daily SPOT VEGETATION (VGT reflectances (1 km. Four zones (north, south and two central were delineated and processed separately according to their seasonal and cloud cover specificities. The discrimination between different vegetation types (e.g. forest and savannas was significantly improved thanks to the MERIS sharp spatial resolution. A better discrimination was achieved in cloudy areas by taking advantage of the temporal consistency of the SPOT VGT observations. This resulted in a precise delineation of the spatial extent of the rural complex in the countries situated along the Atlantic coast. Based on this new map, more accurate estimates of the surface areas of forest types were produced for each country of the Congo Basin. Carbon stocks of the Basin were evaluated to a total of 49 360 million metric tons. The regional scale of the map was an opportunity to investigate what could be an appropriate tree cover threshold for a forest class definition in the Congo Basin countries. A 30% tree cover threshold was suggested. Furthermore, the phenology of the different vegetation types was illustrated systematically with EVI temporal profiles. This Congo Basin forest types map reached a satisfactory overall accuracy of 71.5% and even 78.9% when some classes are aggregated. The values of the Cohen's kappa coefficient, respectively 0.64 and 0.76 indicates a result significantly better than random.

  11. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M.; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm2, a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging. PMID:27319783

  12. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M.; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2016-06-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm2, a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging.

  13. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M

    2016-06-20

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm(2). The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm(2), a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging.

  14. Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement Fiscal Year 1976 Proposed Program : Facility Location Evaluation for Okanogan Area Service Study Area 75-6.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1975-04-15

    Proposed is the construction of a substation west of Okanogan, Washington, a 115-kV line between Okanogan and Tonasket, and a 230-kV line between Bridgeport and Okanogan. Depending on the final route location chosen, between approximately 56 and 63 miles of transmission line from Okanogan to Tonasket and from Bridgeport to Okanogan, most of which would require new right-of-way, would be required. Between 16 and 45 miles of new access road would be required. Land use affected would include temporary impact to between 28 and 50 acres of rangeland and between 3 and 8 acres of forest land. A minimal amount of agricultural land would be impacted as a result of several of the alternative locations. In addition, approximately 4 acres of rangeland would be permanently removed due to construction of the proposed new substation. Other impacts would include the removal of wildlife associated with the above mentioned right-of-way requirements. Disturbance to wildlife during construction would occur. Some erosion and sedimentation would occur. Visual impacts would result from clearing rights-of-way through forested areas. Noise and other disturbances to residents will occur, primarily during construction.

  15. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed...... in Euro. The results revealed an estimated total cost of 310 Euro per included child (net present value) in the 3-year program. Half of the costs were attributed to the first year of the program and the costs of manpower constituted 45% of the total costs. When the total cost was reduced with the cost......The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively...

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAM OF EMPOWERMENT OF THE WOMEN RESIDING AT THE COASTAL AREA OF AMPENAN DISTRICT, MATARAM CITY, LOMBOK IMPLEMENTED IN THE FORM OF LIFE SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Listiawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The program of the empowerment of the women living in Mataram City implemented inthe form of life skills including vocational skill, social skill, and personal skill has been carriedout since 2001. In reality, the attempts already made could not improve the well-being of thewomen in Mataram City in general and the women living along the coastal area of Ampenan,South Ampenan District and Banjar District in particular. Based on the background mentionedabove, the researcher was interested in exploring the effectiveness of the program of theempowerment provided in the form life skills. Three problems are formulated in this research.They are (1 how effective the implementation of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area of Ampenan District was?; (2 what factors contributed to theeffectiveness of the empowerment program of the women residing at the coastal area?; (3 whatwere the effects and meanings of the effectiveness of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area? The theories employed to answer the problems formulated above arethe theory of post feminism by Ann Brooks, the theory of social practice by Bourdieu and thetheory of power/knowledge by Foucault. The theories were eclectically applied. The qualitativemethod was employed in this study and the data needed were collected by the techniques ofobservation, in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (hereon abbreviated to FGD,documentation and library research.The results of the study show that (1 the program of the empowerment of the womenliving in the coastal area was ineffective; (2 the factors which contributed to the effectivenessof the empowerment of the women living along the coastal area are economic capital, culturalcapital, socio culture and symbolic culture; (3 the effects of the effectiveness of theempowerment program were on the skills acquired, the income earned, the independenceacquired, the environment where they live and their pattern

  17. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen measurements collected using CTD, bottle from multiple platforms in the Gulf of Mexico from 1992 through 2008 as part of the Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) (NODC Accession 0069702)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) is a State/Federal/university program for collection, management and dissemination of...

  18. An easy to use ArcMap based texture analysis program for extraction of flooded areas from TerraSAR-X satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Hagemann, Ulrike; Shafapour Tehrany, Mahyat; Prechtel, Nikolas

    2014-02-01

    Extraction of the flooded areas from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and especially TerraSAR-X data is one of the most challenging tasks in the flood management and planning. SAR data due to its high spatial resolution and its capability of all weather conditions makes a proper choice for tropical countries. Texture is considered as an effective factor in distinguishing the classes especially in SAR imagery which records the backscatters that carry information of kind, direction, heterogeneity and relationship of the features. This paper put forward a computer program for texture analysis for high resolution radar data. Texture analysis program is introduced and discussed using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). To demonstrate the ability and correctness of this program, a test subset of TerraSAR-X imagery from Terengganu area, Malaysia was analyzed and pixel-based a