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Sample records for program anxiety-like behavior

  1. Desacyl Ghrelin Decreases Anxiety-like Behavior in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbod, Parinaz; Smith, Eric P; Fitzgerald, Maureen E; Morano, Rachel L; Packard, Benjamin A; Ghosal, Sriparna; Scheimann, Jessie R; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Herman, James P; Tong, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid polypeptide that regulates feeding, glucose metabolism, and emotionality (stress, anxiety, and depression). Plasma ghrelin circulates as desacyl ghrelin (DAG) or, in an acylated form, acyl ghrelin (AG), through the actions of ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), exhibiting low or high affinity, respectively, for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) 1a. We investigated the role of endogenous AG, DAG, and GHSR1a signaling on anxiety and stress responses using ghrelin knockout (Ghr KO), GOAT KO, and Ghsr stop-floxed (Ghsr null) mice. Behavioral and hormonal responses were tested in the elevated plus maze and light/dark (LD) box. Mice lacking both AG and DAG (Ghr KO) increased anxiety-like behaviors across tests, whereas anxiety reactions were attenuated in DAG-treated Ghr KO mice and in mice lacking AG (GOAT KO). Notably, loss of GHSR1a (Ghsr null) did not affect anxiety-like behavior in any test. Administration of AG and DAG to Ghr KO mice with lifelong ghrelin deficiency reduced anxiety-like behavior and decreased phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in wild-type mice, a site normally expressing GHSR1a and involved in stress- and anxiety-related behavior. Collectively, our data demonstrate distinct roles for endogenous AG and DAG in regulation of anxiety responses and suggest that the behavioral impact of ghrelin may be context dependent. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  2. Fingerprinting of Psychoactive Drugs in Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behaviors

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    Maximino, Caio; da Silva, Annanda Waneza Batista; Araújo, Juliana; Lima, Monica Gomes; Miranda, Vanessa; Puty, Bruna; Benzecry, Rancés; Picanço-Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley; Gouveia, Amauri; Oliveira, Karen Renata Matos; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2014-01-01

    A major hindrance for the development of psychiatric drugs is the prediction of how treatments can alter complex behaviors in assays which have good throughput and physiological complexity. Here we report the development of a medium-throughput screen for drugs which alter anxiety-like behavior in adult zebrafish. The observed phenotypes were clustered according to shared behavioral effects. This barcoding procedure revealed conserved functions of anxiolytic, anxiogenic and psychomotor stimulating drugs and predicted effects of poorly characterized compounds on anxiety. Moreover, anxiolytic drugs all decreased, while anxiogenic drugs increased, serotonin turnover. These results underscore the power of behavioral profiling in adult zebrafish as an approach which combines throughput and physiological complexity in the pharmacological dissection of complex behaviors. PMID:25079766

  3. The cognitive architecture of anxiety-like behavioral inhibition.

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    Bach, Dominik R

    2017-01-01

    The combination of reward and potential threat is termed approach/avoidance conflict and elicits specific behaviors, including passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition (BI). Anxiety-relieving drugs reduce these behaviors, and a rich psychological literature has addressed how personality traits dominated by BI predispose for anxiety disorders. Yet, a formal understanding of the cognitive inference and planning processes underlying anxiety-like BI is lacking. Here, we present and empirically test such formalization in the terminology of reinforcement learning. We capitalize on a human computer game in which participants collect sequentially appearing monetary tokens while under threat of virtual "predation." First, we demonstrate that humans modulate BI according to experienced consequences. This suggests an instrumental implementation of BI generation rather than a Pavlovian mechanism that is agnostic about action outcomes. Second, an internal model that would make BI adaptive is expressed in an independent task that involves no threat. The existence of such internal model is a necessary condition to conclude that BI is under model-based control. These findings relate a plethora of human and nonhuman observations on BI to reinforcement learning theory, and crucially constrain the quest for its neural implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

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    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tempol treatment reduces anxiety-like behaviors induced by multiple anxiogenic drugs in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Patki

    Full Text Available We have published that pharmacological induction of oxidative stress (OS causes anxiety-like behavior in rats. Using animal models, we also have established that psychological stress induces OS and leads to anxiety-like behaviors. All evidence points towards the causal role of OS in anxiety-like behaviors. To fully ascertain the role of OS in anxiety-like behaviors, it is reasonable to test whether the pro-anxiety effects of anxiogenic drugs caffeine or N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142 can be mitigated using agents that minimize OS. In this study, osmotic pumps were either filled with antioxidant tempol or saline. The pumps were attached to the catheter leading to the brain cannula and inserted into the subcutaneous pocket in the back pocket of the rat. Continuous i.c.v. infusion of saline or tempol in the lateral ventricle of the brain (4.3 mmol/day was maintained for 1 week. Rats were intraperitoneally injected either with saline or an anxiogenic drug one at a time. Two hours later all groups were subjected to behavioral assessments. Anxiety-like behavior tests (open-field, light-dark and elevated plus maze suggested that tempol prevented anxiogenic drug-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats. Furthermore, anxiogenic drug-induced increase in stress examined via plasma corticosterone and increased oxidative stress levels assessed via plasma 8-isoprostane were prevented with tempol treatment. Protein carbonylation assay also suggested preventive effect of tempol in the prefrontal cortex brain region of rats. Antioxidant protein expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels indicate compromised antioxidant defense as well as an imbalance of inflammatory response.

  6. Adolescent Activity-Based Anorexia Increases Anxiety-Like Behavior in Adulthood

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    Kinzig, Kimberly P.; Hargrave, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia is a paradigm that induces increased physical activity, reduced food intake, and heightened activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult rats. To investigate whether experience with activity-based anorexia produced enduring effects on brain and behavior, female adolescent rats experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence and were tested in adulthood for anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. Analysis of elevated plus maze and open field behavior in adulthood revealed that rats that experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence, but not rats that were simply food restricted, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. Plasma corticosterone and expression levels of corticotropin- releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and in the central nucleus of the amygdala were significantly elevated in adult rats that had undergone activity-based anorexia in adolescence in response to the open field exposure, as compared to control rats. These data demonstrate enduring effects of adolescent activity-based anorexia on anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine factors critical in stress responsivity in adulthood. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activity-based anorexia during adolescence serves as a model whereby prolonged anxiety is induced, allowing for evaluation of the behavioral and neural correlates of mediating anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. PMID:20566408

  7. Adolescent activity-based anorexia increases anxiety-like behavior in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzig, Kimberly P; Hargrave, Sara L

    2010-09-01

    Activity-based anorexia is a paradigm that induces increased physical activity, reduced food intake, and heightened activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult rats. To investigate whether experience with activity-based anorexia produced enduring effects on brain and behavior, female adolescent rats experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence and were tested in adulthood for anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. Analysis of elevated plus maze and open field behavior in adulthood revealed that rats that experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence, but not rats that were simply food restricted, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. Plasma corticosterone and expression levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and in the central nucleus of the amygdala were significantly elevated in adult rats that had undergone activity-based anorexia in adolescence in response to the open field exposure, as compared to control rats. These data demonstrate enduring effects of adolescent activity-based anorexia on anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine factors critical in stress responsivity in adulthood. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activity-based anorexia during adolescence serves as a model whereby prolonged anxiety is induced, allowing for evaluation of the behavioral and neural correlates of mediating anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxytocin attenuates aversive response to nicotine and anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchan; Jang, Minji; Noh, Jihyun

    2017-02-01

    Initial tobacco use is initiated with rewarding and aversive properties of nicotine and aversive response to nicotine plays a critical role in nicotine dependency. Decrease of nicotine aversion increases the nicotine use that causes behavioral and neuronal changes of animals. Oxytocin influences drug abuse and reciprocally affect vulnerability to drug use. To assess the effect of oxytocin on initial nicotine aversion and anxiety, we examined voluntary oral nicotine intake and anxiety-like behavior following oxytocin treatment in adolescent rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats (4 weeks old) were used. For oxytocin administration, rats were injected subcutaneously with saline or oxytocin (0.01, 0.1 and 1mg/kg) according to the assigned groups. Voluntary oral nicotine consumption test was performed by two bottle free-choice paradigm. To examine anxiety-like behavior in rats, we performed a light/dark box test. Oxytocin not only significantly increased the nicotine intake but also alleviated nicotine aversion after acclimation to nicotine solution in a concentration dependent manner. Meanwhile, oxytocin significantly reduced anxiety-like behavior. We suggest that oxytocin itself mitigates aversive response toward initial nicotine intake and anxiety-like behavior. These results widen the psychophysiological perspective on oxytocin for better understanding of nicotine addiction related behaviors influenced by diverse social factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor deficiencies impact anxiety-like behavior and the serotonergic system.

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    Brooks, Leah R; Enix, Courtney L; Rich, Samuel C; Magno, Jinno A; Lowry, Christopher A; Tsai, Pei-San

    2014-05-01

    Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) are organized in anatomically distinct subregions that form connections with specific brain structures to modulate diverse behaviors, including anxiety-like behavior. It is unclear if the functional heterogeneity of these neurons is coupled to their developmental heterogeneity, and if abnormal development of specific DR serotonergic subregions can permanently impact anxiety circuits and behavior. The goal of this study was to examine if deficiencies in different components of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling could preferentially impact the development of specific populations of DR serotonergic neurons to alter anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. Wild-type and heterozygous male mice globally hypomorphic for Fgf8, Fgfr1, or both (Fgfr1/Fgf8) were tested in an anxiety-related behavioral battery. Both Fgf8- and Fgfr1/Fgf8-deficient mice display increased anxiety-like behavior as measured in the elevated plus-maze and the open-field tests. Immunohistochemical staining of a serotonergic marker, tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph), revealed reductions in specific populations of serotonergic neurons in the ventral, interfascicular, and ventrolateral/ventrolateral periaqueductal gray subregions of the DR in all Fgf-deficient mice, suggesting a neuroanatomical basis for increased anxiety-like behavior. Overall, this study suggests Fgf signaling selectively modulates the development of different serotonergic neuron subpopulations. Further, it suggests anxiety-like behavior may stem from developmental disruption of these neurons, and individuals with inactivating mutations in Fgf signaling genes may be predisposed to anxiety disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Persistent Nociception Induces Anxiety-like Behavior in Rodents: Role of Endogenous Neuropeptide S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuzhuo; Jin, Xu; You, Zerong; Wang, Shuxing; Lim, Grewo; Yang, Jinsheng; McCabe, Michael; Li, Na; Marota, John; Chen, Lucy; Mao, Jianren

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorder is a comorbid condition of chronic pain. Analgesics and anxiolytics, subject to addiction and abuse, are currently used to manage pain and anxiety symptoms. However, the cellular mechanism underlying chronic pain and anxiety interaction remains to be elucidated. We report that persistent nociception following peripheral nerve injury induced anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Brain expression and release of neuropeptide S (NPS), a proposed endogenous anxiolytic peptide, was diminished in rodents with co-existing nociceptive and anxiety-like behaviors. Intracerebroventricular administration of exogenous NPS concurrently improved both nociceptive and anxiety-like behaviors. At the cellular level, NPS enhanced intra-amygdaloidal inhibitory transmission by increasing presynaptic GABA release from interneurons. These findings indicate that the interaction between nociceptive and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents may be regulated by the altered NPS-mediated intra-amygdaloidal GABAergic inhibition. The data suggest that enhancing the brain NPS function may be a new strategy to manage comorbid pain and anxiety. PMID:24793908

  11. Neurochemical factors underlying individual differences in locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioral responses in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Muraleetharan, Arrujyan; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-02-04

    Variation among individuals may arise for several reasons, and may have diverse underlying mechanisms. Individual differences have been studied in a variety of species, but recently a new model organism has emerged in this field that offers both sophistication in phenotypical characterization and powerful mechanistic analysis. Recently, zebrafish, one of the favorites of geneticists, have been shown to exhibit consistent individual differences in baseline locomotor activity. In the current study, we further explore this finding and examine whether individual differences in locomotor activity correlate with anxiety-like behavioral measures and with levels of dopamine, serotonin and the metabolites of these neurotransmitters. In addition, we examine whether individual differences in locomotor activity are also associated with reactivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of and neurochemical responses to acute ethanol exposure (30min long, 1% v/v ethanol bath application). Principal component analyses revealed a strong association among anxiety-like responses, locomotor activity, serotonin and dopamine levels. Furthermore, ethanol exposure was found to abolish the locomotion-dependent anxiety-like behavioral and serotonergic responses suggesting that this drug also engages a common underlying pathway. Overall, our results provide support for an important role of the serotonergic system in mediating individual differences in anxiety-like responses and locomotor activity in zebrafish and for a minor modulatory role of the dopaminergic system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Elimination of Kalrn Expression in POMC Cells Reduces Anxiety-Like Behavior and Contextual Fear Learning

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    Mandela, Prashant; Yan, Yan; LaRese, Taylor; Eipper, Betty A.; Mains, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Kalirin, a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rac1 and RhoG, is known to play an essential role in the formation and maintenance of excitatory synapses and in the secretion of neuropeptides. Mice unable to express any of the isoforms of Kalrn in cells that produce POMC at any time during development (POMC cells) exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior and reduced acquisition of passive avoidance behavior, along with sex-specific alteration in the corticosterone response to restraint stress. Strikingly, lack of Kalrn expression in POMC cells closely mimicked the effects of global Kalrn knockout on anxiety-like behavior and passive avoidance conditioning without causing the other deficits noted in Kalrn knockout mice. Our data suggest that deficits in excitatory inputs onto POMC neurons are responsible for the behavioral phenotypes observed. PMID:25014196

  13. Adolescent Activity-Based Anorexia Increases Anxiety-Like Behavior in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kinzig, Kimberly P.; Hargrave, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia is a paradigm that induces increased physical activity, reduced food intake, and heightened activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult rats. To investigate whether experience with activity-based anorexia produced enduring effects on brain and behavior, female adolescent rats experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence and were tested in adulthood for anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. Analysis of elevated p...

  14. Chronic social instability increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol preference in male Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeckner, Alyssa R; Bowling, Alexandra; Butler, Tracy R

    2017-05-01

    Chronic stress during adolescence is related to increased prevalence of anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders in humans. This phenotype has been consistently recapitulated in animal models with male subjects, but models using female subjects are fewer. The aim of these studies was to test the hypothesis that chronic social instability (CSI) during adolescence engenders increased anxiety-like behavior, increased corticosterone, and greater ethanol intake and/or preference than control groups in male and female rats. A chronic social instability (CSI) procedure was conducted in separate cohorts of female and male adolescent Long Evans rats. CSI included daily social isolation for 1h, and then pair housing with a novel cage mate for 23h until the next 1h isolation period from PND 30-46. Control groups included social stability (SS), chronic isolation (ISO), and acute social instability (aSI). At PND 49-50, anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze, and on PND 51 tails bloods were obtained for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels. This was followed by 4weeks of ethanol drinking in a home cage intermittent access ethanol drinking paradigm (PND 55-81 for males, PND 57-83 for females). Planned contrast testing showed that the male CSI group had greater anxiety-like behavior compared controls, but group differences were not apparent for CORT. CSI males had significantly higher levels of ethanol preference during drinking weeks 2-3 compared to all other groups and compared to SS and ISO groups in week 4. For the female cohort, we did not observe consistent group differences in anxiety-like behavior, CORT levels were unexpectedly lower in the ISO group only compared to the other groups, and group differences were not apparent for ethanol intake/preference. In conclusion, chronic stress during adolescence in the form of social instability increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol preference in male rats, consistent with other models of

  15. Effects of yokukansan on anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of cerebrovascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Ai; Sakata, Yuri; Uchida, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Kazuko; Kawasaki, Chihiro; Shindo, Taro; Kubota, Kaori; Katsurabayashi, Shutaro; Takasaki, Kotaro; Mishima, Kenichi; Nishimura, Ryoji; Fujiwara, Michihiro; Iwasaki, Katsunori

    2011-04-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are commonly seen in patients with dementia. Current pharmacological approaches to treatment are inadequate, despite the availability of serotonergic agents to ameliorate anxiety, one of the symptoms of BPSD. The herbal medicine yokukansan has been demonstrated to improve BPSD in a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study. However, the mechanisms of the anxiolytic effect of yokukansan have not been clarified. There are also no reports on the anxiolytic effect of yokukansan in cerebrovascular ischemia models. In this study, we examined whether rats subjected to repeated cerebral ischemia exhibited anxiety-like behavior in a plus-maze task, a light/dark box test and an open-field task. We then investigated the effect of yokukansan on anxiety-like behavior in ischemic rats. Repeated ischemia was induced by the four-vessel occlusion method in which a 10-min ischemic episode was repeated once after 60 min. Yokukansan was orally administered once a day for 14 days from 7 days before ischemia induction. The last administration was performed 1 h before the behavioral experiments. The ischemic rats showed anxiety-like behavior in all three tasks, suggesting that this rat may be a good model for anxiety in cerebrovascular dementia. Yokukansan exhibited anxiolytic effects on the anxiety-like behavior in rats subjected to repeated cerebral ischemia, and exerted antagonistic effects on the wet-dog shakes induced by 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-indophenyl)-2-amino propane, a serotonin receptor (5-HT(2A)) agonist. This study revealed that yokukansan shows anxiolytic effects not only in normal animals but also in cerebrovascular model rats.

  16. Zfp462 deficiency causes anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Zheng, Y; Shi, H; Du, X; Zhang, Y; Wei, B; Luo, M; Wang, H; Wu, X; Hua, X; Sun, M; Xu, X

    2017-02-01

    Zfp462 is a newly identified vertebrate-specific zinc finger protein that contains nearly 2500 amino acids and 23 putative C2H2-type zinc finger domains. So far, the functions of Zfp462 remain unclear. In our study, we showed that Zfp462 is expressed predominantly in the developing brain, especially in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions from embryonic day 7.5 to early postnatal stage. By using a piggyBac transposon-generated Zfp462 knockout (KO) mouse model, we found that Zfp462 KO mice exhibited prenatal lethality with normal neural tube patterning, whereas heterozygous (Het) Zfp462 KO (Zfp462+/- ) mice showed developmental delay with low body weight and brain weight. Behavioral studies showed that Zfp462+/- mice presented anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming and hair loss, which were similar to the pathological grooming behaviors in Hoxb8 KO mice. Further analysis of grooming microstructure showed the impairment of grooming patterning in Zfp462+/- mice. In addition, the mRNA levels of Pbx1 (pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1, an interacting protein of Zfp462) and Hoxb8 decreased in the brains of Zfp462+/- mice, which may be the cause of anxiety-like behaviors. Finally, imipramine, a widely used and effective anti-anxiety medicine, rescued anxiety-like behaviors and excessive self-grooming in Zfp462+/- mice. In conclusion, Zfp462 deficiency causes anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming in mice. This provides a novel genetic mouse model for anxiety disorders and a useful tool to determine potential therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders and screen anti-anxiety drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  17. Age-dependent relevance of endogenous 5-lipoxygenase derivatives in anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Luciana M; Almeida-Corrêa, Suellen; Canetti, Claudio A; Amaral, Olavo B; Bozza, Fernando A; Pamplona, Fabricio A

    2014-01-01

    When 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is inhibited, roughly half of the CNS effect of the prototypic endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is lost. Therefore, we decided to investigate whether inhibiting this enzyme would influence physiological functions classically described as being under control of the endocannabinoid system. Although 5-LO inhibition by MK-886 reduced lipoxin A4 levels in the brain, no effect was found in the elevated plus maze (EPM), even at the highest possible doses, via i.p. (10 mg/kg,) or i.c.v. (500 pmol/2 µl) routes. Accordingly, no alterations in anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test were observed in 5-LO KO mice. Interestingly, aged mice, which show reduced circulating lipoxin A4 levels, were sensitive to MK-886, displaying an anxiogenic-like state in response to treatment. Moreover, exogenous lipoxin A4 induced an anxiolytic-like profile in the EPM test. Our findings are in line with other reports showing no difference between FLAP KO or 5-LO KO and their control strains in adult mice, but increased anxiety-like behavior in aged mice. We also show for the first time that lipoxin A4 affects mouse behavior. In conclusion, we propose an age-dependent relevancy of endogenous 5-LO derivatives in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior, in addition to a potential for exogenous lipoxin A4 in producing an anxiolytic-like state.

  18. Postpartum estrogen withdrawal impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and causes depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuan; Hong, Juan; Zhang, Suyun; Zhang, Tingting; Sha, Sha; Yang, Rong; Qian, Yanning; Chen, Ling

    2016-04-01

    Postpartum estrogen withdrawal is known to be a particularly vulnerable time for depressive symptoms. Ovariectomized adult mice (OVX-mice) treated with hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP mice) followed by a subsequent estradiol benzoate (EB) withdrawal (EW mice) exhibited depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, as assessed by forced swim, tail suspension and elevated plus-maze, while HSP mice, OVX mice or EB-treated OVX mice (OVX/EB mice) did not. The survival and neurite growth of newborn neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus were examined on day 5 after EW. Compared with controls, the numbers of 28-day-old BrdU(+) and BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) cells were increased in HSP mice but significantly decreased in EW mice; the numbers of 10-day-old BrdU(+) cells were increased in HSP mice and OVX/EB mice; and the density of DCX(+) fibers was reduced in EW mice and OVX mice. The phosphorylation of hippocampal NMDA receptor (NMDAr) NR2B subunit or Src was increased in HSP mice but decreased in EW mice. NMDAr agonist NMDA prevented the loss of 28-day-old BrdU(+) cells and the depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in EW mice. NR2B inhibitor Ro25-6981 or Src inhibitor dasatinib caused depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in HSP mice with the reduction of 28-day-old BrdU(+) cells. The hippocampal BDNF levels were reduced in EW mice and OVX mice. TrkB receptor inhibitor K252a reduced the density of DCX(+) fibers in HSP mice without the reduction of 28-day-old BrdU(+) cells, or the production of affective disorder. Collectively, these results indicate that postpartum estrogen withdrawal impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in mice that show depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acupuncture Attenuates Anxiety-Like Behavior by Normalizing Amygdaloid Catecholamines during Ethanol Withdrawal in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated acupuncture at acupoint HT7 (Shen-Men attenuated ethanol withdrawal syndrome by normalizing the dopamine release in nucleus accumbens shell. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture on anxiety-like behavior in rats and its relevant mechanism by studying neuro-endocrine parameters during ethanol withdrawal. Rats were treated with 3 g kg−1day−1 of ethanol (20%, w/v or saline by intraperitoneal injections for 28 days. The rats undergoing ethanol withdrawal exhibited anxiety-like behavior 72 h after the last dose of ethanol characterized by the decrease of time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with the saline-treated rats (P < .05. Radioimmunoassay exhibited there were notably increased concentrations of plasma corticosterone in ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .05. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography analysis also showed the levels of norepinephrine and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol were markedly increased while the levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were significantly decreased in the central nucleus of the amygdala of ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .01. Acupuncture groups were treated with acupuncture at acupoint HT7 or PC6 (Nei-Guan. Acupuncture at HT7 but not PC6 greatly attenuated the anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal as evidenced by significant increases in the percentage of time spent in open arms (P < .05. In the meantime, acupuncture at HT7 also markedly inhibited the alterations of neuro-endocrine parameters induced by ethanol withdrawal (P < .05. These results suggest that acupuncture may attenuate anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal through regulation of neuro-endocrine system.

  20. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F; Foster, Jane A; Macri, Joseph; Potter, Murray; Huang, Xiaxing; Malinowski, Paul; Jackson, Wendy; Blennerhassett, Patricia; Neufeld, Karen A; Lu, Jun; Khan, Waliul I; Corthesy-Theulaz, Irene; Cherbut, Christine; Bergonzelli, Gabriela E; Collins, Stephen M

    2010-12-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies have associated gastrointestinal inflammation and infection with altered behavior. We investigated whether chronic gut inflammation alters behavior and brain biochemistry and examined underlying mechanisms. AKR mice were infected with the noninvasive parasite Trichuris muris and given etanercept, budesonide, or specific probiotics. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy was performed in a subgroup of mice before infection. Gastrointestinal inflammation was assessed by histology and quantification of myeloperoxidase activity. Serum proteins were measured by proteomic analysis, circulating cytokines were measured by fluorescence activated cell sorting array, and serum tryptophan and kynurenine were measured by liquid chromatography. Behavior was assessed using light/dark preference and step-down tests. In situ hybridization was used to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the brain. T muris caused mild to moderate colonic inflammation and anxiety-like behavior that was associated with decreased hippocampal BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA). Circulating tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, as well as the kynurenine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, were increased. Proteomic analysis showed altered levels of several proteins related to inflammation and neural function. Administration of etanercept, and to a lesser degree of budesonide, normalized behavior, reduced cytokine and kynurenine levels, but did not influence BDNF expression. The probiotic Bifidobacterium longum normalized behavior and BDNF mRNA but did not affect cytokine or kynurenine levels. Anxiety-like behavior was present in infected mice after vagotomy. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry, which can be normalized by inflammation-dependent and -independent mechanisms, neither of which requires the integrity of the vagus nerve. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. HPA activity and neotic and anxiety-like behavior vary among Peromyscus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn B; Trainor, Brian C; Finy, M Sima; Nelson, Randy J

    2007-05-01

    Behaviorally plastic species are more likely to invade and endure in new areas, and behaviorally plastic individuals tend to be attracted to novelty (i.e., neophilic). Furthermore, neophilic behaviors are often influenced by glucocorticoids. Thus in addition to environmental conditions and vicariant events, behavioral plasticity and its endocrinological mediators may influence the extent of vertebrate geographic distributions. Some species of mice in the genus, Peromyscus, occupy most of North America whereas others are restricted to small areas. We predicted that one widespread species (Peromyscus maniculatus) would interact more with novel objects, more readily explore novel environments, and possess hypo-responsive HPA axes compared to species with small ranges. Our hypothesis was not supported, but given the small number of species in this study and the high anxiety-like behavior in captive P. maniculatus, it is premature to reject the hypothesis that behavioral flexibility affects geographic distribution in Peromyscus. Indeed, behavioral and HPA axis variation was complementary among species, which is opposite of the pattern typically detected within species, suggesting that future studies of glucocorticoid mediation of neotic and anxiety-like behaviors in Peromyscus would be valuable.

  2. Investigation of diazepam efficacy on anxiety-like behavior in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Katherine A; Feustel, Paul J; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Molho, Eric; Pilitsis, Julie G; Shin, Damian S

    2016-03-15

    There is growing recognition that anxiety disorders have a greater impact on quality of life in Parkinson's disease than motor symptoms. Yet, little is known about the pathophysiology underlying this non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease which poses a considerable barrier in developing effective treatment strategies. Here, we administered diazepam to hemiparkinsonian and non-parkinsonian rats and assessed its efficacy in three anxiety behavioral tests. At present, no information about this exists in preclinical research with sparse data in the clinical literature. Moreover, diazepam is an acute anxiolytic which makes this drug a suitable research tool to unmask differences in anxiety-like behavior. Using the unilateral, medial forebrain bundle 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease, we noted that hemiparkinsonian rats had more baseline anxiety-like behavior with 60% of them exhibiting high anxiety (HA) behavior in the elevated plus maze. In contrast, 41% of sham-lesioned rats and 8% of naïve rats exhibited HA behavior. Next, we employed the elevated plus maze and noted that diazepam (1.5mg/kg) was anxiolytic in low anxiety (LA) sham-lesioned (p=0.006) and HA sham-lesioned rats (p=0.016). Interestingly, diazepam was anxiolytic for LA hemiparkinsonian rats (p=0.017), but not for HA hemiparkinsonian rats (p=0.174) despite both groups having similar motor impairment and parkinsonian phenotype. Overall, diazepam administration unmasked differences in anxiolytic efficacy between HA hemiparkinsonian rats, LA hemiparkinsonian rats and non-parkinsonian rats. Our data suggests that neuro-circuits involved in anxiety-like behavior may differ within these groups and posits that diazepam may have reduced efficacy in certain individuals with PD anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates anxiety-like behaviors in morphine-withdrawn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Di; Zhao, Peng; Hui, Rongji; Wang, Jian; Shen, Qianchao; Gong, Miao; Guo, Hongyan; Cong, Bin; Ma, Chunling

    2017-05-15

    Hydrogen therapy is a new medical approach for a wide range of diseases. The effects of hydrogen on central nervous system-related diseases have recently become increasingly appreciated, but little is known about whether hydrogen affects the morphine withdrawal process. This study aims to investigate the potential effects of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) administration on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms and morphine withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behaviors. Mice received gradually increasing doses (25-100 mg/kg, i.p.) of morphine over 3 days. In the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal procedure, the mice were treated with three HRS (20 μg/kg, i.p.) injections, and naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 30 min after HRS administration. Body weight, jumping behavior and wet-dog shakes were immediately assessed. In the spontaneous withdrawal procedure, the mice were treated with HRS (20 μg/kg, i.p.) every 8-h. Mice underwent naloxone-precipitated or spontaneous withdrawal were tested for anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light/dark box (L/D box) paradigm, respectively. In addition, the levels of plasma corticosterone were measured. We found that HRS administration significantly reduced body weight loss, jumping behavior and wet-dog shakes in mice underwent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal, and attenuated anxiety-like behaviors in the EPM and L/D box tests after naloxone-precipitated withdrawal or a 2-day spontaneous withdrawal period. Hypo-activity or motor impairment after HRS administration was not observed in the locomotion tests. Furthermore, HRS administration significantly decreased the levels of corticosterone in morphine-withdrawn mice. These are the first findings to indicate that hydrogen might ameliorate withdrawal symptoms and exert an anxiolytic-like effect in morphine-withdrawal mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emergence of anxiety-like behaviors in depressive-like Cpefat/fat mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Wilkins, John J.; Creson, Thomas K.; Biswas, Reeta; Berezniuk, Iryna; Fricker, Arun D.; Fricker, Lloyd D.; Wetsel, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Cpefat/fat mice have a point mutation in carboxypeptidase E (CPE), an exopeptidase that removes C-terminal basic amino acids from intermediates to produce bioactive peptides. The mutation renders the enzyme inactive and unstable. The absence of CPE activity in these mutants leads to abnormal processing of many peptides, with elevated levels of intermediates and greatly reduced levels of the mature peptides. Cpefat/fat mice develop obesity, diabetes, and infertility in adulthood. We examined whether anxiety- and/or depressive-like behaviors are also present. Anxiety-like responses are not evident in young Cpefat/fat mice (~60 days), but appear in older animals (>90 days). These behaviors are reversed by acute treatment with diazepam or fluoxetine. By contrast, increased immobilities in forced swim and tail suspension are evident in all age groups examined. These behaviors are reversed by acute administration of reboxetine. By comparison acute treatments with fluoxetine or bupropion are ineffective; however, immobility times are normalized with 2 wks of treatment. These data demonstrate that Cpefat/fat mice display depressive-like responses at ~60 days of age, whereas anxiety-like behaviors emerge ~1 month later. In tail suspension, the reboxetine findings show that noradrenergic actions of antidepressants are intact in Cpefat/fat mice. The ability of acute fluoxetine treatment to rescue anxiety-like while leaving depressive-like responses unaffected suggests that serotonin mechanisms underlying these behaviors are different. Since depressive-like responses in the Cpefat/fat mice are rescued by a 2 wk, but not acute, treatment with fluoxetine or buproprion, these mice may serve as a useful model that resembles human depression. PMID:23442571

  5. Effects of nano and conventional Zinc Oxide on anxiety-like behavior in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhgan Torabi; Mahnaz Kesmati; Hooman Eshagh Harooni; Hosein Najafzadeh Varzi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Current drug therapies for psychological disorders, such as anxiety, are not as effective as expected, and it has been shown that zinc supplements, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), can influence anxiety. ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most used nanomaterials produced and applied in many products. Materials and Methods: This study investigated the effects of ZnO NPs in comparison with conventional ZnO (cZnO) on anxiety-like behaviors. Adult male Wistar rats were divided int...

  6. Effect of chronic exposure to rimonabant and phytocannabinoids on anxiety-like behavior and saccharin palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Lesley D; Wills, Kiri L; Segsworth, Blair; Dashney, Brittany; Rock, Erin M; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Parker, Linda A

    2013-01-01

    The acute effects of cannabinoid compounds have been investigated in animal models of anxiety-like behavior and palatability processing. However, the chronic effects of cannabinoids in such models are poorly understood. Experiment 1 compared the effects of both acute and chronic (14 days) exposure to the CB(1) receptor inverse agonist/antagonist, rimonabant, and the cannabis-derived CB(1) receptor neutral antagonist, tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), on: 1) time spent in the open, lit box in the Light-Dark (LD) immersion model of anxiety-like behavior and 2) saccharin hedonic reactions in the taste reactivity (TR) test of palatability processing. Experiment 2 compared the effects of chronic administration of cannabis-derived Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) in these models. Tests were administered on Days 1, 7 and 14 of drug administration. In Experiment 1, rimonabant, but not THCV, produced an anxiogenic-like reaction in the LD immersion test and reduced saccharin palatability in the TR test; both of these effects occurred acutely and were not enhanced by chronic exposure. In Experiment 2, Δ(9)-THC also produced an acute anxiogenic-like reaction in the LD immersion test, without enhancement by chronic exposure. However, Δ(9)-THC enhanced saccharin palatability in the TR test on Day 1 of drug exposure only. CBD and CBG did not modify anxiety-like responding, but CBG produced a weak enhancement of saccharin palatability on Day 1 only. The results suggest that the anxiogenic-like reactions and the suppression of hedonic responding produced by rimonabant, are mediated by inverse agonism of the CB(1) receptor and these effects are not enhanced with chronic exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced Fear Memory and Anxiety-like Behavior in Mice Lacking Formylpeptide Receptor 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ji-Liang; Schneider, Erich H.; Dimitrov, Eugene L.; Haun, Forrest; Pham, Therese M.; Mohammed, Abdul H.; Usdin, Ted B.; Murphy, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    N-formylpeptide receptor 1 (FPR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates pro-inflammatory chemotactic responses by phagocytic leukocytes to N-formylpeptides produced by bacteria or mitochondria. Mice lacking Fpr1 (Fpr1−/− mice) have increased susceptibility to challenge with certain bacteria. FPR1 is also a receptor for annexin-1, which mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids as well as negative feedback by glucocorticoids of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. However, homeostatic functions of FPR1 in the neuroendocrine system have not previously been defined. Here we show that in systematic behavioral testing Fpr1−/− mice exhibited increased exploratory activity, reduced anxiety-like behavior, and impaired fear memory, but normal spatial memory and learning capacity. Consistent with this, the homeostatic serum level of corticosterone in Fpr1−/− mice was significantly lower compared with wild-type mice. The data implicate Fpr1 in modulation of anxiety-like behavior and fear memory by regulating glucocorticoid production. PMID:21484271

  8. Elevated prostacyclin biosynthesis in mice impacts memory and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollert, Craig; Ohia, Odochi; Akasaka, Hironari; Berridge, Casey; Ruan, Ke-He; Eriksen, Jason L

    2014-01-01

    Prostacyclin is an endogenous lipid metabolite with properties of vasodilation and anti-platelet aggregation. While the effects of prostacyclin on the vascular protection have been well-documented, the role of this eicosanoid in the central nervous system has not been extensively studied. Recently, a transgenic mouse containing a hybrid enzyme, of cyclooxygenase-1 linked to prostacyclin synthase, was developed that produces elevated levels of prostacyclin in vivo. The goal of this study was to investigate whether increased prostacyclin biosynthesis could affect behavioral phenotypes in mice. Our results uncovered that elevated levels of prostacyclin broadly affect both cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, including decreased anxiety-like behavior and improved learning in the fear-conditioning memory test. This study demonstrates that prostacyclin plays an important, but previously unrecognized, role in central nervous system function and behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbiota Modulate Anxiety-Like Behavior and Endocrine Abnormalities in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Huo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbes are an important system in the human body, with significant effects on behavior. An increasing body of research indicates that intestinal microbes affect brain function and neurogenesis, including sensitivity to stress. To investigate the effects of microbial colonization on behavior, we examined behavioral changes associated with hormones and hormone receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis under stress. We tested germ-free (GF mice and specific pathogen-free (SPF mice, divided into four groups. A chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol was utilized to induce external pressure in two stress groups by restraining mice in a conical centrifuge tube for 4 h per day for 21 days. After CRS, Initially, GF restraint-stressed mice explored more time than SPF restraint-stressed mice in the center and total distance of the OFT. Moreover, the CRH, ACTH, CORT, and ALD levels in HPA axis of GF restraint-stressed mice exhibited a significantly greater increase than those of SPF restraint-stressed mice. Finally, the Crhr1 mRNA levels of GF CRS mice were increased compared with SPF CRS mice. However, the Nr3c2 mRNA levels of GF CRS mice were decreased compared with SPF CRS mice. All results revealed that SPF mice exhibited more anxiety-like behavior than GF mice under the same external stress. Moreover, we also found that GF mice exhibited significant differences in, hormones, and hormone receptors compared with SPF mice. In conclusion, Imbalances of the HPA axis caused by intestinal microbes could affect the neuroendocrine system in the brain, resulting in an anxiety-like behavioral phenotype. This study suggested that intervention into intestinal microflora may provide a new approach for treating stress-related diseases.

  10. Stress responsiveness and anxiety-like behavior: The early social environment differentially shapes stability over time in a small rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangenstedt, Susanne; Jaljuli, Iman; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2017-04-01

    The early social environment can profoundly affect behavioral and physiological phenotypes. We investigated how male wild cavy offspring, whose mothers had either lived in a stable (SE) or an unstable social environment (UE) during pregnancy and lactation, differed in their anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. At two different time points in life, we tested the offspring's anxiety-like behavior in a dark-light test and their endocrine reaction to challenge in a cortisol reactivity test. Furthermore, we analyzed whether individual traits remained stable over time. There was no effect of the early social environment on anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. However, at an individual level, anxiety-like behavior was stable over time in UE- but not in SE-sons. Stress responsiveness, in turn, was rather inconsistent in UE-sons and temporally stable in SE-sons. Conclusively, we showed for the first time that the early social environment differentially shapes the stability of behavioral and endocrine traits. At first glance, these results may be surprising, but they can be explained by the different functions anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness have. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of acupuncture on anxiety-like behavior during nicotine withdrawal and relevant mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Younbyoung; Yeom, Mijung; Han, Ji-Hee; Park, Hi-Joon; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hoe-Shik; Lee, Hyejung

    2008-01-10

    Acupuncture, likely the most well-known 'alternative' medical treatment, has been shown to have effects in several types of animal model of drug dependence, including nicotine addiction. We investigated the effect of acupuncture on anxiety-like behavior and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression in the amygdala during nicotine withdrawal. Rats were given repeated nicotine injections (0.1mg/kg s.c., once daily for 7 days) or saline. Acupuncture groups were treated with acupuncture at acupoint HT7 or ST36 during withdrawal. The anxiogenic response was measured at 72h after the termination of nicotine injection using an elevated plus maze. CRF and NPY mRNA levels were also evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis at this time. Rats undergoing nicotine withdrawal (NW) were less likely to explore the open arms of the plus maze compared with the saline-treated controls. The percentage of open arm entries in the HT7 acupuncture group, but not in the ST36 acupuncture group, was significantly increased compared with the NW group. Consistent with this behavior, CRF mRNA levels in the NW group were increased compared with the control group. CRF mRNA levels in the HT7 acupuncture group were significantly decreased compared with the NW group. However, NPY mRNA levels were not different among the groups. These findings indicate that increases in CRF may be involved in the negative affect state associated with nicotine withdrawal and that acupuncture may attenuate anxiety-like behavior following nicotine withdrawal by modulating CRF in the amygdala.

  12. Mice with Sort1 deficiency display normal cognition but elevated anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Chun-Rui; Li, Jia-Yi; Luo, Hai-Yun; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to stressful life events plays a central role in the development of mood disorders in vulnerable individuals. However, the mechanisms that link mood disorders to stress are poorly understood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has long been implicated in positive regulation of depression and anxiety, while its precursor (proBDNF) recently showed an opposing effect on such mental illnesses. P75(NTR) and sortilin are co-receptors of proBDNF, however, the role of these receptors in mood regulation is not established. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of sortilin in regulating mood-related behaviors and its role in the proBDNF-mediated mood abnormality in mice. We found that sortilin was up-regulated in neocortex (by 78.3%) and hippocampus (by 111%) of chronically stressed mice as assessed by western blot analysis. These changes were associated with decreased mobility in the open field test and increased depression-like behavior in the forced swimming test. We also found that sortilin deficiency in mice resulted in hyperlocomotion in the open field test and increased anxiety-like behavior in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests. No depression-like behavior in the forced swimming test and no deficit in spatial cognition in the Morris water maze test were found in the Sort1-deficient mice. Moreover, the intracellular and extracellular levels of mature BDNF and proBDNF were not changed when sortilin was absent in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we found that both WT and Sort1-deficient mice injected with proBDNF in lateral ventricle displayed increased depression-like behavior in the forced swimming test but not anxiety-like behaviors in the open field and elevated plus maze tests. The present study suggests that sortilin functions as a negative regulator of mood performance and can be a therapeutic target for the treatment of mental illness. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Fatty Acids Mixture Reduces Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Infant Rats Mediated by GABAA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandina Bernal-Morales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (C6–C18 found in human amniotic fluid, colostrum, and maternal milk reduce behavioral indicators of experimental anxiety in adult Wistar rats. Unknown, however, is whether the anxiolytic-like effects of fatty acids provide a natural mechanism against anxiety in young offspring. The present study assessed the anxiolytic-like effect of a mixture of lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid, and linoleic acid in Wistar rats on postnatal day 28. Infant rats were subjected to the elevated plus maze, defensive burying test, and locomotor activity test. Diazepam was used as a reference anxiolytic drug. A group that was pretreated with picrotoxin was used to explore the participation of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects. Similar to diazepam, the fatty acid mixture significantly increased the frequency of entries into and time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze and decreased burying behavior in the defensive burying test, without producing significant changes in spontaneous locomotor activity. These anxiolytic-like effects were blocked by picrotoxin. Results suggest that these fatty acids that are contained in maternal fluid may reduce anxiety-like behavior by modulating GABAergic neurotransmission in infant 28-day-old rats.

  14. Pathogenesis of depression- and anxiety-like behavior in an animal model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossat, Amanda M; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Koutnik, Andrew P; Leitner, Stefano; Ruiz, Edda L; Griffin, Brittany; Rosenberg, Jens T; Grant, Samuel C; Fincham, Francis D; Pinto, Jose R; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction is highly comorbid with mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression. However, the mechanisms linking cardiovascular dysfunction with the core behavioral features of mood disorder remain poorly understood. In this study, we used mice bearing a knock-in sarcomeric mutation, which is exhibited in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), to investigate the influence of HCM over the development of anxiety and depression. We employed behavioral, MRI, and biochemical techniques in young (3-4 mo) and aged adult (7-8 mo) female mice to examine the effects of HCM on the development of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. We focused on females because in both humans and rodents, they experience a 2-fold increase in mood disorder prevalence vs. males. Our results showed that young and aged HCM mice displayed echocardiographic characteristics of the heart disease condition, yet only aged HCM females displayed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Electrocardiographic parameters of sympathetic nervous system activation were increased in aged HCM females vs. controls and correlated with mood disorder-related symptoms. In addition, when compared with controls, aged HCM females exhibited adrenal gland hypertrophy, reduced volume in mood-related brain regions, and reduced hippocampal signaling proteins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its downstream targets vs. controls. In conclusion, prolonged systemic HCM stress can lead to development of mood disorders, possibly through inducing structural and functional brain changes, and thus, mood disorders in patients with heart disease should not be considered solely a psychologic or situational condition.-Dossat, A. M., Sanchez-Gonzalez, M. A., Koutnik, A. P., Leitner, S., Ruiz, E. L., Griffin, B., Rosenberg, J. T., Grant, S. C., Fincham, F. D., Pinto, J. R. Kabbaj, M. Pathogenesis of depression- and anxiety-like behavior in an animal model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © FASEB.

  15. Sex-related effects of sleep deprivation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Castañeda, Rocio E; Galvez-Contreras, Alma Y; Martínez-Quezada, Carlos J; Jauregui-Huerta, Fernando; Grcia-Estrada, Joaquin; Ramos-Zuñiga, Rodrigo; Luquin, Sonia; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and depressive symptoms are generated after paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD). However, it is not clear whether PSD produces differential effects between females and males. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PSD on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors between sexes. Male and female BALB/c mice were divided in three groups: the control group, the 48-h PSD group and the 96-h PSD group. Immediately after PSD protocols, the forced swimming and open field test were applied. Sucrose consumption test was used to evaluate the middle-term effect of PSD. We found that corticosterone serum levels showed significant differences in the 96-h PSD females as compared to 96-h PSD males. In the open-field test, the 48-h and 96-h PSD females spent more time at the periphery of the field, and showed high locomotion as compared to males. In the elevated plus maze, the 48-h PSD females spent more time in closed arms than males, which is compatible with anxiety-like behavior. The forced swim test indicated that the 96-h PSD males spent more time swimming as compared to the 96-h PSD females. Remarkably, the 96-h PSD males had lower sucrose intake than the 96-h PSD females, which suggest that male mice have proclivity to develop a persistent depressive-like behavior late after PSD. In conclusion, male mice showed a significant trend to depressive-like behaviors late after sleep deprivation. Conversely, female have a strong tendency to display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors immediately after sleep deprivation.

  16. Effect of acupuncture on Lipopolysaccharide-induced anxiety-like behavioral changes: involvement of serotonin system in dorsal Raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Young; Jang, Eun Young; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Gyu Won; Lee, Eun Byeol; Chang, Suchan; Lee, Jong Han; Koo, Jin Suk; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Hee Young

    2017-12-11

    Acupuncture has been used as a common therapeutic tool in many disorders including anxiety and depression. Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behaviors and SERT in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). Rats were given acupuncture at ST41 (Jiexi), LI11 (Quchi) or SI3 (Houxi) acupoint in LPS-treated rats. Anxiety-like behaviors of elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) were measured and expressions of SERT and/or c-Fos were also examined in the DRN using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that 1) acupuncture at ST41 acupoint, but neither LI11 nor SI3, significantly attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behaviors in EPM and OFT, 2) acupuncture at ST41 decreased SERT expression increased by LPS in the DRN. Our results suggest that acupuncture can ameliorate anxiety-like behaviors, possibly through regulation of SERT in the DRN.

  17. (+)-Borneol suppresses conditioned fear recall and anxiety-like behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bo; Ni, Huan-Yu; Li, Jun; Zhou, Ying; Bian, Xin-Lan; Tao, Yan; Cai, Cheng-Yun; Qin, Cheng; Wu, Hai-Yin; Chang, Lei; Luo, Chun-Xia; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2018-01-08

    Fear- and anxiety-related psychiatric disorders have been one of the major chronic diseases afflicting patients for decades, and new compounds for treating such disorders remain to be developed. (+)-Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene found in several species of Artemisia and Dipterocarpaceae, is widely used for anxiety, pain and anesthesia in Chinese medicine. Meanwhile, it can potentiate GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) activity directly in recombinant GABAA receptors. The present study was to investigate the effects of (+)-Borneol on both contextual and cued fear recall. Interestingly, microinjection of (+)-Borneol into the dorsal hippocampus inhibited 24 h and 7 d contextual fear, whereas its infusion into ventral hippocampus only reduced 24 h cued fear responses. Moreover, microinjection of (+)-Borneol into dorsal but not ventral hippocampus suppressed anxiety-like behaviors in the open field test, light/dark exploration and the elevated plus maze test. As selective GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline reversed the effect of (+)-Borneol on contextual fear paradigm and the drug potentiated GABA-evoked currents in acute hippocampus slices, modulation of the GABAergic neurotransmission may explain the effects of (+)-Borneol. Our findings suggest that (+)-Borneol can serve as a new therapeutic in fear- and anxiety-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute fasting inhibits central caspase-1 activity reducing anxiety-like behavior and increasing novel object and object location recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Albert E; Oelschlager, Maci L; Patel, Jay; Gainey, Stephen J; McCusker, Robert H; Freund, Gregory G

    2017-06-01

    Inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) is frequently comorbid with anxiety. Importantly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine most commonly associated with anxiety is IL-1β. The bioavailability and activity of IL-1β are regulated by caspase-1-dependent proteolysis vis-a-vis the inflammasome. Thus, interventions regulating the activation or activity of caspase-1 should reduce anxiety especially in states that foster IL-1β maturation. Male C57BL/6j, C57BL/6j mice treated with the capase-1 inhibitor biotin-YVAD-cmk, caspase-1 knockout (KO) mice and IL-1R1 KO mice were fasted for 24h or allowed ad libitum access to food. Immediately after fasting, caspase-1 activity was measured in brain region homogenates while activated caspase-1 was localized in the brain by immunohistochemistry. Mouse anxiety-like behavior and cognition were tested using the elevated zero maze and novel object/object location tasks, respectively. A 24h fast in mice reduced the activity of caspase-1 in whole brain and in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus by 35%, 25%, 40%, 40%, and 40% respectively. A 24h fast also reduced anxiety-like behavior by 40% and increased novel object and object location recognition by 21% and 31%, respectively. IL-1β protein, however, was not reduced in the brain by fasting. ICV administration of YVAD decreased caspase-1 activity in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala by 55%, respectively leading to a 64% reduction in anxiety like behavior. Importantly, when caspase-1 KO or IL1-R1 KO mice are fasted, no fasting-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior was observed. Results indicate that fasting decrease anxiety-like behavior and improves memory by a mechanism tied to reducing caspase-1 activity throughout the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of eszopiclone and zolpidem on sleep-wake behavior, anxiety-like behavior and contextual memory in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Max P.; Radadia, Kushan; Macone, Brian W.; Auerbach, Sanford H.; Datta, Subimal

    2010-01-01

    At present, eszopiclone and zolpidem are the most commonly prescribed drugs for treating insomnia. Despite the established relationship between sleep disturbance and anxiety, it remains unknown whether targeted treatment for insomnia may affect acute anxiety. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of three different doses (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) of eszopiclone and zolpidem on the states of sleep and wakefulness, levels of anxiety-like behavior, and long-term contextual memory in footshock-induced anxious rats. The results of this study demonstrated that the administration of eszopiclone and zolpidem both were equally effective in attenuating footshock stressor-induced suppression of slow-wave sleep (SWS). The administration of eszopiclone at 1 mg/kg or zolpidem at 1 and 3 mg/kg doses showed a tendency for attenuating stressor-induced suppression of REM sleep. However, the REM sleep attenuating effects of these drugs disappeared when they were administered at higher doses. The administration of eszopiclone at 3 and 10 mg/kg doses and zolpidem at all three doses reduced the power of electroencephalographic theta band frequencies during wakefulness. In addition, the administration of eszopiclone at 1 and 3 mg/kg doses suppressed stressor-induced anxiety-like behavior. The administration of zolpidem at 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg doses was not effective in attenuating stressor-induced anxiety-like behavior. Contextual memory after administration of eszopiclone at 1 mg/kg dose had no effects, but was reduced significantly with increased dosage. Contextual memory after administration of zolpidem, at all three doses, was severely disrupted. The results of this study suggest that eszopiclone at a low dose could be used effectively to control anxiety and anxiety-induced insomnia. PMID:20153782

  20. Effect of Early-Life Fluoxetine on Anxiety-Like Behaviors in BDNF Val66Met Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincheva, Iva; Yang, Jianmin; Li, Anfei; Marinic, Tina; Freilingsdorf, Helena; Huang, Chienchun; Casey, B J; Hempstead, Barbara; Glatt, Charles E; Lee, Francis S; Bath, Kevin G; Jing, Deqiang

    2017-12-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage in which the incidence of psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders, peaks. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the main class of agents used to treat anxiety disorders. However, the impact of SSRIs on the developing brain during adolescence remains unknown. The authors assessed the impact of developmentally timed SSRI administration in a genetic mouse model displaying elevated anxiety-like behaviors. Knock-in mice containing a common human single-nucleotide polymorphism (Val66Met; rs6265) in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a growth factor implicated in the mechanism of action of SSRIs, were studied based on their established phenotype of increased anxiety-like behavior. Timed administration of fluoxetine was delivered during one of three developmental periods (postnatal days 21-42, 40-61, or 60-81), spanning the transition from childhood to adulthood. Neurochemical and anxiety-like behavioral analyses were performed. We identified a "sensitive period" during periadolescence (postnatal days 21-42) in which developmentally timed fluoxetine administration rescued anxiety-like phenotypes in BDNF Val66Met mice in adulthood. Compared with littermate controls, BDNFMet/Met mice exhibited diminished maturation of serotonergic fibers projecting particularly to the prefrontal cortex, as well as decreased expression of the serotonergic trophic factor S100B in the dorsal raphe. Interestingly, deficient serotonergic innervation, as well as S100B levels, were rescued with fluoxetine administration during periadolescence. These findings suggest that SSRI administration during a "sensitive period" during periadolescence leads to long-lasting anxiolytic effects in a genetic mouse model of elevated anxiety-like behaviors. These persistent effects highlight the role of BDNF in the maturation of the serotonin system and the capacity to enhance its development through a pharmacological intervention.

  1. Behavioral phenotype of maLPA1-null mice: increased anxiety-like behavior and spatial memory deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, L.J.; Bilbao, A.; Pedraza, C.; Matas-Rico, E.; López-Barroso, D.; Castilla-Ortega, E.; Sánchez-López, J.; Riquelme, R.; Varela-Nieto, I.; de la Villa, P.; Suardíaz, M.; Chun, J.; De Fonseca, F. Rodriguez; Estivill-Torrús, G.

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has emerged as a new regulatory molecule in the brain. Recently, some studies have demonstrated a role for this molecule and its LPA1 receptor in the regulation of plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult brain. However, no systematic studies have been conducted to investigate whether the LPA1 receptor is involved in behavior. Here we studied the phenotype of maLPA1–null mice, which bear a targeted deletion at the lpa1 locus, in a battery of tests examining neurologic performance, habituation in exploratory behavior in response to low and mild anxiety environments and spatial memory. MaLPA1-null mutants showed deficits in both olfaction and somesthesis, but not in retinal or auditory functions. Sensorimotor coordination was impaired only in the equilibrium and grasping reflexes. The mice also showed impairments in neuromuscular strength and analgesic response. No additional differences were observed in the rest of the tests used to study sensoriomotor orientation, limb reflexes, and coordinated limb use. At behavioral level, maLPA1-null mice showed an impaired exploration in the open field and increased anxiety-like response when exposed to the elevated plus maze. Furthermore, the mice exhibit impaired spatial memory retention and reduced use of spatial strategies in the Morris water maze. We propose that the LPA1 receptor may play a major role in both spatial memory and response to anxiety-like conditions. PMID:19689455

  2. Raphe serotonin neuron-specific oxytocin receptor knockout reduces aggression without affecting anxiety-like behavior in male mice only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, J H; Williams Avram, S K; Cui, Z; Song, J; Mezey, É; Senerth, J M; Baumann, M H; Young, W S

    2015-02-01

    Serotonin and oxytocin influence aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors, though it is unclear how the two may interact. That the oxytocin receptor is expressed in the serotonergic raphe nuclei suggests a mechanism by which the two neurotransmitters may cooperatively influence behavior. We hypothesized that oxytocin acts on raphe neurons to influence serotonergically mediated anxiety-like, aggressive and parental care behaviors. We eliminated expression of the oxytocin receptor in raphe neurons by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the serotonin transporter promoter (Slc6a4) with our conditional oxytocin receptor knockout line. The knockout mice generated by this cross are normal across a range of behavioral measures: there are no effects for either sex on locomotion in an open-field, olfactory habituation/dishabituation or, surprisingly, anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated O and plus mazes. There was a profound deficit in male aggression: only one of 11 raphe oxytocin receptor knockouts showed any aggressive behavior, compared to 8 of 11 wildtypes. In contrast, female knockouts displayed no deficits in maternal behavior or aggression. Our results show that oxytocin, via its effects on raphe neurons, is a key regulator of resident-intruder aggression in males but not maternal aggression. Furthermore, this reduction in male aggression is quite different from the effects reported previously after forebrain or total elimination of oxytocin receptors. Finally, we conclude that when constitutively eliminated, oxytocin receptors expressed by serotonin cells do not contribute to baseline anxiety-like behaviors or maternal care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  3. Effects of comfort food on food intake, anxiety-like behavior and the stress response in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ortolani, D.; Oyama, L.M.; Ferrari, E.M.; Melo, L.L.; R.C. Spadari-Bratfisch

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that access to high caloric food attenuates stress response. the present paper investigates whether access to commercial chow enriched with glucose and fat, here referred to as comfort food alters behavioral, metabolic, and hormonal parameters of rats submitted to three daily sessions of foot-shock stress. Food intake, anxiety-like behaviors, and serum levels of insulin, leptin, corticosterone. glucose and triglycerides were determined. the rats submitted to stress decre...

  4. Central nervous system-specific knockout of steroidogenic factor 1 results in increased anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Kim, Ki Woo; Ikeda, Yayoi; Anderson, Kimberly K; Beck, Laurel; Chase, Stephanie; Tobet, Stuart A; Parker, Keith L

    2008-06-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) plays key roles in adrenal and gonadal development, expression of pituitary gonadotropins, and development of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH). If kept alive by adrenal transplants, global knockout (KO) mice lacking SF-1 exhibit delayed-onset obesity and decreased locomotor activity. To define specific roles of SF-1 in the VMH, we used the Cre-loxP system to inactivate SF-1 in a central nervous system (CNS)-specific manner. These mice largely recapitulated the VMH structural defect seen in mice lacking SF-1 in all tissues. In multiple behavioral tests, mice with CNS-specific KO of SF-1 had significantly more anxiety-like behavior than wild-type littermates. The CNS-specific SF-1 KO mice had diminished expression or altered distribution in the mediobasal hypothalamus of several genes whose expression has been linked to stress and anxiety-like behavior, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the type 2 receptor for CRH (Crhr2), and Ucn 3. Moreover, transfection and EMSAs support a direct role of SF-1 in Crhr2 regulation. These findings reveal important roles of SF-1 in the hypothalamic expression of key regulators of anxiety-like behavior, providing a plausible molecular basis for the behavioral effect of CNS-specific KO of this nuclear receptor.

  5. Anxiety-like behavior and dysregulation of miR-34a in triple transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y-L; Xing, R-Z; Luo, X-B; Xu, H; Chang, R C-C; Zou, L-Y; Liu, J-J; Yang, X-F

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the development of the brain and also implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies implied that dysregulation of miRNAs is involved in neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorder in AD. In this study, behavioral experiments such as open field test, elevated plus maze test and light-dark box test were performed to evaluate anxiety-like behaviors in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD mice), and Q-PCR was used to measure the change of miR-34a expression. Behavioral tests revealed anxiety-like behaviors in 3xTg-AD mice. Q-PCR assay showed significantly elevated expression of miR-34a in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice compared with the age- and gender-matched wild-type mice. Western-blot analysis showed that the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (GRM7) but not fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), two anxiety disorder-related target genes of miR-34a, was significantly decreased in hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice compared with the wild-type mice. We concluded that anxiety-like behavior occurred in 3xTg-AD mice with an involvement of miR-34a/GRM7.

  6. Surgical stress induced depressive and anxiety like behavior are improved by dapsone via modulating NADPH oxidase level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Tian, Xiaosheng; Wang, Qiudian; Tong, Yawei; Wang, Hecheng; Li, Zhengqian; Li, Lunxu; Zhou, Ting; Zhan, Rui; Zhao, Lei; Sun, Yang; Fan, Dongsheng; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Jin, Yinglan; Xiao, Weizhong; Guo, Xiangyang; Chui, Dehua

    2015-01-12

    Surgical stress induced depression and anxiety like behavior are common complications among aged individuals suffering from surgery. Recent studies proposed that accumulation of oxidative stress is involved in the etiology of stress induced depression and anxiety. Dapsone possesses antioxidant properties, however, whether dapsone is effective in modulating surgical stress induced brain oxidative damage remains uncertain. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dapsone on surgical stress induced depressive and anxiety like behavior, and brain oxidative stress in a well-established surgical stress model. Depressive and anxiety like behavior accompanied by elevated brain oxidative stress were observed in aged mice underwent abdominal surgery. Pretreatment with 5 mg/kg dapsone significantly improved the behavioral disorder and ameliorated brain oxidative stress in this model. Further investigation, revealed that surgical stress increased brain NADPH oxidase level, while pretreatment with dapsone abrogated the elevation of NADPH oxidase triggered by surgical stress. These findings suggest that dapsone is effective in improving surgical stress induced brain oxidative damage via down-regulating NADPH oxidase level in aged mice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Effect of acupuncture on Lipopolysaccharide-induced anxiety-like behavioral changes: involvement of serotonin system in dorsal Raphe nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tae Young; Jang, Eun Young; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Gyu Won; Lee, Eun Byeol; Chang, Suchan; Lee, Jong Han; Koo, Jin Suk; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Hee Young

    2017-01-01

    Background Acupuncture has been used as a common therapeutic tool in many disorders including anxiety and depression. Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behaviors and SERT in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). Methods Rats were given acupuncture at ST41 (Jiexi), LI11 (Quchi) or SI3 (Houxi) acupoint in LPS-treated ...

  8. Pain aversion and anxiety-like behavior occur at different times during the course of chronic inflammatory pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu YY

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Wu,1 Xinmiao Yao,2 Yongliang Jiang,1 Xiaofen He,1 Xiaomei Shao,1 Junying Du,1 Zui Shen,1 Qiaoying He,1 Jianqiao Fang1 1Department of Neurobiology and Acupuncture Research, The Third Clinical Medical College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, 2The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Zhejiang, China Abstract: Pain is considered a multidimensional conscious experience that includes a sensory component and a negative affective-motivational component. The negative affective-motivational component of pain is different from the sensory component and amplifies the pain experience. Nowadays, a significant number of preclinical research groups have focused their attention on the affective symptoms of pain. In the present study, we investigated the pain aversion and anxiety-like behavior of the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced chronic pain model. CFA rats experienced spontaneous pain during pain-paired conditioning (pain aversion and spontaneous pain produces an affective response (anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, pain aversion was gradually attenuated, while the anxiety-like behavior increased in 4 weeks. Therefore, although the negative effect (including pain aversion and anxiety is always associated with hyperalgesia, the manifestations of negative effect may follow different time courses, which may influence the progress of primary disease. The findings illustrate that targeted therapy should focus on a specific aspect in different stages of pain. Our study emphasizes the necessity of using multiple tests to study pain comorbidities. Keywords: pain, pain aversion, pain affection, anxiety-like behavior, chronic inflammatory pain, rat 

  9. Effects of nano and conventional zinc oxide on anxiety-like behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Mozhgan; Kesmati, Mahnaz; Harooni, Hooman Eshagh; Varzi, Hosein Najafzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Current drug therapies for psychological disorders, such as anxiety, are not as effective as expected, and it has been shown that zinc supplements, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), can influence anxiety. ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most used nanomaterials produced and applied in many products. This study investigated the effects of ZnO NPs in comparison with conventional ZnO (cZnO) on anxiety-like behaviors. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Control (receiving saline 0.9%), ZnO NPs (5, 10, 20 mg/kg), and cZnO (5, 10, 20 mg/kg). All drugs were dispersed in saline 0.9%, and 30 minutes after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of drugs, elevated plus maze apparatus was used to evaluate anxiety. ZnO NPs (5 mg/kg) and cZnO (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly increased the percentage of time spent in open arm (open arm time % OAT) compared with the control group (P zinc concentration increased by both anxiolytic dose of components (from 1.75 ± 1.07 (mg/l) in control group to 5.31 ± 0.53 (mg/l) in ZnO NPs (5 mg/kg) and 10.38 ± 0.90 (mg/l) in cZnO (10 mg/kg) groups). Also, all doses increased serum pH (from 7.3 ± 0.05 in control group to 8.1 ± 0.05 in ZnO NPs (5 mg/kg) and 8.05 ± 0.01 in cZnO (10 mg/kg) groups and kept them constant after 24 hours. Results indicate that the anxiolytic effect of ZnO NPs is much higher than its conventional form, but the introduction of ZnO NPs, as a new drug for treatment of anxiety disorder, needs further investigations.

  10. Transgenic up-regulation of alpha-CaMKII in forebrain leads to increased anxiety-like behaviors and aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasegawa Shunsuke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated essential roles for alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaMKII in learning, memory and long-term potentiation (LTP. However, previous studies have also shown that alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice display a dramatic decrease in anxiety-like and fearful behaviors, and an increase in defensive aggression. These findings indicated that alpha-CaMKII is important not only for learning and memory but also for emotional behaviors. In this study, to understand the roles of alpha-CaMKII in emotional behavior, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing alpha-CaMKII in the forebrain and analyzed their behavioral phenotypes. Results We generated transgenic mice overexpressing alpha-CaMKII in the forebrain under the control of the alpha-CaMKII promoter. In contrast to alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in anxiety-like behaviors in open field, elevated zero maze, light-dark transition and social interaction tests, and a decrease in locomotor activity in their home cages and novel environments; these phenotypes were the opposite to those observed in alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice. In addition, similarly with alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in aggression. However, in contrast to the increase in defensive aggression observed in alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in offensive aggression. Conclusion Up-regulation of alpha-CaMKII expression in the forebrain leads to an increase in anxiety-like behaviors and offensive aggression. From the comparisons with previous findings, we suggest that the expression levels of alpha-CaMKII are associated with the state of emotion; the expression level of alpha-CaMKII positively correlates with the anxiety state and strongly affects

  11. Effects of neuropeptide Y and ethanol on arousal and anxiety-like behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Henderson, Angela N; Badia-Elder, Nancy E; Stewart, Robert B

    2011-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in the mammalian brain and plays a prominent role in behaviors related to negative affect and alcohol. NPY suppresses anxiety-like behavior and alcohol-drinking behaviors in a wide array of rodent models and also affects changes in these behaviors produced by fearful and stressful stimuli. Rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference (P rats) appear to be particularly sensitive to the behavioral effects of NPY. The dual purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of intraventricular NPY on (1) the acoustic startle response (ASR) of P rats in a high-anxiety setting and (2) social interaction behavior of P rats. In experiment 1, P rats were either cycled through periods of long-term ethanol access and abstinence or they remained ethanol naive. Rats were injected with one of four NPY doses and tested for ASR before and after footshock stress. NPY suppressed ASR in all P rats regardless of shock condition or drinking history. In experiment 2, rats received intraventricular infusion of one of four NPY doses and were then injected with either ethanol (0.75 g/kg) or saline and tested for social interaction. NPY increased social interaction in P rats even at doses that suppressed locomotor activity, regardless of ethanol dose. Suppression of anxiety-like and arousal behaviors by NPY in the present study confirm a role for NPY in alcohol-related behaviors in alcohol-preferring P rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High aggression in rats is associated with elevated stress, anxiety-like behavior, and altered catecholamine content in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Atrooz, Fatin; Alkadhi, Isam; Solanki, Naimesh; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    The social defeat paradigm involves aggressive encounters between Long-Evans (L-E) (resident) and Sprague-Dawley (S-D) (intruder) rats. Successful application of chronic social defeat stress in S-D rats is dependent upon selection of highly aggressive L-E rats. Half of the L-E rats screened for aggression did not meet the criterion for aggression (L-E rats performing a defeat, characterized by the intruder surrendering or acquiring a supine position for at least 3s). The observation of the differences in the level of aggression between age and weight matched L-E rats was quite compelling which led us to the present study. Herein, we measured behavioral differences between aggressor and non-aggressor L-E rats. We analyzed their anxiety-like behavior using open-field and elevated plus maze tests. We also measured aggression/violence-like behavior using two tests. In one, time taken to defeat the intruder S-D rat was recorded. In the second test, time taken to attack a novel object was compared between the two groups. We observed a significant increase in anxiety-like behavior in aggressor rats when compared to the non-aggressive group. Furthermore, time taken to defeat the intruder rat and to attack a novel object was significantly lower in aggressive L-E rats. Biochemical data suggests that heightened anxiety-like behavior and aggression is associated with increased plasma levels of corticosterones and elevated oxidative stress. Significant alterations in dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) were observed within the hippocampus, amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex, suggesting potential involvement of dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in regulation of aggressive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal dipyrone treatment during lactation in mice reduces maternal behavior and increases anxiety-like behavior in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Vanessa Barbosa; Batista, Tatiane Helena; Ribeiro, Ana Cláudia Alves Freire; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; Vilela, Fabiana Cardoso

    2017-05-01

    Dipyrone (metamizole), a powerful drug, is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic; however, the safety of its use during lactation and the potential impact on the offspring are not well established. This study aimed to determine the effect of maternal dipyrone treatment during lactation on offspring development and emotional behavior and on the dam's maternal behavior. Hence, on postnatal day (PND) 2, drinking water only or drinking water containing dipyrone at doses of 100, 300, and 500mg/kg/day, were offered to lactating mothers up to PND9. Thereafter, all mice were provided regular drinking water. On PND2, all litters were culled to 8 pups (4 males and 4 females). Maternal behavior was evaluated at PND3, 6, 9, and 12, and at PND7 we evaluated locomotor activity in the open field. Reflex parameters and physical development of offspring were evaluated during lactation. At PND7, analysis of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was performed. When the animals reached adolescence, we evaluated their performance in the open field, elevated plus maze (EPM), and marble burying. Our data demonstrated that maternal dipyrone treatment during lactation not only altered maternal behavior and the onset of physical and neurodevelopmental landmarks but also had an impact on anxiety-like behavior in offspring. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to short photoperiod regime reduces ventral subicular lesion-induced anxiety-like behavior in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadeep, Duttagupta; Srikumar, B N; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S; Kutty, Bindu M

    2017-03-01

    Neurodegeneration of hippocampal structures is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD exhibit 'sundown syndrome' featuring mood swings and anxiety. Although there are studies demonstrating circadian rhythm disruption associated with sundown phenomenon, the mechanisms underlying the emotional disturbances remain elusive. In the present study, we examined the relationship between subiculum (a key hippocampal output structure) and anxiety. Our study demonstrates that bilateral ventral subicular lesion (VSL) leads to anxiogenic behavior. In the elevated plus maze test, VSL rats made less number of entries into the open arms and spent significantly more time in the closed arms. Similarly, in the light-dark exploration test, VSL rats spent significantly more time in the dark chamber and made fewer entries into the light chamber. VSL also produced significant neurodegeneration in the paraventricular, suprachiasmatic and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. Exposing VSL rats to a short photoperiod regime (SPR; 06/18h light-dark cycle) for 21days ameliorated the anxiety-like behavior. VSL rats on SPR also exhibited increased food consumption and higher core body temperature. Our study supports the hypothesis that the ventral subiculum regulates anxiety-like behavior and that SPR helps in the alleviation of such behavior. Even though the mechanisms underlying anxiolytic effects of light-dark cycle manipulation are yet to be elucidated, such non-pharmacological strategies can help to mitigate anxiety-like behavior. A proper understanding of the effectiveness of photoperiod manipulation will help in developing strategies in the management of emotional disturbances associated with affective and neurodegenerative disorders including AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impulsive choice predicts anxiety-like behavior, but not alcohol or sucrose consumption, in male Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Renda, C Renee; Barker, Shayne M; Liston, Kennan J; Shahan, Timothy A; Madden, Gregory J

    2015-05-01

    Prior human research indicates robust, positive relations between impulsive choice (i.e., preference for smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) and alcohol use disorders. However, varied findings in the nonhuman literature reveal a relatively ambiguous relation between impulsive choice and alcohol consumption in rodents. In addition, few rodent studies have investigated potential relations between impulsive choice and common covariates of alcohol consumption (e.g., avidity for sweet substances or anxiety-like behavior). Ninety-two male Long-Evans rats completed an impulsive-choice task. From this larger sample, extreme high- and low-impulsive groups (n = 30 each) were retained for further testing. In separate tests, subsequent open-field behavior and consumption of oral alcohol (12% w/v) and isocaloric sucrose were examined. Impulsive choice was then retested to examine whether behavior remained stable over the course of the experiment. No significant relations emerged between impulsive choice and either alcohol or sucrose consumption. However, impulsive choice predicted greater anxiety-like behavior (avoidance of the center field, defecation) in the open-field test. In turn, greater anxiety predicted lower alcohol and sucrose consumption. Finally, choice remained generally stable across the experiment, although high-impulsive rats tended toward less impulsive choice in the retest. Although impulsive choice and alcohol consumption appear to share some variance with anxiety-like behavior, the present data offer no support for a relation between impulsive choice and alcohol consumption in Long-Evans rats. Together with mixed rodent data from prior reports, these findings attenuate cross-species comparisons to human relations between impulsive choice and alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Cigarette smoke exposure during adolescence but not adulthood induces anxiety-like behavior and locomotor stimulation in rats during withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, June Bryan; Ahsan, Hafiz Muhammad; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Woo, Taeseon; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for cigarette smoking. Studies have shown that adolescent smokers are more likely to become addicted, are less likely to quit, and are more prone to relapse. In the present study, we examined the affective symptoms experienced by adolescents during withdrawal from cigarette smoke exposure. Towards this goal, adolescent male rats were repeatedly exposed to cigarette smoke, through an automated smoking machine, for 14 days. Then, cigarette smoke exposure was discontinued to induce spontaneous withdrawal. During the withdrawal period, anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test), locomotor activity (open-field test), and learning and memory (passive-avoidance test) were evaluated. These behavioral evaluations were conducted during the first, third, seventh, and fourteenth day of withdrawal. For comparison, parallel experiments were performed in adult rats. We found that adolescent rats exposed to cigarette smoke experiences increased anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity during withdrawal relative to control rats. Learning and memory processes were undisturbed. On the other hand, adult rats exposed to cigarette smoke did not show any statistically significant behavioral alteration during withdrawal. These results are consistent with the notion that adolescents are differentially sensitive to the withdrawal effects of cigarette smoking. This sensitivity might be a factor why adolescent smokers have difficulty quitting and are more prone to relapse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  18. The Effect of Electroacupuncture on PKMzeta in the ACC in Regulating Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Rats Experiencing Chronic Inflammatory Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory pain can induce emotional diseases. Electroacupuncture (EA has effects on chronic pain and pain-related anxiety. Protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta has been proposed to be essential for the maintenance of pain and may interact with GluR1 to maintain CNS plasticity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We hypothesized that the PKMzeta-GluR1 pathway in the ACC may be involved in anxiety-like behaviors of chronic inflammatory pain and that the mechanism of EA regulation of pain emotion may involve the PKMzeta pathway in the ACC. Our results showed that chronic inflammatory pain model decreased the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT and increased anxiety-like behaviors. The protein expression of PKCzeta, p-PKCzeta (T560, PKMzeta, p-PKMzeta (T560, and GluR1 in the ACC of the model group were remarkably enhanced. EA increased PWT and alleviated anxiety-like behaviors. EA significantly inhibited the protein expression of p-PKMzeta (T560 in the ACC, and only a downward trend effect for other substances. Further, the microinjection of ZIP remarkably reversed PWT and anxiety-like behaviors. The present study provides direct evidence that the PKCzeta/PKMzeta-GluR1 pathway is related to pain and pain-induced anxiety-like behaviors. EA treatment both increases pain-related somatosensory behavior and decreases pain-induced anxiety-like behaviors by suppressing PKMzeta activity in the ACC.

  19. Effects of experimental sleep deprivation on anxiety-like behavior in animal research: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Bezerra, Andréia Gomes; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2016-09-01

    Increased acute anxiety is a commonly reported behavioral consequence of sleep deprivation in humans. However, rodent studies conducted so far produced inconsistent results, failing to reproduce the same sleep deprivation induced-anxiety observed in clinical experiments. While some presented anxiogenesis as result of sleep deprivation, others reported anxiolysis. In face of such inconsistencies, this article explores the effects of experimental sleep deprivation on anxiety-like behavior in animal research through a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses. A total of 50 of articles met our inclusion criteria, 30 on mice, 19 on rats and one on Zebrafish. Our review shows that sleep deprivation induces a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in preclinical models, which is opposite to results observed in human settings. These results were corroborated in stratified analyses according to species, sleep deprivation method and anxiety measurement technique. In conclusion, the use of animal models for the evaluation of the relationship between sleep deprivation lacks translational applicability and new experimental tools are needed to properly evaluate sleep deprivation-induced anxiogenesis in rodents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebellar Shank2 Regulates Excitatory Synapse Density, Motor Coordination, and Specific Repetitive and Anxiety-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seungmin; Lee, Dongwon; Cho, Yi Sul; Chung, Changuk; Yoo, Ye-Eun; Kim, Jihye; Lee, Jiseok; Kim, Woohyun; Kim, Hyosang; Bae, Yong Chul; Tanaka-Yamamoto, Keiko; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-11-30

    Shank2 is a multidomain scaffolding protein implicated in the structural and functional coordination of multiprotein complexes at excitatory postsynaptic sites as well as in psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. While Shank2 is strongly expressed in the cerebellum, whether Shank2 regulates cerebellar excitatory synapses, or contributes to the behavioral abnormalities observed in Shank2-/- mice, remains unexplored. Here we show that Shank2-/- mice show reduced excitatory synapse density in cerebellar Purkinje cells in association with reduced levels of excitatory postsynaptic proteins, including GluD2 and PSD-93, and impaired motor coordination in the Erasmus test. Shank2 deletion restricted to Purkinje cells (Pcp2-Cre;Shank2fl/fl mice) leads to similar reductions in excitatory synapse density, synaptic protein levels, and motor coordination. Pcp2-Cre;Shank2fl/fl mice do not recapitulate autistic-like behaviors observed in Shank2-/- mice, such as social interaction deficits, altered ultrasonic vocalizations, repetitive behaviors, and hyperactivity. However, Pcp2-Cre;Shank2fl/fl mice display enhanced repetitive behavior in the hole-board test and anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark test, which are not observed in Shank2-/- mice. These results implicate Shank2 in the regulation of cerebellar excitatory synapse density, motor coordination, and specific repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors. The postsynaptic side of excitatory synapses contains multiprotein complexes, termed the postsynaptic density, which contains receptors, scaffolding/adaptor proteins, and signaling molecules. Shank2 is an excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein implicated in the formation and functional coordination of the postsynaptic density and has been linked to autism spectrum disorders. Using Shank2-null mice and Shank2-conditional knock-out mice with a gene deletion restricted to cerebellar Purkinje cells, we explored functions of Shank2 in the cerebellum. We

  1. Role of Leptin and Orexin-A Within the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus on Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alò, Raffaella; Avolio, Ennio; Mele, Maria; Fazzari, Gilda; Carelli, Antonio; Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Canonaco, Marcello

    2017-05-01

    It is well established that the maintenance of energy expenditure is linked to active hypothalamic neural mechanisms controlling adaptive stimuli such as food intake. Variations of glucose levels and hormonal (leptin plus orexin-A) parameters, which are involved with energy homeostasis during different behavioral states, have not yet been fully defined. In this first study, behavioral analyses of an unpredictable stress model dealing with the actions of a sub-chronic administration of orexin-A (ORX-A) and the anti-hunger neuropeptide, i.e., leptin (LEP) within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic (SCH) nucleus, were conducted on the valuable hibernating rodent (hamster; Mesocricetus auratus) model noted for its distinct depression and anxiety states. Treatment with LEP accounted for a notable reduction (p anxiety-like behaviors with respect to that of ORX-A signaling, which may constitute useful therapeutic targets for stress-related obesity states.

  2. Sexual motivation and anxiety-like behaviors of male rats after exposure to a trauma followed by situational reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne; Grissom, Elin; Keskitalo, Lisa; Hastings, Tyler; Dohanich, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Experiencing a traumatic event can produce long-lasting impairments in affective and social behaviors. In humans, psychopathologies associated with exposure to a single traumatic event often are associated with varying degrees of sexual dysfunction. Similarly, in rats, exposure to a trauma results in long-lasting changes in social behaviors. The current investigation examined if the sexual and affective behaviors of male rats were impacted by exposure to a discrete traumatic event that was followed days later by reminders of the event. The initial trauma combined exposure to a foot shock and predator odor, followed 3 and 7 days later by reminders of the trauma in the absence of either stressor. A day after the final reminder, traumatized rats exhibited decreased sexual motivation indicated by prolonged mount and intromission latencies, although ejaculation latencies and post-ejaculatory intervals remained unchanged. Traumatized rats also exhibited marked increases in anxiety-like behavior in a novel environment as evidenced by longer latencies to begin feeding, decreased movement and ambulation, and fewer entries into the center of an open field. Taken together, the results of the current study suggest that exposure to a single traumatic event, followed by reminders of the event, affected the motivation of male rats to interact with a receptive female and increased their anxiety-like behaviors. Moreover, because posttraumatic stress disorder can arise from exposure to a single traumatic event and is associated with recurrent and intrusive thoughts related to the trauma, the current findings have implications for our understanding of this disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Disruption of Circadian Rhythms in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Causes Helplessness, Behavioral Despair, and Anxiety-like Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Dominic; Long, Jaimie E; Proulx, Christophe D; Barandas, Rita; Malinow, Roberto; Welsh, David K

    2016-12-01

    Major depressive disorder is associated with disturbed circadian rhythms. To investigate the causal relationship between mood disorders and circadian clock disruption, previous studies in animal models have employed light/dark manipulations, global mutations of clock genes, or brain area lesions. However, light can impact mood by noncircadian mechanisms; clock genes have pleiotropic, clock-independent functions; and brain lesions not only disrupt cellular circadian rhythms but also destroy cells and eliminate important neuronal connections, including light reception pathways. Thus, a definitive causal role for functioning circadian clocks in mood regulation has not been established. We stereotactically injected viral vectors encoding short hairpin RNA to knock down expression of the essential clock gene Bmal1 into the brain's master circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In these SCN-specific Bmal1-knockdown (SCN-Bmal1-KD) mice, circadian rhythms were greatly attenuated in the SCN, while the mice were maintained in a standard light/dark cycle, SCN neurons remained intact, and neuronal connections were undisturbed, including photic inputs. In the learned helplessness paradigm, the SCN-Bmal1-KD mice were slower to escape, even before exposure to inescapable stress. They also spent more time immobile in the tail suspension test and less time in the lighted section of a light/dark box. The SCN-Bmal1-KD mice also showed greater weight gain, an abnormal circadian pattern of corticosterone, and an attenuated increase of corticosterone in response to stress. Disrupting SCN circadian rhythms is sufficient to cause helplessness, behavioral despair, and anxiety-like behavior in mice, establishing SCN-Bmal1-KD mice as a new animal model of depression. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of a stressor and corticotrophin releasing factor on ethanol deprivation-induced ethanol intake and anxiety-like behavior in alcohol-preferring P rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Darin J; Overstreet, David H; Huang, Mae; Wills, Tiffany A; Whitman, Buddy A; Angel, Robert A; Sinnett, Sarah E; Breese, George R

    2011-11-01

    Stress may elevate ethanol drinking and anxiety associated with ethanol drinking. Studies to identify relevant neurobiological substrates are needed. To assess roles of brain regions in corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) effects on stressor-enhanced, ethanol deprivation-induced drinking and anxiety-like behavior. Ethanol-preferring rats (P rats) were exposed to three cycles of a two-bottle choice paradigm with two 2-day deprivation periods that included 1 h exposure to a restraint stressor. To assess the role of CRF and to identify relevant brain regions, a CRF-1 receptor antagonist (SSR125543; 10 ug) was injected into the nucleus accumbens (NAC), amygdala (Amyg), or dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) prior to exposure to the restraint stressor. In a second study, CRF (0.5 ug) was injected into one of these regions, or the ventral tegmental area (VTA), or paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Applying the restraint stressor during deprivation increased voluntary intake and sensitized anxiety-like behavior. Antagonist injection into the NAC prevented increased drinking without affecting anxiety-like behavior, whereas injection into the Amyg or DRN prevented the anxiety-like behavior without affecting drinking. To confirm CRF actions in the stressor effect, CRF was injected into selected brain regions. NAC injections (but not the VTA, Amyg, DRN, or PVN) facilitated drinking but did not change anxiety-like behavior. Injections into the DRN or Amyg (but not PVN or VTA) enhanced anxiety-like behavior. Results emphasize that a restraint stressor elevates ethanol intake and sensitizes ethanol deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior through CRF1 receptors in the NAC and Amyg/DRN, respectively.

  5. Monosodium glutamate and treadmill exercise: Anxiety-like behavior and spreading depression features in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor-de-Lima, Suênia Marcele; Medeiros, Larissa de Brito; Benevides, Regina de Deus Lira; Dos Santos, Catarina Nicácio; Lima da Silva, Nahara Oliveira; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2017-11-10

    The route of administration is an important factor in determining the action of some drugs. We previously demonstrated that subcutaneous monosodium glutamate (MSG) accelerated cortical spreading depression (CSD) in the rat and that treadmill exercise attenuated this effect. This study evaluated whether other routes of administration exert the same action by testing orogastric (gavage) and topical cortical MSG administration in treadmill-exercised and sedentary rats. Additionally, in the orogastric treatment we tested anxiety-like behavior. Exercised and sedentary rats received per gavage water or MSG (1 or 2 g/kg) daily from postnatal (P) day 7 to 27. Behavioral tests (open field and elevated plus-maze) occurred at P53 ± 3. At P56 ± 3, we analyzed CSD parameters (velocity, amplitude, and duration of the negative potential change). Other three groups of rats received an MSG solution (25, 50 or 75 mg/ml) topically to the intact dura mater during CSD recording. MSG-gavage increased anxiety-like behavior and the CSD velocities compared with water-treated controls (P < 0.05). Exercise decelerated CSD. In contrast to gavage, which accelerated CSD, topical MSG dose-dependently and reversibly impaired CSD propagation, reduced CSD amplitude and increased CSD duration (P < 0.05). The exercise-dependent attenuation of the effects of MSG confirms our previous results in rats treated subcutaneously with MSG. CSD results suggest two distinct mechanisms for gavage and topical MSG administration. Additionally, data suggest that exercise can help protect the developing and adult brain against the deleterious actions of MSG.

  6. HPA Activity and Neotic and Anxiety-Like Behavior Vary among Peromyscus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Lynn B.; Trainor, Brian C.; Finy, M. Sima; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    Behaviorally plastic species are more likely to invade and endure in new areas, and behaviorally plastic individuals tend to be attracted to novelty (i.e., neophilic). Furthermore, neophilic behaviors are often influenced by glucocorticoids. Thus in addition to environmental conditions and vicariant events, behavioral plasticity and its endocrinological mediators may influence the extent of vertebrate geographic distributions. Some species of mice in the genus, Peromyscus, occupy most of Nort...

  7. Effects of Aqueous Matricaria Recutita extract on anxiety-like behavior in rat’s model kindled by Pentylenetetrazole

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    Gholamreza Komeili

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kindling can increase anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Oxidative stress has an important role in arousing anxiety. It is known that Matricaria Recutita has an antioxidant effect. Thus, the present study aimed at assessing the effects of this plant’s extract. on anxiety-like behavior induced by kindling in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar Albino rats (wt:200-250 g were randomly divided into 4 equal groups; namely control (intact, kindling, diazepam (2 mg/kg, and aqueous extract of Matricaria Recutita (30 mg/kg intrapertoneally. Kindling was done by a sub-convulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 40 mg/kg, i.p. in the remainder . groups. Kindling parameters in all these animals were evaluated by a plus elevated maze. The percent of time spent in the open arms of maze (OAT % and percent of entries in the open arms (OAE % were accounted for anxiety evaluation. Increase in OAT % and OAE % indicated an anxiolytic effect. Finally,the obtained data was analyzed by means of Any-Maze software and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results: Kindling significantly (P<0.05 increased anxiety response in rats for at least 24h following the last seizure (decrease in OAT % and OAE %. Administeration of diazepam and Matricaria Recutita induced a significant increase in OAT % and OAE %, thereby . displaying a decrease in the anxiety in the kindled rats (P<0.05. Activity rate of the animals increased in the extract-treated group. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that Matricaria Recutita was able to improve elevated levels of anxiety in kindled rats. Therefore, further works are needed to elucidate the extent and mechanism of these effects.

  8. Ropren(®) treatment reverses anxiety-like behavior and monoamines levels in gonadectomized rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, Julia; Soultanov, Vagif; Nikitina, Tamara; Roschin, Victor; Ordyan, Natalia; Hritcu, Lucian

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies indicated that reduced androgen levels may contribute to both physical and cognitive disorders in men, including Alzheimer's disease. New drug candidates for Alzheimer's disease in patients with androgen deficiency should ideally be able to act not only on multiple brain targets but also to correct impaired endocrine functions in hypogonadal men with Alzheimer's disease. Ropren(®) is one such candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in men with an imbalance of androgens. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of long-term Ropren(®) administration (8.6mg/kg, orally, once daily, for 28 days) on the anxiety-like behavior and monoamines levels in the rat hippocampus using a β-amyloid (25-35) rat model of Alzheimer's disease following gonadectomy. Ropren(®) was administered to the gonadectomized (GDX) rats and GDX rats treated with testosterone propionate (TP, 0.5mg/kg, subcutaneous, once daily, for 28 days). Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the light-dark test (LDT), locomotor and grooming activities were assessed in the open field test (OFT). Ropren(®) alone or in combination with TP-induced anxiolytic effects as evidenced in the EPM and in the LDT and increased locomotor activity in the OFT. Additionally, it was observed that dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels increased while 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-HT ratio in the hippocampus decreased. Our results indicate that Ropren(®) has a marked anxiolytic-like action due to an increase in the monoamines levels in the experimental rat model of Alzheimer's disease with altered levels of androgens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Overexpression of mineralocorticoid receptors does not affect memory and anxiety-like behavior in female mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanatsou, S.; Kuil, L.E.; Arp, M.; Oitzl, M.S.; Harris, A.P.; Seckl, J.R.; Krugers, H.J.; Joels, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) have been implicated in behavioral adaptation and learning and memory. Since-at least in humans-MR function seems to be sex-dependent, we examined the behavioral relevance of MR in female mice exhibiting transgenic MR overexpression in the forebrain. Transgenic MR

  10. Interleukin-1 receptor null mutant mice show decreased anxiety-like behavior and enhanced fear memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja Wook; Duman, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    IL-1β is a proinflammatory cytokine that contributes to psychological stress responses and has been implicated in various psychiatric disorders most notably depression. Preclinical studies also demonstrate that IL-1β modulates anxiety- and fear-related behaviors, although these findings are difficult to assess because IL-1β infusions influence locomotor activity and nociception. Here we demonstrate that IL-1RI null mice exhibit a behavioral phenotype consistent with a decrease in anxiety-related behaviors. This includes significant effects in the elevated plus maze, light–dark, and novelty-induced hypophagia tests compared to wild-type mice, with no differences in locomotor activity. With regard to fear conditioning, IL-1RI null mice showed more freezing in auditory and contextual fear conditioning tests, and there was no effect on pain sensitivity. Taken together, the results indicate that the IL-1β/IL-1RI signaling pathway induces anxiety-related behaviors and impairs fear memory. PMID:19429130

  11. Overexpression of mineralocorticoid receptors does not affect memory and anxiety-like behavior in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eKanatsou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs have been implicated in behavioral adaptation and learning and memory. Since – at least in humans - MR function seems to be sex-dependent, we examined the behavioral relevance of MR in female mice exhibiting transgenic MR overexpression in the forebrain. Transgenic MR overexpression did not affect contextual fear memory or cued fear learning and memory. Moreover, MR overexpressing and control mice discriminated equally well between fear responses in a combined cue and context fear conditioning paradigm. Also context-memory in an object recognition task was unaffected in MR overexpressing mice. We conclude that MR overexpression in female animals does not affect fear conditioned responses and object recognition memory.

  12. Neonatal tactile stimulation decreases depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors and potentiates sertraline action in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Daniele; Antoniazzi, Caren T D; Segat, Hecson J; Metz, Vinícia Garzella; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that events which occur in early life exert a significant influence on brain development, what can be reflected throughout adulthood. This study was carried out in order to assess the influence of neonatal tactile stimulation (TS) on behavioral and morphological responses related to depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors, assessed following the administration of sertraline (SERT), a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI). Male pups were submitted to daily TS, from postnatal day 8 (PND8) to postnatal day 14 (PND14), for 10 min every day. On PND50, adult animals were submitted to forced swimming training (15 min). On PND51, half of each experimental group (UH and TS) received a single sub-therapeutic dose of sertraline (SER, 0.3mg/kg body weight, i.p.) or its vehicle (C, control group). Thirty minutes after injection, depression-like behaviors were quantified in forced swimming test (FST, for 5 min). On the following day, anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in elevated plus maze (EPM), followed by biochemical assessments. TS per se increased swimming time, decreasing immobility time in FST. Besides, TS per se was able to increase frequency of head dipping and time spent in the open arms of EPM, resulting in decreased anxiety index. In addition, groups exposed to TS showed decreased plasma levels of corticosterone per se. Interestingly, while TS exposure significantly potentiated the antidepressant activity of a subtherapeutic dose of SERT, this drug was able to exacerbate TS-induced anxiolytic activity, as observed in FST and EPM, respectively. Decreased plasma levels of both corticosterone and cortisol in animals exposed to TS and treated with SERT are able to confirm the interesting interaction between this neonatal handling and the antidepressant drug. From our results, we conclude that neonatal TS is able to exert beneficial influence on the ability to cope with stressful situations in adulthood, preventing depression and favorably

  13. Modulatory effects of caffeine on oxidative stress and anxiety-like behavior in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravan, Ionut; Sevastre Berghian, Alexandra; Moldovan, Remus; Decea, Nicoleta; Orasan, Remus; Filip, Gabriela Adriana

    2016-09-01

    Menopause is accompanied by enhanced oxidative stress and behavioral changes, effects attenuated by antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on behavior and oxidative stress in an experimental model of menopause. Female rats were divided into the following groups: sham-operated (CON), sham-operated and caffeine-treated (CAF), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized and caffeine-treated (OVX+CAF). Caffeine (6 mg/kg) and vehicle were administered for 21 days (subchronic) and 42 days (chronic), using 2 experimental subsets. Behavioral tests and oxidative stress parameters in the blood, whole brain, and hippocampus were assessed. The subchronic administration of caffeine decreased the lipid peroxidation and improved the antioxidant defense in the blood and brain. The GSH/GGSG ratio in the brain was improved by chronic administration, with reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes and enhanced nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels. In particular, the lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus decreased in both experiments. The rats became hyperactive after 21 days of treatment, but no effect was observed after chronic administration. In both experimental subsets, caffeine had anxiolytic effects as tested in elevated plus maze. The administration of low doses of caffeine, for a short period of time, may be a new therapeutic approach to modulating the oxidative stress and anxiety in menopause.

  14. Insular muscarinic signaling regulates anxiety-like behaviors in rats on the elevated plus-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Chen, Lei; Li, Peng; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhai, Haifeng

    2014-08-15

    Anxiety is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders, and little is known about its pathogenesis. In order to investigate the neural mechanisms of this mental disorder, we used rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze as an animal model of anxiety and the insular cortex (insula) as a brain target. The microinjection of non-selective and selective M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonists or antagonists was used to explore whether the insular muscarinic receptor and its subtypes regulate levels of anxiety. The results showed that both non-selective and selective M1 and M4 mAChR agonists increased the time spent on exploring in the open arms, whereas antagonists decreased exploration. Our results indicate that activation of insular mAChRs could produce anxiolytic effects, whereas inhibition of insular mAChRs could increase anxiety. We concluded that the insular muscarinic system plays a role in the modulation of anxiety, and dysfunction of mAChR signaling may be involved in the mechanism of anxiogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased anxiety-like behavior but no cognitive impairments in adult rats exposed to constant light conditions during perinatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Erika; Karlsson, Oskar

    2013-11-01

    Shift-work is suggested to affect fetal development negatively. In particular, maternal hormonal disturbance arising from sleep deprivation or circadian rhythm changes may disturb fetal growth or lead to complications during pregnancy. Exposure to constant light is an environmental stressor that can affect the circadian system and has been shown to induce neurochemical and behavioral changes when used during the prenatal and/or postnatal period in experimental animals. However, studies investigating long-term effects of constant light in the offspring are sparse. An accidental power outage resulted in pregnant females being housed under constant light (LL) conditions for seven days of the offspring perinatal development (embryonic day 20 to postnatal day 4). The long-term effects of constant light on the behavior in the adult offspring were assessed by means of open field, object recognition, and water maze tests. In adulthood, LL-animals displayed an intact recognition memory and no deficits in spatial learning or memory. In the open field test, LL-animals exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior, observed as significantly more thigmotaxis and less ambulation. These results were confirmed in the other behavioral tests as the LL-animals spent less time exploring the objects in the object recognition test, and showed thigmotactic behavior also in the water maze test. The results confirm that early life experience can cause changes in brain development that shape brain function and add to the sparse literature on long-term effects of constant light conditions during perinatal development on specific behaviors in adulthood.

  16. Lithium administration to preadolescent rats causes long-lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior and has molecular consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Rachael M; Chu, Melissa S; Meloni, Edward G; Naydenov, Alipi; Carlezon, William A; Konradi, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Lithium (Li) is frequently used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BPD), a debilitating condition that is increasingly diagnosed in children and adolescents. Because the symptoms of BPD in children are different from the typical symptoms in adulthood and have significant overlap with other childhood psychiatric disorders, this disorder is notoriously difficult to diagnose. This raises the possibility that some children not affected by BPD are treated with Li during key periods of brain development. The objective of this investigation was to examine the long-term effects of Li on the developing brain via a series of behavioral and molecular studies in rats. Rat pups were reared on Li chow for 3 weeks. Parallel groups were tested while on Li chow or 2 and 6 weeks after discontinuation of treatment. We found increased measures of anxiety-like behavior at all times tested. Gene microarray studies of the amygdala revealed that Li affected the expression of gene transcripts of the synapse and the cytoskeleton, suggesting that the treatment induced synaptic adjustments. Our study indicates that Li can alter the trajectory of brain development. Although the effects of Li on the normal brain seems unfavorable, effects on the abnormal brain cannot be determined from these studies alone and may well be therapeutic. Our results indicate that Li administration to the normal brain has the potential for lasting adverse effects.

  17. Effects of Chronic Electroacupuncture on Depression- and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Rats with Chronic Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence indicates that chronic neuropathic pain is frequently accompanied by an array of psychiatric diseases, such as depression and anxiety. Electroacupuncture (EA, as one therapy of traditional Chinese medicine, has displayed potent antidepressant-like effects in numerous clinical studies. The present study was designed to examine the possible effects of EA on the depressive and anxiety disorders induced by neuropathic pain. A classic rat model of neuropathic pain was produced by chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve. EA was performed on acupoints “Bai-Hui” (GV20 and unilateral “Yang-Ling-Quan” (GB34. The antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of EA treatment were analyzed using the forced swimming test (FST and the elevated plus maze (EPM test, respectively. CCI resulted in remarkable depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, whereas the chronic EA treatment significantly improved the behavioral deficits of CCI rats. Moreover, the phosphorylation level of the NMDA receptor type 1 (NR1 subunit was decreased in the hippocampus of CCI rats. Intriguingly, continuous EA treatment effectively blocked this decrease in the levels of pNR1. These results suggested that EA has antidepressive and anxiolytic effects on rats with neuropathic pain and that this might be associated with restoring the phosphorylation of NR1 in the hippocampus.

  18. Insufficient intake of L-histidine reduces brain histamine and causes anxiety-like behaviors in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takeo; Nakamura, Tadaho; Shibakusa, Tetsuro; Sugita, Mayu; Naganuma, Fumito; Iida, Tomomitsu; Miura, Yamato; Mohsen, Attayeb; Harada, Ryuichi; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2014-10-01

    L-histidine is one of the essential amino acids for humans, and it plays a critical role as a component of proteins. L-histidine is also important as a precursor of histamine. Brain histamine is synthesized from L-histidine in the presence of histidine decarboxylase, which is expressed in histamine neurons. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the importance of dietary L-histidine as a precursor of brain histamine and the histaminergic nervous system. C57BL/6J male mice at 8 wk of age were assigned to 2 different diets for at least 2 wk: the control (Con) diet (5.08 g L-histidine/kg diet) or the low L-histidine diet (LHD) (1.28 g L-histidine/kg diet). We measured the histamine concentration in the brain areas of Con diet-fed mice (Con group) and LHD-fed mice (LHD group). The histamine concentration was significantly lower in the LHD group [Con group vs. LHD group: histamine in cortex (means ± SEs): 13.9 ± 1.25 vs. 9.36 ± 0.549 ng/g tissue; P = 0.002]. Our in vivo microdialysis assays revealed that histamine release stimulated by high K(+) from the hypothalamus in the LHD group was 60% of that in the Con group (P = 0.012). However, the concentrations of other monoamines and their metabolites were not changed by the LHD. The open-field tests showed that the LHD group spent a shorter amount of time in the central zone (87.6 ± 14.1 vs. 50.0 ± 6.03 s/10 min; P = 0.019), and the light/dark box tests demonstrated that the LHD group spent a shorter amount of time in the light box (198 ± 8.19 vs. 162 ± 14.1 s/10 min; P = 0.048), suggesting that the LHD induced anxiety-like behaviors. However, locomotor activity, memory functions, and social interaction did not differ between the 2 groups. The results of the present study demonstrated that insufficient intake of histidine reduced the brain histamine content, leading to anxiety-like behaviors in the mice. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. The BigLEN-GPR171 Peptide Receptor System Within the Basolateral Amygdala Regulates Anxiety-Like Behavior and Contextual Fear Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeck, Erin N; Gomes, Ivone; Pena, Darlene; Cummings, Kirstie A; Clem, Roger L; Mezei, Mihaly; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2017-12-01

    Studies show that neuropeptide-receptor systems in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) play an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. Since GPR171, a recently deorphanized receptor for the abundant neuropeptide BigLEN, is expressed in the BLA, we investigated its role in fear and anxiety-like behaviors. To carry out these studies we identified small molecule ligands using a homology model of GPR171 to virtually screen a library of compounds. One of the hits, MS0021570_1, was identified as a GPR171 antagonist based on its ability to block (i) BigLEN-mediated activation of GPR171 in heterologous cells, (ii) BigLEN-mediated hyperpolarization of BLA pyramidal neurons, and (iii) feeding induced by DREADD-mediated activation of BigLEN containing AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus. The role of GPR171 in anxiety-like behavior or fear conditioning was evaluated following systemic or intra-BLA administration of MS0021570_1, as well as following lentiviral-mediated knockdown of GPR171 in the BLA. We find that systemic administration of MS0021570_1 attenuates anxiety-like behavior while intra-BLA administration or knockdown of GPR171 in the BLA reduces anxiety-like behavior and fear conditioning. These results indicate that the BigLEN-GPR171 system plays an important role in these behaviors and could be a novel target to develop therapeutics to treat psychiatric disorders.

  20. Mecamylamine attenuates dexamethasone-induced anxiety-like behavior in association with brain derived neurotrophic factor upregulation in rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Ik; Kim, Hong Gi; Jung, Woo Ram; Shin, Min Kyoo; Kim, Kil Lyong

    2011-01-01

    Mecamylamine (MEC), which was initially developed as a ganglionic blocker for the treatment of hypertension has been investigated as a potent antagonist for most types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Most studies of MEC have focused on its inhibitory effects for nAChRs; however its biological uses have recently been expanded to the treatment of psychological disorders accompanying anxiety-related symptoms. Although MEC shows obvious anxiolytic action, there is no clear evidence on its function. In this study, we investigated whether MEC affects brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in vitro and in vivo. MEC increased BDNF expression in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and the cerebral cortex region of rat brains. To determine if the anxiolytic effect of MEC is associated with BDNF upregulation, the elevated plus maze (EPM) task was conducted in a dexamethasone (DEX)-induced anxiety model. MEC reduced DEX-induced anxiety-like behavior, and increased BDNF expression in the cerebral cortex of rats. These results suggest that the anxiolytic effect of MEC in EPM might be associated with BDNF upregulation in the cerebral cortex region of rats. The therapeutic efficacy of MEC for anxiety might be partly dependent on BDNF modulation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effect of phencyclidine derivatives on anxiety-like behavior using an elevated-plus maze test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajikhani, Ramin; Ahmadi, Abbas; Naderi, Nima; Yaghoobi, Kayvan; Shirazizand, Zahra; Rezaee, Nazereh M; Niknafs, Babak N

    2012-01-01

    The study attempted to investigate the anti-anxiety activities of Phencyclidine (1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl) piperidine, PCP, I) and some of its derivatives (M, F, L, B, S, P) with the elevated-plus maze (EPM) Test. Phencyclidine and its derivatives (M, F, L, B, S, P) were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 10 mg/kg to male mice. Anxiety-like behaviors were assessed using the elevated-plus maze test. EPM results revealed an increase in open arms time spent after applying PCP and M, L, P, and B compounds at the administered dosage. Moreover, an increase in the number of open arm entries was observed with M, P, and B compounds. The P, B and S compounds increased the locomotion of animals, too, which might be considered as the side effect to the compounds. Considering the elevated-plus maze results, it was concluded that M and L compounds could be considered as a potential anxiolytic with less side effects due to a probable high electron donation of the methoxy group, as well as the hydrophilic properties of hydroxyl groups on these compounds.

  2. Prothymosin alpha-deficiency enhances anxiety-like behaviors and impairs learning/memory functions and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Keita; Halder, Sebok Kumar; Deguchi, Yuichi; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tajima, Atsushi

    2017-04-01

    Prothymosin alpha (ProTα) is expressed in various mammalian organs including the neuronal nuclei in the brain, and is involved in multiple functions, such as chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, and survival. ProTα has beneficial actions against ischemia-induced necrosis and apoptosis in the brain and retina. However, characterizing the physiological roles of endogenous ProTα in the brain without stress remains elusive. Here, we generated ProTα-deficiency mice to explore whether endogenous ProTα is involved in normal brain functions. We successfully generated heterozygous ProTα knockout (ProTα +/- ) mice, while all homozygous ProTα knockout (ProTα -/- ) offspring died at early embryonic stage, suggesting that ProTα has crucial roles in embryonic development. In the evaluation of different behavioral tests, ProTα +/- mice exhibited hypolocomotor activity in the open-field test and enhanced anxiety-like behaviors in the light/dark transition test and the novelty induced hypophagia test. ProTα +/- mice also showed impaired learning and memory in the step-through passive avoidance test and the KUROBOX test. Depression-like behaviors in ProTα +/- mice in the forced swim and tail suspension tests were comparable with that of wild-type mice. Furthermore, adult hippocampal neurogenesis was significantly decreased in ProTα +/- mice. ProTα +/- mice showed an impaired long-term potentiation induction in the evaluation of electrophysiological recordings from acute hippocampal slices. Microarray analysis revealed that the candidate genes related to anxiety, learning/memory-functions, and neurogenesis were down-regulated in ProTα +/- mice. Thus, this study suggests that ProTα has crucial physiological roles in the robustness of brain. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Anxiety-like, novelty-seeking and memory/learning behavioral traits in male Wistar rats submitted to early weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; da Silva Lima, Natália; Lisboa, Patrícia C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Silva, Juliana Oliveira; Claudio-Neto, Sylvio; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Manhães, Alex C

    2014-01-30

    The most frequently used animal models of early weaning (EW) in rodents, maternal deprivation and pharmacological inhibition of lactation, present confounding factors, such as high stress or drug side effects, that can mask or interact with the effects of milk deprivation per se. Given these limitations, the development of new models of EW may provide useful information regarding the impact of a shortened period of breastfeeding on the endocrine and nervous systems, both during development and at adulthood. Using a model of EW in which lactating Wistar rat dams are wrapped with a bandage to block access to milk during the last three days of lactation, we have recently shown that the adult offspring presented higher body mass, hyperphagia, hyperleptinemia, leptin as well as insulin resistance, and higher adrenal catecholamine content at adulthood. Here, we used this EW model, which involves no pharmacological treatment or maternal separation, to analyze anxiety-like, novelty-seeking and memory/learning behavioral traits in the adult male offspring. To that end, animals were tested in the elevated plus maze, in the hole board arena and in the radial arm water maze. Except for an increased number of rearing events (a measure of vertical activity), no other behavioral differences were observed between EW and control animals. The contrasting behavioral results between the three EW models may be associated with differences in HPA axis function in the offspring at weaning, since it has been observed that bandaging does not affect corticosteronemia while maternal separation and pharmacological EW increase it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  5. Increases in anxiety-like behavior induced by acute stress are reversed by ethanol in adolescent but not adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2012-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnatal day (P35)] Sprague-Dawley rats differ from their adult counterparts (P70) in the impact of acute restraint stress on social anxiety and in their sensitivity to the social anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Animals were restrained for 90 min, followed by examination of stress- and ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/kg) alterations in social behavior using a modified social interaction test in a familiar environment. Acute restraint stress increased anxiety, as indexed by reduced levels of social investigation at both ages, and decreased social preference among adolescents. These increases in anxiety were dramatically reversed among adolescents by acute ethanol. No anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol emerged following restraint stress in adults. The social suppression seen in response to higher doses of ethanol was reversed by restraint stress in animals of both ages. To the extent that these data are applicable to humans, the results of the present study provide some experimental evidence that stressful life events may increase the attractiveness of alcohol as an anxiolytic agent for adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of comfort food on food intake, anxiety-like behavior and the stress response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, D; Oyama, L M; Ferrari, E M; Melo, L L; Spadari-Bratfisch, R C

    2011-07-06

    It has been suggested that access to high caloric food attenuates stress response. The present paper investigates whether access to commercial chow enriched with glucose and fat, here referred to as comfort food alters behavioral, metabolic, and hormonal parameters of rats submitted to three daily sessions of foot-shock stress. Food intake, anxiety-like behaviors, and serum levels of insulin, leptin, corticosterone, glucose and triglycerides were determined. The rats submitted to stress decreased the intake of commercial chow, but kept unaltered the intake of comfort food. During the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, stressed rats increased the number of head dipping, entries into the open arms, as well as the time spent there, and decreased the number of stretched-attend posture and risk assessment. These effects of stress were independent of the type of food consumed. Non-stressed rats ingesting comfort food decreased risk assessment as well. Stress and comfort food increased time spent in the center of the open field and delayed the first crossing to a new quadrant. Stress increased the plasma level of glucose and insulin, and reduced triglycerides, although consumption of comfort food increases glucose, triglyceride and leptin levels; no effect on leptin level was associated to stress. The stress induced increase in serum corticosterone was attenuated when rats had access to comfort food. It was concluded that foot-shock stress has an anorexigenic effect that is independent of leptin and prevented upon access to comfort food. Foot-shock stress also has an anxiolytic effect that is potentiated by the ingestion of comfort food and that is evidenced by both EPM and open field tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel mechanistic insights into treadmill exercise based rescue of social defeat-induced anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Ansari, Amber; Allam, Farida; Jannise, Brittany; Maturi, Jaganmohan; Salim, Samina

    2014-01-01

    Social defeat (SD) induced stress causes physiological and behavioral deficits in rodents, including depression and anxiety-like behaviors, as well as memory impairment. Anxiolytic and mood elevating effects of physical exercise are also known. However, rescue effect of physical exercise in social defeat-induced anxiety, depression or memory impairment has not been addressed. Role of epigenetic mechanisms that potentially contribute to these rescue or protective effects are also not known. Pr...

  8. Novel mechanistic insights into treadmill exercise based rescue of social defeat-induced anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Ansari, Amber; Allam, Farida; Jannise, Brittany; Maturi, Jaganmohan; Salim, Samina

    2014-05-10

    Social defeat (SD) induced stress causes physiological and behavioral deficits in rodents, including depression and anxiety-like behaviors, as well as memory impairment. Anxiolytic and mood elevating effects of physical exercise are also known. However, rescue effect of physical exercise in social defeat-induced anxiety, depression or memory impairment has not been addressed. The role of epigenetic mechanisms that potentially contribute to these rescue or protective effects is also not known. The present study investigated the effect of moderate treadmill exercise on anxiety-like behavior and memory function in rats subjected to SD using a modified version of the resident-intruder model for social stress (defeat). Changes in histone acetylation and histone-modifying enzymes were examined in hippocampus, amygdala and frontal cortex which are considered critical for anxiety, depression and cognition. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned in four groups; control, exercised, social defeat, social defeat and exercise. At the end of the SD or control exposure lasting 30 min daily for 7 days, one group of SD rats was subjected to treadmill exercise for 2 weeks, whereas the other SD group was handled without exercise. Anxiety-like behavior tests and radial arm water maze test suggested that moderate treadmill exercise rescued social defeat induced anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment. Moreover, exercise normalized SD-induced increase in oxidative stress, most likely by adjusting antioxidant response. Our data suggests involvement of epigenetic mechanisms including histone acetylation of H3 and modulation of methyl-CpG-binding in the hippocampus that might contribute to the rescue effects of exercise in SD-induced behavioral deficits in rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Grape powder intake prevents ovariectomy-induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment and high blood pressure in female Wistar rats.

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    Gaurav Patki

    Full Text Available Diminished estrogen influence at menopause is reported to be associated with cognitive decline, heightened anxiety and hypertension. While estrogen therapy is often prescribed to overcome these behavioral and physiological deficits, antioxidants which have been shown beneficial are gaining nutritional intervention and popularity. Therefore, in the present study, utilizing the antioxidant properties of grapes, we have examined effect of 3 weeks of grape powder (GP; 15 g/L dissolved in tap water treatment on anxiety-like behavior, learning-memory impairment and high blood pressure in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Four groups of female Wistar rats were used; sham control, sham-GP treated, OVX and OVX+GP treated. We observed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in OVX rats as compared to sham-controls. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased anxiety-like behavior and caused learning and memory impairment in rats as compared to sham-controls. Interestingly, providing grape powder treated water to OVX rats restored both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, decreased anxiety-like behavior and improved memory function. Moreover, OVX rats exhibited an impaired long term potentiation which was restored with grape powder treatment. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased oxidative stress in the brain, serum and urine, selectively decreasing antioxidant enzyme, glyoxalase-1 protein expression in the hippocampus but not in the cortex and amygdala of OVX rats, while grape powder treatment reversed these effects. Other antioxidant enzyme levels, including manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that grape powder by regulating oxidative stress mechanisms exerts its protective effect on blood pressure, learning-memory and anxiety-like behavior. Our study is the first to examine behavioral, biochemical, physiological and electrophysiological outcome of estrogen depletion in rats and to test protective role

  10. Grape Powder Intake Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior, Memory Impairment and High Blood Pressure in Female Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Allam, Farida H.; Atrooz, Fatin; Dao, An T.; Solanki, Naimesh; Chugh, Gaurav; Asghar, Mohammad; Jafri, Faizan; Bohat, Ritu; Alkadhi, Karim A.; Salim, Samina

    2013-01-01

    Diminished estrogen influence at menopause is reported to be associated with cognitive decline, heightened anxiety and hypertension. While estrogen therapy is often prescribed to overcome these behavioral and physiological deficits, antioxidants which have been shown beneficial are gaining nutritional intervention and popularity. Therefore, in the present study, utilizing the antioxidant properties of grapes, we have examined effect of 3 weeks of grape powder (GP; 15 g/L dissolved in tap water) treatment on anxiety-like behavior, learning-memory impairment and high blood pressure in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Four groups of female Wistar rats were used; sham control, sham-GP treated, OVX and OVX+GP treated. We observed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in OVX rats as compared to sham-controls. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased anxiety-like behavior and caused learning and memory impairment in rats as compared to sham-controls. Interestingly, providing grape powder treated water to OVX rats restored both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, decreased anxiety-like behavior and improved memory function. Moreover, OVX rats exhibited an impaired long term potentiation which was restored with grape powder treatment. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased oxidative stress in the brain, serum and urine, selectively decreasing antioxidant enzyme, glyoxalase-1 protein expression in the hippocampus but not in the cortex and amygdala of OVX rats, while grape powder treatment reversed these effects. Other antioxidant enzyme levels, including manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that grape powder by regulating oxidative stress mechanisms exerts its protective effect on blood pressure, learning-memory and anxiety-like behavior. Our study is the first to examine behavioral, biochemical, physiological and electrophysiological outcome of estrogen depletion in rats and to test protective role of grape powder

  11. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors

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    Letícia Scheidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36 were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16, 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12, or water (n = 12 every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  12. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Letícia; Fries, Gabriel Rodrigo; Stertz, Laura; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Kapczinski, Flávio; de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers. Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36) were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND) 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16), 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12), or water (n = 12) every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test) and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze) during adulthood. Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex. Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  13. Gavage of D-Ribose induces Aβ-like deposits, Tau hyperphosphorylation as well as memory loss and anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Beibei; Wei, Yan; Wang, Yujing; Su, Tao; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Ying; He, Rongqiao

    2015-10-27

    In addition to D-Glucose, D-Ribose is also abnormally elevated in the urine of type 2 diabetic patients, establishing a positive correlation between the concentration of uric D-Ribose and the severity of diabetes. Intraperitoneal injection of D-Ribose causes memory loss and brain inflammation in mice. To simulate a chronic progression of age-related cognitive impairment, we orally administered D-Ribose by gavage at both a low and high dose to 8 week-old male C57BL/6J mice daily for a total of 6 months, followed by behavioral, histological and biochemical analysis. We found that long-term oral administration of D-Ribose impairs spatial learning and memory, accompanied by anxiety-like behavior. Tau was hyperphosphorylated at AT8, S396, S214 and T181 in the brain. Aβ-like deposition was also found in the hippocampus for the high dose group. D-Glucose-gavaged mice did not show significant memory loss and anxiety-like behavior under the same experimental conditions. These results demonstrate that a long-term oral administration of D-Ribose not only induces memory loss with anxiety-like behavior, but also elevates Aβ-like deposition and Tau hyperphosphorylation, presenting D-Ribose-gavaged mouse as a model for age-related cognitive impairment and diabetic encephalopathy.

  14. The effect of Elettaria cardamomum extract on anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi-Ardakani, Yaser; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Mirzaei, Amin; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Ghazvini, Hamed; Khalifeh, Solmaz; Sepehri, Gholamreza

    2017-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition which develops in 6-8% of the general population. Current standard pharmacological treatments for PTSD cannot be widely used due to having various side effects. Nowadays, various pharmacological properties have been related to Elettaria cardamomum L. (family of Zingiberaceae). The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of E. cardamomum methanolic extract on anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of PTSD. Adult male Wistar rats (200-250gr) were used in this study. The rats underwent single prolonged stress (SPS) or control and intraperitoneally received either saline or different dosages (200, 400, and 800mg/kg) of E. cardamomum methanolic extract before and after stress sessions. Moreover, open field, elevated plus-maze, and rotarod tests were used to evaluate locomotion and anxiety-like behavior in the rats. Findings demonstrated that E. Cardamomum methanolic extract, particularly at the dose of 400mg/kg, significantly (Panxiety-like behavior in a rat model of PTSD, as examined by the open field, elevated plus-maze, and rotarod tests. Administration of E. cardamomum methanolic extract after stress might help to prevent the formation of anxiety-like behavior in the animals. However, further studies are requiredto clarify the exact mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Influence of nicotine on doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide combination treatment-induced spatial cognitive impairment and anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Kanemoto, Erika; Sugimoto, Misaki; Machida, Ayumi; Nakamura, Yuka; Naito, Nanami; Kanzaki, Hirotaka; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato; Sendo, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of nicotine on cognitive impairment, anxiety-like behavior, and hippocampal cell proliferation in rats treated with a combination of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Combined treatment with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide produced cognitive impairment and anxiety-like behavior in rats. Nicotine treatment reversed the inhibition of novel location recognition induced by the combination treatment. This effect of nicotine was blocked by methyllycaconitine, a selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, and dihydro-β-erythroidine, a selective α4β2 nAChR antagonist. In addition, nicotine normalized the amount of spontaneous alternation seen during the Y-maze task, which had been reduced by the combination treatment. This effect of nicotine was inhibited by dihydro-β-erythroidine. In comparison, nicotine did not affect the anxiety-like behavior induced by the combination treatment. Furthermore, the combination treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and this was also prevented by nicotine. Finally, the combination of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide significantly reduced hippocampal α7 nAChR mRNA expression. These results suggest that nicotine inhibits doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide-induced cognitive impairment via α7 nAChR and α4β2 nAChR, and also enhances hippocampal neurogenesis.

  16. Enhancement of behavioral sensitization, anxiety-like behavior, and hippocampal and frontal cortical CREB levels following cocaine abstinence in mice exposed to cocaine during adolescence.

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    Maria Cristina Valzachi

    Full Text Available Adolescence has been linked to greater risk-taking and novelty-seeking behavior and a higher prevalence of drug abuse and risk of relapse. Decreases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB have been reported after repeated cocaine administration in animal models. We compared the behavioral effects of cocaine and abstinence in adolescent and adult mice and investigated possible age-related differences in CREB and pCREB levels. Adolescent and adult male Swiss mice received one daily injection of saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p. for 8 days. On day 9, the mice received a saline injection to evaluate possible environmental conditioning. After 9 days of withdrawal, the mice were tested in the elevated plus maze to evaluate anxiety-like behavior. Twelve days after the last saline/cocaine injection, the mice received a challenge injection of either cocaine or saline, and locomotor activity was assessed. One hour after the last injection, the brains were extracted, and CREB and pCREB levels were evaluated using Western blot in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus. The cocaine-pretreated mice during adolescence exhibited a greater magnitude of the expression of behavioral sensitization and greater cocaine withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior compared with the control group. Significant increases in CREB levels in the PFC and hippocampus and pCREB in the hippocampus were observed in cocaine-abstinent animals compared with the animals treated with cocaine in adulthood. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between cocaine sensitization and CREB levels in both regions. These results suggest that the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of psychoactive substances in a still-developing nervous system can be more severe than in an already mature nervous system.

  17. Ethanol intake under social circumstances or alone in sprague-dawley rats: impact of age, sex, social activity, and social anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric M; Spear, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    In human adolescents, heavy drinking is often predicted by high sociability in males and high social anxiety in females. This study assessed the impact of baseline levels of social activity and social anxiety-like behavior in group-housed adolescent and adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats on ethanol (EtOH) intake when drinking alone or in a social group. Social activity and anxiety-like behavior initially were assessed in a modified social interaction test, followed by 6 drinking sessions that occurred every other day in animals given ad libitum food and water. Sessions consisted of 30-minute access to 10% EtOH in a "supersac" (3% sucrose + 0.1% saccharin) solution given alone as well as in groups of 5 same-sex littermates, with order of the alternating session types counterbalanced across animals. Adolescent males and adults of both sexes overall consumed more EtOH under social than alone circumstances, whereas adolescent females ingested more EtOH when alone. Highly socially active adolescent males demonstrated elevated levels of EtOH intake relative to their low and medium socially active counterparts when drinking in groups, but not when tested alone. Adolescent females with high levels of social anxiety-like behavior demonstrated the highest EtOH intake under social, but not alone circumstances. Among adults, baseline levels of social anxiety-like behavior did not contribute to individual differences in EtOH intake in either sex. The results clearly demonstrate that in adolescent rats, but not their adult counterparts, responsiveness to a social peer predicts EtOH intake in a social setting-circumstances under which drinking typically occurs in human adolescents. High levels of social activity in males and high levels of social anxiety-like behavior in females were associated with elevated social drinking, suggesting that males ingest EtOH for its socially enhancing properties, whereas females ingest EtOH for its socially anxiolytic effects. Copyright

  18. Dissociating the effects of habituation, black walls, buspirone and ethanol on anxiety-like behavioral responses in shoaling zebrafish. A 3D approach to social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaswinkel, Hans; Le, Xi; He, Lucy; Zhu, Liqun; Weng, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the different patterns of anxiety-like behavioral responses is of great interest for pharmacological and genetic research. Here we report the effects of 3.5-hr habituation, buspirone and ethanol on those responses in shoaling zebrafish (Danio rerio). Since in these experiments we used a container with white walls, the effects of black-vs.-white walls were tested in a separate experiment. An important objective was to determine whether factors unrelated to anxiety played a role in modulating the responses. The anxiety-like behavioral responses studied here are social cohesion, distance from bottom and bottom-dwell time, radial distribution (to study thigmotaxis), transparent-wall preference (to study escape responses), locomotion and freezing. The experimental conditions yielded distinctly different response patterns. Thigmotaxis was the most obvious response to white walls and it was significantly reduced after 3.5-hr habituation. It was not affected by any of the drugs. The reduction of social cohesion after 3.5-hr habituation and in the 0.5% ethanol group was probably the most interesting effect seen in this study. A role of anxiety herein was suggested but could not be established with certainty. Other hypotheses were also discussed. The large increase of distance-from-bottom resulting in swimming close to the water surface, which occurred in both buspirone groups and in the 0.5%-ethanol group, is most likely not an anxiolytic response, because of the discrepancy with the in the literature well-established time-course and the absence of any effect of 3.5-hr habituation or black walls on vertical measures. Finally, locomotion and duration freezing could not be specifically taken as indicators for the state of anxiety and the results concerning transparent-wall preference were not sufficient clear. We conclude that the neuronal and ethological mechanisms underlying the effects of habituation, white-aversion, buspirone and ethanol on anxiety-like

  19. Dose- and time-dependent expression of anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze during withdrawal from acute and repeated intermittent ethanol intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongqi; Morse, Andrew C; Koob, George F; Schulteis, Gery

    2007-11-01

    Withdrawal from acute bolus intraperitoneal (IP) injection of high doses of ethanol elicits anxiety-like behavior (e.g. Doremus et al., 2003; Gauvin et al., 1989, 1992) and conditioned place aversion (Morse et al., 2000). More recently we demonstrated that withdrawal from a single moderate dose of ethanol (2.0 g/kg) is accompanied by elevations in brain reward thresholds, and that repeated intermittent treatment with this dose results in a significant potentiation of reward deficit (Schulteis and Liu, 2006). In the current study, the time- and dose-dependent emergence of anxiety-like behavior was measured in the elevated plus-maze at various times (3 to 24 hours) after acute or 3 daily IP injections of ethanol (1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 g/kg). Rats receiving daily handling for 2 days, and a single anxiety opportunity to explore the maze on a third day were divided into 1 of several treatment protocols: (1) NAIVE conditions: vehicle IP on all 3 days; (2) ACUTE conditions: vehicle on the first 2 days, ethanol on the third day; or (3) REPEAT conditions: ethanol on all 3 days. ACUTE ethanol elicited reduced exploration of the open arms of the elevated plus-maze in a dose- and time-dependent fashion: 1.0 g/kg failed to elicit any significant effects, whereas 2.0 and 3.0 g/kg ethanol elicited a significant anxiety-like response at 6 hours and 9 to 12 hours postinjection, respectively. REPEAT treatment was still without effect at any time point tested following 1.0 g/kg ethanol, but extended the time course of anxiety-like behavior after treatment with either 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg doses. REPEAT treatment with 2.0 and 3.0 g/kg ethanol also produced significant hypoactivity in the maze at some time points postinjection. Withdrawal from a single exposure to ethanol produces transient but significant anxiety-like behavior, and repeated intermittent bouts of intoxication result in a significant extension of the duration of effect. The rapid emergence and progression of negative emotional

  20. The prebiotics 3'Sialyllactose and 6'Sialyllactose diminish stressor-induced anxiety-like behavior and colonic microbiota alterations: Evidence for effects on the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Andrew J; Galley, Jeffrey D; Fisher, Sydney E; Chichlowski, Maciej; Berg, Brian M; Bailey, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    There are extensive bidirectional interactions between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system (CNS), and studies demonstrate that stressor exposure significantly alters gut microbiota community structure. We tested whether oligosaccharides naturally found in high levels in human milk, which have been reported to impact brain development and enhance the growth of beneficial commensal microbes, would prevent stressor-induced alterations in gut microbial community composition and attenuate stressor-induced anxiety-like behavior. Mice were fed standard laboratory diet, or laboratory diet containing the human milk oligosaccharides 3'Sialyllactose (3'SL) or 6'Sialyllactose (6'SL) for 2 weeks prior to being exposed to either a social disruption stressor or a non-stressed control condition. Stressor exposure significantly changed the structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota in control mice, as indicated by changes in beta diversity. The stressor resulted in anxiety-like behavior in both the light/dark preference and open field tests in control mice. This effect was associated with a reduction in immature neurons in the dentate gyrus as indicated by doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining. These effects were not evident in mice fed milk oligosaccharides; stressor exposure did not significantly change microbial community structure in mice fed 3'SL or 6'SL. In addition, 3'SL and 6'SL helped maintain normal behavior on tests of anxiety-like behavior and normal numbers of DCX+ immature neurons. These studies indicate that milk oligosaccharides support normal microbial communities and behavioral responses during stressor exposure, potentially through effects on the gut microbiota-brain axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol intake and impairs fear extinction in adulthood: Possible role of disrupted noradrenergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Time-dependent analysis of nociception and anxiety-like behavior in rats submitted to persistent inflammation of the temporomandibular joint.

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    do Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2014-02-10

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is prevalent in dental clinics and can involve problems with the masticatory muscles or the temporomandibular joints (TMJ). The pain of TMD is frequently associated with inflammation in the TMJs, but it's etiology is considered to be multifactorial and includes biologic, behavioral, environmental, social, emotional and cognitive factors. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the anxiety-like behavior in rats exposed to temporomandibular inflammation via injection of Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) with the elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark box (LDB) tests and to evaluate nociceptive behavior with the von Frey test at different periods. Moreover, this study measured TMJ inflammation using plasma extravasation (Evans blue test) and the intraarticular infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (myeloperoxidase quantification). The results showed that rats that were submitted to TMJ inflammation exhibited a decreased number of entries into the open arms of the EPM and a decrease in the time spent in the light compartment and in the number of transitions in the LDB. Additionally, the number of entries in closed arms in the EPM, used as indicator of locomotor activity, did not alter between treatments. Furthermore, increases in mechanical sensitivity and increases in plasma extravasation in the joint tissue occurred throughout the inflammation process, along with an increase in myeloperoxidase in the synovial fluid of TMJ. Our results suggest that the temporomandibular inflammation induced by CFA produced anxiety-like behaviors in rats and induced nociceptive behavior across different periods of inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of formaldehyde exposure on anxiety-like and depression-like behavior, cognition, central levels of glucocorticoid receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yani; Song, Zhuoyi; Ding, Yujuan; Xin, Ye; Wu, Tong; Su, Tao; He, Rongqiao; Tai, Fadao; Lian, Zhenmin

    2016-02-01

    Formaldehyde exposure is toxic to the brains of mammals, but the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of inhaled formaldehyde on anxiety, depression, cognitive capacity and central levels of glucocorticoid receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase in mice. After exposure to 0, 1 or 2 ppm gaseous formaldehyde for one week, we measured anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus-maze tests, depression-like behavior using a forced swimming test, learning and memory using novel object recognition tests, levels of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus and tyrosine hydroxylase in the Arc, MPOA, ZI and VTA using immuhistochemistry. We found that inhalation of 1 ppm formaldehyde reduced levels of anxiety-like behavior. Inhalation of 2 ppm formaldehyde reduced body weight, but increased levels of depression-like behavior, impaired novel object recognition, and lowered the numbers of glucocorticoid receptor immonureactive neurons in the hippocampus and tyrosine hydroxylase immonureactive neurons in the ventral tegmental area and the zona incerta, medial preoptic area. Different concentrations of gaseous formaldehyde result in different effects on anxiety, depression-like behavior and cognition ability which may be associated with alterations in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors and brain tyrosine hydroxylase levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Xiaochaihutang attenuates depressive/anxiety-like behaviors of social isolation-reared mice by regulating monoaminergic system, neurogenesis and BDNF expression.

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    Ma, Jie; Wang, Fang; Yang, Jingyu; Dong, Yingxu; Su, Guangyue; Zhang, Kuo; Pan, Xing; Ma, Ping; Zhou, Tingshuo; Wu, Chunfu

    2017-08-17

    Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), as a classical herbal formula for the treatment of "Shaoyang syndrome" has been demonstrated to exert an antidepressant effect in multiple animal models of depression as shown in our previous studies. However, the effects of XCHT on social isolation (SI)-reared mice have not been investigated. This study aims to explore the effects of XCHT on depressive/anxiety-like behaviors of SI-reared mice, and its implicated mechanisms, including alterations in the monoaminergic system, neurogenesis and neurotrophin expression. Male C57 BL/6J mice (aged 4 weeks after weaning) were reared isolatedly for 8 weeks and XCHT (0.8, 2.3, 7.0g/kg) were given by gavage once a day. Forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), open field test (OFT), elevated-plus maze test (EPM) and intruder-induced aggression test were used to explore the effects of XCHT on depressive/anxiety-like behaviors of SI-reared mice after administration of XCHT for 6 weeks. HPLC-MS/MS was performed to quantify the levels of neurotransmitters in the hippocampus by in vivo microdialysis, while western immunoblotting was used to evaluate the action of XCHT on the synthesis, transport and degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters. Immunofluorescence was used to study the effects of XCHT on neurogenesis and neurotrophin expression, including Ki-67, DCX, BrdU and BDNF. Our results showed that administration of XCHT (0.8, 2.3 and 7.0g/kg) for 6 weeks significantly attenuated the increase in immobility time in TST and FST, improved the anxiety-like behaviors in OFT and EPM, and improved the aggressive behaviors of SI-reared mice. XCHT significantly elevated monoamine neurotransmitters levels and inhibited 5-HT turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) in hippocampal microdialysates of SI-reared mice. In addition, we found XCHT enhanced monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis enzymes (TPH2 and TH) expressions, inhibited serotonin transporter (SERT) expression and decreased monoamine neurotransmitter

  5. Escitalopram or novel herbal mixture treatments during or following exposure to stress reduce anxiety-like behavior through corticosterone and BDNF modifications.

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    Ravid Doron

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a major public health concern worldwide. Studies indicate that repeated exposure to adverse experiences early in life can lead to anxiety disorders in adulthood. Current treatments for anxiety disorders are characterized by a low success rate and are associated with a wide variety of side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of a novel herbal treatment, in comparison to treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram. We recently demonstrated the anxiolytic effects of these treatments in BALB mice previously exposed to one week of stress. In the present study, ICR mice were exposed to post natal maternal separation and to 4 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress in adolescence, and treated during or following exposure to stress with the novel herbal treatment or with escitalopram. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in the elevated plus maze. Blood corticosterone levels were evaluated using radioimmunoassay. Brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that (1 exposure to stress in childhood and adolescence increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood; (2 the herbal treatment reduced anxiety-like behavior, both when treated during or following exposure to stress; (3 blood corticosterone levels were reduced following treatment with the herbal treatment or escitalopram, when treated during or following exposure to stress; (4 brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus of mice treated with the herbal treatment or escitalopram were increased, when treated either during or following exposure to stress. This study expands our previous findings and further points to the proposed herbal compound's potential to be highly efficacious in treating anxiety disorders in humans.

  6. Hypoxic-ischemic injury decreases anxiety-like behavior in rats when associated with loss of tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons of the substantia nigra

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    Hei, Ming-Yan; Luo, Ya-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Hong; Gao, Ru; Wu, Jing-Jiang [Department of Pediatrics, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2011-12-09

    Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, mild hypoxia-ischemia (HI), and severe HI groups (N = 10 in each group at each time) on postnatal day 7 (P7) to study the effect of mild and severe HI on anxiety-like behavior and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra (SN). The mild and severe HI groups were exposed to hypoxia (8% O{sub 2}/92% N{sub 2}) for 90 and 150 min, respectively. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) test was performed to assess anxiety-like behavior by measuring time spent in the open arms (OAT) and OAT%, and immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of TH in the SN at P14, P21, and P28. OAT and OAT% in the EPM were significantly increased in both the mild (1.88-, 1.99-, and 2.04-fold, and 1.94-, 1.51-, and 1.46-fold) and severe HI groups (1.69-, 1.68-, and 1.87-fold, and 1.83-, 1.43-, and 1.39-fold, respectively; P < 0.05). The percent of TH-positive cells occupying the SN area was significantly and similarly decreased in both the mild (17.7, 40.2, and 47.2%) and severe HI groups (16.3, 32.2, and 43.8%, respectively; P < 0.05). The decrease in the number of TH-positive cells in the SN and the level of protein expression were closely associated (Pearson correlation analysis: r = 0.991, P = 0.000 in the mild HI group and r = 0.974, P = 0.000 in the severe HI group) with the impaired anxiety-like behaviors. We conclude that neonatal HI results in decreased anxiety-like behavior during the juvenile period of Sprague-Dawley rats, which is associated with the decreased activity of TH in the SN. The impairment of anxiety and the expression of TH are not likely to be dependent on the severity of HI.

  7. Effects of Chronic Vitamin D3 Hormone Administration on Anxiety-Like Behavior in Adult Female Rats after Long-Term Ovariectomy

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    Julia Fedotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present preclinical study was created to determine the therapeutic effects of vitamin D hormone treatment as an adjunctive therapy alone or in a combination with low dose of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2 on anxiety-like behavior in female rats with long-term absence of estrogen. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic cholecalciferol administration (1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg subcutaneously, SC, once daily, for 14 days on the anxiety-like state after long-term ovariectomy in female rats. Twelve weeks postovariectomy, cholecalciferol was administered to ovariectomized (OVX rats and OVX rats treated with 17β-E2 (0.5 µg/rat SC, once daily, for 14 days. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM and the light/dark test (LDT, and locomotor and grooming activities were tested in the open field test (OFT. Cholecalciferol at two doses of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg alone or in combination with 17β-E2 produced anxiolytic-like effects in OVX rats as evidenced in the EPM and the LDT, as well as increased grooming activity in the OFT. Our results indicate that cholecalciferol, at two doses of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg, has a profound anxiolytic-like effects in the experimental rat model of long-term estrogen deficiency.

  8. Restraint Stress Alters Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ and CRF Systems in the Rat Central Amygdala: Significance for Anxiety-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Hansson, Anita C.; Ubaldi, Massimo; Kallupi, Marsida; Cruz, Maureen T.; Oleata, Christopher S.; Heilig, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is the primary mediator of stress responses, and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) plays an important role in the modulation of these stress responses. Thus, in this multidisciplinary study, we explored the relationship between the N/OFQ and the CRF systems in response to stress. Using in situ hybridization (ISH), we assessed the effect of body restraint stress on the gene expression of CRF and N/OFQ-related genes in various subdivisions of the amygdala, a critical brain structure involved in the modulation of stress response and anxiety-like behaviors. We found a selective upregulation of the NOP and downregulation of the CRF1 receptor transcripts in the CeA and in the BLA after body restraint. Thus, we performed intracellular electrophysiological recordings of GABAA-mediated IPSPs in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) to explore functional interactions between CRF and N/OFQ systems in this brain region. Acute application of CRF significantly increased IPSPs in the CeA, and this enhancement was blocked by N/OFQ. Importantly, in stress-restraint rats, baseline CeA GABAergic responses were elevated and N/OFQ exerted a larger inhibition of IPSPs compared with unrestraint rats. The NOP antagonist [Nphe1]-nociceptin(1–13)NH2 increased the IPSP amplitudes in restraint rats but not in unrestraint rats, suggesting a functional recruitment of the N/OFQ system after acute stress. Finally, we evaluated the anxiety-like response in rats subjected to restraint stress and nonrestraint rats after N/OFQ microinjection into the CeA. Intra-CeA injections of N/OFQ significantly and selectively reduced anxiety-like behavior in restraint rats in the elevated plus maze. These combined results demonstrate that acute stress increases N/OFQ systems in the CeA and that N/OFQ has antistress properties. PMID:24403138

  9. Acute effects of nicotine on restraint stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, c-Fos expression, and corticosterone release in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Ru; Chen, Tsung-Yen; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2007-07-02

    Clinical evidence suggests that nicotine reduces anxiety in stressful situations. In the present study, we investigated the effect of nicotine on restraint-enhanced anxiety-like behavior, c-Fos expression, an index of neuronal activation in the brain, and plasma corticosterone. Two-hour restraint stress-enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and nicotine hydrogen tartrate (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated the stress-induced changes. Pretreatment with the centrally acting nicotinic antagonist, mecamylamine (2 mg/kg), blocked nicotine's effects. In addition, restraint led to significant increases of c-Fos expression in several brain regions related to stress or anxiety including paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), lateral hypothalamic area (LH), central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA), medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) and cingulate and retrosplenial cortices (Cg/RS), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT), and basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA). Nicotine attenuated the restraint-induced expression of c-Fos in the PVN, LH, CeA, MeA, and Cg/RS, while leaving the BLA and PVT unaffected. In contrast, nicotine did not reverse the increased levels of plasma corticosterone induced by restraint. These findings suggest that nicotine may modify the stress-induced behavioral changes via regulating the neuronal activation in selected brain regions rather than affecting hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis hormone responses.

  10. Role of the MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors in mediating depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Clough, S J; Dubocovich, M L

    2017-06-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone primarily synthesized by the pineal gland following a circadian rhythm with a high level during the night and a low level during the day. Alterations in the synthesis and secretion of melatonin have been reported in various mood disorders, including major depressive disorder. However, the role of endogenous melatonin in the pathophysiology of depressive disorder is unclear. Melatonin primarily acts through two G protein-coupled receptors, termed MT1 and MT2 . The present study investigated the effect of genetic deletion of the MT1 and/or MT2 receptors on tests associated with depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in C3H/HeN mice. Deletion of the MT1 and/or MT2 receptors caused a deficit in hedonic and social interaction behavior, and increased anxiety-like behavior. It is likely that dysregulations of the MT1 and/or MT2 melatonin receptors could be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. Transient gastric irritation in the neonatal rats leads to changes in hypothalamic CRF expression, depression- and anxiety-like behavior as adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liansheng Liu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A disturbance of the brain-gut axis is a prominent feature in functional bowel disorders (such as irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia and psychological abnormalities are often implicated in their pathogenesis. We hypothesized that psychological morbidity in these conditions may result from gastrointestinal problems, rather than causing them.Functional dyspepsia was induced by neonatal gastric irritation in male rats. 10-day old male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0.1% iodoacetamide (IA or vehicle by oral gavage for 6 days. At 8-10 weeks of age, rats were tested with sucrose preference and forced-swimming tests to examine depression-like behavior. Elevated plus maze, open field and light-dark box tests were used to test anxiety-like behaviors. ACTH and corticosterone responses to a minor stressor, saline injection, and hypothalamic CRF expression were also measured.Behavioral tests revealed changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in IA-treated, but not control rats. As compared with controls, hypothalamic and amygdaloid CRF immunoreactivity, basal levels of plasma corticosterone and stress-induced ACTH were significantly higher in IA-treated rats. Gastric sensory ablation with resiniferatoxin had no effect on behaviors but treatment with CRF type 1 receptor antagonist, antalarmin, reversed the depression-like behavior in IA-treated ratsThe present results suggest that transient gastric irritation in the neonatal period can induce a long lasting increase in depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, increased expression of CRF in the hypothalamus, and an increased sensitivity of HPA axis to stress. The depression-like behavior may be mediated by the CRF1 receptor. These findings have significant implications for the pathogenesis of psychological co-morbidity in patients with functional bowel disorders.

  12. Adolescent chronic restraint stress (aCRS) elicits robust depressive-like behavior in freely cycling, adult female rats without increasing anxiety-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibicke, Meghan; Graham, Martha A; Hayslett, Renée L

    2017-04-01

    Stress during times of rapid development is a risk factor for Major Depressive Disorder, a mood disorder that disproportionately affects women. We developed an adolescent chronic restraint stress (aCRS) protocol using female rats to address the impact of adolescent stress on female adult depressive-like behavior. Animals were divided into 4 treatment groups: not restrained:saline (NRSAL), not restrained:desipramine (NRDES), restrained:saline (RSAL), and restrained:desipramine (RDES). NRSAL and NRDES rats were housed in a separate colony room from RSAL and RDES rats. All animals were weighed and handled daily. Beginning postnatal day (PND) 34(±1), RSAL and RDES rats were restrained for 1 hour daily for 14 consecutive days. Beginning PND 55(±1), NRDES and RDES rats were given subcutaneous desipramine (5 mg/kg), which served as a positive control, daily for 14 consecutive days. During that same time period, NRSAL and RSAL rats were given subcutaneous saline daily. aCRS (RSAL and RDES) rats showed significantly attenuated weight gain compared with nonrestrained (NRSAL and NRDES) rats during the restraint period. Weight gain normalized after the final restraint session. Behavioral testing took place PND 68-69(±1), and included open field testing, the elevated plus maze, locomotor activity, and the forced swim test (FST). RSAL rats showed significantly more immobility in the FST versus all other groups, indicating depressive-like behavior. No differences between groups were observed in the other behavioral measures. These results indicate that aCRS elicits depressive-like behavioral characteristics in adult female rats without increasing anxiety-like behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Fibroblast growth factor 2 alters the oxytocin receptor in a developmental model of anxiety-like behavior in male rat pups.

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    Litvin, Yoav; Turner, Cortney A; Rios, Mariel B; Maras, Pamela M; Chaudhury, Sraboni; Baker, Miriam R; Blandino, Peter; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; McEwen, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to determine the short-term effects of early-life stress in the form of maternal separation (MS) on anxiety-like behavior in male rat pups. In order to assess anxiety, we measured 40kHz separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) on postnatal day (PND) 11. We further aimed to evaluate the potential involvement of two neurochemical systems known to regulate social and anxiety-like behaviors throughout life: oxytocin (OT) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). For these purposes, we tested the effects of neonatal administration (on PND1) of an acute dose of FGF2 on USV and its potential interaction with MS. In addition, we validated the anxiolytic effects of OT and measured oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene expression, binding and epigenetic regulation via histone acetylation. Our results show that MS potentiated USV while acute administration of OT and FGF2 attenuated them. Further, we found that both FGF2 and MS increased OTR gene expression and the association of acH3K14 with the OTR promoter in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Comparable changes, though not as pronounced, were also found for the central amygdala (CeA). Our findings suggest that FGF2 may exert its anxiolytic effects in male MS rats by a compensatory increase in the acetylation of the OTR promoter to overcome reduced OT levels in the BNST. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Reduced anxiety-like behavior in transgenic rats with chronically overproduction of angiotensin-(1-7): Role of the Mas receptor.

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    Kangussu, Lucas M; Almeida-Santos, Ana Flávia; Moreira, Fabrício A; Fontes, Marco A P; Santos, Robson A S; Aguiar, Daniele C; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José

    2017-07-28

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], a counterregulatory peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), exerts its cardiovascular and renal functions through the G-protein-coupled receptor Mas. More recently, Ang-(1-7) has also been implicated in the control of emotional states related to fear and anxiety. Here, we tested the hypothesis that transgenic rats overexpressesing Ang-(1-7) (TGR) show reduced anxiety-like behavior in two distinct animals models, the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Vogel Conflict Test (VCT). Sprague-Dawley rats (SDs) were used as controls. In addition, we also verified whether this phenotype depend on activation of the Mas receptor. In line with our hypothesis, TGR rats showed an increase in the percentage of time and entries in the open arms of the EPM. There was also an increase in the number of punished licks in VCT. These phenotypes were reversed by ICV injection of the Mas receptor antagonist, A779, but not by the AT2 and MrgD receptor antagonist, PD123319. These results suggest that chronic elevation of Ang-(1-7) levels results in a phenotype characterized by reduced anxiety-like behavior, possibly due to higher activation of the Mas receptor. Therefore, facilitation of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor signaling may be further investigated as an additional strategy for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Estrogen and voluntary exercise interact to attenuate stress-induced corticosterone release but not anxiety-like behaviors in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexis B; Gupton, Rebecca; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2016-09-15

    The beneficial effects of physical exercise to reduce anxiety and depression and to alleviate stress are increasingly supported in research studies. The role of ovarian hormones in interactions between exercise and anxiety/stress has important implications for women's health, given that women are at increased risk of developing anxiety-related disorders, particularly during and after the menopausal transition. In these experiments, we tested the hypothesis that estrogen enhances the positive impact of exercise on stress responses by investigating the combined effects of exercise and estrogen on anxiety-like behaviors and stress hormone levels in female rats after an acute stressor. Ovariectomized female rats with or without estrogen were given access to running wheels for one or three days of voluntary running immediately after or two days prior to being subjected to restraint stress. We found that voluntary running was not effective at reducing anxiety-like behaviors, whether or not rats were subjected to restraint stress. In contrast, stress-induced elevations of stress hormone levels were attenuated by exercise experience in estrogen-treated rats, but were increased in rats without estrogen. These results suggest that voluntary exercise may be more effective at reducing stress hormone levels if estrogen is present. Additionally, exercise experience, or the distance run, may be important in reducing stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Voluntary running in young adult mice reduces anxiety-like behavior and increases the accumulation of bioactive lipids in the cerebral cortex.

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    Iván J Santos-Soto

    Full Text Available Combinatorial therapies using voluntary exercise and diet supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids have synergistic effects benefiting brain function and behavior. Here, we assessed the effects of voluntary exercise on anxiety-like behavior and on total FA accumulation within three brain regions: cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of running versus sedentary young adult male C57/BL6J mice. The running group was subjected to one month of voluntary exercise in their home cages, while the sedentary group was kept in their home cages without access to a running wheel. Elevated plus maze (EPM, several behavioral postures and two risk assessment behaviors (RABs were then measured in both animal groups followed immediately by blood samplings for assessment of corticosterone levels. Brains were then dissected for non-targeted lipidomic analysis of selected brain regions using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Results showed that mice in the running group, when examined in the EPM, displayed significantly lower anxiety-like behavior, higher exploratory and risky behaviors, compared to sedentary mice. Notably, we found no differences in blood corticosterone levels between the two groups, suggesting that the different EPM and RAB behaviors were not related to reduced physiological stress in the running mice. Lipidomics analysis revealed a region-specific cortical decrease of the saturated FA: palmitate (C16:0 and a concomitant increase of polyunsaturated FA, arachidonic acid (AA, omega 6-C20: 4 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, omega 3-C22: 6, in running mice compared to sedentary controls. Finally, we found that running mice, as opposed to sedentary animals, showed significantly enhanced cortical expression of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 protein, a signaling molecule required in the production of both AA and DHA. In summary, our data support the anxiolytic effects of exercise and provide insights into the molecular processes

  17. Serotonin modulates anxiety-like behaviors during withdrawal from adolescent anabolic–androgenic steroid exposure in Syrian hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lesley A.; Morrison, Thomas R.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    From the U.S. to Europe and Australia anabolic steroid abuse remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of pathological anxiety that often appears during withdrawal from use. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) exposure predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of anxiety during AAS withdrawal that is modulated by serotonin (5HT) neural signaling. In the first two sets of experiments, adolescent AAS-treated hamsters were tested for anxiety 21 days after the cessation of AAS administration (i.e., during AAS withdrawal) using the elevated plus maze (EPM), dark/light (DL), and seed finding (SF) tests and then examined for differences in 5HT afferent innervation to select areas of the brain important for anxiety. In the EPM and DL tests, adolescent AAS exposure leads to significant increases in anxiety-like response during AAS withdrawal. AAS-treated hamsters showed long-term reductions in 5HT innervation within several areas of the hamster brain implicated in anxiety, most notably the anterior hypothalamus and the central and medial amygdala. However, no differences in 5HT were found in other anxiety areas, e.g., frontal cortex and lateral septum. In the last experiment, adolescent AAS-treated hamsters were scored for anxiety on the 21st day of AAS withdrawal following the systemic administration of saline or one of three doses of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Saline-treated hamsters showed high levels of AAS withdrawal-induced anxiety, while treatment with fluoxetine reduced AAS withdrawal-induced anxiety. These findings indicate that early AAS exposure has potent anxiogenic effects during AAS withdrawal that are modulated, in part, by 5HT signaling. PMID:23026540

  18. Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Grape Powder Supplementation Prevents Oxidative Stress–Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior, Memory Impairment, and High Blood Pressure in Rats123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Farida; Dao, An T.; Chugh, Gaurav; Bohat, Ritu; Jafri, Faizan; Patki, Gaurav; Mowrey, Christopher; Asghar, Mohammad; Alkadhi, Karim A.; Salim, Samina

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether or not grape powder treatment ameliorates oxidative stress–induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment, and hypertension in rats. Oxidative stress in Sprague-Dawley rats was produced by using l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO). Four groups of rats were used: 1) control (C; injected with vehicle and provided with tap water), 2) grape powder–treated (GP; injected with vehicle and provided for 3 wk with 15 g/L grape powder dissolved in tap water), 3) BSO-treated [injected with BSO (300 mg/kg body weight), i.p. for 7 d and provided with tap water], and 4) BSO plus grape powder–treated (GP+BSO; injected with BSO and provided with grape powder–treated tap water). Anxiety-like behavior was significantly greater in BSO rats compared with C or GP rats (P < 0.05). Grape powder attenuated BSO-induced anxiety-like behavior in GP+BSO rats. BSO rats made significantly more errors in both short- and long-term memory tests compared with C or GP rats (P < 0.05), which was prevented in GP+BSO rats. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly greater in BSO rats compared with C or GP rats (P < 0.05), whereas grape powder prevented high blood pressure in GP+BSO rats. Furthermore, brain extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) was activated (P < 0.05), whereas levels of glyoxalase-1 (GLO-1), glutathione reductase-1 (GSR-1), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CAMK-IV), cAMP response element–binding protein (CREB), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were significantly less (P < 0.05) in BSO but not in GP+BSO rats compared with C or GP rats. We suggest that by regulating brain ERK-1/2, GLO-1, GSR-1, CAMK-IV, CREB, and BDNF levels, grape powder prevents oxidative stress–induced anxiety, memory impairment, and hypertension in rats. PMID:23596160

  20. Comparison of the effects of the GABAB receptor positive modulator BHF177 and the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on anxiety-like behavior, learning, and memory in mice.

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    Li, Xia; Risbrough, Victoria B; Cates-Gatto, Chelsea; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Finn, M G; Roberts, Amanda J; Markou, Athina

    2013-07-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptor activation is a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of drug addiction, pain, anxiety, and depression. However, full agonists of this receptor induce side-effects, such as sedation, muscle relaxation, tolerance, and cognitive disruption. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAB receptor may have similar therapeutic effects as agonists with superior side-effect profiles. The present study behaviorally characterized N-([1R,2R,4S]-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)-2-methyl-5-(4-[trifluoromethyl]phenyl)-4-pyrimidinamine (BHF177), a GABAB receptor PAM, in mouse models of anxiety-like behavior, learning and memory. In addition, the effects of BHF177 were compared with the agonist baclofen. Unlike the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide, baclofen (0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and BHF177 (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, orally) had no effect on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, or Vogel conflict test. Baclofen increased punished drinking in the Vogel conflict test, but this effect may be attributable to the analgesic actions of baclofen. At the highest dose tested (2.5 mg/kg), baclofen-treated mice exhibited sedation-like effects (i.e., reduced locomotor activity) across many of the tests, whereas BHF177-treated mice exhibited no sedation-like effects. BHF177 exhibited pro-convulsion properties only in mice, but not in rats, indicating that this effect may be species-specific. At doses that were not sedative or pro-convulsant, baclofen and BHF177 had no selective effects on fear memory retrieval in contextual and cued fear conditioning or spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze. These data suggest that BHF177 has little sedative activity, no anxiolytic-like profile, and minimal impairment of learning and memory in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Phytoestrogen Genistein Produces Similar Effects as 17β-Estradiol on Anxiety-Like Behavior in Rats at 12 Weeks after Ovariectomy

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    Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytoestrogen genistein produces anxiolytic-like effects in ovariectomized rats, which highlights its potential therapeutic effect in ameliorating anxiety in surgical menopausal women. However, no studies have directly compared the effects of identical doses of genistein and 17β-estradiol, the main estrogen used in hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women. The present study evaluated the anxiolytic-like effects of identical doses of genistein and 17β-estradiol (0.045, 0.09, and 0.18 mg/kg/7 days, s.c. in a surgical menopause model in rats in the elevated plus maze and locomotor activity tests at 12 weeks after ovariectomy. Additionally, the participation of estrogen receptor-β in the anxiolytic-like effect of genistein and 17β-estradiol was explored by previous administration of the 5 mg/kg tamoxifen antagonist. Genistein and 17β-estradiol (0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg similarly reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and also increased the time spent grooming and rearing, without affecting crossing in locomotor activity test. These effects were blocked by tamoxifen. Present results indicate that the phytoestrogen genistein has a similar behavioral profile as 17β-estradiol in rats at 12 weeks after ovariectomy through action at the estrogen receptor-β. Thus genistein has potential for reducing anxiety-like behavior associated with low concentrations of ovarian hormones, which normally occurs during natural and surgical menopause.

  2. Angiotensin type 1a receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus control cardiovascular reactivity and anxiety-like behavior in male mice.

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    Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; de Kloet, Annette D; Krause, Eric G

    2016-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that deletion of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1a) from the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) attenuates anxiety-like behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and cardiovascular reactivity. We used the Cre/LoxP system to generate male mice with AT1a specifically deleted from the PVN. Deletion of the AT1a from the PVN reduced anxiety-like behavior as indicated by increased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In contrast, PVN AT1a deletion had no effect on HPA axis activation subsequent to an acute restraint challenge but did reduce hypothalamic mRNA expression for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). To determine whether PVN AT1a deletion inhibits cardiovascular reactivity, we measured systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) using telemetry and found that PVN AT1a deletion attenuated restraint-induced elevations in systolic blood pressure and elicited changes in HRV indicative of reduced sympathetic nervous activity. Consistent with the decreased HRV, PVN AT1a deletion also decreased adrenal weight, suggestive of decreased adrenal sympathetic outflow. Interestingly, the altered stress responsivity of mice with AT1a deleted from the PVN was associated with decreased hypothalamic microglia and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Collectively, these results suggest that deletion of AT1a from the PVN attenuates anxiety, CRH gene transcription, and cardiovascular reactivity and reduced brain inflammation may contribute to these effects. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Astrocyte-dependent protective effect of quetiapine on GABAergic neuron is associated with the prevention of anxiety-like behaviors in aging mice after long-term treatment.

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    Wang, Junhui; Zhu, Shenghua; Wang, Hongxing; He, Jue; Zhang, Yanbo; Adilijiang, Abulimiti; Zhang, Handi; Hartle, Kelly; Guo, Huining; Kong, Jiming; Huang, Qingjun; Li, Xin-Min

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that quetiapine (QTP) may have neuroprotective properties; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we identified a novel mechanism by which QTP increased the synthesis of ATP in astrocytes and protected GABAergic neurons from aging-induced death. In 12-month-old mice, QTP significantly improved cell number of GABAegic neurons in the cortex and ameliorated anxiety-like behaviors compared to control group. Complimentary in vitro studies showed that QTP had no direct effect on the survival of aging GABAergic neurons in culture. Astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) pretreated with QTP (ACMQTP) for 24 h effectively protected GABAergic neurons against aging-induced spontaneous cell death. It was also found that QTP boosted the synthesis of ATP from cultured astrocytes after 24 h of treatment, which might be responsible for the protective effects on neurons. Consistent with the above findings, a Rhodamine 123 test showed that ACMQTP, not QTP itself, was able to prevent the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in the aging neurons. For the first time, our study has provided evidence that astrocytes may be the conduit through which QTP is able to exert its neuroprotective effects on GABAergic neurons. The neuroprotective properties of quetiapine (QTP) have not been fully understood. Here, we identify a novel mechanism by which QTP increases the synthesis of ATP in astrocytes and protects GABAergic neurons from aging-induced death in a primary cell culture model. In 12-month-old mice, QTP significantly improves cell number of GABAegic neurons and ameliorates anxiety-like behaviors. Our study indicates that astrocytes may be the conduit through which QTP exerts its neuroprotective effects on GABAergic neurons. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Adolescent social isolation does not lead to persistent increases in anxiety- like behavior or ethanol intake in female long-evans rats.

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    Butler, Tracy R; Carter, Eugenia; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    Clinically, early life stress and anxiety disorders are associated with increased vulnerability for alcohol use disorders. In male rats, early life stress, imparted by adolescent social isolation, results in long-lasting increases in a number of behavioral risk factors for alcoholism, including greater anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol (EtOH) intake. Several recent studies have begun to use this model to gain insight into the relationships among anxiety measures, stress, EtOH intake, and neurobiological correlates driving these behaviors. As prior research has noted significant sex differences in the impact of adolescent stress on anxiety measures and EtOH drinking, the current study was conducted to determine if this same model produces an "addiction vulnerable" phenotype in female rodents. Female Long Evans rats were socially isolated (SI; 1/cage) or group housed (GH; 4/cage) for 6 weeks during adolescence. After this housing manipulation, behavioral assessment was conducted using the elevated plus maze, response to novelty in an open field environment, and the light/dark box. After behavioral testing, home cage EtOH drinking was assessed across an 8-week period. No group differences were detected in any of the behavioral measures of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior. Greater EtOH intake and preference were observed in SI females but these differences did not persist. The SI/GH model, which results in robust and enduring increases in anxiety measures and EtOH self-administration in male Long Evans rats, did not result in similar behavioral changes in female rats. These data, and that of others, suggest that adolescent social isolation is not a useful model with which to study neurobiological substrates linking antecedent anxiety and addiction vulnerability in female rats. Given the compelling epidemiological evidence that the relationship between chronic adolescent stress and alcohol addiction is particularly strong in women, there is clearly an urgent need

  5. The effects of the administration of two different doses of manganese on short-term spatial memory and anxiety-like behavior in rats

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    Hogas M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is a very well known neurotoxic agent. It has been mainly linked to impaired motor skills and disturbed psychomotor development. However, very few aspects are known about the cognitive deficits and behavioral consequences of chronic manganese exposure. In this context, we report herein our findings regarding short-term spatial memory, motor and anxiety-like behavior assessments in male Wistar rats exposed for 45 days to two different doses (3 mg/kg b.w., i.p. and 10 mg/kg b.w., i.p. of manganese. Behavior testing (Y-maze task and elevated plus maze was performed after 45 days of manganese administration. Chronic manganese exposure in Wistar rats led to behavioral alterations consisting of cognitive deficiencies in the Y-maze task and anxiety/compulsive-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze, but no motor disturbances as tested by the number of arm entries in the Y-maze. Additional work is necessary to understand the longterm effects of different doses and dosing regimens of manganese on cognitive/affective and motor functioning.

  6. ENU-mutagenesis mice with a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1 exhibit abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, impaired fear memory, and decreased acoustic startle response.

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    Umemori, Juzoh; Takao, Keizo; Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Hattori, Satoko; Furuse, Tamio; Wakana, Shigeharu; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2013-05-21

    The Grin1 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, NMDA1) gene expresses a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is considered to play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain development. Grin1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In our previous study, we examined an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-generated mutant mouse strain (Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+) that has a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1. These mutant mice showed hyperactivity, increased novelty-seeking to objects, and abnormal social interactions. Therefore, Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ mice may serve as a potential animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, other behavioral characteristics related to these disorders, such as working memory function and sensorimotor gating, have not been fully explored in these mutant mice. In this study, to further investigate the behavioral phenotypes of Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ mice, we subjected them to a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. There was no significant difference in nociception between Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ and wild-type mice. The mutants did not display any abnormalities in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. We confirmed the previous observations that the locomotor activity of these mutant mice increased in the open field and home cage activity tests. They displayed abnormal anxiety-like behaviors in the light/dark transition and the elevated plus maze tests. Both contextual and cued fear memory were severely deficient in the fear conditioning test. The mutant mice exhibited slightly impaired working memory in the eight-arm radial maze test. The startle amplitude was markedly decreased in Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ mice, whereas no significant differences between genotypes were detected in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. The mutant mice showed no obvious deficits

  7. Differential behavioral outcomes of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA-ecstasy in anxiety-like responses in mice

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    V. Ferraz-de-Paula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiolytic and anxiogenic-like behavioral outcomes have been reported for methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy in rodents. In the present experiment, we attempted to identify behavioral, hormonal and neurochemical outcomes of MDMA treatment to clarify its effects on anxiety-related responses in 2-month-old Balb/c male mice (25-35 g; N = 7-10 mice/group. The behavioral tests used were open field, elevated plus maze, hole board, and defensive behavior against predator odor. Moreover, we also determined striatal dopamine and dopamine turnover, and serum corticosterone levels. MDMA was injected ip at 0.2, 1.0, 5.0, 8.0, 10, or 20 mg/kg. MDMA at 10 mg/kg induced the following significant (P < 0.05 effects: a a dose-dependent increase in the distance traveled and in the time spent moving in the open field; b decreased exploratory activity in the hole board as measured by number of head dips and time spent in head dipping; c increased number of open arm entries and increased time spent in open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze; d increased time spent away from an aversive stimulus and decreased number of risk assessments in an aversive odor chamber; e increased serum corticosterone levels, and f increased striatal dopamine level and turnover. Taken together, these data suggest an anxiogenic-like effect of acute MDMA treatment, despite the fact that behavioral anxiety expression was impaired in some of the behavioral tests used as a consequence of the motor stimulating effects of MDMA.

  8. Assessment of mouse cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors and hippocampal inflammation following a repeated and intermittent paradoxical sleep deprivation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mengmei; Chen, Yali; Zheng, Hui; Pu, Tinglin; Marshall, Charles; Wu, Ting; Xiao, Ming

    2017-03-15

    It has been reported that more than one fourth of the world's population suffers from sleep problems. However, there is not a stable and reliable animal model to mimic the persistent and periodic features of sleep disorders, and correspondingly, the feasibility and effectiveness of repeated behavioral tests remains to be determined. In the present study, we repetitively, and intermittently, treated mice with 3days and 7days of paradoxical sleep deprivation (SD), using the modified multiple small-platforms-over-water method for 3 months. The behavioral results suggested that repeated open field and Y-maze tests are able to successfully detect anxiety-like behaviors and working memory dysfunction of the model mice. The Morris water maze test is not suitable for evaluating spatial learning ability following SD because the long-term utilization of the flower-pot method increases the familiarity of mice with the water environment. Moreover, neuroinflammation, microglial activation and neuronal apoptosis were observed in the hippocampus of model mice even recovery for 3 weeks later. This animal model and corresponding behavioral evaluation method will help to explore the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of chronic sleep disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cox-2 Plays a Vital Role in the Impaired Anxiety Like Behavior in Colchicine Induced Rat Model of Alzheimer Disease

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    Susmita Sil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anxiety status is changed along with memory impairments in intracerebroventricular colchicine injected rat model of Alzheimer Disease (cAD due to neurodegeneration, which has been indicated to be mediated by inflammation. Inducible cox-2, involved in inflammation, may have important role in the colchicine induced alteration of anxiety status. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of cox-2 on the anxiety behavior (response to novelty in an elevated open field space of cAD by inhibiting it with three different doses (10, 20, and 30 mg of etoricoxib (a cox-2 blocker in two time points (14 and 21 days. The results showed anxiolytic behavior in cAD along with lower serum corticosterone level, both of which were recovered at all the doses of etoricoxib on day 21. On day 14 all of the anxiety parameters showed similar results to that of day 21 at high doses but not at 10 mg/kg body weight. Results indicate that the parameters of anxiety were dependent on neuronal circuitries that were probably sensitive to etoricoxib induced blocking of neurodegeneration. The present study showed that anxiolytic behavior in cADr is predominantly due to cox-2 mediated neuroinflammation induced neurodegeneration in the brain.

  10. HIV antiretroviral drug Efavirenz induces anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in rats: evaluation of neurotransmitter alterations in the striatum.

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    Cavalcante, Giuliana Ignácio Teixeira; Chaves Filho, Adriano José Maia; Linhares, Maria Isabel; de Carvalho Lima, Camila Nayane; Venâncio, Edith Teles; Rios, Emiliano Ricardo Vasconcelos; de Souza, Francisca Cléa Florenço; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Macêdo, Danielle; de França Fonteles, Marta Maria

    2017-03-15

    Efavirenz (EFV) is an effective antiretroviral drug with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and widely used in combination regimens to treat HIV infection. However, there are major concerns about the safety of this drug. Patients treated with EFV often experience neuropsychiatric adverse effects, which frequently lead to switching to alternative EFV-free regimens. The mechanisms involved in the central action of EFV are intrinsically unclear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of acute and subchronic (2 weeks) EFV administration in a series of behavioral tests for anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in healthy rats. We also evaluated the effect of EFV treatment in striatal concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline) and their metabolites and the amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Our results showed that acute treatment with EFV induced an anxiogenic-like effect, while sub-chronic treatment induced both anxiogenic-like and depressive-like behavior which was dose related.. Additionally, EFV treatment caused marked alterations in the striatal concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites (and turnover rates) and the amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. These changes were influenced by treatment duration and dose. These findings add more evidence about the neuropsychiatric adverse effects of EFV and propose potential new mechanisms for the toxic action of this drug in the central nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental enrichment increases doublecortin-associated new neurons and decreases neuronal death without modifying anxiety-like behavior in mice chronically exposed to toluene.

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    Paez-Martinez, Nayeli; Flores-Serrano, Zoraida; Ortiz-Lopez, Leonardo; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    Toluene misuse is a health problem worldwide with broad effects at the level of the central nervous system; however, therapeutic alternatives for inhalant abusers are limited. Chronic use of volatile substances is associated with different neurological and cognitive alterations, being anxiety a psychiatric condition with high prevalence. At cellular level toluene reduces neurogenesis and induces neuronal death. On the other hand, environmental enrichment has demonstrated to produce positive effects at behavioral and neuronal levels. Thus, the aim of the present work was to model alterations occasioned after repeated exposure to toluene (anxiety, reduction in neurogenesis - measured as doublecortin-labeled cells - and neuronal death). Subsequently, the influence of environmental enrichment on these effects was evaluated. Adolescent mice were exposed to toluene vapors from 1 to 4 weeks. Effects on anxiety were evaluated with the burying behavior test, whereas neurogenesis and hippocampal cell death were analyzed with immunohistochemistry, using anti-doublecortin or anti-active-Caspase-3 antibodies, respectively. Results showed that chronic toluene exposure increased anxiety in the burying behavior test; additionally, toluene decreased neurogenesis and enhanced neuronal death. Environmental enrichment (EE) enhanced the anxiety like response in air-exposed mice but did not modify the toluene anxiety response. Additionally, EE enhanced neurogenesis in toluene-pretreated animals at the same level to that found in animals unexposed to toluene and decreased neuronal death. Overall, the present study showed that environmental enrichment positively impacts some effects produced by repeated exposure to toluene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of chronic immobilization stress on anxiety-like behavior and basolateral amygdala morphology in Fmr1 knockout mice.

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    Qin, M; Xia, Z; Huang, T; Smith, C B

    2011-10-27

    Several lines of clinical evidence support the idea that fragile X syndrome (FXS) may involve a dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function [Wisbeck et al. (2000) J Dev Behav Pediatr 21:278-282; Hessl et al. (2002) Psychoneuroendocrinology 27:855-872]. We had tested this idea in a mouse model of FXS (Fmr1 KO) and found that the hormonal response to acute stress was similar to that of wild-type (WT) mice [Qin and Smith (2008) Psychoneuroendocrinology 33:883-889]. We report here responses to chronic stress (CS) in Fmr1 KO mice. Following restraint for 120 min/d, 10 consecutive days, we assessed dendrite and spine morphology in basolateral amygdala (BLA). We also monitored behavior in an elevated plus maze (EPM) and the hormonal response to this novel spatial environment. After CS, mice of both genotypes underwent adrenal hypertrophy, but effects were greater in WT mice. Behavior in the EPM indicated that only WT mice had the expected increase in anxiety following CS. Serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were both increased following the spatial novelty of EPM, and there were no differences between genotypes in the hormonal responses. BLA dendritic branching increased proximal to the soma in WT, but in Fmr1 KO mice branching was unaffected close to the soma and slightly decreased at one point distal to the soma. Similarly, spine density on apical and basal dendrites increased in WT but decreased in Fmr1 KO mice. Spine length on apical and basal dendrites increased in WT but was unaffected in Fmr1 KO mice. These differences in behavioral response and effects on neuron morphology in BLA suggest a diminished adaptive response of Fmr1 KO mice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Fear but not fright: re-evaluating traumatic experience attenuates anxiety-like behaviors after fear conditioning

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    Marco eCostanzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fear allows organisms to cope with dangerous situations and remembering these situations has an adaptive role preserving individuals from injury and death. However, recalling traumatic memories can induce re-experiencing the trauma, thus resulting in a maladaptive fear. A failure to properly regulate fear responses has been associated with anxiety disorders, like Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Thus, re-establishing the capability to regulate fear has an important role for its adaptive and clinical relevance. Strategies aimed at erasing fear memories have been proposed, although there are limits about their efficiency in treating anxiety disorders. To re-establish fear regulation, here we propose a new approach, based on the re-evaluation of the aversive value of traumatic experience. Mice were submitted to a contextual-fear-conditioning paradigm in which a neutral context was paired with an intense electric footshock. Three weeks after acquisition, conditioned mice were treated with a less intense footshock (pain threshold. The effectiveness of this procedure in reducing fear expression was assessed in terms of behavioral outcomes related to PTSD (e.g. hyper-reactivity to a neutral tone, anxiety levels in a plus maze task, social avoidance, and learning deficits in a spatial water maze and of amygdala activity by evaluating c-fos expression. Furthermore, a possible role of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC in mediating the behavioral effects induced by the re-evaluation procedure was investigated. We observed that this treatment (i significantly mitigates the abnormal behavioral outcomes induced by trauma, (ii persistently attenuates fear expression without erasing contextual memory, (iii prevents fear reinstatement, (iv reduces amygdala activity and (v requires an intact lOFC to be effective.The results suggest that an effective strategy to treat pathological anxiety should address cognitive re-evaluation of traumatic experiences

  14. Cannabinoid receptor agonism suppresses tremor, cognition disturbances and anxiety-like behaviors in a rat model of essential tremor.

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    Abbassian, Hassan; Esmaeili, Parisa; Tahamtan, Mahshid; Aghaei, Iraj; Vaziri, Zohreh; Sheibani, Vahid; Whalley, Benjamin J; Shabani, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive and motor disturbances are serious consequences of tremor induced by motor disorders. Despite a lack of effective clinical treatment, some potential therapeutic agents have been used to alleviate the cognitive symptoms in the animal models of tremor. In the current study, the effects of WIN55, 212-2 (WIN), a cannabinoid receptor (CBR) agonist, on harmaline-induced motor and cognitive impairments were studied. Adult rats were treated with WIN (0.5mg/kg; i.p.) 15min before harmaline administration (10mg/kg; ip) after which exploratory and anxiety related behaviors, and cognitive function were assessed using open-field behavior and shuttle box tests. Rats that received harmaline only exhibited a markedly reduced number of central square entries when compared to harmaline vehicle-treated controls, whereas those treated with WIN and harmaline showed a significant increase in central square entries, compared to harmaline only treated. The passive avoidance memory impairments observed in harmaline treated rats, was reversed somewhat by administration of WIN. The neuroprotective and anxiolytic effects of WIN demonstrated in the current study can be offered cannabinoid receptor (CBR) agonism as a potential neuroprotective agent in the treatment of patients with tremor that manifest mental dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic REM Sleep Restriction in Juvenile Male Rats Induces Anxiety-Like Behavior and Alters Monoamine Systems in the Amygdala and Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Rocha-Lopes, Janaína; Machado, Ricardo Borges; Suchecki, Deborah

    2017-04-28

    Adolescence is marked by major physiological changes, including those in the sleep-wake cycle, such as phase delay, which may result in reduced sleep hours. Sleep restriction and/or deprivation in adult rats activate stress response and seem to be a risk factor for triggering emotional disorders. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of prolonged REM sleep restriction in juvenile male rats. Immediately after weaning, on postnatal day 21, three males from each litter were submitted to REM sleep deprivation and the other three animals were maintained in their home-cages. REM sleep restriction (REMSR) was accomplished by placing the animals in the modified multiple platform method for 18 h and 6 h in the home-cage, where they could sleep freely; the sleep restriction lasted 21 consecutive days, during which all animals were measured and weighed every 3 days. After the end of this period, all animals were allowed to sleep freely for 2 days, and then the behavioral tests were performed for evaluation of depressive and anxiety-like profiles (sucrose negative contrast test and elevated plus maze, EPM). Blood sampling was performed 5 min before and 30 and 60 min after the EPM for determination of corticosterone plasma levels. The adrenals were weighed and brains collected and dissected for monoamine levels and receptor protein expression. REMSR impaired the physical development of adolescents, persisting for a further week. Animals submitted to REMSR exhibited higher basal corticosterone levels and a greater anxiety index in the EPM, characteristic of an anxious profile. These animals also exhibited higher noradrenaline levels in the amygdala and ventral hippocampus, without any change in the expression of β1-adrenergic receptors, as well as higher serotonin and reduced turnover in the dorsal hippocampus, with diminished expression of 5-HT1A. Finally, greater concentration of BDNF was observed in the dorsal

  16. Effects of p75NTR deficiency on cholinergic innervation of the amygdala and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Ruben; Baldus, Marian; Vogt, Miriam A; Berger, Stefan M; Bartsch, Dusan; Gass, Peter; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver

    2017-05-01

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a low-affinity receptor that is capable of binding neurotrophins. Two different p75NTR knockout mouse lines are available either with a deletion in Exon III (p75NTR E x III -/- ) or in Exon IV (p75NTR E x IV -/- ). In p75NTR E x III knockout mice, only the full-length p75NTR is deleted, whereas in p75NTR E x IV knockout mice, the full-length as well as the truncated isoform of the receptor is deleted. Deletion of p75NTR has been shown to affect, among others, the septohippocampal cholinergic innervation pattern and neuronal plasticity within the hippocampus. We hypothesize that deletion of p75NTR also alters the morphology and physiology of a further key structure of the limbic system, the amygdala. Our results indicate that deletion of p75NTR also increases cholinergic innervation in the basolateral amygdala in adult as well as aged p75NTR E x III -/- and p75NTR E x IV -/- mice. The p75NTR E x IV -/- mice did not display altered long-term potentiation (LTP) in the basolateral amygdala as compared to age-matched control littermates. However, p75NTR E x III -/- mice display stronger LTP in the basolateral amygdala compared to age-matched controls. Bath-application of K252a (a trk antagonist) did not inhibit the induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdala, but reduced the level of LTP in p75NTR E x III -/- mice to levels seen in respective controls. Moreover, p75NTR E x III -/- mice display altered behavior in the dark/light box. Thus, deletion of p75NTR in mice leads to physiological and morphological changes in the amygdala and altered behavior that is linked to the limbic system. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Effect of Housing Types on Growth, Feeding, Physical Activity and Anxiety-like Behavior in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ann Teske

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Animal welfare and accurate data collection are equally important in rodent research. Housing influences study outcomes and can challenge studies that monitor feeding, so housing choice needs to be evidence-based. The goal of these studies was to 1 compare established measures of well-being between rodents housed in wire grid-bottom floors with a resting platform compared to solid-bottom floors with bedding and 2 determine whether presence of a chewable device (Nylabone affects orexin-A-induced hyperphagia. Methods: Rodents were crossed over to the alternate housing twice after two-week periods. Time required to complete food intake measurements was recorded as an indicator of feasibility. Food intake stimulated by orexin-A was compared with and without the Nylabone. Blood corticosterone and hypothalamic BDNF were assessed. Results: Housing had no effect on growth, energy expenditure, corticosterone, hypothalamic BDNF, behavior and anxiety measures. Food intake was disrupted after housing cross-over. Time required to complete food intake measurements was significantly higher for solid-bottom bedded cages. The Nylabone had no effect on orexin-A-stimulated feeding. Conclusion: Well-being is not significantly different between rodents housed on grid-bottom floors and those in solid-bottom bedded cages based on overall growth and feeding, but alternating between housing confounds measures of feeding.

  18. Effect of Housing Types on Growth, Feeding, Physical Activity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Jennifer A; Perez-Leighton, Claudio Esteban; Noble, Emily E; Wang, Chuanfeng; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    Animal welfare and accurate data collection are equally important in rodent research. Housing influences study outcomes and can challenge studies that monitor feeding, so housing choice needs to be evidence-based. The goal of these studies was to (1) compare established measures of well-being between rodents housed in wire grid-bottom floors with a resting platform compared to solid-bottom floors with bedding and (2) determine whether presence of a chewable device (Nylabone) affects orexin-A-induced hyperphagia. Rodents were crossed over to the alternate housing twice after 2-week periods. Time required to complete food intake measurements was recorded as an indicator of feasibility. Food intake stimulated by orexin-A was compared with and without the Nylabone. Blood corticosterone and hypothalamic BDNF were assessed. Housing had no effect on growth, energy expenditure, corticosterone, hypothalamic BDNF, behavior, and anxiety measures. Food intake was disrupted after housing cross-over. Time required to complete food intake measurements was significantly higher for solid-bottom bedded cages. The Nylabone had no effect on orexin-A-stimulated feeding. Well-being is not significantly different between rodents housed on grid-bottom floors and those in solid-bottom-bedded cages based on overall growth and feeding but alternating between housing confounds measures of feeding.

  19. NOX2 Mediated-Parvalbumin Interneuron Loss Might Contribute to Anxiety-Like and Enhanced Fear Learning Behavior in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Lin-Dong; Sun, Xiao-Ru; Zhang, Hui; Pan, Wei; Wang, Xing-Ming; Yang, Jian-Jun; Ji, Mu-Huo; Yuan, Hong-Mei

    2016-12-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disease following exposure to a severe traumatic event or physiological stress, yet the precise mechanisms underlying PTSD remains largely to be determined. Using an animal model of PTSD induced by a single prolonged stress (SPS), we assessed the role of hippocampal nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (NOX2) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in the development of PTSD symptoms. In the present study, behavioral tests were performed by the open field (day 13 after SPS) and fear conditioning tests (days 13 and 14 after SPS). For the interventional study, rats were chronically treated with a NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin either by early or delayed administration. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, NOX2, 4-hydroxynonenal, and PV in the hippocampus were measured at the indicated time points. In the present study, we showed that SPS rats displayed anxiety-like and enhanced fear learning behavior, which was accompanied by the increased expressions of malondialdehyde, IL-6, NOX2, 4-hydroxynonenal, and decreased PV expression. Notably, early but not delayed treatment with apocynin reversed all these abnormalities after SPS. In conclusion, our results provided evidence that NOX2 activation in the hippocampus, at least in part, contributes to oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, which further results in PV interneuron loss and consequent PTSD symptoms in a rat model of PTSD induced by SPS.

  20. Single episode of mild murine malaria induces neuroinflammation, alters microglial profile, impairs adult neurogenesis, and causes deficits in social and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Suman K; Tillu, Rucha; Sood, Ankit; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Nanavaty, Ishira N; Sengupta, Arjun; Sharma, Shobhona; Vaidya, Vidita A; Pathak, Sulabha

    2014-11-01

    Cerebral malaria is associated with cerebrovascular damage and neurological sequelae. However, the neurological consequences of uncomplicated malaria, the most prevalent form of the disease, remain uninvestigated. Here, using a mild malaria model, we show that a single Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection in adult mice induces neuroinflammation, neurogenic, and behavioral changes in the absence of a blood-brain barrier breach. Using cytokine arrays we show that the infection induces differential serum and brain cytokine profiles, both at peak parasitemia and 15days post-parasite clearance. At the peak of infection, along with the serum, the brain also exhibited a definitive pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, and gene expression analysis revealed that pro-inflammatory cytokines were also produced locally in the hippocampus, an adult neurogenic niche. Hippocampal microglia numbers were enhanced, and we noted a shift to an activated profile at this time point, accompanied by a striking redistribution of the microglia to the subgranular zone adjacent to hippocampal neuronal progenitors. In the hippocampus, a distinct decline in progenitor turnover and survival was observed at peak parasitemia, accompanied by a shift from neuronal to glial fate specification. Studies in transgenic Nestin-GFP reporter mice demonstrated a decline in the Nestin-GFP(+)/GFAP(+) quiescent neural stem cell pool at peak parasitemia. Although these cellular changes reverted to normal 15days post-parasite clearance, specific brain cytokines continued to exhibit dysregulation. Behavioral analysis revealed selective deficits in social and anxiety-like behaviors, with no change observed in locomotor, cognitive, and depression-like behaviors, with a return to baseline at recovery. Collectively, these findings indicate that even a single episode of mild malaria results in alterations of the brain cytokine profile, causes specific behavioral dysfunction, is accompanied by hippocampal microglial

  1. Sex and Exercise Interact to Alter the Expression of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid-Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakomaiya, Marie M.; Porter, Donna M.; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that voluntary exercise accentuates these sex-specific differences. We also show that levels of the anxiogenic peptide corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) are significantly greater in males, but that AAS selectively increase CRF levels in females, thus abrogating this sex-specific difference. Exercise did not ameliorate AAS-induced anxiety or alter CRF levels in females. Exercise was anxiolytic in males, but this behavioral outcome did not correlate with CRF levels. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has also been implicated in the expression of anxiety. As with CRF, levels of hippocampal BDNF mRNA were significantly greater in males than females. AAS and exercise were without effect on BDNF mRNA in females. In males, anxiolytic effects of exercise correlated with increased BDNF mRNA, however AAS-induced changes in BDNF mRNA and anxiety did not. In sum, we find that AAS elicit sex-specific differences in anxiety and that voluntary exercise accentuates these differences. In addition, our data suggest that these behavioral outcomes may reflect convergent actions of AAS and exercise on a sexually differentiated CRF signaling system within the extended amygdala. PMID:24768711

  2. Interaction between Cannabinoidergic System and H2 Receptors in CA1 Region upon Anxiety-like Behaviors in Hole-Board Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrindast M.R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cannabinoids produce a wide array of effects on different species and interact with different neurotransmitter systems in the brain. In the present study, the effects of histaminergic and cannabinoidregic systems as well as their interactions on anxiety-related behaviors were examined on mice.Methods: In this study, at first mice were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine. They were then placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. Two stainless-steel cannuale were placed one mm above CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. After that, seventeen groups of animals were tested with hole board apparatus for measuring anxiety behavior. For the statistical analysis, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Dunnett's test were used.Results: Intra-CA1 injection of WIN55,212-2 (0.1, 0.5µg/mice did not modify anxiety-related behaviors in mice. But administration of AM251 (25 and 50ng/mice, histamine or ranitidine (5µg/mice induced anxiogenic-like response. Also, co-administration of WIN55, 212-2 with histaminergic agents, decreased the anxiogenic-like response of histamine, but not that of ranitidine. Co-administration of an ineffective dose of AM251 with histaminergic drugs did not alter the response induced by these drugs. In all the experiments, locomotor activity was not significantly changed. Conclusion: These results showed that there may be a partial interaction between the cannabinoidergic and the histaminergic systems of the dorsal hippocampus on anxiety-like behaviors.

  3. Interaction between Cannabinoidergic System and H2 Receptors in CA1 Region upon Anxiety-like Behaviors in Hole-Board Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nasehi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Cannabinoids produce a wide array of effects on different species and interact with different neurotransmitter systems in the brain. In the present study, the effects of histaminergic and cannabinoidregic systems as well as their interactions on anxiety-related behaviors were examined on mice. Methods: In this study, at first mice were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine. They were then placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. Two stainless-steel cannuale were placed one mm above CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. After that, seventeen groups of animals were tested with hole board apparatus for measuring anxiety behavior. For the statistical analysis, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Dunnett's test were used. Results: Intra-CA1 injection of WIN55,212-2 (0.1, 0.5µg/mice did not modify anxiety-related behaviors in mice. But administration of AM251 (25 and 50ng/mice, histamine or ranitidine (5µg/mice induced anxiogenic-like response. Also, co-administration of WIN55, 212-2 with histaminergic agents, decreased the anxiogenic-like response of histamine, but not that of ranitidine. Co-administration of an ineffective dose of AM251 with histaminergic drugs did not alter the response induced by these drugs. In all the experiments, locomotor activity was not significantly changed. Conclusion: These results showed that there may be a partial interaction between the cannabinoidergic and the histaminergic systems of the dorsal hippocampus on anxiety-like behaviors.

  4. Chronic Administration of Benzo(apyrene Induces Memory Impairment and Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases of NR2B DNA Methylation.

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    Wenping Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(apyrene (BaP induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of neurological function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the regulating mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic BaP exposure on neurobehavioral performance.C57BL mice received either BaP in different doses (1.0, 2.5, 6.25 mg/kg or olive oil twice a week for 90 days. Memory and emotional behaviors were evaluated using Y-maze and open-field tests, respectively. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression were measured by using qPCR, and DNA methylation of NMDA receptor 2B subunit (NR2B was examined using bisulfate pyrosequencing in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.Compared to controls, mice that received BaP (2.5, 6.25 mg/kg showed deficits in short-term memory and an anxiety-like behavior. These behavioral alterations were associated with a down-regulation of the NR2B gene and a concomitant increase in the level of DNA methylation in the NR2B promoter in the two brain regions.Chronic BaP exposure induces an increase in DNA methylation in the NR2B gene promoter and down-regulates NR2B expression, which may contribute to its neurotoxic effects on behavioral performance. The results suggest that NR2B vulnerability represents a target for environmental toxicants in the brain.

  5. Early-life lipopolysaccharide exposure potentiates forebrain expression of NLRP3 inflammasome proteins and anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yuan; Chen, Chu-Jun; Yan, Xiao-Xin; Li, Zhiyuan; Deng, Xiao-Hua

    2017-09-15

    Neonatal inflammation may affect brain development and lead to cognitive and emotional deficits at adolescence and adulthood. The nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) is the core component of NLRP3 inflammasome, which may involve in neuroinflammation. We explored if early-life exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could promote the expression of proteins related to NLRP3 inflammasome, including NLRP3, the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and cysteiny aspartate-specific protease (Caspase-1) in the forebrain, and behavioral alteration in adolescent rats. Two-week old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into naïve control, vehicle (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) control and LPS (100μg/kg, i.p.) treatment groups. Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were examined around 1month age, with the expression of NLRP3, ASC and Caspase-1 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus analyzed by means of immunohistochemistry and western blot. LPS-treated rats exhibited anxiety but not depressive-like behavior as indicated by results of open field, elevated plus maze, dark-light box, sucrose preference and forced swimming tests. Increased immunolabeling of NLRP3, ASC and Caspase-1 in neurons and/or microglia occurred in the PFC and hippocampus in LPS-treated adolescents relative to controls, with immunoblot shown elevated levels of these proteins. Early-life inflammatory stress promotes the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome proteins in the brain and the occurrence of anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deficiency in EP4 Receptor-Associated Protein Ameliorates Abnormal Anxiety-Like Behavior and Brain Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Risako; Higuchi, Sei; Nakatsuji, Masato; Yasui, Mika; Ikedo, Taichi; Nagata, Manabu; Hayashi, Kosuke; Yokode, Masayuki; Minami, Manabu

    2017-08-01

    Microglia are thought to play key roles in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Overactivated microglia produce proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which appear to contribute to disease progression. Previously, we reported that prostaglandin E2 type 4 receptor-associated protein (EPRAP) promotes microglial activation. We crossed human amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice from strain J20+/- onto an EPRAP-deficient background to determine the role of EPRAP in AD. Behavioral tests were performed in 5-month-old male J20+/-EPRAP+/+ and J20+/-EPRAP-/- mice. EPRAP deficiency reversed the reduced anxiety of J20+/- mice but did not affect hyperactivity. No differences in spatial memory were observed between J20+/-EPRAP+/+ and J20+/-EPRAP-/- mice. In comparison with J20+/-EPRAP+/+, J20+/-EPRAP-/- mice exhibited less microglial accumulation and reductions in the Cd68 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNAs in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. No significant differences were found between the two types of mice in the amount of amyloid-β 40 or 42 in the cortex and hippocampus. J20+/-EPRAP-/- mice reversed the reduced anxiety-like behavior and had reduced microglial activation compared with J20+/-EPRAP+/+ mice. Further research is required to identify the role of EPRAP in AD, but our results indicate that EPRAP may be related to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and inflammation in patients with AD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Raloxifene and/or estradiol decrease anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior, whereas only estradiol increases carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis and uterine proliferation among ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the efficacy and safety of 17β-estradiol (E2)-mimetic therapies to women for treatment of menopausal symptoms. An important question is the nature of the trophic actions of E2-mimetics in the brain for behavioral processes versus in the periphery for beneficial effects related to osteoporosis, or unwanted proliferative effects in reproductive tissues, such as mammary glands and uterus. Of recent interest are the effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which can have tissue specific actions, for these processes. In the present study, the effects was determined of E2 alone, or co-administered with a SERM, raloxifene, for anxiety-like, depression-like and trophic peripheral effects in ovariectomized rats that were exposed to a chemical carcinogen (7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene; DMBA), or not. Once per week, rats were administered vehicle, E2 (0.09 mg/kg) and/or raloxifene (1 mg/kg) s.c. 44–48 hours before testing in a positive control, E2-dependent behavior (lordosis), depression (forced swim test), and anxiety (elevated plus maze) behavioral assays. In addition to behavioral endpoints, incidence and number of tumors, and tumor, pituitary gland, and uterine weight 14 weeks after carcinogen-exposure, and weekly hormone treatments, were analyzed. Rats administered DMBA had increased number and size of tumors, compared to vehicle treatment. E2+raloxifene increased the number of tumors. Administration of E2 or E2+raloxifene, but not raloxifene alone, increased pituitary and uterine weight, compared to vehicle administration. E2 or E2+raloxifene, but not raloxifene alone, also increased incidence of lordosis and reduced depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (i.e. decreased time spent immobile) compared to vehicle administration. However, administration of E2 or raloxifene reduced anxiety behavior in the elevated plus maze (i.e. increased time spent on the open arms of the maze), compared to vehicle. Together these

  8. Perinatal exposure to low-dose of bisphenol A causes anxiety-like alteration in adrenal axis regulation and behaviors of rat offspring: a potential role for metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Chen, Fang; Feng, Xuejiao; Zhou, Libin; Li, Yingchun; Chen, Ling

    2015-05-01

    The present study focuses on detecting anxiety-like behavior and associated neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats exposed perinatally to bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-mimicking endocrine disrupter and investigating the possible involvement of metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptors (mGlu2/3 receptors) in BPA-induced anxiogenic effects. When female breeders were administered orally with BPA (40 μg/kg/d) during pregnancy and lactation, their pups (here named 'BPA-exposed offspring') developed an anxiety-like phenotype, characterized by the hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated negative feedback regulation of the HPA axis, altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity and increased anxiety-like behaviors. BPA-exposed offspring also showed a reduced expression of mGlu2/3 receptors in the hippocampus. BPA-exposed offspring further subjected to systemic administration of mGlu2/3 receptor agonist (LY379268, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or antagonist (LY341495, 1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) twice per day for 6 days. The results indicated that chronic LY379268 treatment corrected the anxiety-like behaviors and associated neurochemical and endocrinological alterations in BPA-exposed offspring. Our data demonstrate for the first time that the perinatal BPA exposure induces an anxiety-like phenotype in behaviors and -related neuroendocrinology, and suggest that the changes in mGlu2/3 receptor might lie at the core of the pathological reprogramming triggered by early-life adversity. mGlu2/3 receptor may serve as a novel biomarker and potential therapeutic target for anxiety disorders associated with adverse early-life agents including perinatal BPA exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GABA-BZD Receptor Modulating Mechanism of Panax quinquefolius against 72-hours Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety like Behavior: Possible Roles of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eChanana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTRationale- Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng is known for its therapeutic potential against various neurological disorders, but its plausible mechanism of action still remains undeciphered. GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid plays an important role in sleep wake cycle homeostasis. Thus there exists rationale in exploring the GABA-ergic potential of Panax quinquefolius as neuroprotective strategy in sleep deprivation induced secondary neurological problems.Objective- The present study was designed to explore the possible GABA-ergic mechanism in the neuro-protective effect of Panax quinquefolius against 72-hours sleep deprivation induced anxiety like behaviour, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, HPA-axis activation and neuroinflammation.Materials and Methods- Male laca mice were sleep deprived for 72-hours by using Grid suspended over water method. Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered alone and in combination with GABA modulators (GABA Cl- channel inhibitor, GABA-benzodiazepine receptor inhibitor and GABAA agonist for 8 days, starting five days prior to 72-hours sleep deprivation period. Various behavioural (locomotor activity, mirror chamber test, biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite levels, mitochondrial complexes, neuroinflammation marker (Tumour Necrosis Factor, TNF-alpha, serum corticosterone, and histopathological sections of brains were assessed. Results- 72-hours sleep deprivation significantly impaired locomotor activity, caused anxiety-like behaviour, conditions of oxidative stress, alterations in mitochondrial enzyme complex activities, raised serum corticosterone levels, brain TNFα levels and led to neuroinflammation like signs in discrete brain areas as compared to naive group. Panax quinquefolius (100 and 200 mg/kg treatment restored the behavioural, biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular and histopathological alterations. Pre-treatment of

  10. Critical neuropsychobiological analysis of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents confronted with snakes in polygonal arenas and complex labyrinths: a comparison to the elevated plus- and T-maze behavioral tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Norberto C; Paschoalin-Maurin, Tatiana; Bassi, Gabriel S; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Biagioni, Audrey F; Felippotti, Tatiana T; Elias-Filho, Daoud H; Mendes-Gomes, Joyce; Cysne-Coimbra, Jade P; Almada, Rafael C; Lobão-Soares, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    To compare prey and snake paradigms performed in complex environments to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and T-maze (ETM) tests for the study of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. PubMed was reviewed in search of articles focusing on the plus maze test, EPM, and ETM, as well as on defensive behaviors displayed by threatened rodents. In addition, the authors' research with polygonal arenas and complex labyrinth (designed by the first author for confrontation between snakes and small rodents) was examined. The EPM and ETM tests evoke anxiety/fear-related defensive responses that are pharmacologically validated, whereas the confrontation between rodents and snakes in polygonal arenas with or without shelters or in the complex labyrinth offers ethological conditions for studying more complex defensive behaviors and the effects of anxiolytic and panicolytic drugs. Prey vs. predator paradigms also allow discrimination between non-oriented and oriented escape behavior. Both EPM and ETM simple labyrinths are excellent apparatuses for the study of anxiety- and instinctive fear-related responses, respectively. The confrontation between rodents and snakes in polygonal arenas, however, offers a more ethological environment for addressing both unconditioned and conditioned fear-induced behaviors and the effects of anxiolytic and panicolytic drugs.

  11. Antistress Effects of Rosa rugosa Thunb. on Total Sleep Deprivation-Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior and Cognitive Dysfunction in Rat: Possible Mechanism of Action of 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ju-Ryun; Oh, Dool-Ri; Han, SeulHee; Kim, Yu-Jin; Choi, EunJin; Bae, Donghyuck; Oh, Dong Hwan; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Kim, Sunoh; Jun, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    Our previous results suggest that the Rosa rugosa Thunb. (family Rosaceae) alleviates endurance exercise-induced stress by decreasing oxidative stress levels. This study aimed to screen and identify the physiological antistress effects of an extract of R. rugosa (RO) on sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and cognitive tests (in vivo) and tested for hippocampal CORT and monoamine levels (ex vivo), corticosterone (CORT)-induced injury, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and serotonin 6 (5-hydroxytryptamine 6, 5-HT6) receptor activities (in vitro) in search of active principles and underlying mechanisms of action. We confirmed the antistress effects of RO in a sleep-deprived stress model in rat and explored the underlying mechanisms of its action. In conclusion, an R. rugosa extract showed efficacy and potential for use as an antistress therapy to treat sleep deprivation through its antagonism of the 5-HT6 receptor and resulting inhibition of cAMP activity.

  12. Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) deficiency in brain leads to altered locomotor activity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Sebastian; Auden, Alana; Partridge, Darren D; Daglas, Maria; Medcalf, Robert L; Mantamadiotis, Theo; Georgy, Smitha R; Darido, Charbel; Jane, Stephen M; Ting, Stephen B

    2017-06-01

    The highly conserved Grainyhead-like (Grhl) family of transcription factors, comprising three members in vertebrates (Grhl1-3), play critical regulatory roles during embryonic development, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. Although loss of Grhl function leads to multiple neural abnormalities in numerous animal models, a comprehensive analysis of Grhl expression and function in the mammalian brain has not been reported. Here they show that only Grhl3 expression is detectable in the embryonic mouse brain; particularly within the habenula, an organ known to modulate repressive behaviors. Using both Grhl3-knockout mice (Grhl3(-/-) ), and brain-specific conditional deletion of Grhl3 in adult mice (Nestin-Cre/Grhl3(flox/flox) ), they performed histological expression analyses and behavioral tests to assess long-term effects of Grhl3 loss on motor co-ordination, spatial memory, anxiety, and stress. They found that complete deletion of Grhl3 did not lead to noticeable structural or cell-intrinsic defects in the embryonic brain; however, aged Grhl3 conditional knockout (cKO) mice showed enlarged lateral ventricles and displayed marked changes in motor function and behaviors suggestive of decreased fear and anxiety. They conclude that loss of Grhl3 in the brain leads to significant alterations in locomotor activity and decreased self-inhibition, and as such, these mice may serve as a novel model of human conditions of impulsive behavior or hyperactivity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 775-788, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparison of the effects of the GABAB receptor positive modulator BHF177 and the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on anxiety-like behavior, learning, and memory in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xia; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Cates-Gatto, Chelsea; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Finn, M. G.; Roberts, Amanda J; Markou, Athina

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptor activation is a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of drug addiction, pain, anxiety, and depression. However, full agonists of this receptor induce side-effects, such as sedation, muscle relaxation, tolerance, and cognitive disruption. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAB receptor may have similar therapeutic effects as agonists with superior side-effect profiles. The present study behaviorally characterized N-([1R,2R,4S]-bicy...

  14. Suckling in litters with different sizes, and early and late swimming exercise differentially modulates anxiety-like behavior, memory and electrocorticogram potentiation after spreading depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Silva-Gondim, Mariana Barros; de Souza, Thays Kallyne Marinho; Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2017-11-28

    Analyze the hypothesis that swimming exercise, in rats suckled under distinct litter sizes, alters behavioral parameters suggestive of anxiety and recognition memory, and the electrocorticogram potentiation that occurs after the excitability-related phenomenon that is known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). Male Wistar rats were suckled in litters with six or 12 pups (L 6 and L 12 groups). Animals swam at postnatal days (P) 8-23, or P60-P75 (early-exercised or late-exercised groups, respectively), or remained no-exercised. Behavioral tests (open field - OF and object recognition - OR) were conducted between P77 and P80. Between P90 and P120, ECoG was recorded for 2 hours. After this 'baseline' recording, CSD was elicited every 30 minutes over the course of 2 hours. Early swimming enhanced the number of entries and the percentage of time in the OF-center (P < 0.05). In animals that swam later, this effect occurred in the L6 group only. Compared to the corresponding sedentary groups, OR-test showed a better memory in the L6 early exercised rats, and a worse memory in all other groups (P < 0.05). In comparison to baseline values, ECoG amplitudes after CSD increased 14-43% for all groups (P < 0.05). In the L 6 condition, early swimming and late swimming, respectively, reduced and enhanced the magnitude of the post-CSD ECoG potentiation in comparison with the corresponding L 6 no-exercised groups (P < 0.05). Our data suggest a differential effect of early- and late-exercise on the behavioral and electrophysiological parameters, suggesting an interaction between the age of exercise and the nutritional status during lactation.

  15. Highly Palatable Food during Adolescence Improves Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysfunction in Rats that Experienced Neonatal Maternal Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study was conducted to examine the effects of ad libitum consumption of highly palatable food (HPF during adolescence on the adverse behavioral outcome of neonatal maternal separation.MethodsMale Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 hours daily during the first 2 weeks of birth (maternal separation, MS or left undisturbed (nonhandled, NH. Half of MS pups received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28 (MS+HPF. Pups were subjected to behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to stress challenge was analyzed by radioimmunoassay.ResultsDaily caloric intake and body weight gain did not differ among the experimental groups. Ambulatory activities were decreased defecation activity and rostral grooming were increased in MS controls (fed with chow only compared with NH rats. MS controls spent less time in open arms, and more time in closed arms during the elevated plus maze test, than NH rats. Immobility duration during the forced swim test was increased in MS controls compared with NH rats. Cookie access normalized the behavioral scores of ambulatory and defecation activities and grooming, but not the scores during the elevated plus maze and swim tests in MS rats. Stress-induced corticosterone increase was blunted in MS rats fed with chow only, and cookie access normalized it.ConclusionProlonged access to HPF during adolescence and youth partly improves anxiety-related, but not depressive, symptoms in rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation, possibly in relation with improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis.

  16. Effects of L-theanine on anxiety-like behavior, cerebrospinal fluid amino acid profile, and hippocampal activity in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Ota, Miho; Ogura, Jun; Kato, Koichi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    The amino acid L-theanine (N-ethyl-L-glutamine) has historically been considered a relaxing agent. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated L-theanine administration on behavior, levels of amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and hippocampal activity in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of anxiety and depressive disorders. Behavioral tests were performed after 7-10 days of L-theanine (0.4 mg kg -1  day -1 ) or saline administration, followed by CSF sampling for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. An independent set of animals was subjected to [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scanning after the same dose of L-theanine or saline administration for 7 days. In the elevated plus maze test, the time spent in the open arms was significantly longer in the L-theanine group than in the saline group (P = 0.035). In addition, significantly lower CSF glutamate (P = 0.039) and higher methionine (P = 0.024) concentrations were observed in the L-theanine group than in the saline group. A significant increase in the standard uptake value ratio was observed in the hippocampus/cerebellum of the L-theanine group (P L-theanine enhances hippocampal activity and exerts anxiolytic effects, which may be mediated by changes in glutamate and methionine levels in the brain. Further study is required to more fully elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of L-theanine.

  17. Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora Extracts Reduce Anxiety-Like Behavior during the Metestrus-Diestrus Phase of the Ovarian Cycle in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, the anxiolytic-like effects of Montanoa tomentosa and Montanoa frutescens were reported in male rats, but the potential anxiolytic-like effects of Montanoa plants during the different phases of the ovarian cycle in rats remain to be explored. The anxiolytic-like effects of the aqueous crude extracts of M. frutescens (25 and 50 mg/kg and M. grandiflora (25 and 50 mg/kg in the elevated plus maze were investigated in Wistar rats during the estrous cycle and compared with 2 mg/kg diazepam as a reference anxiolytic drug. To investigate any motor effect (i.e., hyperactivity, no changes, or hypoactivity associated with the treatments, the rats were evaluated in the open field test. The M. frutescens (25 and 50 mg/kg and M. grandiflora (50 mg/kg extracts exerted anxiolytic-like effects during the metestrus-diestrus phase, similar to diazepam, without disrupting spontaneous motor activity. No significant effects of the extracts were detected in either behavioral test during the proestrus-estrus phase, whereas diazepam produced motor hypoactivity in the open field test. These results indicate that the M. frutescens and M. grandiflora extracts possess anxiolytic-like effects that depend on the ovarian cycle phase, supporting the Mexican ancient medicinal use of these plants to ameliorate anxiety disorders.

  18. Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora Extracts Reduce Anxiety-Like Behavior during the Metestrus-Diestrus Phase of the Ovarian Cycle in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Vicente-Serna, Julio; Rodríguez-Blanco, Luis Alfredo; Rovirosa-Hernández, María de Jesús; García-Orduña, Francisco; Carro-Juárez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, the anxiolytic-like effects of Montanoa tomentosa and Montanoa frutescens were reported in male rats, but the potential anxiolytic-like effects of Montanoa plants during the different phases of the ovarian cycle in rats remain to be explored. The anxiolytic-like effects of the aqueous crude extracts of M. frutescens (25 and 50 mg/kg) and M. grandiflora (25 and 50 mg/kg) in the elevated plus maze were investigated in Wistar rats during the estrous cycle and compared with 2 mg/kg diazepam as a reference anxiolytic drug. To investigate any motor effect (i.e., hyperactivity, no changes, or hypoactivity) associated with the treatments, the rats were evaluated in the open field test. The M. frutescens (25 and 50 mg/kg) and M. grandiflora (50 mg/kg) extracts exerted anxiolytic-like effects during the metestrus-diestrus phase, similar to diazepam, without disrupting spontaneous motor activity. No significant effects of the extracts were detected in either behavioral test during the proestrus-estrus phase, whereas diazepam produced motor hypoactivity in the open field test. These results indicate that the M. frutescens and M. grandiflora extracts possess anxiolytic-like effects that depend on the ovarian cycle phase, supporting the Mexican ancient medicinal use of these plants to ameliorate anxiety disorders. PMID:24800255

  19. Diphenyl diselenide ameliorates monosodium glutamate induced anxiety-like behavior in rats by modulating hippocampal BDNF-Akt pathway and uptake of GABA and serotonin neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Suzan Gonçalves; Quines, Caroline Brandão; Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-03-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer used in food, administered to neonatal rats causes neuronal lesions and leads to anxiety when adulthood. We investigated the anxiolytic-like effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and its mechanisms on anxiety induced by MSG. Neonatal male and female Wistar rats received a subcutaneous injection of saline (0.9%) or MSG (4 g/kg/day) from the 1st to 10th postnatal day. At 60 days of life, the rats received (PhSe)2 (1mg/kg/day) or vehicle by the intragastric route for 7 days. The spontaneous locomotor activity (LAM), elevated plus maze test (EPM) and contextual fear conditioning test (CFC) as well as neurochemical ([(3)H]GABA and [(3)H]5-HT uptake) and molecular analyses (Akt and p-Akt and BDNF levels) were carried out after treatment with (PhSe)2. Neonatal exposure to MSG increased all anxiogenic parameters in LAM, EPM and CFC tests. MSG increased GABA and 5-HT uptake in hippocampus of rats, without changing uptake in cerebral cortex. The levels of BDNF and p-Akt were reduced in hippocampus of rats treated with MSG. The administration of (PhSe)2 to rats reversed all behavioral anxiogenic parameters altered by MSG. The increase in hippocampal GABA and 5-HT uptake induced by MSG was reversed by (PhSe)2. (PhSe)2 reversed the reduction in hippocampal BDNF and p-Akt levels induced by MSG. In conclusion, the anxiolytic-like action of (PhSe)2 in rats exposed to MSG during their neonatal period is related to its modulation of hippocampal GABA and 5-HT uptake as well as the BDNF-Akt pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Duloxetine prevents the effects of prenatal stress on depressive-like and anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adult male offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaosong; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yan; Hu, Jingmin; Jiang, Han; Cheng, Wenwen; Ma, Yuchao; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-12-01

    Stress during pregnancy may cause neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Currently, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been identified as a risk factor for depression and anxiety disorder. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effects of prenatal stress on the neuroinflammatory system of offspring. Moreover, the relationship between antidepressant treatment and cytokines in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, an important emotion modulation center, is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of prenatal chronic mild stress during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal cytokines in adult offspring, and to verify whether antidepressant (duloxetine) administration from early adulthood could prevent the harmful consequences. To do so, prenatally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either duloxetine (10mg/kg/day) or vehicle from postnatal day 60 for 21days. Adult offspring were divided into four groups: 1) prenatal stress+duloxetine treatment, 2) prenatal stress+vehicle, 3) duloxetine treatment alone, and 4) vehicle alone. Adult offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the open field test and depression-like behavior using the forced swim test. Brains were analyzed for pro-inflammatory cytokine markers in the hippocampus via real-time PCR. Results demonstrate that prenatal stress-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors are associated with an increase in hippocampal inflammatory mediators, and duloxetine administration prevents the increased hippocampal pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 and anxiety- and depression-like behavior in prenatally stressed adult offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of PNS exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity to study the pathogenesis of depression and its therapeutic interventions

  1. Exposure to a highly caloric palatable diet during pregestational and gestational periods affects hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid levels at birth and induces adiposity and anxiety-like behaviors in male rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa eRamírez-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and, although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory and emotions.

  2. Neuropeptide VGF C-Terminal Peptide TLQP-62 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Memory Deficits and Anxiety-like and Depression-like Behaviors in Mice: The Role of BDNF/TrkB Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenli; Li, Mengmeng; Yu, Hanjie; Shen, Xinbei; Wang, Jinting; Sun, Xin; Wang, Qinwen; Wang, Chuang

    2017-09-20

    Peripheral inflammatory responses affect central nervous system (CNS) function, manifesting in symptoms of memory deficits, depression, and anxiety. Previous studies have revealed that neuropeptide VGF (nonacronymic) C-terminal peptide TLQP-62 rapidly reinforces brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling, regulating memory consolidation and antidepressant-like action. However, whether it is beneficial for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuropsychiatric dysfunction in mice is unknown. Herein, we explored the involvement of BDNF/TrkB signaling and biochemical alterations in inflammatory or oxidative stress markers in the alleviating effects of TLQP-62 on LPS-induced neuropsychiatric dysfunction. The mice were treated with TLQP-62 (2 μg/side) via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection 1 h before LPS (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Our results showed that a single treatment with LPS (0.5 mg/kg, i.p) is sufficient to produce recognition memory deficits (in the novel object recognition test), depression-like behavior (in the forced swim test and sucrose preference test), and anxiety-like behavior (in the elevated zero maze). However, pretreatment with TLQP-62 prevented LPS-induced behavioral dysfunction, neuroinflammatory, and oxidative responses. In addition, our results further demonstrated that a reduction in BDNF expression mediated by BDNF-shRNA lentivirus significantly blocked the effects of TLQP-62, suggesting the critical role of BDNF/TrkB signaling in the neuroprotective effects of TLQP-62 in the mice. In conclusion, TLQP-62 could be a therapeutic approach for neuropsychiatric disorders, which are closely associated with neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.

  3. Benefits of Hormone Therapy Estrogens Depend on Estrogen Type: 17β-Estradiol and Conjugated Equine Estrogens Have Differential Effects on Cognitive, Anxiety-Like, and Depressive-Like Behaviors and Increase Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 mRNA Levels in Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Subregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, Ryoko; Weyrich, Giulia; Koebele, Stephanie V; Mennenga, Sarah E; Talboom, Joshua S; Hewitt, Lauren T; Lavery, Courtney N; Mendoza, Perla; Jordan, Ambra; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    Decreased serotonin (5-HT) function is associated with numerous cognitive and affective disorders. Women are more vulnerable to these disorders and have a lower rate of 5-HT synthesis than men. Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are a major source of 5-HT in the forebrain and play a critical role in regulation of stress-related disorders. In particular, polymorphisms of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TpH2, the brain-specific, rate-limiting enzyme for 5-HT biosynthesis) are implicated in cognitive and affective disorders. Administration of 17β-estradiol (E2), the most potent naturally circulating estrogen in women and rats, can have beneficial effects on cognitive, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors. Moreover, E2 increases TpH2 mRNA in specific subregions of the DRN. Although conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) are a commonly prescribed estrogen component of hormone therapy in menopausal women, there is a marked gap in knowledge regarding how CEE affects these behaviors and the brain 5-HT system. Therefore, we compared the effects of CEE and E2 treatments on behavior and TpH2 mRNA. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized, administered either vehicle, CEE, or E2 and tested on a battery of cognitive, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors. The brains of these animals were subsequently analyzed for TpH2 mRNA. Both CEE and E2 exerted beneficial behavioral effects, although efficacy depended on the distinct behavior and for cognition, on the task difficulty. Compared to CEE, E2 generally had more robust anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. E2 increased TpH2 mRNA in the caudal and mid DRN, corroborating previous findings. However, CEE increased TpH2 mRNA in the caudal and rostral, but not the mid, DRN, suggesting that distinct estrogens can have subregion-specific effects on TpH2 gene expression. We also found differential correlations between the level of TpH2 mRNA in specific DRN subregions and behavior, depending on the type of

  4. Benefits of Hormone Therapy Estrogens Depend on Estrogen Type: 17β-Estradiol and Conjugated Equine Estrogens Have Differential Effects on Cognitive, Anxiety-Like, and Depressive-Like Behaviors and Increase Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 mRNA Levels in Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Subregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, Ryoko; Weyrich, Giulia; Koebele, Stephanie V.; Mennenga, Sarah E.; Talboom, Joshua S.; Hewitt, Lauren T.; Lavery, Courtney N.; Mendoza, Perla; Jordan, Ambra; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Decreased serotonin (5-HT) function is associated with numerous cognitive and affective disorders. Women are more vulnerable to these disorders and have a lower rate of 5-HT synthesis than men. Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are a major source of 5-HT in the forebrain and play a critical role in regulation of stress-related disorders. In particular, polymorphisms of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TpH2, the brain-specific, rate-limiting enzyme for 5-HT biosynthesis) are implicated in cognitive and affective disorders. Administration of 17β-estradiol (E2), the most potent naturally circulating estrogen in women and rats, can have beneficial effects on cognitive, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors. Moreover, E2 increases TpH2 mRNA in specific subregions of the DRN. Although conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) are a commonly prescribed estrogen component of hormone therapy in menopausal women, there is a marked gap in knowledge regarding how CEE affects these behaviors and the brain 5-HT system. Therefore, we compared the effects of CEE and E2 treatments on behavior and TpH2 mRNA. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized, administered either vehicle, CEE, or E2 and tested on a battery of cognitive, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors. The brains of these animals were subsequently analyzed for TpH2 mRNA. Both CEE and E2 exerted beneficial behavioral effects, although efficacy depended on the distinct behavior and for cognition, on the task difficulty. Compared to CEE, E2 generally had more robust anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. E2 increased TpH2 mRNA in the caudal and mid DRN, corroborating previous findings. However, CEE increased TpH2 mRNA in the caudal and rostral, but not the mid, DRN, suggesting that distinct estrogens can have subregion-specific effects on TpH2 gene expression. We also found differential correlations between the level of TpH2 mRNA in specific DRN subregions and behavior, depending on the type of

  5. Long-term NMDAR antagonism correlates reduced astrocytic glutamate uptake with anxiety-like phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R Zimmer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of glutamate N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR hypofunction has been extensively studied in schizophrenia; however, less is known about its role in anxiety disorders. Recently, it was demonstrated that astrocytic GLT-1 blockade leads to an anxiety-like phenotype. Although astrocytes are capable of modulating NMDAR activity through glutamate uptake transporters, the relationship between astrocytic glutamate uptake and the development of an anxiety phenotype remains poorly explored. Here, we aimed to investigative whether long-term antagonism of NMDAR impacts anxiety-related behaviors and astrocytic glutamate uptake. Memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, was administered daily for 24 days to healthy adult CF-1 mice by oral gavage at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg. The mice were submitted to a sequential battery of behavioral tests (open field, light-dark box and elevated plus-maze tests. We then evaluated glutamate uptake activity and the immunocontents of glutamate transporters in the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that long-term administration of memantine induces anxiety-like behavior in mice in the light-dark box and elevated plus-maze paradigms. Additionally, the administration of memantine decreased glutamate uptake activity in both the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus without altering the immunocontent of either GLT-1 or GLAST. Remarkably, the memantine-induced reduction in glutamate uptake was correlated with enhancement of an anxiety-like phenotype. In conclusion, long-term NMDAR antagonism with memantine induces anxiety-like behavior that is associated with reduced glutamate uptake activity but that is not dependent on GLT-1 or GLAST protein expression. Our study suggests that NMDAR and glutamate uptake hypofunction may contribute to the development of conditions that fall within the category of anxiety disorders.

  6. Individual Differences in Fear Extinction and Anxiety-Like Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gabrielle; Scott, Elliot; Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2017-01-01

    There is growing appreciation for the substantial individual differences in the acquisition and inhibition of aversive associations, and the insights this might give into identifying individuals particularly vulnerable to stress and psychopathology. We examined whether animals that differed in rate of extinction (i.e., Fast versus Slow) were…

  7. Behavioral program synthesis with genetic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Genetic programming (GP) is a popular heuristic methodology of program synthesis with origins in evolutionary computation. In this generate-and-test approach, candidate programs are iteratively produced and evaluated. The latter involves running programs on tests, where they exhibit complex behaviors reflected in changes of variables, registers, or memory. That behavior not only ultimately determines program output, but may also reveal its `hidden qualities' and important characteristics of the considered synthesis problem. However, the conventional GP is oblivious to most of that information and usually cares only about the number of tests passed by a program. This `evaluation bottleneck' leaves search algorithm underinformed about the actual and potential qualities of candidate programs. This book proposes behavioral program synthesis, a conceptual framework that opens GP to detailed information on program behavior in order to make program synthesis more efficient. Several existing and novel mechanisms subs...

  8. Modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Johnson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil (2-((diphenylmethylsulfinylacetamide, a selective dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, is most commonly prescribed for narcolepsy but has gained recent interest for treating a variety of disorders. Zebrafish (Danio rerio are becoming a model of choice for pharmacological and behavioural research. To investigate the behavioural effects of modafinil on anxiety, we administered doses of 0, 2, 20, and 200 mg/L for 30 minutes then tested zebrafish in the novel approach test. In this test, the fish was placed into a circular arena with a novel object in the center and motion-tracking software was used to quantify the time the fish spent in the outer area of the arena (thigmotaxis zone, middle third of the arena (transition zone and center of the arena, as well as total distance traveled, immobility and meandering. Modafinil caused a decrease in time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone across all doses. Modafinil did not significantly alter the time spent in the center zone (near the novel object, the distance moved, meandering, or the duration of time spent immobile. We also validated this test as a measure of anxiety with the administration of ethanol (1% which decreased time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone. These results suggest that modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish.

  9. Modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrian; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2017-01-01

    Modafinil (2-((diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl)acetamide), a selective dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, is most commonly prescribed for narcolepsy but has gained recent interest for treating a variety of disorders. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are becoming a model of choice for pharmacological and behavioural research. To investigate the behavioural effects of modafinil on anxiety, we administered doses of 0, 2, 20, and 200 mg/L for 30 minutes then tested zebrafish in the novel approach test. In this test, the fish was placed into a circular arena with a novel object in the center and motion-tracking software was used to quantify the time the fish spent in the outer area of the arena (thigmotaxis zone), middle third of the arena (transition zone) and center of the arena, as well as total distance traveled, immobility and meandering. Modafinil caused a decrease in time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone across all doses. Modafinil did not significantly alter the time spent in the center zone (near the novel object), the distance moved, meandering, or the duration of time spent immobile. We also validated this test as a measure of anxiety with the administration of ethanol (1%) which decreased time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone. These results suggest that modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish.

  10. Working memory deficits, increased anxiety-like traits, and seizure susceptibility in BDNF overexpressing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Francesco; Silverman, Jill L.; Aney, Jordan; Tian, Qingjun; Barkan, Charlotte L.; Chadman, Kathryn K.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2011-01-01

    BDNF regulates components of cognitive processes and has been implicated in psychiatric disorders. Here we report that genetic overexpression of the BDNF mature isoform (BDNF-tg) in female mice impaired working memory functions while sparing components of fear conditioning. BDNF-tg mice also displayed reduced breeding efficiency, higher anxiety-like scores, high self-grooming, impaired prepulse inhibition, and higher susceptibility to seizures when placed in a new empty cage, as compared with wild-type (WT) littermate controls. Control measures of general health, locomotor activity, motor coordination, depression-related behaviors, and sociability did not differ between genotypes. The present findings, indicating detrimental effects of life-long increased BDNF in mice, may inform human studies evaluating the role of BDNF functional genetic variations on cognitive abilities and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:21791566

  11. Exposure to dim light at night during early development increases adult anxiety-like responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; McHenry, Zachary D; Abi Salloum, Bachir A; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-06-22

    Early experiences produce effects that may persist throughout life. Therefore, to understand adult phenotype, it is important to investigate the role of early environmental stimuli in adult behavior and health. Artificial light at night (LAN) is an increasingly common phenomenon throughout the world. However, animals, including humans, evolved under dark night conditions. Many studies have revealed affective, immune, and metabolic alterations provoked by aberrant light exposure and subsequent circadian disruption. Pups are receptive to entraining cues from the mother and then light early during development, raising the possibility that the early life light environment may influence subsequent behavior. Thus, to investigate potential influences of early life exposure to LAN on adult phenotype, we exposed mice to dim (~5 lux; full spectrum white light) or dark (~0 lux) nights pre- and/or postnatally. After weaning at 3 weeks of age, all mice were maintained in dark nights until adulthood (9 weeks of age) when behavior was assessed. Mice exposed to dim light in early life increased anxiety-like behavior and fearful responses on the elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. These mice also displayed reduced growth rates, which ultimately normalized during adolescence. mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin previously linked to early life environment and adult phenotype, was not altered in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus by early life LAN exposure. Serum corticosterone concentrations were similar between groups at weaning, suggesting that early life LAN does not elicit a long-term physiologic stress response. Dim light exposure did not influence behavior on the open field, novel object, sucrose anhedonia, or forced swim tests. Our data highlight the potential deleterious consequences of low levels of light during early life to development and subsequent behavior. Whether these changes are due to altered maternal behavior

  12. Exploring Adaptive Program Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions...

  13. Anxiety-Like Behavioural Inhibition Is Normative under Environmental Threat-Reward Correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik R Bach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying anxiety behaviour. Here, we analyse a standard rodent anxiety model, the operant conflict test. We harvest Bayesian Decision Theory to show that behavioural inhibition normatively arises as cost-minimising strategy in temporally correlated environments. Importantly, only if behavioural inhibition is aimed at minimising cost, it depends on probability and magnitude of threat. Harnessing a virtual computer game, we test model predictions in four experiments with human participants. Humans exhibit behavioural inhibition with a strong linear dependence on threat probability and magnitude. Strikingly, inhibition occurs before motor execution and depends on the virtual environment, thus likely resulting from a neural optimisation process rather than a pre-programmed mechanism. Individual trait anxiety scores predict behavioural inhibition, underlining the validity of this anxiety model. These findings put anxiety behaviour into the context of cost-minimisation and optimal inference, and may ultimately pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the neural computations gone awry in human anxiety disorder.

  14. Anxiety-Like Behavioural Inhibition Is Normative under Environmental Threat-Reward Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dominik R

    2015-12-01

    Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying anxiety behaviour. Here, we analyse a standard rodent anxiety model, the operant conflict test. We harvest Bayesian Decision Theory to show that behavioural inhibition normatively arises as cost-minimising strategy in temporally correlated environments. Importantly, only if behavioural inhibition is aimed at minimising cost, it depends on probability and magnitude of threat. Harnessing a virtual computer game, we test model predictions in four experiments with human participants. Humans exhibit behavioural inhibition with a strong linear dependence on threat probability and magnitude. Strikingly, inhibition occurs before motor execution and depends on the virtual environment, thus likely resulting from a neural optimisation process rather than a pre-programmed mechanism. Individual trait anxiety scores predict behavioural inhibition, underlining the validity of this anxiety model. These findings put anxiety behaviour into the context of cost-minimisation and optimal inference, and may ultimately pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the neural computations gone awry in human anxiety disorder.

  15. Anxiety-like behaviour and associated neurochemical and endocrinological alterations in male pups exposed to prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloux, Charlotte; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Giovine, Angela; Branchi, Igor; Bouret, Sebastien; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Bergonzelli, Gabriela; Malagodi, Marithé; Gradini, Roberto; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Maccari, Stefania

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that emotional liability in infancy could be a predictor of anxiety-related disorders in the adulthood. Rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress ("PRS rats") represent a valuable model for the study of the interplay between environmental triggers and neurodevelopment in the pathogenesis of anxious/depressive like behaviours. Repeated episodes of restraint stress were delivered to female Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy and male offspring were studied. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was assessed in pups under different behavioural paradigms. After weaning, anxiety was measured by conventional tests. Expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors was assessed by immunoblotting. Plasma leptin levels were measured using a LINCOplex bead assay kit. The offspring of stressed dams emitted more USVs in response to isolation from their mothers and showed a later suppression of USV production when exposed to an unfamiliar male odour, indicating a pronounced anxiety-like profile. Anxiety like behaviour in PRS pups persisted one day after weaning. PRS pups did not show the plasma peak in leptin levels that is otherwise seen at PND14. In addition, PRS pups showed a reduced expression of the γ2 subunit of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdala at PND14 and PND22, an increased expression of mGlu5 receptors in the amygdala at PND22, a reduced expression of mGlu5 receptors in the hippocampus at PND14 and PND22, and a reduced expression of mGlu2/3 receptors in the hippocampus at PND22. These data offer a clear-cut demonstration that the early programming triggered by PRS could be already translated into anxiety-like behaviour during early postnatal life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-01-25

    Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab.

  17. Students' programming behavior in a pascal course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintrich, Paul R.; Berger, Carl F.; Stemmer, Paul M.

    Students' (n = 23) actual programming behaviors were observed in two high school Pascal programming classes. Observation was performed with a computerized low inference instrument that collected both frequency and time data. Behaviors coded included students' production of code as well as their debugging strategies. Results revealed that students spend little time in planning their programs or writing their code before they start to key in their code. Their debugging behavior was best characterized as a trial and error strategy. Results are discussed in terms of the classroom context for programming and implications for research on the effects of programming instruction.

  18. Emergence of anxiety-like behaviours in depressive-like Cpe(fat/fat) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wilkins, John J; Creson, Thomas K; Biswas, Reeta; Berezniuk, Iryna; Fricker, Arun D; Fricker, Lloyd D; Wetsel, William C

    2013-08-01

    Cpe(fat/fat) mice have a point mutation in carboxypeptidase E (Cpe), an exopeptidase that removes C-terminal basic amino acids from intermediates to produce bioactive peptides. The mutation renders the enzyme inactive and unstable. The absence of Cpe activity in these mutants leads to abnormal processing of many peptides, with elevated levels of intermediates and greatly reduced levels of the mature peptides. Cpe(fat/fat) mice develop obesity, diabetes and infertility in adulthood. We examined whether anxiety- and/or depressive-like behaviours are also present. Anxiety-like responses are not evident in young Cpe(fat/fat) mice (∼60 d), but appear in older animals (>90 d). These behaviours are reversed by acute treatment with diazepam or fluoxetine. In contrast, increased immobilities in forced swim and tail suspension are evident in all age groups examined. These behaviours are reversed by acute administration of reboxetine. In comparison acute treatments with fluoxetine or bupropion are ineffective; however, immobility times are normalized with 2 wk treatment. These data demonstrate that Cpe(fat/fat) mice display depressive-like responses aged ∼60 d, whereas anxiety-like behaviours emerge ∼1 month later. In tail suspension, the reboxetine findings show that noradrenergic actions of antidepressants are intact in Cpe(fat/fat) mice. The ability of acute fluoxetine treatment to rescue anxiety-like while leaving depressive-like responses unaffected suggests that serotonin mechanisms underlying these behaviours are different. Since depressive-like responses in the Cpe(fat/fat) mice are rescued by 2 wk, but not acute, treatment with fluoxetine or bupropion, these mice may serve as a useful model that resembles human depression.

  19. Prenatal fluoxetine exposure induces life-long serotonin 5-HT₃ receptor-dependent cortical abnormalities and anxiety-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit-Rigter, Laura A; Noorlander, Cornelle W; von Oerthel, Lars; Chameau, Pascal; Smidt, Marten P; van Hooft, Johannes A

    2012-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first choice of drugs to treat depression and anxiety during pregnancy. However, there is evidence that in utero exposure to SSRIs leads to adverse effects in offspring. Here we show that in mice, the adverse effects of the widely used antidepressant and SSRI fluoxetine are critically dependent on the 5-HT(3) receptor, the only ligand-gated ion channel in the family of serotonin receptors. In utero exposure to fluoxetine induces anxiety-like behavior in wildtype, but not in mice lacking the 5-HT(3) receptor. In addition to this behavioral phenotype, these mice show life-long abnormalities of cortical cytoarchitecture, which can be reversed in vitro by pharmacological block of 5-HT(3) receptors. Moreover, the effect of fluoxetine on the development of cortical neurons is absent in 5-HT(3) receptor knockout mice. These findings pinpoint the pivotal role of serotonergic signaling during development and provide a novel basis to investigate the adverse effects of the use of fluoxetine during pregnancy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prolonged consumption of trans fat favors the development of orofacial dyskinesia and anxiety-like symptoms in older rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Camila Simonetti; Teixeira, Angélica Martelli; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Quatrin, Andréia; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise Escobar

    2014-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) are cell membrane components involved in brain functions. We hypothesized that long-term trans fat consumption is able to modify the membrane FAs composition impairing behavioral parameters related to aging. In this study, a comparison of behavioral parameters at 10 and 15 months of trans fat consumption by male Wistar rats was made. Animals were fed for 10 and 15 months from weaning with diets containing either 20% w/w soybean oil (SO), rich in n-6 PUFA, hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF), rich in trans FAs, or a standard diet (control - C). At both evaluation times, HVF-fed rats showed progressively increased parameters of orofacial dyskinesia, fear and anxiety-like symptoms. The HVF diet reduced locomotor and exploratory activities progressively over 10 and 15 months of supplementation, while the standard and SO diets did not. In this study, we showed that chronic trans FAs consumption from weaning is able to favor the development of neuromotor and neuropsychiatric diseases, whose intensity was time dependent.

  1. Fetal brain 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 selectively determines programming of adult depressive-like behaviors and cognitive function, but not anxiety behaviors in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwoll, Caitlin; Keith, Marianne; Noble, June; Stevenson, Paula L; Bombail, Vincent; Crombie, Sandra; Evans, Louise C; Bailey, Matthew A; Wood, Emma; Seckl, Jonathan R; Holmes, Megan C

    2015-09-01

    Stress or elevated glucocorticoids during sensitive windows of fetal development increase the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders in adult rodents and humans, a phenomenon known as glucocorticoid programming. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which catalyses rapid inactivation of glucocorticoids in the placenta, controls access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetal compartment, placing it in a key position to modulate glucocorticoid programming of behavior. However, the importance of the high expression of 11β-HSD2 within the midgestational fetal brain is unknown. To examine this, a brain-specific knockout of 11β-HSD2 (HSD2BKO) was generated and compared to wild-type littermates. HSD2BKO have markedly diminished fetal brain 11β-HSD2, but intact fetal body and placental 11β-HSD2 and normal fetal and placental growth. Despite normal fetal plasma corticosterone, HSD2BKO exhibit elevated fetal brain corticosterone levels at midgestation. As adults, HSD2BKO show depressive-like behavior and have cognitive impairments. However, unlike complete feto-placental deficiency, HSD2BKO show no anxiety-like behavioral deficits. The clear mechanistic separation of the programmed components of depression and cognition from anxiety implies distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis, affording potential opportunities for stratified interventions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential contribution of hypothalamic MAPK activity to anxiety-like behaviour in virgin and lactating rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Jurek

    Full Text Available The c-Raf - MEK1/2 - ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK intracellular signalling cascade in neurons plays important roles in the control of a variety of behaviours, including social behaviours and anxiety. These roles partially overlap with those described for oxytocin (OXT, and it has been shown that OXT activates the MAPK pathway in the hypothalamus (of male, and hippocampus (of female rats. Here, by combining behavioural (light/dark box and biochemical analyses (western blotting, we tested two hypotheses: (i that OXT is anxiolytic within the hypothalamus of females, and (ii that this effect, as well as that of lactation-associated anxiolysis, depends on the recruitment of the MAPK pathway. We found that, when injected bilaterally into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, OXT decreased anxiety-like behaviour in virgins, and that this effect depended on phosphorylation of MEK1/2. MAPK pathway activation in lactation was evident by high phosphorylated (p MEK1/2 levels, and nuclear translocation of ERK1. The high pMEK1/2 levels were necessary for the anxiolytic phenotype typically observed during lactation. Interestingly, exogenous OXT in lactating rats reduced pMEK1/2 levels without a concomitant effect on anxiety, indicating that OXT receptor activation can lead to recruitment of additional intracellular pathways to modulate MEK activity. Still other pathways could include MEK, but without subsequent activation of ERK, as we did not observe any increase in OXT-induced ERK phosphorylation. Together the results demonstrate that the MAPK pathway, especially MEK1/2, is critically involved in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviour in female rats.

  3. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system mediates hypophagic and anxiety-like effects of CB₁ receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellocchio, Luigi; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Quarta, Carmelo; Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Cardinal, Pierre; Binder, Elke; Cannich, Astrid; Delamarre, Anna; Häring, Martin; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Vega, David; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Bartsch, Dusan; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat; Chaouloff, Francis; Pagotto, Uberto; Guzman, Manuel; Cota, Daniela; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2013-03-19

    Complex interactions between periphery and the brain regulate food intake in mammals. Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists are potent hypophagic agents, but the sites where this acute action is exerted and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To dissect the mechanisms underlying the hypophagic effect of CB1 receptor blockade, we combined the acute injection of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant with the use of conditional CB1-knockout mice, as well as with pharmacological modulation of different central and peripheral circuits. Fasting/refeeding experiments revealed that CB1 receptor signaling in many specific brain neurons is dispensable for the acute hypophagic effects of rimonabant. CB1 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia was fully abolished by peripheral blockade of β-adrenergic transmission, suggesting that this effect is mediated by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Consistently, we found that rimonabant increases gastrointestinal metabolism via increased peripheral β-adrenergic receptor signaling in peripheral organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Blockade of both visceral afferents and glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii abolished rimonabant-induced hypophagia. Importantly, these mechanisms were specifically triggered by lipid-deprivation, revealing a nutrient-specific component acutely regulated by CB1 receptor blockade. Finally, peripheral blockade of sympathetic neurotransmission also blunted central effects of CB1 receptor blockade, such as fear responses and anxiety-like behaviors. These data demonstrate that, independently of their site of origin, important effects of CB1 receptor blockade are expressed via activation of peripheral sympathetic activity. Thus, CB1 receptors modulate bidirectional circuits between the periphery and the brain to regulate feeding and other behaviors.

  4. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  5. Vulnerability imposed by diet and brain trauma for anxiety-like phenotype: implications for post-traumatic stress disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethika Tyagi

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, cerebral concussion is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric illness such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We sought to evaluate how omega-3 fatty acids during brain maturation can influence challenges incurred during adulthood (transitioning to unhealthy diet and mTBI and predispose the brain to a PTSD-like pathobiology. Rats exposed to diets enriched or deficient in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 during their brain maturation period, were transitioned to a western diet (WD when becoming adult and then subjected to mTBI. TBI resulted in an increase in anxiety-like behavior and its molecular counterpart NPY1R, a hallmark of PTSD, but these effects were more pronounced in the animals exposed to n-3 deficient diet and switched to WD. The n-3 deficiency followed by WD disrupted BDNF signaling and the activation of elements of BDNF signaling pathway (TrkB, CaMKII, Akt and CREB in frontal cortex. TBI worsened these effects and more prominently in combination with the n-3 deficiency condition. Moreover, the n-3 deficiency primed the immune system to the challenges imposed by the WD and brain trauma as evidenced by results showing that the WD or mTBI affected brain IL1β levels and peripheral Th17 and Treg subsets only in animals previously conditioned to the n-3 deficient diet. These results provide novel evidence for the capacity of maladaptive dietary habits to lower the threshold for neurological disorders in response to challenges.

  6. Exercise affects memory acquisition, anxiety-like symptoms and activity of membrane-bound enzyme in brain of rats fed with different dietary fats: impairments of trans fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A M; Pase, C S; Boufleur, N; Roversi, K; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Segat, H J; Dias, V T; Reckziegel, P; Trevizol, F; Dolci, G S; Carvalho, N R; Soares, F A A; Rocha, J B T; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

    2011-11-10

    Here we evaluated the influence of physical exercise on behavior parameters and enzymatic status of rats supplemented with different dietary fatty acids (FA). Male Wistar rats fed diets enriched with soybean oil (SO), lard (L), or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) for 48 weeks were submitted to swimming (30 min/d, five times per week) for 90 days. Dietary FA per se did not cause anxiety-like symptoms in the animals, but after physical exercise, SO group showed a better behavioral performance than L and the HVF groups in elevated plus maze (EPM). In Barnes maze, HVF group showed impaired memory acquisition as compared to L group, and exercise reversed this effect. SO-fed rats showed an improvement in memory acquisition after 1 day of training, whereas lard caused an improvement of memory only from day 4. HVF-fed rats showed no improvement of memory acquisition, but this effect was reversed by exercise in all training days. A lower activity of the Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in brain cortex of rats fed lard and HVF was observed, and this effect was maintained after exercise. Similarly, the HVF diet was related to lower activity of hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and exercise reduced activity of this enzyme in the SO and L groups. Our findings show influences of dietary FA on memory acquisition, whereas regular exercise improved this function and was beneficial on anxiety-like symptoms. As FA are present in neuronal membrane phospholipids and play a critical role in brain function, our results suggest that low incorporation of trans FA in neuronal membranes may act on cortical and hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, but this change appears to be unrelated to the behavioral parameters primarily harmed by consumption of trans and less so by saturated FA, which were reversed by exercise. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anxiety-like behaviour in mice exposed to tannery wastewater: The effect of photoelectrooxidation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues; Vanzella, Cláudia; Bianchetti, Paula; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; Stülp, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The leather industry is a major producer of wastewaters and releases large quantities of many different chemical agents used in hide processing into the environment. Since the central nervous system is sensitive to many different contaminants, our aim was to investigate the neurobehavioral effects of exposure of mice to tannery effluents using animal models of depression and anxiety, namely forced swim and elevated plus-maze. In order to propose a clean technology for the treatment of this effluent, we also investigated the exposure of mice to effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation process (PEO). Adult male Swiss albino mice (CF1 strain) were given free access to water bottles containing an effluent treated by a tannery (non-PEO) or PEO-treated tannery wastewater (0.1 and 1% in drinking water). Exposure to tannery wastewater induced behavioural changes in the mice in elevated plus-maze. Exposure to non-PEO 1% decreased the percentage of time spent in the open arms, indicating anxiety-like behaviour. Exposure to tannery wastewater did not alter immobility time in the forced swim test, suggesting that tannery effluents did not induce depression-like behaviour in the mice. These behavioural data suggest that non-PEO tannery effluent has an anxiogenic effect, whereas PEO-treated tannery effluents do not alter anxiety levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the neurotoxic effects of chronic embryonic exposure with inorganic mercury on motor and anxiety-like responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Noraini; Mohd Sata, Nurul Syafida Asma'; Ramlan, Nurul Farhana; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Norhamidah; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Che Abdullah, Che Azurahanim; Ahmad, Syahida; Amal, Mohammad Noor Azmai

    Chronic exposure to mercury (Hg) can lead to cumulative impairments in motor and cognitive functions including alteration in anxiety responses. Although several risk factors have been identified in recent year, little is known about the environmental factors that either due exposure toward low level of inorganic mercury that may led to the developmental disorders. The present study investigated the effects of embryonic exposure of mercury chloride on motor function and anxiety-like behavior. The embryo exposed to 6 different concentrations of HgCl2 (7.5, 15, 30, 100, 125, 250nM) at 5hpf until hatching (72hpf) in a semi-static condition. The mortality rate increased in a dose dependent manner where the chronic embryonic exposure to 100nM decreased the number of tail coiling, heartbeat, and swimming activity. Aversive stimulus was used to examine the effects of 100nM interferes with the development of anxiety-related behavior. No elevation in both thigmotaxis and avoidance response of 6dpf larvae exposed with 100nM were found. Biochemical analysis showed HgCl2 exposure affects proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids of the zebrafish larvae. These results showed that implication of HgCl2 on locomotor and biochemical defects affects motor performance and anxiety-like responses. Yet, the potential underlying mechanisms these responses need to be further investigated which is crucial to prevent potential hazards on the developing organism due to neurotoxicant exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary magnesium deficiency affects gut microbiota and anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6N mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bettina Merete Pyndt; Winther, Gudrun; Kihl, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Magnesium deficiency has been associated with anxiety in humans, and rodent studies have demonstrated the gut microbiota to impact behaviour. METHODS: We investigated the impact of 6 weeks of dietary magnesium deficiency on gut microbiota composition and anxiety-like behaviour...... and whether there was a link between the two. A total of 20 C57BL/6 mice, fed either a standard diet or a magnesium-deficient diet for 6 weeks, were tested using the light-dark box anxiety test. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: We demonstrated...... that the gut microbiota composition correlated significantly with the behaviour of dietary unchallenged mice. A magnesium-deficient diet altered the gut microbiota, and was associated with altered anxiety-like behaviour, measured by decreased latency to enter the light box. CONCLUSION: Magnesium deficiency...

  10. Training programs in research into the effectiveness of teacher behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article contends that studies into the effectiveness of teacher behavior should give more attention both to a systematic design of training programs as well as to the collection of implementation data concerning teacher behavior, before incorporating the training program into an experimental

  11. A Program to Establish Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors with Freshmen Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Fred B.; Kim, Eunhee; Newton, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    The freshmen transition is a crucial time when students make health choices in their physical activities, eating behaviors, and stress management skills. A consortium of student affairs staff created and implemented an introduction to the wellness program through freshmen orientation classes. The program included a health behaviors assessment,…

  12. The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) Program: Underlying Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulden, Walter T.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…

  13. Lithium Administration to Preadolescent Rats Causes Long-Lasting Increases in Anxiety-Like Behavior and Has Molecular Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Youngs, Rachael M.; Chu, Melissa S.; Meloni, Edward G.; Naydenov, Alipi; Carlezon, William A.; Konradi, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Lithium (Li) is frequently used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BPD), a debilitating condition that is increasingly diagnosed in children and adolescents. Because the symptoms of BPD in children are different from the typical symptoms in adulthood and have significant overlap with other childhood psychiatric disorders, this disorder is notoriously difficult to diagnose. This raises the possibility that some children not affected by BPD are treated with Li during key periods of brain dev...

  14. Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) alters learning and memory, but not anxiety-like behavior, in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopheide, Marsha M; Morgan, Russell E

    2008-12-01

    Isotretinoin (ISO, 13-cis-retinoic acid) is commonly prescribed as Accutane for the treatment of acne. ISO is a known teratogen and the physical side effects of the drug have been well documented. However, possible psychological risks associated with the drug have yet to be determined. Retinoid receptors are abundant in the striatum and hippocampus, brain structures involved in implicit and explicit memory processes, respectively. The current study examined whether ISO influenced implicit or explicit memory processes using a two-stage radial-arm maze (RAM) task. The two stages were identical, except for the method of presenting arm choices to the rats: one at a time (Stage 1) or in pairs (Stage 2). Male rats (n=12/group) were tested on both stages of the RAM during chronic oral treatment with ISO (0, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg/day). Performance indicated that ISO impaired explicit memory in Stage 2, but retention tests one month after ISO exposure ended, indicated recovery from this explicit memory impairment and evidence of enhanced implicit memory in the 10 mg and 15 mg ISO rats. These data indicate extensive, enduring memory effects from oral ISO treatment at doses likely to produce serum levels within the range typically used to treat acne in humans.

  15. DBI/ACBP loss-of-function does not affect anxiety-like behaviour but reduces anxiolytic responses to diazepam in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budry, Lionel; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Tobin, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    binding site on the GABAA receptor. Central administration of ACBP or its cleaved fragment, commonly referred to as endozepines, induces proconflict and anxiety-like behaviour in rodents. For this reason, ACBP is known as an anxiogenic peptide. However, the role of endogenous ACBP in anxiety......-like behaviour and anxiolytic responses to diazepam has not been investigated. To address this question, we assessed anxiety behaviour and anxiolytic responses to diazepam in two complementary loss-of-function mouse models including astrocyte-specific ACBP KO (ACBP(GFAP) KO) and whole-body KO (ACBP KO) mice....... Male and female ACBP(GFAP) KO and ACBP KO mice do not show significant changes in anxiety-like behaviour compared to control littermates during elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests. Surprisingly, ACBP(GFAP) KO and ACBP KO mice were unresponsive to the anxiolytic effect of a low dose...

  16. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  17. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. DBI/ACBP loss-of-function does not affect anxiety-like behaviour but reduces anxiolytic responses to diazepam in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budry, Lionel; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Tobin, Stephanie; Rodaros, Demetra; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Mandrup, Susanne; Fulton, Stephanie; Alquier, Thierry

    2016-10-15

    Diazepam is well known for its anxiolytic properties, which are mediated via activation of the GABAA receptor. Diazepam Binding Inhibitor (DBI), also called acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP), is a ubiquitously expressed protein originally identified based on its ability to displace diazepam from its binding site on the GABAA receptor. Central administration of ACBP or its cleaved fragment, commonly referred to as endozepines, induces proconflict and anxiety-like behaviour in rodents. For this reason, ACBP is known as an anxiogenic peptide. However, the role of endogenous ACBP in anxiety-like behaviour and anxiolytic responses to diazepam has not been investigated. To address this question, we assessed anxiety behaviour and anxiolytic responses to diazepam in two complementary loss-of-function mouse models including astrocyte-specific ACBP KO (ACBP(GFAP) KO) and whole-body KO (ACBP KO) mice. Male and female ACBP(GFAP) KO and ACBP KO mice do not show significant changes in anxiety-like behaviour compared to control littermates during elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests. Surprisingly, ACBP(GFAP) KO and ACBP KO mice were unresponsive to the anxiolytic effect of a low dose of diazepam during EPM tests. In conclusion, our experiments using genetic ACBP loss-of-function models suggest that endozepines deficiency does not affect anxiety-like behaviour in mice and impairs the anxiolytic action of diazepam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of FGF receptor peptide agonists on animal behavior under normal and pathological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudenko, Olga; Tkach, Vadym; Berezin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    , respectively) on social memory, exploratory activity, and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats. Treatment with hexafin1 and hexafin2 resulted in prolonged retention of social memory. Furthermore, rats treated with hexafin2 exhibited decreased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Employing an R6...

  20. Behavior Management Techniques in Predoctoral and Postdoctoral Pediatric Dentistry Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Gary K.; Tilliss, Terri S.

    1993-01-01

    A survey determined the extent to which selected pediatric dental behavior management techniques are taught both didactically and clinically in 46 predoctoral and 45 postdoctoral programs. Results and trends are reported within the four categories of sedation, restraint, parental presence, and communications behavior management. (GLR)

  1. Multi-vendor loyalty programs: influencing customer behavioral loyalty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eVillacé-Molinero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Loyalty programs are a consolidated marketing instrument whose adoption in many sectors has not been associated with appropriate comprehension of either their management elements or their effects. The purpose of this research is to contribute to knowledge about the effect of loyalty programs on repeat purchase behavior. More specifically, it seeks to see discover whether joining a program changes the buying behavior of its members, and, if so, to study the profile of those whose behavior changes most. The intention was also to provide new study variables pertaining to multi-vendor loyalty programs, such as where they are joined or purchases in associated outlets as a result of behavioral loyalty. Research was carried out using a sample of 1,200 individuals (31,746 purchases belonging to a multi-vendor loyalty program. The study period was 13 years, 4 months, and split into two phases: before and after the joining the program. Different methodological approaches, such as the use of transactional databases that included pre-program-enrollment data and of the same sampling units throughout the study, were incorporated into the research with the aim of advancing academic knowledge regarding multi-vendor loyalty programs. Moreover, a type of program and market hardly dealt with in the relevant literature was analyzed. The results showed while the loyalty program had managed to reduce the time between purchases, it had not affected purchase volume or average expenditure. They also demonstrated the existence of a differential profile of customers who had changed their buying behavior to a greater extent. Finally, recency was identified as being the decisive variable in behavioral change.

  2. Multi-Vendor Loyalty Programs: Influencing Customer Behavioral Loyalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacé-Molinero, Teresa; Reinares-Lara, Pedro; Reinares-Lara, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Loyalty programs are a consolidated marketing instrument whose adoption in many sectors has not been associated with appropriate comprehension of either their management elements or their effects. The purpose of this research is to contribute to knowledge about the effect of loyalty programs on repeat purchase behavior. More specifically, it seeks to discover whether joining a program changes the buying behavior of its members, and, if so, to study the profile of those whose behavior changes most. The intention was also to provide new study variables pertaining to multi-vendor loyalty programs, such as where they are joined or purchases in associated outlets as a result of behavioral loyalty. Research was carried out using a sample of 1200 individuals (31,746 purchases) belonging to a multi-vendor loyalty program. The study period was 13 years, 4 months, and split into two phases: before and after the joining the program. Different methodological approaches, such as the use of transactional databases that included pre-program-enrollment data and of the same sampling units throughout the study, were incorporated into the research with the aim of advancing academic knowledge regarding multi-vendor loyalty programs. Moreover, a type of program and market hardly dealt with in the relevant literature was analyzed. The results showed while the loyalty program had managed to reduce the time between purchases, it had not affected purchase volume or average expenditure. They also demonstrated the existence of a differential profile of customers who had changed their buying behavior to a greater extent. Finally, recency was identified as being the decisive variable in behavioral change. PMID:26941677

  3. Multi-Vendor Loyalty Programs: Influencing Customer Behavioral Loyalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacé-Molinero, Teresa; Reinares-Lara, Pedro; Reinares-Lara, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Loyalty programs are a consolidated marketing instrument whose adoption in many sectors has not been associated with appropriate comprehension of either their management elements or their effects. The purpose of this research is to contribute to knowledge about the effect of loyalty programs on repeat purchase behavior. More specifically, it seeks to discover whether joining a program changes the buying behavior of its members, and, if so, to study the profile of those whose behavior changes most. The intention was also to provide new study variables pertaining to multi-vendor loyalty programs, such as where they are joined or purchases in associated outlets as a result of behavioral loyalty. Research was carried out using a sample of 1200 individuals (31,746 purchases) belonging to a multi-vendor loyalty program. The study period was 13 years, 4 months, and split into two phases: before and after the joining the program. Different methodological approaches, such as the use of transactional databases that included pre-program-enrollment data and of the same sampling units throughout the study, were incorporated into the research with the aim of advancing academic knowledge regarding multi-vendor loyalty programs. Moreover, a type of program and market hardly dealt with in the relevant literature was analyzed. The results showed while the loyalty program had managed to reduce the time between purchases, it had not affected purchase volume or average expenditure. They also demonstrated the existence of a differential profile of customers who had changed their buying behavior to a greater extent. Finally, recency was identified as being the decisive variable in behavioral change.

  4. Identifying indicators of behavior change: insights from wildfire education programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha C. Monroe; Shruti Agrawal; Pamela J. Jakes; Linda E. Kruger; Kristen C. Nelson; Victoria. Sturtevant

    2013-01-01

    Environmental educators are challenged to document behavior changes, because change rarely depends solely on outcomes of education programs, but on many factors. An analysis of 15 communities in the United States that have increased their preparedness for wildfire allowed us to explore how education programs encouraged individual and community change. Agency-sponsored...

  5. Identifying Indicators of Behavior Change: Insights from Wildfire Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Martha C.; Agrawal, Shruti; Jakes, Pamela J.; Kruger, Linda E.; Nelson, Kristen C.; Sturtevant, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Environmental educators are challenged to document behavior changes, because change rarely depends solely on outcomes of education programs, but on many factors. An analysis of 15 communities in the United States that have increased their preparedness for wildfire allowed us to explore how education programs encouraged individual and community…

  6. Genetic predisposition to obesity affects behavioural traits including food reward and anxiety-like behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Heike; Kraemer, Maria; Rabasa, Cristina; Askevik, Kaisa; Adan, Roger A H; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2017-06-15

    Here we sought to define behavioural traits linked to anxiety, reward, and exploration in different strains of rats commonly used in obesity research. We hypothesized that genetic variance may contribute not only to their metabolic phenotype (that is well documented) but also to the expression of these behavioural traits. Rat strains that differ in their susceptibility to develop an obese phenotype (Sprague-Dawley, Obese Prone, Obese Resistant, and Zucker rats) were exposed to a number of behavioural tests starting at the age of 8 weeks. We found a similar phenotype in the obesity susceptible models, Obese Prone and Zucker rats, with a lower locomotor activity, exploratory activity, and higher level of anxiety-like behaviour in comparison to the leaner Obese Resistant strain. We did not find evidence that rat strains with a genetic predisposition to obesity differed in their ability to experience reward from chocolate (in a condition place preference task). However, Zucker rats show higher motivated behaviour for sucrose compared to Obese Resistant rats when the effort required to obtain palatable food is relatively low. Together our data demonstrate that rat strains that differ in their genetic predisposition to develop obesity also differ in their performance in behavioural tests linked to anxiety, exploration, and reward and that these differences are independent of body weight. We conclude that genetic variations which determine body weight and the aforementioned behaviours co-exist but that future studies are required to identify whether (and which) common genes are involved. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dieting Behavior and Alcohol Use Behaviors among National Eating Disorders Screening Program Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberg, Natalie F.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown that college students have elevated rates of alcohol use and problematic eating behaviors. The current study focused on the relationships between dieting behaviors and alcohol use among a sample of undergraduates attending National Eating Disorder Screening Program. Method: All participants (n=70, 100% female, average…

  8. Changes in object recognition and anxiety-like behaviour in mice expressing a Cx47 mutation that causes Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Tress, Oliver; Binder, Sonja; Rovira, Catherine; Willecke, Klaus; Dere, Ekrem

    2012-01-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease is characterized by impaired psychomotor development, ataxia, progressive spasticity and mental retardation. It is induced by mutations in the gap junction gene GJC2 that encodes for the gap junction protein connexin 47. Mice bearing a human Cx47M283T missense mutation have been generated as a transgenic mouse model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease. Homozygous expression of the mutant connexin 47 gene in oligodendrocytes resulted in a complex and variable neuropathologic phenotype, which was associated with impairments in motor coordination in juvenile, but not adult mice. In the present study, we have investigated anxiety-like behaviour and spatial working memory in juvenile (P23) and adult (3-month-old) Cx47M282T mutant mice. Adult Cx47M282T mice were also evaluated in terms of neuromotor functions and in the novel object recognition test. Juvenile Cx47M282T mutant mice exhibited an increase in anxiety-like behaviour in the open field test, but no changes in spatial working memory performance. No significant changes in anxiety-like behaviour, spatial working memory or neuromotor functions were observed in the adult Cx47M282T mutant mice. However, novel object recognition was significantly impaired in adult Cx47M282T mice. Our results suggest that the expression of the human Cx47M282T mutation in the mouse causes changes in anxiety-like behaviour in juvenile and novel object recognition impairments in adult mice. It appears that the distortion of panglial gap junction coupling in white and grey matter tissue in the Cx47M282T mice is associated with a complex age-dependent behavioural phenotype including changes in psychomotor, emotional and memory functions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Saturated high-fat feeding independent of obesity alters hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function but not anxiety-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryhorczuk, Cecile; Décarie-Spain, Léa; Sharma, Sandeep; Daneault, Caroline; Rosiers, Christine Des; Alquier, Thierry; Fulton, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    Overconsumption of dietary fat can elicit impairments in emotional processes and the response to stress. While excess dietary lipids have been shown to alter hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and promote anxiety-like behaviour, it is not known if such changes rely on elevated body weight and if these effects are specific to the type of dietary fat. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a saturated and a monounsaturated high-fat diet (HFD) on HPA axis function and anxiety-like behaviour in rats. Biochemical, metabolic and behavioural responses were evaluated following eight weeks on one of three diets: (1) a monounsaturated HFD (50%kcal olive oil), (2) a saturated HFD (50%kcal palm oil), or (3) a control low-fat diet. Weight gain was similar across the three diets while visceral fat mass was elevated by the two HFDs. The saturated HFD had specific actions to increase peak plasma levels of corticosterone and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha and suppress mRNA expression of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, corticotropin-releasing hormone and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Both HFDs enhanced the corticosterone-suppressing response to dexamethasone administration without affecting the physiological response to a restraint stress and failed to increase anxiety-like behaviour as measured in the elevated-plus maze and open field tests. These findings demonstrate that prolonged intake of saturated fat, without added weight gain, increases CORT and modulates central HPA feedback processes. That saturated HFD failed to affect anxiety-like behaviour can suggest that the anxiogenic effects of prolonged high-fat feeding may rely on more pronounced metabolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Possible Involvement of Nitric Oxide Modulatory Mechanisms in the Neuroprotective Effect of Centella asiatica Against Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety Like Behaviour, Oxidative Damage and Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, Priyanka; Kumar, Anil

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is an experience of inadequate or poor quality of sleep that may produce significant alterations in multiple neural systems. Centella asiatica (CA) is a psychoactive medicinal herb with immense therapeutic potential. The present study was designed to explore the possible nitric oxide (NO) modulatory mechanism in the neuroprotective effect of CA against SD induced anxiety like behaviour, oxidative damage and neuroinflammation. Male laca mice were sleep deprived for 72 h, and CA (150 and 300 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with NO modulators for 8 days, starting five days before 72-h SD exposure. Various behavioural (locomotor activity, elevated plus maze) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite levels and superoxide dismutase activity), neuroinflammation marker (TNF-alpha) were assessed subsequently. CA (150 and 300 mg/kg) treatment for 8 days significantly improved locomotor activity, anti-anxiety like effect and attenuated oxidative damage and TNF α level as compared to sleep-deprived 72-h group. Also while the neuroprotective effect of CA was increased by NO antagonists, it was diminished by NO agonists. The present study suggests that NO modulatory mechanism could be involved in the protective effect of CA against SD-induced anxiety-like behaviour, oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Development of a Program Engagement Theory for Group Offending Behavior Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Emma; Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Howat, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    Offender engagement in group offending behavior programs is poorly understood and under-theorized. In addition, there is no research on facilitators' engagement. This article presents the first ever theory to address this gap. A Program Engagement Theory (PET) was derived from a constructivist grounded theory analysis that accounts for both facilitators' and offenders' engagement in group offending behavior programs (GOBPs). Interviews and session observations were used to collect data from 23 program facilitators and 28 offenders (group members). The analysis revealed that group members' engagement involved shared identities and moving on as a group. In turn, this was dependent on facilitators personalising treatment frameworks and establishing a hook to help group members move on. The PET emphasizes the importance of considering change during treatment as a process rather than simply a program outcome. Solution-focused (SF) programs were more conducive to engagement and the change process than offence-focused programs.

  12. A diet high in fat and sugar reverses anxiety-like behaviour induced by limited nesting in male rats: Impacts on hippocampal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher P; Le, Vivian; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-06-01

    Stress exposure during early development is known to produce long-term mental health deficits. Stress promotes poor lifestyle choices such as poor diet. Early life adversity and diets high in fat and sugar (HFHS) are known to affect anxiety and memory. However additive effects of HFHS and stress during early development are less explored. Here, we examined whether early life stress (ELS) simulated by limited nesting (LN) induces anxiety-like behaviour and cognitive deficits that are modulated by HFHS diet. We examined key hippocampal markers involved in anxiety and cognition, testing the hypothesis that post-weaning HFHS following ELS would ameliorate anxiety-like behaviour but worsen memory and associated hippocampal changes. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to LN, postnatal days 2-9, and at weaning, male siblings were given unlimited access to chow or HFHS resulting in (Con-Chow, Con-HFHS, LN-Chow, LN-HFHS, n=11-15/group). Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) at 10 weeks and spatial and object recognition tested at 11 weeks of age. Rats were culled at 13 weeks. Hippocampal mRNA expression was measured using TaqMan(®) Array Micro Fluidic cards (Life Technologies). As expected HFHS diet increased body weight; LN and control rats had similar weights at 13 weeks, energy intake was also similar across groups. LN-Chow rats showed increased anxiety-like behaviour relative to control rats, but this was reversed by HFHS diet. Spatial and object recognition memory were unaltered by LN exposure or consumption of HFHS diet. Hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein was not affected by LN exposure in chow rats, but was increased by 45% in HFHS rats relative to controls. Hippocampal genes involved in plasticity and mood regulation, GSKα and GSKβ were affected, with reductions in GSKβ under both diet conditions, and reduced GSKα only in LN-HFHS versus Con-HFHS. Interestingly, HFHS diet and LN exposure independently reduced expression of

  13. Anger Management Program Participants Gain Behavioral Changes in Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly

    2016-01-01

    RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3…

  14. Management Styles and Leadership Behavior Within a Residence Life Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, James Y. K.; Hales, Loyde W.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership behavior of Residence Life staff members, the management styles of the organization and their relationship to each other. Staff members and students within the Residence Life Program at Ohio University comprised the sample used. Staff perceptions on the Profile on Organizational…

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Behavioral Contracting in Exercise Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    The use of behavioral contracting in exercise programs has been shown to be effective in increasing the frequency of exercise activity and in reducing dropout rates. A study was undertaken to examine the impact of three cardiovascular risk factors (poor physical fitness, obesity, and smoking) on both client willingness to sign a behavioral…

  16. A Content Analysis of Problematic Behavior in Counselor Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Maranda

    2013-01-01

    Counselor education programs are obligated by accreditation standards and professional codes of ethics to identify counselors-in-training whose academic, clinical, and personal performance indicate problematic behavior that would potentially prevent them from entering the profession (McAdams, Foster, & Ward, 2007; Rust, Raskin, & Hill,…

  17. How Do Mobile Phone Diabetes Programs Drive Behavior Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nundy, Shantanu; Mishra, Anjuli; Hogan, Patrick; Lee, Sang Mee; Solomon, Marla C.; Peek, Monica E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral effects of a theory-driven, mobile phone–based intervention that combines automated text messaging and remote nursing, using an automated, interactive text messaging system. Methods This was a mixed methods observational cohort study. Study participants were members of the University of Chicago Health Plan (UCHP) who largely reside in a working-class, urban African American community. Surveys were conducted at baseline, 3 months (mid-intervention), and 6 months (postintervention) to test the hypothesis that the intervention would be associated with improvements in self-efficacy, social support, health beliefs, and self-care. In addition, in-depth individual interviews were conducted with 14 participants and then analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify new behavioral constructs affected by the intervention. Results The intervention was associated with improvements in 5 of 6 domains of self-care (medication taking, glucose monitoring, foot care, exercise, and healthy eating) and improvements in 1 or more measures of self-efficacy, social support, and health beliefs (perceived control). Qualitatively, participants reported that knowledge, attitudes, and ownership were also affected by the program. Together these findings were used to construct a new behavioral model. Conclusions This study’s findings challenge the prevailing assumption that mobile phones largely affect behavior change through reminders and support the idea that behaviorally driven mobile health interventions can address multiple behavioral pathways associated with sustained behavior change. PMID:25278512

  18. Target behaviors in educational social skills programs for parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarette Matesco Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of Educational Social Skills (THSE training programs offered to parents, highlighting the behaviors that were the focus of intervention. The research was performed in electronic databases (Scielo, Pepsic and Lilacs and the bank of thesis and dissertations of Federal University of São Carlos(UFSCar. Five studies were selected and the results discussed considering the importance of the trained skills for parent-children interaction. It was considered that although there are different models of programs, there are recurence in the selection of some educational social skills, showing that they may be relevant for the parent-children interaction

  19. College campus smoking policies and programs and students' smoking behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen Lee; Bacchi Donna; Xu K Tom; Borders Tyrone F; SoRelle-Miner Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Although tobacco use in the United States has declined over the past 20 years, cigarette use among college students remains high. Additional research is thus needed to determine how university tobacco control policies and preventive education programs affect college students' smoking behaviors. Methods Approximately 13,000 undergraduate students at 12 universities or colleges in the state of Texas completed a web-based survey. College smoking policies were obtained from a ...

  20. Electroacupuncture Promotes Proliferation of Amplifying Neural Progenitors and Preserves Quiescent Neural Progenitors from Apoptosis to Alleviate Depressive-Like and Anxiety-Like Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA on depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviours and neural progenitors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG in a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS rat model of depression. After being exposed to a CUS procedure for 2 weeks, rats were subjected to EA treatment, which was performed on acupoints Du-20 (Bai-Hui and GB-34 (Yang-Ling-Quan, once every other day for 15 consecutive days (including 8 treatments, with each treatment lasting for 30 min. The behavioural tests (i.e., forced swimming test, elevated plus-maze test, and open-field entries test revealed that EA alleviated the depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviours of the stressed rats. Immunohistochemical results showed that proliferative cells (BrdU-positive in the EA group were significantly larger in number compared with the Model group. Further, the results showed that EA significantly promoted the proliferation of amplifying neural progenitors (ANPs and simultaneously inhibited the apoptosis of quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs. In a word, the mechanism underlying the antidepressant-like effects of EA is associated with enhancement of ANPs proliferation and preserving QNPs from apoptosis.

  1. A Direct School Intervention Program for the Modification of Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Neil M.; Levin, Louis

    1975-01-01

    An intervention program for the modification of classroom aggressive behavior is outlined. The primary components of this program are positive reinforcement, behavior rehearsal and modeling, and group activity procedures. (Author)

  2. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  3. Individualized behavior management program for Alzheimer's/dementia residents using behavior-based ergonomic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharwani, Govind; Parikh, Pratik J; Lawhorne, Larry W; VanVlymen, Eric; Bharwani, Meena

    2012-05-01

    Person-centered, nonpharmacological interventions for managing Alzheimer's/dementia-related behavioral disturbances have received significant attention. However, such interventions are quite often of a single type limiting their benefits. We develop a comprehensive nonpharmacological intervention, the Behavior-Based Ergonomic Therapy (BBET), which consists of multiple therapies. This low-cost, 24/7 program uses learning, personality, and behavioral profiles and cognitive function of each resident to develop a set of individualized therapies. These therapies are made available through an accessible resource library of music and video items, games and puzzles, and memory props to provide comfort or stimulation depending on an individual resident's assessment. The quantitative and qualitative benefits of the BBET were evaluated at the dementia care unit in a not-for-profit continuing care retirement community in west central Ohio. The 6-month pilot study reduced falls by 32.5% and markedly reduced agitation through increased resident engagement.

  4. Performance incentives in the Massachusetts behavioral health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Nancy E

    2005-03-01

    Since 1996, the Massachusetts Behavioral Health Partnership (the Partnership/MBHP) has been the behavioral health carve-out vendor for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Primary Care Clinician (PCC) Plan. Its use of performance standards and incentives has become one of the central organizing activities for both the Commonwealth and the vendor, and one of the program's hallmarks. Each year, the Commonwealth uses a participative process for generating suggestions for performance incentives, which are then negotiated with the Partnership. Success or failure of projects is judged in accordance with objective measures developed for each incentive project. From 1996 to 2004, 123 performance projects have been completed. Some projects have become contract requirements, and others have developed into programs or services. The performance incentive process blends features of more traditional performance standards with performance-based contracting approaches. This process gives both the Commonwealth and the Partnership the flexibility to reflect changing state policies and to develop a contract that meets the most current needs of members.

  5. An examination of program integrity and recidivism of a cognitive-behavioral program for incarcerated youth in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether the cognitive behavioral program EQUIP for incarcerated youth would reduce recidivism and whether higher levels of program integrity - the extent to which a program is implemented as intended - would strengthen the effectiveness of EQUIP on recidivism. Program

  6. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  7. Effect of prior foot shock stress and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, and cannabidiol on anxiety-like responding in the light-dark emergence test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Erin M; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Petrie, Gavin N; Williams, Lauren A; Mechoulam, Raphael; Parker, Linda A

    2017-07-01

    Cannabis is commonly used by humans to relieve stress. Here, we evaluate the potential of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabiol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA, the precursor of cannabidiol [CBD]) to produce dose-dependent effects on anxiety-like responding in the light-dark (LD) emergence test of anxiety-like responding in rats, when administered acutely or chronically (21 days). As well, we evaluate the potential of THC, CBDA, and CBD to reduce anxiogenic responding produced by foot shock (FS) stress 24 h prior to the LD test. In the absence of the explicit FS stressor, THC (1 and 10 mg/kg) produced anxiogenic-like responding when administered acutely or chronically, but CBDA produced neither anxiogenic- nor anxiolytic-like responding. Administration of FS stress 24 h prior to the LD test enhanced anxiogenic-like responding (reduced time spent and increased latency to enter the light compartment) in rats pretreated with either vehicle (VEH) or THC (1 mg/kg); however, administration of CBDA (0.1-100 μg/kg) or CBD (5 mg/kg) prevented the FS-induced anxiogenic-like responding (an anxiolytic-like effect). The 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT 1A ) receptor antagonist, WAY100635, reversed CBDA's anxiolytic effect (1 μg/kg). Combining an anxiolytic dose of CBDA (1 μg/kg) or CBD (5 mg/kg) with an anxiogenic dose of THC (1 mg/kg) did not modify THC's anxiogenic effect. These results suggest the anxiolytic effects of CBDA and CBD may require the presence of a specific stressor.

  8. A psychological preoperative program: effects on anxiety and cooperative behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Larcan, Rosalba; Romeo, Carmelo; Turiaco, Nunzio; Dominici, Tiziana

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a psychological preoperative program in reducing preoperative anxiety and in promoting compliance of pediatric participants with surgical procedures. Fifty children and their mothers were subjected to two conditions of treatment to investigate whether psychological preparation activities and psychologist's support during all phases of the operatory iter (group 1) were as efficient in reducing mothers' and child's anxiety and in increasing the child's compliance as distraction activities (group 2). The observed child anxiety was assessed using mYPAS; compliant behaviors with Induction Compliance Checklist; and mothers' anxiety with Amsterdam Pre-operative Anxiety and Information Scale. Children of the first group were less anxious and more cooperative in the preoperative period and during anesthesia induction than in the other condition. The psychological program was also more efficient in reducing mothers' anxiety. Finally, the mothers of group 1 showed a significantly higher satisfaction and judged as significantly more effective the program proposed to prepare their children than the mothers of group 2. Preparing children through playful dramatization of the operative procedure, manipulation of medical instruments and psychologist's support may be useful in pediatric surgery structures. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. A mixed integer program to model spatial wildfire behavior and suppression placement decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin J. Belval; Yu Wei; Michael. Bevers

    2015-01-01

    Wildfire suppression combines multiple objectives and dynamic fire behavior to form a complex problem for decision makers. This paper presents a mixed integer program designed to explore integrating spatial fire behavior and suppression placement decisions into a mathematical programming framework. Fire behavior and suppression placement decisions are modeled using...

  10. Insights from Smart Meters. Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors and Characteristics that drive savings in Behavior-Based Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perry, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pacific Gas & Electric, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sullivan, Michael [Nexant, San Francisco, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In this report, we use smart meter data to analyze specific actions, behaviors, and characteristics that drive energy savings in a behavior-based (BB) program. Specifically, we examine a Home Energy Report (HER) program. These programs typically obtain 1% to 3% annual savings, and recent studies have shown hourly savings of between 0.5% and 3%. But what is driving these savings? What types of households tend to be “high-savers”, and what behaviors are they adopting? There are several possibilities: one-time behaviors (e.g., changing thermostat settings); reoccurring habitual behaviors (e.g., turning off lights); and equipment purchase behaviors (e.g., energy efficient appliances), and these may vary across households, regions, and over time.

  11. Behavioral Consistency of C and Verilog Programs Using Bounded Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    We present an algorithm that checks behavioral consistency between an ANSI-C program and a circuit given in Verilog using Bounded Model Checking . Both...behavioral consistency between an ANSI-C program and a circuit given in Verilog using Bounded Model Checking . Both the circuit and the program are unwound

  12. Health behaviors of mandated and voluntary students in a motivational intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Kazemi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Intervention programs to reduce drinking by college students need to address developmental dynamics of freshmen students, including gender, psychosocial factors, personality, and lifestyle health-promoting behaviors.

  13. Insights from Smart Meters: Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors, and Characteristics That Drive Savings in Behavior-Based Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perry, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In this report, we use smart meter data to analyze specific actions, behaviors, and characteristics that drive energy savings in a BB program. Specifically, we examine a Home Energy Report (HER) program. These programs typically obtain 1% to 3% annual savings, and recent studies have shown hourly savings of between 0.5% and 3%.1 But what is driving these savings? What types of households tend to be “high-savers,” and what behaviors are they adopting? There are several possibilities: one-time behaviors (e.g., changing thermostat settings), reoccurring habitual behaviors (e.g., turning off lights), and equipment purchase behaviors (e.g., energy efficient appliances); these may vary across households, regions, and over time.

  14. A Randomized Effectiveness Trial of a Behavioral Teacher Program Targeting ADHD Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, B.Y.; Luman, M.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of the Positivity & Rules Program (PR program), a behavioral teacher program targeting ADHD symptoms in the classroom involving both student-focused and classroom-focused programs. Method: Primary school children with ADHD symptoms (N = 114) were

  15. Do loyalty programs really enhance behavioral loyalty? An empirical analysis accounting for self-selecting members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, Jorna; van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Smidts, Ale

    One of the pressing issues in marketing is whether loyalty programs really enhance behavioral loyalty. Loyalty program members may have a much higher share-of-wallet at the firm with the loyalty program than non-members have, but this does not necessarily imply that loyalty programs are effective.

  16. Do Loyalty Programs Really Enhance Behavioral Loyalty? An Empirical Analysis Accounting for Self-Selecting Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Leenheer (Jorna); H.J. van Heerde (Harald); T.H.A. Bijmolt (Tammo); A. Smidts (Ale)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOne of the pressing issues in marketing is whether loyalty programs really enhance behavioral loyalty. Loyalty program members may have a much higher share-of-wallet at the firm with the loyalty program than non-members have, but this does not necessarily imply that loyalty programs are

  17. Fluoxetine normalizes the effects of prenatal maternal stress on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in mouse dams and male offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salari, A.A.; Fatehi-Gharehlar, L.; Motayagheni, N.; Homberg, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period (lactation) is a common debilitating condition affecting mother-fetus/-infant interactions, which can be a risk factor for cognitive and affective disorders in mothers and their children. Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-(SSRI)

  18. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  19. Description of an Intensive Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program for Multidiagnostic Clients with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…

  20. The perceived impact of a university outdoor education program on students' environmental behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Boland; Paul. Heintzman

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor educators often seek to design programs that influence participants' daily lifestyles, especially environmental behaviors. Research on the impact of outdoor education programs on environmental behaviors has typically focused on schoolchildren and teenagers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived impact of a university outdoor education...

  1. Behavioral changes after a 1-year exercise program and predictors of maintenance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertogh, E.M.; Vergouwe, Y.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Public health strategies attempt to stimulate participation in physical activity, aiming at permanent behavior change. We assessed the sustained effect of participating in an exercise program on physical activity behavior 1 yr after completion of the program. Furthermore, we aimed to

  2. Effect of a Nutrition Education Program on the Eating Attitudes and Behaviors of College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszewski, Wanda M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined the effects of a nutrition education program on the eating attitudes and behaviors of college women (N= 130). Experimental and control groups completed pre- and posttest assessments of nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and eating behaviors. Findings showed that the nutrition education program positively affected the attitudes and eating…

  3. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  4. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  5. The Evaluation of Two Death Education Programs for EMTs Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Cumberland, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two death education programs by comparing pretest and posttest scores of behavioral intentions and (reported) behavior of EMTs when at the scene of a death. After the interventions, the majority of EMTs intended to change their behavior at the scene of a death when compared to the control…

  6. Behavior Modification for Obesity: The Evaluation of Exercise, Contingency Management, and Program Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Stalonas, Peter M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated behavioral programs for obesity. Exercise and self-managed contingency components were compared using obese subjects who were evaluated after treatment and follow-up. Significant weight loss was observed at termination. The influence of exercise at follow-up was noticeable. Subjects engaged in behaviors, yet behaviors were not related…

  7. Effects of the "Behavior Education Program" (BEP) on Office Discipline Referrals of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; Sandra MacLeod, K.; Rawlings, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The "Behavior Education Program" (BEP; Crone et al., 2004) is a modified check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at risk for more severe problem behaviors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the BEP on problem behavior with 12 elementary school students. Results indicated that the BEP was…

  8. Parent Evaluation of a Parent Training Program of Positive Behavior Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, Jeana

    2012-01-01

    Parent training programs have been shown to be helpful to parents in regards to implementing behavior intervention strategies with their children. Parent satisfaction with a parent-training program is an important variable in that, if parents like a program, it is more likely to be successful. The purpose of this project was to provide a brief parent training program using Dr. Glenn I. Latham’s website, Parenting Prescriptions, and examine parent evaluations of the program. The participants w...

  9. Clothing behavior, body cathexis, and appearance management of women enrolled in a commercial weight loss program

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Tammy Renee'

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between appearance management, created appearance, body cathexis, and clothing behavior for a group of women enrolled in a commercial weight loss program. Subjects were 171 females enrolled in Weight Watchers® programs in Christiansburg, Virginia. No previous research had investigated clothing behavior, appearance management, created appearance, and body cathexis of women in a weight loss program. Because clothing is such an integra...

  10. Effects Of A Post-Weaning Cafeteria Diet In Young Rats: Metabolic Syndrome, Reduced Activity And Low Anxiety-Like Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanza, Jaume F.; Caimari, Antoni; del Bas, Josep M.; Torregrosa, Daniel; Cigarroa, Igor; Pallàs, Mercè; Capdevila, Lluís; Arola, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M.

    2014-01-01

    Among adolescents, overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome are rapidly increasing in recent years as a consequence of unhealthy palatable diets. Animal models of diet-induced obesity have been developed, but little is known about the behavioural patterns produced by the consumption of such diets. The aim of the present study was to determine the behavioural and biochemical effects of a cafeteria diet fed to juvenile male and female rats, as well as to evaluate the possible recovery from these effects by administering standard feeding during the last week of the study. Two groups of male and female rats were fed with either a standard chow diet (ST) or a cafeteria (CAF) diet from weaning and for 8 weeks. A third group of males (CAF withdrawal) was fed with the CAF diet for 7 weeks and the ST in the 8th week. Both males and females developed metabolic syndrome as a consequence of the CAF feeding, showing overweight, higher adiposity and liver weight, increased plasma levels of glucose, insulin and triglycerides, as well as insulin resistance, in comparison with their respective controls. The CAF diet reduced motor activity in all behavioural tests, enhanced exploration, reduced anxiety-like behaviour and increased social interaction; this last effect was more pronounced in females than in males. When compared to animals only fed with a CAF diet, CAF withdrawal increased anxiety in the open field, slightly decreased body weight, and completely recovered the liver weight, insulin sensitivity and the standard levels of glucose, insulin and triglycerides in plasma. In conclusion, a CAF diet fed to young animals for 8 weeks induced obesity and metabolic syndrome, and produced robust behavioural changes in young adult rats, whereas CAF withdrawal in the last week modestly increased anxiety, reversed the metabolic alterations and partially reduced overweight. PMID:24482678

  11. Effects of GABA ligands injected into the nucleus accumbens shell on fear/anxiety-like and feeding behaviours in food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Paula Fraga; Ganzer, Laís; Borges, Aline Caon; Kochenborger, Larissa; Januário, Ana Cláudia; Faria, Moacir Serralvo; Marino-Neto, José; Paschoalini, Marta Aparecida

    2012-03-01

    In an attempt to establish a relationship between food intake and fear/anxiety-related behaviours, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of bilateral injections of GABAA (Muscimol, MUS, doses 25 and 50ng/side) and GABAB (Baclofen, BAC, doses 32 and 64ng/side) receptor agonists in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) on the level of fear/anxiety-like and feeding behaviours in 24h food-deprived rats. The antagonists of GABAA (Bicuculline, BIC, doses 75 and 150ng/side) and GABAB (Saclofen, SAC, doses 1.5 and 3μg/side) were also tested. The results indicated that the total number of risk assessment behaviour decreased after the injection of both doses of GABAA agonist (MUS) into the AcbSh of 24h food-deprived rats exposed to elevated plus maze. Similar results were obtained after treatment with both doses of GABAB (BAC) agonist in the AcbSh. These data indicated that the activation of both GABAA and GABAB receptors within the AcbSh caused anxiolysis in 24h food-deprived rats. In addition, feeding behaviour (food intake, feeding latency and feeding duration) remained unchanged after treatment with both GABA agonists. In contrast, both food intake and feeding duration decreased after injections of both doses of BIC (GABAA antagonist), while the feeding latency remained unchanged after treatment with both GABA antagonists in the AcbSh of 24h food-deprived rats. The treatment with SAC (GABAB antagonist) did not affect feeding behaviour. Collectively, these data suggest that emotional changes evoked by pharmacological manipulation of the GABA neurotransmission in the AcbSh are not linked with changes in food intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antisocial behavior during adolescence: theory, research and prevention programs

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Dora; Morales Córdova, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    The existence of several causes of antisocial behavior during adolescence seems to respond, not only to the combination of many risk factors within different levels of human development, but also to cultural and historical processes affecting, in many ways, several generations since their early childhood. This paper revises the main explicative theories about antisocial behavior during adolescence and highlights the theory of the Neuropsychological Taxonomy of the Antisocial Behavior proposed...

  13. An Analysis of Adolescent and Parental Views on the Psychoeducation Program for Coping with Aggressive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçarslan, Suat; Atici, Meral

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the views of parents and adolescents who participated in psychoeducation programs for coping with adolescent aggressive behaviors. Parents who participated in the study were provided with a program known as the "Non-Violent Resistance Parent Program," and adolescents participated in the…

  14. A Pilot Study of Cooperative Programming Learning Behavior and Its Relationship with Students' Learning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Shadiev, Rustam; Wang, Chin-Yu; Huang, Zhi-Hua

    2012-01-01

    In this study we proposed a web-based programming assisted system for cooperation (WPASC) and we also designed one learning activity for facilitating students' cooperative programming learning. The aim of this study was to investigate cooperative programming learning behavior of students and its relationship with learning performance. Students'…

  15. Usefulness of Educational, Behavior Modification, and Vocational Programs as Perceived by Female Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joseph R.

    1995-01-01

    Reports the perceptions of female prison inmates, who ranked the importance of educational, behavior modification, and vocational programs. Programs ranked most critical were general education equivalency, adult basic education, parenting programs, life skills/cognitive self change, HIV/AIDS education, and religion. (JPS)

  16. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Psychoeducation Program, Which Aims to Reduce the Submissive Behaviors on the Interpersonal Sensitivity and Hostility

    OpenAIRE

    Anlı, Gazanfer; Şar, Ali Haydar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the cognitive behavioral psychoeducation program, which aims to reduce the submissive behaviors on the interpersonal sensitivity and hostility. The research was carried out with high school students studying at 12th class of Ümraniye Merkez Anadolu high school, located in Istanbul during 2014/2015 academic year. Submissive Acts Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory were used for selecting the experimental objects. 24 students who met the inclu...

  17. The effects of dolphin education programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lance Joseph

    Zoological institutions typically exhibit dolphins in educational programs such as dolphin shows and interaction programs. The goal of these programs is to entertain visitors while increasing their conservation-related knowledge, attitude and behavior towards dolphins and the marine environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine dolphin shows and interaction programs in terms of their effectiveness in meeting these goals. A multi-institutional study was conducted at six different facilities throughout the United States. A repeated measures design was used to examine the knowledge, attitude and behavior of visitors before, immediately after and three months following participation in dolphin shows or interaction programs. Participants of dolphin shows reflected a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions. These participants' attitudes and behavioral intentions returned to entry levels three months following the shows. However, knowledge and reported behavior were significantly higher three months following the show compared to entry levels. Participants of interaction programs had a short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions immediately following the program and levels were significantly higher three months following the program when compared to entry levels. Additionally, these participants also reported engaging in more conservation-related behavior than during the entry surveys. Results from the current study suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program within zoological facilities. Understanding the aspects of these types of programs that lead people to conservation action will help zoological facilities in meeting their goals.

  18. Addiction Recovery: 12-Step Programs and Cognitive-Behavioral Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow-Braitman, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Provides helping professionals with an overview of treatment issues referred to as spiritual by those recovering from alcohol and drug addictions through 12-step programs. Reviews conflicts between academically trained helping professionals and researchers, and those advocating spiritually oriented treatment programs. Discusses spiritual…

  19. Dopamine D3 receptor-dependent changes in alpha6 GABAA subunit expression in striatum modulate anxiety-like behaviour: Responsiveness and tolerance to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Gian Marco; Torrisi, Sebastiano Alfio; Castorina, Alessandro; Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Impellizzeri, Agata Antonia Rita; Fidilio, Annamaria; Caraci, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2015-09-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that central dopamine (DA) neurotransmission is involved in pathophysiology of anxiety, in particular the DA receptor subtype 3 (D3R). We previously reported that D3R null mice (D3R(-/-)) exhibit low baseline anxiety levels and that acutely administrated diazepam is more effective in D3R(-/-) than in wild type (WT) when tested in the elevated plus maze test (EPM). Here we tested the hypothesis that genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade of D3R affect GABAA subunit expression, which in turn modulates anxiety-like behaviour as well as responsiveness and tolerance to diazepam. D3R(-/-) mice exhibited tolerance to diazepam (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), assessed by EPM, as fast as after 3 day-treatment, performing similarly to untreated D3R(-/-) mice; conversely, WT exhibited tolerance to diazepam after a 14-21 day-treatment. Analysis of GABAA α6 subunit mRNA expression by qPCR in striatum showed that it was about 15-fold higher in D3R(-/-) than in WT. Diazepam treatment did not modify α6 expression in D3R(-/-), but progressively increased α6 expression in WT, to the level of untreated D3R(-/-) after 14-21 day-treatment. BDNF mRNA expression in striatum was remarkably (>10-fold) increased after 3 days of diazepam-treatment in both WT and D3R(-/-); such expression level, however, slowly declined below control levels, by 14-21 days. Following a 7 day-treatment with the selective D3R antagonist SB277011A, WT exhibited a fast tolerance to diazepam accompanied by a robust increase in α6 subunit expression. In conclusion, genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade of D3R accelerate the development of tolerance to repeated administrations of diazepam and increase α6 subunit expression, a GABAA subunit that has been linked to diazepam insensitivity. Modulation of GABAA receptor by DA transmission may be involved in the mechanisms of anxiety and, if occurring in humans, may have therapeutic relevance following repeated use of drugs targeting D3R

  20. Behavioral Economics and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program:: Making the Healthy Choice the Easy Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Alice S; Hartman, Terry; DeMarco, Molly M

    2017-02-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) serves as an important nutritional safety net program for many Americans. Given its aim to use traditional economic levers to provide access to food, the SNAP program includes minimal nutritional requirements and restrictions. As food choices are influenced by more than just economic constraints, behavioral economics may offer insights and tools for altering food purchases for SNAP users. This manuscript outlines behavioral economics strategies that have potential to encourage healthier food choices within the SNAP program. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anger Management - Evaluation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Training Program for Table Tennis Players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Georges Steffgen

    2017-01-01

    .... Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief training program for table tennis players in cognitive-behavioral anger management that aimed at changing...

  2. Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral program for chronically psychotic forensic inpatients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the progress of four groups of chronically psychotic patients in treatment at De Kijvelanden Forensic Psychiatric Hospital. The psychotic patients were offered a cognitive-behavioral program, including psycho education, grief processing, stress management, functional

  3. Implementing the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP): Teaching Assessment Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnes, Clarissa S; Mellor, James R; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2014-01-01

    The Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) is an assessment tool used with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and other language delays (Sundberg 2008...

  4. Retention of MR Children in a Community School Program: Behaviors and Teacher Ratings as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol P.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the behavioral status of nine institutionalized developmentally disabled adolescents at the point of their entry into a community school program and after a 3-4-month follow-up period. (Author)

  5. Use of Coaching and Behavior Support Planning for Students with Disruptive Behavior within a Universal Classroom Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Ze; Newcomer, Lori; King, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Even with the use of effective universal classroom management practices, some students will need additional behavioral supports. However, to translate implementation of new strategies into the classroom, professional development programs need to be adaptive to the complexities teachers face in providing instruction and managing classroom behaviors…

  6. Designing training programs for the development of emotional intelligence in adolescents with behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Degtyarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, deviant behavior is considered as a combination of different manifestations of personality, leading eventually to its social desaptation. It is shown that an effective method of preventing deviant behavior is psychological training. Group training activity helps to solve the problems associated with the development of various behavioral skills, to provide psychological support, and can be used as a means of psychological work with teenagers with behavioral problems. We discuss the basic points required to effectively create and conduct training programs in general, as well as the challenges and opportunities of designing trainings in order to develop emotional intelligence as a method of prevention of deviant behavior

  7. Neuroscience-Inspired, Behavioral Change Program for University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudziak, James J; Tiemeier, Gesa L

    2017-04-01

    It is clear that environmental influences impact the structure and function of the human brain, and thus, thoughts, actions, and behaviors. These in turn influence whether an individual engages in high-risk (drugs, alcohol, violence) or health-promoting (exercise, meditation, music) activities. The developmental mismatch between cortical and subcortical maturation of the transitional age brain places college students at risk for negative outcomes. This article argues that the prescription of incentive-based behavioral change and brain-building activities simply make good scientific, programmatic, and financial sense for colleges and universities. The authors present University of Vermont Wellness Environment as an example. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Prolonged Participation in a Pro-Social Cognitive Behavioral Skills Program on Elementary Age Students, with Behavior Related Disorders, Behavior Accelerative, Behavior Reductive, and Return to Regular Classroom Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Ted H.

    2012-01-01

    Overall, pretest-posttest results indicated statistically significant pretest beginning program compared to posttest ending program percentage of behavioral improvement for on task, following directions, and positive interactions outcomes improvement for individual students who completed the elementary grades pro-social cognitive behavioral skills…

  9. A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.

  10. Effects of a Comprehensive, Multiple Risky Behavior Prevention Program on High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Collier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of a multiple risky behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The noncurriculum prevention program was created based upon the key elements of effective prevention programming and the need to address the growing variety of risky behaviors that the youth face today. Results (n=469 to 614 indicated that 7 out of 15 risky behaviors statistically significantly decreased throughout the 4-year study, with 6 behaviors involving alcohol and drugs. However, many of the targeted non-substance-use risky behaviors displayed inconsistent prevalence rate patterns without statistically significant changes. These findings indicate that the frequency and intensity of programming for non-substance-use behaviors should be increased to a value at least equal to that of the substance-use behaviors. Implications for schools, prevention specialists, and future program development and research are discussed.

  11. Mathematics Education: Student Terminal Goals, Program Goals, and Behavioral Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    Behavioral objectives are listed for the primary, intermediate and junior high mathematics curriculum in the Mesa Public Schools (Arizona). Lists of specific objectives are given by level for sets, symbol recognition, number operations, mathematical structures, measurement and problem solving skills. (JP)

  12. Behavior and Classroom Management: Are Teacher Preparation Programs Really Preparing Our Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Andrea; McKenna, John William; Haring, Christa D.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that many teachers are underprepared for the behaviors that their students may bring to the classroom, resulting in challenges to teaching and learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the behavior management content included in preservice teacher preparation programs for general education and special education teachers.…

  13. "Tuning into Kids": Reducing Young Children's Behavior Problems Using an Emotion Coaching Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Sophie S.; Wilson, Katherine R.; Harley, Ann E.; Kehoe, Christiane; Efron, Daryl; Prior, Margot R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a 6-session group parenting program, "Tuning into Kids" (TIK), as treatment for young children (aged 4.0-5.11 years) with behavior problems. TIK targets parent emotion socialization (parent emotion awareness, regulation and emotion coaching skills). Fifty-four parents, recruited via a child behavior clinic, were randomized…

  14. South Korean Early Childhood Education Teachers' Perceptions of Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jina; Steed, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Kyungmin

    2016-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of 169 South Korean early childhood education teachers regarding the importance and implementation of strategies associated with the Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support (PWPBS) framework (L. Fox & M. L. Hemmeter, 2009) to support social competence and prevent young children's challenging behavior. Analyses…

  15. Identifying and Expressing Emotions: A Language Therapy Program for Behavior Disordered Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monast, Sheila; Smith, Elaine

    1987-01-01

    A language therapy program designed for use with behavior-disordered adolescents was also used with language/learning-disabled adolescents. Line drawings of facial expressions were used to teach the concepts of feelings and identify ranges of similar emotions as well as to introduce new vocabulary. Special behavior considerations with the behavior…

  16. The Effects of a Peer-Mediated Positive Behavior Support Program on Socially Appropriate Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Lynnette; Young, K. Richard; Marchant, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the results of aligning functional behavioral assessment (FBA) information with positive behavior support plans (PBS plans) designed with consideration for teacher acceptability. The independent variable had the three major components of a package, including assessment and planning (FBA), training (teachers, students, and…

  17. NASA Human Research Program Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Sandra; Faulk, Jeremy; Leveton, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The goal of NASA BHP is to identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration, and return to terrestrial life. The NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Operations Group (BHP Ops) supports astronauts and their families before, during, and after a long-duration mission (LDM) on the ISS. BHP Ops provides ISS crews with services such as preflight training (e.g., psychological factors of LDM, psychological support, cross-cultural); preflight, in-flight, and postflight support services, including counseling for astronauts and their families; and psychological support such as regular care packages and a voice-over IP phone system between crew members and their families to facilitate real-time one-on-one communication.

  18. Students' Perceptions of an Online Graduate Program in Special Education for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.; Nordness, Philip D.; Swain, Kristine D.; Hagaman, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate graduate students' perceptions of a completely online master's degree program in special education for emotional and behavioral disorders. The Community of Inquiry survey was used to examine graduate students' perceptions of the online program in the areas of teaching, cognitive, and social presences. The…

  19. Posture Management Program Based on Theory of Planned Behavior for Adolescents with Mild Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihea Choi, PhD, RN, CPNP

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that the posture management program is effective in maintaining posture management behavior in adolescents with mild idiopathic scoliosis for both cognitive and physical outcomes. The posture management program should be helpful in expanding the role of school nurses in improving the health status of adolescents with mild idiopathic scoliosis.

  20. What Workplace Education Programs Need To Know about Behavioral Change: Tapping the Work of Kurt Lewin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Mary Crabbe

    Kurt Lewin's seminal work in organizational communication could potentially help solve many dilemmas faced by workplace literacy programs as they attempt to ensure that program participants not only learn basic skills but also use them in the context of work. According to Lewin's "field theory" approach, an individual's behavior is a…

  1. Reaching Graduate Students at Risk for Suicidal Behavior through the Interactive Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Lauren B.; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Berg, John P.; Calderon, Michelle E.; Haas, Ann P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a significant concern among graduate students. Because many suicidal graduate students do not access mental health services, programs to connect them to resources are essential. This article describes the Interactive Screening Program (ISP), an anonymous, Web-based tool for screening and engaging at-risk graduate school…

  2. STARS: Striving Together and Reaching Success; A Behavior Disorders Program Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Valerie E.; Dowda, Martha L.

    The manual introduces the framework of STARS (Striving Together and Reaching Success), a program for serving behaviorally disordered students in grades 1-8. The underlying philosophy is to provide a consistently structured instructional program to promote successful reintegration into a less restrictive educational setting. An overview section…

  3. Evaluating a Nutrition Education Program for Pregnant Teen-Agers: Cognitive vs. Behavioral Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Judy

    1983-01-01

    A manual on nutrition during pregnancy and lactation was developed and used with pregnant teenagers. Evaluation of the program showed that, while participants' knowledge of nutrition improved, their eating habits did not. The need for behavioral assessment of nutrition education programs is pointed out. (Author/PP)

  4. Sex and HIV Education Programs: Their Impact on Sexual Behaviors of Young People Throughout the World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirby, Douglas B; Laris, B.A; Rolleri, Lori A

    2007-01-01

    ... education programs as a partial solution to these problems [6] . Indeed, sex and HIV/STD education programs that are based on a written curriculum and that are implemented among groups of youth in school, clinic, or community settings are a promising type of intervention to reduce adolescent sexual risk behaviors. They are often well-de...

  5. The impact of instant reward programs and bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnema, Alec; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Non, Marielle C.

    This study examines the impact of an instant reward program (IRP) with bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior. An IRP is a rapidly growing form of short-term program that rewards consumers instantly with small premiums per fixed spending, where these premiums are part of a larger set of

  6. Does Information Improve the Health Behavior of Adults Targeted by a Conditional Transfer Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the evaluation sample of Mexico's Food Assistance Program (PAL) to study whether including the attendance at health and nutrition classes among the requirements for receiving a transfer affects the health behavior of adults living in localities targeted by the program. The experimental trial has four different treatment types,…

  7. Brain substrates of behavioral programs associated with self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattie Tops

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes that four neuromodulator systems underpin highly generalized behavioral sets, but each targets either dorsomedial or ventrolateral cortical systems, where it produces its effects in either a proactive or reactive orientation to the environment. This way systems are discriminated that control reactive approach (dopaminergic, reactive avoidance (cholinergic, proactive behavior (noradrenergic and withdrawal (serotonergic. This model is compared with models of temperament, affect, personality, and so-called two-system models from psychology. Although the present model converges with previous models that point to a basic scheme underlying temperamental and affective space, at the same time it suggest that specific additional discriminations are necessary to improve descriptive fit to data and solve inconsistencies and confusions. We demonstrate how proactive and reactive actions and controls can be confused, and that this has many potential implications for psychology and neurobiology. We uncover conceptual problems regarding constructs such as effortful control, positive affect, approach-avoidance, extraversion, impulsivity, impulse-control and goal-directedness of behavior. By delineating those problems, our approach also opens up ways to tackle them.

  8. Effects of a stress management program for hospital staffs on their coping strategies and interpersonal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined effects of a 3-h stress management program for Japanese hospital staffs that included relaxation and assertion training. Twenty-seven hospital staffs (mean age: 29.4 yr) in a stress management group and 28 hospital staffs (mean age: 29.5 yr) in a wait-list group answered evaluation surveys at both pre- and post-intervention. Self-administered questionnaires including items on job stress, coping strategies, and interpersonal behaviors were evaluated. The stress management program was given six different participant groups: 3 groups were the stress management group and 3 groups were the wait-list group. The program increased active coping and decreased dependent behavior scores significantly in the stress management group, while decreasing assertive behavior scores in the wait-list group. A comparison of the education sub-groups showed that the first group had significantly increased assertiveness and decreased dependency scores. The second group had significantly decreased depression-anxiety scores. The data analyzed for men and women separately showed the stress management intervention significantly improved active coping and assertive behavior in men and dependent behavior in women. A brief one-time stress management program can be effective in improving active coping and assertive behaviors as well as reducing dependent behavior in hospital staffs. Sex differences were noteworthy.

  9. 3-Self behavior modification programs base on the PROMISE Model for clients at metabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarakamhang, Ungsinun

    2011-12-29

    The objectives of this mixed methods research were 1) to study effects of the health behavior modification program (HBMP) conducted under the principles of the PROMISE Model and the CIPP Model and 2) to compare the 3-self health behaviors and the biomedical indicators before with after the program completion. During the program, three sample groups including 30 program leaders, 30 commanders and 120 clients were assessed, and there were assessments taken on 4,649 volunteers who were at risk of metabolic syndrome before and after the program conducted in 17 hospitals. The collected data were analyzed by the t-test and the path analysis. The research instruments were questionnaires used for program evaluation, structuralized interview forms, and questionnaires used for 3-self health behavior assessment. The findings were as follows: 1) During the program, the assessment result deriving from comparing the overall opinions toward the program among the three sample groups showed no difference (F=2.219), 2) The program management factors based on the PROMISE Model (positive reinforcement, optimism, context, and process or activity provision) had an overall influence on the product or success of the HBMP (p< 0.05) with size effects at 0.37, 0.13, 0.31 and 0.88 respectively. All of the factors could predict the product of the program by 69%. 3) After participating in the program, the clients' 3-self health behaviors (self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-care) were significantly higher than those appeared before the participation (p< 0.05), and their biomedical indicators (BMI, blood pressure, waistline, blood glucose, lipid profiles, cholesterol, and HbA1c) were significantly lower than those measured before the program (p< 0.05).

  10. A comparison of two programs for the control of behavioral experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Two of the most widely used programs for the control of behavioral experiments are Med Associates' MedState Notation and Coulbourn Instruments' Graphic State 2. The two systems vary considerably in their approach to programming and data recording, with Graphic State 2 using a point-and-click interface that appeals to non-programmers while MedState Notation requires the typing of programming code. Graphic State 2 provides many data analysis routines, while MedState Notation allows the user to embed simple data analysis within the behavioral protocol. Graphic State 2 is simpler to use, but MedState Notation is more versatile.

  11. Programming a massively parallel, computation universal system: static behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapedes, A.; Farber, R.

    1986-01-01

    In previous work by the authors, the ''optimum finding'' properties of Hopfield neural nets were applied to the nets themselves to create a ''neural compiler.'' This was done in such a way that the problem of programming the attractors of one neural net (called the Slave net) was expressed as an optimization problem that was in turn solved by a second neural net (the Master net). In this series of papers that approach is extended to programming nets that contain interneurons (sometimes called ''hidden neurons''), and thus deals with nets capable of universal computation. 22 refs.

  12. A multiaspect program integrity assessment of the cognitive-behavioral program EQUIP for incarcerated offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of correctional treatment have widely failed to assess program integrity. This study examined the program integrity of EQUIP in 34 treatment groups of incarcerated offenders, using a new multiaspect program integrity instrument (MIPIE). The first aim of our study was to

  13. Do Loyalty Programs Enhance Behavioral Loyalty : An Empirical Analysis Accounting for Program Design and Competitive Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Smidts, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of loyalty programs on share-of-wallet using market-wide household panel data on supermarket purchases.We find that loyalty programs relate positively to share-of-wallet, but the programs differ in effectiveness and some are ineffective.Both a saving component and a

  14. Impact of financial incentives on behavior change program participation and risk reduction in worksite health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stefan B; Anderson, David R; Koland, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of financial incentives on behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Retrospective cohort study conducted to observe the relationship between financial incentives and behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Large public- or private-sector employers. Twenty-four organizations (n = 511,060 eligible employees) that offered comprehensive worksite health promotion (WHP) programs. Financial incentives offered for completion of a behavior change program as part of a WHP program. Behavior change program registration and completion data were obtained from standard reports. Company-level risk change was calculated from the average per-person number of risks on baseline and follow-up health risk assessments. Incentive design was determined from questionnaires completed by WHP program managers. Average registration rates, program completion rates, and risk improvement rates were compared using t-tests for companies that did versus did not offer incentives. Comparisons were also made between companies with incentives of less than $100 and those with incentives of $100 or more. Correlations between incentive value and outcome variables were assessed using Pearson correlations. Companies that offered incentives had significantly higher health coaching completion rates than companies not offering an incentive (82.9% vs. 76.4%, respectively, p = .017) but there was no significant association with registration (p = .384) or risk improvement rates (p = .242). Incentive values were not significantly associated with risk improvement rates (p = .240). Offering incentives for completing behavior change programs may increase completion rates, but increased health improvement does not necessarily follow.

  15. The effect of Alexander technique training program: A qualitative study of ordinary behavior application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Baek, Soon Gi

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to configure and apply the Alexander technique training program and assess the effect of program through physical, emotional and behavioral aspects. To achieve the research aims, qualitative research method had been conducted, subjecting 8 people, who were participating in Alexander Technique training program for this study. The study used focus group interview method for collecting date and employed for the interview method by mixing the semi-structured and unstructured questionnaire. The results were followings. First, one could develop body awareness and body consciousness through experiencing lived bodily sensation. Second, from Alexander Technique training program, people experienced psycho & physical's equilibrium. Third, one could change not only the manner of use of body but also the attitude to the life from conscious attention to daily ordinary movement. The results provided empirical evidence of Alexander Technique training program's functions in terms of physical, emotional and behavioral aspect through the process of consciousness control from lived body education.

  16. Behavioral Effects of an Enhanced Enrichment Program for Group-Housed Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crast, Jessica; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Jonesteller, Trina J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the behavioral effects of enrichment on animals housed in biomedical facilities is necessary to effectively support their care and wellbeing. We tested the cumulative effects of an enhanced enrichment program on sooty mangabey behavior: locomotion, feeding and foraging, manipulating items in the enclosure, social affiliation, aggression, and abnormal behavior. The enhanced enrichment program included the addition of a substrate (timothy hay), widely distributing small pieces of produce and a forage mixture in the hay, adding structures and perching, and increasing the variety of food items, foraging devices, and other manipulable items. We tested 10 groups living in runs (n = 54) by using an ABA experimental design (phase A, standard enrichment; phase B, enhanced enrichment) and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare behavior across phases. During phase B, subjects significantly increased feeding, foraging, and manipulation of items, and they decreased self-grooming, social affiliation, and aggression. Combined enrichment use increased from approximately 10% to 21% of the mangabeys’ time. Enhanced enrichment did not affect locomotion or abnormal behavior. The increases in feeding, foraging, and manipulation during enhanced enrichment were driven primarily by the subjects’ preference for foraging in the hay: it was the most effective component of the program in promoting feeding and foraging behavior, which comprises the majority of wild sooty mangabeys’ daily activity. Developing an effective, species-appropriate, and comprehensive enrichment program is essential to successfully promote the health and wellbeing of captive NHP. PMID:27931313

  17. Incentives for healthy behaviors: experience from Florida Medicaid's Enhanced Benefit Rewards program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Allyson G; Lemak, Christy Harris; Landry, Amy Yarbrough; Duncan, R Paul

    2013-04-01

    Engaging individuals in their own health care proves challenging for policy makers, health plans, and providers. Florida Medicaid introduced the Enhanced Benefits Rewards (EBR) program in 2006, providing financial incentives as rewards to beneficiaries who engage in health care seeking and healthy behaviors. This study analyzed beneficiary survey data from 2009 to determine predictors associated with awareness of and participation in the EBR program. Non-English speakers, those in a racial and ethnic minority group, those with less than a high school education, and those with limited or no connection to a health care provider were associated with lower awareness of the program. Among those aware of the program, these factors were also associated with reduced likelihood of engaging in the program. Individuals in fair or poor health were also less likely to engage in an approved behavior. Individuals who speak Spanish at home and those without a high school diploma were more likely than other groups to spend their earned program credits. Findings underscore the fact that initial engagement in such a program can prove challenging as different groups are not equally likely to be aware of or participate in an approved activity or redeem a credit. Physicians may play important roles in encouraging participation in programs to incentivize healthy behaviors.

  18. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustaining Behavior Changes Following a Venous Leg Ulcer Client Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charne; Kapp, Suzanne; Donohue, Lisa

    2014-09-04

    Venous leg ulcers are a symptom of chronic insufficiency of the veins. This study considered the sustainability of behavior changes arising from a client focus e-Learning education program called the "Leg Ulcer Prevention Program" (LUPP) for people with a venous leg ulcer. Data from two related studies were used to enable a single sample (n = 49) examination of behavior maintenance across an average 8 to 9 months period. Physical activity levels increased over time. Leg elevation, calf muscle exercises, and soap substitute use were seen to fluctuate over the follow up time points. The use of a moisturizer showed gradual decline over time. The provision of a client-focused venous leg ulcer program was associated with behavior changes that had varied sustainability across the evaluation period.

  20. The Effectiveness of Parents' Skills Training Program on Reducing Children's Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مریم نعمت‌اللهی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of parents' skill training program on reducing children's behavioral problems. Method: In an experimental study (pre-post-test, 4 primary schools were randomly selected from schools of Tehran. Two schools were randomly allocated into experimental group and two into control group. Experimental group (mothers of children aged 7-9 years received parents' skill training program for 8 weeks, two hours sessions. Parents' reports participating in the training program (n=30 mothers were compared with parents' reports of non-trained control group (n=31 mothers. Data were gathered using Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and analyzed using covariance analyses. Results: There was a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the training. The experimental group reported a significant decrease in children's behavioral problems.

  1. The Effects of a Dog Reading Visitation Program on Academic Engagement Behavior in Three Elementary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities: A Single Case Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassette, Laura A.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) struggle with behavioral problems during reading activities in school. One way to address these concerns may be through dog reading programs which are increasing in popularity in schools and libraries. Preliminary anecdotal research suggests dog reading programs may improve…

  2. Effects of Community Based Educational Prevention Program of Drug Abuse in Reduction of High Risk Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aranpour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.

  3. Developing close combat behaviors for simulated soldiers using genetic programming techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Richard J.; Schaller, Mark J.

    2003-10-01

    Genetic programming is a powerful methodology for automatically producing solutions to problems in a variety of domains. It has been used successfully to develop behaviors for RoboCup soccer players and simple combat agents. We will attempt to use genetic programming to solve a problem in the domain of strategic combat, keeping in mind the end goal of developing sophisticated behaviors for compound defense and infiltration. The simplified problem at hand is that of two armed agents in a small room, containing obstacles, fighting against each other for survival. The base case and three changes are considered: a memory of positions using stacks, context-dependent genetic programming, and strongly typed genetic programming. Our work demonstrates slight improvements from the first two techniques, and no significant improvement from the last.

  4. Availability of high school extracurricular sports programs and high-risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Taylor, Stephanie L; Zonta, Michela; Vestal, Katherine D; Schuster, Mark A

    2007-02-01

    The Surgeon General has called for an expansion of school-based extracurricular sports programs to address the obesity epidemic. However, little is known about the availability of and participation in high school extracurricular sports and how participation in these sports is related to high-risk behaviors. We surveyed Los Angeles County public high schools in 2002 to determine the number of extracurricular sports programs offered and the percentage of students participating in those programs. We used community data on rates of arrests, births, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among youth to examine associations between risk behaviors and participation in sports programs. The average school offered 14 sports programs, and the average participation rate was 39% for boys and 30% for girls. Smaller schools and schools with higher percentages of disadvantaged students offered fewer programs. The average school offering 13 or fewer programs had 14% of its students participating, while the average school offering 16 or more programs had 31% of its students participating in sports. Controlling for area-level demographics, juvenile arrest rates and teen birth rates, but not STD rates, were lower in areas where schools offered more extracurricular sports. Opportunities for participation in high school extracurricular sports are limited. Future studies should test whether increased opportunities will increase physical activity and impact the increasing overweight problem in youths.

  5. The influence of a behavior modification interventional program on body mass index in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulabi, Tahereh; Khosh Niyat Nikoo, Mohsen; Amini, Fariba; Nazari, Hedayat; Mardani, Mahnaz

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents is increasing rapidly. The present research was performed to determine the influence of a ''behavior modification'' program on body mass index (BMI) in obese public high school students in Iran. In this study, 152 adolescence and their parents were selected from 12 high schools of Khorram Abad from 2004 to 2006, and they were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control groups. The "behavior modification" interventional program consisted of nutritional education, modifying dietary habits, teaching exercise programs, teaching nutritional facts to the parents, and performing exercises 3 days a week. The height and weight as well as waist, hip, and wrist circumferences of the participants were measured before and after implementing the interventional program. BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. The adolescents and parents completed a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. Adolescents also completed the Beck's Depression Questionnaire. Adolescent's mean weight, BMI, and waist and hip circumferences decreased significantly after implementing the interventional program, in the intervention group (p≤0.001). In addition, the students' and parents' nutrition knowledge increased in the intervention group after implementing the interventional program (pbehavior modification'' interventional program is effective in reducing BMI in obese students, and therefore, school principals and planners can play an important role in controlling obesity by implementing this program via the students, their parents, and the school staff. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A Support Program for Somali-born Parents on Children's Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Fatumo; Flacking, Renée; Schön, Ulla-Karin; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate a culturally tailored parenting support program (Ladnaan) for Somali-born parents and to determine its effectiveness on children's emotional and behavioral problems. This randomized controlled trial included 120 Somali-born parents with children aged 11 to 16 years. The parents reported self-perceived stress in relation to parenting practices. The intervention consisted of culturally tailored societal information combined with the parenting program Connect. Parents received 12 weeks of intervention, 1 to 2 hours each week, in groups of 12 to 17 parents. Nine group leaders with a Somali background who received a standardized training program delivered the intervention. The primary outcome was a decrease in emotional and behavioral problems based on a Child Behavior Checklist. Parents were randomly allocated either to an intervention group or a wait-list control group. Covariance analyses were conducted according to intention-to-treat principles. The results showed significant improvement in the children in the intervention group for behavioral problems after a 2-month follow-up. The largest effect sizes according to Cohen's d were in aggressive behavior (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 3.07), social problems (95% CI, 0.64 to 1.70), and externalizing problems (95% CI, 0.96 to 3.53). The large effect sizes in this study show that this 12-week culturally tailored parenting support program was associated with short-term improvements in children's behavior. The study adds to the field of parenting interventions by demonstrating how to culturally tailor, engage, and retain parenting programs for immigrant parents. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Broadening measures of success: results of a behavioral health translational research training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A; Williamson, Heather J; Eaves, Emery R; Levin, Bruce L; Burton, Donna L; Massey, Oliver T

    2017-07-24

    While some research training programs have considered the importance of mentoring in inspiring professionals to engage in translational research, most evaluations emphasize outcomes specific to academic productivity as primary measures of training program success. The impact of such training or mentoring programs on stakeholders and local community organizations engaged in translational research efforts has received little attention. The purpose of this evaluation is to explore outcomes other than traditional academic productivity in a translational research graduate certificate program designed to pair graduate students and behavioral health professionals in collaborative service-learning projects. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with scholars, community mentors, and academic mentors were conducted regarding a translational research program to identify programmatic impacts. Interviews were transcribed and coded by the research team to identify salient themes related to programmatic outcomes. Results are framed using the Translational Research Impact Scale which is organized into three overarching domains of potential impact: (1) research-related impacts, (2) translational impacts, and (3) societal impacts. This evaluation demonstrates the program's impact in all three domains of the TRIS evaluation framework. Graduate certificate participants (scholars) reported that gaining experience in applied behavioral health settings added useful skills and expertise to their present careers and increased their interest in pursuing translational research. Scholars also described benefits resulting from networks gained through participation in the program, including valuable ties between the university and community behavioral health organizations. This evaluation of the outcomes of a graduate certificate program providing training in translational research highlights the need for more community-oriented and practice-based measures of success. Encouraging practitioner

  8. A Simulation Modeling Framework to Optimize Programs Using Financial Incentives to Motivate Health Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Kiernan, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    While increasingly popular among mid- to large-size employers, using financial incentives to induce health behavior change among employees has been controversial, in part due to poor quality and generalizability of studies to date. Thus, fundamental questions have been left unanswered: To generate positive economic returns on investment, what level of incentive should be offered for any given type of incentive program and among which employees? We constructed a novel modeling framework that systematically identifies how to optimize marginal return on investment from programs incentivizing behavior change by integrating commonly collected data on health behaviors and associated costs. We integrated "demand curves" capturing individual differences in response to any given incentive with employee demographic and risk factor data. We also estimated the degree of self-selection that could be tolerated: that is, the maximum percentage of already-healthy employees who could enroll in a wellness program while still maintaining positive absolute return on investment. In a demonstration analysis, the modeling framework was applied to data from 3000 worksite physical activity programs across the nation. For physical activity programs, the incentive levels that would optimize marginal return on investment ($367/employee/year) were higher than average incentive levels currently offered ($143/employee/year). Yet a high degree of self-selection could undermine the economic benefits of the program; if more than 17% of participants came from the top 10% of the physical activity distribution, the cost of the program would be expected to always be greater than its benefits. Our generalizable framework integrates individual differences in behavior and risk to systematically estimate the incentive level that optimizes marginal return on investment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Efficacy of a Physician Assistant Student-Developed Behavior Change Program at a Local Free Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Judy; Martin, Carla S; Butler, Brittany; Bixler, Brian; Shirk, Kelsey

    2017-03-01

    A quality assurance and quality improvement assessment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a behavior change program developed by physician assistant (PA) students at a local free clinic. Physician assistant students developed and implemented a program using motivational interviewing and healthy lifestyle behavioral counseling at a local free clinic. Twenty-eight patients participated in the program over 5 cohorts. A retrospective chart review was used to collect data. Weight and body mass index (BMI) data were gathered retrospectively from patients' charts corresponding to the 6 months before the program, at the start of the program, at the end of the 12-week program, and at 3 and 6 months after the program. Significant differences were found between the start and end of the program for weight (P < .001) and BMI scores (P < .001). The mean weight decreased from 111.98 (standard deviation [SD] = 33.47) to 109.00 kg (SD = 33.93). The weight loss ranged from 0.45 to 9.53 kg, and 75% of participants lost weight. The mean BMI decreased from 41.21 (SD = 10.64) to 40.13 (SD = 10.98). Differences were maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. However, only half the sample's data were available at follow-ups because some patients did not return to the free clinic during that time period. A program facilitated by PA students and designed to help patients make healthy diet and exercise changes can be a valuable resource for free clinics and patients and an excellent clinical opportunity for PA students. To strengthen the program's commitment to maintenance of weight loss, program components of continued follow-up and engagement of patients should be explored and developed.

  10. A Comparison of Two Programs for the Control of Behavioral Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, W. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Two of the most widely used programs for the control of behavioral experiments are Med Associates? MedState Notation and Coulbourn Instruments? Graphic State 2. The two systems vary considerably in their approach to programming and data recording, with Graphic State 2 using a point-and-click interface that appeals to non-programmers while MedState Notation requires the typing of programming code. Graphic State 2 provides many data analysis routines, while MedState Notation allows the user to ...

  11. Incorporating Relationship-Based Care Into a Nurse Education Program for Managing Disruptive Patient Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Betty; Del Rosario, Kristian; Byron-Iyamah, Cecily

    In the hospitalized patient, stressors can be manifested as disruptive behaviors. Nursing staff confronted with disruptive behaviors from their patients or families may have difficulty delivering care and developing therapeutic relationships. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effects of an education program using the concepts of relationship-based care with role-play and reflective practice on the knowledge, attitudes, and confidence of the nursing staff in managing disruptive patient behaviors. Nursing staff (N = 68) from an adult medical unit participated in an interactive education program. We compared participants' self-responses about knowledge, attitudes, and confidence before intervention and at 3-month and 1-year postintervention. The number of disruptive incidents requiring hospital security was also measured. At 3-month and 1-year postintervention, staff reported higher levels of knowledge, attitudes, and confidence in managing disruptive behaviors. The number of disruptive incidents per 1000 patient days decreased from 0.78 to 0.39. Effectively managing disruptive behaviors creates a safe, healthy environment for patients and nurses. Role-play and reflective practice are useful educational methods to teach skills to manage these encounters. Clinical nurse specialists can play a key role in developing innovative education programs through interprofessional collaboration.

  12. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  13. Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Autism: Sibling Psychosocial Adjustment during and Following Intervention Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, Katie R.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither…

  14. The Effects of a Systematic Training Program on the Attitudes and Behaviors of White People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Judy

    1977-01-01

    Recounts a study designed to evaluate the impact of a systematic program of curricular and affective approaches to race relations training on the attitudes and behaviors of white people. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey…

  15. Effects of a Mathematics Fluency Program on Mathematics Performance of Students with Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Todd; Hirn, Regina G.; Lingo, Amy S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of a fluency-building mathematics program called Great Leaps Math on fluency of basic addition mathematics facts zero to nine and word problem solving using a multiple probe design across participants. Three elementary students with challenging behaviors and mathematics difficulty participated in the…

  16. It Worked in My Classroom: A Social and Academic Behavior Change Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle Marie; Schoen, Sharon F.

    A social and academic change program was designed for an 11-year-old educable mentally retarded female with Downs Syndrome. Noncompliant behavior was modified through systematic and consecutive manipulations of two reinforcement systems. Responding to teacher requests within 5 seconds was reinforced within the context of math instruction in order…

  17. The "RAPID" Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program for Inattentive Children: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…

  18. Effectiveness of the Home-Start Parenting Support Program: Behavioral outcomes for parents and children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, J.J.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Deković, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of Home-Start, a program designed to support parents with young children. The aims were (a) to examine whether Home-Start improved maternal well-being and (b) to examine whether Home-Start led to changes in the behavior of mothers or children. Self-reported and

  19. Predicting healthcare employees' participation in an office redesign program: Attitudes, norms and behavioral control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Carol

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study examined the extent to which components based on a modified version of the theory of planned behavior explained employee participation in a new clinical office program designed to reduce patient waiting times in primary care clinics. Methods We regressed extent of employee participation on attitudes about the program, group norms, and perceived behavioral control along with individual and clinic characteristics using a hierarchical linear mixed model. Results Perceived group norms were one of the best predictors of employee participation. Attitudes about the program were also significant, but to a lesser degree. Behavioral control, however, was not a significant predictor. Respondents with at least one year of clinic tenure, or who were team leaders, first line supervisor, or managers had greater participation rates. Analysis at the clinic level indicated clinics with scores in the highest quartile clinic scores on group norms, attitudes, and behavioral control scores were significantly higher on levels of overall participation than clinics in the lowest quartile. Conclusion Findings suggest that establishing strong norms and values may influence employee participation in a change program in a group setting. Supervisory level was also significant with greater responsibility being associated with greater participation.

  20. Promoting the Development of Moral Identity, Behavior, and Commitment in a Social Action Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey N.; Warnaar, Bethany L.; Bench, Joshua H.; Stroup, John

    2014-01-01

    Involvement in social action and community service can promote the construction of prosocial identities and enduring patterns of civic behavior. This article explores this important process for youth that participate in the PeaceJam Ambassadors program. High school-aged "PeaceJammers" study the lives of Nobel Peace laureates while…

  1. A Review of Classwide or Universal Social, Emotional, Behavioral Programs for Students in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabey, Christian V.; Charlton, Cade T.; Pyle, Daniel; Lignugaris-Kraft, Benjamin; Ross, Scott W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize the existing research on classwide social, emotional, and behavioral programs for kindergarten students. The researchers identified 26 studies in peer-reviewed journals and dissertation databases to review. Each study was examined and coded in terms of study characteristics, strength of evidence, and…

  2. Culturally Responsive Pyramid Model Practices: Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rosemarie; Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual article reviews current research on racial disparities in disciplinary practices in early childhood education and work to address these issues within a positive behavior support (PBS) framework. Building largely on the Pyramid Model, recommendations and a culturally responsive approach are suggested for use within a program-wide…

  3. The Effects of the Cognitive-Behavioral Marriage Enrichment Program on the Dysfunctional Attitudes of Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Melek; Ersanli, Ercumend

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral marriage enrichment program to decrease the level of the dysfunctional attitudes of the couples. Forty participants with dysfunctional attitudes determined by The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale were randomly chosen as experimental and control groups. The results of the…

  4. School Breakfast Program Participation and Rural Adolescents' Purchasing Behaviors in Food Stores and Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Wang, Qi; Shanafelt, Amy; Larson, Nicole; Wei, Susan; Hearst, Mary O.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Little is known about adolescents' food purchasing behaviors in rural areas. This study examined whether purchasing food at stores/restaurants around schools was related to adolescents' participation in school breakfast programs and overall diet in rural Minnesota. Methods: Breakfast-skippers enrolled in a group-randomized intervention…

  5. The Effects of Implementing a Positive Behavior Intervention Support Program on Office Discipline Referrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cheryl Denise

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of PBIS (Positive Behavioral Intervention Support) program had a positive significant effect in decreasing office discipline referrals in a local elementary school. A sample independent t-Test was used to examine data on the school's average office discipline referrals for two years…

  6. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  7. Social support for healthy behaviors: Scale psychometrics and prediction of weight loss among women in a behavioral program

    OpenAIRE

    Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen; Perri, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N=267; mean BMI 32.1±3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, a...

  8. Application of persuasion and health behavior theories for behavior change counseling: design of the ADAPT (Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jenny J; Mann, Devin M

    2012-09-01

    Diabetes incidence is increasing worldwide and providers often do not feel they can effectively counsel about preventive lifestyle changes. The goal of this paper is to describe the development and initial feasibility testing of the Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting (ADAPT) program to enhance counseling about behavior change for patients with pre-diabetes. Primary care providers and patients were interviewed about their perspectives on lifestyle changes to prevent diabetes. A multidisciplinary design team incorporated this data to translate elements from behavior change theories to create the ADAPT program. The ADAPT program was pilot tested to evaluate feasibility. Leveraging elements from health behavior theories and persuasion literature, the ADAPT program comprises a shared goal-setting module, implementation intentions exercise, and tailored reminders to encourage behavior change. Feasibility data demonstrate that patients were able to use the program to achieve their behavior change goals. Initial findings show that the ADAPT program is feasible for helping improve primary care providers' counseling for behavior change in patients with pre-diabetes. If successful, the ADAPT program may represent an adaptable and scalable behavior change tool for providers to encourage lifestyle changes to prevent diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.

  10. Positive effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention program for family caregivers of demented elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Paes Araujo Fialho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It was to examine the effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT program administered to family caregivers of dementia patients. METHODS: Forty family caregivers were enrolled in a CBT intervention across eight weekly sessions. Cognitive, functional and behavioral status of patients were evaluated, as well as their own and their family caregivers' perceptions of quality of life. Specific instruments were also applied to evaluate caregiver stress level, coping, anxiety and depression. RESULTS: At the end of the program, family caregivers reported fewer neuropsychiatric symptoms among patients and an improvement in patients' quality of life. In addition, caregivers changed their coping strategies, whereas a significant decrease was observed in their anxiety levels. CONCLUSION: The CBT program employed appears to be a promising and useful tool for clinical practice, displaying positive effects on quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, as well as proving beneficial for alleviating anxiety and stress in family caregivers.

  11. Factors Influencing Engagement, Perceived Usefulness and Behavioral Mechanisms Associated with a Text Message Support Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Julie; Santo, Karla; Coorey, Genevieve; Thakkar, Jay; Hackett, Maree; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have now demonstrated the efficacy of text messaging in positively changing behaviours. We aimed to identify features and factors that explain the effectiveness of a successful text messaging program in terms of user engagement, perceived usefulness, behavior change and program delivery preferences. Mixed methods qualitative design combining four data sources; (i) analytic data extracted directly from the software system, (ii) participant survey, (iii) focus groups to identify barriers and enablers to implementation and mechanisms of effect and (iv) recruitment screening logs and text message responses to examine engagement. This evaluation was conducted within the TEXT ME trial-a parallel design, single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 710 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Qualitative data were interpreted using inductive thematic analysis. 307/352 (87% response rate) of recruited patients with CHD completed the program evaluation survey at six months and 25 participated in a focus group. Factors increasing engagement included (i) ability to save and share messages, (ii) having the support of providers and family, (iii) a feeling of support through participation in the program, (iv) the program being initiated close to the time of a cardiovascular event, (v) personalization of the messages, (vi) opportunity for initial face-to-face contact with a provider and (vii) that program and content was perceived to be from a credible source. Clear themes relating to program delivery were that diet and physical activity messages were most valued, four messages per week was ideal and most participants felt program duration should be provided for at least for six months or longer. This study provides context and insight into the factors influencing consumer engagement with a text message program aimed at improving health-related behavior. The study suggests program components that may enhance potential success but will require integration at

  12. Factors Influencing Engagement, Perceived Usefulness and Behavioral Mechanisms Associated with a Text Message Support Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Redfern

    Full Text Available Many studies have now demonstrated the efficacy of text messaging in positively changing behaviours. We aimed to identify features and factors that explain the effectiveness of a successful text messaging program in terms of user engagement, perceived usefulness, behavior change and program delivery preferences.Mixed methods qualitative design combining four data sources; (i analytic data extracted directly from the software system, (ii participant survey, (iii focus groups to identify barriers and enablers to implementation and mechanisms of effect and (iv recruitment screening logs and text message responses to examine engagement. This evaluation was conducted within the TEXT ME trial-a parallel design, single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT of 710 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. Qualitative data were interpreted using inductive thematic analysis.307/352 (87% response rate of recruited patients with CHD completed the program evaluation survey at six months and 25 participated in a focus group. Factors increasing engagement included (i ability to save and share messages, (ii having the support of providers and family, (iii a feeling of support through participation in the program, (iv the program being initiated close to the time of a cardiovascular event, (v personalization of the messages, (vi opportunity for initial face-to-face contact with a provider and (vii that program and content was perceived to be from a credible source. Clear themes relating to program delivery were that diet and physical activity messages were most valued, four messages per week was ideal and most participants felt program duration should be provided for at least for six months or longer.This study provides context and insight into the factors influencing consumer engagement with a text message program aimed at improving health-related behavior. The study suggests program components that may enhance potential success but will require integration

  13. Implementation of a tool to modify behavior in a chronic disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Nicole D; Lenz, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia continue to be a significant burden on the US health care system. As a result, many healthcare providers are implementing strategies to prevent the incidence of heart disease and other chronic conditions. Among these strategies are proper drug therapy and lifestyle modifications. Behavior change is often the rate-limiting step in the prevention and maintenance of lifestyle modifications. The purpose of this paper is to describe a tool used to guide the progression and assess the effectiveness of a cardiovascular risk reduction program. The tool uses the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change to determine the readiness and confidence to change specific lifestyle behaviors pertinent to cardiovascular health. The tool aids the practitioner in developing a patient-centered plan to implement and maintain lifestyle changes and can be tailored to use in any situation requiring a behavior change on the part of the patient.

  14. Implementation of a Tool to Modify Behavior in a Chronic Disease Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole D. Gillespie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia continue to be a significant burden on the US health care system. As a result, many healthcare providers are implementing strategies to prevent the incidence of heart disease and other chronic conditions. Among these strategies are proper drug therapy and lifestyle modifications. Behavior change is often the rate-limiting step in the prevention and maintenance of lifestyle modifications. The purpose of this paper is to describe a tool used to guide the progression and assess the effectiveness of a cardiovascular risk reduction program. The tool uses the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change to determine the readiness and confidence to change specific lifestyle behaviors pertinent to cardiovascular health. The tool aids the practitioner in developing a patient-centered plan to implement and maintain lifestyle changes and can be tailored to use in any situation requiring a behavior change on the part of the patient.

  15. THE EFFECT OF PREVENTIVE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TRAINING PROGRAM ON APPROVAL AND DISAPPROVAL BEHAVIORS OF TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Güner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Preventive Classroom Management Training Program (PCMTP on approval and disapproval behaviors of teachers working in inclusive classrooms was investigated. The study group consisted of 45 teachers who were working in public schools and had students with special needs in their classrooms. Data were gathered using Teacher Behaviors Observation Form, which was developed by the researcher, and during one lesson which was videotaped in the classrooms of teachers in the experimental group (n=21 who had a training using PCMTP and the control group (n=24. The analysis of the research data revealed that PCMTP did not make significant differences in the approval/disapproval behaviors of the teachers in terms of the post-test results but the maintenance results showed that disapproval behaviors of the teachers were significantly lower.

  16. Effects of a reality TV cosmetic surgery makeover program on eating disordered attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E; Trace, Sara E; Mitchell, Karen S; Gow, Rachel Walker

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of a reality TV cosmetic surgery program on eating disordered attitudes, behaviors, mood, anxiety, and self-esteem. Participants (N=147 women) completed baseline surveys and were subsequently randomly assigned to one of two conditions: one in which they watched a reality TV cosmetic surgery program (The Swan) and one in which they watched a reality TV home improvement program (Clean Sweep). Assessments were conducted immediately post-video and two weeks later. Women in the cosmetic surgery program group who reported higher internalization of the thin-ideal at baseline manifested lower self-esteem at posttesting. Among White women, those who watched the cosmetic surgery program reported greater perceptions of media pressures to be thin and stronger endorsement of their ability to control their body's appearance after watching the video. These differences persisted over a two-week follow-up period. Reality TV cosmetic surgery makeover programs may contribute to eating disordered attitudes and behaviors among young women, particularly those who have internalized the thin body-ideal. These findings seem to be especially applicable for White women; however, they should be further investigated with more diverse and international samples.

  17. Early life adversity during the infant sensitive period for attachment: Programming of behavioral neurobiology of threat processing and social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Opendak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental. This review focuses on the unique role of caregiver presence during early-life trauma in programming deficits in social behavior and threat processing. Using data primarily from rodent models, we describe the interaction between trauma and attachment during a sensitive period in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver’s presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. These data suggest that trauma experienced directly from an abusive caregiver and trauma experienced in the presence of caregiver cues produce similar neurobehavioral deficits, which are unique from those resulting from trauma alone. We go on to integrate this information into social experience throughout the lifespan, including consequences for complex scenarios, such as dominance hierarchy formation and maintenance.

  18. Examination of Lifestyle Behaviors and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in University Students Enrolled in Kinesiology Degree Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many, Gina M; Lutsch, Andrea; Connors, Kimberly E; Shearer, Jane; Brown, Haley C; Ash, Garrett; Pescatello, Linda S; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Barfield, Whitney; Dubis, Gabriel; Houmard, Joseph A; Hoffman, Eric P; Hittel, Dustin S

    2016-04-01

    Preventing physical inactivity and weight gain during college is critical in decreasing lifelong obesity and associated disease risk. As such, we sought to compare cardiometabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors between college students enrolled in kinesiology and non-kinesiology degree programs to assess whether health and exercise degree programs may influence health behaviors and associated disease risk outcomes. Anthropometrics, fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles and HbA1c%, blood pressure, and peak oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) were assessed in 247 healthy college students. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA) was calculated using glucose and insulin levels. Self-reported physical activity from the Paffenbarger questionnaire was collected to estimate the average caloric expenditure due to different types of physical activities. Despite no significant differences in body mass index or waist circumference between groups, kinesiology majors presented with ∼20% lower fasting insulin levels and HOMA (p = 0.01; p Kinesiology majors reported increased weekly participation in vigorous-intensity sport and leisure activities and, on average, engaged in >300 metabolic equivalent-h·wk, whereas non-kinesiology majors engaged in kinesiology degree programs display improved healthy behaviors and associated outcomes (parameters of glucose homeostasis). Practical outcomes of this research indicate that implementing components of a comprehensive kinesiology curriculum encourages improved health behaviors and associated cardiometabolic risk factors.

  19. Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on Behavioral Problems in Children: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Ireen; Speetjens, Paula; Smit, Filip; de Wolff, Marianne; Tavecchio, Louis

    2008-01-01

    The Triple P Positive Parenting Program is a multilevel parenting program to prevent and offer treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of Triple P Level 4 interventions in the management of behavioral problems in children by pooling the…

  20. The Positive Action Program: Improving Academics, Behavior, and Character by Teaching Comprehensive Skills for Successful Learning and Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flay, Brian R.; Allred, Carol G.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter outlines and provides evidence for the effects of the "Positive Action Program" as a way of inculcating values, driving student wellbeing, and improving academic performance and interpersonal behavior. The program centers on addressing behavioral, emotional, and academic problems by developing in individuals positive beliefs…

  1. Use of a Behavioral Art Program to Improve Social Skills of Two Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wan-Chi; Lee, Gabrielle T.; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a behavioral art program in improving social skills for two children with autism in group settings. A multiple probe design across behaviors was used. The results indicated that for both children, the program increased the percentages of spontaneous verbal communications,…

  2. Technology-enhanced program for child disruptive behavior disorders: development and pilot randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Parent, Justin; Honeycutt, Amanda; Khavjou, Olga; Gonzalez, Michelle; Anton, Margaret; Newey, Greg A

    2014-01-01

    Early onset disruptive behavior disorders are overrepresented in low-income families; yet these families are less likely to engage in behavioral parent training (BPT) than other groups. This project aimed to develop and pilot test a technology-enhanced version of one evidence-based BPT program, Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC). The aim was to increase engagement of low-income families and, in turn, child behavior outcomes, with potential cost-savings associated with greater treatment efficiency. Low-income families of 3- to 8-year-old children with clinically significant disruptive behaviors were randomized to and completed standard HNC (n = 8) or Technology-Enhanced HNC (TE-HNC; n = 7). On average, caregivers were 37 years old; 87% were female, and 80% worked at least part-time. More than half (53%) of the youth were boys; the average age of the sample was 5.67 years. All families received the standard HNC program; however, TE-HNC also included the following smartphone enhancements: (a) skills video series, (b) brief daily surveys, (c) text message reminders, (d) video recording home practice, and (e) midweek video calls. TE-HNC yielded larger effect sizes than HNC for all engagement outcomes. Both groups yielded clinically significant improvements in disruptive behavior; however, findings suggest that the greater program engagement associated with TE-HNC boosted child treatment outcome. Further evidence for the boost afforded by the technology is revealed in family responses to postassessment interviews. Finally, cost analysis suggests that TE-HNC families also required fewer sessions than HNC families to complete the program, an efficiency that did not compromise family satisfaction. TE-HNC shows promise as an innovative approach to engaging low-income families in BPT with potential cost-savings and, therefore, merits further investigation on a larger scale.

  3. Win/win: creating collaborative training opportunities for behavioral health providers within family medicine residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Nancy Breen; Borresen, Dorothy; Myerholtz, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Integrating behavioral health into primary healthcare offers multiple advantages for patients and health professionals. This model requires a new skill set for all healthcare professionals that is not emphasized in current educational models. The new skills include interprofessional team-based care competencies and expanded patient care competencies. Health professionals must learn new ways to efficiently and effectively address health behavior change, and manage behavioral health issues such as depression and anxiety. Learning environments that co-train mental health and primary care professionals facilitate acquisition of both teamwork and patient care competencies for mental health and primary care professional trainees. Family Medicine Residency programs provide an excellent opportunity for co-training. This article serves as a "how to" guide for residency programs interested in developing a co-training program. Necessary steps to establish and maintain a program are reviewed, as well as goals and objectives for a co-training curriculum and strategies to overcome barriers and challenges in co-training models.

  4. Effectiveness of a behavior modification program for older people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnapiruk, Liwan; Wirojratana, Virapun; Meehatchai, Nitaya; Turale, Sue

    2014-06-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of a behavior modification program for diabetic control in Thai elders with uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes. Purposive sampling was used to select 30 elders from one community as an intervention group, and 30 from a neighboring community as a control group. The intervention group participated in a program of 12 weeks' duration involving activities related to group counseling, group discussion, and an empowerment process that enhanced appropriate consumption of healthy diet, medication taking, and exercise. Data were collected by interviews using a questionnaire to assess knowledge of diabetes, perceived self-efficacy, and diabetes control behavior, including fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, were examined at the baseline and three months thereafter. At program completion, the intervention group had significantly higher scores of knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors than those in the control group, but blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin were not significantly different. Although nurses can use aspects of this program to benefit elders with diabetes who require support and education, further research is required to provide improved health outcomes such as better glycemic control. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. A pilot program at the worksite to reduce adverse self-medication behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Neafsey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Patricia J Neafsey1,2, Gregory Lutkus2, Jessica Newcomb2, Elizabeth Anderson1,21Center for Health Intervention and Prevention (CHIP; 2School of Nursing, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USAAbstract: A Next Generation Personal Education Program (PEP-NG that captures self-reported medication behaviors and delivers a tailored educational intervention on a touchscreen interface was piloted with 11 adults with hypertension, aged 45–60 years, in a worksite setting. A time series design with multiple institution of treatment (four visits over three months was employed. Blood pressure (BP, self-medication behaviors, self-efficacy, and knowledge for avoiding adverse self-medication behaviors were assessed at each of four visits. Satisfaction was assessed once at visit 4. Measures pre-PEP (visit 1 to visit 4 were compared with paired t-tests. The adverse self-medication behavior risk score decreased significantly from visit 1 to visit 4 (p < 0.05 with a medium effect size. Both knowledge and self-efficacy for avoiding adverse self-medication behaviors increased significantly (p < 0.05 with large effect sizes. All six participants not at BP goal (<140/90 mmHg on visit 1 were at goal by visit 4. User satisfaction was high as assessed by both quantitative measures and qualitative interviews. These positive results suggest the PEP could play a central role in worksite wellness programs aimed at workers with hypertension.Keywords: hypertension, worksite, information technology, tailored intervention

  6. Effects of the Skills4Genius sports-based training program in creative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Team Sports has been suggested as a suitable environment to investigate creative behavior. This study’s purpose was two-fold: first, it intended to identify the effects of the Skills4Genius sports-bases training program in thinking, motor, and in-game creative behavior in team sports. Second, it aimed to investigate the relationship between creative thinking and in-game creativity. Forty children from primary school were allocated into control (n = 18, age: 9.2±0.4) and experimental (n = 22, age: 9.5±0.7) groups. The experimental group participated in a five-month training program involving either creative thinking, diversification, physical literacy, and nonlinear pedagogy approaches (Skills4Genius). Variables in the study included: a) creative thinking; b) motor performance (vertical jump, speed, and agility); c) in-game individual creative behavior (attempts, fluency, and versatility); and d) in-game collective behavior (positional regularity). The results suggested that the Skills4Genius program fostered creative thinking, agility, and speed performance. Moreover, it stretched the in-game individual creative behavior mainly through the improvement of the attempts and versatility of the player’s actions. Lastly, it nurtured a better learning of the tactical principles, whereas the children were more coordinated with their teammates’ and opponents’ positioning. Additionally, this study presents a positive correlation linking creative thinking and in-game creative performance. These findings highlighted that creativity is facilitated while players become more thinking and game-skilled. Coaches and educators may apply this functional environment to inspire children’s disposition to move outside the box and trigger a creative spark in team sports players. Notwithstanding, the sports environment is ideally suited for fostering creative behavior, a higher-order disposition that will go on to differentiate the everyday life of a child. PMID:28231260

  7. Effects of the Skills4Genius sports-based training program in creative behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Santos

    Full Text Available Team Sports has been suggested as a suitable environment to investigate creative behavior. This study's purpose was two-fold: first, it intended to identify the effects of the Skills4Genius sports-bases training program in thinking, motor, and in-game creative behavior in team sports. Second, it aimed to investigate the relationship between creative thinking and in-game creativity. Forty children from primary school were allocated into control (n = 18, age: 9.2±0.4 and experimental (n = 22, age: 9.5±0.7 groups. The experimental group participated in a five-month training program involving either creative thinking, diversification, physical literacy, and nonlinear pedagogy approaches (Skills4Genius. Variables in the study included: a creative thinking; b motor performance (vertical jump, speed, and agility; c in-game individual creative behavior (attempts, fluency, and versatility; and d in-game collective behavior (positional regularity. The results suggested that the Skills4Genius program fostered creative thinking, agility, and speed performance. Moreover, it stretched the in-game individual creative behavior mainly through the improvement of the attempts and versatility of the player's actions. Lastly, it nurtured a better learning of the tactical principles, whereas the children were more coordinated with their teammates' and opponents' positioning. Additionally, this study presents a positive correlation linking creative thinking and in-game creative performance. These findings highlighted that creativity is facilitated while players become more thinking and game-skilled. Coaches and educators may apply this functional environment to inspire children's disposition to move outside the box and trigger a creative spark in team sports players. Notwithstanding, the sports environment is ideally suited for fostering creative behavior, a higher-order disposition that will go on to differentiate the everyday life of a child.

  8. Effects of the Skills4Genius sports-based training program in creative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Team Sports has been suggested as a suitable environment to investigate creative behavior. This study's purpose was two-fold: first, it intended to identify the effects of the Skills4Genius sports-bases training program in thinking, motor, and in-game creative behavior in team sports. Second, it aimed to investigate the relationship between creative thinking and in-game creativity. Forty children from primary school were allocated into control (n = 18, age: 9.2±0.4) and experimental (n = 22, age: 9.5±0.7) groups. The experimental group participated in a five-month training program involving either creative thinking, diversification, physical literacy, and nonlinear pedagogy approaches (Skills4Genius). Variables in the study included: a) creative thinking; b) motor performance (vertical jump, speed, and agility); c) in-game individual creative behavior (attempts, fluency, and versatility); and d) in-game collective behavior (positional regularity). The results suggested that the Skills4Genius program fostered creative thinking, agility, and speed performance. Moreover, it stretched the in-game individual creative behavior mainly through the improvement of the attempts and versatility of the player's actions. Lastly, it nurtured a better learning of the tactical principles, whereas the children were more coordinated with their teammates' and opponents' positioning. Additionally, this study presents a positive correlation linking creative thinking and in-game creative performance. These findings highlighted that creativity is facilitated while players become more thinking and game-skilled. Coaches and educators may apply this functional environment to inspire children's disposition to move outside the box and trigger a creative spark in team sports players. Notwithstanding, the sports environment is ideally suited for fostering creative behavior, a higher-order disposition that will go on to differentiate the everyday life of a child.

  9. Rapid emergence of free-riding behavior in new pediatric immunization programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Bauch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mathematical models have formalized how free-rider effects can threaten the stability of high vaccine coverage levels under established voluntary vaccination programs. However, little research has addressed the question of when free-riding begins to develop when a new vaccine is first introduced in a population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we combine a game theoretical model of vaccinating behavior with an age-structured compartmental model to analyze rational vaccinating behavior in the first years of a universal immunization program, where a new vaccine is free to all children of a specified age. The model captures how successive birth cohorts face different epidemiological landscapes that have been shaped by the vaccinating decisions of previous birth cohorts, resulting in a strategic interaction between individuals in different birth cohorts. The model predicts a Nash equilibrium coverage level of for the first few birth cohorts under the new program. However, free-riding behavior emerges very quickly, with the Nash equilibrium vaccine coverage dropping significantly within 2-5 years after program initiation. Subsequently, a rich set of coupled dynamics between infection prevalence and vaccinating behaviors is possible, ranging from relatively stable (but reduced coverage in later birth cohorts to wide fluctuations in vaccine coverage from one birth cohort to the next. Individual tolerance for vaccine risk also starts out at relatively high levels before dropping significantly within a few years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that even relatively new immunization programs can be vulnerable to drops in vaccine coverage caused by vaccine scares and exacerbated by herd immunity effects, necessitating vigilance from the start.

  10. Rapid emergence of free-riding behavior in new pediatric immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Chris T; Bhattacharyya, Samit; Ball, Robert F

    2010-09-15

    Mathematical models have formalized how free-rider effects can threaten the stability of high vaccine coverage levels under established voluntary vaccination programs. However, little research has addressed the question of when free-riding begins to develop when a new vaccine is first introduced in a population. Here, we combine a game theoretical model of vaccinating behavior with an age-structured compartmental model to analyze rational vaccinating behavior in the first years of a universal immunization program, where a new vaccine is free to all children of a specified age. The model captures how successive birth cohorts face different epidemiological landscapes that have been shaped by the vaccinating decisions of previous birth cohorts, resulting in a strategic interaction between individuals in different birth cohorts. The model predicts a Nash equilibrium coverage level of for the first few birth cohorts under the new program. However, free-riding behavior emerges very quickly, with the Nash equilibrium vaccine coverage dropping significantly within 2-5 years after program initiation. Subsequently, a rich set of coupled dynamics between infection prevalence and vaccinating behaviors is possible, ranging from relatively stable (but reduced) coverage in later birth cohorts to wide fluctuations in vaccine coverage from one birth cohort to the next. Individual tolerance for vaccine risk also starts out at relatively high levels before dropping significantly within a few years. These results suggest that even relatively new immunization programs can be vulnerable to drops in vaccine coverage caused by vaccine scares and exacerbated by herd immunity effects, necessitating vigilance from the start.

  11. Active behavioral coping alters the behavioral but not the endocrine response to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Dana L.; Tylee, Daniel; Christianson, John P.; Kubala, Kenneth H.; Govindarajan, Sindhuja T.; O’Neill, William E.; Becoats, Kyeesha; Watkins, Linda; Maier, Steve F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Exposure to traumatic stressors typically causes lasting changes in emotionality and behavior. However, coping strategies have been shown to prevent and alleviate many stress consequences and the biological mechanisms that underlie coping are of great interest. Whereas the laboratory stressor inescapable tail-shock induces anxiety-like behaviors, here we demonstrate that permitting a rat to chew on a wooden dowel during administration of tail-shock prevented the development of anxiety like behaviors in the open field and juvenile social exploration tests. Uncontrollable stressors increase corticosterone and decrease thyroid hormone, and we hypothesized that coping would blunt these changes. While tail-shock did produce these effects, active coping did not alter hormone levels. The dissociation between behavioral resilience and circulating hormones is discussed with regard to the utility of these molecules as biomarkers for psychiatric disease. PMID:22578266

  12. Technology-Assisted Parent Training Programs for Children and Adolescents With Disruptive Behaviors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Pawar, Aditya; Mathur, Nandita; Kane, John M; Correll, Christoph U

    To systematically review digitally assisted parent training programs (DPTs) targeting the treatment of children and adolescents with disruptive behaviors. A search was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases for peer-reviewed studies published between January 1, 2000, and March 1, 2016. Reference lists of included and review articles were searched manually for additional references. Broad search terms in varying combinations for parent, training, technologies, and disruptive behavior problems were used. We included English-language articles reporting on the effectiveness of DPTs targeting child or adolescent disruptive behaviors (eg, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder). DPTs designed to use digital media or software programs not to be primarily used within a therapy setting (eg, group, face-to-face) were included. Study design, recruitment and sample characteristics, theoretical background, digital program features, user's engagement, and measures of child behavior were extracted. Fourteen intervention studies (n = 2,427, 58% male, 1,500 in DPT conditions, 12 randomized trials) examining 10 programs met inclusion criteria. Interventions included self-directed noninteractive (eg, podcasts; 3 studies) and interactive (eg, online software; 4 studies) DPTs, remotely administered DPTs combined with professional phone-based coaching (2 studies), and a smartphone enhancement of standard treatment. Interventions were delivered over a mean ± SD period of 8.7 ± 4.2 weeks, most (11/14; 78.6%) were remotely administered, and all recruitment procedures included an outreach for parents outside of mental health-care settings. For programs with > 5 sessions, the mean ± SD completion rate of available sessions was 68.6% ± 13.1%. In comparison to no treatment control, self-directed programs yielded significant improvements in child behavior for children (age technology enhancements may increase engagement and outcomes of standard treatment. The

  13. Programs and policies that promote positive youth development and prevent risky behaviors: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudeau, Sophie; Cunningham, Wendy; Lundberg, Mattias K A; McGinnis, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This chapter provides an international perspective on the promotion of positive development and the prevention of risky behavior among youth. We discuss some of the specific challenges that youth face in low- and middle-income countries and identify six key evidence-based policies and programs that aim to promote positive youth development and prevent risky behavior. We also propose a set of practical recommendations for policymakers and other stakeholders on how to develop and implement an effective youth portfolio in the context of limited financial resources. (c) Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A behavioral program for disruptive Junior High school students: results and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, D J; Heaton, R C; Parker, F C

    1981-12-01

    The 5-year annual and 4-year follow-up results of a collaborative community mental health center--junior high school program for disruptive students are presented. The program is a comprehensive, behavioral, in-school, regular education project characterized by a token economy, parent contracting, major subjects taught in the morning, small class enrollment, small group and individualized instruction, an early release from school contingency option and frequent parent-school communications. Annual controlled outcome results revealed that the program led to significant and consistent reductions in expulsions, suspensions, and grade failure, and variable, often significant, gains in attendance and achievement. Follow-up findings indicated that former program students in senior high school achieved a significantly higher entry rate, greater attendance, better classroom conduct, and a lower frequency of withdrawal from school.

  15. Peer tutoring pilot program for the improvement of oral health behavior in underprivileged and immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Claus H; Löpker, Nadine; Noack, Michael J; Klein, Klaus; Rosen, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    Caries prevalence in underprivileged children is particularly high and, even though many efforts have been made, adherence to dental preventive programs is low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a tutoring program can improve oral health behavior in underprivileged and/or immigrant children. Thirty fourth-grade children (mean age = 9.6), over 50 percent of immigrant background, participated in this longitudinal pilot study. The fourth graders were invited to develop on oral health program for their first-grade peers. For this purpose, the fourth graders learned oral health practices and developed the peer tutoring program. Prior to the intervention and after having instructed their first-grade peers, all fourth graders were interviewed about their oral health habits and their tooth-brushing was recorded on video. Toothbrushing time, performance of circular tooth-brushing movements, and systematic cleaning of all dental surfaces were analyzed before and after the intervention. After peer teaching, there was a significant increase concerning tooth-brushing time (P = .004), performance of circular tooth-brushing movements (P tutoring program yielded a significant improvement in relevant oral care behavior. This approach provided an environment which, in contrast to traditional approaches, facilitates empowerment.

  16. A self-capitalization model for building behavior analysis graduate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L J; Hayes, S C; Ghezzi, P M; Bijou, S W; Williams, W L; Follette, W C

    1995-01-01

    The development of the Behavior Analysis Program at the University of Nevada through self-capitalization is described. With this model, both doctoral and master's degree programs were established at almost no cost to the university. Some of the problems encountered along the way, including gaining support for the original proposal, attracting and retaining high-quality faculty, engendering support from the Department of Psychology and the university, developing resources, and balancing academic with entrepreneurial demands are discussed, as are the solutions we have found for those problems.

  17. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  18. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  19. Anger Management - Evaluation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Training Program for Table Tennis Players

    OpenAIRE

    Steffgen Georges

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Based on a systematic review of the literature on anger and anger management in sport, there is evidence that anger might be dysfunctional, especially in sports requiring selective attention and fine-tuned motor skills. The research literature suggests that cognitive-behavioral intervention programs can be fruitful in helping athletes to understand and control dysfunctional anger. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief training prog...

  20. Dancing UAVs: Using linear programming to model movement behavior with safety requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Hoang Tung; Cruz Torres, Mario Henrique; Holvoet, Tom

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present the use of linear programming to systematically create control software for choreographed UAVs. This application requires the control of multiple UAVs where each UAV follows a predefined trajectory while simultaneously maintaining safety properties, such as keeping a safe distance between each other and geofencing. Modeling and incorporating safety requirements into the movement behavior of UAVs is the main motivation of our research. First, we describe an approach wh...

  1. The effect of educational program based on BASNEF model on the nutritional behavior of students

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mohammad M. Hazavehei; Asiyeh Pirzadeh; Mohammad H. Entezari; Akbar Hasanzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Concerning the importance of improving nutrition in teen girls, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of educational program on the nutritional behavior among second-grade middle school female students based on BASNEF model. Materials and Method: This experimental study were done on 72 students who was selected randomly in two equal groups of 36 students (experimental and control groups). The instruments for data collection were the BASNEF model and 24-recall ques...

  2. Effect of educational intervention program for parents on adolescents’nutritional behaviors in Isfahan in 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents’ nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a kind of field t...

  3. RESEARCH OF TEENAGERS’ NUTRITION BEHAVIOR AS A FIRST STEP OF DEVELOPING NUTRITION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Makeeva, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Results of nutrition behavior study among 14-15 y.o. students are presented. The study allows to identify key challenges, which can be overcome with the help of nutrition education program aimed to teenagers. The main topics are prevention of obesity due to teaching students maintain a healthy energy balance, developing of positive attitudes towards healthy products in order to motivate students to consume them regularly, promoting school nutrition  and development of teenager’s ability to ma...

  4. Client Experiences With Dietary, Exercise, and Behavioral Services in a Community-Based Weight Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzi, Sam; Kadushin, Peter; Michel, Jesse; Abildso, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with randomized trials, community-based interventions are delivered by a wider variety of professionals with varied training backgrounds. When evidence-based programs are scaled into larger formats and disseminated to a wider audience, little is understood about how clients experience these interventions. To understand the experience of clients after meetings with nutrition, exercise, and health behavior professionals, researchers surveyed participants after 6 months in a weight management program. A total of 958 participants were recruited in monthly cohorts beginning September 2011 to complete a program evaluation survey. Qualitative inductive analysis was completed on several open-text items querying respondents as to what they found helpful from meetings with a registered dietitian, personal trainer, and health behavior counselor. Results indicate participants benefitted from gaining knowledge, learning new behavioral skills, or from interpersonal interactions. Findings suggest that the various professional services are valued by clients and that professionals appear to stay within their scope of practice. Implications for those working in weight management are discussed. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. EFFECTS OF A PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON BEHAVIORAL ENGAGEMENT OF STUDENTS IN MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREGORY, ANNE; ALLEN, JOSEPH P.; MIKAMI, AMORI Y.; HAFEN, CHRISTOPHER A.; PIANTA, ROBERT C.

    2017-01-01

    Student behavioral engagement is a key condition supporting academic achievement, yet student disengagement in middle and high schools is all too common. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the efficacy of the My Teaching Partner-Secondary program to increase behavioral engagement. The program offers teachers personalized coaching and systematic feedback on teachers’ interactions with students, based on systematic observation of videorecordings of teacher-student interactions in the classroom. The study found that intervention teachers had significantly higher increases, albeit to a modest degree, in student behavioral engagement in their classrooms after 1 year of involvement with the program compared to the teachers in the control group (explaining 4% of variance). In exploratory analyses, two dimensions of teachers’ interactions with students—their focus on analysis and problem solving during instruction and their use of diverse instructional learning formats—acted as mediators of increased student engagement. The findings offer implications for new directions in teacher professional development and for understanding the classroom as a setting for adolescent development. PMID:28232767

  6. Factors related to sexual behaviors and sexual education programs for Asian-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Me; Florez, Elizabeth; Tariman, Joseph; McCarter, Sarah; Riesche, Laren

    2015-08-01

    To understand the influential factors related to sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents and to evaluate common factors across successful sexual education programs for this population. Despite a rapid increase in cases of STIs/HIV among Asian-American populations, there remains a need for a comprehensive understanding of the influential factors related to risky sexual behaviors for this population. An integrative literature review was conducted. Peer-reviewed articles and government resources were analyzed. Five influential factors were identified: family-centered cultural values, parental relationship, acculturation, gender roles, and lack of knowledge and information about sex and STIs. Only two sexual educational programs met the inclusion criteria and provided evidence towards effectiveness: Safer Choices and Seattle Social Development Project. The findings of this study indicate an urgent need for culturally sensitive sexual education programs that incorporate the identified influential factors, especially cultural values in order to reduce risky sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urban Waste Recycling Behavior: Antecedents of Participation in a Selective Collection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Conchita; Lafuente, Alberto; Pedraja, Marta; Rivera, Pilar

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the antecedents of urban waste recycling behavior. To achieve this goal, a concrete urban waste management program was chosen. The study focuses on the Selective Collection Program (SCP) in Zaragoza, a medium-sized city in northeastern Spain. The research starts with a conceptual model in which the variables that potentially affect recycling behavior can be classified into two groups: incentives and barriers. Moreover, the sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals are included in our study. Given that the proposed model requires specification of latent variables or constructs, the analysis is based on the Structural Equation Models (SEM) methodology. The results revealed that environmental awareness, knowledge of the environmental impact of urban waste, and the positive perception of management by local government exercise a positive effect on individual recycling behavior, while perceived personal difficulties (space and time availability) and distance to and from the container have a negative effect. As regards sociodemographic variables, this study found that annual family income sustains a negative relationship with recycling behavior, while age maintains a positive one. The results obtained clearly show the important role that the public authorities play, especially municipal governments, in achieving the waste recycling objectives established in accordance with international legislation.

  8. Effect of Educational Program to Encourage Safe Sexual Behaviors Among Addicted Men Refered to Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in Hamadan, Western Iran: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unsafe sexual behaviors as important risky behaviors can expose individuals and society to dangerous infectious disease such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. Considering the high prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs to encourage safe sexual behaviors among substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan, Western Iran by applying the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 104 men substance abusers (52 participants in each of the control and intervention groups referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan. Data collection tool was a questionnaire containing demographic information and the theory of planned behavior constructs. Before the educational program, questionnaires were completed by both groups. After the pretest in both groups, participants in the intervention group participated in four educational sessions designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Two months after the end of program, posttest was performed. Data was analyzed using independent T-test, chi-square, fisher exact test, McNemar’s test and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-16. Results: After educational intervention, the mean scores of the theory constructs (attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, behavioral control, behavioral intention and behaviors, in the intervention group increased significantly (P<0.05, despite the fact, changes were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: Implementation of educational courses to encourage safe sexual behaviors based on the theory of planned behavior can be beneficial for substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers.

  9. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2014-03-25

    The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, “big data”). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this “behavior analytics”. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, “Insights from Smart Meters”, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: • Novel results, which answer questions the industry

  10. The Effects of a Bully Intervention Program on the Relational Aggressive Behaviors of 5th Grade Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Waukita; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Bergin, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a mixed method design, this study investigated the effectiveness of a bully intervention program aimed at fifth-grade girls. The Ophelia Project provided the framework for a six-week prevention program. Results showed that the bullying intervention program did decrease the relational aggressive behaviors among the participants and indicated…

  11. Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: A Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral and Interpersonal Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Jason L.; Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 programs for preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Participants were 380 high school students randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral program (CB), an interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training program (IPT-AST), or a no-intervention control. The interventions involved eight 90-min…

  12. Usability and Utility of a Computerized Cognitive-Behavioral Self-Help Program for Public Speaking Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Page; Zimand, Elana; Schmertz, Stefan K.; Ferrer, Mirtha

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the use of a cognitive-behavioral computer-administered self-help program with minimal therapist contact for public speaking anxiety. Participants (N = 10) with social phobia, as measured by a structured clinical interview, completed the self-help program in an open clinical trial. The program was delivered via a CD-ROM during…

  13. The Backpack Food Program's Effects on U.S. Elementary Students' Hunger and On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Meghan E.; Sifers, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the BackPack Food Program's effectiveness in combating students' hunger over the weekends and school breaks, as well as analyze the program's effects on students' on-task behavior in the classroom. Additionally, this study examined program satisfaction from students, parents, and…

  14. A Study on the Effect of a Program Teaching Healthy Sexuality Values on Adolescent Sexual Awareness and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sang Huy

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a program teaching healthy sexuality values on adolescent sexual awareness and sexual behavior. For this study, the present researcher, along with two other professors, developed a 4-h program on 4 different subjects, and conducted the full education program through four different 4-h…

  15. First-Year Male Students' Perceptions of a Rape Prevention Program 7 Months after Their Participation: Attitude and Behavior Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, John D.; Tatum, Jerry L.; Godin, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Seven months after seeing The Men's Program, a commonly used rape prevention program, 248 first-year college men responded to four open-ended questions concerning whether or not the program impacted their attitudes or behavior, particularly regarding alcohol related sexual assault. Two thirds of participants reported either attitude or behavior…

  16. Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders' energy balance-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, B C; Shrewsbury, V A; Hardy, L L; Flood, V M; Byth, K; Shah, S

    2017-09-07

    Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB) change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA) program on SALSA peer leaders' EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. We used a pre-post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15-16 year olds) who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13-14 year olds). This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders' fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415) who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P leaders' intentions, except MVPA which remained stable. The SALSA program had a positive impact on peer leaders' EBRBs, with gender and socio-economic status moderating some outcomes. ACTRN12617000712303 retrospectively registered.

  17. Bullying prevention in schools by targeting cognitions, emotions, and behavior: Evaluating the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen; Sipos-Gug, Sebastian; Tocai, Ioana; Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of a class-based antibullying prevention program on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors was investigated. The program consists of a cognitive-behavioral (Rational Emotive Behavioral Education; REBE) and a behavioral (Viennese Social Competence; ViSC) component. The REBE program is based on rational emotive behavioral theory and contains 9 student lessons. The ViSC program is based on social learning theory and comprises 10 student lessons. The order of the programs was experimentally manipulated. The REBE-ViSC program was implemented in 5 schools (14 classes), the ViSC-REBE program was implemented in 3 schools (9 classes), and 3 schools (11 classes) served as an untreated control group. Data were collected during 1 school year at pretest, midpoint, and posttest. Emotions (overt and internalizing anger), cognitions (learning and entitlement), and behaviors (bullying perpetration and bullying victimization) were measured with self-assessments. To examine the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC/ViSC-REBE program, multilevel growth models were applied (time points at Level 1, individuals at Level 2, and classes at Level 3). The analyses revealed that the program effects differed depending on the order of the programs. The REBE-ViSC condition was more effective in changing negative emotions than the ViSC-REBE condition; both experimental conditions were effective in reducing dysfunctional cognitions, whereas no behavioral change was found in the 2 experimental groups when compared with the control group. To improve program effectiveness regarding behavioral changes, a multilevel whole-school approach including a teacher component is recommended. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8-10 years, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program but only when mothers had strong preferences for education. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Grounded in Person-Environment Fit Theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8 to 10, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program, but only when mothers had strong preferences for education. PMID:22861169

  20. Evaluating an Adolescent Behavioral Program: Leadership, Education, Achievement, and Development for Adolescent Female Offenders in Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panosky, Denise M; Shelton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a pilot study designed to: test the feasibility of implementation, assess implementation barriers, and determine the effectiveness of a modified evidence-based program designed for adolescent female offenders in a women's correctional facility in the United States. A therapeutic expressive arts behavioral program, Leadership, Education, Achievement and Development (LEAD), has been used in community settings as a health promotion program. This behavioral program was adapted to LEAD-Corrections (LEAD-C) and serves incarcerated adolescent female offenders. Results of this pilot study show that it is feasible to offer LEAD-C in a correctional setting. Positive effects were noted on session satisfaction surveys as well as formative and summative evaluations. Implementation of LEAD-C, using therapeutic expressive arts interventions, included coping strategies to help adolescents become confident and self-assured and review better choices. Adolescents were taught to utilize these learned coping strategies in their life, which may help to overcome adversity, enhance resilience, and support youth transition at the time of reentry to the community.

  1. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  2. A history of the behavior program at the Jackson laboratory: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewsbury, Donald A

    2012-02-01

    The behavior program at the Jackson laboratory in Bar Harbor, ME, flourished from 1945 through the late 1960s and was unique in the history of comparative psychology. The canine project was conducted on ~300 dogs of five purebred breeds reared under controlled conditions and tested on a predetermined schedule. This enabled a detailed study of genetic and environmental effects and their interaction as well as a variety of other problems in midsized mammals. I provide a comprehensive, though brief, overview of the origins, development, operation, and decline of the program. Although it was begun within a genetic framework, the role of both genetic and experiential influences came to be emphasized. An important additional part of the program entailed extensive studies of inbred strains of house mice (Mus musculus) and of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). The work at the Jackson Laboratory had a significant impact on various aspects of comparative psychology.

  3. A Transdisciplinary Training Program for Behavioral Oncology and Cancer Control Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Anna M.; Champion, Victoria L.; Kroenke, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Transdisciplinary health research training has been identified as a major initiative to achieve the vision for research teams of the future as articulated in the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. To address the need for scientists who can integrate diverse scientific approaches and work in transdisciplinary teams to solve complex health problems, Indiana University has designed an innovative training program that will provide the didactic and research experiences to enable trainees to establish productive careers in behavioral oncology and cancer control research. Development of a successful transdisciplinary training program requires mentorship, research, and a specialized curriculum that encompass a broad range of disciplines. The program capitalizes on a unique set of existing and emerging training opportunities resulting from the collaborative activities of the Indiana University (IU) Simon Cancer Center, the IU Schools of Nursing and Medicine, and multiple research institutes and academic centers located in Indiana and neighboring states. PMID:18501750

  4. Oral health promotion in early childhood: age of joining preventive program and behavioral aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Letícia Vargas Freire Martins; Myaki, Silvio Issáo; Walter, Luiz Reynaldo de Figueiredo; Zuanon, Angela Cristina Cilense

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the interference of age in the entrance into a public dental care program for infants as well as family behavioral aspects about tooth decay experience in children 0 to 4 years old. Cross-sectional study involving 465 children who were divided into 3 groups: infants whose mothers joined the program during pregnancy (n=50); infants enrolled in the program during the first year of life (n=230); and infants enrolled in the program between 13 and 18 months old (n=185). The χ(2) and Kruskal-Walis tests (95% confidence interval) were used to assess the relationship among variables. There was an association between the age of entrance in the programs and dental caries (p0.05) and daily oral care (p=0.214) were common variables in the groups with 99% of occurrence. Commitment to attend follow-up visits, nighttime oral care and parents' educational level (p>0.05) were considered protective factors for dental caries. Cariogenic diet and night feeding were determinant factors to the appearance of dental caries. To promote children oral health it is essential to enroll children in oral health programs and adopt healthy habits as early as possible, besides the adherence of the child to their parents' advice.

  5. Effect of educational intervention program for parents on adolescents’nutritional behaviors in Isfahan in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents’ nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a kind of field trial that conducted on 63 girl teenagers from junior high schools of Isfahan in 2016 that were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool which was a researcher made questionnaire was completed in both groups before and 1 month after the intervention. The intervention included three training sessions for parents and giving educational compact disc and forwarding SMS. To analysis of data independent t-test and paired t-test were used. RESULTS: Paired t-test showed that in intervention group the average score of fruit (P = 0.03) and in control group the average score of vegetables (P nutritional behaviors was not a significant difference. Independent t-test showed that after intervention, mean scores nutritional behavior of adolescent girls in both groups had no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference was in the nutritional behaviors before and after the intervention. Hence, just educating the parents is not enough for achieving appropriate nutritional behaviors in the adolescents. PMID:29296604

  6. Effect of educational intervention program for parents on adolescents'nutritional behaviors in Isfahan in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents' nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. This study was a kind of field trial that conducted on 63 girl teenagers from junior high schools of Isfahan in 2016 that were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool which was a researcher made questionnaire was completed in both groups before and 1 month after the intervention. The intervention included three training sessions for parents and giving educational compact disc and forwarding SMS. To analysis of data independent t -test and paired t -test were used. Paired t -test showed that in intervention group the average score of fruit ( P = 0.03) and in control group the average score of vegetables ( P nutritional behaviors was not a significant difference. Independent t -test showed that after intervention, mean scores nutritional behavior of adolescent girls in both groups had no significant differences. No significant difference was in the nutritional behaviors before and after the intervention. Hence, just educating the parents is not enough for achieving appropriate nutritional behaviors in the adolescents.

  7. The Effects of a Program of Behavior Modification and Reality Therapy on the Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed Institutionalized Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, John P.; Page, D. Patricia

    1981-01-01

    Institutional staff used behavior modification and reality therapy to bring about positive behavioral changes in 20 severely retarded, emotionally disturbed adolescents as measured on two adaptive behavior scales. (Author)

  8. Cognitive, Behavioral and Emotional Empathy in Pharmacy Students: Targeting Programs for Curriculum Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Cassandra A.; Rizkalla, Mireille N.; Henderson, Kyle K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Empathy is an essential trait for pharmacists and is recognized as a core competency that can be developed in the classroom. There is a growing body of data regarding levels of empathy in pharmacy students; however, these studies have not measured differences in behavioral, cognitive, and emotional empathy. The goal of this study was to parse the underlying components of empathy and correlate them to psychosocial attributes, with the overall goal of identifying curriculum modifications to enhance levels of empathy in pharmacy students. Methods: IRB approval was obtained to measure empathy levels in pharmacy students attending Midwestern University. An online, anonymous survey administered through a secure website (REDCap) was used. This survey utilized the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Medical Student version) and included questions regarding demographics and personality traits. Empathy questions were sub-divided into behavioral, cognitive, and emotional categories. Data are presented as mean ± SEM with significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Three hundred and four pharmacy students at Midwestern University participated in a fall survey with an overall response rate of 37%. The average empathy score was 110.4 ± 0.8 on a scale of 20–140; which is comparable to empathy scores found by Fjortoft et al. (2011) and Van Winkle et al. (2012b). Validating prior research, females scored significantly higher than males in empathy as well as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional subcomponents. For the entire population, emotional empathy was significantly higher than cognitive and behavioral empathy (P empathy were observed for self-serving behavior (R D 0.490, P empathy levels in pharmacy students are similar to prior studies with females scoring higher than males. Emotional empathy may play a greater role than cognitive and behavioral empathy in this group of students. Targeted programs that promote volunteerism and activities that foster responsiveness to

  9. Fetal programming effects of testosterone on the reward system and behavioral approach tendencies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Michael V; Ashwin, Emma; Auyeung, Bonnie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Taylor, Kevin; Hackett, Gerald; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-11-15

    Sex differences are present in many neuropsychiatric conditions that affect emotion and approach-avoidance behavior. One potential mechanism underlying such observations is testosterone in early development. Although much is known about the effects of testosterone in adolescence and adulthood, little is known in humans about how testosterone in fetal development influences later neural sensitivity to valenced facial cues and approach-avoidance behavioral tendencies. With functional magnetic resonance imaging we scanned 25 8-11-year-old children while viewing happy, fear, neutral, or scrambled faces. Fetal testosterone (FT) was measured via amniotic fluid sampled between 13 and 20 weeks gestation. Behavioral approach-avoidance tendencies were measured via parental report on the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Rewards questionnaire. Increasing FT predicted enhanced selectivity for positive compared with negatively valenced facial cues in reward-related regions such as caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens but not the amygdala. Statistical mediation analyses showed that increasing FT predicts increased behavioral approach tendencies by biasing caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens but not amygdala to be more responsive to positive compared with negatively valenced cues. In contrast, FT was not predictive of behavioral avoidance tendencies, either through direct or neurally mediated paths. This work suggests that testosterone in humans acts as a fetal programming mechanism on the reward system and influences behavioral approach tendencies later in life. As a mechanism influencing atypical development, FT might be important across a range of neuropsychiatric conditions that asymmetrically affect the sexes, the reward system, emotion processing, and approach behavior. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of behavioral change techniques in community-led total sanitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Rachel; Mahmoudi, Lyana; Graham, Jay Paul

    2015-03-01

    The lack of sanitation facilitates the spread of diarrheal diseases-a leading cause of child deaths worldwide. As of 2012, an estimated 1 billion people still practiced open defecation (OD). To address this issue, one behavioral change approach used is community-led total sanitation (CLTS). It is now applied in an estimated 66 countries worldwide, and many countries have adopted this approach as their main strategy for scaling up rural sanitation coverage. While it appears that many of the activities used in CLTS-that target community-level changes in sanitation behaviors instead of household-level changes-have evolved out of existing behavior change frameworks and techniques, it is less clear how these activities are adapted by different organizations and applied in different country contexts. The aims of this study are to (i) show which behavior change frameworks and techniques are the most common in CLTS interventions; (ii) describe how activities are implemented in CLTS interventions by region and context; and (3) determine which activities program implementers considered the most valuable in achieving open defecation free (ODF) status and sustaining it. The results indicate that a wide range of activities are conducted across the different programs and often go beyond standard CLTS activities. CLTS practitioners ranked follow-up and monitoring activities as the most important activities for achieving an ODF community, yet only 1 of 10 organizations conducted monitoring and follow-up throughout their project. Empirical studies are needed to determine which specific behavioral change activities are most effective at ending OD and sustaining it. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A study of leadership behaviors among chairpersons in allied health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Deborah T

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate leadership behaviors among chairpersons in allied health programs, based on their perceptions and the perceptions of faculty. Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership behaviors, as well as organizational outcomes of effectiveness, extra effort, and satisfaction, were measured using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X-Short). A form developed by the researcher was used to gather demographic and program information. One hundred thirty-eight chairpersons and 327 faculty participated in the study. Major findings support the view that chairpersons primarily demonstrate leadership behaviors associated with transformational leadership factors and the contingent reward factor of transactional leadership. Statistically significant differences were found between the mean values of the self-perceptions of chairpersons and faculty for the transformational leadership factors of idealized influence (behavior), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration, and organizational outcomes of effectiveness and satisfaction. There was a statistically significant positive correlation, based on the self-perceptions of chairpersons and faculty, of the five transformational leadership factors with the three organizational outcomes and the transactional leadership factor of contingent reward with the organizational outcomes of effectiveness and extra effort. There was a statistically significant negative correlation, based on the perception of faculty, with the management-by-exception (passive) and laissez-faire leadership factors, and the organizational outcomes of effectiveness, extra effort and satisfaction. Transformational leadership has been identified as an effective strategy to adapt to a rapidly changing environment. Further development of the transformational leadership behaviors of chairpersons should be considered a priority for the allied health professions.

  12. Comparing the effects of entertainment and educational television programming on risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Gusé, Emily; Nabi, Robin L

    2011-01-01

    Entertainment-education (E-E) may offer an effective way to reduce risky behavior by modeling healthy behaviors. Although there is some empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of the E-E strategy, much of this research has been conducted in countries with different media landscapes than that of the United States and controlled experiments in this context are rare. Moreover, empirical tests of the relative effectiveness of E-E messages and other message formats are needed. In this study, 437 undergraduates participated in a three-wave panel experiment in which they viewed one of three programs (E-E, education, or entertainment). Safer sex intentions and behaviors were measured several days before, immediately following, and 2 weeks after exposure. Results demonstrate that effects of exposure to this E-E program vary depending on gender and past experience with sexual intercourse. In particular, females and those who had not initiated sexual intercourse showed the strongest effects. Discussion of theoretical implications and suggestions for future research are provided. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  13. Smoking Behaviors Among Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Enrolled in the Kansas WIC Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Dong, Frank; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Redmond, Michelle L; Collins, Tracie C

    2015-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with poor birth outcomes. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a public nutritional assistance program for low-income pregnant women and their children up to age five. This study examined differences in smoking behavior among women enrolled in the Kansas WIC program. A secondary analysis was conducted using the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System dataset of enrolled women between 2005 and 2011. Geographic residency status was obtained through application of the Census tract-based rural-urban commuting area codes. Chi square tests of association were used to assess differences. Multi-variable binary logistic regression was used to assess maternal characteristics and smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy. Total sample size averaged 21,650 women for years 2005 through 2011. Low-income, rural pregnant women smoked at significantly higher rates before, during, and after pregnancy. High smoking rates have remained unchanged since 2008. The following characteristics were associated with reduced odds of smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy: being 17 years old or younger, Hispanic, a high school graduate, urban location, normal body mass index, no live births prior to current pregnancy, and using multi-vitamins. Results from this study indicate that the WIC population in rural areas may have different needs regarding smoking cessation programming than the urban WIC population. Findings help inform WIC program administrators and assist in enhancing current smoking cessation services to the Kansas WIC population.

  14. Program and Teacher Characteristics Predicting the Implementation of Banking Time with Preschoolers Who Display Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; Locasale-Crouch, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the relationship among baseline program and teacher characteristics and subsequent implementation of Banking Time. Banking Time is a dyadic intervention intended to improve a teacher's interaction quality with a specific child. Banking Time implementation was examined in the current study using a sample of 59 teachers and preschool children displaying disruptive behaviors in the classroom (~three children per classroom). Predictors included preschool program type, teacher demographic characteristics (personal and professional), and teacher beliefs (self-efficacy, authoritarian beliefs, and negative attributions about child disruptive behavior). Multiple measures and methods (i.e., teacher report, consultant report, independent observations) were used to assess implementation. We created three implementation composite measures (dosage, quality, and generalized practice) that had high internal consistencies within each composite but were only modestly associated with one another, suggesting unique constructs of implementation. We found that type of preschool program was associated with dosage and quality. Aspects of teacher demographics related to all three implementation composites. Teacher beliefs predicted dosage and generalized practice. Results suggest that the factors that predict the implementation of Banking Time vary as a function of the type of implementation being assessed.

  15. Anger Management - Evaluation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Training Program for Table Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffgen, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Based on a systematic review of the literature on anger and anger management in sport, there is evidence that anger might be dysfunctional, especially in sports requiring selective attention and fine-tuned motor skills. The research literature suggests that cognitive-behavioral intervention programs can be fruitful in helping athletes to understand and control dysfunctional anger. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief training program for table tennis players in cognitive-behavioral anger management that aimed at changing their noneffective anger reactions. The sample comprised 18 young competitive table tennis players (age range from 16 to 22 years) divided randomly into a treatment (n = 10) and a control group (n = 8). A trained group leader instructed the treatment group. Six sessions were held over a period of two months. Cognitive-relaxation coping skills associated with social skills of subjects from the treatment group were compared to no-treatment controls. Psychological measurements (i.e., self-reports on anger) were applied before, during and after treatment as well as in a follow-up session. The one-year follow-up session revealed that, in contrast to the control group, the treatment group showed a significant reduction in outwardly negative anger expression as well as anger reactions specific to table tennis. Despite limitations inherent in the research design, the training program was deemed effective.

  16. Anger Management - Evaluation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Training Program for Table Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffgen Georges

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a systematic review of the literature on anger and anger management in sport, there is evidence that anger might be dysfunctional, especially in sports requiring selective attention and fine-tuned motor skills. The research literature suggests that cognitive-behavioral intervention programs can be fruitful in helping athletes to understand and control dysfunctional anger. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief training program for table tennis players in cognitive-behavioral anger management that aimed at changing their noneffective anger reactions. The sample comprised 18 young competitive table tennis players (age range from 16 to 22 years divided randomly into a treatment (n = 10 and a control group (n = 8. A trained group leader instructed the treatment group. Six sessions were held over a period of two months. Cognitive-relaxation coping skills associated with social skills of subjects from the treatment group were compared to no-treatment controls. Psychological measurements (i.e., self-reports on anger were applied before, during and after treatment as well as in a follow-up session. The one-year follow-up session revealed that, in contrast to the control group, the treatment group showed a significant reduction in outwardly negative anger expression as well as anger reactions specific to table tennis. Despite limitations inherent in the research design, the training program was deemed effective.

  17. Behavioral improvement in long-term geriatric patients during an age-integrated psychosocial rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, J P; Wallach, H F; Divens, S

    1979-05-01

    A study was made of the effects of a psychosocial rehabilitative program on the behavioral functioning of elderly chronically ill patients. High school students served as remotivation and socialization therapists in a supervised structured process designed to improve the quality of life for the participating nursing-home residents. The participants were 12 long-term patients whose ages ranged from 62 to 99 years (mean, 73.2 years). The effectiveness of the program was evaluated by means of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), a questionnaire designed to assess the effect of a physical illness on daily activities, psychosocial skills and mental status. The results demonstrated that the rehabilitative program had a significant impact on several dimensions of the lives of the participants. As a consequence of the interaction with the students, there was an increase in social interaction, a reduction in daytime sleeping and an increase in mobility. The results reported here extend the successful use of remotivation techniques to areas of overt behavioral functioning not previously assessed.

  18. Internal and external influences on pro-environmental behavior: participation in a green electricity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.F.; Moore, M.R. [XENERGY, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kotchen, M.J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Economics; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment

    2003-09-15

    This paper integrates themes from psychology and economics to analyze pro-environmental behavior. Increasingly, both disciplines share an interest in understanding internal and external influences on behavior. In this study, we analyze data from a mail survey of participants and non-participants in a premium-priced, green electricity program. Internal variables consist of a newly developed scale for altruistic attitudes based on the Schwartz norm-activation model, and a modified version of the New Ecological Paradigm scale to measure environmental attitudes. External variables consist of household income and standard socio-demographic characteristics. The two internal variables and two external variables are significant in a logit model of the decision to participate in the program. We then focus on participants in the program and analyze their specific motives for participating. These include motives relating to several concerns: ecosystem health, personal health, environmental quality for residents in southeastern Michigan, global warming, and warm-glow (or intrinsic) satisfaction. In a statistical ranking of the importance of each motive, a biocentric motive ranks first, an altruistic motive ranks second, and an egoistic motive ranks third. (author)

  19. [Specifics of cognitive behavioral therapy in schizophrenia. Integrated program of psychological therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konen, A; Neis, L; Hodel, B; Brenner, H D

    1993-01-01

    According to the authors, information processing disorders contribute essentially to the vulnerability of the schizophrenic patient. Attentional/perceptual and cognitive disorders exert a pervasive influence on more complex levels of overt behavior in schizophrenia. Conversely, behavioral deficits influence cognitive functioning as well. Psychosocial rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia must therefore address the impact of disordered attentional/perceptual and conceptual processes and their integrating organization on behavior as well as the effects of behavioral dysfunctions on cognition. The Integrated Psychological Treatment Program (IPT) for schizophrenic patients provides means of addressing these interactions. The designation "integrated" implies that the treatment is directed at cognitive disorders as well as behavioral/social deficits by using highly structured interventions, and is carried out with "reality-oriented" material. This treatment approach has been developed by Brenner and al., since 1976. The original IPT includes five subprograms: Cognitive Differentiation, Social Perception, Verbal Communication, Social Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving. Patients first work on improving disordered basic cognitive functions in the Cognitive Differentiation subprogram. Exercises are directed at impairments in attentional/perceptual and conceptual processes. Mastery of this subprogram leads to the Social Perception subprogram, which aims at disturbances in processes of stimulus discrimination and interpretation on perceiving and assessing social interactions. The Verbal Communication subprogram follows successful completion of the previous subprograms and trains associative-semantic processes as well as basic skills necessary for conversation. In the Social Skills subprogram, interpersonal behaviors and self-instructions required for gaining instrumental and emotional aims are taught.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  1. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviors of Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) Program Participants in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Junehee; Wilson, Amber N.S; Bednar, Carolyn; Kennon, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    .... To assess food safety knowledge and food handling behaviors of low-income, high-risk populations, a study was conducted with participants of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC...

  2. Fruit and vegetable intake and eating behaviors mediate the effect of a randomized text-message based weight loss program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norman, Gregory J; Kolodziejczyk, Julia K; Adams, Marc A; Patrick, Kevin; Marshall, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that fruit/vegetable intake and eating behaviors mediate the relationship between experimental condition and weight loss in a randomized trial evaluating a text-message based weight loss program...

  3. Leader Behaviors, Group Cohesion, and Participation in a Walking Group Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Betty T; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A; Sand, Sharon L; Reyes, Angela G; Hoston, Bernadine; Richardson, Dawn; Gamboa, Cindy; Rowe, Zachary; Diaz, Goya

    2015-07-01

    Less than half of all U.S. adults meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Leader behaviors and group cohesion have been associated with increased participation or adherence in sports team and exercise class settings. Physical activity interventions in community settings that encompass these factors may enhance intervention adherence. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of Community Health Promoter leader behaviors and group cohesion on participation in a walking group intervention among racially/ethnically diverse adults in low to moderate-income communities in Detroit, Michigan. Data for the current study were drawn from the Walk Your Heart to Health (WYHH) data set. WYHH was a multisite cluster RCT with a lagged intervention and outcome measurements at baseline and 4, 8, and 32 weeks. Pooled survey data from both intervention arms were used for the current study. Data were analyzed between August 2013 and October 2014. A total of 603 non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic adults across five cohorts that began the 32-week WYHH intervention between March 2009 and October 2011. The intervention was a 32-week walking group program hosted by community- and faith-based organizations and facilitated by Community Health Promoters. Walking groups met three times per week for 90 minutes per session. To promote participation in or adherence to WYHH, Community Health Promoters used evidence-based strategies to facilitate group cohesion. Group members assumed increasing leadership responsibility for facilitating sessions over time. Participation in WYHH as measured by consistency of attendance. Community Health Promoter leader behaviors were positively associated with participation in WYHH. Social but not task cohesion was significantly associated with consistent participation. Social cohesion may mediate the relationship between leader behaviors and walking group participation. Providing leaders with training to build socially cohesive groups

  4. The importance of leadership in Soldiers' nutritional behaviors: results from the Soldier Fueling Initiative program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Theresa K; Cable, Sonya J; Jin, Wana K; Robinson, Ayanna; Dennis, Sabriya D; Vo, Linda T; Prosser, Trish J; Rawlings, Jess A

    2013-01-01

    Improving Soldiers' nutritional habits continues to be a concern of the US Army, especially amidst increasing obesity and high injury rates. This study examines leadership influence on nutritional behaviors within the context of the Soldier Fueling Initiative, a program providing nutrition education and improved dining facility menus to Soldiers in Basic Combat Training (BCT) and Advanced Individual Training (AIT). A mixed methods design using surveys (N=486) and focus groups (N=112) was used to collect data at Fort Jackson, SC, and Fort Eustis, VA, in 2011. Survey results showed 75% of Soldiers in BCT believed their drill sergeant was helpful in making performance-enhancing food choices, and 86% agreed their drill sergeant believed it is important to eat for performance. Soldiers in AIT perceived their cadre as less helpful than their BCT drill sergeants and agreed less frequently that the AIT cadre believed it was important to eat for performance (Pnutritional attitudes and behaviors in both BCT and AIT. Focus groups revealed 5 key themes related to cadre influence and nutrition behavior (listed in order of most to least frequent): (1) cadre influence food choices through consequences related to selection, (2) cadre teach Soldiers how to eat, (3) cadre rush Soldiers to eat quickly to return to training, (4) cadre influence choice through example but often do not make healthy choices, and (5) cadre have no influence on food choices. Leaders influence most Soldiers' nutrition practices within the training environment, particularly within BCT. Given that leader influence can impact Soldiers' attitudes and behaviors, it is critical that military leaders become knowledgeable about optimal nutrition practices to disseminate appropriate information to their Soldiers, avoid reprimand associated with trainees' food choices, reinforce key messages associated with nutrition programming, and lead by example in their own food choices.

  5. Further Insight into the Effectiveness of a Behavioral Teacher Program Targeting ADHD Symptoms Using Actigraphy, Classroom Observations and Peer Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenman, Betty; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Positivity and Rules program (PR program), a low-level behavioral teacher program targeting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has shown positive effects on teacher-rated ADHD symptoms and social functioning. This study aimed to assess whether program effects could be confirmed by instruments assessing classroom behavior other than teacher-ratings, given teachers' involvement with the training. Methods: Participants were 114 primary school children (age = 6-13) displaying ADHD symptoms in the classroom, who were randomly assigned to the treatment (n = 58) or control group (n = 65). ADHD symptoms were measured using classroom observations and actigraphy, and peer acceptance was measured using peer ratings. Intention-to-treat multilevel analyses were conducted to assess program effects. Results: No beneficial program effects were found for any of the measures. Conclusion: The earlier beneficial program effects on both ADHD symptoms and social functioning reported by teachers, may be explained by a change in the perception of teachers rather than changes in the child's behavior. Other methodological explanations are also discussed, such as differences between instruments in the sensitivity to program-related changes. The current study underlines the importance of using different measures of classroom behavior to study program effects. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02518711.

  6. The NIH Science of Behavior Change Program: Transforming the science through a focus on mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth; Riddle, Melissa; King, Jonathan W; Aklin, Will M; Chen, Wen; Clark, David; Collier, Elaine; Czajkowski, Susan; Esposito, Layla; Ferrer, Rebecca; Green, Paige; Hunter, Christine; Kehl, Karen; King, Rosalind; Onken, Lisa; Simmons, Janine M; Stoeckel, Luke; Stoney, Catherine; Tully, Lois; Weber, Wendy

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. attributable to behavioral factors, and details our strategies for breaking down the disease- and condition-focused silos in the behavior change field to accelerate discovery and translation. These principles serve as the foundation for our vision for a unified science of behavior change at the NIH and in the broader research community. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support Program on the Intrinsic Motivation of Third Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amis, Sarah Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research project sought to determine the effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support program (SWPBIS) on the intrinsic motivation of third grade students in regard to student achievement, student behavior, and teacher perception. Students of two intermediate schools served as the treatment group and control group, and were…

  8. Effectiveness of Leisure Time Activities Program on Social Skills and Behavioral Problems in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eratay, Emine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of leisure time activities program in individuals with intellectual disabilities in terms of developing social skills and reducing behavioral problems. Social skills assessment scale, behavioral assessment form for children and young adults, and teacher's report forms were used in the…

  9. Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders’ energy balance-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Foley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA program on SALSA peer leaders’ EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. Methods We used a pre–post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15–16 year olds who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13–14 year olds. This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders’ fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. Results There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415 who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P < 0.01; eating ≥5 serves vegetables/day from 8 to 12% (P < 0.01; and drinking <1 cup/day of SSBs from 56 to 62% (P < 0.01. Change in ≥60 min MVPA participation/day depended on gender (P < 0.01: Boys increased 14% while girls decreased −2%. Changes in eating breakfast daily also depended on gender (P < 0.004: Boys increased 13% while girls decreased −0.4%. The change in peer leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P < 0.05: above average

  10. Advanced general dentistry program directors' attitudes and behaviors regarding pediatric dental training for residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Christi Sporl; Raybould, Ted P; Skelton, Judith; Wrightson, A Stevens; Smith, Tim A

    2008-03-01

    The oral health of children became a more prominent concern with the U.S. surgeon general's report on oral health in America in 2000. The purpose of our study was 1) to assess General Practice Residency (GPR) and Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD) (here jointly referred to as advanced general dentistry [AGD] programs) directors' current behaviors with regard to pediatric training of residents and 2) to assess their attitudes about which components of pediatric oral health training should be included in AGD programs. A twenty-one item survey was mailed to all GPR and AEGD programs accessed through the American Dental Association website. Seventy percent of directors (N=187) completed and returned the survey. Responses indicated that AGD residents receive adequate clinical exposure to pediatric patients and provide much-needed services to uninsured, underinsured, and underserved people. Although clinical training in pediatric treatment was high, didactic hours focused on pediatric treatment did not seem commensurate with clinical activity. Program directors indicated strong attitudinal support for teaching residents many components of pediatric oral health care, although most directors have concerns over increasing didactic hours spent on pediatric oral health due to already crowded curricula. Approximately 88 percent of directors said that they would implement a pediatric oral health module in their curricula if they had access to one.

  11. Evaluation of a brief treatment program of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a brief 4-w group-administered treatment program of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) for older adults with sleep maintenance insomnia. Randomized controlled trial of CBT-I compared to waitlist control with comparisons at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-mo follow-up. Flinders University Sleep and Circadian Rhythm Research Laboratory, Adelaide, South Australia. One-hundred eighteen adults with sleep maintenance insomnia (mean age = 63.76 y, standard deviation = 6.45 y, male = 55). A 4-w, group-based treatment program of CBT-I including bedtime restriction therapy, sleep education, and cognitive restructuring. Seven-day sleep diaries, actigraphy, and several self-report measures to assess perceived insomnia severity, daytime functioning, and confidence in and beliefs about sleep. The brief group-administered CBT-I program produced improvements in the timing and quality of sleep including later bedtimes, earlier out-of-bed times, reduced wake after sleep onset, and improved sleep efficiency. Participants also reported a reduction of the Insomnia Severity Index, Flinders Fatigue Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Daytime Feeling and Functioning Scale, Sleep Anticipatory Anxiety Questionnaire, the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes Scale, and increased Sleep Self-Efficacy Scale. The treatment program used in the current study has demonstrated potential for a brief, inexpensive, and effective treatment of sleep maintenance insomnia in the older adult population.

  12. The Effect of a School-Based Helper Program on Adolescent Self-Image, Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Galen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects of participation in school-based helper program on adolescents' self-image, attitudes, and behaviors. Seventh-grade students (n=171) were divided into 2 groups, 1 required to engage in volunteer helping activities. Gender-specific results showed that boys in helper program showed positive changes in self-esteem relative to other…

  13. Preparing Research Leaders for Special Education: A Ph.D. Program with an Emphasis in Applied Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heward, William L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An Ohio State University doctoral program for special education leadership personnel emphasizing applied behavior analysis is described. The program features intensive formal coursework, special topic seminars, participation in three research studies prior to dissertation, supervised college teaching and advising experiences, and a 10-week summer…

  14. Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on behavioral problems in children: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I.; Speetjens, P.; Smit, F.; de Wolff, M.; Tavecchio, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Triple P Positive Parenting Program is a multilevel parenting program to prevent and offer treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of Triple P Level 4 interventions in the management of

  15. Taking Care of You: Body, Mind, Spirit--A Unique Stress Management Program That Improves Lifestyle Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter-Smith, Molly; Massey, Vera; Rellergert, Linda; Wissmann, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Taking Care of You: Body, Mind, Spirit is a multi-session group program developed by University of Missouri Extension that provides a unique and practical approach to helping adults better managing their stress and bounce back from life's challenges while improving lifestyle behaviors. The program combines mindfulness and a variety of other…

  16. The influence of a behavior modification interventional program on body mass index in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Toulabi

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: The ‘‘behavior modification’’ interventional program is effective in reducing BMI in obese students, and therefore, school principals and planners can play an important role in controlling obesity by implementing this program via the students, their parents, and the school staff.

  17. Enrollment in a drug-free detention program: The prediction of successful behavior change of drug-using inmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breteler, M.H.M.; Hurk, A.A. van den; Schippers, G.M.; Meerkerk, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Factors predicting the behavior change of drug-using detainees were investigated in detainees in two penitentiaries in The Netherlands. Subjects attended either a standard program or a Drug-Free Detention Program (DFDP) and were assessed at the beginning of detention, at release/transfer, and at 2

  18. Effects of Health Education Programs for the Elders in Community Care Centers – Evaluated by Health Promotion Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Song Chang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The health education programs specifically for elders and middle age adults in community care centers were effective in raising the awareness of health promotion behaviors. The success could provide a reference for future studies developing health promotion and education programs and holistic care for community elders and middle age adults in Taiwan.

  19. [Outcome of a one-year behavior therapy weight loss program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Czeglédi, Edit; Udvardy-Mészáros, Ágnes; Vizin, Gabriella; Perczel Forintos, Dóra

    2014-07-27

    Treatment of obesity has become one of the most challenging issues. The aims of the authors were to present the results of standard behavior therapy weight loss program combined with self-help and the results of one-year follow-up. The 24-week program involved 41 participants of which 33 subjects participated in the follow-up. Anthropometric data were obtained and the participants were asked to fill questionnaires (the 21 items Three Factor Eating Questionnair Revised 21 items; Physical Exercise: Steps of change [Short Form]. 87.8% of participants achieved a minimum weight loss of 5% which is the rate expected in professional therapies for obesity. Significant changes in maladaptive eating pattern and an increase in the rate of regular exercise were observed. Significant association was found between the increase of cognitive restraint and the rate of weight loss during treatment. At one-year follow-up the majority of participants (75.8%) did keep their minimum weight loss of 5% and they showed significant change in eating pattern. The results suggest that standard behavior therapy extended with self-help elements may be a cost-effective treatment of obesity.

  20. Real-world program evaluation of integrated behavioral health care: Improving scientific rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, Jennifer S; Shepardson, Robyn L

    2017-06-01

    Designing systematic, scientifically rigorous program evaluations (PE) is 1 way to contribute to the significant need to build best practices and a stronger evidence base for integrated behavioral health care. However, there are many potential pitfalls when conducting PE in real-world settings, and many clinicians and administrators may be hesitant to engage in PE due to lack of training or resources. Rigorous PE can be achieved feasibly and efficiently. This article discusses common challenges that arise when conducting PE in integrated behavioral health care settings and illustrates ways to increase the methodological quality of PE efforts using lessons learned from 2 real-world case examples. The first example included a PE of a training program for brief alcohol interventions, and the second example included a PE of a depression medication monitoring service. The case examples demonstrate the need for strategic planning beforehand, including the use of a conceptual framework as well as appropriate study designs/methodology, measurement, and the need for consistency to achieve a well-designed PE. Using the recommendations within this article, it is hoped that the quality of PEs can be improved resulting in more generalizable data that can be used to inform organizations and policymakers to improve health care delivery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. A randomized controlled trial of a community-based behavioral counseling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig A; Rost, Stephanie; Miller-Kovach, Karen; Moreno, Jennette P; Foreyt, John P

    2013-12-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that clinicians refer obese adults for intensive, multicomponent behavioral counseling, yet most obese Americans choose a self-help approach to lose weight. The current study examined weight loss between a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers program) and a self-help condition. A total of 292 participants were randomized to either a Weight Watchers condition (WW) (n = 147) or a self-help condition (n = 145). Participants in the WW condition were provided with 3 ways to access the treatment: weekly meetings; WW mobile application; and WW online tools. Weights were measured at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Additionally, self-report use of access modes was collected at 3 and 6 months. Participants in the WW condition significantly decreased their body mass index at 6 months (F = 36.7, P weight, respectively, compared with those in the self-help condition. In a secondary analysis, high usage of all 3 access modes resulted in the greatest weight loss (P weight loss than a self-help approach, suggesting it is a viable community-based provider of weight loss treatment, as recommended by the USPSTF. Further, high usage of 3 access modes was associated with greater weight loss results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive, Behavioral and Emotional Empathy in Pharmacy Students: Targeting Programs for Curriculum Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra A. Tamayo

    2016-04-01

    greater role than cognitive and behavioral empathy in this group of students. Targeted programs that promote volunteerism and activities that foster responsiveness to patient needs may attenuate self-serving behavior and medical authoritarianism and, therefore, improve empathy levels in pharmacy students.

  3. Evaluating traffic informers: testing the behavioral and social-cognitive effects of an adolescent bicycle safety education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-12-01

    In The Netherlands, 12-24 years old are over-represented in the total number of traffic fatalities and injuries. In this study, the traffic informer program - designed to promote safe traffic behavior in the pre-driver population - was experimentally evaluated, with a specific focus on bicycle use. Students were subjected to graphic videos of traffic accidents and listened to a first-person narrative provided by a traffic accident victim. The influence of the program on concepts derived from the theory of planned behavior and protection motivation theory (attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, risk-perception, intention and behavior) was assessed. Students from various schools (N=1593;M age=15 years, SD=.84) participated in a quasi-experimental study, either in an experimental or a control group, completing self-report questionnaires one week prior to the program implementation and approximately one month after the program implementation. Mixed regression analyses showed significant positive and negative time × intervention interaction effects on attitude toward traffic violations, relative attitude toward traffic safety, and risk comparison, but not on intention and behavior. More research is needed to find effective behavioral change techniques (other than increasing risk awareness) for promoting safe traffic behavior in adolescents. Research is also needed to address how these can be translated into effective interventions and educational programs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of educational program based on BASNEF model on the nutritional behavior of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad M. Hazavehei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concerning the importance of improving nutrition in teen girls, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of educational program on the nutritional behavior among second-grade middle school female students based on BASNEF model. Materials and Method: This experimental study were done on 72 students who was selected randomly in two equal groups of 36 students (experimental and control groups. The instruments for data collection were the BASNEF model and 24-recall questionnaires (before and 1 month after intervention. Educational interventions were performed in 3 sessions and data were collected and analyzed by repeated measures of ANOVA, Friedman, Mann-Whitney U, independent and paired t-tests using SPSS-17 software.Results: Our findings indicated that mean scores of knowledge and BASNEF Model variables were significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the controls after intervention. Also, nutritional behavior improved significantly among the experimental group, compared to control group. Conclusion: Our finding shows the importance of nutritional education based on BASNEF model on improving nutritional behaviors in students

  5. The role of disease management programs in the health behavior of chronically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane Murray; Adams, Samantha A; Walters, Bethany Hipple; Tsiachristas, Apostolos; Bal, Roland; Huijsman, Robbert; Rutten-Van Mölken, Maureen P M H; Nieboer, Anna Petra

    2014-04-01

    Investigate the effects of disease management program (DMP) implementation on physical activity, smoking, and physical quality of life among chronically ill patients. This study used a mixed-methods approach involving qualitative (35 interviews with project managers) and quantitative (survey of patients from 18 DMPs) data collection. Questionnaire response rates were 51% (2010; 2619/5108) at T0 and 47% (2011; 2191/4693) at T1. Physical activity and the percentage of smokers improved significantly over time, whereas physical quality of life declined. After adjusting for patients' physical quality of life at T0, age, educational level, marital status, and gender, physical activity at T0 (pmanagers reported that DMPs improved patient-professional interaction. The ability to set more concrete targets improved patients' health behaviors. DMPs appear to improve physical activity among chronically ill patients over time. Furthermore, (changes in) health behavior are important for the physical quality of life of chronically ill patients. Redesigning care systems and implementing DMPs based on the chronic care model may improve health behavior among chronically ill patients. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioral control factors influencing participation in a cooking skills program in rural Central Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Fanning, Frances; Ricks, JaNelle M

    2016-06-16

    A focus group session, using the Theory of Planned Behavior to guide questions and discussion, was conducted at midpoint of a 12-month cooking skills program in a rural Appalachian food desert. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control beliefs that influenced participation in these classes. Participants viewed the classes as opportunities for social interaction and to have new experiences. Subjective norms were influenced by family members and traditional cooking. Perceived behavioral control was influenced by the opportunity to try new foods without concern of food waste, acquisition of the knowledge to introduce healthy foods into family meals and enhanced food preparation skills. During the evaluation, a strong sense of participant appreciation of researcher presence was discovered. This unexpected positive component of the program will be promoted using motivational interviewing techniques to enhance adherence to healthy eating behaviors during and after cooking skills programs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. The tailored activity program (TAP) to address behavioral disturbances in frontotemporal dementia: a feasibility and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Claire M; Clemson, Lindy; Brodaty, Henry; Low, Lee-Fay; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Gitlin, Laura N; Piguet, Olivier; Mioshi, Eneida

    2017-10-15

    To explore the feasibility of implementing the Tailored Activity Program with a cohort of people with frontotemporal dementia and their carers (dyads). The Tailored Activity Program is an occupational therapy based intervention that involves working collaboratively with family carers and prescribes personalized activities for behavioral management in people with dementia. Twenty dyads randomized into the study (Tailored Activity Program: n = 9; Control: n = 11) were assessed at baseline and 4-months. Qualitative analyzes evaluated feasibility and acceptability of the program for the frontotemporal dementia cohort, and quantitative analyzes (linear mixed model analyzes, Spearman's rho correlations) measured the impact of the program on the dyads. The Tailored Activity Program was an acceptable intervention for the frontotemporal dementia dyads. Qualitative analyses identified five themes: "carer perceived benefits", "carer readiness to change", "strategies used by carer to engage person with dementia", "barriers to the Tailored Activity Program uptake/implementation", and "person with dementia engagement". Quantitative outcomes showed an overall reduction of behavioral symptoms (F 18.34  = 8.073, p = 0.011) and maintenance of functional performance in the person with dementia (F 18.03  = 0.375, p = 0.548). This study demonstrates the potential for using an activity-based intervention such as the Tailored Activity Program in frontotemporal dementia. Service providers should recognize that while people with frontotemporal dementia present with challenging issues, tailored therapies may support their function and reduce their behavioral symptoms. Implications for rehabilitation The Tailored Activity Program is an occupational therapy based intervention that involves prescribing personalized activities for behavioral management in dementia. The Tailored Activity Program is an acceptable and feasible intervention approach to address some of the

  8. A descriptive study of the interaction behaviors in a language video program and in live elementary language classes using that video program

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Solange Aparecida

    1996-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to describe: 1) the predominant types of interaction behaviors encountered in a foreign language video program; and 2) the types of teacher-student interaction features that resulted from use of the instructional video in elementary school classrooms. Based on the findings, the second purpose of the study was to examine how these interaction behaviors shaped amount of teacher and student talk in the two sources of data. The researcher exami...

  9. Can Universal SEL Programs Benefit Universally? Effects of the Positive Action Program on Multiple Trajectories of Social-Emotional and Misconduct Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert; Washburn, Isaac J; Lewis, Kendra M; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L; Acock, Alan C; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2017-02-01

    Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixture models to examine effects of the Positive Action (PA) program on behavioral trajectories of social-emotional and character development (SECD) and misconduct using data from a cluster-randomized trial that involved 14 schools and a sample of predominately low-income, urban youth followed from 3rd through 8th grade. For SECD, findings indicated that PA was similarly effective at improving trajectories within latent classes characterized as "high/declining" and "low/stable". Favorable program effects were likewise evident to a comparable degree for misconduct across observed latent classes that reflected "low/rising" and "high/rising" trajectories. These findings suggest that PA and perhaps other school-based universal SEL programs have the potential to yield comparable benefits across subgroups of youth with differing trajectories of positive and negative behaviors, making them promising strategies for achieving the intended goal of school-wide improvements in student outcomes.

  10. Kid's Choice Program improves weight management behaviors and weight status in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M; Williams, Keith E; Camise, Thomas S

    2011-04-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the Kid's Choice Program (KCP) for increasing children's weight management behaviors, and decreasing body mass index percentile (BMI%) for overweight and average-weight children. It also evaluated KCP characteristics relevant to long-term application in schools. Participants included 382 children assigned to two groups: a KCP group that received token rewards for three "Good Health Behaviors" including eating fruits or vegetables first at meals (FVFIRST), choosing low-fat and low-sugar healthy drinks (HDRINK), and showing 5000 exercise steps recorded on pedometers (EXERCISE), or a control group that received token rewards for three "Good Citizenship Behaviors." School lunch observations and pedometer records were completed for one month under baseline and three months under reward conditions. The school nurse calculated children's BMI% one year before baseline, at baseline, at the end of KCP application, and six months later. The KCP increased FVFIRST, HDRINK, and EXERCISE from baseline through reward conditions, with ANCOVAs demonstrating that these increases were associated with both the offer of reward and nearby peer models. Overweight (n=112) and average-weight (n=200) children showed drops in BMI% after the three-month KCP, but overweight children re-gained weight six months later, suggesting the need for more ongoing KCP application. HDRINK choice was the behavior most associated with BMI% drops for overweight children. Small teams of parent volunteers effectively delivered the KCP, and school staff endorsed parent volunteers as the best personnel to deliver the KCP, which costs approximately two U.S. dollars per child per month of application. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parent and Clinician Perspectives on Sustained Behavior Change after a Prenatal Obesity Program: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Emily F; Goldshore, Matthew A; Showell, Nakiya N; Genies, Marquita C; Harding, Mariel E; Henderson, Janice L

    2017-04-01

    Infants of obese women are at a high risk for development of obesity. Prenatal interventions targeting gestational weight gain among obese women have not demonstrated consistent benefits for infant growth trajectories. To better understand why such programs may not influence infant growth, qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 mothers who participated in a prenatal nutrition intervention for women with BMI 30 kg/m2 or greater, and with 19 clinicians (13 pediatric, 6 obstetrical). Interviews were transcribed and coded with themes emerging inductively from the data, using a grounded theory approach. Mothers were interviewed a mean of 18 months postpartum and reported successful postnatal maintenance of behaviors that were relevant to the family food environment (Theme 1). Ambivalence around the importance of postnatal behavior maintenance (Theme 2) and enhanced postnatal healthcare (Theme 3) emerged as explanations for the failure of prenatal interventions to influence child growth. Mothers acknowledged their importance as role models for their children's behavior, but they often believed that body habitus was beyond their control. Though mothers attributed prenatal behavior change, in part, to additional support during pregnancy, clinicians had hesitations about providing children of obese parents with additional services postnatally. Both mothers and clinicians perceived a lack of interest or concern about infant growth during pediatric visits (Theme 4). Prenatal interventions may better influence childhood growth if paired with improved communication regarding long-term modifiable risks for children. The healthcare community should clarify a package of enhanced preventive services for children with increased risk of developing obesity.

  12. Competition as an Effective Tool in Developing Social Marketing Programs: Driving Behavior Change through Online Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina ŞERBAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social marketing practices represent an important part of people’s lives. Consumers’ understanding of the need for change has become the top priority for social organizations worldwide. As a result, the number of social marketing programs has increased, making people reflect more on their behaviors and on the need to take action. Competition in social marketing can bring many benefits. The more programs initiated, the more people will start to involve in society’s problems, hereby contributing to beneficial causes. However, social organizations are in the search for competitive advantages to differentiate them on the market. This paper aims to present the role of online communication in driving competitive advantage for social organizations. Using the structural equation model, the paper describes the relations between four characteristics of the online communication: credibility, attractiveness, persuasion and promotion and then presents the correlations between these variables and website competitiveness. The resulting model shows that owning a competitive advantage in social marketing can bring many advantages to both the non-profit organization and the consumer. Therefore, the online environment can be considered a good solution for better serving consumers’ social needs. Its contribution is significant especially in programs for children and adolescents, since teenagers spend more time on the Internet than adults and are more open to using the online channels of communication. In conclusion, this article opens new opportunities for social marketers to address society’s problems and supports the integration of the online communication tools in the competition strategy.

  13. LSVT LOUD and LSVT BIG: Behavioral Treatment Programs for Speech and Body Movement in Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience have suggested that exercise-based behavioral treatments may improve function and possibly slow progression of motor symptoms in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD. The LSVT (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment Programs for individuals with PD have been developed and researched over the past 20 years beginning with a focus on the speech motor system (LSVT LOUD and more recently have been extended to address limb motor systems (LSVT BIG. The unique aspects of the LSVT Programs include the combination of (a an exclusive target on increasing amplitude (loudness in the speech motor system; bigger movements in the limb motor system, (b a focus on sensory recalibration to help patients recognize that movements with increased amplitude are within normal limits, even if they feel “too loud” or “too big,” and (c training self-cueing and attention to action to facilitate long-term maintenance of treatment outcomes. In addition, the intensive mode of delivery is consistent with principles that drive activity-dependent neuroplasticity and motor learning. The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative discussion of the LSVT Programs including the rationale for their fundamentals, a summary of efficacy data, and a discussion of limitations and future directions for research.

  14. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bindu; Bellipady, Sumanth Shetty; Bhat, Shrinivasa Undaru

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n = 34; control group, n = 24). Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118.

  15. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu John

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n=34; control group, n=24. Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118.

  16. From training to robot behavior: towards custom scenarios for robotics in training programs for ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillesen, J C C; Barakova, E I; Huskens, B E B M; Feijs, L M G

    2011-01-01

    Successful results have been booked with using robotics in therapy interventions for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, to make the best use of robots, the behavior of the robot needs to be tailored to the learning objectives and personal characteristics of each unique individual with ASD. Currently training practices include adaptation of the training programs to the condition of each individual client, based on the particular learning goals or the mood of the client. To include robots in such training will imply that the trainers are enabled to control a robot through an intuitive interface. For this purpose we use a visual programming environment called TiViPE as an interface between robot and trainer, where scenarios for specific learning objectives can easily be put together as if they were graphical LEGO-like building blocks. This programming platform is linked to the NAO robot from Aldebaran Robotics. A process flow for converting trainers' scenarios was developed to make sure the gist of the original scenarios was kept intact. We give an example of how a scenario is processed, and implemented into the clinical setting, and how detailed parts of a scenario can be developed. © 2011 IEEE

  17. Effects of a School-Based Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on Health Behaviors: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M.; Acock, Alan; DuBois, David L.; Yan, Zi; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Day, Joseph; Flay, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable research that suggests that school-based social-emotional programs can foster improved mental health and reduce problem behaviors for participating youth; in contrast, much less is known about the impact of these programs on physical health, even though some of these programs also include at least limited direct attention to promoting physical health behaviors. We examined the effects of one such program, Positive Action (PA), on physical health behaviors and body mass i...

  18. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  19. The impact of an environmental education program on children's and parents' knowledge, attitudes, motivation and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Louise M. R.

    1999-11-01

    Developments in the Quebec educational system enabled us to evaluate the impact of a new educational environmental program (EEP) on a group of children enrolled in this program for the first time (i.e., the experimental group). This EEP comprised a formal curriculum and environmental activities. A control group of children was enrolled in schools where environmental issues were confined to the natural sciences subject. The goals of this study were threefold. The first goal was to evaluate the impact of an EEP on children's and parents' ecological knowledge, attitudes, motivation, and behaviors. The second goal was to investigate if a motivational model of ecological behaviors observed in adult populations could be replicated with children. Part of this goal also included the comparison of path analyses results across experimental conditions, independently for children and parents. The third goal was to identify more clearly what specific children's characteristics influenced parents' ecological attitudes and motivation. Included in this goal was the investigation of possible differences in the strength of associations between constructs in paths analyses conducted in the experimental and control groups of parents. Results suggested that children in the experimental group were more likely to ask teachers and parents for ecological information and presented a more self-determined motivational profile. Additional analyses revealed that children enrolled in an EEP performed ecological behaviors less for extrinsic motives. Level of knowledge, other attitudes and behavioral measures did not differ significantly between the two groups. Parents of children in the experimental group reported lower levels of satisfaction towards the environment and were more likely to get information on ecological issues and strategies from children. No other significant differences between groups of parents were found. Path analyses results suggested that parents' perceptions of children

  20. Boosting program integrity and effectiveness of the cognitive behavioral program EQUIP for incarcerated youth in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether a "program integrity booster" could improve the low to moderate program integrity and effectiveness of the EQUIP program for incarcerated youth as practiced in The Netherlands. Program integrity was assessed in EQUIP groups before and after the booster. Youth residing in

  1. Recruitment in an indicated prevention program for externalizing behavior - parental participation decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckers Gabriele

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are the ones who decide whether or not to participate in parent focused prevention trials. Their decisions may be affected by internal factors (e.g., personality, attitudes, sociodemographic characteristics or external barriers. Some of these barriers are study-related and others are intervention-related. Internal as well as external barriers are especially important at the screening stage, which aims to identify children and families at risk and for whom the indicated prevention programs are designed. Few studies have reported their screening procedure in detail or analyzed differences between participants and dropouts or predictors of dropout. Rates of participation in prevention programs are also of interest and are an important contributor to the efficacy of a prevention procedure. Methods In this study, we analyzed the process of parent recruitment within an efficacy study of the indicated Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP. We determined the retention rate at each step of the study, and examined differences between participants and dropouts/decliners. Predictors of dropout at each step were identified using logistic regression. Results Retention rates at the different steps during the course of the trial from screening to participation in the training ranged from 63.8% (pre-test to 81.1% (participation in more than 50% of the training sessions. Parents who dropped out of the study were characterized by having a child with lower symptom intensity by parent rating but higher ratings by teachers in most cases. Low socioeconomic status and related variables were also identified as predictors of dropout in the screening (first step and for training intensity (last step. Conclusions Special attention should be paid to families at increased risk for non-participation when implementing the prevention program in routine care settings. Trial Registration ISRCTN12686222

  2. Comparing an Emotion- and a Behavior-Focused Parenting Program as Part of a Multsystemic Intervention for Child Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs.

  3. Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in an after School Program Classroom: The Effects of the Daily Behavior Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorvey, Zamecia J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to address behavior discipline problems in special and general education setting classrooms. Disruptive behaviors are a major concern as they create excessive stress and demands for classroom teachers and school administrators to address them. Effective interventions are needed to properly address them. Moreover, classroom…

  4. Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Congenital programs of the behavior and nontrivial quantum effects in the neurons work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V

    2014-05-01

    The problem of processing and transmitting information within neurons is considered. The fundamental paradox of molecular biology is formulated, namely that interactions between biologically important molecules should lead to an exponentially large number of variants of molecular structures, but only a small number of them are biologically relevant. The problem is that the known interaction potentials between atoms do not allow this. The solution of the paradox, based on the nonlinear quantum model of interaction between biologically important molecules, is proposed. The model includes a nonlinear equation for many-particle nonlocal potential describing this interaction. Under the action of this potential there occurs the formation of synaptic connections between neurons, and transport processes and molecular recognition inside neurons. The information on which programs of innate behavior operate is hypothesized to reside in the quantum degrees of freedom of the proposed potential. Possible experiments to test the model are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Approaches to Modifying the Behavior of Clinicians Who Are Noncompliant With Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Goff, Debra A; Reeve, William; Naumovski, Snezana; Epson, Erin; Zenilman, Jonathan; Kaye, Keith S; File, Thomas M

    2016-08-15

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are a key national initiative to promote appropriate use of antibiotics and to reduce the burden of resistance. The dilemma of managing the outlier physician is especially complex. We outline strategies to establish a successful ASP that reviews appropriate efforts to achieve the goal of modifying outlier physicians' behavior. One must try to differentiate deviation from ASP norms from all other issues of outliers. Essential elements include identifying and understanding the local problems, planning, and achieving hospital administration and medical staff support. A successful ASP includes effective communication and acceptance of evidence-based recommendations, so that patient clinical outcomes will be optimized. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Older persons' experiences of a home-based exercise program with behavioral change support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkukangas, Marina; Sundler, Annelie J; Söderlund, Anne; Eriksson, Staffan; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2017-12-01

    It is a challenge to promote exercise among older persons. Knowledge is needed regarding the maintenance of exercise aiming at preventing falls and promoting health and well-being in older persons. This descriptive study used a qualitative inductive approach to describe older persons' experiences of a fall-preventive, home-based exercise program with support for behavioral change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 elderly persons aged 75 years or older, and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Four categories emerged: facilitators of performing exercise in everyday life, the importance of support, perceived gains from exercise, and the existential aspects of exercise. With support from physiotherapists (PTs), home-based exercise can be adapted to individual circumstances in a meaningful way. Including exercises in everyday life and daily routines could support the experience of being stronger, result in better physical functioning, and give hope for an extended active life in old age.

  8. Public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and referral behaviors for an evidence based parenting program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whitaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the public child welfare work force influence implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP as most research has focused on the private workforce. This paper reports on public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a state implementing the EBP, SafeCare®. A survey of public child welfare staff (N = 222 was conducted to assess knowledge, familiarity, and referral barriers and practices. Knowledge of and familiarity with SafeCarewere low, especially among front line staff (case managers. Attitudes toward SafeCare were fairly positive, but somewhat less so than attitudes toward a standard, non-evidenced based parenting program. Case managers were significantly less likely to have made a referral (15% than other staff (46%. Job tenure had few effects on familiarity, knowledge, attitudes, or referrals. The strongest predictors of having made referrals were familiarity with SafeCare and job position.

  9. Adults with autism spectrum disorder as behavior technicians for young children with autism: Outcomes of a behavioral skills training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In Experiment 1, training of the adults focused on the implementation of mand training via incidental teaching. Experiment 2 focused on teaching participants to use discrete-trial training (DTT) with children who exhibited problem behavior. Both experiments showed that behavioral skills training was effective for teaching the adult participants the behavioral procedures needed to teach children with autism. In addition, the children acquired skills as a result of training. Results of Experiment 2 further demonstrated that the DTT skills generalized across untrained targets and children. Social validity ratings suggested that some participants' teaching was indistinguishable from that of individuals without ASD. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Impairments in the initiation of maternal behavior in oxytocin receptor knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Rich

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (Oxt acting through its single receptor subtype, the Oxtr, is important for the coordination of physiology and behavior associated with parturition and maternal care. Knockout mouse models have been helpful in exploring the contributions of Oxt to maternal behavior, including total body Oxt knockout (Oxt -/- mice, forebrain conditional Oxtr knockout (Oxtr FB/FB mice, and total body Oxtr knockout (Oxtr -/- mice. Since Oxtr -/- mice are unable to lactate, maternal behavior has only been examined in virgin females, or in dams within a few hours of parturition, and there have been no studies that have examined their anxiety-like and depression-like behavior following parturition. To improve our understanding of how the absence of Oxt signaling affects maternal behavior, mood and anxiety, we designed a study using Oxtr -/- mice that separated nursing behavior from other aspects of maternal care, such as licking and grooming by thelectomizing (i.e. removing the nipples of Oxtr +/+ mice and sham-thelectomizing Oxtr -/- mice, and pairing both genotypes with a wet nurse. We then measured pup abandonment, maternal behavior, and postpartum anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors. We hypothesized that genetic disruption of the Oxtr would impact maternal care, mood and anxiety. Specifically, we predicted that Oxtr -/- dams would have impaired maternal care and increased anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in the postpartum period. We found that Oxtr -/- dams had significantly higher levels of pup abandonment compared to controls, which is consistent with previous work in Oxtr FB/FB mice. Interestingly, Oxtr -/- dams that initiated maternal care did not differ from wildtype controls in measures of maternal behavior. We also did not find any evidence of altered anxiety-like or depressive-like behavior in the postpartum period of Oxtr -/- dams. Thus, our data suggest that Oxt lowers the threshold for the initiation of maternal behavior.

  11. [Development of a manualized cognitive behavioral therapy program for Japanese drug addicts and a study of the efficacy of the program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Nobuaki; Suetsugu, Sachiko; Shimane, Takuya; Okasaka, Yoshiko; Kiyoshige, Tomoko; Iwai, Kiyohiro

    2007-10-01

    In the West, various psychological programs have been developed to treat drug dependence. Although some programs have been performed as trials in a few facilities in Japan, there are no psychological treatment programs available in many facilities, and their effects on Japanese drug abusers have not been well studied. We developed a manualized cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program for Japanese clients with drug dependence based on a review of the literature. The program focused on the development of relapse prevention skills through role-playing, enhancement of motivation for recovery and self-care using relaxation technique. We studied the effects of the program for Japanese drug abusers. We evaluated the change after treatment, and compared findings between an intervention group and a control group. The results indicated that the program improved self-efficacies to cope with cravings and situations that increased the risk of relapse only in the intervention group, and physical complaints were decreased in the intervention group, although such complaints were increased in the control group. Seventy percent of the intervention group members indicated satisfaction and 50% indicated that the program was useful. These findings showed that the relapse prevention program was effective for Japanese clients. However, most emotional factors relevant to craving were not adequately changed in either group. We should improve the program, allowing the clients an opportunity to try the relapse prevention skills outside the facility and focus the emotion during a trial in vivo.

  12. The absence of 5-HT4 receptors modulates depression- and anxiety-like responses and influences the response of fluoxetine in olfactory bulbectomised mice: Adaptive changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity markers and 5-HT1A autoreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó, J; Díaz, A; Pilar-Cuéllar, F; Vidal, R; Martín, A; Compan, V; Pazos, A; Castro, E

    2016-12-01

    Preclinical studies support a critical role of 5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4Rs) in depression and anxiety, but their influence in depression- and anxiety-like behaviours and the effects of antidepressants remain partly unknown. We evaluated 5-HT4R knockout (KO) mice in different anxiety and depression paradigms and mRNA expression of some neuroplasticity markers (BDNF, trkB and Arc) and the functionality of 5-HT1AR. Moreover, the implication of 5-HT4Rs in the behavioural and molecular effects of chronically administered fluoxetine was assessed in naïve and olfactory bulbectomized mice (OBX) of both genotypes. 5-HT4R KO mice displayed few specific behavioural impairments including reduced central activity in the open-field (anxiety), and decreased sucrose consumption and nesting behaviour (anhedonia). In these mice, we measured increased levels of BDNF and Arc mRNA and reduced levels of trkB mRNA in the hippocampus, and a desensitization of 5-HT1A autoreceptors. Chronic administration of fluoxetine elicited similar behavioural effects in WT and 5-HT4R KO mice on anxiety-and depression-related tests. Following OBX, locomotor hyperactivity and anxiety were similar in both genotypes. Interestingly, chronic fluoxetine failed to reverse this OBX-induced syndrome in 5-HT4R KO mice, a response associated with differential effects in hippocampal neuroplasticity biomarkers. Fluoxetine reduced hippocampal Arc and BDNF mRNA expressions in WT but not 5-HT4R KO mice subjected to OBX. These results demonstrate that the absence of 5-HT4Rs triggers adaptive changes that could maintain emotional states, and that the behavioural and molecular effects of fluoxetine under pathological depression appear to be critically dependent on 5-HT4Rs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of the impact of a teacher classroom management program on the classroom behavior of children with and without behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Judy; Martin-Forbes, Pam; Daley, David; Williams, Margiad Elen

    2013-10-01

    This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management (TCM; Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2002) program to assess whether training teachers in IY-TCM principles improve teacher behavior, whether any observed improvements impact pupil behavior classroom-wide, and whether these effects can be demonstrated with children at risk of developing conduct problems. Six intervention and six control classrooms comprising 12 teachers and 107 children (aged 3 to 7years) were recruited. Children were screened for high or low behavior problems using the cut-off points of the teacher-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). The primary outcome measure was independent classroom observations using the Teacher-Pupil Observation Tool (Martin et al., 2010). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the intervention on teacher, classroom, and child behavior. Results showed a significant reduction in classroom off-task behavior (d=0.53), teacher negatives to target children (d=0.36), target child negatives towards the teacher (d=0.42), and target child off-task behavior (d=0.48). These preliminary results demonstrate the potential impact of IY-TCM on both teacher and child behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Criterion analysis and content validity for standardized behavioral tests in a detector-dog breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocznik, Dorothee; Sinn, David L; Thomas, Scott; Gosling, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Many working-dog programs assess behavior during a dog's first year of life with the aim of predicting success in the field. However, decisions about which tests to administer are frequently made on the basis of tradition or intuition. This study reports results from a survey given to U.S.A.'s Transportation Security Administration (TSA) detection-dog handlers (N = 34). We categorized and summarized handlers' responses regarding traits they felt were important for work. We used this criterion analysis to examine the content validity of the TSA's puppy tests. Results indicate that 13 of 15 traits that are currently being measured are relevant. However, several traits not currently measured were identified as being highly important, notably "play" and off-duty "calmness." These results provide support that the TSA tests are measuring traits relevant to operational search team performance but also highlight other traits that may be profitable to assess in this and other detection-dog programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. A Communication Training Program to Encourage Speaking-Up Behavior in Surgical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bialer, Philip A; Walters, Chasity B; Killen, Aileen R; Sigurdsson, Hrafn O; Parker, Patricia A

    2017-10-01

    Patient safety in the OR depends on effective communication. We developed and tested a communication training program for surgical oncology staff members to increase communication about patient safety concerns. In phase one, 34 staff members participated in focus groups to identify and rank factors that affect speaking-up behavior. We compiled ranked items into thematic categories that included role relations and hierarchy, staff rapport, perceived competence, perceived efficacy of speaking up, staff personality, fear of retaliation, institutional regulations, and time pressure. We then developed a communication training program that 42 participants completed during phase two. Participants offered favorable ratings of the usefulness and perceived effect of the training. Participants reported significant improvement in communicating patient safety concerns (t 40  = -2.76, P = .009, d = 0.48). Findings offer insight into communication challenges experienced by surgical oncology staff members and suggest that our training demonstrates the potential to improve team communication. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Weight Loss Goals among African American Women with Type 2 Diabetes in a Behavioral Weight Control Program

    OpenAIRE

    White, D.B.; Bursac, Z.; DiLillo, V.; West, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    African American women with type 2 diabetes experience limited weight loss in behavioral weight control programs. Some research suggests overly ambitious weight loss expectations may negatively affect weight losses achieved but it is unknown whether they affect weight loss among African American women. The current study examined personal weight loss goals and expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss among African American women with type 2 diabetes starting a behavioral obesity tre...

  17. Adolescent binge alcohol exposure increases risk assessment behaviors in male Wistar rats after exposure to an acute psychological stressor in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcaso, Audrey; Asimes, AnnaDorothea; Meagher, Margaret; Pak, Toni R

    2017-02-01

    Teenage binge drinking is a common practice that has been shown to increase the risk for developing mood disorders in adulthood. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often dysfunctional in mood disorder patients, and animal models of adolescent binge alcohol exposure similarly show disordered HPA axis function, even after long periods of alcohol abstinence. Here, we sought to investigate the anxiety-like behavioral consequences of binge alcohol exposure in a Wistar rat model. Male rats were administered alcohol in a binge pattern during peri-puberty, and one month later, anxiety-like behaviors were measured using the elevated plus maze. A subset of the rats then underwent 30min of restraint stress, and the anxiety-like behaviors were measured again. We observed an increase in risk assessment behaviors due to both adolescent binge alcohol exposure and restraint stress, but no differences in canonical anxiety-like behaviors. We also repeated the observation that adolescent binge alcohol induces long-term changes in HPA axis sensitivity. Therefore, we concluded that a history of peri-pubertal binge alcohol exposure subtly alters the behavioral response to subsequent acute psychological stress during adulthood, which may over time contribute to the development of mood disorders. This relatively pragmatic animal model represents a more clinically relevant tool in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the long-term effects of adolescent binge drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The adolescents training and learning to avoid steroids program: preventing drug use and promoting health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, L; MacKinnon, D P; Elliot, D L; Moe, E L; Clarke, G; Cheong, J

    2000-04-01

    Use of alcohol and other illicit drugs by adolescent male athletes is a significant problem. Participation in sports may encourage use of drugs that enhance athletic performance, especially anabolic steroids (AS). Because, to our knowledge, no other intervention has successfully altered substance abuse by athletes, we developed and assessed the efficacy of a team-centered, sex-specific education program designed to reduce adolescent athletes' intentions to use and use of AS and alcohol and other illicit drugs. We studied 31 high school football teams that comprised 3207 athletes in 3 successive annual cohorts (1994-1996). The intervention included interactive classroom and exercise training sessions given by peer educators and facilitated by coaches and strength trainers. Program content included discussion of sports nutrition, exercise alternatives to AS and sport supplements, and the effects of substance abuse in sports, drug refusal role-playing, and the creation of health promotion messages. Questionnaires assessing AS, the use of sport supplements and alcohol and other illicit drugs, and potential risk and protective factors were administered before and after the intervention (before and after the football season) and up to 1 year after the program. At season's end, intentions to use (Pdrug use (marijuana, amphetamines, and narcotics) was reduced at 1 year, whether alcohol was included (P = .04) or excluded (P = .02) from the index. Other long-term effects included fewer students reporting drinking and driving (P = .004), less sport supplement use (P = .009), and improved nutrition behaviors (Pdrugs and associated harmful activities can be prevented with a sex-specific, team-centered education. School athletic teams provide an optimal environment in which to provide drug prevention and health promotion education.

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Obesity Alters Anxiety and Stress Coping Behaviors in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsevich, Georgia; Baumann, Valentin; Uribe, Andres; Chen, Alon; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that maternal obesity and prenatal exposure to a high-fat diet program fetal development to regulate the physiology and behavior of the offspring in adulthood. Yet the extent to which the maternal dietary environment contributes to adult disease vulnerability remains unclear. In the current study we tested whether prenatal exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. We used a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity to investigate whether maternal obesity affects the response to adult chronic stress exposure in young adult (3-month-old) and aged adult (12-month-old) offspring. Long-lasting, delayed impairments to anxiety-like behaviors and stress coping strategies resulted on account of prenatal exposure to maternal obesity. Although maternal obesity did not change the offspring's behavioral response to chronic stress per se, we demonstrate that the behavioral outcomes induced by prenatal exposure to maternal obesity parallel the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure in aged male mice. We found that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, Nr3c1) is upregulated in various hypothalamic nuclei on account of maternal obesity. In addition, gene expression of a known regulator of the GR, FKBP51, is increased specifically within the paraventricular nucleus. These findings indicate that maternal obesity parallels the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure, and furthermore identifies GR/FKBP51 signaling as a novel candidate pathway regulated by maternal obesity. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Residential Customer Enrollment in Time-based Rate and Enabling Technology Programs: Smart Grid Investment Grant Consumer Behavior Study Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is working with a subset of the 99 SGIG projects undertaking Consumer Behavior Studies (CBS), which examine the response of mass market consumers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) to time-varying electricity prices (referred to herein as time-based rate programs) in conjunction with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and associated technologies. The effort presents an opportunity to advance the electric industry’s understanding of consumer behavior.

  1. The effectiveness of a bicycle safety program for improving safety-related knowledge and behavior in young elementary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Karen A; Glang, Ann

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the "Bike Smart" program, an eHealth software program that teaches bicycle safety behaviors to young children. Participants were 206 elementary students in grades kindergarten to 3. A random control design was employed to evaluate the program, with students assigned to either the treatment condition (Bike Smart) or the control condition (a video on childhood safety). Outcome measures included computer-based knowledge items (safety rules, helmet placement, hazard discrimination) and a behavioral measure of helmet placement. Results demonstrated that regardless of gender, cohort, and grade the participants in the treatment group showed greater gains than control participants in both the computer-presented knowledge items (p > .01) and the observational helmet measure (p > .05). Findings suggest that the Bike Smart program can be a low cost, effective component of safety training packages that include both skills-based and experiential training.

  2. Reported eating behavior and attitudes improvement after a nutrition intervention program in a group of young female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Sitara, Marietta; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program that combined nutrition education and prevention of disordered eating in a group of female professional dance students. Thirty-two dancers, aged 19-25 years, took part in the program. Evaluation was done by a series of questionnaires that participants were asked to complete on 3 occasions. Assessments of body composition and dietary intake were also performed. Significant improvements in nutrition knowledge as well as a decrease in abnormal eating behavior and dietary restraint were observed at post intervention. At 6-month follow-up, the positive effects were maintained and further benefits were recorded; only nutrition knowledge showed a minor decline. Participants who were at higher risk for adopting abnormal eating behavior benefited the most from the program. These findings encourage the implementation of intervention programs in groups of young women that experience particular pressures for controlling body weight.

  3. Using Technology to Expand and Enhance Applied Behavioral Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    C. T. (2007). Predictors of depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of young children with or at risk for developmental delay. Journal of...Applied Behavioral Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wayne Fisher, Ph.D... Autism in Military Families 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0444 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Wayne W. Fisher

  4. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  5. Behavioral adjustment of siblings of children with autism engaged in applied behavior analysis early intervention programs: the moderating role of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Richard P

    2003-04-01

    There have been few studies of the impact of intensive home-based early applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention for children with autism on family functioning. In the present study, behavioral adjustment was explored in 78 siblings of children with autism on ABA programs. First, mothers' ratings of sibling adjustment were compared to a normative sample. There were no reported increases in behavioral adjustment problems in the present sample. Second, regression analyses revealed that social support functioned as a moderator of the impact of autism severity on sibling adjustment rather than a mediator or compensatory variable. In particular, siblings in families with a less severely autistic child had fewer adjustment problems when more formal social support was also available to the family. The implications of these data for future research and for practice are discussed.

  6. A Group Contingency Program to Improve the Behavior of Elementary School Students in a Cafeteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Karmazin, Karen; Kreher, Joanne; Panahon, Carlos J.; Carlson, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Studies of behavior modification interventions for disruptive behavior in schools have generally focused on classroom behavior with less research directed toward child behavior in other school settings (e.g., cafeterias). The present report documents the effect of a group contingency intervention with a random reward component, targeting…

  7. Application of Neurolinguistic Programming for Treatment and Relapse Prevention of Addictive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daya Singh

    The dilemma of relapse exists for a number of addictive behaviors, and mental health authorities agree that keeping addictive behaviors off permanently is much more difficult than treating the behaviors initially. Several relapse prevention models have been posited and environmental, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors have…

  8. Lifestyle Behaviors and Self-Rated Health: The Living for Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. Zarini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lack of adherence to dietary and physical activity guidelines has been linked to an increase in chronic diseases in the United States (US. The aim of this study was to assess the association of lifestyle behaviors with self-rated health (SRH. Methods. This cross-sectional study used self-reported data from Living for Health Program (N= 1,701 which was conducted from 2008 to 2012 in 190 health fair events in South Florida, US. Results. Significantly higher percent of females as compared to males were classified as obese (35.4% versus 27.0%, reported poor/fair SRH (23.4% versus 15.0%, and were less physically active (33.9% versus 25.4%. Adjusted logistic regression models indicated that both females and males were more likely to report poor/fair SRH if they consumed ≤2 servings of fruits and vegetables per day (OR=2.14, 95% CI 1.30–3.54; OR=2.86, 95% CI 1.12–7.35, resp. and consumed mostly high fat foods (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.03–2.43; OR=3.37, 95% CI 1.67–2.43, resp.. The association of SRH with less physical activity was only significant in females (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.17–2.35. Conclusion. Gender differences in health behaviors should be considered in designing and monitoring lifestyle interventions to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  9. The effects of a pedometer-based behavioral modification program with telephone support on physical activity and sedentary behavior in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, Karlijn P; Deforche, Benedicte I; Ruige, Johannes B; Bouckaert, Jacques J; Tudor-Locke, Catrine E; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M

    2011-08-01

    Effectiveness of a behavioral modification program on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in diabetes patients. Ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The 24-weeks intervention consisted of a face-to-face session, pedometer and seven telephone follow-ups. Mean selection criteria were 35-75 years; 25-35 kg/m(2); ≤ 12% HbA1c, treated for type 2 diabetes; no PA limitations. PA and sedentary behavior were measured by pedometer, accelerometer and questionnaire over the short- (24 weeks) and intermediate- (1 year) term. The intervention group increased their steps/day by 2744, their total PA by 23 min/day (pbehavior by 23 min/day (pbehavior (pbehavioral modification program with telephone support showed lasting positive effects on steps/day, PA and sedentary behavior. This study tested a convenient way to increase PA among type 2 diabetes patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of the Young Adolescent Sleep Smart Program on sleep hygiene practices, sleep health efficacy, and behavioral well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Amy R; Harkins, Elizabeth; Johnson, Michaela; Marco, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Using a social learning model, the aim of the Sleep Smart Program was to primarily improve sleep health behaviors and secondarily improve academic performance and behavioral well-being. Randomized control trial for a social learning-based preventive intervention program. A diverse group of seventh graders from 2 urban, middle schools were randomly assigned, according to school, to an 8-session Sleep Smart Program (SS = 70) or a comparison group (comparison = 73). Sleep patterns, sleep hygiene, and sleep health efficacy; academic performance; and behavioral well-being were assessed at 4 times of measure (baseline, postintervention, 2 follow-up times in eighth grade). SS seventh graders experienced significantly greater sleep health efficacy, improved physiological and emotional sleep hygiene, more time in bed, and earlier bedtimes vs comparison group. SS (vs comparison) participants also reported a significant decrease in internalizing behavior problems and sustained academic performance. Finally, although not maintained at time 4, SS participants continued to report improved sleep health efficacy at time 3, whereas the comparison group participants' sleep health efficacy declined. The Sleep Smart preventive intervention was effective in improving sleep health efficacy, sleep hygiene, time in bed, and bedtimes; in maintaining grades; and in reducing internalizing behavior problems, yet these changes were not sustained at follow-up. Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Achievement Goals and Their Relations to Children's Disruptive Behaviors in an After-School Physical Activity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This study used a trichotomous achievement goal model to explore and describe what actually happened in terms of students' achievement goals and disruptive behaviors in an after-school physical activity program. Participants included 158 students in grades 3-6. They completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and disruptive…

  12. Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Program on Pain and Fear in School-aged Children Undergoing Intravenous Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Cheng, Su-Fen; Tsay, Pei-Kwei; Su, Wen-Jen; Cho, Yen-Hua; Chen, Chi-Wen

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral program on pain and medical fear in hospitalized school-aged children receiving intravenous (IV) placement. This study used an quasi-experimental design. Thirty-five participants were assigned to the experimental group and 33 to the control group in the acute internal medicine ward of a children's hospital. The cognitive-behavioral program entailed having the patients read an educational photo book about IV placement before the procedure and having them watch their favorite music video during the procedure. The outcome measures were numeric rating scales for pain intensity and fear during the procedure. After applying the cognitive-behavioral program, the mean scores on pain and fear decreased in the experimental group. However, the difference in pain intensity between these two groups was nonsignificant. The intensity of fear in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group. In this study, the cognitive-behavioral program used with school-aged hospitalized children promoted less fear during IV placement. The results of this study can serve as a reference for empirical nursing care and as care guidance for clinical IV injections involving children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Program on Pain and Fear in School-aged Children Undergoing Intravenous Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chuan Hsieh, RN, MSN

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In this study, the cognitive-behavioral program used with school-aged hospitalized children promoted less fear during IV placement. The results of this study can serve as a reference for empirical nursing care and as care guidance for clinical IV injections involving children.

  14. Community-Based Mental Health and Behavioral Programs for Low-Income Urban Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Farahnaz K.; Duffy, Sophia N.; Tailor, Megha A.; Dubois, David L.; Lyon, Aaron L.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Zarlinski, Jennifer C.; Masini, Olivia; Zander, Keith J.; Nathanson, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of 33 studies and 41 independent samples was conducted of the effectiveness of community-based mental health and behavioral programs for low-income urban youth. Findings indicated positive effects, with an overall mean effect of 0.25 at post-test. While this is comparable to previous meta-analytic intervention research with…

  15. The Effects of Action and Violence in Television Programs on the Social Behavior and Imaginative Play of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston-Stein, Aletha; And Others

    The independent contributions of action and violence in television programs to children's attention and social behavior were investigated. Pairs of preschool children were assigned to one of four television conditions (1) high action-high violence, (2) high action-low violence, (3) low action-low violence, or (4) no television. Action was defined…

  16. The impact of universal suicide-prevention programs on the help-seeking attitudes and behaviors of youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Klingbeil, David A; Meller, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    While the ultimate goal of adolescent suicide-prevention efforts is to decrease the incidence of death by suicide, a critical intermediary goal is directing youths toward effective sources of assistance. To comprehensively review the universal prevention literature and examine the effects of universal prevention programs on student's attitudes and behaviors related to help-seeking. We systematically reviewed studies that assessed help-seeking outcomes including prevention efforts utilizing (1) psychoeducational curricula, (2) gatekeeper training, and (3) public service messaging directed at youths. Of the studies reviewed, 17 studies evaluated the help-seeking outcomes. These studies were identified through a range of sources (e.g., searching online databases, examining references of published articles on suicide prevention). The results of this review suggest that suicide-prevention programming has a limited impact on help-seeking behavior. Although there was some evidence that suicide-prevention programs had a positive impact on students' help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, there was also evidence of no effects or iatrogenic effects. Sex and risk status were moderators of program effects on students help-seeking. Caution is warranted when considering which suicidal prevention interventions best optimize the intended goals. The impact on adolescents' help-seeking behavior is a key concern for educators and mental-health professionals.

  17. The Effects of the Marriage Enrichment Program Based on the Cognitive-Behavioral Approach on the Marital Adjustment of Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Melek; Ersanli, Ercumend

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the marriage enrichment program based on the cognitive-behavioral approach on levels of marital adjustment of individuals. The experimental and control group of this research was totally composed of 30 individuals. A pre-test post-test research model with control group was used in this…

  18. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  19. Effects of Water Exercise Swimming Program on Aquatic Skills and Social Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 10 week water exercise swimming program (WESP) on the aquatic skills and social behaviors of 16 boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first 10 week phase (phase I), eight children (group A) received the WESP while eight children (group B) did not. A second 10 week phase…

  20. Preventing childhood anxiety disorders: Is an applied game as effective as a cognitive behavioral therapy-based program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoneveld, E.A.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Granic, I.

    2018-01-01

    A large proportion of children experience subclinical levels of anxiety and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) aimed at preventing anxiety disorders is moderately effective. However, most at-risk children do not seek help or drop out of programs prematurely because of stigma, lack of motivation, and

  1. Maternal Education Preferences Moderate the Effects of Mandatory Employment and Education Programs on Child Positive and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children’s positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years…

  2. The Impact of the Teen Outreach Program on Sexual Intentions and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Buhi, Eric R; Marhefka, Stephanie L; Wang, Wei; Debate, Rita; Perrin, Kay; Singleton, Ashley; Noble, Charlotte A; Rahman, Saba; Maness, Sarah B; Mahony, Helen; Ziemba, Robert; Malmi, Markku; Marwah, Elizabeth; Hall, Kristin; Turner, DeAnne; Blunt-Vinti, Heather; Noble, Shireen M; Daley, Ellen M

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a positive youth development program on adolescent pregnancy, sexual behavior, risky sex, and intentions in nonmetropolitan Florida high schools. Between 2012 and 2014, the Teen Outreach Program (TOP) was compared to standard school curriculum content using a cluster randomized controlled trial design with 7,976 youth in two cohorts. The majority of youth were 14 years old and in the ninth grade at baseline. Treatment group youth received TOP in health-related classes. After using multiple imputation to account for missing data, we analyzed baseline and follow-up survey data using generalized linear mixed-effects models with logit link function. In the cohort 1 sample, compared to the control condition, males and females receiving TOP showed lower odds of engaging in recent sex (odds ratio [OR], .71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .58-.86) compared to control males and females. Cohort 1 treatment females who did engage in recent sex were less likely to have risky sex (OR, .54; 95% CI: .32-.89). There were fewer significant findings in cohort 2, though TOP females and combined gender had lower odds of risky sex intentions (OR, .53; 95% CI: .33-.84 and OR, .65; 95% CI: .44-.96, respectively). Overall, cohort 1 females in the TOP condition were the group most likely to benefit from TOP. Consistent with previous research, TOP was more effective regarding sexual health outcomes among female versus male youth; this was especially true for the outcome of risky sex. However, results were not consistent across cohorts, prompting questions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ZebraZoom: an automated program for high-throughput behavioral analysis and categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eMirat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish larva stands out as an emergent model organism for translational studies involving gene or drug screening thanks to its size, genetics, and permeability. At the larval stage, locomotion occurs in short episodes punctuated by periods of rest. Although phenotyping behavior is a key component of large-scale screens, it has not yet been automated in this model system. We developed ZebraZoom, a program to automatically track larvae and identify maneuvers for many animals performing discrete movements. Our program detects each episodic movement and extracts large-scale statistics on motor patterns to produce a quantification of the locomotor repertoire. We used ZebraZoom to identify motor defects induced by a glycinergic receptor antagonist. The analysis of the blind mutant atoh7 (lak revealed small locomotor defects associated with the mutation. Using multiclass supervised machine learning, ZebraZoom categorizes all episodes of movement for each larva into one of three possible maneuvers: slow forward swim, routine turn, and escape. ZebraZoom reached 91% accuracy for categorization of stereotypical maneuvers that four independent experimenters unanimously identified. For all maneuvers in the data set, ZebraZoom agreed 73.2-82.5% of cases with four independent experimenters. We modeled the series of maneuvers performed by larvae as Markov chains and observed that larvae often repeated the same maneuvers within a group. When analyzing subsequent maneuvers performed by different larvae, we found that larva-larva interactions occurred as series of escapes. Overall, ZebraZoom reaches the level of precision found in manual analysis but accomplishes tasks in a high-throughput format necessary for large screens.

  4. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder as Behavior Technicians for Young Children with Autism: Outcomes of a Behavioral Skills Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In…

  5. Intervening at the Setting Level to Prevent Behavioral Incidents in Residential Child Care: Efficacy of the CARE Program Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Charles V; Smith, Elliott G; Holden, Martha J; Norton, Catherine I; Nunno, Michael A; S