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Sample records for program ambient ammonia

  1. Ambient Air Ammonia (NH3) Concentration in Two Solid Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. This work monitored the level of ammonia in the ambient air of two major solid waste dump sites in Abakaliki urban, Ebonyi State, in the morning for a period of a month on the onset of wet season, using portable monitor based on electrochemical sensor. The result showed that site 1 had a ...

  2. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  3. 78 FR 52192 - Final Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria For Ammonia-Freshwater 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... is the relationship between the ammonia criteria recommendations and state or tribal water quality...); and EPA Review and Approval of State and Tribal Water Quality Standards (65FR24641). You can find... AGENCY Final Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria For Ammonia-- Freshwater 2013 AGENCY...

  4. Baseline ambient gaseous ammonia concentrations in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Mark E; Mathew, Johnson; Nguyen, Nghia; Lay, John; Golod, George; Vet, Robert; Cotie, Joseph; Hertel, Terry; Aaboe, Erik; Callison, Ryan; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Freise, Jeremy; Hathcoat, April; Sakizzie, Brenda; King, Michael; Lee, Chris; Oliva, Sylvia; San Miguel, George; Crow, Leon; Geasland, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Ambient ammonia monitoring using Ogawa passive samplers was conducted in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA during 2007. The resulting data will be useful in the multipollutant management of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and visibility (atmospheric regional haze) in the Four Corners area, an area with growing oil/gas production and increasing coal-based power plant construction. The passive monitoring data also add new ambient ammonia concentration information for the U.S. and will be useful to scientists involved in present and future visibility modeling exercises. Three week integrated passive ammonia samples were taken at five sites in the Four Corners area and two sites in eastern Oklahoma from December, 2006 through December, 2007 (January, 2008 for two sites). Results show significantly higher regional background ammonia concentrations in eastern Oklahoma (1.8 parts per billion (ppb) arithmetic mean) compared to the Four Corners area (0.2 ppb arithmetic mean). Annual mean ammonia concentrations for all Four Corners area sites for the 2007 study ranged from 0.2 ppb to 1.5 ppb. Peak ambient ammonia concentrations occurred in the spring and summer in both areas. The passive samplers deployed at the Stilwell, Oklahoma site compared favorably with other passive samplers and a continuous ammonia monitoring instrument.

  5. Xanthoria parietina as a monitor of ground-level ambient ammonia concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henrik Brinkmann; Berthelsen, Kasper; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Total nitrogen in transplanted and in situ lichen thalli of Xanthoria parietina were related to ambient ammonia air concentrations measured with passive ALPHA (Adapted Low-cost Passive High Absorption) diffusion samplers in Denmark. Transplants and ALPHA samplers were exposed four months in a tra......Total nitrogen in transplanted and in situ lichen thalli of Xanthoria parietina were related to ambient ammonia air concentrations measured with passive ALPHA (Adapted Low-cost Passive High Absorption) diffusion samplers in Denmark. Transplants and ALPHA samplers were exposed four months...

  6. Enabling electrochemical reduction of nitrogen to ammonia at ambient conditions through rational catalyst design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abghoui, Younes; Garden, Anna L; Hlynsson, Valtýr Freyr; Björgvinsdóttir, Snædís; Ólafsdóttir, Hrefna; Skúlason, Egill

    2015-02-21

    Commercial design of a sustainable route for on-site production of ammonia represents a potential economic and environmental breakthrough. In an analogous process to the naturally occurring enzymatic mechanism, synthesis of ammonia could be achieved in an electrochemical cell, in which electricity would be used to reduce atmospheric nitrogen and water into ammonia at ambient conditions. To date, such a process has not been realized due to slow kinetics and low faradaic efficiencies. Although progress has been made in this regard, at present there exists no device that can produce ammonia efficiently from air and water at room temperature and ambient pressure. In this work, a scheme is presented in which electronic structure calculations are used to screen for catalysts that are stable, active and selective towards N2 electro-reduction to ammonia, while at the same time suppressing the competing H2 evolution reaction. The scheme is applied to transition metal nitride catalysts. The most promising candidates are the (100) facets of the rocksalt structures of VN and ZrN, which show promise of producing ammonia in high yield at low onset potentials.

  7. Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer (CRDS) Development for Ambient Measurements of Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N. A.; Ferracci, V.; Cassidy, N.; Hoffnagle, J.; Leggett, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Regulating ammonia atmospheric abundances is important for reducing particle emissions of PM2.5 and PM10. A recent study employing three chemical transport models found an underestimation of the formation of ammonium particles, and concluded that the role of NH3 on particulate matter is larger than originally thought. Monitoring of NH3, on a large scale, is often carried out using low-cost diffusive samplers, active sampling with denuders, and a number of optical spectroscopic techniques. Although denuders are currently considered to be an unofficial "reference method", they suffer from a few limitations, including low accuracy. They also do not provide rapid measurements in real-time, require complex post-exposure analysis by wet chemical techniques, and must be deployed over extended periods of up to one month to achieve the required sensitivity. These devices deliver only average concentration data, and their validation by traceable methods is not presently extensive. Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) is a rapid on-line monitoring technique, which has regularly been employed for trace gas measurements, including that of dry ammonia gas mixtures. One of the goals of this work is, therefore, to extend the technology to enable more accurate ambient measurements of NH3 to be made in the field where the sampled atmosphere contains a wide range of concentrations and is also humid. We describe the implementation of this by adjustment of the CRDS instrument for the undesirable effects of cross interference due to water vapor (H2O). Water vapor influences such spectroscopic measurements through the presence of absorption features close to that of ammonia and through differences in matrix broadening effects. We also detail the establishment of metrological traceability of the measurements via new stable NH3 Primary Standard Gas Mixtures (PSMs), prepared by gravimetry, and subsequent dilution to typical ambient concentrations (parts per billion).

  8. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 4. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on sulphated zirconia catalysts for ... Author Affiliations. Vasant R Choudhary1 Abhijeet J Karkamkar1. Chemical Engineering Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008, India ...

  9. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of water and ammonia over. ZrO2 and sulphated ZrO2 prepared by different methods has been investigated for measuring strong acidity and acidity distribution on sulphated zirconia-type solid super-acid catalysts. The TPD of water provides a simple reliable method for ...

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of ambient nitric acid and ammonia in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Bytnerowicz; W. Fraczek; S. Schilling; D. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Monthly average ambient concentrations of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) were monitored at the Athabasca Oils Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, between May 2005 and September 2008. Generally, concentrations of both pollutants were elevated and highly variable in space and time. The highest atmospheric...

  11. EMRP JRP MetNH3: Towards a Consistent Metrological Infrastructure for Ammonia Measurements in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Balslev-Harder, David; Braban, Christine F.; Ebert, Volker; Ferracci, Valerio; Gieseking, Bjoern; Hieta, Tuomas; Martin, Nicholas A.; Pascale, Céline; Pogány, Andrea; Tiebe, Carlo; Twigg, Marsailidh M.; Vaittinen, Olavi; van Wijk, Janneke; Wirtz, Klaus; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. In addition to its acidifying effect on natural waters and soils and to the additional nitrogen input to ecosystems, ammonia is an important precursor for secondary aerosol formation in the atmosphere. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on "National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)" regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation regarding certified reference material (CRM), applicable analytical methods, measurement uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. As shown in a key comparison in 2007, there are even discrepancies between reference materials provided by European National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) at amount fraction levels up to three orders of magnitude higher than ambient air levels. MetNH3 (Metrology for ammonia in ambient air), a three-year project that started in June 2014 in the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), aims to reduce the gap between requirements set by the European emission regulations and state-of-the-art of analytical methods and reference materials. The overarching objective of the JRP is to achieve metrological traceability for ammonia measurements in ambient air from primary certified reference material CRM and instrumental standards to the field level. This requires the successful completion of the three main goals, which have been assigned to three technical work packages: To develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods Realisation and characterisation of traceable preparative calibration standards (in pressurised cylinders as well as mobile generators) of ammonia amount fractions similar to those in ambient air based on existing methods for other reactive analytes. The

  12. Physiological responses and scope for growth of Ruditapes decussatus from Ria Formosa, southern Portugal, exposed to increased ambient ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sobral

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the effects of exposure to increased ambient ammonia-N concentrations as a cause of decreased scope for growth and mortality of R.decussatus during the summer months in Ria Formosa, southern Portugal. The physiological measurements were performed at 20 ºC and average total ammonia-N concentrations (TA-N were 9, 48, 85, 134 and 260 µmol l-1 (corresponding to 0.2, 1.1, 2.0, 3.2 and 6.2 µmol l-1 NH3. No mortality was observed. Our results show that during short term exposure to TA-N concentrations >48 µmol l-1 (1.1 µmol NH3, R.decussautus survives at the expense of energy reserves. No energy is available for growth and reproduction. Though it is uncertain how intermittent exposures during tidal cycles will affect the long-term survival of R.decussatus in the Ria Formosa, high ammonia concentrations together with unfavourable physical and chemical summer gradients in the sediment can clearly contribute to the high mortality that has been registered in recent years (Ferreira et al. 1989. The sensitivity of the physiological energetics approach and the need to assess tolerance of infaunal bivalves addressing endpoints that can provide insight into the condition for growth and reproduction of the population is stressed.

  13. Antioxidant capacity and meat quality of broilers exposed to different ambient humidity and ammonia concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, F X; Hu, X F; Sa, R N; Liu, F Z; Li, S Y; Sun, Q Y

    2014-04-17

    To investigate the effect of humidity and ammonia on the antioxidative capacities and meat qualities of broilers, 192 broilers were divided into 2 groups: high (H, 70 ppm) and low (L, 30 ppm) ammonia concentration. These groups were divided into 30% (Treatment humidity, T) and 60% (Control humidity, C) humidity, giving 4 treatments: C+L, C+H, T+L, and T+H. Blood and muscle antioxidative capacities and meat quality were measured. In the H group, body weight (BW), average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily weight gain (ADG), blood and muscle antioxidative capacities, and postmortem pectoral muscle a* of broilers were significantly decreased (P meat quality of broilers; T intensified these negative effects.

  14. Ambient measurement of ammonia and formaldehyde: Open path vs. extractive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamäki, Timo

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia NH3 and formaldehyde CH2O are some of the most critical chemicals for air quality. Reliable online measurement of these gases is one of the key operations for air quality and safety monitoring, in indoor, outdoor and process applications alike. Ammonia and formaldehyde are reactive compounds and they are harmful, even in very low ppb level concentrations. This means challenges for measurement system in all of its critical aspects: sampling, calibration and sensitivity. We are applying techniques so far successfully used to measure reactive inorganic compounds like ammonia NH3 and hydrogen fluoride HF to tackle these challenges. Now a novel setup based on direct laser absorption with cavity enhancement employing fundamental vibration level excitations of ammonia and formaldehyde molecules is constructed in connection with new mechanics and algorithms optimized for gas exchange and sampling in the case of these reactive molecules easily sticking to surfaces. An aberration corrected multipass sample cell in vacuum pressure is used in parallel with an open path multipass setup. The CH2O and NH3 calibration gases necessary for system calibration are dynamically generated using traceable standards and components. We compare these two approaches with special emphasis on the system's response time, robustness, sensitivity, usability in field conditions, maintenance need and long term stability. A further coal is to enable the use of the same setups also for simultaneous measurement of other reactive compounds often encountered in air quality monitoring. This would make possible more comprehensive and also economic monitoring of these compounds with a single device.

  15. Electroreduction of N2 to ammonia at ambient conditions on mononitrides of Zr, Nb, Cr, and V – A DFT guide for experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abghoui, Younes; Garden, Anna L.; Howalt, Jakob Geelmuyden

    2016-01-01

    of molecular nitrogen to ammonia in aqueous media at ambient conditions with only a low applied bias. The most promising catalysts are VN, ZrN, NbN and CrN, which are identified among a range of transition metal nitride surfaces through a comprehensive density functional theory based analysis. All four...

  16. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in source-separated urine and feces by ammonia at ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Annika; Nyberg, Karin; Vinnerås, Björn

    2009-02-01

    Sustainable management of toilet waste must prevent disease transmission but allow reuse of plant nutrients. Inactivation of uterus-derived Ascaris suum eggs was studied in relation to ammonia in source-separated urine without additives and in human feces to which urea had been added, in order to evaluate ammonia-based sanitation for production of safe fertilizers from human excreta. Urine was used concentrated or diluted 1:1 and 1:3 with tap water at 4, 14, 24, and 34 degrees C. Fecal material, with and without ash, was treated with 1% or 2% (wt/wt) urea at 24 and 34 degrees C. At 34 degrees C eggs were inactivated in less than 10 days in urine and in amended feces. At 24 degrees C only feces with 2% (wt/wt) urea or 1% (wt/wt) urea at high pH (10) inactivated all eggs within 1 month, and no inactivation was observed after 75 days in urine diluted 1:3 (18 +/- 11 mM NH(3)). At temperatures of > or =24 degrees C, NH(3) proved to be an efficient sanitizing agent in urine and feces at concentrations of > or =60 mM. Treating fecal material at 34 degrees C can give a 6-log(10) egg inactivation within 1 month, whereas at 24 degrees C 6 months of treatment is necessary for the same level of egg inactivation. At temperatures of 14 degrees C and below, inactivation rates were low, with viable eggs after 6 months even in concentrated urine.

  17. Adsorption of ammonia at GaN(0001 surface in the mixed ammonia/hydrogen ambient - a summary of ab initio data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kempisty

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of ammonia at NH3/NH2/H-covered GaN(0001 surface was analyzed using results of ab initio calculations. The whole configuration space of partially NH3/NH2/H-covered GaN(0001 surface was divided into zones of differently pinned Fermi level: at the Ga broken bond state for dominantly bare surface (region I, at the valence band maximum (VBM for NH2 and H-covered surface (region II, and at the conduction band minimum (CBM for NH3-covered surface (region III. The electron counting rule (ECR extension was formulated for the case of adsorbed molecules. The extensive ab intio calculations show the validity of the ECR in case of all mixed H-NH2-NH3 coverages for the determination of the borders between the three regions. The adsorption was analyzed using the recently identified dependence of the adsorption energy on the charge transfer at the surface. For region I ammonia adsorbs dissociatively, disintegrating into a H adatom and a HN2 radical for a large fraction of vacant sites, while for region II adsorption of ammonia is molecular. The dissociative adsorption energy strongly depends on the Fermi level at the surface (pinned and in the bulk (unpinned while the molecular adsorption energy is determined by bonding to surface only, in accordance to the recently published theory. Adsorption of Ammonia in region III (Fermi level pinned at CBM leads to an unstable configuration both molecular and dissociative, which is explained by the fact that broken Ga-bonds are doubly occupied by electrons. The adsorbing ammonia brings 8 electrons to the surface, necessitating the transfer of these two electrons from the Ga broken bond state to the Fermi level. This is an energetically costly process. Adsorption of ammonia at H-covered site leads to the creation of a NH2 radical at the surface and escape of H2 molecule. The process energy is close to 0.12 eV, thus not large, but the direct inverse process is not possible due to the escape of the hydrogen

  18. Directional passive ambient air monitoring of ammonia for fugitive source attribution; a field trial with wind tunnel characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solera García, M. A.; Timmis, R. J.; Van Dijk, N.; Whyatt, J. D.; Leith, I. D.; Leeson, S. R.; Braban, C. F.; Sheppard, L. J.; Sutton, M. A.; Tang, Y. S.

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric ammonia is a precursor for secondary particulate matter formation, which harms human health and contributes to acidification and eutrophication. Under the 2012 Gothenburg Protocol, 2005 emissions must be cut by 6% by 2020. In the UK, 83% of total emissions originate from agricultural practices such as fertilizer use and rearing of livestock, with emissions that are spatially extensive and variable in nature. Such fugitive emissions make resolving and tracking of individual site performance challenging. The Directional Passive Air quality Sampler (DPAS) was trialled at Whim Bog, an experimental site with a wind-controlled artificial release of ammonia, in combination with CEH-developed ammonia samplers. Whilst saturation issues were identified, two DPAS-MANDE (Mini Annular Denuder) systems, when deployed in parallel, displayed an average relative deviation of 15% (2-54%) across all 12 directions, with the directions exposed to the ammonia source showing ∼5% difference. The DPAS-MANDE has shown great potential for directional discrimination and can contribute to the understanding and management of fugitive ammonia sources from intensive agriculture sites.

  19. Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.; Nix, G.

    2001-08-06

    Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capacity can be more than 50%. This decrease is caused primarily by increased condenser pressure. Using mixed-working fluids has recently drawn considerable attention for use in power cycles. Such cycles are more readily amenable to use of absorption ''heat pumps.'' For a system that uses ammonia and water as the mixed-working fluid, this paper evaluates using an absorption heat pump to reduce condenser backpressure. At high ambient temperatures, part of the turbine exhaust vapor is absorbed into a circulating mixed stream in an absorber in series with the main condenser. This steam is pumped up to a higher pressure and heated to strip the excess vapor, which is recondensed using an additional air-cooled condenser. The operating conditions are chosen to reconstitute this condensate back to the same concentration as drawn from the original system. We analyzed two power plants of nominal 1-megawatt capacity. The design resource temperatures were 250 F and 300 F. Ambient temperature was allowed to rise from a design value of 50 F to 100 F. The analyses indicate that using an absorption heat pump is feasible. For the 300 F resource, an increased brine flow of 30% resulted in a net power increase of 21%. For the 250 F resource, the increase was smaller. However, these results are highly plant- and equipment-specific because evaluations must be carried out at off-design conditions for the condenser. Such studies should be carried out for specific power plants that suffer most from increased ambient temperatures.

  20. ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Marcela Rúa Gallego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar el aprendizaje no formal de los visitantes a un acuario en temas relacionados con el cuidado y la conservación del ambiente. La información para este estudio se recogió mediante la herramienta mapeo de significado personal, aplicada a cuarenta participantes, quienes por primera vez visitaban un acuario. Los resultados revelan que antes del recorrido por este escenario, los visitantes tenían ideas muy generales con respecto al cuidado y la conservación del ambiente. La visita por el acuario ayudó a los participantes a detallar, ampliar y refinar sus ideas.

  1. Role of ambient ammonia in particulate ammonium formation at a rural site in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaoyang; Xu, Xiaobin; Lin, Weili; Ge, Baozhu; Xie, Yulin; Song, Bo; Jia, Shihui; Zhang, Rui; Peng, Wei; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Hongbing; Yang, Wen; Zhao, Huarong

    2018-01-01

    The real-time measurements of NH3 and trace gases were conducted, in conjunction with semi-continuous measurements of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 at a rural site in the North China Plain (NCP) from May to September 2013 in order to better understand chemical characteristics of ammonia and the impact of secondary ammonium aerosols on formation in the NCP. Extremely high NH3 and NH4+ concentrations were observed after a precipitation event within 7-10 days following urea application. Elevated NH3 levels coincided with elevated NH4+, indicating that NH3 likely influenced particulate ammonium mass. For the sampling period, the average conversion / oxidation ratios for NH4+ (NHR), SO42- (SOR), and NO3- (NOR) were estimated to be 0.30, 0.64, and 0.24, respectively. The increased NH3 concentrations, mainly from agricultural activities and regional transport, coincided with the prevailing meteorological conditions. The high NH3 level with NHR of about 0.30 indicates that the emission of NH3 in the NCP is much higher than needed for aerosol acid neutralisation, and NH3 plays an important role in the formation of secondary aerosols as a key neutraliser. The hourly data obtained were used to investigate gas-aerosol partitioning characteristics using the thermodynamic equilibrium model ISORROPIA-II. Modelled SO42-, NO3-, and NH3 values agree well with the measurements, while the modelled NH4+ values largely underestimate the measurements. Our observation and modelling results indicate that strong acids in aerosol are completely neutralised. Additional NH4+ exists in aerosol, probably a result of the presence of a substantial amount of oxalic and other diacids.

  2. Ti-thickness-dependent electromigration resistance for Ti/Al-Cu-Si metallization with and without barrier rapid-thermal-anneal in an ammonia ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kuan Y.; Kawasaki, Hisao; Olowolafe, Johnson O.; Pyle, Ronald E.

    1993-05-01

    The electromigration resistance for Al-Cu-Si alloy over a Ti underlayer as a function of the initial Ti thickness in the range of 0 angstroms - 1000 angstroms is investigated. After the Ti deposition, test structures have been divided into groups with and without a rapid thermal anneal (RTA) in an ammonia ambient to form a TiN barrier. The electromigration resistance of these barrier metallization systems, in general, increases with the initial Ti thickness, except when the initial Ti thickness is less than 600 angstroms for the RTA TiN/Al-Cu-Si system. A model is proposed to explain this electromigration characteristic as a function of the initial Ti thickness for these barrier metallization systems, with the support of texture analysis of the Al-alloy surface and stress measurements of barrier layers using X-ray diffraction and wafer curvature. This study highlights a direction of how a Ti-based barrier metallization system should be processed in order to optimize its electromigration resistance.

  3. General RMP Guidance - Appendix E: Supplemental Risk Management Program Guidance for Ammonia Refrigeration Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Additional information for food processors, food distributors, refrigerated warehouses, and any other facility with ammonia refrigeration system. Includes guidance on exemptions, threshold quantity, offsite consequence analysis.

  4. Appendix E: Supplemental Risk Management Program Guidance for Ammonia Refrigeration Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Additional information for food processors, food distributors, refrigerated warehouses, and any other facility that has an ammonia refrigeration system. Includes details on exemption for farms, threshold quantity, and offsite consequence analysis.

  5. Ion mobility spectrometric analysis of vaporous chemical warfare agents by the instrument with corona discharge ionization ammonia dopant ambient temperature operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Takafumi; Kishi, Shintaro; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Tachikawa, Masumi; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Nakagawa, Takao; Kitagawa, Nobuyoshi; Tokita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-03-20

    The ion mobility behavior of nineteen chemical warfare agents (7 nerve gases, 5 blister agents, 2 lachrymators, 2 blood agents, 3 choking agents) and related compounds including simulants (8 agents) and organic solvents (39) was comparably investigated by the ion mobility spectrometry instrument utilizing weak electric field linear drift tube with corona discharge ionization, ammonia doping, purified inner air drift flow circulation operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates, tabun, and four organophosphorus simulants gave the intense characteristic positive monomer-derived ion peaks and small dimer-derived ion peaks, and the later ion peaks were increased with the vapor concentrations. VX, RVX and tabun gave both characteristic positive monomer-derived ions and degradation product ions. Nitrogen mustards gave the intense characteristic positive ion peaks, and in addition distinctive negative ion peak appeared from HN3. Mustard gas, lewisite 1, o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and 2-mercaptoethanol gave the characteristic negative ion peaks. Methylphosphonyl difluoride, 2-chloroacetophenone and 1,4-thioxane gave the characteristic ion peaks both in the positive and negative ion mode. 2-Chloroethylethylsulfide and allylisothiocyanate gave weak ion peaks. The marker ion peaks derived from two blood agents and three choking agents were very close to the reactant ion peak in negative ion mode and the respective reduced ion mobility was fluctuated. The reduced ion mobility of the CWA monomer-derived peaks were positively correlated with molecular masses among structurally similar agents such as G-type nerve gases and organophosphorus simulants; V-type nerve gases and nitrogen mustards. The slope values of the calibration plots of the peak heights of the characteristic marker ions versus the vapor concentrations are related to the detection sensitivity, and within chemical warfare agents examined the slope values for sarin, soman

  6. Designing ambient particulate matter monitoring program for source apportionment study by receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Pongkiatkul, Prapat; Upadhyay, Nabin; Hopke, Phillip P.

    Particulate matter (PM) receptor modeling requires specific intensive input data that is always a challenge to produce cost effectively. A well-designed monitoring program is important to collect such PM ambient data in urban areas with diverse and densely distributed sources. This paper presents a general framework for designing such a monitoring program while emphasizing appropriate quality assurance and quality control elements that are particularly applicable where limited resources are available. Topics for discussion include selection of monitoring sites, sampling and analytical techniques, and the uncertainty estimation for ambient concentration input data. The design framework is illustrated by a case study of a monitoring program for PM source apportionment in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region in which 24-h fine and coarse PM samples were collected using two collocated dichotomous samplers. Comparison between black carbon measurements by Smoke Stain reflectometry and Thermal Optical Transmittance method is highlighted.

  7. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...

  8. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ammonia gas Some household cleaners Some liniments Some fertilizers Note: This list may not be all-inclusive. ... pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Blood and urine tests will be done. The person may receive: ...

  9. Characterization and expression analysis of a chitinase gene (PmChi-4) from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under pathogen infection and ambient ammonia nitrogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaimin; Zhou, Falin; Huang, Jianhua; Yang, Qibin; Jiang, Song; Qiu, Lihua; Yang, Lishi; Zhu, Caiyan; Jiang, Shigui

    2017-03-01

    Chitinase is a multi-gene family, which play important physiological roles in crustaceans, involved in several biological processes, including digestion, molting and defense against viruses. In the present study, a chitinase-4 gene (PmChi-4) was cloned from Penaeus monodon by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full length of PmChi-4 cDNA was 2178 bp, including an 1815 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encoded 604 amino acid residues. The predicted PmChi-4 protein was 67.7 kDa and shared 61%-88% identity with the type of Chi-4s from other crustaceans. Quantitative real-time (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that PmChi-4 was expressed ubiquitously with the high expression level in hepatopancreas. PmChi-4 was expressed throughout the whole larvae stages, and the highest level of PmChi-4 transcripts was detected at Mysis3 stage, which indicated that PmChi-4 may be involved in larval metamorphosis. In order to know whether PmChi-4 was related to the immune response of shrimp, Streptococcus agalactiae and Vibrio harveyi were chosen to challenge the shrimp, PmChi-4 transcripts were significantly increased and reached to the maximum at 6 h in hepatopancreas and at 12 h in gill, respectively. The results suggested that PmChi-4 participated in the immune defenses to pathogen infection. Besides, the ammonia nitrogen stress treatment was also carried out, PmChi-4 transcripts were significantly decreased in hepatopancreas and gill and the result showed that PmChi-4 may be involved in ammonia nitrogen stress in P. monodon. Overall, our present study lay a foundation for further research into the biological function and regulation of chitinase in P. monodon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mobility Spectrometer Studies on Hydrazine and Ammonia Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, William; Eiceman, Gary; Szumlas, Andrew; Lewis, John

    2011-01-01

    An airborne vapor analyzer for detecting sub- to low- parts-per-million (ppm) hydrazine in the presence of higher concentration levels of ammonia has been under development for the Orion program. The detector is based on ambient pressure ionization and ion mobility characterization. The detector encompasses: 1) a membrane inlet to exclude particulate and aerosols from the analyzer inlet; 2) a method to separate hydrazine from ammonia which would otherwise lead to loss of calibration and quantitative accuracy for the hydrazine determination; and 3) response and quantitative determinations for both hydrazine and ammonia. Laboratory studies were made to explore some of these features including mobility measurements mindful of power, size, and weight issues. The study recommended the use of a mobility spectrometer of traditional design with a reagent gas and equipped with an inlet transfer line of bonded phase fused silica tube. The inlet transfer line provided gas phase separation of neutrals of ammonia from hydrazine at 50 C simplifying significantly the ionization chemistry that underlies response in a mobility spectrometer. Performance of the analyzer was acceptable between ranges of 30 to 80 C for both the pre-fractionation column and the drift tube. An inlet comprised of a combined membrane with valve-less injector allowed high speed quantitative determination of ammonia and hydrazine without cross reactivity from common metabolites such as alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Preliminary test results and some of the design features are discussed.

  11. State of the art stationary and mobile infrastructure for the dynamic generation and dilution of traceable reference gas mixtures of Ammonia at ambient air amount fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Pascale, Céline; Guillevic, Myriam; Ackermann, Andreas; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is the major precursor for neutralising atmospheric acids and is thus affecting not only the long-range transport of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides but also stabilises secondary particulate matter. These aerosols have negative impacts on air quality and human health. Moreover, they negatively affect terrestrial ecosystems after deposition. NH3 has been included in the air quality monitoring networks and emission reduction directives of European nations. Atmospheric concentrations are in the order of 0.5-500 nmol/mol. However, the lowest substance amount fraction of available certified reference material (CRM) is 10 μmol/mol. This due to the fact that adsorption on the walls of aluminium cylinders and desorption as pressure in the cylinder decreases cause substantial instabilities in the amount fractions of the gas mixtures. Moreover, analytical techniques to be calibrated are very diverse and cause challenges for the production and application of CRM. The Federal Institute of Metrology METAS has developed, partially in the framework of EMRP JRP ENV55 MetNH3, an infrastructure to meet with the different requirements in order to generate SI-traceable NH3 reference gas mixtures dynamically in the amount fraction range 0.5-500 nmol/mol and with uncertainties UNH3 international key-comparison CCQM K117. It is planned to establish this system to calibrate and re-sample gas cylinders due to its very economical gas use. Here we present insights into the development of said infrastructure and results of the first performance tests. Moreover, we include results of the study on adsorption/desorption effects in dry as well as humidified matrix gas into the discussion on the generation of reference gas mixtures. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.

  12. Environmental management programs of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Programa de gestao ambiental do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio Joaquim dos [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the largest South America's enterprises of energy integration of the Bolivia/Brazil gas pipeline in Brazilian side own and operated by TBG has interacted with 05 states, 137 districts and 06 environment governmental entities (IBAMA and States' department) of environment multilateral financial institutions and group of ten of other governmental and not governmental organizations. The level of approved investment was of the order of 1,5 billion dollars, of which about 29 million had been destined the ambient activities. Thus, without precedents in Brazil this work presents the plan of ambient management of the enterprise, created to develop and implement the ambient programs during the construction and operation of the gas pipeline stage. The work here presented will give prominence to the programs of ambient compensation and social communication inside Brazil. (author)

  13. Procedures for the synthesis of ethylenediamine bisborane and ammonia borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Padi Veeraraghavan; Gagare, Pravin D.; Mistry, Hitesh; Biswas, Bidyut

    2017-01-03

    A method for synthesizing ammonia borane includes (a) preparing a reaction mixture in one or more solvents, the reaction mixture containing sodium borohydride, at least one ammonium salt, and ammonia; and (b) incubating the reaction mixture at temperatures between about 0.degree. C. to about room temperature in an ambient air environment under conditions sufficient to form ammonia borane. Methods for synthesizing ethylenediamine bisborane, and methods for dehydrogenation of ethylenediamine bisborane are also described.

  14. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  15. Electrochemical ammonia production on molybdenum nitride nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howalt, Jakob Geelmuyden; Vegge, Tejs

    2013-01-01

    energy profile for electrochemical protonation of N2 and N adatoms on cuboctahedral Mo13 nanoparticles. Pathways for electrochemical ammonia production via direct protonation of N adatoms and N2 admolecules with an onset potential as low as -0.5 V and generally lower than -0.8 V on both a nitrogen......Theoretical investigations of electrochemical production of ammonia at ambient temperature and pressure on nitrogen covered molybdenum nanoparticles are presented. Density functional theory calculations are used in combination with the computational hydrogen electrode approach to calculate the free...

  16. California GAMA Program: Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Results for the Sacramento Valley and Volcanic Provinces of Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2005-01-20

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the California Aquifer Susceptibility (CAS) project (under the GAMA Program) is to assess water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2003, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the Sacramento Valley and Volcanic Provinces. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  17. Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center (AMTIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site contains information on ambient air quality monitoring programs, monitoring methods, quality assurance and control procedures, and federal regulations related to ambient air quality monitoring.

  18. Depletion of Ammonia Gas onto Jovian Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, T.; Wong, M. H.; Marschall, J.; de Pater, I.; Romani, P. N.; Kalogerakis, K.

    2010-12-01

    The altitude profile of ammonia in Jupiter’s atmosphere, as constrained by microwave spectra, is poorly understood. The microwave spectrum of Jupiter is consistent with supersolar ammonia deeper than 6 bar, and subsolar ammonia at pressures less than 2 bar. In addition, the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer measured a deep NH3/H2 mixing ratio of approximately five times the protosolar ratio. Consequently, a global-scale depletion mechanism for ammonia gas can be anticipated, operating between the 2 and 6 bar levels. Candidate depletion mechanisms include dynamics, condensation of species with higher nitrogen fractions than NH4SH (including clathrates), and adsorption of ammonia onto NH4SH or water ices. Measured uptake coefficients of ammonia provide valuable constraints for model calculations testing the ammonia depletion hypothesis in Jupiter’s atmosphere. We have begun laboratory experiments designed to measure the uptake of ammonia by H2O and H2O-NH4SH ice mixtures with a Knudsen cell apparatus in the temperature range 130-250 K. These conditions are appropriate to the troposphere of Jupiter around the 2-4 bar pressure level. Initial results show that the uptake coefficient is larger than 10-4 in this temperature range. We also plan model calculations to apply the experimental results to Jupiter's atmosphere and will discuss the key parameters and processes that influence the ammonia uptake and their relevance to Jupiter's atmosphere. This work is supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program under grant NNX09AB69G.

  19. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  20. California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project--shallow aquifer assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board’s (SWRCB) GAMA Program is a comprehensive assessment of statewide groundwater quality in California. From 2004 to 2012, the GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project focused on assessing groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supplies. More than 2,000 public-supply wells were sampled by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for this effort. Starting in 2012, the GAMA Priority Basin Project began an assessment of water resources in shallow aquifers in California. These shallow aquifers provide water for domestic and small community-supply wells, which are often drilled to shallower depths in the groundwater system than public-supply wells. Shallow aquifers are of interest because shallow groundwater may respond more quickly and be more susceptible to contamination from human activities at the land surface, than the deeper aquifers. The SWRCB’s GAMA Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 (Water Code sections 10780-10782.3): a public mandate to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supplies, and to increase the availability of information about groundwater quality to the public. The U.S. Geological Survey is the technical lead of the Priority Basin Project. Stewardship of California’s groundwater resources is a responsibility shared between well owners, communities, and the State. Participants and collaborators in the GAMA Program include Regional Water Quality Control Boards, Department of Water Resources, Department of Public Health, local and regional groundwater management entities, county and local water agencies, community groups, and private citizens. Well-owner participation in the GAMA Program is entirely voluntary.

  1. Sustentabilidad y racionalidad ambiental: hacia "otro" programa de sociología ambiental Sustainability and Environmental Rationality: towards "another" environmental sociology program

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Leff

    2011-01-01

    La crisis ambiental emerge como una crisis del conocimiento, lo que problematiza la lógica de las ciencias y el estatus teórico de las ciencias sociales, desvinculadas de las condiciones ecológicas de sustentabilidad de la sociedad. Cuestionando los marcos teóricos de la sociología tradicional y la lógica de las ciencias sociales -marxismo, estructural-funcionalismo, filosofía del lenguaje, constructivismo, hermenéutica-, se plantean las bases conceptuales y los principios ético-filosóficos d...

  2. The program of environmental improvement of the Tlalpan delegation; El programa de mejoramiento ambiental de la Delegacion Tlalpan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C. [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM (Mexico); Oven, M.; Vazquez, O. [Hagler Bailly Services, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Roman, G. [Centro para la Produccion mas Limpia, IPN, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Mexico contributes with nearly 2% of the world-wide greenhouse effect gas emissions (GEG), it is the thirteenth country with greater carbon dioxide emissions in the world. In this document the initiative of the program of environmental improvement of the Tlalpan Delegation of Mexico City is presented, as a pilot example within the national efforts in the matter of possible diminution of GEG emissions. The premise of the Tlalpan Program is the following one: The projects that will be successful in the global scope will be those that entail local benefits. With base in this, one has focused in activities that simultaneously offer local economic benefits and global results of GEG reduction. [Spanish] Mexico contribuye con cerca del 2% de las emisiones mundiales de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI), es el decimotercer pais con mayores emisiones de bioxido de carbono en el mundo. En este documento se presenta la iniciativa del programa de mejoramiento ambiental de la Delegacion Tlalpan, de Mexico D. F. como un ejemplo piloto dentro de los esfuerzos nacionales en materia de posible disminucion de emisiones de GEI. La premisa del Programa Tlalpan es la siguiente: Los proyectos que tendran exito en el ambito global seran los que conllevan beneficios locales. Con base en esto, se ha enfocado en actividades que simultaneamente ofrecen beneficios economicos locales y resultados globales de reduccion de GEI.

  3. Excretory nitrogen metabolism and defence against ammonia toxicity in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S F; Ip, Y K

    2014-03-01

    With the development of air-breathing capabilities, some fishes can emerge from water, make excursions onto land or even burrow into mud during droughts. Air-breathing fishes have modified gill morphology and morphometry and accessory breathing organs, which would tend to reduce branchial ammonia excretion. As ammonia is toxic, air-breathing fishes, especially amphibious ones, are equipped with various strategies to ameliorate ammonia toxicity during emersion or ammonia exposure. These strategies can be categorized into (1) enhancement of ammonia excretion and reduction of ammonia entry, (2) conversion of ammonia to a less toxic product for accumulation and subsequent excretion, (3) reduction of ammonia production and avoidance of ammonia accumulation and (4) tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels. Active ammonia excretion, operating in conjunction with lowering of ambient pH and reduction in branchial and cutaneous NH₃ permeability, is theoretically the most effective strategy to maintain low internal ammonia concentrations. NH₃ volatilization involves the alkalization of certain epithelial surfaces and requires mechanisms to prevent NH₃ back flux. Urea synthesis is an energy-intensive process and hence uncommon among air-breathing teleosts. Aestivating African lungfishes detoxify ammonia to urea and the accumulated urea is excreted following arousal. Reduction in ammonia production is achieved in some air-breathing fishes through suppression of amino acid catabolism and proteolysis, or through partial amino acid catabolism leading to alanine formation. Others can slow down ammonia accumulation through increased glutamine synthesis in the liver and muscle. Yet, some others develop high tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels, including tissues in the brain. In summary, the responses of air-breathing fishes to ameliorate ammonia toxicity are many and varied, determined by the behaviour of the species and the nature of the environment in

  4. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) pilot study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a pilot study during the week of April 22-29, 1993, prior to initiation of CR-ERP Phase II Sampling and Analysis activities as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0 and Poplar Creek Kilometer 1.6 on April 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA.

  5. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, Ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25-February 1, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids (significantly reduced reproduction) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples.

  6. Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of April 14-21, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 4.3, Poplar Creek Mile 5.1, and Poplar Creek Mile 6.0 on April 13, 15, and 18. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to daphnids in undiluted samples; however, toxicity to fathead minnows (significantly reduced survival) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Miles 4.3 and 6.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Daphnid reproduction was significantly less than controls in 50 percent dilutions of samples from Poplar Creek Miles 4.3 and 6.0, while no toxicity to fathead minnows was shown in diluted (50 percent) samples.

  7. Impact of ammonia exposure on coagulation in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Chiang, Pei-Chi; Cheng, Winton; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia (un-ionized plus ionized ammonia as nitrogen), the end product of protein catabolism, is produced by decomposing organic matter. In aquaculture, shrimp are commonly exposed to high concentrations of ammonia that induces immunological and histological changes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on hemolymph coagulation time, transglutaminase (TG) activity as well as TG and clottable protein (CP) genes expressions in Litopenaeus vannamei when exposed to ambient ammonia-nitrogen (N) at 0, 1, 5, and 10mg/L for 0, 2, and 7 days. The actual concentrations in control and tests solution were 0.001, 1.15, 5.11, and 11.68mg/L for ammonia-N, and 7×10(-5), 0.080, 0.357, and 0.815mg/L for NH3-N (unionized ammonia). Delayed coagulation time following exposure to 5 and 10mg/L of ambient ammonia-N for 7 days, and increased transglutaminase (TG) activity following exposure to 5 and 1mg/L of ambient ammonia-N for 2 and 7 days, respectively, were observed. Downregulated TG expression and upregulated clottable protein (CP) expression in the hemocytes of L. vannamei exposed to 10 and 5mg/L of ambient ammonia-N for 2 and 7 days, respectively, were shown. These results indicated that ambient ammonia-N (>5mg/L) and NH3-N (>0.357mg/L) interrupted coagulation and down-regulated TG gene expression in L. vannamei, which caused ecotoxicity on immune deficiencies and may contribute the increased susceptibility to infection by pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Otjes, R.P.; Blom, M.J.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain) in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB) and the other in the historical city centre (CC).

  9. Modeling Carbon Dioxide, pH and Un-Ionized Ammonia Relationships in Serial Reuse Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watten, Barnaby J.; Rust, Michael; Colt, John

    2009-01-01

    In serial reuse systems, excretion of metabolic carbon dioxide has a significant impact on ambient pH, carbon dioxide, and un-ionized ammonia concentrations. This impact depends strongly on alkalinity, water flow rate, feeding rate, and loss of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. A reduction in pH from metabolic carbon dioxide can significantly reduce the un-ionized ammonia concentration and increase the carbon dioxide concentrations compared to those parameters computed from influent pH. The ability to accurately predict pH in serial reuse systems is critical to their design and effective operation. A trial and error solution to the alkalinity–pH system was used to estimate important water quality parameters in serial reuse systems. Transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the air–water interface, at overflow weirs, and impacts of substrate-attached algae and suspended bacteria were modeled. Gas transfer at the weirs was much greater than transfer across the air–water boundary. This simulation model can rapidly estimate influent and effluent concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, and un-ionized ammonia as a function of water temperature, elevation, water flow, and weir type. The accuracy of the estimates strongly depends on assumed pollutional loading rates and gas transfer at the weirs. The current simulation model is based on mean daily loading rates; the impacts of daily variation loading rates are discussed. Copies of the source code and executable program are available free of charge.

  10. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  11. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  12. Det ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Om begrebet "det ambiente", der beskriver, hvad der sker, når vi fornemmer baggrundsmusikkens diskrete beats, betragter udsigten gennem panoramavinduet eller tager 3D-brillerne på og læner os tilbage i biografsædet. Bogen analyserer, hvorfan ambiente oplevelser skabes, og hvilke konsekvenser det...

  13. Haber Process for Ammonia Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uses of ammonia. considerable release of heat. The reaction is a reversible reac- tion, that is, it can proceed both in forward direction (ammonia synthesis) and backward direction (ammonia decomposition). The reaction is accompanied by decrease in volume because there is a decrease in number of moles of gas from 2 to ...

  14. Field intercomparison of ammonia passive samplers: results and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Amy; Leeson, Sarah; Jones, Matthew; van Dijk, Netty; Kentisbeer, John; Twigg, Marsailidh; Simmons, Ivan; Braban, Christine; Martin, Nick; Poskitt, Janet; Ferm, Martin; Seitler, Eva; Sacco, Paolo; Gates, Linda; Stolk, Ariën; Stoll, Jean-Marc; Tang, Sim

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia pollution contributes significantly to eutrophication and acidification of ecosystems with resultant losses of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. Monitoring of ambient ammonia over a wide spatial and long temporal scales is primarily done with low-cost diffusive samplers. Less frequently, surface flux measurements of ammonia can be made using passive samplers at plot scale. This paper will present a field intercomparison conducted within the MetNH3 project to assess the performance of passive samplers for ambient measurements of ammonia. Eight different designs of commercial passive samplers housed in shelters provided by the manufacturer/laboratory were exposed over an 8-week period at the Whim experimental field site in Scotland between August and October 2016. Whim Bog has a facility in place for controlled releases of ammonia (http://www.whimbog.ceh.ac.uk/). Automated conditional release from the line source occurs when the wind direction in the preceding minute is from the northeast (wind sector 180-215°) and wind speed is > 5 m s-1. The passive samplers were exposed at different distances from the release source (16, 32 and 60 m) and also at a background location. Most were exposed for 2 x 4-week long periods and some for 4 x 2-week long periods. At the 32 m position, an active denuder method, the CEH DELTA sampler and a continuous high temporal resolution wet chemistry ammonia instrument (AiRRmonia, Mechatronics, NL.) were also deployed alongside the passive samplers to provide reference measurements of ammonia. Results are presented within the context of the MetNH3 CATFAC controlled laboratory exposure assessments. The results are discussed in terms of typical deployments of passive samplers and quality control. Measurement for policy evidence for both local and regional studies using passive samplers are discussed.

  15. Det Ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Det ambiente er iscenesættelsen af en karakteristisk sanseoplevelse, der er kendetegnet ved fornemmelsen af at være omgivet. I dag bliver begrebet om det ambiente mest anvendt i forbindelse med musikgenren ’ambient musik’. Det ambiente er dog ikke essentielt knyttet til det musikalske, men må...... forstås som et betydeligt bredere fænomen i den moderne æstetiske kultur, der spiller en væsentlig rolle i oplevelsen af moderne transportformer, arkitektur, film, lydkunst, installationskunst og digitale multimedieiscenesættelser. En forståelse af det ambiente er derfor centralt for forståelsen af en...... moderne æstetiseret oplevelseskultur i almindelighed. Da det ambiente ikke hidtil har været gjort til genstand for en mere indgående teoretisk behandling, er der dog stor usikkerhed omkring, hvad fænomenet overhovedet indebærer. Hovedformålet med Det ambiente – Sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er derfor...

  16. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Effects of Ammonia Oxidation by Thermophilic Thaumarchaeota from a Geothermal Water Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Sanae; Konno, Uta; Nakahara, Nozomi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Saito, Yumi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Tasumi, Eiji; Makabe, Akiko; Koba, Keisuke; Takai, Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ammonia oxidation regulates the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature. Although ammonia-oxidizing archaea have been recently recognized to often outnumber ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in various environments, the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea is still uncertain due to difficulties in the in situ quantification of ammonia oxidation activity. Nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrite (δ15NNO2− and δ18ONO2−, respectively) are geochemical tracers for evaluating the sources and the in situ rate of nitrite turnover determined from the activities of nitrification and denitrification; however, the isotope ratios of nitrite from archaeal ammonia oxidation have been characterized only for a few marine species. We first report the isotope effects of ammonia oxidation at 70°C by thermophilic Thaumarchaeota populations composed almost entirely of “Candidatus Nitrosocaldus.” The nitrogen isotope effect of ammonia oxidation varied with ambient pH (25‰ to 32‰) and strongly suggests the oxidation of ammonia, not ammonium. The δ18O value of nitrite produced from ammonia oxidation varied with the δ18O value of water in the medium but was lower than the isotopic equilibrium value in water. Because experiments have shown that the half-life of abiotic oxygen isotope exchange between nitrite and water is longer than 33 h at 70°C and pH ≥6.6, the rate of ammonia oxidation by thermophilic Thaumarchaeota could be estimated using δ18ONO2− in geothermal environments, where the biological nitrite turnover is likely faster than 33 h. This study extended the range of application of nitrite isotopes as a geochemical clock of the ammonia oxidation activity to high-temperature environments. IMPORTANCE Because ammonia oxidation is generally the rate-limiting step in nitrification that regulates the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature, it is important to understand the biological and environmental factors underlying

  17. Modelling of Cavitation of Wash-Out Water, Ammonia Water, Ammonia Water with Increased Content Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulphide, Tar Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef DOBEŠ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to design and implement a procedure of numerical modelling of cavitation of working mixtures: wash-out water, ammonia water, ammonia water with an increased content of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia, tar condensate. The numeric modelling is designed in the program Ansys Fluent using Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model. The issue of these liquids modelling can be solved by the cavitation simulation of water admixtures. Working fluids contain the following main ingredients: water, ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Subsequently, a comparison of the amount of water vapor (reference liquid and given fluid vapor is executed. The Schnerr-Sauer model is chosen because of good results in previous simulations for water cavitation. As a geometry is selected Laval nozzle. Modelled liquid mixtures are used in the petrochemical industry, as a filling for fluid circuits where cavitation may occur and therefore the research is needed.

  18. Periodismo ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Lemos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los periodistas toman el tema del medio ambiente cada vez más en serio. El uso de temas relacionados con el medio ambiente, debe estar ligado al análisis socio-económico y a las posibilidades de comunicación y educación de diferentes regiones del mundo. A continuación se presenta un resumen de la situación ambiental, las acciones de prensa y comunicación que se llevan a cabo en América Central (Panamá, El Salvador, Costa Rica y en Sudamérica Brasil,Colombia, Chile, México, y Perú. Se concluye en la necesidad de formar hábitos ecológicos. Los comunicadores deben presentar soluciones a los problemas, fomentar campañas comunes, compartir información y velar por el ambiente ambiente para que las generaciones futuras no tengan que perecer.

  19. Electride support boosts nitrogen dissociation over ruthenium catalyst and shifts the bottleneck in ammonia synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kitano, M.; Kanbara, S.; Inoue, Y.; Kuganathan, N; Sushko, PV; YOKOYAMA, T; Hara, M; Hosono, H.

    2015-01-01

    Novel approaches to efficient ammonia synthesis at an ambient pressure are actively sought out so as to reduce the cost of ammonia production and to allow for compact production facilities. It is accepted that the key is the development of a high-performance catalyst that significantly enhances dissociation of the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond, which is generally considered a rate-determining step. Here we examine kinetics of nitrogen and hydrogen isotope exchange and hydrogen adsorption/deso...

  20. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries...... technology is adopted quicker and that the farm has the right location. It is concluded that the new application process so far has not lived up to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely...

  1. Pretreatment of corn stover using low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Chang Geun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Hicks, Kevin B; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2011-11-01

    A simple pretreatment method using anhydrous ammonia was developed to minimize water and ammonia inputs for cellulosic ethanol production, termed the low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) pretreatment. In this method, corn stover with 30-70% moisture was contacted with anhydrous ammonia in a reactor under nearly ambient conditions. After the ammoniation step, biomass was subjected to a simple pretreatment step at moderate temperatures (40-120°C) for 48-144 h. Pretreated biomass was saccharified and fermented without an additional washing step. With 3% glucan loading of LMAA-treated corn stover under best treatment conditions (0.1g-ammonia+1.0 g-water per g biomass, 80°C, and 84 h), simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation test resulted in 24.9 g/l (89% of theoretical ethanol yield based on glucan+xylan in corn stover). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Field intercomparison of diffusive samplers for measuring ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, M; Braeutigam, S; Ferm, M; Haas, M; Hangartner, M; Hofschreuder, P; Kasper-Giebl, A; Römmelt, H; Striedner, J; Terzer, W; Thöni, L; Werner, H; Zimmerling, R

    1999-06-01

    Agricultural production systems are recognised as a major source of atmospheric ammonia. Deposition of ammonia and ammonium may contribute to undesired changes in oligotrophic ecosystems. The continuous measurement of atmospheric ammonia requires expensive and sophisticated techniques and is performed only in a very restrict number of ambient air stations in Europe. Therefore, the application of passive samplers, which have the advantage of being easy to handle and cost-efficient, is useful. In the past the comparability of different passive samplers must be considered as rather scarce. In a joint European project under the leadership of the GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg, in 1997 a comparison of different passive ammonia monitoring methods was carried out in a prealpine rural site near Garmisch-Partenkirchen. It was considered valuable to include not only well established systems but also methods still being developed. For the comparative test ten working groups with different methods took part. A wet annular denuder system, which has been developed by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation for on-line measurement of atmospheric ammonia, served as reference of passive methods. The experiment, which started in June and finished in December, showed that most of the passive samplers fulfil the requirements and can be recommended for further measurements. Additional measurements of meteorological parameters were performed to check the influences of different weather conditions on passive sampling.

  3. Stability of gravimetrically prepared ammonia in nitrogen standards at 10 and 100 µmolmol-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico di Meane, Elena; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nicholas A.; Brewer, Paul J.; Worton, David R.

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a well-known ambient pollutant which plays a key role in both atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical processes occurring in a variety of ecosystems. Ammonia is emitted from intensive animal farming and certain industrial processes: once in the atmosphere, it contributes to the increasing ambient levels of particulate matter observed across Europe. As legislation is being implemented to curb ammonia emissions, it is crucial to achieve metrological traceability for ammonia measurements in ambient air to allow comparability of field measurements, ensure accuracy of emissions inventories and verify the effectiveness of emission ceiling policies. The development of stable and traceable gas standards for instrument calibration underpins all of the above. To address this requirement, a stability study on gravimetrically-prepared high-pressure ammonia mixtures in nitrogen was carried out for two years for two different cylinder types at two different concentrations: 10 and 100 ppm. New standards were prepared gravimetrically every three to six months for comparison to determine any variations due to instability. In the first type of cylinders ammonia appears stable at 100 ppm but shows degradation of about 2% at 10 ppm over the timescale of the stability study; on the other hand, the second type of cylinders exhibits good stability already at the 10 ppm level.

  4. Ambient Utopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Bosse, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    his chapter presents an analysis of the ambitions that lie behind the concept of Ambient Intelligence as it is presented by the advocates and researchers working in the field. In particular it looks at the ideas regarding the forms of natural and intuitive forms of interaction that are envisaged –

  5. Environmental impact of the programs of substitution of room type air conditioning equipment; Impacto ambiental de los programas de sustitucion de equipos de aire tipo cuarto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon Aleman, Jose Mauricio [OLADE, Quito (Ecuador)

    2002-09-01

    The present article approaches in a general way the relation that exists between the environment and the saving of electrical energy, especially in the Programs of Demand Side Management (DSM). In particular form the potential environmental impacts are described, derived of the use and the discard of the room type air conditioning equipment, goes deep into the characteristics of their cooling fluids, as well as in the relation that these keep with the protocols of Montreal and Kyoto. Finally, this article comments the incidence which have, the manufacturers as the institutions that implement DSM programs, on the environmental part of the programs of substitution of room type air conditioning equipment. In addition it is briefly described, the pilot program developed by Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) as a successful case. [Spanish] En forma general, el presente articulo aborda la relacion que existe entre el medio ambiente y el ahorro de energia electrica, especialmente en los Programas de Administracion por el Lado de la Demanda (ALD). En forma particular se describen los impactos ambientales potenciales, derivados del uso y desecho de los equipos de aire acondicionado tipo cuarto, se ahonda en las caracteristicas de sus refrigerantes, asi como en la relacion que estos guardan con los protocolos de Montreal y Kioto. Finalmente, se comenta la incidencia que tienen, tanto los fabricantes como las instituciones que implementan programas de ALD, sobre la parte ambiental de los programas de sustitucion de equipos de aire acondicionado tipo cuarto. Ademas se describe brevemente, el programa piloto desarrollado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) como un caso exitoso.

  6. Atmospheric Amines and Ammonia Measured with a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Y.; Kanawade, V. P.; de Gouw, J. A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Madronich, Sasha; Sierra-Hernandez, M. R.; Lawler, M.; Smith, James N.; Takahama, S.; Ruggeri, G.; Koss, A.; Olson, K.; Baumann, K.; Weber, R. J.; Nenes, A.; Guo, H.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Porcelli, L.; Brune, W. H.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Lee, S.-H

    2014-11-19

    We report ambient measurements of amines and ammonia with a fast response chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) in a Southeastern U.S. forest in Alabama and a moderately polluted Midwestern site during the summer. In the Alabama forest, mostly C3-amines (from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 2 ppbv) were detected on a daily basis. C3-amines and ammonia showed similar diurnal trends and temperature and wind direction dependences, and were not associated with transported CO and SO2 plumes. Consistent with temperature dependences, amine and ammonia in the gas and aerosol phases showed opposite diurnal trends, indicating gas-to-particle partitioning of amines and ammonia. Temperature dependences also imply reversible processes of amines and ammonia evaporation from soil surfaces in daytime and deposition of amines and ammonia to soil surfaces at nighttime. Various amines (C1-C6) at the pptv level were observed in the transported biomass burning plumes, showing that biomass burning can be a substantial source of amines in the Southeast U.S. At the moderately polluted Kent site, higher concentrations of amines (C1-C6, from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 6 ppbv) were detected. Diurnal variations of C1- to C3-amines and ammonia were correlated with the ambient temperature. C4- to C6-amines showed abrupt increases during the nighttime, suggesting that they were emitted from local sources. These abundant amines and ammonia may in part explain the frequent new particle formation events reported from Kent. Lower amine concentrations at the rural forested site highlight the importance of constraining anthropogenic sources of amines.

  7. Equation of state of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulford, R.; Swift, D. C.; Hamel, S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonia and water are critical components of extraterrestrial bodies, determining the density and physical properties of the Outer Planets, their moons, and of extrasolar planets. Ammonia is unusual in having a high heat capacity relative to other molecular species. Equations of state (EOS) are presented for ammonia and for mixtures of ammonia and water. Their properties are discussed in terms of chemical compositions that evolve as pressure and temperature are varied. The NH4OH hydrate of ammonia is known to exist as a separate molecular species at pressures above about 5 GPa, and an effort was made to include reaction between NH3 and H2O in the mixture EOS. The EOS are suitable for calculating structures of icy planets and exoplanets, and of impacts. mass-radius relations which bound the possible interpretations of composition and structure for extraterrestrial bodies of unknown composition, such as exoplanets.

  8. Educacion Ambiental en las Escuelas: Creando una Programa que Funcione! (Environmental Education in the Schools: Creating a Program That Works!).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, Judy A.; Wood, David

    This book is a manual that enables teachers to formulate an effective program of environmental education across multiple grade levels and cultural settings. A section provides tips for using the book, followed by nine chapters dealing with different aspects of developing and implementing an environmental education program. Chapter 1 presents a…

  9. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E

    1990-01-01

    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  10. Removal of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater by microwave radiation: a pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Chen, Jing; Xu, Zuqun; Yuan, Songhu; Cao, Menghua; Liu, Huangcheng; Lu, Xiaohua

    2009-09-15

    A large removal of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater has been achieved by microwave (MW) radiation in our previous bench-scale study. This study developed a continuous pilot-scale MW system to remove ammonia nitrogen in real wastewater. A typical high concentration of ammonia nitrogen contaminated wastewater, the coke-plant wastewater from a Coke company, was treated. The output power of the microwave reactor was 4.8 kW and the handling capacity of the reactor was about 5m(3) per day. The ammonia removal efficiencies under four operating conditions, including ambient temperature, wastewater flow rate, aeration conditions and initial concentration were evaluated in the pilot-scale experiments. The ammonia removal could reach about 80% for the real coke-plant wastewater with ammonia nitrogen concentrations of 2400-11000 mg/L. The running cost of the MW technique was a little lower than the conventional steam-stripping method. The continuous microwave system showed the potential as an effective method for ammonia nitrogen removal in coke-plant water treatment. It is proposed that this process is suitable for the treatment of toxic wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen.

  11. Ammonia and methyl cyanide in hot cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmi, L.; Cesaroni, R.; Walmsley, C. M.

    1993-12-01

    We present the results of a work which used the IRAM 30-m telescope to observe the J=6--5, J=8--7, and J=12--11 rotational transitions of methyl cyanide (CH3CN) towards 11 ultracompact H{\\small II} regions in the inner galaxy. The sources observed were taken from a recent study of high-excitation ammonia lines by Cesaroni et al. (1992). All of the sources in our list were detected. We have analysed the data assuming the observed lines to be optically thin and have derived ``rotation temperatures'' and column densities. For four of the sources, we have carried out a more sophisticated analysis allowing for the effects of optical thickness using a large velocity gradient statistical equilibrium program. We find in this way methyl cyanide column densities in the range 310(15) --810(16) cm(-2) , and kinetic temperatures in the range 85--160 K. We also present results of a small survey of similar sources which we have observed in NH3 (4,4) and (5,5) using the Bonn 100-m telescope. An interesting feature of the new 100-m results is the discovery of two new sources showing high excitation ammonia in absorption. There is no obvious preference for sources to have ammonia absorption lines red-shifted relative to emission or vice-versa. Comparison with these and earlier ammonia results of Cesaroni et al. (1992) show that the inferred rotation temperatures are similar below 50 K, but there are large deviations between temperature estimates from the two molecules at higher temperatures. The abundance ratio [CH3CN]/[NH3] which we derive varies between 210(-4) and 810(-3) .

  12. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Getter materials for cracking ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffito, Claudio; Baker, John D.

    1999-11-02

    A method is provided for cracking ammonia to produce hydrogen. The method includes the steps of passing ammonia over an ammonia-cracking catalyst which is an alloy including (1) alloys having the general formula Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x M.sub.1 M.sub.2, wherein M.sub.1 and M.sub.2 are selected independently from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and x is between about 0.0 and about 1.0 inclusive; and between about 20% and about 50% Al by weight. In another aspect, the method of the invention is used to provide methods for operating hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines and hydrogen fuel cells. In still another aspect, the present invention provides a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine and a hydrogen fuel cell including the above-described ammonia-cracking catalyst.

  14. Ammonia chemistry within Danish churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte, Lilian; Rasmusen, Kaare Lund; Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Svensmark, Bo; Brimblecombe, Peter

    2012-02-15

    The increase of agricultural intensity over the last century in rural Denmark has meant that ammonia has been regarded as a significant environmental problem. The deterioration of murals in rural churches is also a matter of concern and focused attention on the potential for ammonia to accelerate damage. Ammonia concentrations measured over 12 months inside and outside nine churches often show a spring maximum outdoors, hinting at the importance of farming activities. The ammonia concentrations are on average some three times greater indoors than outdoors and mass balance calculations suggest that this arises from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate aerosols. The emissions may result from reactions of aerosols deposited at the alkaline walls, which also leads to calcium nitrate becoming the major soluble salt at the very surface layer. The quantities remain small enough, that they probably do not participate in salt damage to the murals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ambient diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Part I. FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Ambient Diagnostics?Diagnostic ModelsMultimedia IntelligenceCrowd SourcingSoft SensorsScience of SimplicityPersonal DiagnosesBasic AlgorithmsBasic ToolsSummaryProblemsTransformationEarly Discoveries of Heartbeat PatternsTransforms, Features, and AttributesSequential FeaturesSpatiotemporal FeaturesShape FeaturesImagery FeaturesFrequency Domain FeaturesMulti-Resolution FeaturesSummaryProblemsPattern RecognitionSimilarities and DistancesClustering MethodsClassification MethodsClassifier Accuracy MeasuresSummaryProblemsPart II. Multimedia IntelligenceSound RecognitionMicrophone AppsModern Acoustic Transducers (Microphones)Frequency Response CharacteristicsDigital Audio File FormatsHeart Sound SensingLung Sound SensingSnore MeterSpectrogram (STFT)Ambient Sound AnalysisSound RecognitionRecognizing Asthma SoundPeak ShiftFeature CompressionRegroupingNoise IssuesFuture ApplicationsSummaryProblemsColor SensorsColor SensingHuman Color VisionColor SensorsColor Matching ExperimentsC...

  16. Satellite Observations of Tropospheric Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, M. W.; Luo, M.; Rinsland, C. P.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Beer, R.; Pinder, R. W.; Henze, D.; Payne, V. H.; Clough, S.; Rodgers, C. D.; Osterman, G. B.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, H. M.

    2008-12-01

    Global high-spectral resolution (0.06 cm-1) nadir measurements from TES-Aura enable the simultaneous retrieval of a number of tropospheric pollutants and trace gases in addition to the TES standard operationally retrieved products (e.g. carbon monoxide, ozone). Ammonia (NH3) is one of the additional species that can be retrieved in conjunction with the TES standard products, and is important for local, regional, and global tropospheric chemistry studies. Ammonia emissions contribute significantly to several well-known environmental problems, yet the magnitude and seasonal/spatial variability of the emissions are poorly constrained. In the atmosphere, an important fraction of fine particulate matter is composed of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. These particles are statistically associated with health impacts. When deposited to ecosystems in excess, nitrogen, including ammonia can cause nutrient imbalances, change in ecosystem species composition, eutrophication, algal blooms and hypoxia. Ammonia is also challenging to measure in-situ. Observations of surface concentrations are rare and are particularly sparse in North America. Satellite observations of ammonia are therefore highly desirable. We recently demonstrated that tropospheric ammonia is detectable in the TES spectra and presented some corresponding preliminary retrievals over a very limited range of conditions (Beer et al., 2008). Presented here are results that expand upon these initial TES ammonia retrievals in order to evaluate/validate the retrieval results utilizing in-situ surface observations (e.g. LADCO, CASTNet, EPA /NC State) and chemical models (e.g. GEOS-Chem and CMAQ). We also present retrievals over regions of interest that have the potential to help further understand air quality and the active nitrogen cycle. Beer, R., M. W. Shephard, S. S. Kulawik, S. A. Clough, A. Eldering, K. W. Bowman, S. P. Sander, B. M. Fisher, V. H. Payne, M. Luo, G. B. Osterman, and J. R. Worden, First

  17. Ammonia Synthesis at Low Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussler, Edward; McCormick, Alon; Reese, Michael; Malmali, Mahdi

    2017-08-23

    Ammonia can be synthesized at low pressure by the use of an ammonia selective absorbent. The process can be driven with wind energy, available locally in areas requiring ammonia for synthetic fertilizer. Such wind energy is often called "stranded," because it is only available far from population centers where it can be directly used. In the proposed low pressure process, nitrogen is made from air using pressure swing absorption, and hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water. While these gases can react at approximately 400 °C in the presence of a promoted conventional catalyst, the conversion is often limited by the reverse reaction, which makes this reaction only feasible at high pressures. This limitation can be removed by absorption on an ammine-like calcium or magnesium chloride. Such alkaline metal halides can effectively remove ammonia, thus suppressing the equilibrium constraints of the reaction. In the proposed absorption-enhanced ammonia synthesis process, the rate of reaction may then be controlled not by the chemical kinetics nor the absorption rates, but by the rate of the recycle of unreacted gases. The results compare favorably with ammonia made from a conventional small scale Haber-Bosch process.

  18. Adapting an ambient monitoring program to the challenge of managing emerging pollutants in the San Francisco Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Rainer; Oros, Daniel R; Oram, John J; Taberski, Karen M

    2007-09-01

    While over seven million organic and inorganic compounds that have been indexed by the American Chemical Society's Chemical Abstracts Service in their CAS Registry are commercially available, most pollution monitoring programs focus only on those chemical stressors for which regulatory benchmarks exist, and have been traditionally considered responsible for the most significant human and environmental health risks. Until the late 1990s, the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program was no exception in that regard. After a thorough external review, the monitoring program responded to the need for developing a pro-active surveillance approach for emerging pollutants in recognition of the fact that the potential for the growing list of widely used chemical compounds to alter the integrity of water is high. We describe (1) the scientific and analytical bases underlying a new surveillance monitoring approach; (2) summarize approaches used and results obtained from a forensic retrospective; (3) present the growing data set on emerging pollutants from surveillance monitoring and related efforts in the San Francisco Bay Area to characterize newly targeted compounds in wastewater streams, sediment, storm water runoff, and biota; and (4) suggest next steps in monitoring program development and applied research that could move beyond traditional approaches of pollutant characterization. Based on the forensic analysis of archived chromatograms and chemical and toxicological properties of candidate compounds, we quantified a variety of synthetic organic compounds which had previously not been targeted for analysis. Flame retardant compounds, pesticides and insecticide synergists, insect repellents, pharmaceuticals, personal care product ingredients, plasticizers, non-ionic surfactants, and other manufacturing ingredients were detected in water, sediment, and/or biological tissue samples. Several of these compounds, especially polybrominated diphenyl ether flame

  19. Ammonia formation by metal-ligand cooperative hydrogenolysis of a nitrido ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askevold, Bjorn; Nieto, Jorge Torres; Tussupbayev, Samat; Diefenbach, Martin; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Holthausen, Max C.; Schneider, Sven

    2011-07-01

    Bioinspired hydrogenation of N2 to ammonia at ambient conditions by stepwise nitrogen protonation/reduction with metal complexes in solution has experienced remarkable progress. In contrast, the highly desirable direct hydrogenation with H2 remains difficult. In analogy to the heterogeneously catalysed Haber-Bosch process, such a reaction is conceivable via metal-centred N2 splitting and unprecedented hydrogenolysis of the nitrido ligands to ammonia. We report the synthesis of a ruthenium(IV) nitrido complex. The high nucleophilicity of the nitrido ligand is demonstrated by unusual N-C coupling with π-acidic CO. Furthermore, the terminal nitrido ligand undergoes facile hydrogenolysis with H2 at ambient conditions to produce ammonia in high yield. Kinetic and quantum chemical examinations of this reaction suggest cooperative behaviour of a phosphorus-nitrogen-phosphorus pincer ligand in rate-determining heterolytic hydrogen splitting.

  20. Optimal Modeling of Urban Ambient Air Ozone Concentration Based on Its Precursors' Concentrations and Temperature, Employing Genetic Programming and Genetic Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Mahmoud; Husseinzadeh, Danial; Alikhani, Sadegh

    2014-04-01

    Efficient models are required to predict the optimum values of ozone concentration in different levels of its precursors' concentrations and temperatures. A novel model based on the application of a genetic programming (GP) optimization is presented in this article. Ozone precursors' concentrations and run time average temperature have been chosen as model's parameters. Generalization performances of two different homemade models based on genetic programming and genetic algorithm (GA), which can be used for calculating theoretical ozone concentration, are compared with conventional semi-empirical model performance. Experimental data of Mashhad city ambient air have been employed to investigate the prediction ability of properly trained GP, GA, and conventional semi-empirical models. It is clearly demonstrated that the in-house algorithm which is used for the model based on GP, provides better generalization performance over the model optimized with GA and the conventional semi-empirical ones. The proposed model is found accurate enough and can be used for urban air ozone concentration prediction.

  1. Modelo de programación asíncrona para Web transaccionales en un ambiente distribuido Asynchronous programming model for transactional Web in a distributed environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Marco Cáceres Alvarez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo define y detalla un modelo de programación asíncrono para sistemas de información Web transaccionales orientado a servicios en un ambiente distribuido uniendo las ventajas de las técnicas de programación Web asíncronas (AJAX, patrones de diseño orientados a objetos y servicios Web, para la obtención de aplicativos caracterizados por ser tolerantes a fallos, distribuidos, eficientes y usables. Principalmente se puntualizan los problemas encontrados en el modelo para uso de servicios Web clásicos, por ende se define, documenta y desarrolla un modelo de programación que solucione y mejore los servicios Web clásicos y se valide la solución a través del desarrollo de un prototipo basado en el modelo de programación definido.The present work defines and details an asynchronous programming model for transactional web information systems in distributed environment, joining the advantages of web asynchronous programming techniques (AJAX, object oriented design patterns and web services, to obtain fail tolerant, distributed, efficient and usable applications. The problems found in the classical Web services model are pointed out and a new model to solve and improve most common web services is defined, documented and developed. Also, a prototype is developed to validate the given solution using the defined model.

  2. Global Seabird Ammonia Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F. H.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Trathan, P.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seabird colonies represent a major source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote coastal and marine systems in temperate, tropical and polar regions. Previous studies have shown that NH3 emissions from Scottish seabird colonies were substantial - of similar magnitude to the most intensive agricultural point source emissions. The UK data were used to model global seabird NH3 emissions and suggested that penguins are a major source of emissions on and around the Antarctic continent. The largest seabird colonies are in the order of millions of seabirds. Due to the isolation of these colonies from anthropogenic nitrogen sources, they may play a major role in the nitrogen cycle within these ecosystems. A global seabird database was constructed and used in conjunction with a species-specific seabird bioenergetics model to map the locations of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies. The accuracy of the modelled emissions was validated with field data of NH3 emissions measured at key seabird colonies in different climatic regions of the world: temperate (Isle of May, Scotland), tropical (Ascension Island) and polar (Signy Island, South Georgia). The field data indicated good agreement between modelled and measured NH3 emissions. The measured NH3 emissions also showed the variability of emission with climate. Climate dependence of seabird NH3 emissions may have further implications under a changing global climate. Seabird colonies represent NH3 emission ‘hotspots’, often far from anthropogenic sources, and are likely to be the major source of nitrogen input to these remote coastal ecosystems. The direct manuring by seabirds at colony locations may strongly influence species richness and biodiversity. The subsequent volatilisation and deposition of NH3 increases the spatial extent of seabird influence on nitrogen cycling in their local ecosystem. As many seabird populations are fluctuating due to changing food supply, climate change or anthropogenic pressures, these factors

  3. The Ammonia Dimer Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Richard; Van Der Avoird, Ad

    2012-06-01

    The conclusion from microwave spectra by Nelson, Fraser, and Klemperer that the ammonia dimer has a nearly cyclic structure led to much debate about the issue of whether (NH_3)_2 is hydrogen bonded. This structure was surprising because most {ab initio} calculations led to a classical, nearly linear, hydrogen-bonded structure. An obvious explanation of the discrepancy between the outcome of these calculations and the microwave data which led Nelson {et al.} to their ``surprising structure'' might be the effect of vibrational averaging: the electronic structure calculations focus on finding the minimum of the intermolecular potential, the experiment gives a vibrationally averaged structure. Isotope substitution studies seemed to indicate, however, that the complex is nearly rigid. Additional data became available from high-resolution molecular beam far-infrared spectroscopy in the Saykally group. These spectra, displaying large tunneling splittings, indicate that the complex is very floppy. The seemingly contradictory experimental data were explained when it became possible to calculate the vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) states of the complex on a six-dimensional intermolecular potential surface. The potential used was a simple model potential, with parameters fitted to the far-infrared data. Now, for the first time, a six-dimensional potential was computed by high level {ab initio} methods and this potential will be used in calculations of the VRT states of (NH_3)_2 and (ND_3)_2. So, we will finally be able to answer the question whether the conclusions from the model calculations are indeed a valid explanation of the experimental data. D. Nelson, G. T. Fraser, and W. Klemperer J. Chem. Phys. 83 6201 (1985) J. G. Loeser, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, R. C. Cohen, M. J. Elrod, D. W. Steyert, R. J. Saykally, R. E. Bumgarner, and G. A. Blake J. Chem. Phys. 97 4727 (1992) E. H. T. Olthof, A. van der Avoird, and P. E. S. Wormer J. Chem. Phys. 101 8430 (1994) E. H. T. Olthof

  4. Data Processing and Programming Applied to an Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory; Desarrollo Informatico Aplicado a un Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinidad, J.A.; Gasco, C.; Palacios, M.A.

    2009-07-01

    This report is the original research work presented for the attainment of the author master degree and its main objective has been the resolution -by means of friendly programming- of some of the observed problems in the environmental radioactivity laboratory belonging to the Department of Radiological Surveillance and Environmental Radioactivity from CIEMAT. The software has been developed in Visual Basic for applications in Excel files and it solves by macro orders three of the detected problems: a) calculation of characteristic limits for the measurements of the beta total and beta rest activity concentrations according to standards MARLAP, ISO and UNE and the comparison of the three results b) Pb-210 and Po-210 decontamination factor determination in the ultra-low level Am-241 analysis in air samples by alpha spectrometry and c) comparison of two analytical techniques for measuring Pb-210 in air ( direct-by gamma spectrometry- and indirect -by radiochemical separation and alpha spectrometry). The organization processes of the different excel files implied in the subroutines, calculations and required formulae are explained graphically for its comprehension. The advantage of using this kind of programmes is based on their versatility and the ease for obtaining data that lately are required by tables that can be modified as time goes by and the laboratory gets more data with the special applications for describing a method (Pb-210 decontamination factors for americium analysis in air) or comparing temporal series of Pb-210 data analysed by different methods (Pb-210 in air). (Author)

  5. Phenol recovery with liquid ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilman

    1943-08-03

    This report covers the results of a phenol recovery plant at Ludwigshafen which had recently suffered a severe explosion. From a Gelsenberg hydrogenation middle oil with 18 percent phenol, an 86 to 96 percent phenol fraction was recovered. Because the occurring neutral oil was phenol-free and because with the process a phenol loss was impossible, it was assumed that the yield was quantitative. With regard to the working process, the middle oil was fed into the upper section of a column four feet high, in which liquid ammonia from below climbed upward. The ammonia thereby absorbed the phenol quantitatively, and the ammonium phenolate solution absorbed a certain amount of neutral oil. The loaded ammonia went over the top of the column while at the foot of the column the phenol-free neutral oil collected and was drawn off. The ammonium phenolate solution was then washed with light gasoline in a second column. For this, the ammonia was fed into the upper, the light gasoline into the lower part of the column. The light gasoline absorbed almost quantitatively the neutral oil which was molecularly or actually colloidally dissolved in the ammonium phenolate solution, and even a small amount of the phenol and ammonia. Thickening in concentration, the light gasoline was fed into a storage tank where it was freed of its dissolved components by atmospheric distillation and recycled into the process. The ammonium phenolate solution which before the gasoline wash left behind a vaporization residue with about 40 percent phenol afterwards produced a raw phenol of 86 to 96 percent pure phenol. Because of technical difficulties, the concentration of the washed ammonium phenolate solution could not be determined. It was gathered at the bottom of the second column and fed into a storage tank where the phenol was freed by pressure distillation. The ammonia was then recycled into the process.

  6. Accelerated DFT-Based Design of Materials for Ammonia Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Bialy, Agata; Blanchard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Future energy carriers are needed in order to lower the CO2 emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. One possible energy carrier is ammonia, which can be stored safely and reversibly in metal halide ammines; however, the release often occurs in multiple steps at too high temperatures....... Therefore, there is a need for new materials, releasing the ammonia in a narrow temperature interval. To search for new mixed metal halide chlorides, we use DFT calculations guided by a genetic algorithm (GA) to expedite the search, as the defined search space allowing up to three different metals contains...... materials is the first known high-capacity ternary metal halide ammine, which we have subsequently synthesized and confirmed the ammonia storage properties using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD)....

  7. AMMONIA INHIBITION IN THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF DAIRY CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sutaryo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of five different concentrations of total ammonia nitrogen (TANand free ammonia (FA on the methane yield and digester performance under thermophilic conditions(50°C. Five identical continuously fed digesters were used. The experiment was run for four timeshydraulic retention time (HRT. Data were statitically analysed using the data Analysis Tool Packavailable with the Microsoft Excel program. Different ammonia levels were obtained by pulsing urea toobtain the target level of TAN and FA, and to subsequently maintaining the concentration of ammonialevels by daily urea additions. The result showed a strong negative correlation between both TAN andFA concentrations and methane yield. The methane yield was reduced by 24, 30, 52 and 66% indigesters that had TAN levels of 2.9, 3.6, 4.4 and 5.1 g/L, respectively, corresponding to 0.7, 1.1,1.5 and1.8 g/L FA. Total volatile fatty acid and especially isovaleric and isobutyric acid concentrations wereelevated during ammonia inhibition. Concentration of TAN in the biogas digester exceeding 3 g/Lindicating that very often the full biogas potential is not achieved due to ammonia inhibition and thatlonger HRT should be used to compensate or a lower process temperature should be chosen.

  8. Rumen ammonia concentrations, and non-ammonia nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sheeps' burnet (Sanguisorba minor). Digesta flow was measured with reference to Yb-acetate and Cr-EDTA as particulate and fluid markers, respectively. Rumen ammonia concentrations were exponentially associated with the nitrogen (N) content of the forage, with concentrations increasing progressively above 2.5% N in ...

  9. Rumen ammonia concentrations, and non-ammonia nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-ammonia nitrogen (NAN) passage to the small intestine and disappearance of NAN in that organ have been studied in multi-cannulated sheep on pasture or fed indoors. Forages under investigation included a number of subtropical grasses, foggages and hay, temperate grasses, lucerne (Medicago sativa), triticale ...

  10. Local Agenda 21 as a environmental social responsibility tool: an example of 'De olho no Ambiente' program; A Agenda 21 local como ferramenta de RSA (Responsabilidade Social Ambiental): o exemplo do Programa 'De olho no ambiente' em comunidades amazonicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Edson R.S.P. da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)], e-mail: ercunha@petrobras.com.br; Ferreira, Tatiana de S.F.; Santana, Jose Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias], e-mail: tatidesa@hotmail.com, e-mail: jl.santana@uol.com.br; Rocco, Roberto W.; Beniz, Gabriel A. [ONG ASA - Associacao de Servicos Ambientais(Brazil)], e-mail: rwrocco@gmail.com, e-mail: gbeniz@hotmail.com; Carvalho, Nelson Cabral de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: nelsoncabral@petrobras.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the Agenda 21 Local construction process developed by PETROBRAS within the context of the 'De Olho no Ambiente' Program. This is an alternative for the sustainable development of reduced social inclusion communities located in the Company's areas of influence in the Amazon Region. Agenda 21 is a participative process that analyzes a country, state, municipal or community's actual situation, and plans its sustainable future. Its objective is to reach a new development paradigm, through the construction of an action plan focused on a future scenario desired by the local community, which takes into consideration the vulnerability and potential analysis of its socio-economical, cultural and environmental bases. PETROBRAS has introduced Agenda 21 Local in three riverside communities located in the Coari municipal, where the Solimoes Terminal (TESOL) is situated. This terminal receives and stores petroleum and gas from the Urucu Petroliferous Province, in the Amazonian State. In each location partnerships were signed with several governmental and civilian institutions during the implementation of the Agenda 21 Local Forum. Here each participant has the right to debate, which makes this a participative management process mechanism and an act of citizenship. (author)

  11. RESULTS OF INITIAL AMMONIA OXIDATION TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-30

    This memo presents an experimental survey of aqueous phase chemical processes to remove aqueous ammonia from waste process streams. Ammonia is generated in both the current Hanford waste flowsheet and in future waste processing. Much ammonia will be generated in the Low Activity Waste (LAW) melters.i Testing with simulants in glass melters at Catholic University has demonstrated the significant ammonia production.ii The primary reaction there is the reducing action of sugar on nitrate in the melter cold cap. Ammonia has been found to be a problem in secondary waste stabilization. Ammonia vapors are noxious and destruction of ammonia could reduce hazards to waste treatment process personnel. It is easily evolved especially when ammonia-bearing solutions are adjusted to high pH.

  12. AMMONIA-FREE NOx CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2006-06-01

    This report describes a novel NOx control system that has the potential to drastically reduce cost, and enhance performance, operation and safety of power plant NOx control. The new system optimizes the burner and the furnace to achieve very low NOx levels and to provide an adequate amount of CO, and uses the CO for reducing NO both in-furnace and over a downstream AFSCR (ammonia-free selective catalytic reduction) reactor. The AF-SCR combines the advantages of the highly successful SCR technology for power plants and the TWC (three-way catalytic converter) widely used on automobiles. Like the SCR, it works in oxidizing environment of combustion flue gas and uses only base metal catalysts. Like the TWC, the AF-SCR removes NO and excess CO simultaneously without using any external reagent, such as ammonia. This new process has been studied in a development program jointed funded by the US Department of Energy and Foster Wheeler. The report outlines the experimental catalyst work performed on a bench-scale reactor, including test procedure, operating conditions, and results of various catalyst formulations. Several candidate catalysts, prepared with readily available transition metal oxides and common substrate materials, have shown over 80-90% removal for both NO and CO in oxidizing gas mixtures and at elevated temperatures. A detailed combustion study of a 400 MWe coal-fired boiler, applying computational fluid dynamics techniques to model boiler and burner design, has been carried out to investigate ways to optimize the combustion process for the lowest NOx formation and optimum CO/NO ratios. Results of this boiler and burner optimization work are reported. The paper further discusses catalyst scale-up considerations and the conceptual design of a 400 MWe size AF-SCR reactor, as well as economics analysis indicating large cost savings of the ammonia-free NOx control process over the current SCR technology.

  13. Chemical looping of metal nitride catalysts: low-pressure ammonia synthesis for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, R; Avram, A M; Peterson, B A; Pfromm, P H; Peterson, A A

    2015-07-01

    The activity of many heterogeneous catalysts is limited by strong correlations between activation energies and adsorption energies of reaction intermediates. Although the reaction is thermodynamically favourable at ambient temperature and pressure, the catalytic synthesis of ammonia (NH 3 ), a fertilizer and chemical fuel, from N 2 and H 2 requires some of the most extreme conditions of the chemical industry. We demonstrate how ammonia can be produced at ambient pressure from air, water, and concentrated sunlight as renewable source of process heat via nitrogen reduction with a looped metal nitride, followed by separate hydrogenation of the lattice nitrogen into ammonia. Separating ammonia synthesis into two reaction steps introduces an additional degree of freedom when designing catalysts with desirable activation and adsorption energies. We discuss the hydrogenation of alkali and alkaline earth metal nitrides and the reduction of transition metal nitrides to outline a promoting role of lattice hydrogen in ammonia evolution. This is rationalized via electronic structure calculations with the activity of nitrogen vacancies controlling the redox-intercalation of hydrogen and the formation and hydrogenation of adsorbed nitrogen species. The predicted trends are confirmed experimentally with evolution of 56.3, 80.7, and 128 μmol NH 3 per mol metal per min at 1 bar and above 550 °C via reduction of Mn 6 N 2.58 to Mn 4 N and hydrogenation of Ca 3 N 2 and Sr 2 N to Ca 2 NH and SrH 2 , respectively.

  14. Determination of ammonia in ear-lobe capillary blood is an alternative to arterial blood ammonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, J. R.; Gips, C. H.; Conn, H. O.; Jansen, P. L.

    1995-01-01

    Blood ammonia determination is a laboratory test to diagnose hepatic encephalopathy. Arterial blood is superior to peripheral venous blood ammonia because of ammonia metabolism in muscle. We have compared capillary with arterial whole blood ammonia as capillary sampling is an attractive alternative.

  15. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA IN EAR-LOBE CAPILLARY BLOOD IS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ARTERIAL BLOOD AMMONIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUIZENGA, [No Value; GIPS, CH; CONN, HO; JANSEN, PLM

    1995-01-01

    Blood ammonia determination is a laboratory test to diagnose hepatic encephalopathy. Arterial blood is superior to peripheral venous blood ammonia because of ammonia metabolism in muscle. We have compared capillary with arterial whole blood ammonia as capillary sampling is an attractive alternative.

  16. Glycopyrrolate in toxic exposure to ammonia gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH 3 is a highly water-soluble, colorless, irritant gas with a unique pungent odor. Liquid ammonia stored under high pressure is still widely used for refrigeration in cold stores used for storing grains. Severe toxicity may occur following accidental exposure. We report an interesting case of accidental exposure to ammonia treated with glycopyrrolate along with other supportive measures.

  17. Ammonia synthesis at low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Thomas Holm; Logadottir, Ashildur; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2000-01-01

    have been carried out to evaluate its feasibility. The calculations suggest that it might be possible to catalytically produce ammonia from molecular nitrogen at low temperatures and pressures, in particular if energy is fed into the process electrochemically. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  18. Haber Process for Ammonia Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 9. Haber Process for Ammonia Synthesis. Jayant M Modak. General Article Volume 7 Issue 9 September 2002 pp 69-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/09/0069-0077. Keywords.

  19. Haber Process for Ammonia Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Haber Process for Ammonia Synthesis. Jayant M Modak. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1159-1167. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/12/1159-1167. Keywords.

  20. Formation of ammonia from dinitrogen under primordial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, W.; Dörr, M.; Robl, C.; Kreisel, G.; Grunert, R.; Käßbohrer, J.; Brand, W.; Werner, R.; Popp, J.; Tarcea, N.

    2002-11-01

    Ammonia is one of the most largely industrially produced basic compounds, leading to a variety of important secondary products. In the chemical industry, ammonia is produced in large amounts via the HABER-BOSCH-process. In contrast to the industrial process, the nitrogenase enzyme operates in organisms under very mild conditions at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. In this article, we describe a method for the synthesis of ammonia from molecular nitrogen using H2S and freshly precipitated iron sulfide as a mediator thus serving as a primordial inorganic substitute for the enzyme nitrogenase. The reductand, as well as the reaction conditions (atmospheric nitrogen pressure and temperatures on the order of 70 - 80°C) are rather mild and therefore comparable to the biological processes. The driving force of the overall reaction is believed to be the oxidation of iron sulfide to iron disulfide, and the formation of hydrogen from H2S. The reactions reported in this article may support the theory of an archaic nitrogen-fixing Fe-S cluster.

  1. The ACODAC Ambient Noise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    with the hmtman operator at the s.trface via acoustic telemetry also are part of the data acquisition sub-system. (M time iis recordv-d on the ttiux...electronics, recording, and telemetry A p.,wer supply An AI" acoustic release below the IIV A Geodyne time release (or another AMY acoustic release) The anchor

  2. Ammonia as efficient fuel for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerte, A.; Valenzuela, R.X.; Escudero, M.J. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Daza, L. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Ammonia is a possible candidate as the fuel for SOFCs. In this work, the influence on the performance of a tubular SOFC running on ammonia is studied. Analysis of open circuit voltages (OCVs) on the cell indicated the oxidation of ammonia within a SOFC is a two-stage process: decomposition of the inlet ammonia into nitrogen and hydrogen, followed by oxidation of hydrogen to water. For comparison, cell was also tested with hydrogen as the fuel and air as oxidant at different temperatures showing a similar behaviour. The performance of the cell tested under various conditions shows the high potential of ammonia as fuel for SOFCs. (author)

  3. Increased production and excretion of urea in the kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) exposed to combined environments of increased ammonia and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S-Y; Lee, W C; Shieh, L W; Chen, J-C

    2004-10-01

    Marsupenaeus japonicus (6.37 +/- 1.29 g) individually exposed to 9 different combined solutions of ambient ammonia (C) and nitrite (C') ammonia at 0.003 [control], 0.39, and 1.49 mmol/L combined with nitrite at 0.001 [control], 0.38, and 1.49 mmol/L in 30 ppt were examined for nitrogenous excretion accumulations of ammonia, nitrite, urea, and uric acid in tissues after 48 hours. M. japonicus exposed to 0.39 mmol/L ammonia-0.38 mmol/L nitrite displayed higher levels of urea-nitrogen (UNE) and organic-N (ONE) excretion by a factor of 2.2 and 5.7, respectively, compared with shrimp exposed only to 0.39 mmol/L ammonia. Exposure to 0.39 mmol/L ammonia-0.38 mmol/L nitrite resulted in lower levels of hemolymph uric acid (HUA), gill ammonia (GAM), gill urea (GUE), gill uric acid (GUA), hepatopancreas ammonia (HPAM), hepatopancreas urea (HPUE), and hepatopancreas uric acid (APUA), respectively, compared with shrimp exposed only to 0.39 mmol/L ammonia. We concluded that M. japonicus exposed to combined environments of ammonia and nitrite display increased nitrogen metabolism and production of urea-N and other organic-N. Copyright 2004 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  4. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  5. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  6. Ammonia for hydrogen storage: challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Asbjørn; Christensen, Claus H.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2008-01-01

    and alcohols, it has the advantage that there is no CO2 emission at the end user. The drawbacks are mainly the toxicity of liquid ammonia and the problems related to trace amounts of ammonia in the hydrogen after decomposition. Storage of ammonia in metal ammine salts is discussed, and it is shown......The possibility of using ammonia as a hydrogen carrier is discussed. Compared to other hydrogen storage materials, ammonia has the advantages of a high hydrogen density, a well-developed technology for synthesis and distribution, and easy catalytic decomposition. Compared to hydrocarbons...... that this maintains the high volumetric hydrogen density while alleviating the problems of handling the ammonia. Some of the remaining challenges for research in ammonia as a hydrogen carrier are outlined....

  7. Model-predicted ammonia emission from two broiler houses with different rearing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Duarte Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 emissions from broiler production can affect human and animal health and may cause acidification and eutrophication of the surrounding environment. This study aimed to estimate ammonia emissions from broiler litter in two systems of forced ventilation, the tunnel ventilation (TV and the dark house (DH. The experiment was carried out on eight commercial broiler houses, and the age of the birds (day, d, pH and litter temperature were recorded. Broilers were reared on built-up wood shaving litter using an average flock density of 14 bird m–2. Temperature and relative humidity inside the broiler houses were recorded in the morning during the grow-out period. A factorial experimental design was adopted, with two types of houses, four replicates and two flocks with two replicates each. A deterministic model was used to predict ammonia emissions using the litter pH and temperature, and the day of grow-out. The highest litter temperature and pH were found at 42 d of growth in both housing systems. Mean ambient air temperature and relative humidity did not differ in either system. Mean model predicted ammonia emission was higher in the DH rearing system (5200 mg NH3 m−2h−1 at 42 d than in the TV system (2700 mg NH3m−2 h−1 at 42 d. TV presented the lowest mean litter temperature and pH at 42 d of growth. In the last week of the broilers’ grow-out cycle, estimated ammonia emissions inside DH reached 5700 mg m−2h−1 in one of the flocks. Ammonia emissions were higher inside DH, and they did not differ between flocks. Assuming a broiler market weight in Brazil of close to 2 kg, ammonia emissions were equivalent to 12 g NH3 bird-marketed−1. Model-predicted ammonia emissions provided comprehensible estimations and might be used in abatement strategies for NH3 emission.

  8. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in...... generally high. It was concluded that the contribution from floors to NH3 emissions was effect on N2O emissions was observed. The effect...

  9. Fiber-Optic Ammonia Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Reversible, colorimetric fiber-optic sensors are undergoing development for use in measuring concentrations of ammonia in air at levels relevant to human health [0 to 50 parts per million (ppm)]. A sensor of this type includes an optical fiber that has been modified by replacing a portion of its cladding with a polymer coat that contains a dye that reacts reversibly with ammonia and changes color when it does so. The change in color is measured as a change in the amount of light transmitted from one end of the fiber to the other. Responses are reversible and proportional to the concentration of ammonia over the range from 9 to 175 ppm and in some cases the range of reversibility extends up to 270 ppm. The characteristic time for the response of a sensor to rise from 10 to 90 percent of full scale is about 25 seconds. These sensors are fully operational in pure carbon dioxide and are not adversely affected by humidity. This work was done by Michael T. Carter

  10. Licenciamento ambiental e sustentabilidade

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Macedo Valinhas

    2011-01-01

    A sustentabilidade está apoiada principalmente nas dimensões econômica, ambiental e social. No entanto, sem a dimensão política ela não se constrói. Um dos principais instrumentos de comando e controle da política nacional de meio ambiente, o licenciamento ambiental é um processo contínuo de gestão ambiental pública e privada. Analisou-se o processo de licenciamento ambiental como acoplamento estrutural entre os sistemas social, econômico e ambiental. Apesar da constatação de críticas aos mec...

  11. Gerencia ambiental en Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edgar Alfredo Quiñonez Rizo

    2014-01-01

      El estudio La gerencia ambiental en Colombia: "Percepciones de los responsables ambientales 2011" tuvo como objetivo general identificar la postura de la gerencia ambiental dentro de las organizaciones empresariales en Colombia...

  12. Ammonia Process by Pressure Swing Adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Felix Jegede

    2010-12-27

    The overall objective of the project is to design, develop and demonstrate a technically feasible and commercially viable system to produce ammonia along with recovery of the products by adsorption separation methods and significantly decrease the energy requirement in ammonia production. This is achieved through a significantly more efficient ammonia psa recovery system. The new ammonia recovery system receives the reactor effluents and achieves complete ammonia recovery, (which completely eliminates the energy intensive refrigeration and condensation system currently used in ammonia production). It also recovers the unused reactants and recycles them back to the reactor, free of potential reactor contaminants, and without the need for re-compression and re-heat of recycle stream thereby further saving more energy. The result is a significantly lower energy consumption, along with capital cost savings.

  13. New findings on cerebral ammonia uptake in HE using functional (13)N-ammonia PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    ) analysed such data in patients with HE by a kinetic model accounting for transfer of (13)N-ammonia across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and intracellular formation of (13)N-glutamine. Initial unidirectional (13)N-ammonia transfer across BBB was characterized by the permeability-surface area product PS...... metabolites was linearly correlated to arterial ammonia. In conclusion, basic brain ammonia kinetics was not changed significantly in patients with cirrhosis +/- HE compared to healthy controls. Blood ammonia seems to be the more important factor for increased brain ammonia uptake in HE. Udgivelsesdato: 2007......PET is a functional imaging technique suitable for studies of brain ammonia metabolism. Dynamic (13)N-ammonia PET yields time-courses of radioactivity concentrations in brain (PET camera) and blood (samples). Ahl et al. (Hepatology 40:73-79, 2004) and Keiding et al. (Hepatology 43:42-50, 2006...

  14. Effects of ammonia-N stress on metabolic and immune function via the neuroendocrine system in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanting; Ren, Xianyun; Li, Jian; Zhai, Qianqian; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Yang; Ma, Li

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunological responses, such as phenoloxidase (PO), antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, and metabolic variables, such as oxyhemocyanin, lactate, and glucose levels, of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/L for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and determine the effects of the eyestalk hormone on the metabolic and immune functions of unilateral eyestalk-ablated L. vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 10 mg/L. The actual concentrations of the control and test solutions were 0.04, 2.77, 6.01, 8.30, and 11.36 mg/L for ammonia-N and 0.01, 0.15, 0.32, 0.44, and 0.60 mg/L for NH3-N (unionized ammonia). The results showed a significant decrease in the PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities in the plasma as well as a significant increase in the glucose and lactate levels and decreased oxyhemocyanin levels in the hemolymph of L. vannamei exposed to elevated ammonia-N levels. These findings indicated that L. vannamei exposed to ammonia-N might demonstrate weakened metabolic and immunological responses. Moreover, eyestalk removal caused a dramatic decrease in PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, which indicated that the eyestalk hormone in L. vannamei exhibited a higher immune response due to the induction of protective mechanisms against ammonia-N stress. Eyestalk removal also caused a dramatic decrease in glucose and lactate levels, suggesting that the eyestalk hormone is involved in glucose metabolism to meet the energy requirements under ammonia-N stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis of ammonia using sodium melt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Fumio; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2017-09-14

    Research into inexpensive ammonia synthesis has increased recently because ammonia can be used as a hydrogen carrier or as a next generation fuel which does not emit CO2. Furthermore, improving the efficiency of ammonia synthesis is necessary, because current synthesis methods emit significant amounts of CO2. To achieve these goals, catalysts that can effectively reduce the synthesis temperature and pressure, relative to those required in the Haber-Bosch process, are required. Although several catalysts and novel ammonia synthesis methods have been developed previously, expensive materials or low conversion efficiency have prevented the displacement of the Haber-Bosch process. Herein, we present novel ammonia synthesis route using a Na-melt as a catalyst. Using this route, ammonia can be synthesized using a simple process in which H2-N2 mixed gas passes through the Na-melt at 500-590 °C under atmospheric pressure. Nitrogen molecules dissociated by reaction with sodium then react with hydrogen, resulting in the formation of ammonia. Because of the high catalytic efficiency and low-cost of this molten-Na catalyst, it provides new opportunities for the inexpensive synthesis of ammonia and the utilization of ammonia as an energy carrier and next generation fuel.

  16. Ammonia and urea permeability of mammalian aquaporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litman, Thomas; Søgaard, Rikke; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The human aquaporins,AQP3,AQP7, AQP8,AQP9, and possibly AQP10, are permeable to ammonia, and AQP7, AQP9, and possibly AQP3, are permeable to urea. In humans, these aquaporins supplement the ammonia transport of the Rhesus (Rh) proteins and the urea transporters (UTs). The mechanism by which...... and 9 are found together with Rh proteins in cells exposed to portal blood coming from the intestine. In the kidney, AQP3 might participate in the excretion of NH(4) (+) in the collecting duct. The interplay between the ammonia-permeable aquaporins and the other types of ammonia- and urea...

  17. Corn-milling pretreatment with anhydrous ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Craig, James C; Kurantz, M J; Singh, Vijay

    2003-02-01

    Exposure to anhydrous ammonia has been suggested as a pretreatment for corn milling. Batches of corn were exposed to ammonia under controlled conditions. The amounts of ammonia absorbed and reacted with the corn were measured. The amounts were not more than are needed as nutritional supplement for yeast fermentation to ethanol. Loosening of the hull was observed qualitatively, and subsequent shearing in a disk mill followed by steeping for 2, 4, 6, or 8 h showed that germ could be recovered at higher yield and after a shorter steeping time compared to untreated control batches. Quality of oil was not affected by treatment with ammonia.

  18. Ammonia Vapor Removal by Cu3(BTC)2 and Its Characterization by MAS NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    from ambient temperature purge.1,2 Because the com- mercially available adsorbents such as activated carbons and zeolites exhibit ammonia off-gassing...MOFs to date has focused on gas storage applications,7–10 this class of materials shows promise for a broad range of air purification applications...under dry conditions are similar, while those at humid conditions differ. The dry case indicates that thermal regenera- tion does result in partially

  19. Biotecnologia i medi ambient

    OpenAIRE

    Blanch, Anicet R.

    2009-01-01

    La biotecnologia ambiental comprèn el conjunt d'activitats tecnològiques que ens permeten comprendre i gestionar els sistemes biològics en el medi ambient, per tal de proveir productes i serveis. Actualment la gestió del medi ambient i dels seus recursos naturals no s'entén si no es realitza de manera sostenible. L'avenç del coneixement científic i tecnològic permet a la biotecnologia ambiental desenvolupar noves eines i aplicacions per respondre als principals reptes ambiental...

  20. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  1. Different cultivation methods to acclimatise ammonia-tolerant methanogenic consortia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis; Mancini, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Bioaugmentation with ammonia tolerant-methanogenic consortia was proposed as a solution to overcome ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion process recently. However, appropriate technology to generate ammonia tolerant methanogenic consortia is still lacking. In this study, three basic...

  2. Reducing ammonia volatilization from compound fertilizers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonia volatilization is a direct loss of available nitrogen in agriculture. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of amending NPK fertilizer with different rates of clinoptilolite zeolite on ammonia volatilization, soil exchangeable ammonium, and available nitrate. Seven treatments evaluated were: 250 g soil ...

  3. Ammonia Sensor Using Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2015-09-01

    An ammonia sensor can include a laser detector configured to provide stable sample readings. The sensor can implement a method including processing the recorded intensity of the laser beam to determine a first harmonic component and a second harmonic component and the amount of ammonia in the sample.

  4. 1 Ammonia Concentrations in Different Aquaculture 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    tester Model HI 98129. Triplicate water samples of the AHTs were obtained and measured for ammonia, while pH, temperature, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids measurements were also measured in triplicates in situ. The unionized ammonia was calculated using spreadsheet developed by American ...

  5. Ammonia sensors and their applications - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, B.H.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    Many scientific papers have been written concerning gas sensors for different sensor applications using several sensing principles. This review focuses on sensors and sensor systems for gaseous ammonia. Apart from its natural origin, there are many sources of ammonia, like the chemical industry or

  6. The synthesis of ammonia from its elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nitrogen combines with gaseous hydrogen in simple quantitative proportions to produce gaseous ammonia. .... The combining of nitrogen with hydrogen to form ammonia as with oxygen to produce nitrates had ... There were proposals to utilize the explosive reactions simultaneously in a motor and as a source for the ...

  7. An Assessment of Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Facilities in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Ferguson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 715 Holstein dairy farms in Pennsylvania was used to construct demographics for the average Holstein dairy farm. The average Holstein dairy farm was composed of 69 lactating cows; 11 nonlactating, pregnant cows; 44 heifers; and 18 calves. Milk production averaged 27.3 kg (60.0 lb. Crop area averaged 73.6 ha. Milk production, crop area and type, average county yields, and herd animal groups were used to construct a typical feeding program for these farms. Typical rations were constructed for six feeding groups (three milk production groups, one nonlactating group, two heifer groups to meet milk production, pregnancy, and growth requirements. Rations were constructed based on three forage qualities (excellent, average, and poor typically observed on Pennsylvania dairy farms. Data for animal description (milk production, body weight, growth, and pregnancy status and ration components and amounts consumed for each animal group were input into the excretion model of the Dairy Nutrient Planner computer program (DNP. Excretion of fecal N and dry matter (DM, urinary N, and total P and K were produced for each animal group and used to assess potential volatile losses of N. Work at the Marshak Dairy, New Bolton Center, indicates the majority of urinary N is rapidly lost as ammonia from dairy facilities. Based on this observation, the losses of N as ammonia were estimated to be 4.63, 4.62, and 4.28�tonne/year for the farm with excellent, average, and poor quality forages, respectively. Volatile losses of N may be reduced most by controlling levels of urea in urine. Urinary N may be reduced through dietary manipulation of protein and carbohydrate sources. Conversion of urea to ammonia may be reduced by altering the pH of barn floors and gutters. Entrapment of ammonia may be accomplished by acidification of manure slurry. Atmospheric ammonia contributes to acid rain, eutrophication of estuaries and lakes, and particulate air pollution

  8. New findings on cerebral ammonia uptake in HE using functional (13)N-ammonia PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Susanne

    2007-12-01

    PET is a functional imaging technique suitable for studies of brain ammonia metabolism. Dynamic (13)N-ammonia PET yields time-courses of radioactivity concentrations in brain (PET camera) and blood (samples). Ahl et al. (Hepatology 40:73-79, 2004) and Keiding et al. (Hepatology 43:42-50, 2006) analysed such data in patients with HE by a kinetic model accounting for transfer of (13)N-ammonia across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and intracellular formation of (13)N-glutamine. Initial unidirectional (13)N-ammonia transfer across BBB was characterized by the permeability-surface area product PS(BBB) (ml blood min(-1) ml(-1) tissue). There was a tendency to lower PS(BBB) values in patients with cirrhosis and HE than in patients with cirrhosis without HE and healthy controls but the differences were not statistically significant. Keiding et al. (Hepatology 43:42-50, 2006) also calculated PS(met) (ml blood min(-1) ml(-1) tissue) as a measure of the combined transfer of (13)N-ammonia across BBB and subsequent intracellular metabolism of (13)N-ammonia; neither did this PS-value show significant difference between the groups of subjects. Net flux of ammonia from blood into intracellular metabolites was linearly correlated to arterial ammonia. In conclusion, basic brain ammonia kinetics was not changed significantly in patients with cirrhosis +/- HE compared to healthy controls. Blood ammonia seems to be the more important factor for increased brain ammonia uptake in HE.

  9. A questão ambiental urbana no programa de saúde da família: avaliação da estratégia ambiental numa política pública de saúde Urban environmental aspects on family health program: evaluating the environmental strategy of a health public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Maria Zöllner Ianni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta resultados da pesquisa realizada, em 2003/04, na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo - municípios de São Paulo, Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo e Diadema - sobre as relações entre atenção básica em saúde e meio ambiente. Avaliou-se o Programa de Saúde Família, uma política estratégica do Ministério da Saúde/Brasil, que visa a reversão do modelo assistencial vigente, contemplando a complexidade do quadro nosológico atual em que doenças relacionadas aos estilos de vida e ao meio ambiente adquirem crescente importância. O conceito de Promoção da Saúde, incorporado ao Programa, propõe a viabilização de ambientes favoráveis à saúde, entendendo que a Saúde se realiza na confluência de múltiplos fatores, atores e interesses; sendo vista, menos como um compartimento da administração pública, mais como um pressuposto na formulação de políticas, planos, programas e projetos. Neste ponto aparece, de modo inequívoco, que a proteção do ambiente e a conservação dos recursos naturais devem ocupar tempo e recursos do setor. O caráter inovador da temática levou a um estudo de modelagem sócio-antropológica, que permitiu identificar os principais problemas e aspectos da conexão saúde/ambiente na esfera do cotidiano das populações envolvidas e nas práticas dos profissionais da saúde.This paper is focused on the relation between health basic care and environment and how it is considered on the Family Health Program (PSF, an strategic policy of Ministry of Health/Brazil wich aims the revertion of usual health policies, strongly based on medical and health tecnologies resources and failing to avoid the incresase of incidence and prevalence of diseases due to environmental issues and way of living. Health Promotion concept is added to this program in order to make true the construction of kindly health environments, as health is more than a part of public administration, but the effect of

  10. A high-resolution ammonia emission inventory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Song, Yu; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Jianfeng; Huo, Qing; Cai, Xuhui; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2012-03-01

    The existence of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere and its interaction with other trace chemical species could have a substantial impact on tropospheric chemistry and global climate change. China is a large agricultural country with an enormous animal population, tremendous nitrogen fertilizer consumption and, consequently, a large emission of NH3. Despite the importance of NH3 in the global nitrogen (N) cycle, considerable inaccuracies and uncertainty exist regarding its emission in China. In this study, a comprehensive NH3 emission inventory was compiled for China on a 1 km × 1 km grid, which is suitable for input to atmospheric models. We attempted to estimate NH3 emissions accurately by taking into consideration as many native experiment results as possible and parameterizing the emission factors (EFs) by the ambient temperature, soil acidity and other factors. The total NH3emission in China was approximately 9.8 Tg in 2006. The emission sources considered included livestock excreta (5.3 Tg), fertilizer application (3.2 Tg), agricultural soil (0.2 Tg), nitrogen-fixing plants (0.05 Tg), crop residue compost (0.3 Tg), biomass burning (0.1 Tg), urine from rural populations (0.2 Tg), chemical industry (0.2 Tg), waste disposal (0.1 Tg) and traffic (0.1 Tg). The regions with the highest emission rates are located in Central and Southwest China. Seasonally, the peak ammonia emissions occur in spring and summer.

  11. The future is 'ambient'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugmayr, Artur

    2006-02-01

    The research field of ambient media starts to spread rapidly and first applications for consumer homes are on the way. Ambient media is the logical continuation of research around media. Media has been evolving from old media (e.g. print media), to integrated presentation in one form (multimedia - or new media), to generating a synthetic world (virtual reality), to the natural environment is the user-interface (ambient media), and will be evolving towards real/synthetic undistinguishable media (bio-media or bio-multimedia). After the IT bubble was bursting, multimedia was lacking a vision of potential future scenarios and applications. Within this research paper the potentials, applications, and market available solutions of mobile ambient multimedia are studied. The different features of ambient mobile multimedia are manifold and include wearable computers, adaptive software, context awareness, ubiquitous computers, middleware, and wireless networks. The paper especially focuses on algorithms and methods that can be utilized to realize modern mobile ambient systems.

  12. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... and the article looks at the measures and costs involved. The conclusion is that the costs have been under 3 €/kg NH3-N. The findings suggest that the same measures might be cheaper in the Netherlands and Denmark than in the UK and the USA due to technology advances and stricter regulations in the past. The new...

  13. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ammonia - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the ammonia module, when to list ammonia as a candidate cause, ways to measure ammonia, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ammonia, literature reviews and references for the ammonia module.

  14. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ammonia - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the ammonia module, when to list ammonia as a candidate cause, ways to measure ammonia, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ammonia, literature reviews and references for the ammonia module.

  15. Resveratrol prevents ammonia toxicity in astroglial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Daniele Bobermin

    Full Text Available Ammonia is implicated as a neurotoxin in brain metabolic disorders associated with hyperammonemia. Acute ammonia toxicity can be mediated by an excitotoxic mechanism, oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO production. Astrocytes interact with neurons, providing metabolic support and protecting against oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. Astrocytes also convert excess ammonia and glutamate into glutamine via glutamine synthetase (GS. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and red wines, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and modulates glial functions, such as glutamate metabolism. We investigated the effect of resveratrol on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, GS activity, S100B secretion, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in astroglial cells exposed to ammonia. Ammonia induced oxidative stress, decreased GS activity and increased cytokines release, probably by a mechanism dependent on protein kinase A (PKA and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathways. Resveratrol prevented ammonia toxicity by modulating oxidative stress, glial and inflammatory responses. The ERK and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB are involved in the protective effect of resveratrol on cytokines proinflammatory release. In contrast, other antioxidants (e.g., ascorbic acid and trolox were not effective against hyperammonemia. Thus, resveratrol could be used to protect against ammonia-induced neurotoxicity.

  16. AMBIENTE DE PROGRAMAÇÃO BASEADO NA WEB PARA ROBÓTICA EDUCACIONAL DE BAIXO CUSTO/WEB BASED PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT FOR LOW-COST EDUCATIONAL ROBOTICS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V P Torres; R V Aroca; A F Burlamaqui

    2014-01-01

    .... The objective of this work is to ease the way students learn how to program embedded systems using low cost open-source hardware, such as Arduino Uno, modern methods and different programming approaches...

  17. Thiourea-treated graphene aerogel as a highly selective gas sensor for sensing of trace level of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Ahmadian, Farzaneh

    2015-10-15

    As a result of this study, a new and simple method was proposed for the fabrication of an ultra sensitive, robust and reversible ammonia gas sensor. The sensing mechanism was based upon the change in electrical resistance of a graphene aerogel as a result of sensor exposing to ammonia. Three-dimensional graphene hydrogel was first synthesized via hydrothermal method in the absence or presence of various amounts of thiourea. The obtained material was heated to obtain aerogel and then it was used as ammonia gas sensor. The materials obtained were characterized using different techniques such as Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thiourea-treated graphene aerogel was more porous (389 m(2) g(-1)) and thermally unstable and exhibited higher sensitivity, shorter response time and better selectivity toward ammonia gas, compared to the aerogel produced in the absence of thiourea. Thiourea amount, involved in the hydrogel synthesis step, was found to be highly effective factor in the sensing properties of finally obtained aerogel. The sensor response time to ammonia was short (100 s) and completely reversible (recovery time of about 500 s) in ambient temperature. The sensor response to ammonia was linear between 0.02 and 85 ppm and its detection limit was found to be 10 ppb (3S/N). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrochemical monitoring of ammonia during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    Ammonia is known as key inhibitor to methanogens in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. It’s of importance to develop efficient tool for ammonia monitoring. In this study, an electrolysis cell (EC) coupled with a complete nitrification reactor was developed as sensor for real time and online......-rich digesters. It was observed that the initial transient currents (0 min) were linearly corresponding to the ammonia levels (from 0 to 95.75 mg/L NH4+-N, R2 = 0.9673). Finally, this new sensor was tested with real AD effluent and the results showed no significant difference with that measured by conventional...

  19. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality...

  20. Licenciamento ambiental e sustentabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Macedo Valinhas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A sustentabilidade está apoiada principalmente nas dimensões econômica, ambiental e social. No entanto, sem a dimensão política ela não se constrói. Um dos principais instrumentos de comando e controle da política nacional de meio ambiente, o licenciamento ambiental é um processo contínuo de gestão ambiental pública e privada. Analisou-se o processo de licenciamento ambiental como acoplamento estrutural entre os sistemas social, econômico e ambiental. Apesar da constatação de críticas aos mecanismos de comando e controle dos últimos anos, foi verificado que o Estado do Rio de Janeiro tem buscado integrar a política ambiental do Estado à gestão ambiental privada e que esta integração busca atender às demandas dos sistemas sociais e econômicos para as questões ambientais. Em linhas gerais, este caminho segue as estratégias e ações propostas na Agenda 21 brasileira.

  1. Ammonia removal in the carbon contactor of a hybrid membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoquart, Céline; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit

    2014-12-15

    The hybrid membrane process (HMP) coupling powdered activated carbon (PAC) and low-pressure membrane filtration is emerging as a promising new option to remove dissolved contaminants from drinking water. Yet, defining optimal HMP operating conditions has not been confirmed. In this study, ammonia removal occurring in the PAC contactor of an HMP was simulated at lab-scale. Kinetics were monitored using three PAC concentrations (1-5-10 g L(-1)), three PAC ages (0-10-60 days), two temperatures (7-22 °C), in ambient influent condition (100 μg N-NH4 L(-1)) as well as with a simulated peak pollution scenario (1000 μg N-NH4L(-1)). The following conclusions were drawn: i) Using a colonized PAC in the HMP is essential to reach complete ammonia removal, ii) an older PAC offers a higher resilience to temperature decrease as well as lower operating costs; ii) PAC concentration inside the HMP reactor is not a key operating parameter as under the conditions tested, PAC colonization was not limited by the available surface; iii) ammonia flux limited biomass growth and iv) hydraulic retention time was a critical parameter. In the case of a peak pollution, the process was most probably phosphate-limited but a mixed adsorption/nitrification still allowed reaching a 50% ammonia removal. Finally, a kinetic model based on these experiments is proposed to predict ammonia removal occurring in the PAC reactor of the HMP. The model determines the relative importance of the adsorption and biological oxidation of ammonia on colonized PAC, and demonstrates the combined role of nitrification and residual adsorption capacity of colonized PAC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Saturn's Thermal Emission at 2.2-cm Wavelength: Spatial Distribution of Ammonia Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, A. L.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Janssen, Michael A.; Gulkis, Samuel; Oyafuso, Fabiano A.; Allison, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on determining the latitudinal structure of ammonia vapor in Saturn's cloud layer near 1.5 bars using the brightness temperature maps derived from the Cassini RADAR (Elachi et al., 2004) instrument, which works in a passive mode to measure thermal emission from Saturn at 2.2-cm wavelength. We perform an analysis of five brightness temperature maps that span epochs from 2005 to 2011, which are presented in a companion paper by Janssen et al. (2013a, this issue). The brightness temperature maps are representative of the spatial distribution of ammonia vapor, since ammonia gas is the only effective opacity source in Saturn's atmosphere at 2.2-cm wavelength. Relatively high brightness temperatures indicate relatively low ammonia relative humidity (RH), and vice versa. We compare the observed brightness temperatures to brightness temperatures computed using the Juno atmospheric microwave radiative transfer (JAMRT) program which includes both the means to calculate a tropospheric atmosphere model for Saturn and the means to carry out radiative transfer calculations at microwave frequencies. The reference atmosphere to which we compare has a 3x solar deep mixing ratio of ammonia (we use 1.352x10(exp -4) for the solar mixing ratio of ammonia vapor relative to H2; see Atreya, 2010) and is fully saturated above its cloud base. The maps are comprised of residual brightness temperatures-observed brightness temperature minus the model brightness temperature of the saturated atmosphere.

  3. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  4. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rong eLan; Shanwen eTao

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel ...

  5. Thiourea-treated graphene aerogel as a highly selective gas sensor for sensing of trace level of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Taher, E-mail: talizadeh@ut.ac.ir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadian, Farzaneh [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Daneshgah Street, P.B179, 56199-11367 Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a result of this study, a new and simple method was proposed for the fabrication of an ultra sensitive, robust and reversible ammonia gas sensor. The sensing mechanism was based upon the change in electrical resistance of a graphene aerogel as a result of sensor exposing to ammonia. Three-dimensional graphene hydrogel was first synthesized via hydrothermal method in the absence or presence of various amounts of thiourea. The obtained material was heated to obtain aerogel and then it was used as ammonia gas sensor. The materials obtained were characterized using different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thiourea-treated graphene aerogel was more porous (389 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and thermally unstable and exhibited higher sensitivity, shorter response time and better selectivity toward ammonia gas, compared to the aerogel produced in the absence of thiourea. Thiourea amount, involved in the hydrogel synthesis step, was found to be highly effective factor in the sensing properties of finally obtained aerogel. The sensor response time to ammonia was short (100 s) and completely reversible (recovery time of about 500 s) in ambient temperature. The sensor response to ammonia was linear between 0.02 and 85 ppm and its detection limit was found to be 10 ppb (3S/N). - Highlights: • An ammonia gas sensor with ppb level determination capability was proposed. • A new procedure has been introduced for gas sensor fabrication by graphene hydrogel. • Thiourea-treated graphene aerogel was used as excellent ammonia gas sensor.

  6. Enrichment of high ammonia tolerant methanogenic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Proietti, Nicolas

    of the current study was to isolate and identify methanogenic cultures tolerant to high ammonia concentrations. A mixed methanogenic population was stepwise exposed to ammonia concentrations (1 to 9.26 g NH4+-N L-1) during an enrichment process with successive batch cultivations. The methanogenic population...... microbial community composition. The outcome of the enrichment process was a mesophilic aceticlastic methanogenic enriched culture able to withstand high ammonia loads and utilize acetate and form methane stoichiometrically. FISH analysis showed that the methanogens of the enriched culture belonged...... exclusively to strict aceticlastic methanogens. Results obtained in this study, demonstrated for the first time that strictly aceticlastic methanogens, derived from an enriched culture, can efficiently produce methane under high ammonia levels....

  7. Ammonia Affects Astroglial Proliferation in Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Bodega

    Full Text Available Primary cultures of rat astroglial cells were exposed to 1, 3 and 5 mM NH4Cl for up to 10 days. Dose- and time-dependent reductions in cell numbers were seen, plus an increase in the proportion of cells in the S phase. The DNA content was reduced in the treated cells, and BrdU incorporation diminished. However, neither ammonia nor ammonia plus glutamine had any effect on DNA polymerase activity. iTRAQ analysis showed that exposure to ammonia induced a significant reduction in histone and heterochromatin protein 1 expression. A reduction in cell viability was also noted. The ammonia-induced reduction of proliferative activity in these cultured astroglial cells seems to be due to a delay in the completion of the S phase provoked by the inhibition of chromatin protein synthesis.

  8. A new method for measurement of gas-phase ammonia and amines in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M. L.; Gomez, A.; Arquero, K. D.; Perraud, V. M.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Accurately predicting particle formation and growth from gas phase precursors is an essential component of modeling the impact of particulate matter on human health, visibility and climate. While the reactions of ammonia with nitric and sulfuric acids to form particulate nitrate and sulfate particles is well known, it has been recently recognized that gas-phase amines, even at low ppb levels, significantly enhance particle formation from common atmospheric acids. As a result, accurate data on the sources, sinks and typical background concentrations of gas-phase amines, are crucial to predicting new particle formation in the atmosphere. However, gas-phase amines are notoriously difficult to measure, as they have a tendency to stick to surfaces, including sampling lines and inlets. In addition, background amine concentrations in the atmosphere are typically a few ppb or lower, requiring low detection limits for ambient sampling techniques. Here we report the development of a simple, reliable method for detection of gas-phase amines at atmospherically relevant concentrations using collection on a cation exchange sorbent followed by in-line extraction and ion chromatography. Gas-phase standards of several amines and ammonia are used to characterize the technique and results from ambient samples in an agricultural area are presented. The application of this technique to field measurements as well as to laboratory measurements of new particle formation from gas-phase ammonia and amines are discussed.

  9. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  10. DIRECT AMMONIA-AIR FUEL CELL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new type of direct oxidation ammonia fuel cell was investigated. This cell is based on the use of a non-aqueous fused hydroxide electrolyte matrix...EMF’s of 0.5 to 0.6 volts. At practical levels of current density the direct ammonia fuel cell has an overall efficiency of about 60% compared to 30-35% for the indirect-type fuel cell . (Author)

  11. Investigation of Pristine Graphite Oxide as Room-Temperature Chemiresistive Ammonia Gas Sensing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Bannov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphite oxide has been investigated as a possible room-temperature chemiresistive sensor of ammonia in a gas phase. Graphite oxide was synthesized from high purity graphite using the modified Hummers method. The graphite oxide sample was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Sensing properties were tested in a wide range of ammonia concentrations in air (10–1000 ppm and under different relative humidity levels (3%–65%. It was concluded that the graphite oxide–based sensor possessed a good response to NH3 in dry synthetic air (ΔR/R0 ranged from 2.5% to 7.4% for concentrations of 100–500 ppm and 3% relative humidity with negligible cross-sensitivity towards H2 and CH4. It was determined that the sensor recovery rate was improved with ammonia concentration growth. Increasing the ambient relative humidity led to an increase of the sensor response. The highest response of 22.2% for 100 ppm of ammonia was achieved at a 65% relative humidity level.

  12. Replacing the AMOR with the miniDOAS in the ammonia monitoring network in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Augustinus J. C.; Swart, Daan P. J.; Volten, Hester; Gast, Lou F. L.; Haaima, Marty; Verboom, Hans; Stefess, Guus; Hafkenscheid, Theo; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present the continued development of the miniDOAS, an active differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument used to measure ammonia concentrations in ambient air. The miniDOAS has been adapted for use in the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network. The miniDOAS replaces the life-expired continuous-flow denuder ammonia monitor (AMOR). From September 2014 to December 2015, both instruments measured in parallel before the change from AMOR to miniDOAS was made. The instruments were deployed at six monitoring stations throughout the Netherlands. We report on the results of this intercomparison. Both instruments show a good uptime of ca. 90 %, adequate for an automatic monitoring network. Although both instruments produce 1 min values of ammonia concentrations, a direct comparison on short timescales such as minutes or hours does not give meaningful results because the AMOR response to changing ammonia concentrations is slow. Comparisons between daily and monthly values show good agreement. For monthly averages, we find a small average offset of 0.65 ± 0.28 µg m-3 and a slope of 1.034 ± 0.028, with the miniDOAS measuring slightly higher than the AMOR. The fast time resolution of the miniDOAS makes the instrument suitable not only for monitoring but also for process studies.

  13. A Kleene analysis of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sagiv, M.

    2000-01-01

    We show how a program analysis technique originally developed for C-like pointer structures can be adapted to analyse the hierarchical structure of processes in the ambient calculus. The technique is based on modeling the semantics of the language in a two-valued logic; by reinterpreting the logi......We show how a program analysis technique originally developed for C-like pointer structures can be adapted to analyse the hierarchical structure of processes in the ambient calculus. The technique is based on modeling the semantics of the language in a two-valued logic; by reinterpreting...

  14. Development, characterization, and validation of an optical transfer standard for ammonia in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttschwager, Nils; Balslev-Harder, David; Leuenberger, Daiana; Pogány, Andrea; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia is an atmospheric trace gas that is predominantly emitted from anthropogenic agricultural activities. Since elevated levels of ammonia can have negative effects to human health as well as ecosystems, it is imperative to monitor and control ammonia emissions. This requires SI-traceable standards to calibrate ammonia monitoring instrumentation and to make measurements comparable. The lack of such standards became a pressing issue in recent years and the MetNH3 project (www.metnh3.eu) was initiated to fill the gap, pursuing different strategies. The work that we present was part of these endeavours and focusses on the development and application of an optical transfer standard for amount fraction measurements of ammonia in ambient air. An optical transfer standard (OTS) offers an alternative to calibrations of air monitoring instrumentation by means of reference gas mixtures. With an OTS, absolute amount fraction results are derived by evaluating absorption spectra using a spectral model and pre-measured spectral properties of the analyte. In that way, the instrument can measure calibration gas-independent ("calibration-free") and, moreover, can itself serve as standard to calibrate air monitoring analyzers. Molecular spectral properties are the excellent, non-drifting point of reference of the OTS and form, together with traceable measurements of temperature and pressure, the basis for SI-traceable amount fraction measurements. We developed an OTS based on a commercial cavity-ring-down spectrometer with a detection limit below 1 ppb (1 nmol/mol). A custom spectral data evaluation routine for absolute, calibration-free measurements, as well as measurements of spectral properties of ammonia with the focus on measurement uncertainty and traceability [1] are the fundaments of our OTS. Validation measurements were conducted using a SI-traceable ammonia reference gas generator over a period of several months. Here, we present an evaluation of the performance of our

  15. Acoustic ambient noise recorder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; More, S.R.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    with a robust outfit that can withstand high pressures and chemically corrosion resistant materials. Keeping these considerations in view, a CMOS micro-controller-based marine acoustic ambient noise recorder has been developed with a real time clock...

  16. Validation of Ammonia Diffusive and Active Samplers in a Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility Using Traceable Primary Standard Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N. A.; Ferracci, V.; Cassidy, N.; Hook, J.; Battersby, R. M.; Tang, Y. S.; Stevens, A. C. M.; Jones, M. R.; Braban, C. F.; Gates, L.; Hangartner, M.; Sacco, P.; Pagani, D.; Hoffnagle, J.

    2016-12-01

    Intensive farming, the increased use of fertilizers, and certain industrial processes are believed to be responsible for increases in the amount fraction of ammonia (NH3) found in Europe. NH3 contributes to eutrophication and acidification of land and freshwater, leading to a loss of biodiversity, undesirable changes to the ecosystem, and to secondary particulate matter (PM) formation. Measurements of ambient ammonia over a wide geographical area, are principally carried out with low-cost diffusive samplers or by active sampling with denuders, with each technique delivering time-integrated values over the monitoring period. The goal of this work was to measure the NH3 diffusive sampling rates of five different designs of commercial diffusive samplers (FSM Radiello radial sampler, Gradko diffusion tube, Gradko DIFRAM-400, Passam ammonia sampler, and CEH ALPHA sampler), together with validation tests with a denuder sampler (CEH DELTA denuder). The would deliver validated improvements in the accuracy of ambient measurements of NH3 in the field through the establishment of metrological traceability using new stable ammonia Primary Standard Gas Mixtures (PSMs), developed by gravimetry at NPL. All devices were simultaneously exposed in a controlled atmosphere test facility (CATFAC) containing traceable amount fractions of ammonia applicable to a range of ambient monitoring conditions, with well-defined conditions of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. Online continuous monitoring of the test atmospheres was carried out with a calibrated cavity ring-down spectrometer modified to account for cross interference by water. Exposed samplers were analysed by individual manufacturers for ammonium using traceable wet chemical techniques. The measured diffusive sampling rates were then applied to field measurements carried out at the Whim Bog experimental station in Scotland, where there is a facility in place for controlled releases of NH3 and also a background site.

  17. Implications of ammonia emissions for fine aerosol formation and visibility impairment. A case study from the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    of nitrogen and sulphur oxides over agricultural areas in the eastern and central valley with higher ammonia emissions favours subsequent ammonium nitrate and sulphate formation. This leads to higher fine mass concentrations and lowest visibility in the predominantly agricultural regions of the valley. (C......Ammonia enhances atmospheric aerosol formation and, once in the aerosol form, enhances the light extinction characteristics of those aerosols. In this paper, an ammonia emissions inventory is developed for the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV) of British Columbia and used in conjunction with ambient...... ammonia and ammonium measurements to explain: (i) the observed temporal and spatial variability of fine inorganic aerosol composition and concentrations in the valley, and (ii) the severity and spatial variability of visibility degradation in the LFV. It is proposed here that advection of urban emissions...

  18. Ammonia tolerant enriched methanogenic cultures as bioaugmentation inocula to alleviate ammonia inhibition in continuous anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Wang, Han; Angelidaki, Irini

    Ammonia is the most common inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process, resulting in suboptimal exploitation of the biogas potential of the feedstocks, causing significant economic losses to the biogas plants. Ammonia is mainly inhibiting the aceticlastic methanogens, while the hydrogenotrophic...... methanogens are more robust to ammonia toxicity effect. It has been shown that bioaugmentation of a pure strain of a hydrogenotrophic methanogen (i.e. Methanoculleus bourgensis) in an ammonia inhibited continuous anaerobic reactor can improve methane production more than 30%. Nevertheless, cultivation...... tolerant methanogenic culture as potential bioaugmentation inoculum in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operating under “inhibited steady-state”, triggered by high ammonia levels (5 g NH4+-N L-1). The results of the current study established for the first time that bioaugmentation of an enriched...

  19. Determination of Total Ammonia in Mainstream Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang CB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is generated in mainstream smoke (MSS from multiple precursors in tobacco such as amino acids, proteins, nitrates and ammonium salts. Ammonia derived from both the particulate and vapor phases is measured with the particulate phase contributing greater than 80% of the total ammonia. The general approach of the analytical methods involved the collection of MSS by either electrostatic precipitation (EP or impingers with acidic solution combined with Cambridge filters (CF, 44 or 92 mm and the analysis of ammonium cations by ion chromatography (IC with a conductivity detector. The available results from both internal testing and external literature for 1R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes, smoked under Federal Trade Commission (FTC puffing conditions, showed a wide range of yields from approximately 5 to 18 µg/cig of ammonia. To investigate possible causes for this wide range and to optimize the analytical method, several parameters deemed critical to the results were studied using 1R4F. They include the type of acids (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and malic acid, acid strength (0.005 M to 0.1 M, trapping efficiency and sample stability. The study showed that the type and concentration of acids was not significantly related to the total ammonia content in MSS. The study also indicated that the size and type of trapping devices, such as CF pads, acid treated CF pads and EP tube, did not significantly affect the trapping efficiency.

  20. STUDIES ON TIME VARIATION OF AMBIENT SEA NOISE AND SCATTERING OF ACOUSTIC SIGNALS FROM ROUGH SURFACES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is a collection of three papers on two subjects: the scattering of acoustic waves from rough surfaces and the time variation of ambient ...experimental program to investigate the time variation of low-frequency ambient sea noise. (Author)

  1. Complete genome of Nitrosospira briensis C-128, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium from agricultural soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rice, Marlen C.; Norton, Jeanette M.; Valois, Frederica; Bollmann, Annette; Bottomley, Peter J.; Klotz, Martin G.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Suwa, Yuichi; Stein, Lisa Y.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Shapiro, Nicole; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Kyrpides, Nikos; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Markowitz, Victor; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T. B. K.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Daum, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nitrosospira briensis C-128 is an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from an acid agricultural soil. N. briensis C-128 was sequenced with PacBio RS technologies at the DOE-Joint Genome Institute through their Community Science Program (2010). The high-quality finished genome contains one

  2. Training Engineers for the Ambient Intelligence Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Fulvio; De Russis, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the new breed of distributed intelligent systems, such as the Internet of Things, which require a diversity of languages and protocols, can only be tamed with design and programming best practices. Interest is also growing for including the human factor, as advocated by the "ambient intelligence" (AmI)…

  3. A personal ammonia monitor utilizing permeation sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, A.F. (Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Baton Rouge, LA); Reiszner, K.D.; West, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of the time-weighted-average personal exposure to ammonia. Sample collection was achieved by permeation through a silicone membrane into a boric acid solution. The trapped ammonia was then determined spectrophotometrically with Nessler's reagent or potentiometrically with an ion selective electrode. The device may be used for sampling periods as short as 5 minutes and was not affected by changes in the environmental parameters normally encountered at industrial locations. The detection limit is 0.4 ppm for an 8 hr sampling period and the monitor responds linearly to at least 150 ppm. The Nessler's method may be utilized in industrial environments containing monoethanol amine in conjunction with ammonia with no significant interference. Although some interference was observed from ethylenediamine with the Nessler's technique, little interference was found with the potentiometric determination.

  4. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  5. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: Dense Cores under Pressure in Orion A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Helen; Friesen, Rachel K.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Offner, Stella S. R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Myers, Philip C.; Di Francesco, James; Caselli, Paola; Alves, Felipe O.; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; Chen, How-Huan; Chun-Yuan Chen, Michael; Keown, Jared; Punanova, Anna; Seo, Young Min; Shirley, Yancy; Ginsburg, Adam; Hall, Christine; Singh, Ayushi; Arce, Héctor G.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Martin, Peter; Redaelli, Elena

    2017-09-01

    We use data on gas temperature and velocity dispersion from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey and core masses and sizes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Survey to estimate the virial states of dense cores within the Orion A molecular cloud. Surprisingly, we find that almost none of the dense cores are sufficiently massive to be bound when considering only the balance between self-gravity and the thermal and non-thermal motions present in the dense gas. Including the additional pressure binding imposed by the weight of the ambient molecular cloud material and additional smaller pressure terms, however, suggests that most of the dense cores are pressure-confined.

  6. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a...

  7. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  8. El ambiente social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Granada

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el título de« Ambiente Social» se quiere enfatizar que el concepto de Ambiente no se agota en lo ecológico (físico-biótico. Así mismo, dentro lo psicosocial, la noción de territorio adquiere importancia y otorga significación a la «experiencia ambiental», ya que abre ventanas hacia la comprensión de actividades como el ordenamiento territorial y a la mediación de las dimensiones psicológica, social y cultural del espacio. Finalmente, aunque el ordenamiento del territorio suele enfocarse desde los componentes sociopolíticos y económicos con el ánimo de planificación, el componente psicosocial traduce aspectos del ordenamiento dentro de la vida cotidiana y relaciona nociones como identidad y arraigo, entre otras.

  9. Deammoniation and ammoniation processes with ammonia complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim Donkers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For selecting the most suitable ammoniate as a heat storage material we have reviewed all the available literature since 1860. This data reveal that we can order the dissociation temperature and the enthalpy of reaction of di erent ammoniates. We show that all data can be represented by a single master curve. This curve shows that ammoniates belonging to the alkali metal periodic group have the lowest energy pro ammonia molecule, whereas transition metals (3d have the highest energy pro ammonia molecule. These trends can be used to select the most suitable ammoniates under certain working conditions.

  10. Computational Search for Improved Ammonia Storage Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Lysgaard, Steen; Vegge, Tejs

    . In this project we are searching for improved mixed materials with optimal desorption temperatures and kinetics, optimally releasing all ammonia in one step. We apply Density Functional Theory, DFT, calculations on mixed compounds selected by a Genetic Algorithm (GA), relying on biological principles of natural......Metal halide ammines, e.g. Mg(NH3)6Cl2 and Sr(NH3)8Cl2, can reversibly store ammonia, with high volumetric hydrogen storage capacities. The storage in the halide ammines is very safe, and the salts are therefore highly relevant as a carbon-free energy carrier in future transportation infrastructure...

  11. Chilled ammonia process for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; van Well, Willy J. M

    2009-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2-10 degrees C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows...... C and pressure up to 100 bars [1]. The results show that solid phases consisting of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate are formed in the absorber. The energy requirements in the absorber and in the desorber have been studied. The enthalpy calculations show that an energy requirement for the desorber...

  12. Biochemistry of Ammonia Monoxygenase from Nitrosomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Hooper

    2009-07-15

    Major results. 1. CytochromecM552, a protein in the electron transfer chain to ammonia monooxygenase. Purification, modeling of protein structure based on primary structure, characterization of 4 hemes by magnetic spectroscopy, potentiometry, ligand binding and turnover. Kim, H. J., ,Zatsman, et al. 2008). 2. Characterization of proteins which thought to be involved in the AMO reaction or to protect AMO from toxic nitrogenous intermediates such as NO. Nitrosocyanin is a protein present only in bacteria which catalyze the ammonia monoxygenase reaction (1). Cytochrome c P460 beta and cytochrome c’ beta.

  13. Impacte ambiental dos medicamentos

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Elsa Ariana

    2011-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Farmacêuticas. O aumento do consumo de produtos farmacêuticos é uma realidade nas sociedades mundiais, e está intimamente relacionado com a crescente contaminação do meio ambiente por estes compostos e seus derivados. A presença destas substâncias nos diversos ecossistemas representa uma grande preocupação ambiental devido à possível interferência nos diversos sistemas ...

  14. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references.

  15. Gerencia ambiental en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Quiñonez Rizo, Edgar Alfredo; Ecoconsulta de Cali, Colombia.

    2014-01-01

    El estudio La gerencia ambiental en Colombia: “Percepciones de los responsables ambientales 2011” tuvo como objetivo general identificar la postura de la gerencia ambiental dentro de las organizaciones empresariales en Colombia. Para desarrollar este trabajo se adoptaron los parámetros de una investigación de tipo exploratorio. Como herramienta metodológica, la realización de encuestas virtuales en las que participaron 235 responsables ambientales que ejercen su función en empresas industrial...

  16. Ammonia as a potential neurotoxic factor in Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Adlimoghaddam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is known to be a potent neurotoxin that causes severe negative effects on the central nervous system. Excessive ammonia levels have been detected in the brain of patients with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD. Therefore, ammonia could be a factor contributing to the progression of AD. In this review, we provide an introduction to the toxicity of ammonia and putative ammonia transport proteins. We also hypothesize how ammonia may be linked to AD. Additionally, we discuss the evidence that support the hypothesis that ammonia is a key factor contributing to AD progression. Lastly, we summarize the old and new experimental evidence that focuses on energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, inflammatory responses, excitatory glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and memory in support of our ammonia-related hypotheses of AD.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1065 - Ammonia test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862... ammonia levels in blood, serum, and plasma, Ammonia measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment...

  18. From Earth to Space: Application of Biological Treatment for the Removal of Ammonia from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen; Adam, Niklas; White, Dawn; Ghosh, Amlan; Seidel, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Managing ammonia is often a challenge in both drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities. Ammonia is unregulated in drinking water, but its presence may result in numerous water quality issues in the distribution system such as loss of residual disinfectant, nitrification, and corrosion. Ammonia concentrations need to be managed in wastewater effluent to sustain the health of receiving water bodies. Biological treatment involves the microbiological oxidation of ammonia to nitrate through a two-step process. While nitrification is common in the environment, and nitrifying bacteria can grow rapidly on filtration media, appropriate conditions, such as the presence of dissolved oxygen and required nutrients, need to be established. This presentation will highlight results from two ongoing research programs - one at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and the other at a drinking water facility in California. Both programs are designed to demonstrate nitrification through biological treatment. The objective of NASA's research is to be able to recycle wastewater to potable water for spaceflight missions. To this end, a biological water processor (BWP) has been integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). Bacteria mineralize organic carbon to carbon dioxide as well as ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system testing planned for this year is expected to produce water that requires only a polishing step to meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. The pilot study in California is being conducted on Golden State Water Company's Yukon wells that have hydrogen sulfide odor

  19. An Intelligent Ammonia Sensor for Livestock Breeding Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Fu, Zetian; Zhang, Lingxian; Li, Xinxing; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Lihua; Ma, Juncheng; Peng, Fa

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Ammonia concentration is the major parameter to evaluate livestock breeding farms atmosphere quality and it also is regarded as the key indicator to describe the production of livestock breeding farms. Based on the oxidation characteristics of ammonia, this paper presented a new intelligent detecting instrument, the intelligent ammonia sensor, for the measurement of ammonia concentration, which used the microcontroller STM8L152 as the key control module. However, the T...

  20. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian; Nørgaard, Asger W

    2012-01-01

    Easy ambient sonic spray ionization (EASI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) were used for imaging of a number of samples, including sections of rat brain and imprints of plant material on porous Teflon. A novel approach termed Displaced Dual-mode Imaging was utilized for the direct...

  1. Meio ambiente e literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli de Oliveira Fantini Scarpelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca reconhecer alguns pontos de tangência entre os romances Vidas secas, de Graciliano Ramos, As cidades invisíveis, de Italo Calvino, e Grande sertão: veredas, de Guimarães Rosa, sobretudo no que respeita às relações modalizantes entre literatura e meio ambiente. Em meio à diversidade temática das obras indicadas, subjaz o tema da consciência ambiental, que, nas últimas décadas, vem recebendo a crescente adesão não apenas de ambientalistas, mas também de intelectuais, políticos, escritores. O foco na degradação ambiental, no alerta implícito acerca das precárias condições de vida futura em nosso planeta revela um dos nucleares e contundentes problemas a desafiar a agenda contemporânea. Nesse sentido, revela-se paradigmático o “lugar-sertão” rosiano, que, ao difundir seu território, seus valores e denúncias, patenteia uma concepção ambiental inovadora e reticular, em estreito diálogo com as atuais pesquisas interdisciplinares sobre o tema, as quais deveriam doravante guardar, em seu horizonte de expectativa, os paradigmas, as perspectivas e os equacionamentos que alicerçam as artes em geral e a literatura em particular.

  2. The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. Dale

    1999-01-01

    Describes a new demonstration that uses an apparatus like the ammonia-fountain apparatus but with modifications designed to produce ammonium-chloride smoke. This demonstration is easy to perform, interesting to observe, and allows demonstration of the solubility of ammonia in water, the basic nature of ammonia, the acidic nature of hydrogen…

  3. Removal of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater by microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Yuan, Songhu; Chen, Jing; Xu, Zuqun; Lu, Xiaohua

    2009-01-30

    Ammonia nitrogen contaminated wastewater has posed great threat on the safety of water resources. In this study, a novel process, microwave (MW) radiation, was developed for the removal of ammonia nitrogen from wastewater. The effects of pH, radiation time, aeration and initial ammonia concentration on the removal were investigated. pH and radiation time showed significant influence on the removal of ammonia nitrogen. The largest removal was obtained at pH 11 in 3 min. Initial ammonia concentration and aeration had minute influence. The mechanism of ammonia removal was proposed as the formation of molecular ammonia (NH(3)) and the subsequent evaporation of NH(3) by MW radiation. Compared with conventional heating (CH) mode, MW radiation led to higher ammonia removal. Both thermal and non-thermal effects were responsible for the removal, but the contribution of thermal effect was more significant. In the end, coke-plant wastewater containing high concentration of ammonia nitrogen was treated by MW radiation. With the initial ammonia concentration of 5000 mg/L at pH 11, ammonia was reduced to 350 mg/L at 750 W by 10 min MW radiation. It could be proposed that MW radiation was an effective method for the removal of ammonia nitrogen from wastewater.

  4. Werkwijze voor het behandelen van ammonia-houdend afvalwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Treatment of ammonia-comprising waste water comprises: (a) subjecting the waste water to a nitrification treatment using a nitrifying microorganism and adding oxygen, to give a solution comprising an oxidation product of ammonia, and (b) converting the oxidation product of ammonia into nitrogen

  5. Ammonia tolerant enriched methanogenic cultures as bioaugmentation inocula to alleviate ammonia inhibition in continuous anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Wang, Han; Angelidaki, Irini

    methanogens are more robust to ammonia toxicity effect. It has been shown that bioaugmentation of a pure strain of a hydrogenotrophic methanogen (i.e. Methanoculleus bourgensis) in an ammonia inhibited continuous anaerobic reactor can improve methane production more than 30%. Nevertheless, cultivation...... of a pure culture, to be used as bioaugmentation inoculum, poses technical difficulties due to the required sterile conditions and the special growing media. On the contrary acclimatized enrichment methanogenic cultures have lower requirements to sterility. In the present study, we used an enriched ammonia...... tolerant methanogenic culture as potential bioaugmentation inoculum in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operating under “inhibited steady-state”, triggered by high ammonia levels (5 g NH4+-N L-1). The results of the current study established for the first time that bioaugmentation of an enriched...

  6. Chemical Safety Alert: Hazards of Ammonia Releases at Ammonia Refrigeration Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhydrous ammonia is used as a refrigerant in mechanical compression systems, often liquefied under pressure which increases exposure risk due to potential for rapid release into the air as a toxic gas.

  7. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1993-12-31

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  8. Ammonia Concentrations in Different Aquaculture Holding Tanks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low unionized ammonia in earthen pond and natural pond was attributed to the presence of phytoplankton, high water exchanges, feeding system, low acidity and relatively low temperature. Remediating measures such as the use of biofilters, aeration and reduction in feeding, temperature and pH should be employed to ...

  9. A porous SiC ammonia sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, E.J.; Timmer, B.H.; Pham, H.T.M.; Groeneweg, J.; Sarro, P.M.; Olthuis, Wouter; French, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    When used as the dielectric in a capacitive sensing arrangement, porous SiC has been found to be extremely sensitive to the presence of ammonia (NH3) gas. The exact sensing method is still not clear, but NH3 levels as low as 0.5 ppm could be detected. We report the fabrication and preliminary

  10. Miniaturized measurement system for ammonia in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, B.H.; van Delft, K.M.; Otjes, R.P.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The development of a miniaturized ammonia sensor made using microsystem technology is described. Gas is sampled in a sampler comprising two opposite channels separated by a gas permeable, water repellent polypropylene membrane. Subsequently, the acid sample solution is pumped into a selector where

  11. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Witte, H.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and Bacteria (AOB) in the shallow warm-water sponge Halisarca caerulea and the deep cold-water sponges Higginsia thielei and Nodastrella nodastrella. The abundance of AOA and AOB was analysed using catalyzed reporter

  12. Ammonia transformation in a biotrickling air filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter; Nielsen, Marie Louise; Andersen, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    outlet / water inlet, and only 8% of the nitrite was turned into nitrate. Water supply only exceeded evaporation by 20% but modelling indicated that additional watering would have limited effect on filter efficiency. The filter was also robust to varying loading, as a 4-fold increase in ammonia inlet...

  13. Modelling of Ammonia Heat Pump Desuperheaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Wuust; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of modelling desuperheating in ammonia heat pumps. Focus is on the temperature profile of the superheated refrigerant. Typically, the surface area of a heat exchanger is estimated using the Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) method. The assumption of this method...

  14. Adsorption of Ammonia on Regenerable Carbon Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Jesph E.; Serio, Michael A..; Wilburn, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide, moisture, and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Data on sorption and desorption of ammonia, which is a major TC of concern, are presented in this paper. The current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is non-regenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. In this study, several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested for ammonia sorption. Ammonia-sorption capacity was related to carbon pore structure characteristics, and the temperature of oxidative carbon-surface treatment was optimized for enhanced ammonia-sorption performance.

  15. Ammonia synthesis from first principles calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Hellman, Anders; Remediakis, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    The rate of ammonia synthesis over a nanoparticle ruthenium catalyst can be calculated directly on the basis of a quantum chemical treatment of the problem using density functional theory. We compared the results to measured rates over a ruthenium catalyst supported on magnesium aluminum spinet...

  16. Reducing ammonia volatilization from compound fertilizers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paul

    2012-09-13

    Sep 13, 2012 ... flow system method. Soil pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate at ... rock phosphate (ERP), muriate of potash (MOP), and zeolite. This kind of compound fertilizer with clinoptilotilite ... to NPK fertilizer from AN, ERP and MOP on ammonia loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The soil used in this ...

  17. The PROCEL SANEAR program of energetic efficiency in environmental sanitation: water means energy; O programa PROCEL SANEAR de eficiencia energetica em saneamento ambiental: porque agua e energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Michel Goncalves; Barros, Denise Pereira; Moreira, Aurelio R.G.; Machado, Luciana D.L; Barreto, Marcus Paes; Coimbra, Claudia Maria; Perrone, Fernando; Soares, George Alves [ELETROBRAS, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Capella, Paulo da Silva; Otero, Osvaldo [CEPEL, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Airton Sampaio [Ministerio das Cidades (MCidades), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Secretaria Nacional de Saneamento Ambiental

    2006-07-01

    The environmental sanitation sector accounts for 3% of all electric energy consumed. Along with the Electric System it is an important user of the hydro graphic basins. In 2003 ELETROBRAS created PROCEL SANEAR in order to promote the efficient use of energy and water in the environmental sanitation systems and by its consumers. This paper presents the Action Plan of PROCEL SANEAR 2006-2007 displaying its main ongoing actions: the implementation of projects of water and energy conservation selected by means of public hearings, the training of professionals with seminars for the high management and courses for the managers of sanitation services providers and the installation of equipment to implement laboratories of energy and water efficiency in sanitation. PROCEL SANEAR, a nationwide program, seeks to reach through its activities endurance and sustain ability aiming at minimizing isolated and discontinued actions. Thus, PROCEL SANEAR contributes to shift paradigms by causing service providers to prioritize the conservation of water and electric energy. (author)

  18. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) pilot study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a pilot study during the week of April 22--29, 1993, prior to initiation of CR-ERP Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis activities. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0 and Poplar Creek Kilometer 1.6 on April 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Reference toxicant test information; and Personnel training documentation.

  19. The National program of the production and use of biodiesel and strategic environmental assessment; O Programa nacional de producao e uso de biodiesel e a avaliacao ambiental estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Victor Rafael Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzes the use of biodiesel in Brazil under the applied perspective of this renewable fuel in the environmental assessment in the productive chain. It inwards the appearance of biodiesel, its evolution in Brazil and in the world, the structured regulatory framework, beyond these points this work also gives a main focus on the advent of National Program of Production and Usage of Biodiesel (NPPUB - originally PNPUB) and on the defined productive arrangement. It scrutinizes the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and delimits the pivotal hindrances to the development of biodiesel production sector, claiming to point out all the possible and viable scenarios, profiting the economic development of this activity in harmony with the urgent need to implement Environmentally Safe projects. (author)

  20. Ammonia downstream from HH 80 North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girart, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Anglada, Guillem; Estalella, Robert; Torrelles, Jose, M.; Marti, Josep; Pena, Miriam; Ayala, Sandra; Curiel, Salvador; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    HH 80-81 are two optically visible Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located about 5 minutes south of their exciting source IRAS 18162-2048. Displaced symmetrically to the north of this luminous IRAS source, a possible HH counterpart was recently detected as a radio continuum source with the very large array (VLA). This radio source, HH 80 North, has been proposed to be a member of the Herbig-Haro class since its centimeter flux density, angular size, spectral index, and morphology are all similar to those of HH 80. However, no object has been detected at optical wavelengths at the position of HH 80 North, possibly because of high extinction, and the confirmation of the radio continuum source as an HH object has not been possible. In the prototypical Herbig-Haro objects HH 1 and 2, ammonia emission has been detected downstream of the flow in both objects. This detection has been intepreted as a result of an enhancement in the ammonia emission produced by the radiation field of the shock associated with the HH object. In this Letter we report the detection of the (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions of ammonia downstream HH 80 North. This detection gives strong suppport to the interpretation of HH 80 North as a heavily obscured HH object. In addition, we suggest that ammonia emission may be a tracer of embedded Herbig-Haro objects in other regions of star formation. A 60 micrometer IRAS source could be associated with HH 80 North and with the ammonia condensation. A tentative explanation for the far-infrared emission as arising in dust heated by their optical and UV radiation of the HH object is presented.

  1. Orion Ammonia Boiler System Preflight Test Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Controls and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) branch at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is currently undergoing preparations for ground testing of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to prepare its subsystems for EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1). EM-1, Orions second unmanned flight, is a three-week long lunar mission during which the vehicle will complete a 6-day retrograde lunar orbit before returning to Earth. This paper focuses on the work done during the authors 16-week internship with the Mechanical Engineering Branch of KSCs Engineering Directorate. The authors project involved assisting with the preparations for testing the Orion MPCVs ammonia boiler system. The purpose of the ammonia boiler system is to keep the spacecraft sufficiently cool during the reentry portion of its mission, from service module (SM) separation to post-landing. This system is critical for keeping both the spacecraft (avionics and electronics) and crew alive during reentry, thus a successful test of the system is essential to the success of EM-1. XXXX The author was able to draft a detailed outline of the procedure for the ammonia system functional test. More work will need to be done on the vehicle power-up and power-down portions of the procedure, but the ammonia system testing portion of the procedure is thorough and includes vehicle test configurations, vehicle commands, and GSE. The author was able to compile a substantial list of questions regarding the ammonia system functional test with the help of her mentors. A significant number of these questions were answered in the teleconferences with Lockheed Martin.

  2. Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; McDonald, C.E.; Cuta, J.M.; Cuta, F.M.; Olsen, K.B.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose of this work was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. PNL researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH{sub 4}{sup +}). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

  3. Spectroscopic Studies of Dehydrogenation of Ammonia Borane in Carbon Cryogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Saghar; Feaver, Aaron M.; Shaw, Wendy J.; Howard, Christopher J.; Zhang, Qifeng; Autrey, Thomas; Cao, Guozhong

    2007-12-27

    The reaction pathways leading to the thermal decomposition of solid state ammonia borane (AB) incorporated in carbon cryogels (CC) have been studied by spectroscopic methods. The time dependent thermal decomposition was followed by in situ 11B NMR and showed a significant increase in hydrogen release kinetics. Both 11B NMR and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) show new reaction products formed in the thermal decomposition of AB-CC that are assigned to reactions with surface oxygen groups. The results indicate that incorporation of AB in CC enhance kinetics due to reactions with residual surface-bound oxygen functional groups. The formation of new products with surface-O-B bonds is consistent with the greater reaction exothermicity observed when hydrogen is released from AB-CC materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows different morphology of AB in ammonia borane – carbon cryogel (AB-CC) nanocomposite as compared to neat AB. Support for this work is provided by NSF (DMR-0605159), WTC, and EnerG2 LLC as well as the DoE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydrogen Storage funded by the DOE H2 Program. FTIR experiments were performed in Professor Zhang’s lab in MSE department at UW. Part of this research was performed in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by the Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25--February 1, 1994. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Meter calibrations; and Reference toxicant test information.

  5. Ammonia Partitioning into the Condensed Phase in Winter Time Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. R.; Bililign, S.; Fiddler, M. N.; Leen, J. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary aerosol (SOA) formation has been linked to health problems and environmental damage in regions impacted by the emission of gaseous NH3 and SO2. SOA formation, (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3, in the presence of NO NO2, is favored under high relative humidity and low temperature and low temperature conditions. In the East and Mid Atlantic regions of the United States humidity is low in wintertime. Utilizing ambient concentration data of gaseous NO, NO2, SO2 and NH3 collected aboard a survey aircraft we examined the partitioning of gaseous NH3 towards aerosol products. The calculated mixing ratio of gaseous SO2/NH3 correlated with relative humidity will give an indication of the potential SOA formation when the mixing ratio of other reactants is small in the region of interest. The data obtained originates from a series of night and day survey flights on a C-130 aircraft that occurred from February 3 to March 13, 2015 over the Eastern coastal region of the United States extending from New York to Florida. NOx was obtained from the Airborne Ring-down Nitrogen Oxide Laser Detector (ARNOLD) instrument (NOAA) and Thermal Dissociation-Laser Induced Fluorescence (TD-LIF) (UC Berkley). SO2 measurements were done using the TECO 43C SO2 analyzer and for NH3 measurements the an Ammonia Analyzer - Trace (NH3) (Los Gatos Research). Estimates of aerosol dry deposition fluxes are presented.

  6. Analysis of microbial population dynamics in a partial nitrifying SBR at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Taotao; Li, Dong; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Liqian; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jie

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a lab-scale partial nitrifying sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed to investigate partial nitrification at ambient temperature (16-22 °C). Techniques of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were utilized simultaneously to study microbial population dynamics. Partial nitrification was effectively achieved in response to shifts of influent ammonium concentrations. DGGE results showed that higher ammonia concentration referred to lower ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) diversity in the SBR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the predominant AOB was affiliated with Nitrosomonas genus. FISH analysis illustrated AOB was the predominant nitrifying bacteria of microbial compositions when SBR achieved partial nitrification (PN) at ambient temperature.

  7. Indicadores de salud ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Posada de la Paz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta ponencia presenta una visión general del proyecto de Indicadores de Salud Ambiental, coordinado por la OMS a nivel internacional y liderado por el Centro de Investigación sobre el Síndrome del Aceite Tóxico y Enfermedades Raras (CISATER en España. En ella se describen los objetivos del proyecto, las gestiones realizadas y los resultados obtenidos durante la fase de viabilidad de este proyecto. El proyecto consiste en el establecimiento de un sistema de información sobre salud ambiental que permita desarrollar una vigilancia de los factores ambientales determinantes de los estados de salud, realizar comparaciones internacionales, elaborar políticas de acción, así como facilitar la comunicación con la ciudadanía. La OMS desarrolló una metodología para el desarrollo de estos indicadores dentro del marco conceptual de información ambiental DPSEEA (Fuerzas impulsoras, Presión, Estado, Exposición, Efecto, Acción y seleccionó un total de 55 indicadores (que incluyen 168 variables sobre 10 áreas de la salud ambiental. Durante la fase de viabilidad se predijo que podrían obtenerse el 89% de los indicadores. Sin embargo la recolección de los datos supuso muchas dificultades debido a la incompatibilidad de algunas variables en los sistemas de información españoles con las variables definidas por la OMS. A nivel de gestión del proyecto, la mayor dificultad radica en la disparidad de responsabilidades en materia de medio ambiente y salud entre las instituciones españolas. Además de la aportación técnica a la salud ambiental en España, un valor añadido de este proyecto ha sido el establecimiento de líneas de colaboración estrechas con los responsables de los diferentes Ministerios implicados.

  8. [The Research for Trace Ammonia Escape Monitoring System Based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-bin; Yan, Jian-hua; Cen, Ke-fa

    2015-06-01

    In order to on-line measure the trace ammonia slip of the commercial power plant in the future, this research seeks to measure the trace ammonia by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy under ambient temperature and pressure, and at different temperatures, and the measuring temperature is about 650 K in the power plant. In recent years lasers have become commercially available in the near-infrared where the transitions are much stronger, and ammonia's spectroscopy is pretty complicated and the overlapping lines are difficult to resolve. A group of ammonia transitions near 4 433.5 cm(-1) in the v2 +v3 combination band have been thoroughly selected for detecting lower concentration by analyzing its absorption characteristic and considering other absorption interference in combustion gases where H2O and CO2 mole fraction are very large. To illustrate the potential for NH3 concentration measurements, predictions for NH3, H2O and CO2 are simultaneously simulated, NH3 absorption lines near 4 433.5 cm(-1) wavelength meet weaker H2O absorption than the commercial NH3 lines, and there is almost no CO2 absorption, all the parameters are based on the HITRAN database, and an improved detection limit was obtained for interference-free NH3 monitoring, this 2.25 μm band has line strengths several times larger than absorption lines in the 1.53 μm band which was often used by NH3 sensors for emission monitoring and analyzing. The measurement system was developed with a new Herriott cell and a heated gas cell realizing fast absorption measurements of high resolution, and combined with direct absorption and wavelenguh modulation based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy at different temperatures. The lorentzian line shape is dominant at ambient temperature and pressure, and the estimated detectivity is approximately 0.225 x 10(-6) (SNR = 1) for the directed absorption spectroscopy, assuming a noise-equivalent absorbance of 1 x 10(-4). The heated cell

  9. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  10. Voxel-Space Ambient Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    REPORT Voxel-Space Ambient Occlusion 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Ambient occlusion adds important detail to a scene. This paper...presents a multiresolution screen-space voxel based ambient occlusion technique, which improves G-buffer based techniques, avoiding artifacts such as haloing...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Voxels, ambient occlusion, interactive visibility Rajeev

  11. Recent progress in transition-metal-catalyzed reduction of molecular dinitrogen under ambient reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2015-10-05

    This paper describes our recent progress in catalytic nitrogen fixation by using transition-metal-dinitrogen complexes as catalysts. Two reaction systems for the catalytic transformation of molecular dinitrogen into ammonia and its equivalent such as silylamine under ambient reaction conditions have been achieved by the molybdenum-, iron-, and cobalt-dinitrogen complexes as catalysts. Many new findings presented here may provide new access to the development of economical nitrogen fixation in place of the Haber-Bosch process.

  12. Study of Ammonia Emissions in a Ventilated Pig Pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li

    Pig productions cause a wide emission of odors, such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Ammonia is one of the most important emissions for evaluating the air quality either in animal buildings or atmospheric environment. In studies of ammonia emission from animal buildings...... through the air-liquid interface is suggested from vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of ammonia water. Furthermore, the effects of airflow and temperature on ammonia mass transfer coefficient are also analyzed under different concentration boundary conditions determined by various Henry’s law constant...... models and vapor-liquid equilibrium properties. The simplified model to determine the ammonia boundary condition on the emission surface has been further used to study the ammonia emissions in a full scale pig pen under different ventilation systems and slatted floor opening ratios as well as various...

  13. Suppression of Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Based Fertilizers Using Urease Inhibitors: A Reasonably Available Control Technology for Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia loss from fertilizers can impact formation of atmospheric aerosols, as well as contribute to nitrogen (N) deposition in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Urea is the predominant form of N fertilizer used worldwide due to its high N content (46.6% N) and low cost. Once in contact with soil or vegetation, urea is hydrolyzed to ammonium via naturally occurring urease enzymes. Losses of N from surface applied urea as ammonia can exceed 30%. To address this issue, various physical and chemical mechanisms have been incorporated into granular urea. The most common approach is incorporation of urease inhibitors such as N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). We have been investigating ammonia volatilization from urea granules (+/- urease inhibitors) in various field and laboratory controlled experiments for the past several years. Laboratory experiments are conducted with a customized growth chamber system designed to continuously measure ammonia volatilization. Field measurements are conducted using a passive sampler technology with an acid-coated trap in PVC cylinders, or annular denuder technology using flow-through PVC chambers. Daily exchanges of acid-coated denuder tubes enhance the sensitivity of ammonia volatilization measurements for the urease-inhibitor treated product. Loss of N from commercial urea granules has ranged from 6 - ~ 35%, depending on ambient temperature. This loss typically occurs within the first 5-10 days under field conditions. Some urease-inhibitors can minimize loss of N via volatilization (< 5%) for up to 20+ days in the absence of a rainfall event. Visual observations have confirmed that on bare soil, treated or untreated urea granules quickly "dissolve" and move into the soil. The accompanying urease-inhibitor formulation moves with the urea continuing to provide protection against reaction with naturally occurring urease enzymes. Use of urease-inhibitors does not guarantee increased crop yields or NUE, but the consistency of

  14. Experimental Setup for Determining Ammonia-Salt Adsorption and Desorption Behavior Under Typical Heat Pump Conditions. Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Veldhuis, J.B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    For the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the performance of a salt-ammonia sorption reactor/heat exchanger a new test-rig was developed. This test-rig enables the measurement of the performance in adsorption and desorption mode of different sorption reactor designs. It measures the speed of uptake and release of ammonia gas of various salt-ammonia reactions under well-controlled and well-monitored process conditions, similar to the heat pump conditions. The test-rig measures the ammonia uptake and release under controlled pressure and temperature conditions. Temperatures of the salt reactor can be varied from ambient temperature up to 200{sup o}C and the ammonia pressure can be varied between 0.02 to 2 MPa. These conditions can be set independently and repeated at regular time-intervals. Besides NH3-mass-flow meters, pressure and temperature sensors, the setup also contains an endoscope to observe any macroscopic structural changes in the material during uptake and release of ammonia. Measurements so far have shown a liquid phase of LiCl.3NH3 at pressures of 0.5 MPa and temperatures exceeding 90{sup o}C. Voilent foaming is observed at 120{sup o}C resulting in salt losses. A correlation was determined between the reaction rate of MgCl{sub 2}(2-6)NH3 and the relative pressure gradient yielding a reaction time of about 1500 seconds for a relative pressure difference of 1. Multiple sorption cycles of the CaCl{sub 2}(2-4)NH3 reaction, showed a reduced activity from 85% of the theoretical maximum sorbed mass at the first sorption cycle, to 15% after 300+ cycles.

  15. 75 FR 51039 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... designation of two new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given... new equivalent methods for measuring concentrations of PM 10 and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) in the ambient... for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume II, Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program'' EPA-454/B...

  16. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... applicable to all areas notwithstanding the promulgation of SO2 national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS...

  17. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National secondary ambient air quality...

  18. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75 parts...

  19. MEIO AMBIENTE E DESENVOLVIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Salgueiro Chacon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é resgatar elementos para subsidiar uma reflexão crítica sobre o modelo de desenvolvimento econômico prevalente na sociedade e as relações com o meio ambiente, sob a ameaça que ronda o destino da espécie humana, conforme afirmação de Lovelock (2006, p. 20 sobre o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável: “uma ideia adorável se a tivéssemos aplicado 200 anos atrás, quando havia um bilhão de pessoas no mundo. Agora é tarde demais. Não há mais espaço para nenhum tipo de desenvolvimento. A humanidade tem que regredir”. Este artigo apresenta a evolução do conceito de desenvolvimento econômico sob a ótica da sustentabilidade, e interliga temas como: o ambientalismo, aglutinador de distintos pensamentos sobre as relações entre a sociedade e a natureza; o movimento ambiental, a fundamentar a disseminação do conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável, e a gestão ambiental, abordada como prática orientada pelo conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável.

  20. Isotopic Signatures for Source Apportionment of Ammonia in Urban Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y.; Liu, X.

    2016-12-01

    Stable nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N) offers new opportunities to address the long-standing and ongoing controversy regarding the origins of ambient ammonia (NH3), a vital precursor of PM2.5 inorganic components, in the urban atmosphere. In this study, the δ15N values of NH3 samples collected from various sources were constrained using a novel and robust chemical method coupled with standard elemental analysis procedures. Independent of the wide variation in mass concentrations (ranging from 33 (vehicle) to over 6000 (human excreta) μg m-3), different NH3 sources have generally different δ15N values (ranging from -52.0 to -9.6‰). Significantly high δ15N values are seen as a characteristic feature of all vehicle-derived NH3 samples (-14.2±2.8‰), which can be distinguished from other sources emitted at environmental temperature (-29.1±1.7, -37.8±3.6, and -50.0±1.8‰ for livestock, waste, and fertilizer, respectively). The isotope δ15N signatures for a range of NH3 emission sources were used to evaluate the contributions of the different sources within measured ambient NH3 in Beijing, using an isotope mixing model (IsoSource). The method was used to quantify the sources of ambient NH3 before, during and after the 2014 APEC summit, when a set of stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Results show that the average NH3 concentrations (the overall contributions of traffic, waste, livestock, and fertilizer) during the three periods were 9.1 (15.1, 31.2, 23.7, and 30.0%), 7.3 (8.8, 24.9, 14.3, and 52.0%), and 12.7 (29.4, 23.6, 31.7, and 15.4%) μg m-3, respectively, representing a 20.0% decrease first and then a 74.5% increase in overall NH3 mass concentrations. During (after) the summit, the contributions of traffic, waste, livestock, and fertilizer decreased (increased) by 58.7 (234.2), 0.9 (-5.0), 41.0 (120.8), and -87.6% (-70.5%) when compared with periods before (during) the summit, respectively, signifying that future NH3 control

  1. Submersible microbial desalination cell for simultaneous ammonia recovery and electricity production from anaerobic reactors containing high levels of ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    High ammonia concentration in anaerobic reactors can seriously inhibit the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) was developed as an innovative method to lower the ammonia level in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by in situ ammonia...... and free NH3 diffusion were identified as the mechanisms responsible for the ammonia transportation. With an increase in initial ammonia concentration and a decrease in external resistance, the SMDC performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative...

  2. Ammonia in London: is it increasing and what is the relevance of urban ammonia for air quality impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braban, Christine; Tang, Sim; Poskitt, Janet; Van Dijk, Netty; Leeson, Sarah; Dragosits, Ulli; Hutchings, Torben; Twigg, Marsailidh; Di Marco, Chiara; Langford, Ben; Tremper, Anja; Nemitz, Eiko; Sutton, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of ammonia affect both rural and urban air quality primarily via reaction of ammonia in the atmosphere forming secondary ammonium salts in particulate matter (PM). Urban ammonia emissions come from a variety of sources including biological decomposition, human waste, industrial processes and combustion engines. In the UK, the only long-term urban ammonia measurement is a UK National Ammonia Monitoring Network site at London Cromwell Road, recording monthly average concentrations. Short term measurements have also been made in the past decade at Marylebone Road, North Kensington and on the BT Tower. Cromwell Road is a kerbside site operational since 1999. The Cromwell Road data indicates that ammonia concentrations may be increasing since 2010-2012 after a long period of decreasing. Data from the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory indicates ammonia emissions from diesel fleet exhausts increasing over this time period but an overall net decrease in ammonia emissions. With changes in engine and exhaust technology to minimise pollutant emissions and the importance of ammonia as a precursor gas for secondary PM, there is a challenge to understand urban ammonia concentrations and subsequent impacts on urban air quality. In this paper the long term measurements are assessed in conjunction with the short-term measurements.The challenges to assess the relative importance of local versus long range ammonia emission are discussed.

  3. Validation of ammonia diffusive and active samplers in a controlled atmosphere test facility using traceable Primary Standard Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicholas A.; Ferracci, Valerio; Cassidy, Nathan; Hook, Josh; Battersby, Ross M.; Tang, Yuk S.; Stevens, Amy C. M.; Jones, Matthew R.; Braban, Christine F.; Gates, Linda; Hangartner, Markus; Stoll, Jean-Marc; Sacco, Paolo; Pagani, Diego; Hoffnagle, John A.

    2017-04-01

    Intensive animal farming, the increased use of fertilizers, and certain industrial processes are believed to be responsible for the observed increases in the amount fraction of ammonia (NH3) found in Europe. NH3 contributes to eutrophication and acidification of land and freshwater, potentially leading to a loss of biodiversity and undesirable changes to the ecosystem. It also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate matter (PM) formation, which is associated with poor air quality and adverse health outcomes. Measurements of ambient ammonia are principally carried out with low-cost diffusive samplers or by active sampling with denuders, with each method delivering time-integrated values over the monitoring period. However, such techniques have not yet been extensively validated. The goal of this work was to provide improvements in the metrological traceability through the determination of NH3 diffusive sampling rates. Five different designs of commercial diffusive samplers (FSM Radiello radial sampler, Gradko diffusion tube, Gradko DIFRAM-400, Passam ammonia sampler, and CEH ALPHA sampler) were employed, together with a pumped denuder sampler (CEH DELTA denuder) for comparison. All devices were simultaneously exposed for either 28 days or 14 days (dependent on sampler type) in a controlled atmosphere test facility (CATFAC) containing traceable amount fractions of humidified ammonia using new stable ammonia Primary Standard Gas Mixtures developed by gravimetry at NPL, under a wide range of conditions that are relevant to ambient monitoring. Online continuous monitoring of the ammonia test atmospheres was carried out by extractive sampling, employing a calibrated cavity ring-down spectrometer, which had been modified to account for cross interference by water vapour. Each manufacturer extracted the captured ammonia on the exposed samplers in the form of ammonium (NH4+) using their own accredited traceable wet chemical techniques, and then reported data

  4. Innovative bioelectrochemical-anaerobic-digestion integrated system for ammonia recovery and bioenergy production from ammonia-rich residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    -N/L(CSTR)/d. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 0.71±0.5 W/m2 was produced (10 Ω). Both current driven NH4+ migration and free NH3 diffusion were identified as the mechanisms responsible for the ammonia transportation. With an increase in initial ammonia concentration and a decrease in external resistance, the SMRC...... performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative effect on the ammonia transportation. In continuous reactor operation, 112% extra biogas production was achieved due to ammonia recovery. High-throughput molecular sequencing analysis showed an impact...... of ammonia recovery on the microbial community composition in the integrated system. Results clearly indicate the great potential of the SMRC-CSTR-coupled system for efficient and cost-effective ammonia recovery, energy production and treatment of ammonia-rich residues....

  5. Salud ambiental: conceptos y actividades

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo A. Ordóñez

    2000-01-01

    La finalidad del trabajo es aportar información y propuestas conceptuales que faciliten la tarea de quienes tienen a su cargo la sistematización institucional de la salud ambiental. Se hace un análisis de la noción de "ambiente" para la cual se sugiere una definición, y se examina el lugar de la salud ambiental en el contexto de los problemas ambientales y sus vertientes "verde" y "azul". Se examinan denominaciones equivalentes de salud ambiental y se introducen los servicios de salud ambient...

  6. Chilled Ammonia Process for CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; Well, Willy J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2–10°C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows good...... perspectives for decreasing the heat requirement. However, a scientific understanding of the processes is required. The thermodynamic properties of the NH3–CO2–H2O system were described using the extended UNIQUAC electrolyte model developed by Thomsen and Rasmussen in a temperature range from 0 to 110°C...... and pressure up to 100bars. The results show that solid phases consisting of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate are formed in the absorber. The heat requirements in the absorber and in the desorber have been studied. The enthalpy calculations show that a heat requirement for the desorber lower than 2GJ/ton CO2...

  7. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus......-scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS......, their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, Aqueous Ammonia Soaking was successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full...

  8. Uptake of ammonia gas by Jovian ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, T.; Wong, M. H.; Marschall, J.; de Pater, I.; Romani, P. N.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2011-10-01

    The altitude profile of ammonia (NH3) in Jupiter's atmosphere, as constrained by microwave spectra, is poorly understood. A global-scale NH3 depletion mechanism appears to be operating between the 2- and 6-bar levels. Candidate depletion mechanisms include dynamics, condensation, and adsorption of NH3 onto ices. Laboratory measurements of NH3 uptake provide valuable constraints for model calculations testing the NH3 depletion hypothesis in Jupiter's atmosphere. We have performed experiments designed to measure the uptake coefficient of NH3 by H2O ice using a Knudsen cell apparatus at temperatures relevant to the troposphere of Jupiter. We have initiated model calculations to apply the experimental results to Jupiter's atmosphere and evaluate the key parameters and processes that influence the ammonia uptake and their relevance to Jupiter's atmosphere.

  9. Guidance for Facilities on Risk Management Programs (RMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Includes supplemental guidance specific to ammonia refrigeration, wastewater treatment, propane storage, warehouses, chemical distributors, offsite consequence analysis, retail agriculture, applicability of program levels, prevention, emergency response.

  10. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  11. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  12. Ammonia Thermometry of Star Forming Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Mangum, Jeffrey G.; Darling, Jeremy; Henkel, Christian; Menten, Karl M.; MacGregor, Meredith; Svoboda, Brian E.; Schinnerer, Eva

    2013-01-01

    With a goal toward deriving the physical conditions in external galaxies, we present a study of the ammonia (NH$_3$) emission and absorption in a sample of star forming systems. Using the unique sensitivities to kinetic temperature afforded by the excitation characteristics of several inversion transitions of NH$_3$, we have continued our characterization of the dense gas in star forming galaxies by measuring the kinetic temperature in a sample of 23 galaxies and one galaxy offset position se...

  13. Catalytic ammonia oxidation to nitrogen (i) oxide

    OpenAIRE

    MASALITINA NATALIYA YUREVNA; SAVENKOV ANATOLIY SERGEEVICH

    2015-01-01

    The process of synthesis of nitrous oxide by low-temperature catalytical oxidation of NH has been investigated for organic synthesis. The investigation has been carried out by the stage separation approach with NH oxidation occurring in several reaction zones, which characterized by different catalytic conditions. The selectivity for N2O was 92-92,5% at the ammonia conversion of 98-99.5% in the optimal temperature range

  14. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  15. Bacterial ammonia causes significant plant growth inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Weise

    Full Text Available Many and complex plant-bacteria inter-relationships are found in the rhizosphere, since plants release a variety of photosynthetic exudates from their roots and rhizobacteria produce multifaceted specialized compounds including rich mixtures of volatiles, e.g., the bouquet of Serratia odorifera 4Rx13 is composed of up to 100 volatile organic and inorganic compounds. Here we show that when growing on peptone-rich nutrient medium S. odorifera 4Rx13 and six other rhizobacteria emit high levels of ammonia, which during co-cultivation in compartmented Petri dishes caused alkalization of the neighboring plant medium and subsequently reduced the growth of A. thaliana. It is argued that in nature high-protein resource degradations (carcasses, whey, manure and compost are also accompanied by bacterial ammonia emission which alters the pH of the rhizosphere and thereby influences organismal diversity and plant-microbe interactions. Consequently, bacterial ammonia emission may be more relevant for plant colonization and growth development than previously thought.

  16. Control of ammonia and urea emissions from urea manufacturing facilities of Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC), Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A R; Al-Awadi, L; Al-Rashidi, M S

    2016-06-01

    Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) in Kuwait has mitigated the pollution problem of ammonia and urea dust by replacing the melting and prilling units of finished-product urea prills with an environmentally friendly granulation process. PIC has financed a research project conducted by the Coastal and Air Pollution Program's research staff at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research to assess the impact of pollution control strategies implemented to maintain a healthy productive environment in and around the manufacturing premises. The project was completed in three phases: the first phase included the pollution monitoring of the melting and prilling units in full operation, the second phase covered the complete shutdown period where production was halted completely and granulation units were installed, and the last phase encompassed the current modified status with granulation units in full operation. There was substantial decrease in ammonia emissions, about 72%, and a 52.7% decrease in urea emissions with the present upgrading of old melting and prilling units to a state-of-the-art technology "granulation process" for a final finished product. The other pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), have not shown any significant change, as the present modification has not affected the sources of these pollutants. Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) in Kuwait has ammonia urea industries, and there were complaints about ammonia and urea dust pollution. PIC has resolved this problem by replacing "melting and prilling unit" of final product urea prills by more environmentally friendly "granulation unit." Environmental Pollution and Climate Program has been assigned the duty of assessing the outcome of this change and how that influenced ammonia and urea dust emissions from the urea manufacturing plant.

  17. Arquitectura y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Saura Carulla, Magdalena

    2003-01-01

    La arquitectura y la planificación son el resultado de una integración ponderada de conocimientos técnicos y una multiplicidad de aspectos relacionados con el conocimiento natural y social. En este trabajo el autor propone, desde el ámbito de las ciencias del medio ambiente, diversos planteamientos teóricos y prácticos relacionados con la arquitectura y el urbanismo. El conocimiento de la naturaleza de los sistemas naturales y de los sistemas ecosociales permite al diseñador aplicar un marco ...

  18. Ambient og intelligent teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

     Dette notat handler om hvordan humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskning i øjeblikket nyttiggøres ved udformning af IKT-anvendelser, der er indlejret i vor dagligdag i den forstand, at de indgår som et element i de aktiviteter, vi foretager på arbejdet eller i fritiden. Sådanne anvendelser kaldes ...... undertiden ambiente – noget der omslutter os på alle sider. Rapporten peger også på virkemidler som kan forbedre og øge en humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskningsindsats....

  19. Toxicity of a secondary-treated sewage effluent to marine biota in Bass Strait, Australia: development of action trigger values for a toxicity monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Merrin S; Stauber, Jennifer L; Binet, Monique T; Molloy, Robert; Gregory, David

    2008-01-01

    Melbourne Water's Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) produces a secondary-treated sewage effluent which is chlorinated and discharged into Bass Strait at Boags Rocks, Victoria, Australia. Disappearance of the sensitive brown seaweed Hormosira banksii from rock platforms immediately adjacent to the shore-line discharge was identified in the early 1990s. Subsequently, Melbourne Water and CSIRO undertook an environmental impact assessment and review of land and marine effluent disposal options, which included ambient water quality monitoring, biological monitoring, bioaccumulation studies and toxicity testing of existing effluent to assess the nature and magnitude of the environmental effects. This paper presents data from the toxicity monitoring programs since 2001. Chronic toxicity testing using macroalgal germination and cell division (H. banksii), microalgal growth rate (Nitzschia closterium) and scallop larval development (Chlamys asperrima), confirmed that ammonia was the major cause of effluent toxicity. Results from this toxicity monitoring program were used to develop action trigger values for toxicity for each species, which were then used in a refined monitoring program in 2005-2007. An upgrade of the ETP is in progress to improve nitrification/denitrification in order to reduce ammonia concentrations and the toxicity of the effluent. Toxicity testing with a simulated upgraded effluent confirmed that ammonia concentrations and toxicity were reduced. Estimated "safe" dilutions of effluent, calculated using species sensitivity distributions, decreased from 1:140-300 for existing ETP effluent to 1:20 for nitrified effluent, further confirming that treatment improvements should reduce the impact on marine biota in the vicinity of the discharge.

  20. What metrology can do to improve the quality of your atmospheric ammonia measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Martin, Nicholas A.; Pascale, Céline; Guillevic, Myriam; Ackermann, Andreas; Ferracci, Valerio; Cassidy, Nathan; Hook, Josh; Battersby, Ross M.; Tang, Yuk S.; Stevens, Amy C. M.; Jones, Matthew R.; Braban, Christine F.; Gates, Linda; Hangartner, Markus; Sacco, Paolo; Pagani, Diego; Hoffnagle, John A.; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on "National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)" regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements, namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures, as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability, i.e. that the results of measurements are traceable to SI-units through an unbroken chain of calibrations. In the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project on the topic "Metrology for Ammonia in Ambient Air" (MetNH3), European national metrology institutes (NMI's) have joined to tackle the issue of generating SI-traceable reference material, i.e. generate reference gas mixtures containing known amount fractions of NH3.This requires special infrastructure and analytical techniques: Measurements of ambient ammonia are commonly carried out with diffusive samplers or by active sampling with denuders, but such techniques have not yet been extensively validated. Improvements in the metrological traceability may be achieved through the determination of NH3 diffusive sampling rates using ammonia Primary Standard Gas Mixtures (PSMs), developed by gravimetry at the National Physical Laboratory NPL and a controlled atmosphere test facility in combination with on-line monitoring with a cavity ring-down spectrometer. The Federal Institute of Metrology METAS has developed an infrastructure to generate SI-traceable NH3 reference gas mixtures dynamically in the amount fraction range 0.5-500 nmol/mol (atmospheric concentrations) and with uncertainties UNH3 apply the method of temperature and pressure dependant permeation of a pure substance through a membrane into a stream of pre-purified matrix gas

  1. Crisis ambiental y cristianismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se identifican y reconocen algunas opciones que se pueden desarrollar en el cristianismo en relación con la problemática ambiental. Se aborda el dilema bíblico suscitado por interpretaciones antiecológicas y ecológicas. Con base en una lectura de la Biblia, de testimonios cristianos, y en una rememoria de estructuras institucionales, como la parroquia, se analiza el valor que tiene el mensaje cristiano en lo referido a la mitigación de la crisis ambiental.This article identifies and recognizes some options that can be developed in Christianity in relation to the environmental problem. It starts by analyzing the biblical dilemma provoked by both ecological and antiecological interpretations. Based on a reading of the Bible, testimonies from Christians and with a rememory of institutional structures, like the parish, the valué of the Christian message for mitigating the environmental crisis is analyzed.

  2. Dioxinas y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Frejo Moya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el término genérico dioxinas se designa al grupo de las dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD y de los dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF, representantes típicos de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs. Se obtienen como productos secundarios no deseados de diversos procesos industriales en los que se emplea cloro en alguna de sus etapas. Las dioxinas han centrado en la última década una parte importante de la investigación médica en salud ambiental debido a su notable toxicidad, ya que son las sustancias químicas peligrosas más potentes creadas por el hombre, afectando al sistema nervioso e inmunitario, estando implicadas en la aparición de distintos tipos de cáncer y provocando la aparición de alteraciones hormonales, clasificándose actualmente como disruptores endocrinos. Por otra parte, su persistencia en el medio ambiente, resistencia a la degradación, bioacumulación y capacidad de transporte atmosférico entre las diversas fases medioambientales hace que sean considerados actualmente como compuestos peligrosos para el ser humano.

  3. Ammonia in the environment: from ancient times to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark A; Erisman, Jan Willem; Dentener, Frank; Möller, Detlev

    2008-12-01

    Recent research on atmospheric ammonia has made good progress in quantifying sources/sinks and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the achievements and places them in their historical context. It considers the role of ammonia in the development of agricultural science and air chemistry, showing how these arose out of foundations in 18th century chemistry and medieval alchemy, and then identifies the original environmental sources from which the ancients obtained ammonia. Ammonia is revealed as a compound of key human interest through the centuries, with a central role played by sal ammoniac in alchemy and the emergence of modern science. The review highlights how recent environmental research has emphasized volatilization sources of ammonia. Conversely, the historical records emphasize the role of high-temperature sources, including dung burning, coal burning, naturally burning coal seams and volcanoes. Present estimates of ammonia emissions from these sources are based on few measurements, which should be a future priority.

  4. Ammonia in the environment: From ancient times to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Erisman, J.W.; Dentener, F.; Moller, D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik (United Kingdom). Edinburgh Research Station

    2008-12-15

    Recent research on atmospheric ammonia has made good progress in quantifying sources/sinks and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the achievements and places them in their historical context. It considers the role of ammonia in the development of agricultural science and air chemistry, showing how these arose out of foundations in 18th century chemistry and medieval alchemy, and then identifies the original environmental sources from which the ancients obtained ammonia. Ammonia is revealed as a compound of key human interest through the centuries, with a central role played by sal ammoniac in alchemy and the emergence of modern science. The review highlights how recent environmental research has emphasized volatilization sources of ammonia. Conversely, the historical records emphasize the role of high-temperature sources, including dung burning, coal burning, naturally burning coal seams and volcanoes. Present estimates of ammonia emissions from these sources are based on few measurements, which should be a future priority.

  5. Kinetic model of ammonia synthesis in the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, T. L.

    1980-03-01

    Kinetic model of ammonia formation by iron catalysis in the primordial solar nebula is developed. The maximum time to reach equilibrium concentration is determined for various temperatures between 1000 and 200 K on the basis of reaction rates derived from industrial data on iron catalysts for ammonia. Application of the method for calculating the equilibrium time to an arbitrary nebula cooling model which maximizes the time available for ammonia synthesis results in an upper limit of 3% of the equilibrium value to the proportion of nitrogen in the form of ammonia at the time of planetary accretion, with ammonia abundance decreasing with distance from the sun. It is concluded that kinetic rather than equilibrium considerations control the abundance of ammonia in the solar nebula, and implications of the dominance of nitrogen for the evolution of the atmospheres of the terrestrial and Jovian planets and the composition of comets are indicated.

  6. Ammonia/Hydrogen Mixtures in an SI-Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Christian Sandersen; Bjerre, Andreas; Gøttrup, Morten Piil

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing focus on using metal ammine complexes for ammonia storage. In this paper a fuel system for ammonia fuelled internal combustion engines using metal ammine complexes as ammonia storage is analyzed. The use of ammonia/hydrogen mixtures as an SI-engine fuel...... is investigated in the same context. Ammonia and hydrogen were introduced into the intake manifold of a CFR-engine. Series of experiments with varying excess air ratio and different ammonia to hydrogen ratios was conducted. This showed that a fuel mixture with 10 vol.% hydrogen performs best with respect...... to efficiency and power. A comparison with gasoline was made, which showed efficiencies and power increased due to the possibility of a higher compression ratio. The system analysis showed that it is possible to cover a major part of the necessary heat using the exhaust heat. It is proposed to reduce the high...

  7. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-rich substrates can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process. Syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens are important for the ammonia inhibitory mechanism on anaerobic digestion. The roles and interactions of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens.......26, 3, 5 and 7 g NH4+-N L−1. The results showed that some hydrogenotrophic methanogens were equally, or in some cases, more tolerant to high ammonia levels compared to SAOB. Furthermore, a mesophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogen was more sensitive to ammonia toxicity compared to thermophilic methanogens...... tested in the study; which is contradicting to the general belief that thermophilic methanogens are more vulnerable to high ammonia loads compared to mesophilic. This unexpected finding underlines the fact that the complete knowledge of ammonia inhibition effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens is still...

  8. Ammonia clearance with haemofiltration in adults with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Andrew J; Auzinger, Georg; Willars, Chris; Dew, Tracy; Musto, Rebecca; Corsilli, Daniel; Sherwood, Roy; Wendon, Julia A; Bernal, William

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia is recognized as a toxin central to complications of liver failure. Hyperammonaemia has important clinical consequences, but optimal means to reduce circulating levels are uncertain. In patients with liver disease, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with haemofiltration (HF) is often required to treat concurrent kidney injury, but its effects upon ammonia levels are poorly characterized. To evaluate the effect of HF at different treatment intensities on ammonia clearance (AC) and arterial ammonia concentration. Prospective study of adult patients with liver failure and arterial ammonia >100 μmol/L requiring CRRT using veno-venous HF. Arterial ammonia concentration and AC measured at 1 and 24 h after initiation of low (35 ml/kg/h) or high (90 ml/kg/h) filtration volume. Twenty-four patients (10 acute liver failure, 10 chronic liver disease and 4 following liver resection) were studied. Clearance of urea and ammonia solutes correlated closely (r = 0.819, P = 0.007). Ammonia clearance correlated closely with ultrafiltration rate (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). At 1 h, AC was 39 (34-54) ml/min (low volume) vs 85 (62-105) ml/min (high volume) CRRT, (P < 0.001) and at 24 h 44 (34-63) vs 105 (82-109) ml/min, (P = 0.01). Overall, a 22% reduction in median arterial ammonia concentration was observed over 24 h of HF from 156 (137-176) to 122 (85-133) μmol/L, (P ≤ 0.0001). Clinically significant ammonia clearance can be achieved in adult patients with hyperammonaemia utilizing continuous VVHF. Ammonia clearance is closely correlated with ultrafiltration rate. HF was associated with a fall in arterial ammonia concentration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Electro Decomposition of Ammonia into Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    CERL TR-12-1 vii Tables 1 Energy consumption for hydrogen production in different ammonia electrolysis systems...monia and urea electrolysis processes is the low energy consumption for the production of hydrogen from ammonia and urea. This work was undertaken... hydrogen production in different ammonia electrolysis systems. System Cell Voltage (V) Energy Consumption (Wh/g of H2) Comments 1 Pt-Rh catalyst

  10. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  11. Properties of Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 as Nanocatalyst for Ammonia Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspitasari Poppy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia synthesis requires high pressure and high temperature process. Unfortunately, the capital intensive cost resulting low yield of ammonia by using recent catalyst which is iron oxide. Therefore, manganese zinc ferrite as a soft ferrite material will be introduced as a new nanocatalyst to enhance the ammonia yield. As a new nanocatalyst for ammonia production, study of comparasion two different concentration of MnZn Ferrite is very important. This paper will compare the yield of ammonia by using two different nanocatalyst which are Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4. Both were synthesized by sol-gel method and has been characterize by using FESEM (morphology, XRD (phase identification, EDX (elemental analysis and TPR (oxide reduction. The ammonia was produce with and without magnetic field applied. The result shows that the ammonia yield is higher for Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 nanocatalyst than Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 by using magnetic field applied. 67.2% of yield has been achieved by using new nanocatalyst Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 and magnetic field applied at ambient environment.

  12. Participação comunitária em um programa de intervenção em área de proteção ambiental Community participation in an intervention program developed in a protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Faraoni Freitas Setti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute os conceitos de participação e empowerment em Promoção da Saúde e Desenvolvimento Sustentável, considerando as agendas de implementação local, Municípios/Cidades Saudáveis e Agenda 21, e a importância dos processos de avaliação nesse contexto, por meio da análise de uma intervenção em área de mananciais - o Programa Bairro Ecológico (PBE, desenvolvido em 51 bairros do município de São Bernardo do Campo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os processos de participação e empowerment da comunidade, a partir das ações desencadeadas pelo PBE. Foram aplicados questionários e realizados grupos focais com moradores de bairros que sofreram a intervenção. Também foram realizadas entrevistas individuais com gestores do programa e do poder judiciário. Os resultados indicaram que a participação na implementação do PBE favoreceu o empowerment individual e grupal, presente nas duas comunidades estudadas. As comunidades tornaram-se mais organizadas. Há indícios de que os processos de tomada de decisões são centralizados. Apesar disso, as comunidades entendem que sua participação no programa lhes traz muitas coisas boas. Houve um processo participativo no desenvolvimento do programa, ainda que alguns relatos apontem para o caráter obrigatório da participação. Deve-se destacar o impacto do envolvimento e fortalecimento das lideranças na implementação e sustentabilidade do programa. No que diz respeito a esta última, verificou-se que a sensibilização ambiental tem sido fator determinante para a execução e manutenção das ações ao longo do tempo.This article discusses the concepts of participation and empowerment in Health Promotion and Sustainable Development, considering the local implementation agendas:/ Healthy Cities and Agenda 21, and taking into account the importance of evaluation in this context. This was achieved through the analysis of an intervention

  13. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  14. Calculation notes in support of ammonia releases from waste tank ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojdac, L.F.

    1996-09-05

    Ammonia is generated in waste tanks via the degradation of nitrogen compounds. The ammonia is released from the liquids by a mechanism which is dependent on temperature, pH, ionic strength and ammonia concentration. The release of ammonia to the environment occurs via diffusion of ammonia through a stagnant air mass and into the ventilation system.

  15. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  16. Ammonia Transporters and Their Role in Acid-Base Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David; Verlander, Jill W

    2017-04-01

    Acid-base homeostasis is critical to maintenance of normal health. Renal ammonia excretion is the quantitatively predominant component of renal net acid excretion, both under basal conditions and in response to acid-base disturbances. Although titratable acid excretion also contributes to renal net acid excretion, the quantitative contribution of titratable acid excretion is less than that of ammonia under basal conditions and is only a minor component of the adaptive response to acid-base disturbances. In contrast to other urinary solutes, ammonia is produced in the kidney and then is selectively transported either into the urine or the renal vein. The proportion of ammonia that the kidney produces that is excreted in the urine varies dramatically in response to physiological stimuli, and only urinary ammonia excretion contributes to acid-base homeostasis. As a result, selective and regulated renal ammonia transport by renal epithelial cells is central to acid-base homeostasis. Both molecular forms of ammonia, NH3 and NH4(+), are transported by specific proteins, and regulation of these transport processes determines the eventual fate of the ammonia produced. In this review, we discuss these issues, and then discuss in detail the specific proteins involved in renal epithelial cell ammonia transport. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Ammonia transport in the kidney by Rhesus glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlander, Jill W.

    2014-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism is a fundamental element of acid-base homeostasis, comprising a major component of both basal and physiologically altered renal net acid excretion. Over the past several years, a fundamental change in our understanding of the mechanisms of renal epithelial cell ammonia transport has occurred, replacing the previous model which was based upon diffusion equilibrium for NH3 and trapping of NH4+ with a new model in which specific and regulated transport of both NH3 and NH4+ across renal epithelial cell membranes via specific membrane proteins is required for normal ammonia metabolism. A major advance has been the recognition that members of a recently recognized transporter family, the Rhesus glycoprotein family, mediate critical roles in renal and extrarenal ammonia transport. The erythroid-specific Rhesus glycoprotein, Rh A Glycoprotein (Rhag), was the first Rhesus glycoprotein recognized as an ammonia-specific transporter. Subsequently, the nonerythroid Rh glycoproteins, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), were cloned and identified as ammonia transporters. They are expressed in specific cell populations and membrane domains in distal renal epithelial cells, where they facilitate ammonia secretion. In this review, we discuss the distribution of Rhbg and Rhcg in the kidney, the regulation of their expression and activity in physiological disturbances, the effects of genetic deletion on renal ammonia metabolism, and the molecular mechanisms of Rh glycoprotein-mediated ammonia transport. PMID:24647713

  18. Ammonia sources, transport, and deposition in northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, J. L., Jr.; Benedict, K. B.; Li, Y.; Shao, Y.; Wentworth, G.; Sullivan, A.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Bangs, E.; Murphy, J. G.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Expanded measurements of ammonia in northern Colorado are providing new insight into ammonia sources in the region, their spatial variability, and their contributions to reactive nitrogen deposition in sensitive regions such as Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). Regional ammonia concentrations have been examined through a combination of a passive ammonia monitoring network, through mobile measurements, and through an east-west transect of real-time ammonia monitors stretching from the agricultural source region of NE Colorado through the Rocky Mountain foothills west of the Front Range urban corridor, to Rocky Mountain National Park. Several years of ammonia observations in NE Colorado reveal considerable concentration variability, with the highest concentrations observed near animal feeding observations. Multi-year concentration increases have been observed at some locations and significant decreases at other locations, but most sites exhibit no significant long-term trends. Ammonia concentrations in RMNP are strongly influenced by episodic transport from ammonia-rich NE Colorado, but an imprtant influence is also observed from wildfire emissions. Local recylcing of boundary layer ammonia through formation and evaporation of dew also exerts a strong influence on local concentrations, a phenomenon that has received little prior attention.

  19. Trends in on-road vehicle emissions of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kean, A.J.; Littlejohn, D.; Ban-Weiss, G.A.; Harley, R.A.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Lunden, M. M.

    2008-07-15

    Motor vehicle emissions of ammonia have been measured at a California highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. Between 1999 and 2006, light-duty vehicle ammonia emissions decreased by 38 {+-} 6%, from 640 {+-} 40 to 400 {+-} 20 mg kg{sup -1}. High time resolution measurements of ammonia made in summer 2001 at the same location indicate a minimum in ammonia emissions correlated with slower-speed driving conditions. Variations in ammonia emission rates track changes in carbon monoxide more closely than changes in nitrogen oxides, especially during later evening hours when traffic speeds are highest. Analysis of remote sensing data of Burgard et al. (Environ Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 7018-7022) indicates relationships between ammonia and vehicle model year, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. Ammonia emission rates from diesel trucks were difficult to measure in the tunnel setting due to the large contribution to ammonia concentrations in a mixed-traffic bore that were assigned to light-duty vehicle emissions. Nevertheless, it is clear that heavy-duty diesel trucks are a minor source of ammonia emissions compared to light-duty gasoline vehicles.

  20. Removal of ammonia from poultry manure by aluminosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlazło, Łukasz; Nowakowicz-Dębek, Bożena; Kapica, Jacek; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Pawlak, Halina

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to test the possibility of using aluminosilicates as natural sorbents of ammonia from poultry manure. The ammonia-absorbing properties of sodium bentonite and zeolite were confirmed in ex situ conditions. The most significant reduction in the level of ammonia with respect to the control was noted for 2% bentonite and 1% zeolite. The mean reduction for the entire period of the experiment ranged from 26.41% to 29.04%. The aluminosilicates tested can be used to neutralize ammonia released on poultry farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure of lambs to atmospheric ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Lewis, J.M.; Hinds, F.C.; Simon, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of chronic exposure to atmospheric ammonia at a concentration of 75 ppm on weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion by lambs. Lambs were weighed and then randomly allotted to four dynamic air-pollutant exposure chambers. Initial weights (mean +/- SE) of lambs were 22.1 +/- .46 kg and 27.5 +/- 1.54 kg for trials 1 and 2, respectively (n=12 in both trials). Lambs in two chambers (controls) were maintained in an atmosphere of filtered room air. Lambs in the other two chambers (NH/sub 3/ -exposed) were exposed to an atmosphere of filtered air plus atmospheric ammonia at a concentration of 75 ppm. Exposure period was 28 days in both trials. Feed and water were available at all times. Lamb weight gain and feed disappearance were determined weekly. Upon termination of each trial, one lamb was randomly selected from each chamber, sacrificed, and gross and histopathologic structural changes noted. Weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion data for the two trials were combined for statistical analysis. Control lambs gained on the average .09 kg/day (.28 vs .19) more (P<.01) and consumed on the average .68 kg of feed (4.53 vs 5.21) less per kilogram of weight gain (P<.10) than did NH/sub 3/-exposed lambs. Ammonia-exposed lambs in both trials showed profuse lacrimation, severe coughing and sneezing, and profuse nasal discharge, which was bloody in some instances. Gross and histopathologic findings appeared to be qualitatively similar between treatments, but more pronounced in NH/sub 3/-exposed lambs.

  2. Ammonia emissions of a rotational grazing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmeier, Karl; Häni, Christoph; Jocher, Markus; Ammann, Christof

    2017-04-01

    Intensive agricultural livestock production is the main source of air pollution by ammonia (NH3). Grazing is considered to reduce emissions significantly. However, ammonia emissions measurements on pastures are very rare and most emission models base their emissions factors for grazing on studies from the 1990s, which report a large emission range from 2.7% to 13.6% of the applied total ammonia nitrogen (TAN). We present first results of the Posieux pasture experiment in 2016 where NH3 concentration and fluxes were measured during the grazing season. The applied methods include an eddy covariance system with a two channel reactive nitrogen (Nr) converter measuring in parallel the sum of oxidized Nr species and the sum of the total Nr species. The difference of the two channels corresponds to the sum of reduced Nr species. Furthermore four MiniDOAS instruments for line integrated concentration measurements without an inlet system were used. The fluxes were estimated by applying a backward Lagrangian stochastic model (bLS) to the concentration difference of paired MiniDOAS up- and downwind of a sub-plot of the field. Monitoring of dung (visual survey) and urine patch locations (with soil electrical conductivity sensor) was carried out after each grazing rotation on selected sub-plots. It helped to compute statistics of the dung/urine patch distribution on the pasture. The experimental setup and the environmental conditions resulted in high temporal and spatial dynamics of NH3 concentrations and fluxes. The calculated fluxes were used to estimate the total net emission during the grazing period. Based on the average dung/urine patch distribution on the field an emission factor for the pasture was computed and compared to results from the literature. We discuss the applicability and limitations of the two measurement systems, reconsider the main emission drivers and explain differences in the results.

  3. Ammonia-dimethylchloramine system: kinetic approach in an aqueous medium and comparison with the mechanism involving in liquid ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Juliette; Pasquet, Véronique; Elkhatib, Mazen; Goutelle, Véronique; Delalu, Henri

    2008-01-01

    International audience; After an exhaustive study of the system ammonia-dimethylchloramine in liquid ammonia, it was interesting to compare the reactivity of this system in liquid ammonia with the same systeme in an aqueous medium. Dimethylchloramine prepared in a pure state, undergoes dehydrohalogenation in an alkaline medium: the principal products formed are N-methylmethanimine, 1,3,5-trimethylhexahydrotriazine, formaldehyde and methylamine. The kinetics of this reaction was studied by UV,...

  4. [Ammonia oxidation kinetics of ammonia oxidizer mixed culture under the conditions of O2 and trace NO2 mixed gasses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dai-Jun; Zu, Bo; Ren, Hong-Yang; Zhang, Ping; Cong, Li-Ying; Yan, Qing

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics of the NO2-dependent ammonia oxidation was developed for ammonia oxidizer mixed culture when there was no molecular oxygen in the batch tests. The kinetics parameters were determined, where the half saturate coefficient of NO2 was 0.821 micromol x L(-1), inhibition coefficient of NO2 concentration was 1.721 micromol x L(-1), and the maximum ammonia oxidation rate were 0.144 mg x (mg x h)(-1). After adding the volume fraction of O2 was 2% to trace NO2, the ammonia oxidation rates increased obviously. The maximum ammonia oxidation rate, 0.198 mg x (mg x h)(-1) occurred under the condition of the mixed gasses containing the volume fraction of O2 was 2% and 50 x 10(-6) NO2. Under the condition of mixed gasses containing the volume fraction of O2 was 21% to trace NO2, the ammonia oxidation rates further increased greatly. The maximum ammonia oxidation rate, 0.477 mg x (mg x h)(-1) occurred when the volume fraction of O2 was 21% and 100 x 10(-6) NO2 in the mixed gas, which is 3 times higher than the general aerobic ammonia oxidation rate. The function for NO2 apparently to enhance ammonia oxidation was suggested. The kinetics model of ammonia oxidation under the conditions of O2 and trace NO2 mixed gasses was developed. The model was validated by the results of ammonia oxidation experiments under the conditions of the mixed gasses containing 2% O2 and trace NO2. The mechanism for NO2 to enhance ammonia oxidation under the conditions of O2 and trace NO2 mixed gasses was discussed.

  5. Spatial variability and sources of ammonia in three European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Andre S. H.; Elser, Miriam; El Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Bozzetti, Carlo; Robert, Wolf; Richter, Rene; Slowik, Jay; Teinemaa, Erik; Hueglin, Christoph; Baltensperger, Urs

    2017-04-01

    For the assessment of ammonia (NH3) effects on ecosystems and climate, one would ideally know the emission sources and also the spatial distributions. Agriculture is the largest global source of NH3. However traffic, especially gasoline vehicles, biomass burning or waste management can be significant in urban areas. Ambient NH3 measurements using cavity ring-down spectroscopy were performed online at high time resolution on a moving vehicle in three cities: Zurich (Switzerland), Tartu (Estonia) and Tallinn (Estonia). Initial tests showed that a regular inlet cannot be used. A heated line including an auxiliary flow was finally deployed to minimize NH3 adsorption onto the inlet walls. We will present the characterization of the response and recovery times of the measurement system which was used to deconvolve the true NH3 signal from the remaining adsorption-induced hysteresis. Parallel measurements with an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer were used to correct the observed NH3 for the contribution of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which completely evaporated to NH3 and nitric acid (HNO3) in the heated line at the chosen temperature, in contrast to ammonium sulfate. Finally, quantitative measurements of ambient NH3 are possible with sufficient time resolution to enable measurement of NH3 point or line sources with a mobile sampling platform. The NH3 analyzer and the aerosol mass spectrometer were complemented by an aethalometer to measure black carbon and various gas-phase analyzers to enable a complete characterization of the sources of air pollution, including the spatial distributions and the regional background concentrations and urban increments of all measured components. Although at all three locations similar urban increment levels of organic aerosols were attributed to biomass burning and traffic, traffic emissions clearly dominated the city enhancements of NH3, equivalent black carbon (eBC) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Concentration gradients in areas strongly

  6. Transformation of ammonia i biological airfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter; Sørensen, Karen; Andersen, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia is a major compound in ventilation air from animal houses. In biological filters it is with varying efficiency transformed by physical, biological, and chemical processes and ends up as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite dissolved in water and as dinitrogen, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide...... emitted to the air. To identify the key regulators of these transformations we have combined data from studies of microbiology and performance in 10 experimental and full scale filters of varying design, loading, and management. Inhibition by nitrite controlled ammonium oxidation and pH, while biological...... removal without too much energy consumption, waste water production, green house gas emission, or suppression of the filters odor removal efficiency....

  7. Ammonia emission from subtropical crop land area in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A.; Sharma, S. K.; Harit, R. C.; Kumar, V.; Mandal, T. K.; Pathak, H.

    2012-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from wheat (November to April) and rice (July to October) crops was measured using the chemiluminescence method at a subtropical agricultural area of India during 2009-2010. Samples were collected from the canopy height during different growth stages of wheat crop to study the variations of NH3 emission during different growth stages of the crop. Background atmospheric concentration of NH3 was measured at 5 m height at the study site. Background NH3 concentration was subtracted from the NH3 concentration at crop canopy height to estimate the emission of NH3 from crop canopy. The NH3 emission from the wheat crop were recorded as 33.3 to 57.0; 15.3 to 29.2; 10.3 to 28.0; 8.7 to 23.9 and 13.9 to 28.9 μg m-2 d-1 during sowing, crown root initiation (CRI), panicle initiation, grain filling and maturity stages of the crop respectively. The NH3 emission followed a diurnal pattern with significant correlation with ambient temperature at different crop growth stages. Cumulative seasonal NH3 emission to the atmosphere was accounted for the loss of ˜10% of applied N-fertilizer during the wheat crop growing period. Immediate increase in NH3 emission was recorded from rice crop, grown under temperature gradient tunnel (TGT). However, the NH3 emission inside the TGT decreases within 3-4 h after the N-fertilizer application. Continuous estimation of NH3 concentration at the crop canopy inside the TGT, suggests that the NH3 emission to the atmosphere reaches its peak within ˜20 h of N-fertilizer application and continues up to 5 d following a diurnal pattern.

  8. Rapid Ammonia Deposition Measured Near Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, L. G.; Pan, D.; Sun, K.; Golston, L.; Tao, L.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit massive amounts of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere. Current measurements of NH3 are generally conducted far away from the sources (satellites, airplanes, etc.). There is insufficient knowledge about the dry deposition rate of NH3 near the sources, which might contribute to the large discrepancies between measured concentrations at CAFOs and those from models. During the 2014 NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign, we designed a series of tests to measure the deposition rate of NH3 by utilizing a suite of sensors, including a LICOR LI-7700 methane sensor and Princeton University's custom open path NH3 sensor, which was mounted on top of a small SUV. Our mobile sampling technique enables us to follow feedlot emission plumes to see how ambient NH3 concentration decays as gases moves away from the CAFO. The mobile platform is used to perform upwind and downwind sampling to characterize the NH3 emission source. We tracked the change of the enhancement of NH3 concentration relative to the enhancement of CH4 concentration (ΔNH3:ΔCH4), while transecting the plume of individual cattle feedlots. Measured data shows that the high concentration of NH3 seen at the source decreases quickly as one moves further downwind from it. A time constant of approximately ten minutes has been calculated from the decay of the ΔNH3:ΔCH4 ratios while moving away from the sources. We also will compare our measurements with those of NASA's P-3B aerosol measurements to show that the majority must be lost to dry deposition. This rapid deposition suggests that large amounts of NH3 are being deposited in very close proximity to these CAFOs, which is consistent with previous findings of locally high soil pH near NH3 sources. Our results will be used to better characterize nitrogen deposition from cattle feedlots and estimate NH3 lifetime.

  9. Atmospheric flux of ammonia from sprinkler application of dairy waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumburg, Brian; Mount, George H.; Yonge, David; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Filipy, Jenny; Bays, Jay; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions are a growing environmental and human health concern in the U.S. This paper describes an experiment to measure NH3 emissions from the sprinkler application of dairy slurry to a grass field. The slurry was from milking cows that are housed in a freestall barn that is scraped daily and the waste is stored in a series of anaerobic lagoons that are emptied annually. Atmospheric measurements of NH3 were made using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and tracer ratio flux experiments were used to determine field fluxes after application. An area source tracer ratio method was used to determine NH3 field fluxes, it involved releasing SF6 as the tracer gas from the upwind edge of the applied slurry and measuring the tracer concentration downwind along with the DOAS NH3 measurements. The flux is calculated from the ratio of the NH3 and SF6 concentrations and the SF6 release rate and taking into account the differences in area and dispersion. An emissions model was also developed for NH3 volatilization after application based upon tracer flux data and modeling of the concentration data. Of the total ammonical nitrogen entering from the sprinkler pump, 18% volatilized before reaching the ground. The initial flux during the tracer experiment was 47μgm-2s-1 and this decreased to 17μgm-2s-1 during the experiment. Ambient measurements showed an exponential decay with time. An empirical exponential equation was fit to the measurement data and it had a mean bias of -0.10ppbv and a normalized mean bias of -0.050%. A theoretical model had a mean bias of -11ppbv and a normalized mean bias of -5.5%. Overall sprinkler waste application emissions for the 175 milking cows was 5900 kg NH3yr-1 or 34 kg NH3cow-1yr-1.

  10. Relationship of K and ammonia transport by the turtle bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talor, Z; Lubansky, H J; Arruda, J A

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between K and ammonia transport was investigated in the turtle bladder. At serosal pH 6.4, ammonia transport is preferentially from serosa to mucosa and is, at least in part, mediated by NH4+ transport. Since K and NH4+ share similar features such as permeability and stimulation of Na-K-ATPase, we studied the interaction of transport of these ions by the turtle bladder. Removal of K from the mucosal solution inhibited partially ammonia transport from serosa to mucosa and the inhibition was reversible by restoration of K. In contrast, removal of serosal K failed to inhibit ammonia transport. Since NH4+ can replace K in the activation of Na-K-ATPase in turtle bladder plasma membrane fraction with similar K, we examined the effect of ouabain on ammonia transport. Ouabain added to the serosal solution failed to inhibit ammonia transport thus, suggesting that the Na-K-ATPase is not required for ammonia entry into the cell. Methylammonium (a competitive inhibitor of NH4+ transport in other systems) decreased both ammonia transport and the observed increase in short circuit current elicited by NH4Cl addition to the serosal solution. This finding suggests that NH4+ and methylammonium are transported through a common pathway in the serosal side. Since the permeability of the serosal side to K and NH4+ is similar, we evaluated the effect of serosal depolarization and the effect of barium, an inhibitor of K channels, on ammonia transport. Serosal depolarization inhibited ammonia transport but barium did not affect ammonia flux.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Exergoeconomic optimization of an ammonia-water hybrid heat pump for heat supply in a spray drying facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    rate is 100,000 m3/h which yields a heat load of 6.1 MW. The exhaust air from the drying process is 80 XC. The implementation of an ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump to partly cover the heat load is investigated. A thermodynamic analysis is applied to determine optimal circulation......Spray drying facilities are among the most energy intensive industrial processes. Using a heat pump to recover waste heat and replace gas combustion has the potential to attain both economic and emissions savings. In the case examined a drying gas of ambient air is heated to 200 XC. The inlet flow...

  12. Energy efficient ammonia heat pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Claus; Pijnenburg, B.; Schumann Grindorf, H. [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Rolf [Alfa Laval, Lund (Sweden); Rasmussen, Bjarne D. [Grundfos, Bjerringbro (Denmark); Gram, S.; Fredborg Jakobsen, D. [Svedan Industri Koeleanlaeg, Greve (Denmark)

    2013-09-15

    The report describes the development of a highly effective ammonia heat pump. Heat pumps play an increasingly important role in the search for more effective use of energy in our society. Highly efficient heat pumps can contribute to reduced energy consumption and improved economy of the systems which they are a part of. An ammonia heat pump with high pressure reciprocating compressor and a novel split condenser was developed to prove potential for efficiency optimization. The split of the condenser in two parts can be utilized to obtain smaller temperature approaches and, thereby, improved heat pump efficiency at an equal heat exchanger area, when compared to the traditional solution with separate condenser and de-superheater. The split condenser design can also be exploited for heating a significant share of the total heating capacity to a temperature far above the condensing temperature. Furthermore, the prototype heat pump was equipped with a plate type evaporator combined with a U-turn separator with a minimum liquid height and a liquid pump with the purpose of creating optimum liquid circulation ratio for the highest possible heat transfer coefficients at the lowest possible pressure drop. The test results successfully confirmed the highest possible efficiency; a COP of 4.3 was obtained when heating water from 40 deg. C to 80 deg. C while operating with evaporating/condensing temperatures of +20 deg C/+73 deg C. (Author)

  13. Method of production of ammonia synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-09-10

    In the catalytic synthesis of complicated hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen at normal or slightly increased pressures by the Fischer--Tropsch process, or carried out at higher pressures in some other proposals, the synthesis gas was incompletely transformed. After the conclusion of the synthesis, the residual gas, upon the separation of the liquid constituents, contained, in addition to the unreacted carbon moxoxide and hydrogen, also considerable amounts of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen from the original synthesis gas. This residual gas had been used as fuel. It was, however, pure and contained no sulfur or other catalyst poisons and burning it was considered uneconomical. It was proposed to make better use of it by using it as fuel. It was, however, pure and contained no sulfur or other catalyst poisons and burning it was considered uneconomical. It was proposed to make better use of it by using it as a raw material for the production of synthesis gas by decomposing the methane present in it with steam according to the equation CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O = CO + 3H/sub 2/. This conversion was to be brought about either by a return to the producers or else in special splitting units. Also, it had been found that the residual gas, possibly even in the presence of oxygen compounds, could be conveniently used for the synthesis of ammonia. Several examples of ammonia synthesis were discussed.

  14. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

    2014-06-11

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  15. Foro Ambiental : CEDENMA, Asamblea Constituyente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Naizot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen de la Mesa redonda: Orientaciones de la nueva Constitución ecuatoriana en materia ambiental: ¿avances o retrocesos en relación con el marco político y filosófico ambiental vigente en algunos países de la región?

  16. Validating Firewalls in Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Hansen, René Rydhof

    1999-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes (mobile ambients) to move between sites. A firewall is said to be protective whenever it denies entry to attackers not possessing the required passwords. We devise a polynomial time algorithm for rejecting proposed...

  17. A low-crystalline ruthenium nano-layer supported on praseodymium oxide as an active catalyst for ammonia synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Imamura, Kazuya; Kawano, Yukiko; Miyahara, Shin-Ichiro; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia is a crucial chemical feedstock for fertilizer production and is a potential energy carrier. However, the current method of synthesizing ammonia, the Haber-Bosch process, consumes a great deal of energy. To reduce energy consumption, a process and a substance that can catalyze ammonia synthesis under mild conditions (low temperature and low pressure) are strongly needed. Here we show that Ru/Pr2O3 without any dopant catalyzes ammonia synthesis under mild conditions at 1.8 times the rates reported with other highly active catalysts. Scanning transmission electron micrograph observations and energy dispersive X-ray analyses revealed the formation of low-crystalline nano-layers of ruthenium on the surface of Pr2O3. Furthermore, CO2 temperature-programmed desorption revealed that the catalyst was strongly basic. These unique structural and electronic characteristics are considered to synergistically accelerate the rate-determining step of NH3 synthesis, cleavage of the N 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000

  18. Phylogenetic and functional marker genes to study ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOM) in the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Junier, P.; Molina, V.; Dorador, C.; Hadas, O.; Kim, O.; Junier, T; Witzel, K; Imhoff, J.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidation of ammonia plays a significant role in the transformation of fixed nitrogen in the global nitrogen cycle. Autotrophic ammonia oxidation is known in three groups of microorganisms. Aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea convert ammonia into nitrite during nitrification. Anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (anammox) oxidize ammonia using nitrite as electron acceptor and producing atmospheric dinitrogen. The isolation and cultivation of all three groups in the laboratory a...

  19. Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria Differentially Contribute to Ammonia Oxidation in Sediments from Adjacent Waters of Rushan Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia oxidation plays a significant role in the nitrogen cycle in marine sediments. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB are the key contributors to ammonia oxidation, and their relative contribution to this process is one of the most important issues related to the nitrogen cycle in the ocean. In this study, the differential contributions of AOA and AOB to ammonia oxidation in surface sediments from adjacent waters of Rushan Bay were studied based on the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA gene. Molecular biology techniques were used to analyze ammonia oxidizers’ community characteristics, and potential nitrification incubation was applied to understand the ammonia oxidizers’ community activity. The objective was to determine the community structure and activity of AOA and AOB in surface sediments from adjacent waters of Rushan Bay and to discuss the different contributions of AOA and AOB to ammonia oxidation during summer and winter seasons in the studied area. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that the diversity of AOA was higher than that of AOB. The majority of AOA and AOB clustered into Nitrosopumilus and Nitrosospira, respectively, indicating that the Nitrosopumilus group and Nitrosospira groups may be more adaptable in studied sediments. The AOA community was closely correlated to temperature, salinity and ammonium concentration, whereas the AOB community showed a stronger correlation with temperature, chlorophyll-a content (chla and nitrite concentration. qPCR results showed that both the abundance and the transcript abundance of AOA was consistently greater than that of AOB. AOA and AOB differentially contributed to ammonia oxidation in different seasons. AOB occupied the dominant position in mediating ammonia oxidation during summer, while AOA might play a dominant role in ammonia oxidation during winter.

  20. The Effects of Acute Copper and Ammonia Challenges on Ammonia and Urea Excretion by the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Jorge, Marianna Basso; Wood, Chris M; Martins, Camila M G; Bianchini, Adalto

    2017-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is a persistent environmental contaminant that elicits several physiological disturbances in aquatic organisms, including a disruption in ammonia regulation. We hypothesized that exposure to Cu in a model crustacean (blue crab, Callinectes sapidus) acclimated to brackish water (2 ppt) would lead to hyperammonemia by stimulating an increase in ammonia production and/or by inhibiting ammonia excretion. We further hypothesized that urea production would represent an ammonia detoxification strategy in response to Cu. In a pilot experiment, exposure to 0, 100, and 200 µg/L Cu for 6 h caused significant concentration-dependent increases in ammonia excretion (J amm ). Based on these results, an acute 24-h 100 µg/L Cu exposure was conducted and this similarly caused an overall stimulation of J amm during the 24-h period, indicative of an increase in ammonia production. Terminal haemolymph total ammonia content (T amm ) was unchanged, suggesting that while ammonia production was increased, there was no inhibition of the excretion mechanism. In support of our second hypothesis, urea excretion (J urea ) increased in response to Cu exposure; haemolymph [urea] was unaffected. This suggested that urea production also was increased. To further test the hypothesis that J urea increased to prevent hyperammonemia during Cu exposure, crabs were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA; 2.5 mmol/L NH 4 HCO 3 ) for 12 h in a separate experiment. This led to a fourfold increase in haemolymph T amm , whereas J urea increased only transiently and haemolymph [urea] was unchanged, indicating that urea production likely does not contribute to the attenuation of hyperammonemia in blue crabs. Overall, Cu exposure in blue crabs led to increased ammonia and urea production, which were both eliminated by excretion. These results may have important implications in aquaculture systems where crabs may be exposed to elevated Cu and/or ammonia.

  1. Dissociation and Mass Transfer Coefficients for Ammonia Volatilization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process-based models are being used to predict ammonia emissions from manure sources, but their accuracy has not been fully evaluated for cattle manure. Laboratory trials were conducted to measure the dissociation and mass transfer coefficients for ammonia volatilization from media of buffered ammon...

  2. Ammonia treated Mo/AC catalysts for CO hydrogenation with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A series of ammonia treated Mo/Activated Carbon (AC) catalysts were synthesized by wet impregnation method by nominal incorporation of 5, 10 and 15 wt% of molybdenum. The calcined catalysts (500◦C, 4 h, N₂ flow) were subjected to a stepwise ammonia treatment at temperatures from 25 up to 700◦C. This work ...

  3. Lignin solubilisation and gentle fractionation in liquid ammonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strassberger, Z.; Prinsen, P.; Klis, van der F.; Es, van D.S.; Tanase, S.; Rothenberg, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple method for solubilising lignin using liquid ammonia. Unlike water, which requires harsh conditions, ammonia can solubilise technical lignins, in particular kraft lignin. A commercial pine wood Kraft lignin (Indulin AT) was solubilized instantaneously at room temperature and 7–11

  4. Ammonia Generation via a Graphene-Coated Nickel Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel graphene-coated Ni electrode was developed in this investigation to improve corrosion resistance while unexpectedly enhancing the ammonia generation rate in the electrochemically induced urea to ammonia (eU2A process, which is an electrochemical onsite ammonia generation method. The development of the electrode is crucial for the eU2A reactions since in the ammonia generation process, the concentration of ammonia is inevitably high on the surface of the electrode, leading to severe corrosion of the electrode and the loss of generated ammonia as well. In this paper, the graphene was derived from raw coal by using the chemical vapor deposition method and self-lifted onto a Ni electrode to form a protective layer for corrosion prevention. Transmission electron microscopy showed the synthesized graphene had few-layers and Raman spectroscopy indicated that the coating of graphene was stable during the eU2A reaction. As a result, the ammonia corrosion of the Ni electrode was dramatically reduced by ~20 times with the graphene coating method. More importantly, a higher ammonia generation rate (~2 times was achieved using the graphene-coated Ni working electrode compared to a bare Ni electrode in the eU2A process.

  5. Niche differentiation between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in aquatic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coci, M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was the search for niche differentiation between the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in aquatic environments. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are chemolitho-autotrophic microorganisms responsible for the first, mostly rate-limiting step of the nitrification

  6. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit devices and methods for detecting ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Paulus, Michael J [Knoxville, TN; Sayler, Gary S [Blaine, TN; Applegate, Bruce M [West Lafayette, IN; Ripp, Steven A [Knoxville, TN

    2007-04-24

    Monolithic bioelectronic devices for the detection of ammonia includes a microorganism that metabolizes ammonia and which harbors a lux gene fused with a heterologous promoter gene stably incorporated into the chromosome of the microorganism and an Optical Application Specific Integrated Circuit (OASIC). The microorganism is generally a bacterium.

  7. Acute toxicity of ammonia to blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 3.11 and 1.93 mg/l NH3 at 1, 8, 12, 16 and 20 ppt of salinities, respectively. The results of this study indicate that using brackish water for blue tilapia culture may not be a single factor to reduce the toxicity of high ammonia. Keywords: Oreochromis aureus, blue tilapia, ammonia, salinity. African Journal of Biotechnology, ...

  8. Ammonia And Ethylene Optrodes For Research On Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Tabacco, Mary Beth

    1995-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensors developed for use in measuring concentrations of ammonia and ethylene near plants during experiments on growth of plants in enclosed environments. Developmental fiber-optic sensors satisfy need to measure concentrations as low as few parts per billion (ppb) and expected to contribute to research on roles of ethylene and ammonia in growth of plants.

  9. Treatment of ammonia in liquid hospital waste using activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Hayati, Lena

    2017-12-01

    In this research study of the treatment of ammonia in liquid hospitals waste using activated carbon. This study aims to the effect of activated carbon weight and precipitation time to the treatment of ammonia in liquid hospitals waste. Hospital liquid waste has been taken from Jogja International Hospital (JIH) Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Hospital liquid waste 100 mL is mixed with activated carbon with the varied weight that is 15, 30 and 60 g. After added with activated carbon then stirred with a magnetic stirrer for 15 minutes and a precipitation time of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 hours. The next step is the filtrate analyzed ammonia concentrations before and after treatment using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The results showed that activated carbon can reduce ammonia concentration in hospital liquid waste. The amount of the active carbon and the time of stirring, the greater the ammonia concentration decreases in hospital liquid waste. The best condition for the decrease of the ammonia concentration was obtained with active carbon and precipitation time is 60 g and 1.0 hours, respectively with ammonia decrease of 95.93%. The conclusion is that activated carbon can reduce ammonia concentration in hospital liquid waste.

  10. Effects of Copper Exchange Levels on Complexation of Ammonia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Cation exchange, catalysis, copper, complexation, copper ammines. 1. Introduction. Copper-exchanged zeolites ... characterization of cation-exchanged zeolites is ammonia.7. Ammonia is small enough (ca. 3.70 × 3.99 .... quartz glass sample cuvettes and the diffuse reflectance spec- troscopy measurements obtained from ...

  11. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low

  12. Disinfection kinetics of pathogens in physicochemical sludge treated with ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, J M; Jimenez, B; Maya, C

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia is a disinfectant which can diffuse through the membrane of highly resistant structures like helminth ova. Thus, it can be considered an alternative disinfectant of wastewater sludge with high pathogenic content. In this study, the kinetic parameters of the Hom model were used to describe the inactivation with ammonia of faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp. and viable helminth ova. These were obtained in processes considering the addition of ammonia alone as well as for ammonia combined with an increase in temperature. The sludge was sampled from a municipal wastewater treatment plant using an APT (Advanced Primary Treatment) or CEP (Chemical Enhanced Primary) process. With 20% w/w of ammonia, 7 logs of faecal coliforms, 6 logs of Salmonella spp., and 83% of viable helminth ova were reduced in 2 hours contact time. To eliminate 100% of the helminth ova from samples having 88-132 ova/g TS it was needed to combine 20% of ammonia with 50 degrees C. The analysis of parameters k, n and m indicate higher resistance to inactivation of helminth ova compared to bacteria and a better performance of the ammonia process than lime stabilization to inactivate microorganisms. In addition, ammonia increased the agricultural value of the biosolids produced.

  13. Ammonia loss, ammonium and nitrate accumulation from mixing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonia loss from urea significantly hinders efficient use of urea in agriculture. In order to reduce ammonia loss and, at the same time, improve beneficial accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate for efficient utilization by plants, this laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of mixing urea with ...

  14. Kinetics of absorption of carbon dioxide in aqueous ammonia solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, P. W. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work the absorption of carbon dioxide into aqueous ammonia solutions has been studied in a stirred cell reactor, at low temperatures and ammonia concentrations ranging from 0.1 to about 7 kmol m-3. The absorption experiments were carried out at conditions where the so-called pseudo

  15. Thermodynamic Model for the Ammonia-Water System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The ammonia-water system is described by the Extended UNIQUAC model, which is an electrolyte model, formed by combining the original UNIQUAC model, the Debye-Hückel law and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. The model is limited to temperatures below the critical temperature of ammonia. V...

  16. Electrolytic synthesis of ammonia in molten salts under atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2003-01-15

    Ammonia was successfully synthesized by using a new electrochemical reaction with high current efficiency at atmospheric pressure and at lower temperatures than the Haber-Bosch process. In this method, nitride ion (N3-), which is produced by the reduction from nitrogen gas at the cathode, is anodically oxidized and reacts with hydrogen to produce ammonia at the anode.

  17. Effect of different ammonia sources on aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis; Kissas, Konstantinos

    2018-01-01

    Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) was usually used as a model ammonia source to simulate ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion (AD) of nitrogen-rich feedstocks. However, ammonia in AD originates mainly from degradation of proteins, urea and nucleic acids, which is distinct from NH4Cl. Thus, in th...... compared to NH4Cl. Overall, urea seems to be more toxic on both aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens compared to NH4Cl under the same total and free ammonia levels.......Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) was usually used as a model ammonia source to simulate ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion (AD) of nitrogen-rich feedstocks. However, ammonia in AD originates mainly from degradation of proteins, urea and nucleic acids, which is distinct from NH4Cl. Thus......, in this study, the inhibitory effect of a “natural” ammonia source (urea) and NH4Cl, on four pure methanogenic strains (aceticlastic: Methanosarcina thermophila, Methanosarcina barkeri; hydrogenotrophic: Methanoculleus bourgensis, Methanoculleus thermophilus), was assessed under mesophilic (37 °C...

  18. Ammonia differentially suppresses the cAMP chemotaxis of anterior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss implications of ammonia sensitivity of pst cells and ALC with regard to the movement and localization of ALC and pst cells in the slug and to the roles played by ALC in fruiting body formation. In addition, we suggest that a progressive decrease in sensitivity to ammonia is an important part of the maturation of ...

  19. Ammonia excretion in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch, Dirk; Chan, Ainsely C; Meyer, Heiko; Döring, Carmen; Sourial, Mary; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2012-09-15

    In aquatic invertebrates, metabolic nitrogenous waste is excreted predominately as ammonia. Very little is known, however, of the underlying mechanisms of ammonia excretion, particularly in freshwater species. Our results indicate that in the non-parasitic freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, ammonia excretion depends on acidification of the apical unstirred layer of the body surface and consequent ammonia trapping. Buffering of the environment to a pH of 7 or higher decreased the excretion rate. Inhibitor experiments suggested further that the excretion mechanism involves the participation of the V-type H(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase and possibly also the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. Alkalinization (pH 8.5, 2 days) of the environment led to a 1.9-fold increase in body ammonia levels and to a downregulation of V-ATPase (subunit A) and Rh-protein mRNA. Further, a 2 day exposure to non-lethal ammonia concentrations (1 mmol l(-1)) caused a doubling of body ammonia levels and led to an increase in Rh-protein and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (α-subunit) mRNA expression levels. In situ hybridization studies indicated a strong mRNA expression of the Rh-protein in the epidermal epithelium. The ammonia excretion mechanism proposed for S. mediterranea reveals striking similarities to the current model suggested to function in the gills of freshwater fish.

  20. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations.

  1. Characterization of a thermostable methylaspartate ammonia lyase from Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raj, Hans; Puthan Veetil, Vinod; Szymanski, Wiktor; Dekker, Frank J.; Quax, Wim J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Janssen, Dick B.; Poelarends, Gerrit J.

    Methylaspartate ammonia lyase (MAL; EC 4.3.1.2) catalyzes the reversible addition of ammonia to mesaconate to give (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartate and (2S,3R)-3-methylaspartate as products. MAL is of considerable biocatalytic interest because of its potential use for the asymmetric synthesis of

  2. Alkaline Ammonia Electrolysis on Electrodeposited Platinum for Controllable Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Jieun; Choun, Myounghoon; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2016-02-19

    Ammonia is beginning to attract a great deal of attention as an alternative energy source carrier, because clean hydrogen can be produced through electrolytic processes without the emission of COx . In this study, we deposited various shapes of Pt catalysts under potentiostatic mode; the electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of ammonia using these catalysts was studied in alkaline media. The electrodeposited Pt was characterized by both qualitative and quantitative analysis. To discover the optimal structure and the effect of ammonia concentration, the bulk pH value, reaction temperature, and applied current of ammonia oxidation were investigated using potential sweep and galvanostatic methods. Finally, ammonia electrolysis was conducted using a zero-gap cell, producing highly pure hydrogen with an energy efficiency over 80 %. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Safety assessment of ammonia as a transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, Frank; Paulsen, Jette Lundtang

    2005-01-01

    to be controlled by a combination of technical and regulatory measures. The most important requirements are: - Advanced safety systems in the vehicle -Additional technical measures and regulations are required to avoid releases in maintenance workshops and unauthorised maintenance on the fuel system. - Road......This report describes the safety study performed as part of the EU supported project “Ammonia Cracking for Clean Electric Power Technology” The study addresses the following activities: safety of operation of the ammonia-powered vehicle under normal andaccident (collision) conditions, safety...... of transport of ammonia to the refuelling stations and safety of the activities at the refuelling station (unloading and refuelling). Comparisons are made between the safety of using ammonia and the safety of otherexisting or alternative fuels. The conclusion is that the hazards in relation to ammonia need...

  4. Ammonia Gas Sensing Behavior of Tanninsulfonic Acid Doped Polyaniline-TiO2 Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Gopal Bairi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A highly active tannin doped polyaniline-TiO2 composite ammonia gas sensor was developed and the mechanism behind the gas sensing activity was reported for the first time. A tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline (TANIPANI-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of tanninsulfonic acid and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to determine the incorporation of TiO2 in TANIPANI matrix. UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy studies provided information about the electronic interactions among tannin, polyaniline, and TiO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and atomic force microscopy (AFM surface analysis techniques were used to investigate the metal oxide dispersions inside polyaniline matrix. Gas sensors were prepared by spin coating solutions of TANIPANI-TiO2 and TANIPANI composites onto glass slides. Sensors were tested at three different concentrations (20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 60 ppm of ammonia gas at ambient temperature conditions by measuring the changes in surface resistivity of the films with respect to time. Ammonia gas sensing plots are presented showing the response values, response times and recovery times. The TANIPANI-TiO2 composite exhibited better response and shorter recovery times when compared to TANIPANI control and other polyaniline composites that have been reported in the literature. For the first time a proposed mechanism of gas sensing basing on the polaron band localization and its effects on the gas sensing behavior of polyaniline are reported.

  5. Ammonia emissions in agriculture: Proceedings of the First international ammonia conference 19-21 March 2007, Ede, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.; Hartung, J.

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia emissions is an important topic in many countries with animal production, since it contributes to environmental and health problems. Strategies and measures to reduce ammonia emission are getting increasing attention in national and international legislation. The focus of this publication is

  6. Arterial ammonia with Blood Ammonia Checker II and with indophenol reaction to assess presence of hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, [No Value; vanDam, GM; Gips, CH

    1996-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with elevated arterial ammonia levels. The relationship is variable, in part due to ammonia methodology. One method, based on the indophenol reaction (IPh), is interfered with a number of amino acids including all aromatic amino acids. We have determined

  7. Ammonia formation by a thiolate-bridged diiron amide complex as a nitrogenase mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Ying; Wang, Baomin; Luo, Yi; Yang, Dawei; Tong, Peng; Zhao, Jinfeng; Luo, Lun; Zhou, Yuhan; Chen, Si; Cheng, Fang; Qu, Jingping

    2013-04-01

    Although nitrogenase enzymes routinely convert molecular nitrogen into ammonia under ambient temperature and pressure, this reaction is currently carried out industrially using the Haber-Bosch process, which requires extreme temperatures and pressures to activate dinitrogen. Biological fixation occurs through dinitrogen and reduced NxHy species at multi-iron centres of compounds bearing sulfur ligands, but it is difficult to elucidate the mechanistic details and to obtain stable model intermediate complexes for further investigation. Metal-based synthetic models have been applied to reveal partial details, although most models involve a mononuclear system. Here, we report a diiron complex bridged by a bidentate thiolate ligand that can accommodate HN=NH. Following reductions and protonations, HN=NH is converted to NH3 through pivotal intermediate complexes bridged by N2H3- and NH2- species. Notably, the final ammonia release was effected with water as the proton source. Density functional theory calculations were carried out, and a pathway of biological nitrogen fixation is proposed.

  8. Salud ambiental: conceptos y actividades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo A. Ordóñez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad del trabajo es aportar información y propuestas conceptuales que faciliten la tarea de quienes tienen a su cargo la sistematización institucional de la salud ambiental. Se hace un análisis de la noción de "ambiente" para la cual se sugiere una definición, y se examina el lugar de la salud ambiental en el contexto de los problemas ambientales y sus vertientes "verde" y "azul". Se examinan denominaciones equivalentes de salud ambiental y se introducen los servicios de salud ambiental. Se proporcionan varias definiciones y se da la oficial de salud ambiental adoptada por la OMS en Sofía, Bulgaria (1993. A continuación se transcriben las áreas básicas que a la salud ambiental le han asignado diversas organizaciones o reuniones, como la OPS, la OMS, el Programa 21 y otros. A partir de aquí se construye un repertorio bastante completo de áreas y subáreas y se encuentra que todos los listados son, en realidad, una reunión asistemática de tres tipos de constituyentes: determinantes (factores o hechos de la realidad física, procesos (conjuntos de intervenciones y funciones (conjuntos de acciones de gestión, los cuales pueden enfocarse matricialmente y llevan a individualizar actividades de los servicios de salud ambiental. Se proponen unas reglas de operación que permiten, en una especie de álgebra, construir expresiones para especificar con precisión las actividades y sus agregados. De este modo se logra disponer de un lenguaje simbólico común que puede ayudar a la intercomunicación, enseñanza e investigación en el ámbito de la salud ambiental.

  9. Study on the mechanism of copper-ammonia complex decomposition in struvite formation process and enhanced ammonia and copper removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cong; Chai, Liyuan; Tang, Chongjian; Min, Xiaobo; Song, Yuxia; Duan, Chengshan; Yu, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals and ammonia are difficult to remove from wastewater, as they easily combine into refractory complexes. The struvite formation method (SFM) was applied for the complex decomposition and simultaneous removal of heavy metal and ammonia. The results indicated that ammonia deprivation by SFM was the key factor leading to the decomposition of the copper-ammonia complex ion. Ammonia was separated from solution as crystalline struvite, and the copper mainly co-precipitated as copper hydroxide together with struvite. Hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attraction were considered to be the main surface interactions between struvite and copper hydroxide. Hydrogen bonding was concluded to be the key factor leading to the co-precipitation. In addition, incorporation of copper ions into the struvite crystal also occurred during the treatment process. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Characteristic of local boiling heat transfer of ammonia and ammonia / water binary mixture on the plate type evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Akio; Arima, Hirofumi; Ikegami, Yasuyuki

    2011-08-01

    Power generation using small temperature difference such as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) and discharged thermal energy conversion (DTEC) is expected to be the countermeasures against global warming problem. As ammonia and ammonia/water are used in evaporators for OTEC and DTEC as working fluids, the research of their local boiling heat transfer is important for improvement of the power generation efficiency. Measurements of local boiling heat transfer coefficients were performed for ammonia /water mixture ( z = 0.9-1) on a vertical flat plate heat exchanger in a range of mass flux (7.5-15 kg/m2 s), heat flux (15-23 kW/m2), and pressure (0.7-0.9 MPa). The result shows that in the case of ammonia /water mixture, the local heat transfer coefficients increase with an increase of mass flux and composition of ammonia, and decrease with an increase of heat flux.

  11. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of...

  12. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of...

  13. Publicidade e ambiente: alguns contornos

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Jr.,Antonio Ribeiro de; Andrade,Thales Novaes de

    2007-01-01

    O presente artigo trata da importância da publicidade na construção social do debate ambiental. Os estudos sobre mídia e ambiente geralmente focam o conteúdo de jornais e programas televisivos, mas nas últimas décadas a publicidade passou a chamar a atenção dos estudiosos sobre o tema. O trabalho procurou discutir a importância do fenômeno do consumo no mundo moderno, e os efeitos sentidos na área ambiental. A seguir são discutidos alguns aspectos do aprimoramento do discurso publicitário no ...

  14. Sociología ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Gómez, José Andrés; Aledo Tur, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Este libro pretende ser un manual para los alumnos de las licenciaturas de sociología, ecología, ciencias ambientales o economía y profesionales de esas ramas que estén interesados en el estudio de las relaciones entre medio ambiente y sociedad desde una aproximación sociológica. El manual está divido en dos partes. La primera desarrolla las principales teorías sociológicas sobre el medio ambiente, así como el heterogéneo pensamiento ambiental. La segunda parte, ofrece capítulos diversos en l...

  15. Footprints on Ammonia Concentrations from Environmental Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Ellermann, Thomas; Hertel, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Releases of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere contribute significantly to the desposition of nitrogen to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This is the background for the national NH3 emission ceilings in Europe. However, in some countries the national legislation aims not only to meet theese...... legislation forces farmers to manure to the fields during the cropgrowing seasons. We have analysed the seasonal variation in local NH3 concentrations over the time period of 1989-2003. During this period the seasonal variation has changed from having moderate spring and autum concentration peaks to having...... a single and much more pronounced spring peak. In the analysis we apply an NH3 emission model to demonstrate that these changes in the seasonal variation are a result of the chages in the Danish legislation. The analysis demonstrates the strenght of using a high-resolution emission model in the analysis...

  16. Towards an ammonia-mediated hydrogen economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Johannessen, Tue; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink

    2006-01-01

    Materialization of a hydrogen economy could provide a solution to significant global challenges, In particular. the possibility of improving the efficiency and simultaneously minimizing the environmental impact of energy conversion processes, together with the opportunity to reduce the dependency...... of fossil fuels, are main drivers for the currently increasing research and development efforts. However. significant technological breakthroughs are necessary for making a hydrogen economy feasible. In particular, it is necessary to develop appropriate hydrogen storage and transportation technologies....... Recently, metal ammine salts were proposed as safe, reversible. high-density and low-cost hydrogen carriers. Here, we discuss how this development could provide a platform for using ammonia as a fuel for the hydrogen economy, We do that by comparing various possible hydrogen carriers with respect to energy...

  17. Ammonia concentrations in houses and public buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidy, Georgia; Neil Cape, J.

    Weekly average concentrations of ammonia were measured in winter 1991-1992 in different rooms in houses and in a range of public buildings using passive diffusion tubes. Concentrations of NH 3 ranging from 6 to 53 ppb were found in different rooms within a house. Concentrations in living rooms of 5 houses ranged from 7 to 63 ppb, with the largest values in rooms used by smokers. Concentrations of NH 3 in public buildings were similar to those in houses, with concentrations in areas used for social activity greater than in work areas. These preliminary data suggest that the factors controlling the sources and sinks of NH 3 indoors should be studied in greater detail, including the role of tobacco smoke.

  18. Nitrogen-13-labeled ammonia for myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, W.F.; Fill, H.R.; Harper, P.V.

    1977-01-01

    Cyclotron-produced nitrogen-13 (half-life 10 min), as labeled ammonia (/sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/), has been evaluated as a myocardial perfusion imaging agent. The regional myocardial uptake of /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ has been shown to be proportional to regional tissue perfusion in animal studies. Intravenously administered /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ is rapidly cleared from the circulation, being extracted by the liver (15 percent), lungs, myocardium (2 percent--4 percent), brain, kidney, and bladder. Myocardial ammonia is metabolized mainly to glutamine via the glutamine synthetase pathway. Pulmonary uptake is substantial, but usually transient, except in smokers where clearance may be delayed. The positron annihilation irradiation (511 keV) of /sup 13/N may be imaged with a scintillation camera, using either a specially designed tungsten collimator or a pinhole collimator. After early technical problems with collimation and the production method of /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ were overcome, reproducible high quality myocardial images were consistently obtained. The normal myocardial image was established to be of a homogeneous ''doughnut'' configuration. Imaging studies performed in patients with varying manifestations of ischemic and valvular heart disease showed a high incidence of localized perfusion defects, especially in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Sequential studies at short intervals in patients with acute infarction showed correlation between alterations in regional perfusion and the clinical course of the patient. It is concluded that myocardial imaging with /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ and a scintillation camera provides a valid and noninvasive means of assessing regional myocardial perfusion. This method is especially suitable for sequential studies of acute cardiac patients at short intervals. Coincidence imaging of the 511 keV annihilation irradiation provides a tomographic and potentially quantitative assessment of the

  19. Individualized teaching programming for a virtual learning environment: development of content concerning nursing records Programación de enseñanza individualizada para ambiente virtual de aprendizaje: elaboración del contenido registro de enfermería Programação de ensino individualizado para ambiente virtual de aprendizagem: elaboração do conteúdo registro de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Carvalho Nagliate

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the planning of contents on nursing records for use in a virtual learning environment, based on Individualized Teaching Programming, a didactic resource that uses basic principles of behavioral analysis. METHOD: Final objectives were specified, after defining the intermediary components to achieve each final objective, as well as the preliminary requirements for each intermediary component. At the end of this process, teaching activities were planned and organized in steps the students need to develop. RESULTS: By breaking up the contents into behaviors, seven action categories emerged: impartiality, organization, honesty, objectiveness, coherence, readability and discernment. CONCLUSION: the use of Individualized Teaching Programming as a didactic resource to plan contents on nursing records is feasible to identify the units and modules for the development of a course in a virtual learning environment for nursing professionals.OBJETIVO: Describir la planificación de contenido sobre registro de enfermería, para utilización en ambiente virtual de aprendizaje, con base en la Programación de Enseñanza Individualizada, un recurso didáctico que utiliza principios básicos del análisis del comportamiento. MÉTODO: fueron especificados objetivos finales, definidos los componentes intermediarios para alcanzar cada objetivo terminal, así como requisitos antecedentes para cada componente intermediario. Al final de ese proceso, fueron planeadas y organizadas las actividades de enseñanza en pasos que serán desarrollados por los aprendices. RESULTADOS: Al desmembrar el contenido en comportamientos, siete categorías de acciones emergieron: imparcialidad, organización, honestidad, objetividad, coherencia, legibilidad y discernimiento. CONCLUSIÓN: la utilización de la Programación de Enseñanza Individualizada como recurso didáctico para la planificación de contenido sobre registro de enfermería se mostró viable para el

  20. Characterizing ammonia emissions from swine farms in eastern North Carolina: part 2--potential environmentally superior technologies for waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P; Arya, S Pal; Rumsey, Ian C; Kim, D-S; Bajwa, K; Arkinson, H L; Semunegus, H; Dickey, D A; Stefanski, L A; Todd, L; Mottus, K; Robarge, W P; Williams, C M

    2008-09-01

    The need for developing environmentally superior and sustainable solutions for managing the animal waste at commercial swine farms in eastern North Carolina has been recognized in recent years. Program OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen), funded by the North Carolina State University Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center (APWMC), was initiated and charged with the evaluation of potential environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) that have been developed and implemented at selected swine farms or facilities. The OPEN program has demonstrated the effectiveness of a new paradigm for policy-relevant environmental research related to North Carolina's animal waste management programs. This new paradigm is based on a commitment to improve scientific understanding associated with a wide array of environmental issues (i.e., issues related to the movement of N from animal waste into air, water, and soil media; the transmission of odor and odorants; disease-transmitting vectors; and airborne pathogens). The primary focus of this paper is on emissions of ammonia (NH3) from some potential ESTs that were being evaluated at full-scale swine facilities. During 2-week-long periods in two different seasons (warm and cold), NH3 fluxes from water-holding structures and NH3 emissions from animal houses or barns were measured at six potential EST sites: (1) Barham farm--in-ground ambient temperature anaerobic digester/energy recovery/greenhouse vegetable production system; (2) BOC #93 farm--upflow biofiltration system--EKOKAN; (3) Carrolls farm--aerobic blanket system--ISSUES-ABS; (4) Corbett #1 farm--solids separation/ gasification for energy and ash recovery centralized system--BEST; (5) Corbett #2 farm--solid separation/ reciprocating water technology--ReCip; and (6) Vestal farm--Recycling of Nutrient, Energy and Water System--ISSUES-RENEW. The ESTs were compared with similar measurements made at two conventional lagoon and spray technology (LST) farms (Moore

  1. Review of atmospheric ammonia data in the context of developing technologies, changing climate, and future policy evidence needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braban, Christine; Tang, Sim; Bealey, Bill; Roberts, Elin; Stephens, Amy; Galloway, Megan; Greenwood, Sarah; Sutton, Mark; Nemitz, Eiko; Leaver, David

    2017-04-01

    Ambient ammonia measurements have been undertaken both in the atmosphere to understand sources, concentrations at background and vulnerable ecosystems and for long term monitoring of concentrations. As a pollutant which is projected to increase concentration in the coming decades with significant policy challenges to implementing mitigation strategies it is useful to assess what has been measured, where and why. In this study a review of the literature, has shown that ammonia measurements are frequently not publically reported and in general not reposited in the open data centres, available for research. The specific sectors where measurements have been undertaken are: agricultural point source assessments, agricultural surface exchange measurements, sensitive ecosystem monitoring, landscape/regional studies and governmental long term monitoring. Less frequently ammonia is measured as part of an intensive atmospheric chemistry field campaign. Technology is developing which means a shift from chemical denuder methods to spectroscopic techniques may be possible, however chemical denuding techniques with off-line laboratory analysis will likely be an economical approach for some time to come. This paper reviews existing datasets from the different sectors of research and integrates them for a global picture to allow both a long term understanding and facilitate comparison with future measurements.

  2. Ocean thermal plantships for production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, C.B.; Pandolfini, P. P.; Kumm, W. H.; Energy Systems; Johns Hopkins Univ.; Arctic Energies, Ltd.

    2009-12-02

    Conventional petroleum, natural gas, and coal are the primary sources of energy that have underpinned modern civilization. Their continued availability in the projected quantities required and the impacts of emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the environment are issues at the forefront of world concerns. New primary sources of energy are being sought that would significantly reduce the emissions of GHGs. One such primary source that can help supply energy, water, and fertilizer without GHG emissions is available in the heretofore unexploited thermal gradients of the tropical oceans. The world's oceans are the largest natural collector and reservoir of solar energy. The potential of ocean energy is limitless for producing base-load electric power or ammonia as the hydrogen carrier and fresh water from seawater. However, until now, ocean energy has been virtually untapped. The general perception is that ocean thermal energy is limited to tropical countries. Therefore, the full potential of at-sea production of (1) ammonia as a hydrogen carrier and (2) desalinated water has not been adequately evaluated. Using ocean thermal plantships for the at-sea co-production of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier and desalinated water offer potential energy, environmental, and economic benefits that support the development of the technology. The introduction of a new widespread solution to our projected energy supply requires lead times of a decade or more. Although continuation of the ocean thermal program from the 1970s would likely have put us in a mitigating position in the early 2000s, we still have a window of opportunity to dedicate some of our conventional energy sources to the development of this renewable energy by the time new sources would be critically needed. The primary objective of this project is to evaluate the technical and economic viability of ocean thermal plantships for the production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier. This objective is achieved by

  3. Arterial ammonia levels in the management of fulminant liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that an arterial ammonia level greater than 150 mmol/L is highly sensitive for predicting subsequent development of cerebral edema in patients with fulminant liver failure. We performed a prospective cohort study to confirm this relationship. We enrolled 22 consecutive patients who presented to our transplant hepatology service with grade 3-4 encephalopathy associated with fulminant liver failure. All patients underwent placement of an intraparenchymal ICP monitor, and every 12 hourly arterial ammonia levels. The prevalence of intracranial hypertension (IHTN in our population was 95% (21/22 patients, with 82 discrete episodes recorded. The sensitivity of arterial ammonia levels to predict the onset of IHTN was 62% (95% CI: 40.8 to 79.3 at a cut point of 150 mmol/L. Arterial ammonia levels preceding the first intracranial hypertension event were less than 150 mmol/L in 8 of 21 patients (39%. Fifty nine of 82 episodes of IHTN (73% occurred when arterial ammonia levels were less than 150 mmol/L. We conclude that the arterial ammonia level is not useful in making decisions regarding management related to cerebral edema in patients with fulminant liver failure. In fact, since almost all our study patients with grade III or IV encephalopathy secondary to fulminant liver failure went on to develop intracranial hypertension, our study supports the contention that all such patients might benefit from ICP monitoring regardless of arterial ammonia levels.

  4. Ammonia recovery from landfill leachate using hydrophobic membrane contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Míriam C S; Magalhães, Nátalie C; Moravia, Wagner G; Ferreira, Carolina D

    2016-11-01

    This article aims to evaluate membrane contactors capability to remove and recover ammonia from landfill leachate (LFL). A hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane module was used to achieve such purpose. A sulfuric acid diluted solution was used as extraction solution to speed up ammonia content removal. Several factors that have influence on ammonia removal and recovery capability such as ammonia solution pH, concentration of sulfuric acid solutions and flow rate of liquid phases have been examined. Microfiltration was the method used as pretreatment. The results have shown that membrane contactor operated with LFL (pH 10), 0.1 M acid solution and liquid flow rate up to 0.5 L min -1 achieved 99.9% of ammonia removal, which corresponds to 79.1% of ammonia recovery from the extraction solution, and it is capable to produce highly purified ammonium sulfate solutions (41.2%, wt wt -1 ) to be used as fertilizer. The concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) in the residual LFL complies with Brazilian law requirements of 20.0 mg L -1 of TAN, regarding the disposal of effluents.

  5. Safety assessment of ammonia as a transport fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F.; Lundtang paulsen, Jette

    2005-02-01

    This report describes the safety study performed as part of the EU supported project 'Ammonia Cracking for Clean Electric Power Technology' The study addresses the following activities: safety of operation of the ammonia-powered vehicle under normal and accident (collision) conditions, safety of transport of ammonia to the refuelling stations and safety of the activities at the refuelling station (unloading and refuelling). Comparisons are made between the safety of using ammonia and the safety of other existing or alternative fuels. The conclusion is that the hazards in relation to ammonia need to be controlled by a combination of technical and regulatory measures. The most important requirements are: - Advanced safety systems in the vehicle - Additional technical measures and regulations are required to avoid releases in maintenance workshops and unauthorised maintenance on the fuel system - Road transport of ammonia to refuelling stations in refrigerated form - Sufficient safety zones between refuelling stations and residential or otherwise public areas. When these measures are applied, the use of ammonia as a transport fuel wouldnt cause more risks than currently used fuels (using current practice). (au)

  6. Effect of ammonia stress on nitrogen metabolism of Ceratophyllum demersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingqing; Li, Linshuai; Hu, Zhiyuan; Yue, Hui; Zhang, Ruiqin; Xiong, Zhiting

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of total ammonia N concentration and pH on N metabolism of Ceratophyllum demersum and to evaluate stress as a result of inorganic N enrichment in the water column on submerged macrophytes. Carefully controlled pH values distinguished between the effects of un-ionized NH3 and ionized NH4(+). The results showed that the most obvious consequence of ammonia addition was an overall increase in ammonia content and decrease in nitrate content in all tissues of fertilized plants. The activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase were inhibited by long-term ammonia addition. At the same time, ammonia addition significantly decreased soluble protein content and increased free amino acid content in all treatments. Another clear effect of ammonia addition was a decrease in carbon reserves. Therefore, the authors concluded that increased ammonia availability could affect plant survival and lead to a decline in C. demersum proliferation through a decrease in their carbon reserves. This interaction between N and C metabolism helps to explain changes in benthic vegetation as a result of steadily increasing coastal water eutrophication. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Mathematical Model of Ammonia Handling in the Rat Renal Medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiret, Lorette; Baigent, Stephen; Jalan, Rajiv; Thomas, S. Randall

    2015-01-01

    The kidney is one of the main organs that produces ammonia and release it into the circulation. Under normal conditions, between 30 and 50% of the ammonia produced in the kidney is excreted in the urine, the rest being absorbed into the systemic circulation via the renal vein. In acidosis and in some pathological conditions, the proportion of urinary excretion can increase to 70% of the ammonia produced in the kidney. Mechanisms regulating the balance between urinary excretion and renal vein release are not fully understood. We developed a mathematical model that reflects current thinking about renal ammonia handling in order to investigate the role of each tubular segment and identify some of the components which might control this balance. The model treats the movements of water, sodium chloride, urea, NH3 and NH4+, and non-reabsorbable solute in an idealized renal medulla of the rat at steady state. A parameter study was performed to identify the transport parameters and microenvironmental conditions that most affect the rate of urinary ammonia excretion. Our results suggest that urinary ammonia excretion is mainly determined by those parameters that affect ammonia recycling in the loops of Henle. In particular, our results suggest a critical role for interstitial pH in the outer medulla and for luminal pH along the inner medullary collecting ducts. PMID:26280830

  8. Ambient and Augmented Architectural Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Vyzoviti, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Part of topic : Projecting and manufacturing the ambiances of tomorrow; International audience; The paper investigates architectural screens as minimum yet definitive architectural elements: pop-up surfaces that produce ambient effects, outlining a sensorial envelope loaded with impactful environmental decorum.

  9. Comunicadores para la informaclon ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Cabrera Morillo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La Red Colombiana de Formación Ambiental en convenio con la Corporación Autónoma de los Valles del Sinú y del San Jorge y con el apoyo del Politécnico Grancolombiano, desarrolló un diplomado en Periodismo Ambiental en la ciudad de Montería, Departamento de Córdoba. La experiencia que ha contribuido a fortalecer la construcción de la cultura ambiental en la región; le ha permitido mayor visibilidad a los proyectos de la Corporación y facilitado la participación ciudadana. Este documento presenta el contexto de la formación de los comunicadores para la información ambiental, las características del diplomado y establece algunos de los logros alcanzados.

  10. Ammonia excretion in the marine polychaete Eurythoe complanata (Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Daniel; Hugenschütt, Maja; Meyer, Heiko; Paululat, Achim; Quijada-Rodriguez, Alex R; Purschke, Günter; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Ammonia is a toxic waste product from protein metabolism and needs to be either converted into less toxic molecules or, in the case of fish and aquatic invertebrates, excreted directly as is. In contrast to fish, very little is known regarding the ammonia excretion mechanism and the participating excretory organs in marine invertebrates. In the current study, ammonia excretion in the marine burrowing polychaete Eurythoe complanata was investigated. As a potential site for excretion, the 100-200 µm long, 30-50 µm wide and up to 25 µm thick dentrically branched, well ventilated and vascularized branchiae (gills) were identified. In comparison to the main body, the branchiae showed considerably higher mRNA expression levels of Na + /K + -ATPase, V-type H + -ATPase, cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase (CA-2), a Rhesus-like protein, and three different ammonia transporters (AMTs). Experiments on the intact organism revealed that ammonia excretion did not occur via apical ammonia trapping, but was regulated by a basolateral localized V-type H + -ATPase, carbonic anhydrase and intracellular cAMP levels. Interestingly, the V-type H + -ATPase seems to play a role in ammonia retention. A 1 week exposure to 1 mmol l -1 NH 4 Cl (HEA) did not cause a change in ammonia excretion rates, while the three branchial expressed AMTs showed a tendency to be down-regulated. This indicates a shift of function in the branchial ammonia excretion processes under these conditions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Chemical looping of metal nitride catalysts: low-pressure ammonia synthesis for energy storageElectronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental and computational details, free energy plots for the NH3 evolution and N2 reduction with Co3N/Co, Fe4N/Fe, Mn5N2/Mn4N, Mo2N/Mo, CrN/Cr2N, TaN/Ta2N, NbN/Nb2N, Li3N/LiH, Ba3N2/BaH2, Sr3N2/SrH2, and Ca3N2/CaH2, surface oxidation energetics, ΔGvac[NHx, yH] based on gas phase H2 as hydrogen source, NH3 evolution with Fe-doped Mn4N, NH3 evolution with Mn6N2.58, Ca3N2 and Sr2N after correcting for partial nitride hydrolysis, NH3 yield from Ca3N2vs. time and H2 gas flow rate. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00789e

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michalsky, R; Avram, A. M; Peterson, B. A; Pfromm, P. H; Peterson, A. A

    2015-01-01

    .... We demonstrate how ammonia can be produced at ambient pressure from air, water, and concentrated sunlight as renewable source of process heat via nitrogen reduction with a looped metal nitride...

  12. The Sugar Model: Autocatalytic Activity of the Triose Ammonia Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2007-04-01

    Reaction of triose sugars with ammonia under anaerobic conditions yielded autocatalytic products. The autocatalytic behavior of the products was examined by measuring the effect of the crude triose ammonia reaction product on the kinetics of a second identical triose ammonia reaction. The reaction product showed autocatalytic activity by increasing both the rate of disappearance of triose and the rate of formation of pyruvaldehyde, the product of triose dehydration. This synthetic process is considered a reasonable model of origin-of-life chemistry because it uses plausible prebiotic substrates, and resembles modern biosynthesis by employing the energized carbon groups of sugars to drive the synthesis of autocatalytic molecules.

  13. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, F. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-09-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues may contribute to ammonia volatilization, but sufficient information on their contribution to the national ammonia volatilization is lacking. Experiments were carried out with the aim to assess the ammonia volatilization of crop residues left on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil under the conditions met in practice in the Netherlands during late autumn and winter. Ammonia emission from residues of broccoli, leek, sugar beet, cut grass, fodder radish (fresh and frozen) and yellow mustard (frozen) was studied during two winter seasons using volatilization chambers. Residues were either placed on top of soil or mixed with soil. Mixing residues with soil gave insignificant ammonia volatilization, whereas volatilization was 5-16 percent of the N content of residues when placed on top of soil. Ammonia volatilization started after at least 4 days. Total ammonia volatilization was related to C/N-ratio and N concentration of the plant material. After 37 days, cumulative ammonia volatilization was negligible from plant material with N concentration below 2 percent, and was 10 percent of the N content of plant material with 4 percent N. These observations can be explained by decomposition of plant material by micro-organisms. After an initial built up of the microbial population, NH 4+ that is not needed for their own growth is released and can easily emit as NH 3 at the soil surface. The results of the experiments were used to estimate the contribution of crop residues to ammonia volatilization in the Netherlands. Crop residues of arable crops and residues of pasture topping may contribute more than 3 million kg NH 3-N to the national ammonia volatilization of the

  14. Ammonia as a refrigerant. Special issue; Ammoniak als koudemiddel. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelet, P.C. [Schatten (Belgium); Knipscheer, H.J.M. [Ingenieursburo Linssen, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Havenaar, D. [ThermoNoord Airconditioning, IJsselstein (Netherlands); Van Gerwen, R.J.M. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    The interest for ammonia as a refrigerant is still high. Recently, an acknowledgement regulation for certifying institutes for ammonium installations was implemented. Also, the Dutch directive CPR13 (`Ammonia: Transport, Storage and Uses` and defined by the CPR or Commission for the Prevention against Disasters, caused by Hazardous Materials) for such installations has been completely revised and compared with the exploitation of ammonia installations in Belgium, Luxembourg, and France. Finally, a number of successful, appealing projects has been carried out. In 5 articles attention is paid to those subjects. 6 figs., 4 ills., 5 tabs., 6 refs.

  15. Ambient and development

    OpenAIRE

    Kátia Cristine Schimidt; Maria Angélica Binotto; Grasiely Fassin Borges; Taíse Soares da Costa; Sidney Ferreira Farias

    2005-01-01

    Searching for arguments to contribute with a nation development andgrowting, this content intents to show the importance of the human development notion and the Physical Education role as human corporal activity. In an approximative model, it pursuits to do a positive link among educative programs levels of the brazilian educational society. The text also tries to associete Physical Education activities to a fondness for continuated mobility, especially into a school scale. Relatively to well...

  16. Aerosol species concentrations and source apportionment of ammonia at Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, William C; Schichtel, Bret A; Barna, Michael G; Gebhart, Kristi A; Rodriguez, Marco A; Collett, Jeffrey L; Carrico, Christian M; Benedict, Katherine B; Prenni, Anthony J; Kreidenweis, Sonia M

    2013-11-01

    Changes in ecosystem function at Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) are occurring because of emissions of nitrogen and sulfate species along the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, as well as sources farther east and west. The nitrogen compounds include both oxidized and reduced nitrogen. A year-long monitoring program of various oxidized and reduced nitrogen species was initiated to better understand their origins as well as the complex chemistry occurring during transport from source to receptor. Specifically the goals of the study were to characterize the atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen species in gaseous, particulate, and aqueous phases (precipitation and clouds) along the east and west sides of the Continental Divide; identify the relative contributions to atmospheric nitrogen species in RMNP from within and outside of the state of Colorado; identify the relative contributions to atmospheric nitrogen species in RMNP from emission sources along the Colorado Front Range versus other areas within Colorado; and identify the relative contributions to atmospheric nitrogen species from mobile sources, agricultural activities, and large and small point sources within the state of Colorado. Measured ammonia concentrations are combined with modeled releases of conservative tracers from ammonia source regions around the United States to apportion ammonia to its respective sources, using receptor modeling tools.

  17. Protective effect of immobilized ammonia oxidizers and phenol-degrading bacteria on nitrification in ammonia- and phenol-containing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, M.; Watanabe, A. [Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Chiba (Japan); Kudo, N.; Shinozaki, H. [Materials Science Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan); Uemoto, H.

    2007-12-15

    Phenol present in wastewaters from various industries has an inhibitory effect on nitrification even at low concentrations. Hence, the biological treatment of wastewater containing both phenol and ammonia involves a series of treatment steps. It is difficult to achieve nitrification capability in an activated sludge system that contains phenol at concentrations above the inhibitory level. Batch treatment of wastewater containing various concentrations of phenol showed that the ammonia oxidation capability of suspended Nitrosomonas europaea cells, an ammonia oxidizer, was completely inhibited in the presence of more than 5.0 mg/L phenol. To protect the ammonia oxidizer from the inhibitory effect of phenol and to achieve ammonia oxidation capability in the wastewater containing phenol at concentrations above the inhibitory level, a simple bacterial consortium composed of an ammonia oxidizer (N. europaea) and a phenol-degrading bacterial strain (Acinetobacter sp.) was used. Ammonia oxidation did not occur in the presence of phenol at concentrations above the inhibitory level when suspended or immobilized N. europaea and Acinetobacter sp. cells were used in batch treatment. Following the acclimatization of the immobilized cells, accumulation of nitrite was observed, even when the wastewater contained phenol at concentrations above the inhibitory level. These results showed that immobilization was effective in protecting N. europaea cells from the inhibitory effect of phenol present in the wastewater. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  19. Ammonia stress under high environmental ammonia induces Hsp70 and Hsp90 in the mud eel, Monopterus cuchia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangzo, Hnunlalliani; Banerjee, Bodhisattwa; Saha, Shrabani; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2017-02-01

    The obligatory air-breathing mud eel (Monopterus cuchia) is frequently being challenged with high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure in its natural habitats. The present study investigated the possible induction of heat shock protein 70 and 90 (hsp70, hsc70, hsp90α and hsp90β) genes and more expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins under ammonia stress in different tissues of the mud eel after exposure to HEA (50 mM NH4Cl) for 14 days. HEA resulted in significant accumulation of toxic ammonia in different body tissues and plasma, which was accompanied with the stimulation of oxidative stress in the mud eel as evidenced by more accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during exposure to HEA. Further, hyper-ammonia stress led to significant increase in the levels of mRNA transcripts for inducible hsp70 and hsp90α genes and also their translated proteins in different tissues probably as a consequence of induction of hsp70 and hsp90α genes in the mud eel. However, hyper-ammonia stress was neither associated with any significant alterations in the levels of mRNA transcripts for constitutive hsc70 and hsp90β genes nor their translated proteins in any of the tissues studied. More abundance of Hsp70 and Hsp90α proteins might be one of the strategies adopted by the mud eel to defend itself from the ammonia-induced cellular damages under ammonia stress. Further, this is the first report of ammonia-induced induction of hsp70 and hsp90α genes under hyper-ammonia stress in any freshwater air-breathing teleost.

  20. Modulation of Rh glycoproteins, ammonia excretion and Na+ fluxes in three freshwater teleosts when exposed chronically to high environmental ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Nawata, C Michele; Blust, Ronny; Wood, Chris M; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-08-01

    We investigated relationships among branchial unidirectional Na(+) fluxes, ammonia excretion, urea excretion, plasma ammonia, plasma cortisol, and gill transporter expression and function in three freshwater fish differing in their sensitivity to high environmental ammonia (HEA). The highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less ammonia-sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish) were exposed chronically (12-168 h) to 1 mmol l(-1) ammonia (as NH4HCO3; pH 7.9). During HEA exposure, carp and goldfish elevated ammonia excretion (JAmm) and Na(+) influx rates ( ) while trout experienced higher plasma ammonia (TAmm) and were only able to restore control rates of JAmm and . All three species exhibited increases in Na(+) efflux rate ( ). At the molecular level, there was evidence for activation of a 'Na(+)/NH4(+) exchange metabolon' probably in response to elevated plasma cortisol and TAmm, though surprisingly, some compensatory responses preceded molecular responses in all three species. Expression of Rhbg, Rhcg (Rhcg-a and Rhcg-b), H(+)-ATPase (V-type, B-subunit) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) mRNA was upregulated in goldfish, Rhcg-a and NKA in carp, and Rhcg2, NHE-2 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger) and H(+)-ATPase in trout. Branchial H(+)-ATPase activity was elevated in goldfish and trout, and NKA activity in goldfish and carp, but NKA did not appear to function preferentially as a Na(+)/NH4(+)-ATPase in any species. Goldfish alone increased urea excretion rate during HEA, in concert with elevated urea transporter mRNA expression in gills. Overall, goldfish showed more effective compensatory responses towards HEA than carp, while trout were least effective.

  1. Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea adapted to low ammonium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, A.; French, A.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOM) generate their energy by the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2−). This process can be carried out by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) as well as by the recently discovered ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). In the past, AOB were enriched in batch

  2. New efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis: barium-promoted cobalt on carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Stefan; Barfod, Rasmus; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia......Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia...

  3. Ammonia removal from an aqueous solution and method for the production of a fertilizer material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, E.M.; Ursem, W.N.J.; Roos, R.A.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The invention provides method for the removal of ammonia from air and converting the ammonia in a fertilizer material, comprising (a) contacting at least part of the air with an aqueous liquid, wherein the aqueous liquid is a solvent for ammonia, to provide an ammonia containing aqueous

  4. Isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in giant freshwater pawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): effects on the oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymatic activities and apoptosis in haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Changhong; Xian, Jianan; Sun, Zhenzhu

    2015-10-01

    The residual contaminators such as ammonia and nitrite are widely considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants, posing a great threat to shrimp survival. To study the toxicological effects of ammonia and nitrite exposure on the innate immune response in invertebrates, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in haemocytes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in order to provide useful information about adult prawn immune responses. M. rosenbergii (13.44 ± 2.75 g) were exposed to 0, 5, and 25 mg/L total ammonia-N (TAN) and 0, 5, and 20 mg/L nitrite-N for 24 h. All ammonia concentrations were combined with all nitrite concentrations, making a total of nine treatments studied. Following the exposure treatment, antioxidant enzyme activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes were measured using flow cytometry. Results indicated that ROS generation was sensitive to the combined effect of ammonia and nitrite, which subsequently affected the Cu-Zn SOD activity. In addition, CAT showed the highest activity at 5 mg/L TAN while GPx decreased at 5 mg/L TAN and returned towards baseline at 25 mg/L. NO generation synchronized with the apoptotic cell ratio in haemocytes, indicating that NO production was closely associated with programmed cell death. Both NO production and apoptotic ratios significantly decreased following 25 mg/L TAN, which may be due to the antagonistic regulation of NO and GPx. We hypothesized that the toxicological effect of nitrite exhibited less change in physiological changes compared to that of ammonia, because of the high tolerance to nitrite exposure in mature M. rosenbergii and/or the competitive effects of chloride ions. Taken together, these results showed that ammonia and nitrite caused a series of combined oxidative stress and apoptosis in M. rosenbergi, but further

  5. Effect of Thermal Annealing in Ammonia on the Properties of InGaN Nanowires with Different Indium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Cristopher; Cordones, Amy; Andrews, Sean; Gao, Hanwei; Fu, Anthony; Leone, Stephen; Yang, Peidong

    2012-10-02

    The utility of an annealing procedure in ammonia ambient is investigated for improving the optical characteristics of InxGa1?xN nanowires (0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.42) grown on c-Al2O3 using a halide chemical vapor deposition method. Morphological studies using scanning electron microscopy confirm that the nanowire morphology is retained after annealing in ammonia at temperatures up to 800 ?C. However, significant indium etching and composition inhomogeneities are observed for higher indium composition nanowires (x = 0.28, 0.42), as measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy. Structural analyses, using X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, indicate that this is a result of the greater thermal instability of higher indium composition nanowires. The effect of these structural changes on the optical quality of InGaN nanowires is examined using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Annealing in ammonia enhances the integrated photoluminescence intensity of InxGa1?xN nanowires by up to a factor of 4.11 ? 0.03 (for x = 0.42) by increasing the rate of radiative recombination. Fitting of photoluminescence decay curves to a Kohlrausch stretched exponential indicates that this increase is directly related to a larger distribution of recombination rates from composition inhomogeneities caused by annealing. The results demonstrate the role of thermal instability on the improved optical properties of InGaN nanowires annealed in ammonia.

  6. Review of Options for Ammonia/Ammonium Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-06

    This report is a review of literature supporting practical ammonia/ammonium destruction processes. Melter research supporting Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass production has shown that significant amounts of ammonia will be in the melter offgas condensate. Further work with secondary waste forms indicates the potential need to remove the ammonia, perhaps by an oxidative process. This review finds likely practical chemical methods to oxidize ammonia in aqueous solution at moderate temperatures and atmospheric pressure, using easily obtained reagents. Leading candidates include nitrite oxidation to produce nitrogen gas, various peroxide oxidative processes, and air stripping. This work reviews many other processes and provides reasoning to not consider those processes further for this application.

  7. Risk analysis and emergency management of ammonia installations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.; Gansevoort, J.

    1992-01-01

    The use of Quantitative Risk Assessment has been increasing for evaluating the risk of handling hazardous materials and land-use planning. This article reports on several studies carried out on the risk of handling, storage and transport of ammonia.

  8. Biokinetic characterization of the acceleration phase in autotrophic ammonia oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Kartik; Smets, Barth F

    2008-08-01

    Batch autotrophic ammonia oxidation tracked through oxygen uptake measurements displays a preliminary acceleration phase. Failure to recognize the acceleration phase and fitting batch ammonia oxidation profiles with standard Monod-type mathematical models can result in meaningless kinetic parameter estimates. The objectives of this study were to examine the factors controlling the acceleration phase and to derive and test empirical and metabolic models for its description. Because of possible sustained reducing power limitation during batch ammonia oxidation, the extent of the acceleration phase (1) increased with increasing initial ammonia concentration, (2) did not systematically vary with initial biomass concentrations, and (3) increased in response to starvation. Concurrent hydroxylamine oxidation significantly reduced the acceleration phase potentially by relieving reducing power limitation. A nonlinear empirical model described the acceleration phase more accurately than a linear empirical model. The metabolic model also captured experimental trends exceedingly well, but required determination of additional parameters and variables.

  9. Electrolytes and Electrodes for Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Alberto

    .e. without polarization) by impedance spectroscopy in dry H2/N2 and H2/Ar atmospheres, in the temperature range 440-650°C for Mo-BCZY electrodes and 350-500°C fir Fe-BCZY electrodes. No clear evidence of activity of Fe and Mo towards nitrogen reduction to ammonia is found. The kinetics of the electrode...... effective energy storage solutions. Production of synthetic fuels (e.g. ammonia) is a promising possibility. Ammonia (NH3) can be an interesting energy carrier, thanks to its high energy density and the existence of well developed storage and transportation technologies. However the present-day production...... technology is based on the Haber-Bosch process, which is energy intensive and requires large-scale plants. One possible way to produce ammonia from sustainable electricity, nitrogen and hydrogen/water is using an electrochemical cell. This thesis studies a number of electrolytes and electrocatalysts...

  10. The production of ammonia by multiheme cytochromes C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jörg; Kroneck, Peter M H

    2014-01-01

    The global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle is essential for life on Earth. Many of the underlying biotic reactions are catalyzed by a multitude of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life forms whereas others are exclusively carried out by microorganisms. The last century has seen the rise of a dramatic imbalance in the global nitrogen cycle due to human behavior that was mainly caused by the invention of the Haber-Bosch process. Its main product, ammonia, is a chemically reactive and biotically favorable form of bound nitrogen. The anthropogenic supply of reduced nitrogen to the biosphere in the form of ammonia, for example during environmental fertilization, livestock farming, and industrial processes, is mandatory in feeding an increasing world population. In this chapter, environmental ammonia pollution is linked to the activity of microbial metalloenzymes involved in respiratory energy metabolism and bioenergetics. Ammonia-producing multiheme cytochromes c are discussed as paradigm enzymes.

  11. Towards understanding hourly variations of ammonia in the urban atmosphere of the North China during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, X.; Teng, X.; Qi, J.; Shi, J.; Xie, H.; Zhu, Y.; Gao, H.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in forming secondary aerosols, particularly in winter. In winter, NH3 origins in urban atmospheres are highly contentious. In this study, we measured atmospheric NH3 and pollutant gases at a semi-urban site in the North China in November-December 2015 to address this contentious issue. The hourly averaged mixing ratios of NH3 highly varied from 0.3 to 10.8 ppb during the measurement. The measured NH3 had a good correlation with ambient water vapor in many periods, suggesting that the NH3 was mostly released concurrently with water evaporation. A good exponential correlation between NH3 and ambient temperature was also observed in a few periods when the calculated canopy compensation points of NH3 can well reproduce the measured mixing ratios using artificially selected soil emission potentials. The selected potentials were reasonably consistent with the in-situ measurements of soil samples collected at surrounding green space in 0-1 cm depth. NH3 emissions from urban green space were confirmed as one of important contributors to the observed NH3. Our analysis showed that vehicular emissions were a negligible contributor to the observed NH3, but industrial emissions of NH3 was possible important under the wind direction of 300-330°.

  12. Ammonia removal via microbial fuel cell (MFC) dynamic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabiad, I.; Ali, U. F. M.; Zakarya, I. A.; Ibrahim, N.; Radzi, R. W.; Zulkurnai, N. Z.; Azmi, N. H.

    2017-06-01

    Landfill leachate is generally known as high-strength wastewater that is difficult to handle and contains dissolved extracts and suspended matter. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were designed to treat landfill leachate while continuously producing power (voltage output). Three different anodes were tested in MFC reactors: carbon black, activated carbon, and zinc electrodes. Movements in the MFC reactor during treatment were also a key factor for testing. Results showed a difference in ammonia levels in the three anodes used. The study compared the efficiency of static and dynamic modes of MFC in removing ammonia. Continual leachate movement in the reactor could increase the rate of removal of the ammonia components. The setup provided a viable condition for maximum removal because the reactor movement caused the sludge to disintegrate, which allowed ammonia to separate easily from the parent leachate. Ammonia removal also resulted from the transfer of ammonium through the membrane or from ammonia loss. Constant exchange of ionic content benefited the MFC performance by increasing power production and decreasing internal electrode material resistance. This paper presents the results of the analyses of leachate treatment from the solid waste landfill located in Padang Siding Landfill, Perlis. The performance of ammonia removal was enhanced using different types of electrodes. In both modes, activated carbon performed better than black carbon and zinc. The respective percentages of ammonia removal for activated carbon of dynamic over static were 96.6%, 66.6%, and 92.8% for activated carbon, zinc, and black carbon. The results provide further information on the possibility of using MFCs in landfill leachate treatment systems.

  13. Polarizable Interaction Model for Liquid, Supercritical, and Aqueous Ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabi, Esam A; Lamoureux, Guillaume

    2013-04-09

    A polarizable model for ammonia is optimized based on the ab initio properties of the NH3 molecule and the NH3-NH3 and NH3-H2O dimers calculated at the MP2 level. For larger (NH3)m, NH3(H2O)n, and H2O(NH3)n clusters (m = 2-7 and n = 1-4), the model yields structural and binding energies in good agreement with ab initio calculations without further adjustments. It also reproduces the structure, density, heat of vaporization, self-diffusion coefficient, heat capacity, and isothermal compressibility of liquid ammonia at the boiling point. The model is further validated by calculating some of these properties at various temperatures and pressures spanning the liquid and supercritical phases of the fluid (up to 700 K and 200 MPa). The excellent transferability of the model suggests that it can be used to investigate properties of fluid ammonia under conditions for which experiments are not easy to perform. For aqueous ammonia solutions, the model yields liquid structures and densities in good agreement with experimental data and allows the nonlinearity in the density-composition plot to be interpreted in terms of structural changes with composition. Finally, the model is used to investigate the solvation structure of ammonia in liquid water and of water in liquid ammonia and to calculate the solvation free energy of NH3 and H2O in aqueous ammonia as a function of solution composition and temperature. The simulation results suggest the presence of a transition around 50% molar NH3/H2O compositions, above which water molecules are preferably solvated by ammonia.

  14. Predicting Catalysis: Understanding Ammonia Synthesis from First-Principles Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Hellman, A.; Baerends, E. J.; Biczysko, M.; Bligaard, T.; Christensen, C. H.; Clary, D. C.; Dahl, S.; Harrevelt, R. van; Honkala, K.; Jonsson, H.; Kroes, G. J.; Luppi, M.; Manthe, U.; Nørskov, J. K.; Olsen, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we give a full account of a large collaborative effort toward an atomic-scale understanding of modern industrial ammonia production over ruthenium catalysts. We show that overall rates of ammonia production can be determined by applying various levels of theory (including transition state theory with or without tunneling corrections, and quantum dynamics) to a range of relevant elementary reaction steps, such as N2 dissociation, H2 dissociation, and hydrogenation of the intermediate rea...

  15. Isotopic Discrimination of Some Solutes in Liquid Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, H.; Viste, A.

    1966-01-01

    The nitrogen isotopic discrimination of some salts and metals, studies in liquid ammonia solution at -50�C, decreases in magnitude in the order Pb{sup ++}, Ca{sup ++}, Li{sup +}, AG{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Li, K{sup +}, Na, K. The isotopic discrimination appears to provide qualitative information about the strength of the cation-solvent interaction in liquid ammonia.

  16. Time Delay for Aerial Ammonia Concentration Measurements in Livestock Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Rom; Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Correct measurements of ammonia concentration in air still present considerable challenges. The high water solubility and polarity can cause it to adsorb on surfaces in the entire sampling system, including sampling lines, filters, valves, pumps and instruments, causing substantial measuring errors and time delays. To estimate time delay characteristics of a Photo Acoustic Multi Gas Monitor 1312 and a Multi Point Sampler continuous measurement of aerial ammonia concentrations at different lev...

  17. Circadian Rhythmicity in the Activities of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase from Lemna perpusilla and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, W R; Koukkari, W L

    1978-10-01

    The oscillations in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity from Spirodela polyrhiza and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities from Lemna perpusilla displayed a circadian rhythm under continuous light. Rhythmicity in enzymic activity could not be detected in continuous darkness since under this condition phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity remains at a fairly constantly low level. Results from our studies of the oscillatory pattern of the respective activities of phenylalanine and tyrosine ammonia-lyase support their "inseparability."

  18. Ammonia at Blodgett Forest, Sierra Nevada, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Littlejohn, David

    2007-11-06

    Ammonia is a reactive trace gas that is emitted in large quantities by animal agriculture and other sources in California, which subsequently forms aerosol particulate matter, potentially affecting visibility, climate, and human health. We performed initial measurements of NH{sub 3} at the Blodgett Forest Research Station (BFRS) during a two week study in June, 2006. The site is used for ongoing air quality research and is a relatively low-background site in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratios were quite low (< 1 to {approx} 2 ppb), contrasting with typical conditions in many parts of the Central Valley. Eddy covariance measurements showed NH{sub 3} fluxes that scaled with measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratio and calculated aerodynamic deposition velocity, suggesting dry deposition is a significant loss mechanism for atmospheric NH{sub 3} at BFRS. A simple model of NH{sub 3} transport to the site supports the hypothesis that NH{sub 3} is transported from the Valley to BFRS, but deposits on vegetation during the summer. Further work is necessary to determine whether the results obtained in this study can be generalized to other seasons.

  19. Measurements of Ammonia at Blodgett Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Littlejohn, David

    2007-04-01

    Ammonia is a reactive trace gas that is emitted in large quantities by animal agriculture and other sources in California, which subsequently forms aerosol particulate matter, potentially affecting visibility, climate, and human health. We performed initial measurements of NH{sub 3} at the Blodgett Forest Research Station (BFRS) during a 3 week study in June, 2006. The site is used for ongoing air quality research and is a relatively low-background site in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratios were quite low (< 1 to {approx}2 ppb), contrasting with typical conditions in many parts of the Central Valley. Eddy covariance measurements showed NH{sub 3} fluxes that scaled with measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratio and calculated aerodynamic deposition velocity, suggesting dry deposition is a significant loss mechanism for atmospheric NH{sub 3} at BFRS. A simple model of NH{sub 3} transport to the site supports the hypothesis that NH{sub 3} is transported from the Valley to BFRS, but deposits on vegetation during the summer. Further work is necessary to determine whether the results obtained in this study can be generalized to other seasons.

  20. Conservation of ammonia during food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jabi, L F; Halalsheh, M M; Badarneh, D M

    2008-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to quantify ammonia (NH3) losses during food waste composting and to evaluate the effectiveness of mature aerobic sewage sludge/olive pomace compost and phillipsite/chabazite zeolite in reducing NH3 losses during composting. Food waste amended with chopped barley straw was composted for a period of 68 days in three in-vessel reactors. The mature aerobic sewage sludge/olive pomace compost and the zeolite were placed on a mesh tray above the waste mixture in the first and second reactors, respectively. The third reactor contained straw-amended food waste only and served as a control. It was found that the mature aerobic sewage sludge/olive pomace compost reduced NH3-N losses by 36% of initial TN through nitrifying volatilized NH3 into nitrate (NO3-). Zeolite reduced NH3-N losses by 41% of initial total nitrogen due to adsorption of volatilized NH3. The use of mature compost in conservation of nitrogen is a promising cheap method; however, it needs further optimization and research.

  1. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  2. A morphological method for ammonia detection in liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Gutiérrez-de-Juan

    Full Text Available Hyperammonemia is a metabolic condition characterized by elevated levels of ammonia and a common event in acute liver injury/failure and chronic liver disease. Even though hepatic ammonia levels are potential predictive factors of patient outcome, easy and inexpensive methods aiming at the detection of liver ammonia accumulation in the clinical setting remain unavailable. Thus, herein we have developed a morphological method, based on the utilization of Nessler´s reagent, to accurately and precisely detect the accumulation of ammonia in biological tissue. We have validated our method against a commercially available kit in mouse tissue samples and, by using this modified method, we have confirmed the hepatic accumulation of ammonia in clinical and animal models of acute and chronic advanced liver injury as well as in the progression of fatty liver disease. Overall, we propose a morphological method for ammonia detection in liver that correlates well with the degree of liver disease severity and therefore can be potentially used to predict patient outcome.

  3. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  4. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.16 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and...

  5. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.6 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the national...

  6. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.12 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary...

  7. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the...

  8. Program integration at JVC Industrial de Mexico, S.A. de C.V./Electric energy saving/Environmental management system /ISO 14001 standard; Integracion de programas en JVC Industrial de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Ahorro de energia electrica/Sistema de administracion ambiental/Estandar ISO 14001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argote Molina, Martin [JVC Industrial de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Tijuana (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    It is possible, and besides logic, the integration of programs such as the electric energy saving and an environmental management system. In managing the consumption and the demand of the electric service, there is an effect on the pollutants emitted for the generation. It is clear that the user in not, and can not be, responsible for the type of fuel used but its importance in project planning is out of question. In its turn the central point of the environmental management system, consists in identifying the main effects on the environment caused by its activities, services and products, as well as the current or potential control level of the enterprise on them. Such identification and further evaluation took us at JVC Industrial de Mexico, to integrate conceptually and operationally such programs. The commitment with the Management was concentrated and strengthened resulting in a fuller consciousness of resource administration. [Espanol] Es posible, ademas de logica, la integracion de programas tales como el ahorro de energia electrica y un sistema de administracion ambiental. Al administrar el consumo y la demanda del servicio electrico tenemos un efecto en los contaminantes emitidos para la generacion. Es claro que el usuario no es, ni puede ser, responsable del tipo de combustible utilizado pero su importancia en la planeacion de proyectos es indiscutible. A su vez el punto central del sistema de administracion ambiental, consiste en identificar los principales efectos en el medio ambiente causados por sus actividades, servicios o productos, asi como el nivel de control actual o potencial de la empresa sobre ellos. Dicha identificacion y la posterior evaluacion nos llevo, en JVC Industrial de Mexico, a integrar tanto conceptual como operacionalmente dichos programas. El compromiso de la Gerencia se vio concentrado y fortalecido dando como resultado una conciencia mas plena de la administracion de recursos.

  9. Conhecimento, interdisciplinaridade e Psicologia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Romice

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Responde às questões - como os métodos da Psicologia Ambiental devem ser discutidos em um enquadramento interdisciplinar; a Psicologia Ambiental pede alguma abordagem metodológica especial; como a intervenção ambiental é determinada pela interdisciplinaridade; quais são estas disciplinas e como elas se relacionam entre si - baseando-se em experiências profissionais como orientador em um projeto com comunidade, com habitação popular e exclusão social em vários países da Europa, e como consultora. Conclui que as abordagens usadas pelas diferentes profissões são muito separadas, e que apenas metas comuns não são suficientes, sendo também necessários um treino conjunto e identidade de valores.

  10. Implantação de programas de manejo e plano de gestão ambiental em pequenas comunidades / Implantation of Handling Programs and Plan of Environmental Administration in Small Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Paula Brito Cavalcanti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma proposta para a implantação de programas de manejo e plano de gestão ambiental em pequenas comunidades, compondo um conjunto de procedimentos resultantes de métodos e técnicas de pesquisas. Os programas de manejo compreendem tópicos relativos aos setores de produção, a saber: infra-estrutura energética, viária, sanitária e de comunicação; silvicultura, extrativismo vegetal, agricultura e pecuária; aqüicultura; mineração, indústrias e atividades científicas, culturais, esportivas, turísticas, recreacionais e de serviços. Com relação ao plano de gestão ambiental, este deverá promover o desenvolvimento urbano e ordenamento dos serviços, abrangendo os setores de educação; saúde; saneamento; transporte; energia e urbanização, além das ações direcionadas ao potencial natural, abrangendo a proteção do patrimônio histórico, cultural e natural, ecoturismo; pesquisas; gerenciamento e fiscalização. Como etapa conclusiva percebe-se a falta de uma política de caráter integrado que oriente a utilização racional e a proteção dos recursos naturais e a não obediência da legislação ambiental.

  11. A new sub-band of the acetylene-ammonia complex in the vicinity of ν4 mode of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunchen; Xu, Yunjie

    2012-05-01

    High resolution ro-vibrational transitions of a new sub-band of the acetylene-ammonia complex in the vicinity of ν4 mode of ammonia at 6 μm were measured. It was assigned to the perpendicular K = 0 ← 1 sub-band. Combined with the previous high resolution infrared and microwave spectroscopic study [X. Liu, Y. Xu, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13 (2011) 14235], a global fit was performed to determine the ground and upper state spectroscopic constants.

  12. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios [Bern University, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN, Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); National Technical University, School of Applied Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Athens (Greece)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)

  13. Effect of competing ions and causticization on the ammonia adsorption by a novel poly ligand exchanger (PLE) ammonia adsorption reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanzhou; Zhou, Kanggen; Hu, Yuanjuan; Liu, Fang; Wang, Aihe

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a poly ligand exchanger, Cu(II)-loaded chelating resin named ammonia adsorption reagent (AMAR), bearing the functional group of weak iminodiacetate acid, was prepared to efficiently remove ammonia from solutions. Batch adsorption equilibrium experiments were conducted under a range of conditions. The effects of pH on the removal of ammonia by AMAR were investigated at 25 °C. The copper loaded on the resin forms a complex with NH3 in solution under alkaline condition. The effect of alkaline dosage (AD) on the ammonia adsorption was investigated. The maximum breakthrough bed volumes were obtained when the AD was set as 0.75 mmol OH(-)/mL. The higher AD did not guarantee the better ammonia removal efficiency due to the forming of Cu(OH)2 precipitate between OH(-) in solutions and Cu(II) on the resin. The effect of competing ions on the adsorption breakthrough curve of virgin AMAR and causticized AMAR was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the existence of competing ions had a negative impact on the adsorption capacity for both virgin AMAR and causticized AMAR. After causticization, the AMAR was more resistant to the competing ions comparing with virgin AMAR. The bivalent Ca(2+) affects the ammonia adsorption more than does the monovalent Na(+).

  14. Growth of Nitrosococcus-Related Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria Coincides with Extremely Low pH Values in Wastewater with High Ammonia Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fumasoli, Alexandra; Bürgmann, Helmut; Weissbrodt, D.G.; Wells, G.N.; Beck, Karin; Mohn, Joachim; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M.

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation decreases the pH in wastewaters where alkalinity is limited relative to total ammonia. The activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), however, typically decreases with pH and often ceases completely in slightly acidic wastewaters. Nevertheless, nitrification at low pH has

  15. Power-to-ammonia: rethinking the role of ammonia – from a value product to a flexible energy carrier (FlexNH3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leo J.M. Heijne; Anish Patil; Yasmina Bennani; András Perl; Christian E.J. van Someren

    2016-01-01

    This report focuses on the feasibility of the power-to-ammonia concept. Power-to-ammonia uses produced excess renewable electricity to electrolyze water, and then to react the obtained hydrogen with nitrogen, which is obtained through air separation, to produce ammonia. This process may be used as a

  16. Ambient and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cristine Schimidt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching for arguments to contribute with a nation development andgrowting, this content intents to show the importance of the human development notion and the Physical Education role as human corporal activity. In an approximative model, it pursuits to do a positive link among educative programs levels of the brazilian educational society. The text also tries to associete Physical Education activities to a fondness for continuated mobility, especially into a school scale. Relatively to wellness estate, it attempts to elevate this welness and to attach it to mobility and affective/social life, demonstrating the consequences on individual quality of life reflects in individual life. RESUMO Em busca de argumentos para contribuir com o desenvolvimento e o crescimento de uma nação, este conteúdo pretende mostrar a significativa importância da noção de desenvolvimento humano e do papel da Educação Física, como atividade corporal humana. Num modelo aproximativo, procura-se fazer um link positivo entre os programas e educativos, nos diferentes níveis de educação da sociedade brasileira. O texto procura, também, associar as atividades oriundas da Educação Física ao gosto pela mobilidade continuada, em especial na escala escolar. Relativamente ao estado de bem-estar, procura-se elevá-lo e liga-o à mobilidade e à vida afetiva/social, demonstrando os reflexos na qualidade de vida do indivíduo.

  17. Ammonia thermometry of star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangum, Jeffrey G.; MacGregor, Meredith; Svoboda, Brian E. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Darling, Jeremy [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Box 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Henkel, Christian; Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Schinnerer, Eva, E-mail: jmangum@nrao.edu, E-mail: mmacgreg@fas.harvard.edu, E-mail: svobodb@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: jdarling@origins.colorado.edu, E-mail: chenkel@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: kmenten@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: schinner@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-12-10

    With a goal toward deriving the physical conditions in external galaxies, we present a study of the ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emission and absorption in a sample of star-forming systems. Using the unique sensitivities to kinetic temperature afforded by the excitation characteristics of several inversion transitions of NH{sub 3}, we have continued our characterization of the dense gas in star-forming galaxies by measuring the kinetic temperature in a sample of 23 galaxies and one galaxy offset position selected for their high infrared luminosity. We derive kinetic temperatures toward 13 galaxies, 9 of which possess multiple kinetic temperature and/or velocity components. Eight of these galaxies exhibit kinetic temperatures >100 K, which are in many cases at least a factor of two larger than kinetic temperatures derived previously. Furthermore, the derived kinetic temperatures in our galaxy sample, which are in many cases at least a factor of two larger than derived dust temperatures, point to a problem with the common assumption that dust and gas kinetic temperatures are equivalent. As previously suggested, the use of dust emission at wavelengths greater than 160 μm to derive dust temperatures, or dust heating from older stellar populations, may be skewing derived dust temperatures in these galaxies to lower values. We confirm the detection of high-excitation OH {sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} J = 9/2 absorption toward Arp 220. We also report the first detections of non-metastable NH{sub 3} inversion transitions toward external galaxies in the (2,1) (NGC 253, NGC 660, IC 342, and IC 860), (3,1), (3,2), (4,3), (5,4) (all in NGC 660), and (10,9) (Arp 220) transitions.

  18. Habitat-associated phylogenetic community patterns of microbial ammonia oxidizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Fernàndez-Guerra

    Full Text Available Microorganisms mediating ammonia oxidation play a fundamental role in the connection between biological nitrogen fixation and anaerobic nitrogen losses. Bacteria and Archaea ammonia oxidizers (AOB and AOA, respectively have colonized similar habitats worldwide. Ammonia oxidation is the rate-limiting step in nitrification, and the ammonia monooxygenase (Amo is the key enzyme involved. The molecular ecology of this process has been extensively explored by surveying the gene of the subunit A of the Amo (amoA gene. In the present study, we explored the phylogenetic community ecology of AOB and AOA, analyzing 5776 amoA gene sequences from >300 isolation sources, and clustering habitats by environmental ontologies. As a whole, phylogenetic richness was larger in AOA than in AOB, and sediments contained the highest phylogenetic richness whereas marine plankton the lowest. We also observed that freshwater ammonia oxidizers were phylogenetically richer than their marine counterparts. AOA communities were more dissimilar to each other than those of AOB, and consistent monophyletic lineages were observed for sediments, soils, and marine plankton in AOA but not in AOB. The diversification patterns showed a more constant cladogenesis through time for AOB whereas AOA apparently experienced two fast diversification events separated by a long steady-state episode. The diversification rate (γ statistic for most of the habitats indicated γ(AOA > γ(AOB. Soil and sediment experienced earlier bursts of diversification whereas habitats usually eutrophic and rich in ammonium such as wastewater and sludge showed accelerated diversification rates towards the present. Overall, this work shows for the first time a global picture of the phylogenetic community structure of both AOB and AOA assemblages following the strictest analytical standards, and provides an ecological view on the differential evolutionary paths experienced by widespread ammonia

  19. Numerical analysis of ammonia homogenization for selective catalytic reduction application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleta, Jakov; Martinjak, Matija; Vujanović, Milan; Pachler, Klaus; Wang, Jin; Duić, Neven

    2017-12-01

    Selective catalytic reduction based on urea water solution as ammonia precursor is a promising method for the NOx abatement form exhaust gasses of mobile diesel engine units. It consists of injecting the urea-water solution in the hot flue gas stream and reaction of its products with the NOx over the catalyst surface. During this process flue gas enthalpy is used for the urea-water droplet heating and for the evaporation of water content. After water evaporates, thermolysis of urea occurs, during which ammonia, a known NOx reductant, and isocyanic acid are generated. The uniformity of the ammonia before the catalyst as well as ammonia slip to the environment are important counteracting design requirements, optimization of which is crucial for development of efficient deNOx systems. The aim of this paper is to show capabilities of the developed mathematical framework implemented in the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE®, to simulate physical processes of all relevant phenomena occurring during the SCR process including chemical reactions taking part in the catalyst. First, mathematical models for description of SCR process are presented and afterwards, models are used on the 3D geometry of a real SCR reactor in order to predict ammonia generation, NOx reduction and resulting ammonia slip. Influence of the injection direction and droplet sizes was also investigated on the same geometry. The performed study indicates importance of droplet sizes on the SCR process and shows that counterflow injection is beneficial, especially in terms of minimizing harmful ammonia slip to environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement and modeling ammonia emissions from broiler litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zifei

    Ammonia is a very important atmospheric pollutant. Agricultural activities, livestock production in particular, have been reported to be the largest contributor of ammonia emissions into the atmosphere. Accurate estimation of ammonia emission rate from individual operations or sources is important and yet a challenging task for both regulatory agencies and animal producers. The overall research objective of this study was to develop an emission model which can be used to estimate ammonia emission from broiler litter. In the reported model, the ammonia flux is essentially a function of the litter's total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content, moisture content, pH, and temperature, as well as the Freundlich partition coefficient (Kf), mass transfer coefficient (KG), ventilation rate (Q), and emission surface area (A). A dynamic flow-through chamber system and a wind tunnel were designed to measure ammonia fluxes from broiler litter. The dynamic flow-through chamber experiments evaluated the reported model with various litter samples under a constant temperature and wind profile. The wind tunnel experiments evaluated the reported model under various temperatures and wind profiles. Regression sub-models were developed to estimate Kf as a function of litter pH and temperature and to estimate KG as a function of air velocity and temperature. Sensitivity analysis of the model showed that ammonia flux is very sensitive to litter pH and to a lesser extent temperature. A validation metric based on the mean and covariance in the measurement and in the model parameters were used to validate the model in the presence of measurement and model parameter uncertainties.

  1. Toxicity of ammonia to algae in sewage oxidation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeliovich, A; Azov, Y

    1976-06-01

    Ammonia, at concentrations over 2.0 mM and at pH values over 8.0, inhibits photosynthesis and growth of Scenedesmus obliquus, a dominant species in high-rate sewage oxidation ponds. Photosynthesis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Anacystis nidulans, and Plectonema boryanum is also susceptible to ammonia inhibition. Dark respiration and cell morphology were unaffected by any combination of pH and ammonia concentrations tested, thus limiting the apparent effect to inhibition of the normal function of the chloroplasts. Methylamine had the same effect as ammonia, and its penetration into the cells was found to be pH dependent. Therefore, the dependence of toxicity of amines to algae on pH apparently results from the inability to penetrate the cell membrane in the ionized form. When operated at 120-h detention time of raw wastewater, the high-rate oxidation pond maintained a steady state with respect to algal growth and oxygen concentration, and the concentration of ammonia did not exceed 1.0 mM. Shifting the pond to 48-h detention time caused an increase in ammonia concentration in the pond water to 2.5 mM, and the pond gradually turned anaerobic. Photosynthesis, which usually elevates the pH of the pond water to 9.0 to 10.0, could not proceed beyond pH 7.9 because of the high concentration of ammonia, and the algal population was washed out and reduced to a concentration that could maintain a doubling time of 48 h without photosynthesis bringing the pH to inhibitory levels. Under these conditions, the pH of the bond becomes a factor that limits the operational efficiency of the oxidation pond.

  2. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  3. Metabolism of Nitrogen Oxides in Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, J.; Stein, L. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are key microorganisms in the transformation of nitrogen intermediates in most all environments. Until recently there was very little work done to elucidate the physiology of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria cultivated from variable trophic state environments. With a greater variety of ammonia-oxidizers now in pure culture the importance of comparative physiological and genomic analysis is crucial. Nearly all known physiology of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria lies within the Nitrosomonas genus with Nitrosomonas europaea strain ATCC 19718 as the model. To more broadly characterize and understand the nature of obligate ammonia chemolithotrophy and the contribution of AOB to production of nitrogen oxides, Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrosospira spp. isolated from variable trophic states and with sequenced genomes, were utilized. Instantaneous ammonia- and hydroxylamine-oxidation kinetics as a function of oxygen and substrate concentration were measured using an oxygen micro-sensor. The pathway intermediates nitric oxide and nitrous oxide were measured in real time using substrate-specific micro-sensors to elucidate whether production of these molecules is stoichiometric with rates of substrate oxidation. Genomic inventory was compared among the strains to identify specific pathways and modules to explain physiological differences in kinetic rates and production of N-oxide intermediates as a condition of their adaptation to different ammonium concentrations. This work provides knowledge of how nitrogen metabolism is differentially controlled in AOB that are adapted to different concentrations of ammonium. Overall, this work will provide further insight into the control of ammonia oxidizing chemolithotrophy across representatives of the Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira genus, which can then be applied to examine additional genome-sequenced AOB isolates.

  4. La crisis del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a la problemática nacionalen este campo, y establecer los puntos más críticos en Colombia. Finalmente, con base en los parámetros establecidos por el gobierno, se presenta el concepto de“desarrollo sostenible" como modelo que interrelaciona los procesos económicos, sociales y tecnológicos con el medio ambiente.

  5. [On ambient experience medical products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun

    2010-05-01

    Through the analysis on ambient experience medical products from Philips corporation, the article discusses the development trend of medical products, management strategy and design thinking as focusing on advantage industry, focusing on user experience, system integration of resources and opening and diverse design thinking.

  6. Reykjanes ambient noise reflection interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdel, Arie; Wedemeijer, Harry; Paap, B; Vandeweijer, Vincent; Weemstra, C.; Jousset, Philippe; Franke, Steven; Blanck, Hanna; Águstsson, K.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the application of ambient noise seismic interferometry (ANSI) to data that were recorded continuously in 2014 and 2015 at Iceland’s peninsula Reykjanes. The objective of this study is the retrieval of reflected body waves (P-waves) that provide high-resolution

  7. Shape analysis for Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safety and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  8. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  9. Shape analysis for mobile ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safely and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  10. Digital identity in ambient environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.M. Ben Schouten; Onkar Ambekar

    2006-01-01

    Embedded systems and ambient technology enable users to interact at any time and anywhere. In the BASIS project for identity management, CWI investigates transparent biometrics in home environments. Possible application areas are user profiling for shopping , listening to one's favourite music and

  11. Measurements of ammonia concentrations, fluxes and dry deposition velocities to a spruce forest 1991-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.V.; Hovmand, M.F.; Hummelshøj, P.

    1999-01-01

    The dry deposition velocities and fluxes of ammonia have been estimated from measurements of the vertical gradient of ammonia and micrometeorology above a spruce forest in western Jutland, Denmark. Measurements have been made in seven periods, each lasting about one week and covering all seasons......, i.e. an ammonia concentration below which the trees and/or the surface emit ammonia due to an equilibrium with the ammonia inside the needles or on the surface. Emission of ammonia was also observed at relatively high ammonia concentration levels (above 2 mu g NH3-N m(-3)), mainly during one...... measuring period characterized by easterly winds with dry conditions and high ammonia concentrations, and the emissions might relate to evaporation from ammonia saturated surfaces or emission from mineralization in the forest soil. In general, relatively high net deposition velocities were observed during...

  12. Ambient Noise Tomography at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, A. E.; Ekström, G.; West, M.; Senyukov, S.

    2008-12-01

    Bezymianny Volcano is an active stratovolcano located in the Kluychevskoy volcanic group on the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. Since its dramatic sector collapse eruption in 1956, the volcano's activity has been characterized by nearly twice annual plinian eruptions accompanying ongoing lava-dome growth. Its frequent eruptions and similarity to Mt. St. Helens have made it the target of a multifaceted geologic and geophysical project supported by the NSF Partners in Research and Education (PIRE) program. Since mid- 2006, the volcano has been monitored by a broadband seismic array that is currently composed of 8 stations within 10 kilometers of the active dome. In this project, we use continuous data from these stations to investigate the static and dynamic structure of the volcano. Using methods similar to those used by Brenguier et al. (2007, 2008), we estimate the Green's function for each pair of stations by cross-correlating day-long time series of ambient noise. Paths with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used to estimate group velocity dispersion curves. From these measurements, we work towards constructing the first velocity model of this volcano. Furthermore, we begin to test whether measurements of ambient noise can be used to monitor changes inside the volcano prior to eruptive activity. These problems will continue to be addressed as more data becomes available in future field seasons.

  13. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in ambient air in Durban, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Batterman, S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an extensive ambient air quality monitoring program in Durban (eThekwini Municipality), South Africa, on Africa’s southeast coast. Following a multi stakeholder process coordinated by the Municipality Metropolitan Health...

  14. Topologically frustrated ionisation in a water-ammonia ice mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Mafety, A; Queyroux, J A; Wilson, C W; Zhang, H; Béneut, K; Le Marchand, G; Baptiste, B; Dumas, P; Garbarino, G; Finocchi, F; Loveday, J S; Pietrucci, F; Saitta, A M; Datchi, F; Ninet, S

    2017-10-20

    Water and ammonia are considered major components of the interiors of the giant icy planets and their satellites, which has motivated their exploration under high P-T conditions. Exotic forms of these pure ices have been revealed at extreme (~megabar) pressures, notably symmetric, ionic, and superionic phases. Here we report on an extensive experimental and computational study of the high-pressure properties of the ammonia monohydrate compound forming from an equimolar mixture of water and ammonia. Our experiments demonstrate that relatively mild pressure conditions (7.4 GPa at 300 K) are sufficient to transform ammonia monohydrate from a prototypical hydrogen-bonded crystal into a form where the standard molecular forms of water and ammonia coexist with their ionic counterparts, hydroxide (OH-) and ammonium [Formula: see text] ions. Using ab initio atomistic simulations, we explain this surprising coexistence of neutral/charged species as resulting from a topological frustration between local homonuclear and long-ranged heteronuclear ionisation mechanisms.

  15. Net summertime emission of ammonia from corn and triticale fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Undine; Smith, Jeremy; Brümmer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Recent advancements in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we used a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure high-frequency concentrations of ammonia and the net exchange between an agricultural site and the atmosphere based on the eddy-covariance approach. The footprint was split into two main sectors, one planted with corn (Zea mays) and the other one with triticale. Ammonia concentrations were highly variable between 2 and almost 100 ppb with an average value of 8.1 ppb during the observation period from April to September 2015. While both deposition and emission of ammonia was observed, the total campaign exchange resulted in a loss of 3.3 kg NH3-N ha-1. Highest average emission fluxes of 65 ng N m-2 s-1 were recorded after fertilization at the beginning of the campaign in April and May. Afterwards the exchange of ammonia with the atmosphere decreased considerably, but the site remained on average a consistent source with sporadic lower peaks and an average flux of 13 ng N m-2 s-1. While management in the form of fertilization was the main driver for ammonia concentration and exchange at the site, biophysical controls from temperature, wind regime, and surface wetness are also presented.

  16. Stabilization of ammonia-rich hydrate inside icy planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naden Robinson, Victor; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming; Hermann, Andreas

    2017-08-22

    The interior structure of the giant ice planets Uranus and Neptune, but also of newly discovered exoplanets, is loosely constrained, because limited observational data can be satisfied with various interior models. Although it is known that their mantles comprise large amounts of water, ammonia, and methane ices, it is unclear how these organize themselves within the planets-as homogeneous mixtures, with continuous concentration gradients, or as well-separated layers of specific composition. While individual ices have been studied in great detail under pressure, the properties of their mixtures are much less explored. We show here, using first-principles calculations, that the 2:1 ammonia hydrate, (H 2 O)(NH 3 ) 2 , is stabilized at icy planet mantle conditions due to a remarkable structural evolution. Above 65 GPa, we predict it will transform from a hydrogen-bonded molecular solid into a fully ionic phase O 2- ([Formula: see text]) 2 , where all water molecules are completely deprotonated, an unexpected bonding phenomenon not seen before. Ammonia hemihydrate is stable in a sequence of ionic phases up to 500 GPa, pressures found deep within Neptune-like planets, and thus at higher pressures than any other ammonia-water mixture. This suggests it precipitates out of any ammonia-water mixture at sufficiently high pressures and thus forms an important component of icy planets.

  17. Fast responsive, optical trace level ammonia sensor for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Tobias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ammonia is a ubiquitous chemical substance which is created in technical and biological processes and harmful to many different organisms. One specific problem is the toxicity of ammonia in fish at levels of 25 μg/l - a very common issue in today’s aqua culture. In this study we report a development of a fast responsive, optical ammonia sensor for trace concentrations. Results Different hydrogels have been investigated as host polymers for a pH based sensing mechanism based on fluorescent dyes. A porous hydrophobic fluoropolymer membrane was used as an ion barrier cover layer to achieve a good ammonia permeability. The sensor’s sensitivity towards ammonia as well as crosssensitivity towards pH-value and salinity, and the temperature dependency have been determined. Two different methods to reference fluorescence signals have been employed to eliminate intensity-based measurement drawbacks. Conclusion The presented sensor features high sensitivity and a fast response even at concentrations near 1 ppb. No cross sensitivity towards pH and salinity could be observed and temperature dependency was determined as compensateable. Both referencing approaches prove themselves to be able to provide a simple use of the sensor for in-field applications.

  18. Impact of ammonia and sulphate concentration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, J A; Brekelmans, J; Martín, M A; Chica, A F; Martín, A

    2010-12-01

    The effect of increasing concentrations of ammonia and sulphate on thermophilic anaerobic digestion (52 degrees C) was studied at laboratory-scale. The substrate consisted of a synthetic solution supplemented with ammonia and sodium sulphate. In terms of biogas production, the results showed that the C/N and C/SO(4)(2-) thresholds were 4.40 and 1.60, respectively, corresponding to 620 mg FA (free ammonia)/L and 1400 mg SO(4)(2-)/L. No reduction in biogas production was observed until reaching the above concentration of sulphate in the sulphate toxicity test. However, when the concentration of ammonia was increased to 620 mg FA/L in the ammonia toxicity test, a gradual decrease of 21% was observed for the biogas. In order to characterise each set of experiments kinetically, a biogas production first-order kinetic model was used to fit the experimental data. The proposed model accurately predicted the behaviour of the microorganisms affecting the thermophilic anaerobic digestion, allowing its evolution to be predicted. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stabilization of ammonia-rich hydrate inside icy planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naden Robinson, Victor; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming; Hermann, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    The interior structure of the giant ice planets Uranus and Neptune, but also of newly discovered exoplanets, is loosely constrained, because limited observational data can be satisfied with various interior models. Although it is known that their mantles comprise large amounts of water, ammonia, and methane ices, it is unclear how these organize themselves within the planets—as homogeneous mixtures, with continuous concentration gradients, or as well-separated layers of specific composition. While individual ices have been studied in great detail under pressure, the properties of their mixtures are much less explored. We show here, using first-principles calculations, that the 2:1 ammonia hydrate, (H2O)(NH3)2, is stabilized at icy planet mantle conditions due to a remarkable structural evolution. Above 65 GPa, we predict it will transform from a hydrogen-bonded molecular solid into a fully ionic phase O2-(NH4+)2, where all water molecules are completely deprotonated, an unexpected bonding phenomenon not seen before. Ammonia hemihydrate is stable in a sequence of ionic phases up to 500 GPa, pressures found deep within Neptune-like planets, and thus at higher pressures than any other ammonia-water mixture. This suggests it precipitates out of any ammonia-water mixture at sufficiently high pressures and thus forms an important component of icy planets.

  20. Biochemical responses of two Erythrinidae fish to environmental ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moraes

    Full Text Available The non-ionized form of ammonia is very toxic to many aquatic species. It is especially important in several aspects of fish biology. A large range of organismal strategies for coping with environmental stressors is usually observed in living organisms. Among those, the responses for managing chemical stressors are well studied. The present work compares biochemical responses of two evolutionarily close species, Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, exposed to environmental ammonia. Adult fish were submitted to 1.0 mg/L of ammonium chloride for 24 hours, and plasma ammonia and urea levels were determined. The activities of OUC enzymes OCT and ARG, and the accessory enzyme GS, were quantified in liver extract and are expressed below in mumol/min/mg of wet tissue. Increases in OUC enzymes (GS from 1.14 to 2.43, OCT from 0.81 to 1.72, and ARG from 3.15 to 4.23, plasma ammonia (from 0.95 to 1.42 mmol/L, and plasma urea (from 0.82 to 1.53 mmol/L were observed (p < 0.05 in H. malabaricus exposed to 1 mg/L of ammonia chloride. The GS in H. unitaeniatus increased from 1.43 to 1.84, however the OCT, ARG, and plasma urea from H. unitaeniatus did not change. These data indicate that each species responds differently to the same environmental stressor.

  1. Ammonia nitrogen removal from aqueous solution by local agricultural wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azreen, I.; Lija, Y.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Excess ammonia nitrogen in the waterways causes serious distortion to environment such as eutrophication and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Ammonia nitrogen removal from synthetic solution was investigated by using 40 local agricultural wastes as potential low cost adsorbent. Some of the adsorbent were able to remove ammonia nitrogen with adsorption capacity ranging from 0.58 mg/g to 3.58 mg/g. The highest adsorption capacity was recorded by Langsat peels with 3.58 mg/g followed by Jackfruit seeds and Moringa peels with 3.37 mg/g and 2.64 mg/g respectively. This experimental results show that the agricultural wastes can be utilized as biosorbent for ammonia nitrogen removal. The effect of initial ammonia nitrogen concentration, pH and stirring rate on the adsorption process were studied in batch experiment. The adsorption capacity reached maximum value at pH 7 with initial concentration of 500 mg/L and the removal rate decreased as stirring rate was applied.

  2. Ammonia stress on the carbon metabolism of Ceratophyllum demersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingqing; Li, Linshuai; Hu, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Songfeng; Zhang, Ruiqin; Xiong, Zhiting

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, carefully controlled pH ranges (7 and 9) were used to distinguish between the effects of un-ionized NH3 and the NH4 (+) ion. The objective was to find the effect of different total ammonia nitrogen concentrations and pH values on the carbon metabolism of Ceratophyllum demersum. The authors investigated the effects of ammonia on the nonstructural carbohydrate content in shoots of C. demersum. Ammonia treatment decreased the contents of nonstructural carbohydrate, soluble sugar, sucrose, fructose, and starch in leaves. Meanwhile, increasing the pH value exacerbated the decline of the C. demersum nonstructural carbohydrate content. In addition, the activity of invertase was increased during the experiment. These results suggest that ammonia severely inhibits plant growth by disturbing nonstructural carbohydrate content. It has been suggested that ammonia has toxic effects on C. demersum and that the higher the pH in water, the more obvious the physiological responses that C. demersum exhibits. The results of the present study can provide some reference for studying the living conditions of submersed macrophytes under the stress of NH3. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. Addition of Urease Inhibitor Has No Effect on Ammonia Volatilization Following Soil Application of Poultry Litter or Organomineral Fertilizer, Unlike Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késia Silva Lourenço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quantification of ammonia volatilization after addition of animal residues and nitrogen (N mineral fertilizers to the soil is important for N management in fertilization programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a urease inhibitor to N fertilizers to minimize ammonia losses following soil application. The experiment was carried out in a laboratory with samples of a Brazilian Oxisol containing 790 g kg-1 clay and 23 g kg-1 organic matter. Treatments consisted of addition of poultry litter (PL, organic mineral fertilizer (OMF and urea to the soil, with and without the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT, plus a control with no fertilizer. We applied the fertilizers over the soil surface, with no soil incorporation, at a rate of 200 mg kg-1 N. Experimental units consisted of PVC tubes with a diameter of 0.15 m, containing 1.0 kg of soil (dry basis. Ammonia volatilization was measured for 56 days following fertilizer application to the soil using sponge discs impregnated with phosphoric acid and glycerin, which were fitted inside the tubes 0.15 m above the soil surface. Ammonia volatilization peaks varied according to the fertilizer, and most of them occurred in the first 15 days following application to the soil. Total ammonia volatilized from the soil treated with PL or OMF had no influence on the urease inhibitor, probably because the losses were small, attaining a maximum of 2.5 and 9 % of the total N applied, respectively. In the treatment that received urea, NBPT delayed the peak of volatilization by three weeks and decreased the loss of ammonia from 22 to 9 % of the N applied. Use of urease inhibitor does not always decrease ammonia volatilization, especially when mixed with fertilizers in which urea is not the only source of N.

  4. Dynamics of ammonia metabolism in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, J.S.; McDonald, J.M.; Reiman, R.E.; Gelbard, A.S.; Laughlin, J.S.; Duffy, T.E.; Plum, F.

    1977-01-01

    The cyclotron-produced radionuclide /sup 13/N, T/sub 1/2/ 10 min, was used to label NH/sub 3/ and study its metabolism in 5 normal subjects and 17 with liver disease, including 5 with portacaval shunts, and 11 with encephalopathy (HE). The arterial NH/sub 3/ levels were 100 +- 8 ..mu..M in the non-HE subjects and 149 +- 18 ..mu..M in those with HE, (P < 0.01). After an iv pulse of 10 mCi of carrier-free /sup 13/NH/sub 4/Cl, the rate of NH/sub 3/ clearance from the vascular compartment was a function of its arterial concentration: ..mu..mol/min = 4.71 (NH/sub 3/)/sub a/ + 3.76 (r = +0.85, P < 0.005). In all subjects, brain activity increased rapidly when the specific activity of arterial NH/sub 3/ was maximal, and plateaued at levels 5.1 times those due to an equivalent amount of blood, indicating rapid passage of NH/sub 3/ across the blood-brain barrier, followed by metabolic trapping. Quantitative body scans showed that 7.4 +- 0.3% of observed activity was trapped by the brain. The brain NH/sub 3/ utilization rate (BAUR), calculated from brain and blood activities, was a function of (NH/sub 3/)/sub a/: ..mu..mol/min = 0.32 (NH/sub 3/)/sub a/ + 1.8 (r = +0.93, P < 0.005). The BAUR was 34 +- 3 ..mu..mol/min in the non-HE subjects and 49 +- 6 in those with HE (P < 0.05). Assuming a normal cerebral blood flow and brain weight, 51 +- 4% of arterial NH/sub 3/ was extracted from the blood during a single pass through normal brains. Utilization was greatest in grey matter. Calculations show that NH/sub 3/ metabolism occurs in a compartment, perhaps in astrocytes, that contains less than 20% of all brain ammonia. Liver uptake (3 to 24%) was a function of its projected size on the scan. Skeletal muscle metabolized about 50% of the arterial NH/sub 3/ in normals, less in those with cachexia.

  5. Branched-chain amino acids increase arterial blood ammonia in spite of enhanced intrinsic muscle ammonia metabolism in patients with cirrhosis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2011-01-01

    metabolism of ammonia and amino acids in 14 patients with cirrhosis and in 7 healthy subjects by combining [(13)N]ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) of the thigh muscle with measurements of blood flow and arteriovenous (A-V) concentrations of ammonia and amino acids. PET was used to measure...... the metabolism of blood-supplied ammonia and the A-V measurements were used to measure the total ammonia metabolism across the thigh muscle. After intake of BCAA, blood ammonia increased more than 30% in both groups of subjects (both P PET) was unaffected (P...... = 0.75), but the metabolic removal rate (PET) increased significantly because of increased blood ammonia in both groups (all P

  6. The influence of gas-particle partitioning and surface-atmosphere exchange on ammonia during BAQS-Met

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Border Air Quality and Meteorology study (BAQS-Met was an intensive field campaign conducted in Southwestern Ontario during the summer of 2007. The focus of BAQS-Met was determining the causes of the formation of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5, and of the regional significance of trans-boundary transport and lake breeze circulations on that formation. Fast (1 Hz measurements of ammonia were acquired using a Quantum Cascade Laser Tunable Infrared Differential Absorption Spectrometer (QC-TILDAS at the Harrow supersite. Measurements of PM2.5 ammonium, sulfate and nitrate were made using an Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC with hourly time resolution. The median mixing ratio of ammonia was 2.5 ppb, with occasional high spikes at night resulting from local emissions. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions of NH3, diurnal profiles and gas-particle partitioning. The measurements were compared with results from A Unified Regional Air-quality Modelling System (AURAMS. While the fraction of total ammonia (NHx≡NH3 + NH4+ observed in the gas phase peaks between 0.1 and 0.8, AURAMS tended to predict fractions of either less than 0.05 or greater than 0.8. The model frequently predicted acidic aerosol, in contrast with observations wherein NHx almost always exceeded the observed equivalents of sulfate. One explanation for our observations is that the net flux of ammonia from the land surface to the atmosphere increases when aerosol sulfate is present, effectively buffering the mixing ratio of gas phase ammonia, a process not included in the model. A simple representation of an offline bi-directional flux parameterization using the ISORROPIA thermodynamic model was successful at reducing the population of zero gas fraction points, but not the higher gas fraction points.

  7. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  8. AMMONOX-Ammonia for enhancing biogas yield & reducing NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Kristensen, P.G.; Paamand, K.

    2013-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. However...... to be emphasized that apart the increased methane yield, the ammonia used can be recovered and recycled from the liquid manure resulting in no consumption of chemicals and actually in production of excess ammonia. AMMONOX is an innovative concept focusing on an integrated approach for sustainable and cost......-efficient energy production in the form of methane from manure. The three pillars of AMMONOX are a) the optimisation and application of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) as a moderate and sustainable chemical treatment for enhanced methane production from manure fibers and lignocellulosic biomasses, b) the application...

  9. Intensive Ammonia and Methane Oxidation in Organic Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and are known to accumulate nitrite and nitrate, indicating the presence of ammonia oxidizers (AOB). We have surveyed six manure tanks with organic covers to investigate the prevalence of MOB and AOB and to link the potential activity with physical and chemical aspects......Intensive agricultural practice leads to periodic accumulation of enormous amounts of liquid manure (slurry) from animal husbandry, and large quantities of environmentally hazardous ammonia and methane are emitted from the manure storages. Floating surface crusts have been suggested to harbour...... of the crusts. PCR targeting the unique methane and ammonia monooxygenases were applied together with FISH to detect the presence of the two bacterial groups. Potential activity was assessed by short term slurry incubations of crust samples while monitoring NO2- production or CH4 consumption. Crusts were...

  10. The Measuring Ammonia in Nature (MAN) network in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolkema, D. E.; Noordijk, H.; Stolk, A. P.; Hoogerbrugge, R.; van Zanten, M. C.; van Pul, W. A. J.

    2015-08-01

    Since 2005 the Measuring Ammonia in Nature (MAN) network monitors atmospheric ammonia concentrations in nature reserve areas in the Netherlands (http://man.rivm.nl). The main aim of the network is to monitor national trends, to assess regional deviations and to validate model calculations. Measurements are performed with commercial passive samplers, calibrated monthly against ammonia measurements of active sampling devices. The sampling is performed by an extensive group of local volunteers, which minimizes the cost and enables the use of local knowledge. We show the MAN network to be well capable of monitoring trends on national and local scales and providing data for more detailed local analyses. The quality of the network is such that trends over time for individual MAN areas can be detected on the order of 3 % per year for time series of 6-9 years.

  11. Predicting catalysis: Understanding ammonia synthesis from first-principles calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, A.; Baerends, E.J.; Biczysko, M.

    2006-01-01

    theory with or without tunneling corrections, and quantum dynamics) to a range of relevant elementary reaction steps, such as N(2) dissociation, H(2) dissociation, and hydrogenation of the intermediate reactants. A complete kinetic model based on the most relevant elementary steps can be established...... for any given point along an industrial reactor, and the kinetic results can be integrated over the catalyst bed to determine the industrial reactor yield. We find that, given the present uncertainties, the rate of ammonia production is well-determined directly from our atomic-scale calculations......Here, we give a full account of a large collaborative effort toward an atomic-scale understanding of modern industrial ammonia production over ruthenium catalysts. We show that overall rates of ammonia production can be determined by applying various levels of theory (including transition state...

  12. A low energy aqueous ammonia CO2 capture process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; Blaker, Eirik Ask

    2014-01-01

    with existing aqueous ammonia CO2 capture processes. Moreover, the thermal reactor can operate at 1 bar and 86 °C, therefore the NH3 regeneration temperature is reduced by approximately 50 qC. The integration of low- and mid- temperature waste heat becomes possible which can greatly improve the economics...... of the process. The present capture alternative is especially convenient for power plants but is also beneficial for the cement, steel and aluminum industry. Special attention is given to the ammonia slip prediction. The calculations substantiate that the slip above the absorber is 0.1 mol % after washing...... by increasing temperature and L/G ratio but this leads to higher heat consumption, jeopardizing the economic feasibility. Here we developed, investigated, and optimized a novel CO2 capture process design using aqueous ammonia as solvent. The proposed configuration replaces the traditional stripper for solvent...

  13. Chemical pathways for the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Pederson, L.R.

    1997-12-01

    This report reviews chemical reactions leading to the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes. The general features of the chemistry of the organic compounds in the Hanford wastes are briefly outlined. The radiolytic and thermal free radical reactions that are responsible for the initiation and propagation of the oxidative degradation reactions of the nitrogen-containing complexants, trisodium HEDTA and tetrasodium EDTA, are outlined. In addition, the roles played by three different ionic reaction pathways for the oxidation of the same compounds and their degradation products are described as a prelude to the discussion of the formation of ammonia. The reaction pathways postulated for its formation are based on tank observations, laboratory studies with simulated and actual wastes, and the review of the scientific literature. Ammonia derives from the reduction of nitrite ion (most important), from the conversion of organic nitrogen in the complexants and their degradation products, and from radiolytic reactions of nitrous oxide and nitrogen (least important).

  14. Ammonia synthesis. Ammonia synthesis by N₂ and steam electrolysis in molten hydroxide suspensions of nanoscale Fe₂O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Stuart; Cui, Baochen; Wang, Baohui; Li, Fang-Fang; Lau, Jason; Liu, Shuzhi

    2014-08-08

    The Haber-Bosch process to produce ammonia for fertilizer currently relies on carbon-intensive steam reforming of methane as a hydrogen source. We present an electrochemical pathway in which ammonia is produced by electrolysis of air and steam in a molten hydroxide suspension of nano-Fe2O3. At 200°C in an electrolyte with a molar ratio of 0.5 NaOH/0.5 KOH, ammonia is produced at 1.2 volts (V) under 2 milliamperes per centimeter squared (mA cm(-2)) of applied current at coulombic efficiency of 35% (35% of the applied current results in the six-electron conversion of N2 and water to ammonia, and excess H2 is cogenerated with the ammonia). At 250°C and 25 bar of steam pressure, the electrolysis voltage necessary for 2 mA cm(-2) current density decreased to 1.0 V. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Fiscalidad ambiental (curso 2011-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Maciá, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Tema fiscalidad ambiental. 1. Necesidad económica y jurídica de la protección del medio ambiente. 2. Características, naturaleza y clasificación de los tributos ambientales. 3. Competencias tributarias en el ámbito estatal, autonómico y local. 4. La fiscalidad ambiental en la legislación fiscal española. 5. Perspectivas de futuro en materia de imposición ambiental.

  16. Toxicity of ammonia to surf clam (Spisula solidissima) larvae in saltwater and sediment elutriates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, James A; Calesso, Diane F

    2011-04-01

    Ammonia is a natural component of sediments and has been identified as a common contributor to toxicity in marine sediment, elutriate and porewater testing. In our study, the role of ammonia as a possible toxicant in sediment toxicity tests was evaluated using larvae of the surf clam, Spisula solidissima. Elutriates were prepared and tested using six baseline sediment samples. Ammonia was then purged from aliquots of the baseline sediment samples prior to elutriate preparation. Finally, ammonia was spiked into aliquots of the purged elutriates to mimic ammonia concentrations measured in the baseline elutriates. Toxicity was present in all of the baseline samples and was removed in the ammonia purged samples. In most cases, toxicity was comparable in the ammonia spiked samples to levels measured in the baseline samples. Water only toxicity tests revealed that larvae of the surf clam are one of the more ammonia sensitive marine species. The LC50 for survival was 10.6 mg/L total ammonia (.53 mg/L unionized ammonia) and the EC50 for shell development was 2.35 mg/L total ammonia (.12 mg/L unionized ammonia). Toxicity endpoints calculated from the water only ammonia toxicity test were good predictors of effects observed in the sediment elutriate tests. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Electrochemically driven extraction and recovery of ammonia from human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Amanda K; Desloover, Joachim; Fennell, Donna E; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-12-15

    Human urine contains high concentrations of nitrogen, contributing about 75% of the nitrogen in municipal wastewaters yet only 1% of the volume. Source separation of urine produces an ideal waste stream for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery, reducing downstream costs of nutrient treatment at wastewater treatment facilities. We examined the efficiency and feasibility of ammonia extraction and recovery from synthetic and undiluted human urine using an electrochemical cell (EC). EC processing of synthetic urine produced an ammonium flux of 384 ± 8 g N m(-2) d(-1) with a 61 ± 1% current efficiency at an energy input of 12 kWh kg(-1) N removed. EC processing of real urine displayed similar performance, with an average ammonium flux of 275 ± 5 g N m(-2) d(-1) sustained over 10 days with 55 ± 1% current efficiency for ammonia and at an energy input of 13 kWh kg(-1) N removed. With the incorporation of an ammonia stripping and absorption unit into the real urine system, 57 ± 0.5% of the total nitrogen was recovered as ammonium sulfate. A system configuration additionally incorporating stripping of the influent headspace increased total nitrogen recovery to 79% but led to reduced performance of the EC as the urine ammonium concentration decrease. Direct stripping of ammonia (NH3) from urine with no chemical addition achieved only 12% total nitrogen recovery at hydraulic retention times comparable with the EC systems. Our results demonstrate that ammonia can be extracted via electrochemical means at reasonable energy inputs of approximately 12 kWh kg(-1) N. Considering also that the hydrogen generated is worth 4.3 kWh kg(-1) N, the net electrical input for extraction becomes approximately 8 kWh kg(-1) N if the hydrogen can be used. Critical for further development will be the inclusion of a passive means for ammonia stripping to reduce additional energy inputs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of hydrides by interaction of intermetallic compounds with ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Boris P., E-mail: tarasov@icp.ac.ru [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Fokin, Valentin N.; Fokina, Evelina E. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Yartys, Volodymyr A., E-mail: volodymyr.yartys@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller NO 2027 (Norway); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO 7491 (Norway)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Interaction of the intermetallics A{sub 2}B, AB, AB{sub 2}, AB{sub 5} and A{sub 2}B{sub 17} with NH{sub 3} was studied. • The mechanism of interaction of the alloys with ammonia is temperature-dependent. • Hydrides, hydridonitrides, disproportionation products or metal–N–H compounds are formed. • NH{sub 4}Cl was used as an activator of the reaction between ammonia and intermetallics. • Interaction with ammonia results in the synthesis of the nanopowders. - Abstract: Interaction of intermetallic compounds with ammonia was studied as a processing route to synthesize hydrides and hydridonitrides of intermetallic compounds having various stoichiometries and types of crystal structures, including A{sub 2}B, AB, AB{sub 2}, AB{sub 5} and A{sub 2}B{sub 17} (A = Mg, Ti, Zr, Sc, Nd, Sm; B = transition metals, including Fe, Co, Ni, Ti and nontransition elements, Al and B). In presence of NH{sub 4}Cl used as an activator of the reaction between ammonia and intermetallic alloys, their interaction proceeds at rather mild P–T conditions, at temperatures 100–200 °C and at pressures of 0.6–0.8 MPa. The mechanism of interaction of the alloys with ammonia appears to be temperature-dependent and, following a rise of the interaction temperature, it leads to the formation of interstitial hydrides; interstitial hydridonitrides; disproportionation products (binary hydride; new intermetallic hydrides and binary nitrides) or new metal–nitrogen–hydrogen compounds like magnesium amide Mg(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}. The interaction results in the synthesis of the nanopowders where hydrogen and nitrogen atoms become incorporated into the crystal lattices of the intermetallic alloys. The nitrogenated materials have the smallest particle size, down to 40 nm, and a specific surface area close to 20 m{sup 2}/g.

  19. [Characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Chen, Kun-Kun; Jiang, Guang-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Karst aquifers are one of the most important aquifers in Southwestern China. One of the characteristics of karst aquifers is the enhanced permeability permits high flow velocities are capable of transporting suspended and bedload sediments. Mobile sediment in karst may act as a vector for the transport of contaminates. 14 sediment samples were collected from two underground rivers in two typical karst areas in Liuzhou city, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China. According to simulated experiment methods, characteristic of adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on sediment was studied. The results of ammonia nitrogen adsorption dynamics on sediments showed that the maximum adsorption velocity was less than 2 h. The adsorption balance quantity in 5 h accounted for 71% - 98% of the maximum adsorption quantity. The maximum adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen was 385.5 mg/kg, which was sediment from a cave in the middle areas of Guancun underground river system. The study of isotherm adsorption indicated adsorption quantity of NH4+ increase followed by incremental balance concentration of NH4+ in the aquatic phase. Adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen in sediments has a relative linear relationship with adsorption balance concentrations. Adsorption-desorption balance concentrations were all low, indicating sediments from underground rivers have great adsorption potential. Under the condition of low and high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in overlying water, Langmuir and Tempkin couldn't simulate or simulate results couldn't reach remarkable level, whilst Linear and Freundlich models could simulate well. Research on different type sediments, sampling times and depths from two underground rivers shows characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments doesn't have good correspondence with the type of sediments. One of the reasons is there is no big difference between sediments in the development of climate, geology, hydrological conditions

  20. Atmospheric ammonia and particulate inorganic nitrogen over the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Heald

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We use in situ observations from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments (IMPROVE network, the Midwest Ammonia Monitoring Project, 11 surface site campaigns as well as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI satellite measurements with the GEOS-Chem model to investigate inorganic aerosol loading and atmospheric ammonia concentrations over the United States. IASI observations suggest that current ammonia emissions are underestimated in California and in the springtime in the Midwest. In California this underestimate likely drives the underestimate in nitrate formation in the GEOS-Chem model. However in the remaining continental United States we find that the nitrate simulation is biased high (normalized mean bias > = 1.0 year-round, except in Spring (due to the underestimate in ammonia in this season. None of the uncertainties in precursor emissions, the uptake efficiency of N2O5 on aerosols, OH concentrations, the reaction rate for the formation of nitric acid, or the dry deposition velocity of nitric acid are able to explain this bias. We find that reducing nitric acid concentrations to 75% of their simulated values corrects the bias in nitrate (as well as ammonium in the US. However the mechanism for this potential reduction is unclear and may be a combination of errors in chemistry, deposition and sub-grid near-surface gradients. This "updated" simulation reproduces PM and ammonia loading and captures the strong seasonal and spatial gradients in gas-particle partitioning across the United States. We estimate that nitrogen makes up 15−35% of inorganic fine PM mass over the US, and that this fraction is likely to increase in the coming decade, both with decreases in sulfur emissions and increases in ammonia emissions.

  1. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  2. Responsabilidades municipales en materia ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo reflexiona en torno a las responsabilidades que la Constitución política impone de manera exclusiva a los municipios y que por su naturaleza tienen efectos directos en el medio ambiente. Se alude aquí a los servicios de agua po ta ble, drenaje, saneamiento, tratamiento de aguas residuales, disposición de residuos sólidos, rastros, panteones y mercados. Ahora son los desafíos ambientales de la autoridad municipal, por lo que deben ser también sus prioridades. Si esos servicios no se atienden oportuna y técnicamente la población sufrirá, se deteriorará gravemente el medio ambiente y disminuirá la calidad de la vida de la comunidad.

  3. Tipologia para a contabilidade ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlhe Faride Chein Schekaiban

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo revê a visão, as propostas e o desenvolvimento da contabilidade ambiental, refletindo sobre suas implicações, com a finalidade de descobrir e encontrar sua importância e situação. Para se chegar a esse resultado foi preciso realizar uma revisão epistemológica moldada e processo reflexivo de sustentabilidade e da aproximação ao usuário, da percepção da realidade contábil no México e da gerência interna das organizações. As conclusões mostram a contabilidade ambiental no México fora da re-alidade operativa do modelo contábil regional, aumentando a importância de se criar uma cultura capaz de examinar o controle da missão deste tipo de contabilidade.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone. 2.1 Data Reporting and Handling Conventions... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data...

  5. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarcy Cortés Baracaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  6. Optimization of biomethanation focusing on high ammonia loaded processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han

    . Additionally, for comparison purposes, a soluble carbohydrate (i.e. glucose) was also used as a co-substrate in an identical CSTR reactor (RGLU). At 5 g NH4+-N·L-1, relative methane production of RGTO and RGLU, was 10.5% and 41% compared to the expected uninhibited production, respectively. At the same time...... and subsequently been converted together with carbon dioxide to methane by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, could potentially be more tolerant to ammonia toxicity. Therefore, the effect of different ammonia levels on this hydrogen assisted biogas upgrading process under different hydrogen partial pressure (0, 0.25, 0...

  7. Efficiency of deodorant materials for ammonia reduction in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Mizutani, Chiyomi; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study about the removability of ammonia gas in the air by activated carbon fiber (ACF) felt chemically treated with acid and a cotton fabric processed with iron phthalocyanine with copper (Cu) was performed in small-scale experiments. The test rig consisted of a heated plate and its...... proved activated carbon fiber felt with acid to be highly efficient in removing ammonia gas. Air temperature did not have profound effect on ACF performance. However, efficiency of the carbon fiber felt decreased when relative humidity was raised from 20 to 80%....

  8. Ammonia-oxidising Crenarchaeota: important players in the nitrogen cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Graeme W; Schleper, Christa

    2006-05-01

    Cultivation-independent molecular surveys show that members of the kingdom Crenarchaeota within the domain Archaea represent a substantial component of microbial communities in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Recently, metagenomic studies have revealed that such Crenarchaeota contain and express genes related to those of bacterial ammonia monooxygenases. Furthermore, a marine chemolithoautotrophic strain was isolated that uses ammonia as a sole energy source. Considering the ubiquity and abundance of Crenarchaeota, these findings considerably challenge the accepted view of the microbial communities involved in global nitrogen cycling. However, the quantitative contribution of Archaea to nitrification in marine and terrestrial environments still remains to be elucidated.

  9. Power cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as working fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorin, Eva

    2000-05-01

    It is of great interest to improve the efficiency of power generating processes, i.e. to convert more of the energy in the heat source to power. This is favorable from an environmental point of view and can also be an economic advantage. To use an ammonia-water mixture instead of water as working fluid is a possible way to improve the efficiency of steam turbine processes. This thesis includes studies of power cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as working fluid utilizing different kinds of heat sources for power and heat generation. The thermophysical properties of the mixture are also studied. They play an important role in the calculations of the process performance and for the design of its components, such as heat exchangers. The studies concern thermodynamic simulations of processes in applications suitable for Swedish conditions. Available correlations for the thermophysical properties are compared and their influence on simulations and heat exchanger area predictions is investigated. Measurements of ammonia-water mixture viscosities using a vibrating wire viscometer are also described. The studies performed show that power cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as the working fluid are well suited for utilization of waste heat from industry and from gas engines. The ammonia-water power cycles can give up to 32 % more power in the industrial waste heat application and up to 54 % more power in the gas engine bottoming cycle application compared to a conventional Rankine steam cycle. However, ammonia-water power cycles in small direct-fired biomass-fueled cogeneration plants do not show better performance than a conventional Rankine steam cycle. When different correlations for the thermodynamic properties are used in simulations of a simple ammonia-water power cycle the difference in efficiency is not larger than 4 %, corresponding to about 1.3 percentage points. The differences in saturation properties between the correlations are, however, considerable at high

  10. Characterization of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Kedar

    Emission of gases, odor, and particulate matters from livestock manure is a major concern because of their potential adverse environmental impacts. For example, ammonia in the air has the potential to: negatively affect animal, human health and environment. Mitigation of ammonia emissions from livestock manure to protect animal and human health, and the environment, in general, is thus an important agenda for livestock producers, engineers, and environmental scientists. Proper understanding of the mechanisms or process of its volatilization from manure is the first step towards designing or formulating appropriate emissions mitigation strategies. This research investigated the effects of suspended solids, anaerobic digestion, and ionic strength on the ammonia (NH3) volatilization mechanism from liquid dairy manure. Experiments were conducted to: (i) assess the role of suspended solids characteristics on ammonia volatilization, (ii) evaluate the impacts of anaerobic digestion on the process governing NH 3 volatilization, and (iii) delineate the influences of suspended solids (SS) and ionic strength (IS) on the ammonia volatilization process from dairy manure. Two key parameters (the ammonia dissociation and the overall mass transfer coefficient (KoL)) that govern ammonia volatilization were evaluated to achieve these objectives. The physical and chemical properties of manure were also evaluated to further elucidate the respective processes. The suspended solids ammoniacal nitrogen adsorption properties did not significantly affect either the ammonium dissociation or the K oL; suggesting that the characteristics of manure suspended solids did not play a significant role in ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure. The dissociation of ammonium in anaerobically digested (AD) manure was significantly higher than in the undigested (UD) manure. However, KoL was less in AD manure than in UD manure, while an increase in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was observed

  11. Estrategia para la sustentabilidad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Erbiti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de los postulados conceptuales y metodológicos de la planificación estratégica y de sustentabilidad ambiental, el objetivo de esta investigación es describir el proceso de formulación del Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial del Municipio de Tandil (POTM y analizar su potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad ambiental del sistema. Los resultados de la misma muestran que el POTM no sólo prioriza principios, objetivos y estrategias que materializan las diferentes manifestaciones de la sustentabilidad (económica, social, ecológica y política, sino que la totalidad del Plan se fundamenta en el concepto de desarrollo sostenible y, con ello, se establecen prioridades de actuación que posibilitarán la gestión ambiental urbana. Si bien el POTM muestra una gran potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad del territorio, la implementación y cumplimiento del mismo constituye un fuerte desafío para las autoridades de aplicación.

  12. Ammonia transport across the skin of adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Brauner, Colin J; Wood, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    Recent molecular evidence points towards a capacity for ammonia transport across the skin of adult rainbow trout. A series of in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to understand the role of cutaneous ammonia excretion (J amm) under control conditions and after 12-h pre-exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA; 2 mmol/l NH4HCO3). Divided chamber experiments with bladder-catheterized, rectally ligated fish under light anesthesia were performed to separate cutaneous J amm from branchial, renal, and intestinal J amm. Under control conditions, cutaneous J amm accounted for 4.5 % of total J amm in vivo. In fish pre-exposed to HEA, plasma total ammonia concentration increased 20-fold to approximately 1,000 μmol/l, branchial J amm increased 1.5- to 2.7-fold, and urinary J amm increased about 7-fold. Urinary J amm still accounted for less than 2 % of total J amm. Cutaneous J amm increased 4-fold yet amounted to only 5.7 % of total J amm in these fish. Genes (Rhcg1, Rhcg2, Rhbg, NHE-2, v-type H(+)-ATPase) known to be involved in ammonia excretion at the gills of trout were all expressed at the mRNA level in the skin, but their expression did not increase with HEA pre-exposure. In vitro analyses using [(14)C] methylamine (MA), an ammonia analog which is transported by Rh proteins, demonstrated that MA permeability in isolated skin sections was higher in HEA pre-exposed fish than in control fish. The addition of basolateral ammonia (1,000 μmol/l) to this system abolished this increase in permeability, suggesting ammonia competition with MA for Rh-mediated transport across the skin of HEA pre-exposed trout; this did not occur in skin sections from control trout. Moreover, in vitro J amm by the skin of fish which had been pre-exposed to HEA was also higher than in control fish in the absence of basolateral ammonia, pointing towards a possible cutaneous ammonia loading in response to HEA. In vitro MA permeability was reduced upon the addition of amiloride (10

  13. Neutron diffraction and gravimetric study of the iron nitriding reaction under ammonia decomposition conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thomas J; Makepeace, Joshua W; David, William I F

    2017-10-18

    Ammonia decomposition over iron catalysts is known to be affected by whether the iron exists in elemental form or as a nitride. In situ neutron diffraction studies with simultaneous gravimetric analysis were performed on the nitriding and denitriding reactions of iron under ammonia decomposition conditions. The gravimetric analysis agrees well with the Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data, both of which confirm that the form of the iron catalyst is strongly dependent on ammonia decomposition conditions. Use of ammonia with natural isotopic abundance as the nitriding agent means that the incoherent neutron scattering of any hydrogen within the gases present is able to be correlated to how much ammonia had decomposed. This novel analysis reveals that the nitriding of the iron occurred at exactly the same temperature as ammonia decomposition started. The iron nitriding and denitriding reactions are shown to be related to steps that take place during ammonia decomposition and the optimum conditions for ammonia decomposition over iron catalysts are discussed.

  14. Raw Water Ammonia: Implications on Water Quality, Regulatory Compliance, and Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the talk will be to present engineering design considerations associated with the biological reduction of ammonia from source water. Also, the application of ion exchange softening to address elevated ammonia is presented.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM MECHANICALLY VENTILATED POULTRY HOUSES USING MULTIPATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia emissions from mechanically ventilated poultry operations are an important environmental concern. Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy has emerged as a robust real-time method for gas phase measurement of ammonia concentrations in agricultural settings. ...

  16. Comparing environmental impact of air scrubbers for ammonia abatement at pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Jerke W.; Melse, Roland W.

    2017-01-01

    Intensive livestock production involves environmental emissions and impacts, including emission of greenhouse gases and ammonia leading to climate change and terrestrial acidification. Ammonia emission from animal housing systems can be reduced by introducing air scrubbers for cleaning the

  17. Perspectivas del medio ambiente urbano: GEO Chiclayo

    OpenAIRE

    Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente - PNUMA; Perú. Consejo Nacional del Ambiente; Gobierno Provincial de Chiclayo

    2008-01-01

    El Centro de Documentación Ambiental (CDAM) posee la versión impresa, con código: 363.7085-P87CH Incluye tríptico informativo Se ha elaborado a partir de un proceso participativo que han incorporado puntos de vista y percepciones acerca de la gestión ambiental en la ciudad de Chiclayo, el estado del medio ambiente, los niveles de impacto ambiental, las políticas, planes y proyectos ambientales y las perspectivas futuras. [204 p]. Biblioteca Ambiental

  18. Mitigating ammonia emission from agriculture reduces PM2.5 pollution in the Hai River Basin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z Q; Bai, Z H; Winiwarter, W; Kiesewetter, G; Heyes, C; Ma, L

    2017-12-31

    The Hai River Basin (HRB), one of the most populated areas in China, is experiencing high NH3 emissions, mostly from agricultural sources, and suffering from strongly enhanced PM2.5 concentrations in all urban areas. Further population growth and urbanization projected until 2030 may exacerbate this situation. Here, the NUFER (NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use) and GAINS (Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) models have been coupled for the first time to understand possible changes of agricultural NH3 emission between 2012 and 2030 and their impacts on ambient PM2.5 concentrations, and to explore options to improve this situation. Results show that agricultural ammonia emissions in the HRB were 1179kt NH3 in 2012, 45% of which was from the hotspots at or near conurbation areas, including Beijing-Tianjin, Tangshan-Qinhuangdao, Shijiazhuang-Baoding, Dezhou, Handan-Liaocheng, and Xinxiang. Without intervention, agricultural ammonia emissions will further increase by 33% by 2030. The impacts of several scenarios were tested with respect to air pollution. Compared to the business-as-usual scenario, a scenario of improved technology and management combined with human diet optimization could greatly reduce emission (by 60%), and lead to 22-43% and 9-24% decrease of the secondary inorganic aerosols and PM2.5 concentrations, respectively, in the hotspots of NH3 emissions. Our results further confirmed that ammonia control is needed for air pollution abatement strategies (SO2, NOx and primary PM reduction) to be effective in terms of PM2.5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermodynamics of formation reaction and hydrometallurgical application of metal-ammonia complexes in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, V. E.; Pashkov, G. L.; Stupko, T. V.

    1992-09-01

    Critically selected activity coefficients of individual ions stepwise stability constants, and enthalpy and entropy changes during formation of metal-ammonia complexes in aqueous salt solutions are summarised and analysed. Special attention is paid to the specifics of ammonia complexation in solutions with high ammonia concentrations (>=1 mol dm-3), which are of interest in hydrometallurgy. Certain problems and prospects for use of metal-ammonia complexation in hydrometallurgy are discussed. The bibliography includes 154 references.

  20. Recovery of gold from solutions with ammonia and thiosulfate using activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    de Vargas, C.; Navarro, Patricio; Araya, Eyleen; Pávez, F.; Alguacil, Francisco José

    2006-01-01

    The recovery of gold from solutions containing thiosulfate and ammonia using granular activated carbon was studied, evaluating the adsorption and elution stages. The influence of ammonia and thiosulfate concentration and the presence of impurities such as copper and zinc were also evaluated. In the presence of ammonia there was a concentration which maximized the adsorption of gold, while thiosulfate and impurities presence was harmful for the adsorption of gold. During elution, ammonia and t...

  1. Evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Sorbents and Catalysts for Control of Ammonia and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Bernadette; Somi, George; Winchester, J. Parker; Grose, Jeffrey; Mulloth, Lila; Perry, Jay L.

    2013-01-01

    Designers of future space vehicles envision simplifying the Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) system by combining the functions of trace contaminant (TC) control and carbon dioxide removal into one swing-bed system. Flow rates and bed sizes of the TC and CO2 systems have historically been very different. There is uncertainty about the ability of trace contaminant sorbents to adsorb adequately in high-flow or short bed length configurations, and to desorb adequately during short vacuum exposures. There is also concern about ambient ammonia levels in the absence of a condensing heat exchanger. In addition, new materials and formulations have become commercially available, formulations never evaluated by NASA for purposes of trace contaminant control. The optimal air revitalization system for future missions may incorporate a swing-bed system for carbon dioxide (CO2) and partial trace contaminant control, with a reduced-size, low-power, targeted trace contaminant system supplying the remaining contaminant removal capability. This paper describes the results of a comparative experimental investigation into materials for trace contaminant control that might be part of such a system. Ammonia sorbents and low temperature carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation catalysts are the foci. The data will be useful to designers of AR systems for future flexible path missions. This is a continuation of work presented in a prior year, with extended test results.

  2. Catalytic Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane by Cobalt Nickel Nanoparticles Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Hydrogen Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Well dispersed magnetically recyclable bimetallic CoNi nanoparticles (NPs supported on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO were synthesized by one-step in situ coreduction of aqueous solution of cobalt(II chloride, nickel (II chloride, and graphite oxide (GO with ammonia borane (AB as the reducing agent under ambient condition. The CoNi/RGO NPs exhibits excellent catalytic activity with a total turnover frequency (TOF value of 19.54 mol H2 mol catalyst−1 min−1 and a low activation energy value of 39.89 kJ mol−1 at room temperature. Additionally, the RGO supported CoNi NPs exhibit much higher catalytic activity than the monometallic and RGO-free CoNi counterparts. Moreover, the as-prepared catalysts exert satisfying durable stability and magnetically recyclability for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB, which make the practical reusing application of the catalysts more convenient. The usage of the low-cost, easy-getting catalyst to realize the production of hydrogen under mild condition gives more confidence for the application of ammonia borane as a hydrogen storage material. Hence, this general method indicates that AB can be used as both a potential hydrogen storage material and an efficient reducing agent, and can be easily extended to facile preparation of other RGO-based metallic systems.

  3. Photoprompted Hot Electrons from Bulk Cross-Linked Graphene Materials and Their Efficient Catalysis for Atmospheric Ammonia Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhong; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Tengfei; Ge, Zhen; Chang, Huicong; Xiao, Peishuang; Xie, Yuanyuan; Hua, Lei; Li, Qingyun; Li, Haiyang; Ma, Bo; Guan, Naijia; Ma, Yanfeng; Chen, Yongsheng

    2016-11-22

    Ammonia synthesis is the single most important chemical process in industry and has used the successful heterogeneous Haber-Bosch catalyst for over 100 years and requires processing under both high temperature (300-500 °C) and pressure (200-300 atm); thus, it has huge energy costs accounting for about 1-3% of human's energy consumption. Therefore, there has been a long and vigorous exploration to find a milder alternative process. Here, we demonstrate that by using an iron- and graphene-based catalyst, Fe@3DGraphene, hot (ejected) electrons from this composite catalyst induced by visible light in a wide range of wavelength up to red could efficiently facilitate the activation of N2 and generate ammonia with H2 directly at ambient pressure using light (including simulated sun light) illumination directly. No external voltage or electrochemical or any other agent is needed. The production rate increases with increasing light frequency under the same power and with increasing power under the same frequency. The mechanism is confirmed by the detection of the intermediate N2H4 and also with a measured apparent activation energy only ∼1/4 of the iron based Haber-Bosch catalyst. Combined with the morphology control using alumina as the structural promoter, the catalyst retains its activity in a 50 h test.

  4. Interactions between archaeal ammonia oxidizers, Nitrospira and methanotrophs modulate autotrophic nitrification in volcanic grasslands soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daebeler, A.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Yan, Z; Hefting, Mariet|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/256197628; Laanbroek, Riks|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070378282

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium/ammonia is the sole energy substrate of ammonia oxidizers, and is also an essential nitrogen source for other microorganisms. Ammonia oxidizers therefore must compete with other soil microorganisms such as methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in terrestrial ecosystems when ammonium

  5. Lactate and ammonia concentration in blood and sweat during incremental cycle ergometer exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Mook, GA; Gips, CH; Verkerke, GJ

    It is known that the concentrations of ammonia and lactate in blood increase during incremental exercise. Sweat also contains lactate and ammonia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological response of lactate and ammonia in plasma and sweat during a stepwise incremental cycle

  6. Effect of aerial ammonia on porcine infection of the respiratory tract with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Bækbo, P.; Nielsen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the experimental study was to examine whether aerial ammonia alone could predispose the respiratory system of pigs to infection with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida type A. Two groups of 5 pigs each were continuously exposed to 50 ppm ammonia and less than 5 ppm ammonia...

  7. Effect of ammonia on the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose and tributyrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos Fernandes, T.; Keesman, K.J.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia nitrogen is one of the most common inhibitors in the anaerobic digestion of complex wastes containing high concentrations of ammonia like animal manures, blackwater and waste oil from gastronomy. The inhibiting effect of ammonia on methanogenesis has been well established. In contrast, the

  8. Investigation into ammonia stress on Cyperus alternifolius and its impact on nutrient removal in microcosm experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wendong; Han, Jianqiu; Li, Hanyan

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia stress on plants has been investigated at discrete ammonia concentrations in constructed wetlands. This study introduced a Gaussian model to simulate the kinetics of ammonia stress and investigated reversible and irreversible ammonia stress on Cyperus alternifolius in wetland-like microcosms. Ammonia stress on plant weight increase and oxygen release potential started at weekly ammonia concentrations of 27 and 28 mg N/L, reached 50% inhibition at 178 and 158 mg N/L, and resulted in lethal effects at 311 and 303 mg N/L, respectively. The stress of one-time ammonia concentrations up to 400 mg N/L could be reversible. Ammonia concentrations constantly above 219 mg N/L exerted irreversible stress. In the microcosms with ammonia concentrations above the 50% inhibition levels, plants played a minor role in nitrogen removal. Nitrogen removal performance was not affected considerably by ammonia stress. Orthophosphate removal was suppressed by ammonia stress due to less plant uptake. Design and operation of constructed wetlands should consider wastewater ammonia concentration so that the integrity of constructed wetland ecosystems can be maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Geographic Distribution of Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizing Ecotypes in the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sintes, E.; De Corte, D.; Haberleitner, E.; Herndl, G.

    2016-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, Thaumarchaeota are most likely the major ammonia oxidizers. While ammonia concentrations vary by about two orders of magnitude in the oceanic water column, archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA) vary by only one order of magnitude from surface to bathypelagic waters. Thus, the

  10. Evaluation of the potential for significant ammonia releases from Hanford waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, B.J.; Anderson, C.M.; Chen, G.; Cuta, J.M.; Ferryman, T.A.; Terrones, G.

    1996-07-01

    Ammonia is ubiquitous as a component of the waste stored in the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). Because ammonia is both flammable and toxic, concerns have been raised about the amount of ammonia stored in the tanks and the possible mechanisms by which it could be released from the waste into the head space inside the tanks as well as into the surrounding atmosphere. Ammonia is a safety issue for three reasons. As already mentioned, ammonia is a flammable gas and may contribute to a flammability hazard either directly, if it reaches a high enough concentration in the tank head space, or by contributing to the flammability of other flammable gases such as hydrogen (LANL 1994). Ammonia is also toxic and at relatively low concentrations presents a hazard to human health. The level at which ammonia is considered Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) is 300 ppm (WHC 1993, 1995). Ammonia concentrations at or above this level have been measured inside the head space in a number of SSTs. Finally, unlike hydrogen and nitrous oxide, ammonia is highly soluble in aqueous solutions, and large amounts of ammonia can be stored in the waste as dissolved gas. Because of its high solubility, ammonia behaves in a qualitatively different manner from hydrogen or other insoluble gases. A broader range of scenarios must be considered in modeling ammonia storage and release.

  11. Effect of ammonia in cigarette tobacco on nicotine absorption in human smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, van J.; Sleijffers, A.; Spiegel, van P.; Blom, R.; Witte, M.; Kassteele, van de J.; Blokland, M.H.; Steerenberg, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    The function of ammonia as tobacco additive is subject of scientific debate. It is argued that ammonia, by increasing the proportion of free nicotine, increases the absorption of nicotine in smokers. As a result of the addition of ammonia to cigarettes, smokers get exposed to higher internal

  12. Substrate and nutrient limitation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in temperate forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Norman; J.E. Barrett

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing microbes control the rate-limiting step of nitrification, a critical ecosystem process, which affects retention and mobility of nitrogen in soil ecosystems. This study investigated substrate (NH4þ) and nutrient (K and P) limitation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in temperate forest soils at Coweeta Hydrologic...

  13. Abatement of ammonia emissions from digested manure using gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new strategy to avoid ammonia emissions from anaerobically digested swine manure was tested using the gas-permeable membrane process. Evaluation of the efficiency of ammonia recovery from digestate as well as mitigation of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere were carried out. Digestate was colle...

  14. Ammonia emission from excreta of growing-finishing pigs as affected by dietary composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.

    1998-01-01

    Ammonia, volatilised from pig slurry decreases manure's fertiliser value. Furthermore, the deposition of ammonia emitted into the atmosphere may cause undesirable changes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. At present, there is increasing interest in nutritional means to reduce ammonia

  15. Macroecological patterns of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sintes, E.; Ouillon, N.; Herndl, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Macroecological patterns are found in animals and plants, but also in micro-organisms.Macroecological and biogeographic distribution patterns in marine Archaea, however,have not been studied yet. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) show a bipolar distribution(i.e. similar communities in the northernmost

  16. A comparative kinetic study of SNCR process using ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tayyeb Javed

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents comparative kinetic modelling of nitrogen oxides (NOx removal from flue gases by selective non-catalytic reduction process using ammonia as reducing agent. The computer code SENKIN is used in this study with the three published chemical kinetic mechanisms; Zanoelo, Kilpinen and Skreiberg. Kinetic modeling was performed for an isothermal plug flow reactor at atmospheric pressure so as to compare it with the experimental results. A 500 ppm NOx background in the flue gas is considered and kept constant throughout the investigation. The ammonia performance was modeled in the range of 750 to 1250 ºC using the molar ratios NH3/NOx from 0.25 to 3.0 and residence times up to 1.5 seconds. The modeling using all the mechanisms exhibits and confirms a temperature window of NOx reduction with ammonia. It was observed that 80% of NOx reduction efficiency could be achieved if the flue gas is given 300 msec to react with ammonia, while it is passing through a section within a temperature range of 910 to 1060 ºC (Kilpinen mechanism or within a temperature range of 925 to 1030 ºC (Zanoelo mechanism or within a temperature range of 890 to 1090 ºC (Skreiberg mechanism.

  17. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  18. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Swine Manure Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yue; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Gerber, Pierre J.; Xin, Hongwei; Smith, Pete; Opio, Carolyn; Steinfeld, Henning; Chadwick, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from animal manure are considerable contributor to global ammonia (NH3) and agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the demand to promote mitigation of GHGs while fostering sustainable development of the Paris Agreement, an improvement of management systems

  19. Effects of Copper Exchange Levels on Complexation of Ammonia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    complex is [Cu(Ozeo)2(NH3)2]2+ and it is strongly bound to the zeolite framework walls at single four ring sites (site III). Above five ... electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), with the intention completely to elucidate the siting-coordination of copper– ammonia interactions in the zeolite matrix. The combined EPR,. DRS and ...

  20. REGENERATION OF AMMONIA SOLUTION FOR CO2 CAPTURE IN POSTCOMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROL TORO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated enthalpy of solutions and solubility for a NH3/CO2 system. Measurements were performed in a thermoregulated Lewis-type cell reactor, temperatures ranging from 278 to 303 K and mass concentrations from 2 wt% to 5 wt%. Enthalpies of solution of CO2 and solubility have been obtained as function of loading, α (moles CO2/mol NH3. Results show that ammonia solutions concentrations of 3 and 5 wt% promote the formation of ammonium bicarbonate. Beside, ammonia concentration of 2 wt% promotes the formation of ammonium carbonate. Therefore, to use ammonia concentrations of 3 and 5 wt% need less energy that a concentration of 2 wt% to reverse the reaction. Regeneration system was simulated using Aspen plus™ software for a pulverised coal fired power plant (CF in a post-combustion process. Model analysis established that NH3 heat duty is lower than MEA and MDEA ones. The energy consumption reaches 2.83 GJ•t-1 CO2. Regarding heat duty and ammonia losses, 3 wt% NH3 is the suitable concentration to capture CO2.

  1. Purging energy costs. [Energy savings in ammonia refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitwell, Ian (Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    1992-09-01

    Energy savings of over Pound 8,000 per year have been achieved by Exel Logistics, which has installed a five-point automatic purger to the evaporative condenser and receiver of the ammonia refrigeration system at its Glasgow service depot. The main features of the system are described in this article. (Author).

  2. Effect of ammonia stress on nitrogen metabolism of Ceratophyllum demersum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Jingqing; Li, Linshuai; Hu, Zhiyuan; Yue, H.; Zhang, Ruiqin; Xiong, Zhiting

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of total ammonia N concentration and pH on N metabolism of Ceratophyllum demersum and to evaluate stress as a result of inorganic N enrichment in the water column on submerged macrophytes. Carefully controlled pH values distinguished

  3. The spectroscopy of high Rydberg states of ammonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, R.A.; Langford, S.R.; Orr-Ewing, A.J.; Western, C.M.; Ashfold, M.N.R.; Buma, W.J.; Rijkenberg, A.; de Lange, C.A.; Scheper, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper extends our knowledge of the higher excited states of the ammonia molecule by presenting detailed measurements of the 2 + 1 resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectrum of both NH3 and ND3 obtained following excitation in the wavelength range 298-242 nm, i.e., at energies up

  4. Ammonia dynamics in magnesium ammine from DFT and neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tekin, Adem; Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Jacobsen, Hjalte Sylvest

    2010-01-01

    Energy storage in the form of ammonia bound in metal salts, so-called metal ammines, combines high energy density with the possibility of fast and reversible NH3 ab- and desorption kinetics. The mechanisms and processes involved in the NH3 kinetics are investigated by density functional theory (D...

  5. Stabilizing specimens for routine ammonia testing in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Jessica L; Nguyen, William N T; de Koning, Lawrence; Seiden-Long, Isolde

    2017-12-16

    In vitro deamination generates ammonia in freshly collected blood specimens. To prevent this, samples for ammonia testing are usually collected on ice and run rapidly (e.g., within 1h). We developed a method to stabilize specimens for ammonia analysis. Following plasma separation, 500μmol/l cycloserine or a combination of 2mmol/l sodium borate with 5mmol/l l-serine were added to sample pools with normal or increased concentrations of ALT and/or GGT to inhibit deamination; and/or residual platelets were removed via centrifugation. Sample pools were then incubated at room temperature or 4°C. Untreated sample pools were also incubated at -80°C. Ammonia was measured at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24h. When incubated at 4°C without treatment, sample pools with enzymes within their reference limit had an increase of 0.5μmol/l/h, whereas sample pools with ALT and/or GGT activity above their upper reference limit had an increase of 3.6μmol/l/h (p12h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Renal Regulation of Acid-Base Balance: Ammonia Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, George A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment which demonstrates changes in ammonia excretion and urine pH that occur in response to metabolic acidosis (induced by ammonium chloride ingestion) or metabolic alkalosis (produced by sodium bicarbonate ingestion). List of materials needed and background information are included. Typical results are provided and discussed.…

  7. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: A model for molecular microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Stephen, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The eutrophication of many ecosystems in recent decades has led to an increased interest in the ecology of nitrogen transformation. Chemolitho-autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are responsible for the rate-limiting step of nitrification in a wide variety of environments, making them important

  8. Altitude Acclimatization Attentuates Plasma Ammonia during Submaximal Exercise,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    citrulline synthesis in rat liver mitochondria : The effect of ammonia and energy. Int. J. Biochem. 10:235-239, 1979. 14 9. Buono, M.J., T.R. Clancy, and J.R...Mole, P.A., L.B. Oscal, and J.0. Holloszy. Adaptation of muscle to exercise. Increase in levels of palmityl CoA synthetase, carnitine

  9. Predicting catalysis: understanding ammonia synthesis from first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, A; Baerends, E J; Biczysko, M; Bligaard, T; Christensen, C H; Clary, D C; Dahl, S; van Harrevelt, R; Honkala, K; Jonsson, H; Kroes, G J; Luppi, M; Manthe, U; Nørskov, J K; Olsen, R A; Rossmeisl, J; Skúlason, E; Tautermann, C S; Varandas, A J C; Vincent, J K

    2006-09-14

    Here, we give a full account of a large collaborative effort toward an atomic-scale understanding of modern industrial ammonia production over ruthenium catalysts. We show that overall rates of ammonia production can be determined by applying various levels of theory (including transition state theory with or without tunneling corrections, and quantum dynamics) to a range of relevant elementary reaction steps, such as N(2) dissociation, H(2) dissociation, and hydrogenation of the intermediate reactants. A complete kinetic model based on the most relevant elementary steps can be established for any given point along an industrial reactor, and the kinetic results can be integrated over the catalyst bed to determine the industrial reactor yield. We find that, given the present uncertainties, the rate of ammonia production is well-determined directly from our atomic-scale calculations. Furthermore, our studies provide new insight into several related fields, for instance, gas-phase and electrochemical ammonia synthesis. The success of predicting the outcome of a catalytic reaction from first-principles calculations supports our point of view that, in the future, theory will be a fully integrated tool in the search for the next generation of catalysts.

  10. The effect of ammonia intercalation on the superconducting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A theoretical investigation of the electronic properties of the relatively high-Tc alkali-metal doped superconducting fullerides when they are further exposed to ammonia molecules as dopants is presented. Our numerical method relies on a group theoretical technique for the formation of molecular orbitals (MO's) for the solid ...

  11. Compost biofiltration of ammonia gas from bin composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J H; Park, K J

    2005-04-01

    The effects of the manure compost/coconut peels on the ammonia removal efficiency were examined from dairy manure composting mixed with crop residues. The high rapid composting and manure compost biofiltration experiments consisted of three biofilter vessels with one composter. Dairy manure amended with rice hulls and sawdust was composted in 605 L pilot-scale composter using continuous aeration for 19 days. Three pilot-scale manure compost biofilter amended with media bed 500 mm in depth and 300 mm in diameter were built to clean ammonia emission from composter, respectively. The manure compost biofilter media in the three experimental vessels was using a 50:50 by weight mixture of manure compost and coconut peels (MC/CP). The ammonia concentrations at the inlet and outlet biofilter media were measured by boric acid traps as described by Hong et al. [Hong, J.H., Keener, H.M., Elwell, D.L., 1998. Preliminary study of the effect of continuous and intermittent aeration on composting hog manure amended with sawdust. Compost Science and Utilization 6 (3), 74-88]. Results indicated that the mixture of MC/CP performed well as a biofilter media and the ammonia removal efficiency was 100% for the filter depth of 500 mm.

  12. Radon and ammonia transects across the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semprini, L.; Kruger, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radon and ammonia transects, conducted at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, involve measurement of concentration gradients at wells along lines of structural significance in the reservoir. Analysis of four transects showed radon concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 3.60 nCi/kg and ammonia concentrations from 17.6 to 59.3 mg/l. The data showed the lower concentrations in wells of lowest enthalpy fluid and the higher concentrations in wells of highest enthalpy fluid. Linear correlation analysis of the radon-enthalpy data indicated a strong relationship, with a marked influence by the two-phase conditions of the produced fluid. It appears that after phase separation in the reservoir, radon achieves radioactive equilibrium between fluid and rock, suggesting that the phase separation occurs well within the reservoir. A two-phase mixing model based on radon-enthalpy relations allows estimation of the fluid phase temperatures in the reservoir. Correlations of ammonia concentration with fluid enthalpy suggests an equilibrium partitioning model in which enrichment of ammonia correlates with higher enthalpy vapor.

  13. Litter ammonia losses amplified by higher air flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Broiler litter utilization has largely been associated with land application as fertilizer. Reducing ammonia (NH3) released from litter enhances its fertilizer value and negates detrimental impacts to the environment. A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effect of air flow var...

  14. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  15. Exceptional ammonia uptake by a covalent organic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Christian J.; Tranchemontagne, David J.; Glover, T. Grant; Hunt, Joseph R.; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2010-03-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are porous crystalline materials composed of light elements linked by strong covalent bonds. A number of these materials contain a high density of Lewis acid boron sites that can strongly interact with Lewis basic guests, which makes them ideal for the storage of corrosive chemicals such as ammonia. We found that a member of the covalent organic framework family, COF-10, shows the highest uptake capacity (15 mol kg-1, 298 K, 1 bar) of any porous material, including microporous 13X zeolite (9 mol kg-1), Amberlyst 15 (11 mol kg-1) and mesoporous silica, MCM-41 (7.9 mol kg-1). Notably, ammonia can be removed from the pores of COF-10 by heating samples at 200 °C under vacuum. In addition, repeated adsorption of ammonia into COF-10 causes a shift in the interlayer packing, which reduces its apparent surface area to nitrogen. However, owing to the strong Lewis acid-base interactions, the total uptake capacity of ammonia and the structural integrity of the COF are maintained after several cycles of adsorption/desorption.

  16. Nitrate to ammonia ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caime, W.J.; Hoeffner, S.L. [RUST - Clemson Technical Center, Anderson, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites such as the Hanford site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. A process to reduce the nitrates to ammonia has been developed at ORNL. This technology creates a sludge lower in nitrates. This report describes stabilization possibilities of the sludge.

  17. How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Jan Willem; Sutton, Mark A.; Galloway, James; Klimont, Zbigniew; Winiwarter, Wilfried

    2008-10-01

    On 13 October 1908, Fritz Haber filed his patent on the ``synthesis of ammonia from its elements'' for which he was later awarded the 1918 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. A hundred years on we live in a world transformed by and highly dependent upon Haber-Bosch nitrogen.

  18. Hydrogen ion (Ph), ammonia, dissolved oxygen and nitrite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogen ion (pH), dissolved oxygen, ammonia and nitrite concentrations were studied monthly in two systems (re-circulatory and semi-intensive of 3 m2 sizes) each for six months. The systems were each stocked with 200 g of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Results showed that all parameters were within acceptable limits ...

  19. concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia concentration on in situ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roffler, 1975; Roffler et al., 1976) for maximum microbial protein synthesis. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in rumen fluid were not affected by rumen ammonia concentration (P,> 0.05), but the concentration of propionic acid increased (P < 0.05) as dietary roughage was replac"d by concentrate, and acelate concentra-.

  20. Fluxes of ammonia in the coastal marine boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L.L.; Hertel, O.; Skjøth, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of ammonia in air and ammonium in surface water were measured from a platform in the Southern North Sea close to the Dutch coast. Fluxes were derived from the measurements applying Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and exchange velocities calculated. The fluxes and air concentrations...

  1. Anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Inhibition by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kaare Hvid; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1998-01-01

    A stable anaerobic degradation of swine manure with ammonia concentration of 6 g-N/litre was obtained in continuously stirred tank reactors with a hydraulic retention time of 15 days, at Four different temperatures. Methane yields of 188, 141, 67 and 22 ml-CH4/g-VS were obtained at 37, 45, 55...

  2. Benzyl alcohol–ammonia (1: 1) cluster structure investigated by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-induced fluorescence excitation and IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy have been used to determine the hydrogen-bonded structure of benzyl alcohol-ammonia (1:1) cluster in a jet-cooled molecular beam. In addition, ab initio quantum chemical calculations have been performed at HF/6-31G and HF/6-31G(d, ...

  3. Jupiter's global ammonia distribution inferred from Juno Microwave Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Ingersoll, Andrew; Ewald, Shawn; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Janssen, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Juno microwave radiometer (Juno/MWR) has made several observations of Jupiter's atmosphere by measuring the thermal emission from pressure levels down to a few hundred bars. The main objective of Juno/MWR is to determine Jupiter's deep water abundance because water is the key to understand Jovian meteorology that we observe at the cloud level, and because the deep water abundance hints at a giant planet's volatile and heavy element history. Since ammonia is the major opacity source in the Juno/MWR channels, it is especially important to figure out the ammonia distribution before we can conclude anything on the water abundance. At this stage of our analysis, we have inverted a global map (vertical and latitudinal) of ammonia distribution from the observed brightness temperatures at six wavelengths using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. This method fully calibrates error and explores a wide range of the parameter space to avoid falling into a local minimum. The robustness of the retrieval is explained by matching the features in the ammonia distribution with the features in the microwave spectra. We will also announce the initial result of the retrieval of water abundance using the same technique.

  4. Assimilating Remote Ammonia Observations with a Refined Aerosol Thermodynamics Adjoint"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia emissions parameters in North America can be refined in order to improve the evaluation of modeled concentrations against observations. Here, we seek to do so by developing and applying the GEOS-Chem adjoint nested over North America to conductassimilation of observations...

  5. Development of a national emission inventory to support revision of the Particulate National Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, W.R. [E.H. Pechan and Associates, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    On November 29, 1996 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed revised National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). The proposed revisions (61 FR 65638) would regulate particles less than or equal to an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns (PM{sub 2.5}). According to the notice issued on November 29, 1996, EPA is proposing to revise the current primary (health-based) PM standards by adding a new annual PM{sub 2.5} standard set at 15 micrograms per cubic meter ({micro}g/m{sup 3}) and a new 24-hour PM{sub 2.5} standard set at 50 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. EPA also proposed to retain the current annual standard for particles less than or equal to 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM{sub 10}) of 50 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. EPA also proposed to revise the current PM{sub 10} 24-hour standard of 150 {micro}g/m{sup 3} by changing the current form of the standard and is soliciting comment on the option of revoking the 24-hour PM{sub 10} standard. EPA has also proposed to revise the current secondary (welfare-based) standards by making them identical to the proposed primary standards. EPA believes that the proposed PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} standards, combined with the Clean Air Act required regional haze program, will provide protection against the major PM-related welfare effects, including visibility impairment, soiling, and materials damage. This paper describes the development of a national, county-level emissions inventory of primary particulate (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), and precursors to secondary particulate formation--sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOC), secondary organic aerosols (SOA), and ammonia (NH{sub 3})--for the base year of 1990.

  6. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  7. Glutamine versus ammonia utilization in the NAD synthetase family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica De Ingeniis

    Full Text Available NAD is a ubiquitous and essential metabolic redox cofactor which also functions as a substrate in certain regulatory pathways. The last step of NAD synthesis is the ATP-dependent amidation of deamido-NAD by NAD synthetase (NADS. Members of the NADS family are present in nearly all species across the three kingdoms of Life. In eukaryotic NADS, the core synthetase domain is fused with a nitrilase-like glutaminase domain supplying ammonia for the reaction. This two-domain NADS arrangement enabling the utilization of glutamine as nitrogen donor is also present in various bacterial lineages. However, many other bacterial members of NADS family do not contain a glutaminase domain, and they can utilize only ammonia (but not glutamine in vitro. A single-domain NADS is also characteristic for nearly all Archaea, and its dependence on ammonia was demonstrated here for the representative enzyme from Methanocaldococcus jannaschi. However, a question about the actual in vivo nitrogen donor for single-domain members of the NADS family remained open: Is it glutamine hydrolyzed by a committed (but yet unknown glutaminase subunit, as in most ATP-dependent amidotransferases, or free ammonia as in glutamine synthetase? Here we addressed this dilemma by combining evolutionary analysis of the NADS family with experimental characterization of two representative bacterial systems: a two-subunit NADS from Thermus thermophilus and a single-domain NADS from Salmonella typhimurium providing evidence that ammonia (and not glutamine is the physiological substrate of a typical single-domain NADS. The latter represents the most likely ancestral form of NADS. The ability to utilize glutamine appears to have evolved via recruitment of a glutaminase subunit followed by domain fusion in an early branch of Bacteria. Further evolution of the NADS family included lineage-specific loss of one of the two alternative forms and horizontal gene transfer events. Lastly, we identified NADS

  8. U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. S.; Casey, K. D.; Wheeler, E. F.; Xin, H.; Pescatore, A. J.

    Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

  9. LA CONTAMINACIÓN AMBIENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Ramos, Julio; FII-UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación. The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution.

  10. Responsabilidades municipales en materia ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza

    2009-01-01

    Los municipios tienen una responsabilidad directa, inmediata e ineludible hacia el medio ambiente que hasta hace pocos años no reconocían como pri mor dial sino como una función secundaria. Hoy es más que una obligación jurídica, es un compromiso so cial del nivel de gobierno más cercano a la sociedad. Este trabajo reflexiona en torno a las responsabilidades que la Constitución política impone de manera exclusiva a los municipios y que por su naturaleza tienen efectos directos en el medio ...

  11. Spinoza : ética ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Bula Caraballo, Germán Ulises

    2008-01-01

    Sobra recitar la lista de catástrofes ambientales, pasadas, presentes y futuras, de las que el hombre es responsable, no hace falta recalcar los peligros a los que está expuesta la humanidad gracias a la relación que ha venido teniendo con la naturaleza. Teniendo en cuenta la dependencia del hombre respecto a la naturaleza, y la fragilidad de la misma, ¿cómo hay que comportarse frente a la naturaleza? Entre los múltiples nuevos retos que surgen de la problemática ambiental se encuentra el ret...

  12. educación ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ojeda Barceló

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (TICs pueden constituir una herramienta de primer orden para la Educación Ambiental para la Sostenibilidad (EApS, pero todavía existe cierta reticencia por parte de educadores ambientales a hacer un uso de ellas de forma habitual. El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es ofrecer una revisión del estado de la cuestión tanto a nivel nacional como internacional e intentar hacer una propuesta didáctica de trabajo colaborativo a través de Internet para estudiantes de secundaria.

  13. Pediatria ambiental: um tema emergente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M. Valenzuela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os artigos mais relevantes sobre a pediatria ambiental, seus efeitos potenciais para a saúde e, especialmente, seus avanços na prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa utilizando as bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed e SciELO. Foram revisados artigos de 1990 a 2010, além de capítulos de livros relacionados à pediatria ambiental. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há uma variedade significativa de fatores que tornam as crianças altamente vulneráveis à exposição a riscos ambientais, associados principalmente ao consumo comparativamente maior de água, comida e ar por parte da criança, em relação ao seu peso corporal. De acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde, mais de 3 milhões de crianças menores de 5 anos morrem devido a doenças relacionadas ao meio ambiente. Aproximadamente 30-40% das doenças pediátricas estão relacionadas a fatores ambientais. As crianças estão constantemente expostas a vários riscos ambientais para a saúde, dentre os quais se destacam: água contaminada, falta de condições adequadas de saneamento, poluição do ar, vetores de doenças, perigos químicos, injúrias e acidentes. CONCLUSÕES: Atualmente, os pediatras são desafiados a tratar das necessidades de saúde ligadas à pediatria ambiental. A história pediátrica deve ser mais abrangente, acrescentando-se questões pontuais que ajudem a identificar potenciais riscos ambientais. A conscientização e o entendimento sobre os efeitos nocivos das várias condições ambientais e o conhecimento sobre as medidas de prevenção relacionadas resultarão em intervenções oportunas e adequadas que melhorarão a saúde e o desenvolvimento das nossas crianças.

  14. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  15. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Móring, Andrea; Vieno, Massimo; M. Doherty, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3) emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. The GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing) is capable of simulating the TAN (total ammoniacal nitrogen) and the water c...... application, serving as a tool for further investigation of the effects of climate change on ammonia emissions and deposition....

  16. Sustainable Ammonia Synthesis – Exploring the scientific challenges associated with discovering alternative, sustainable processes for ammonia production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nørskov, Jens [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); ; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Miranda, Raul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Stack, Robert [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2016-02-18

    Ammonia (NH3) is essential to all life on our planet. Until about 100 years ago, NH3 produced by reduction of dinitrogen (N2) in air came almost exclusively from bacteria containing the enzyme nitrogenase.. DOE convened a roundtable of experts on February 18, 2016. Participants in the Roundtable discussions concluded that the scientific basis for sustainable processes for ammonia synthesis is currently lacking, and it needs to be enhanced substantially before it can form the foundation for alternative processes. The Roundtable Panel identified an overarching grand challenge and several additional scientific grand challenges and research opportunities: -Discovery of active, selective, scalable, long-lived catalysts for sustainable ammonia synthesis. -Development of relatively low pressure (<10 atm) and relatively low temperature (<200 C) thermal processes. -Integration of knowledge from nature (enzyme catalysis), molecular/homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. -Development of electrochemical and photochemical routes for N2 reduction based on proton and electron transfer -Development of biochemical routes to N2 reduction -Development of chemical looping (solar thermochemical) approaches -Identification of descriptors of catalytic activity using a combination of theory and experiments -Characterization of surface adsorbates and catalyst structures (chemical, physical and electronic) under conditions relevant to ammonia synthesis.

  17. Measurement of ammonia emissions from three ammonia emission reduction systems for dairy cattle using a dynamic flux chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooren, van H.J.C.; Mosquera, J.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest among dairy farmers in The Netherlands for animal friendly housing systems that at the same moment reduce the ammonia emission compared to currently available systems. Therefore, there is a need for a relatively cheap and easy measuring method to investigate the

  18. Ammonium recruitment and ammonia transport by E. coli ammonia channel AmtB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Thomas Pedersen; Rovira, C.; Peters, Günther H.j.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate substrate recruitment and transport across the Escherichia coli Ammonia transporter B (AmtB) protein, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the AmtB trimer. We have identified residues important in recruitment of ammonium and intraluminal binding sites selective of ammoniu...

  19. Measurement of gas-phase ammonia and amines in air by collection onto an ion exchange resin and analysis by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M. L.; Perraud, V.; Gomez, A.; Arquero, K. D.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2014-08-01

    Ammonia and amines are common trace gases in the atmosphere and have a variety of both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, with a major contribution coming from agricultural sites. In addition to their malodorous nature, both ammonia and amines have been shown to enhance particle formation from acids such as nitric, sulfuric and methanesulfonic acids, which has implications for visibility, human health and climate. A key component of quantifying the effects of these species on particle formation is accurate gas-phase measurements in both laboratory and field studies. However, these species are notoriously difficult to measure as they are readily taken up on surfaces, including onto glass surfaces from aqueous solution as established in the present studies. We describe here a novel technique for measuring gas-phase ammonia and amines that involves uptake onto a weak cation exchange resin followed by extraction and analysis using ion chromatography. Two variants - one for parts per billion concentrations in air and the second with lower (parts per trillion) detection limits - are described. The latter involves the use of a custom-designed high-pressure cartridge to hold the resin for in-line extraction. These methods avoid the use of sampling lines, which can lead to significant inlet losses of these compounds. They also have the advantages of being relatively simple and inexpensive. The applicability of this technique to ambient air is demonstrated in measurements made near a cattle farm in Chino, CA.

  20. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during