Housley Gaffney, Amy L.; Dannels, Deanna P.
The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…
Kable, Julie A; Coles, Claire D; Taddeo, Elles
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) has been recognized as a disabling condition with a significant impact on the neurobehavioral functioning of affected individuals, including cognition, behavior, and academic functioning, but little research has been performed on targeted interventions for these children. A socio-cognitive habilitative program focused on improving behavior and math functioning in children 3 to 10 years of age (n=61) was developed and evaluated. The intervention provided parental instruction on FAS, advocacy, and behavioral regulation via workshops and interactive math tutoring with children. All families received parental instruction and were then randomly assigned to either the math instruction or standard psychoeducational care groups. Satisfaction with workshops was very high, with over 90% agreeing that trainers were knowledgeable and materials easy to understand and helpful. Significant gains in knowledge were found for information provided in the instructional groups. At posttesting, caregivers reported fewer problem behaviors on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, Internalizing Problem Behavior, Externalizing Problem Behavior, and Total Problem Behavior summary scales. After 5 months, both groups of children demonstrated gains in math knowledge but significantly higher gains were found in the group receiving direct math instruction. The math treatment group was also more likely to demonstrate a gain of over 1 standard deviation on any of the 4 math outcome measures used. These findings suggest that parents of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FAS(D)) benefit from instruction in understanding their child's alcohol-related neurological damage and strategies to provide positive behavioral supports and that targeted psychoeducational programs may be able to remediate some of the math deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure.
Taymans, Juliana M.
Although the exact prevalence is not determined, a noticeable subset of individuals who enroll in adult education and training programs have either diagnosed or undiagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLD). Understanding SLD is important basic information for adult educators to inform program policies as well as determine effective…
Huerta, Juan Carlos; Bray, Jennifer J.
Do learning communities with pedagogies of active learning, collaborative learning, and integration of course material affect the learning, achievement, and persistence of first-year Latino university students? The data for this project was obtained from a survey of 1,330 first-year students in the First-Year Learning Community Program at Texas…
Misfeldt, Morten; Ejsing-Duun, Stine
In this paper we explore the potentials for learning mathematics through programming by a combination of theoretically derived potentials and cases of practical pedagogical work. We propose a model with three interdependent learning potentials as programming which can: (1) help reframe the students...... to mathematics is paramount. Analyzing two cases, we suggest a number of ways in which didactical attention to epistemic mediation can support learning mathematics....
why people enjoy different degrees of success in second language learning,given similar opportunities.in the presence of overly negative emotions such as anxiety,fear,stress,anger or depression,our optimal learning potential maybe compromised.the affective domain refers to the emotional domain that has to do with the emotional behavior of human beings.it includes such factors as self-confidence,extroversion,anxiety,attitudes and motivation.three major factors are introduced here:self-confidence,anxiety and motivation.
Holt, Brett J.; Hannon, James C.
Affect is an important domain in which children learn. The affective domain of learning in physical education focuses on feelings, values, social behavior, and attitudes as they relate to human movement. Learning in the affective domain in physical education means that students learn such concepts as sportsmanship, "fair play," respect for others,…
If you are a developer who has some object-oriented programming experience, Learning Apex Programming is the perfect book for you. This book is most appropriate for developers who wish to gain an understanding of the Force.com platform and how to use Apex to create business applications.
A growing number of nursing homes are implementing culture change programming to create a more homelike environment in which residents and direct care staff are empowered with greater participation in care activities. Although nursing homes that have adopted culture change practices have brought about positive transformation in their settings that have improved quality of care and life, as well as increased resident and staff satisfaction, they represent a minority of all nursing homes. Nursing homes that serve primarily a Medicaid population without supplemental sources of funding have been limited in the resources to support such change processes. The purpose of this project was to gain insight into effective strategies to provide culture change and quality improvement programming to low-performing, under-resourced nursing homes that represent the population of nursing homes least likely to have implemented this programming. Factors that interfered with transformation were identified and insights were gained into factors that need to be considered before transformational processes can be initiated. Effective educational strategies and processes that facilitate change in these types of nursing homes were identified. Despite limitations to the study, there was evidence that the experiences and findings can be of value to other low-performing, under-resourced nursing homes. Ongoing clinical work and research are needed to refine the implementation process and increase the ability to help these settings utilize resources and implement high quality cost effective care to nursing home residents. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mottet, Timothy P.
The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…
Witt, Paul L.
The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…
The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…
de Aquino Leal, Alexis Vinícius; Ferreira, Deller James
There is still no pedagogy to teach programming that stands out significantly from others and no consensus on what is the best way for learning programming. There is still a need to develop new teaching methods for learning in introductory programming courses. This paper presents a pedagogic approach in support of creativity in programming and the…
Education theorists have emphasized that transformative learning is not simply a matter of students gaining access to new knowledge and information, but instead centers upon personal transformation: it alters students' perspectives, interpretations, and responses. How should learning that brings about this sort of self-transformation be understood…
Cooperative Learning and Students' Affective Learning Outcome in Nigerian Chemistry ... (STAD) and Jigsaw II in stimulating students attitude towards chemistry. ... teaching method; based on these findings, recommendations were made.
Ellysa Stern Cahoy
Full Text Available While information literacy in higher education has long been focused on cognitive learning outcomes, attention must be paid to students’ affective, emotional needs throughout the research process. This article identifies models for embedding affective learning outcomes within information literacy instruction, and provides strategies to help librarians discover, articulate, and address students’ self-efficacy, motivation, emotions and attitudes. Worksheets to assist in creating affective learning outcomes are included to bring structure to an area of learning that is often challenging to articulate and measure. Also included in the article are the results of a recent survey of instruction librarians’ familiarity and inclusion of affective learning outcomes within teaching and learning initiatives.
Miller, Eric M; Walton, Gregory M; Dweck, Carol S; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H; McClure, Samuel M
Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.
Asmus, Edward P., Jr.
This investigation of a college music course examined the effectiveness of a cyclical affective learning paradigm based on the premise that student affect toward a course of instruction will dictate, in part, cognitive performance. Results suggest that teachers would be better advised to concentrate on cognitive instruction than on affect.…
Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak
The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare....... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...
Broekens, Douwe Joost
In this thesis we have studied the influence of emotion on learning. We have used computational modelling techniques to do so, more specifically, the reinforcement learning paradigm. Emotion is modelled as artificial affect, a measure that denotes the positiveness versus negativeness of a situation
The book will take an easy-to-follow and engaging tutorial approach, providing a practical and comprehensive way to learn ROS.If you are a robotic enthusiast who wants to learn how to build and program your own robots in an easy-to-develop, maintainable and shareable way, ""Learning ROS for Robotics Programming"" is for you. In order to make the most of the book, you should have some C++ programming background, knowledge of GNU/Linux systems, and computer science in general. No previous background on ROS is required, since this book provides all the skills required. It is also advisable to hav
Bogdanchikov, A.; Zhaparov, M.; Suliyev, R.
Today we have a lot of programming languages that can realize our needs, but the most important question is how to teach programming to beginner students. In this paper we suggest using Python for this purpose, because it is a programming language that has neatly organized syntax and powerful tools to solve any task. Moreover it is very close to simple math thinking. Python is chosen as a primary programming language for freshmen in most of leading universities. Writing code in python is easy. In this paper we give some examples of program codes written in Java, C++ and Python language, and we make a comparison between them. Firstly, this paper proposes advantages of Python language in relation to C++ and JAVA. Then it shows the results of a comparison of short program codes written in three different languages, followed by a discussion on how students understand programming. Finally experimental results of students' success in programming courses are shown.
Akroyd, D; Lavin, N
This study uses a national sample of freshman radiography students to examine demographic data and factors that affected career and program choice. The data are discussed in terms of implications for marketing and recruitment strategies.
Charlton-Seifert, Joan; And Others
Studies pointing to the relationship between caffeine-sugar intake and learning disorders are cited and suggestions to facilitate better nutrition in children are offered. Among suggestions made is that teachers be educated in matters of food, nutrition, and reading through inservice programs. A nutritional questionnaire is included. (SBH)
Lionel Di Marco
Full Text Available Purpose Acceptance of a learning technology affects students’ intention to use that technology, but the influence of the acceptance of a learning technology on learning approaches has not been investigated in the literature. A deep learning approach is important in the field of health, where links must be created between skills, knowledge, and habits. Our hypothesis was that acceptance of a hybrid learning model would affect students’ way of learning. Methods We analysed these concepts, and their correlations, in the context of a flipped classroom method using a local learning management system. In a sample of all students within a single year of study in the midwifery program (n= 38, we used 3 validated scales to evaluate these concepts (the Study Process Questionnaire, My Intellectual Work Tools, and the Hybrid E-Learning Acceptance Model: Learner Perceptions. Results Our sample had a positive acceptance of the learning model, but a neutral intention to use it. Students reported that they were distractible during distance learning. They presented a better mean score for the deep approach than for the superficial approach (P< 0.001, which is consistent with their declared learning strategies (personal reorganization of information; search and use of examples. There was no correlation between poor acceptance of the learning model and inadequate learning approaches. The strategy of using deep learning techniques was moderately correlated with acceptance of the learning model (rs= 0.42, P= 0.03. Conclusion Learning approaches were not affected by acceptance of a hybrid learning model, due to the flexibility of the tool. However, we identified problems in the students’ time utilization, which explains their neutral intention to use the system.
This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…
Sarker, M O Faruque
If you're a Python developer or a system administrator with Python experience and you're looking to take your first steps in network programming, then this book is for you. Basic knowledge of Python is assumed.
A practical and a fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to start programming using Cython.This book is for developers who love C/C++ for low latency and speed but who also require the ability to add more dynamic features to applications both fast and reliably. It will also show you how you can get new applications off the ground by reusing Python libraries to get started.
Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.
Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners’ responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability. PMID:25946173
Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C
Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Green, Zane Asher; Batool, Sadia
The experimental study was undertaken to examine the effect of emotionalized learning experiences on the academic achievement of students at Preston University. The major objectives of the study were to identify the effect of teaching methods on students' academic achievement and to evaluate the relationship between affective learning conditions and students' academic achievement. Based on four intact semesters, the population of the study comprised 140 students from the Bachelors of Business Administration Program. The whole population was considered as the sample. The control group (28 students) was taught through the interactive lecture method, whereas, the experimental group 1 (35 students), experimental group 2 (46 students) and experimental group 3 (31 students) were taught through the activity method, reflective learning method and cooperative learning method respectively. Results indicated a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores obtained in the achievement test as a result of the effect of teaching methods used for offering the emotionalized learning experiences. There was also a significant relationship between affective leaning conditions and students' academic achievement. Furthermore, it was found that students' academic achievement in the affective domain was highest with regard to workshops 1, 2 and 3. It was concluded that the emotionalized learning experiences offered to the students via the four teaching methods helped students in enhancing their knowledge, changing their attitudes and developing their skills with regard to living a happy, healthy and meaningful life. However, the reflective learning method proved to be the most suitable followed by the interactive lecture method, the cooperative learning method and the activity method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ronny Gamboa Araya
Full Text Available Math has become an obstacle to achieve educational goals for a large number of students; thus it has transcended the academic world and has become a cognitive and emotional impairment. What students feel, perceive, believe, and how they act directly influences this. In addition, what teachers feel and perceive, their expectations, beliefs and attitudes towards the discipline also play an important role in how they teach and in the affective dimension of their students. Based on theoretical aspects from various authors, this paper is aimed at addressing some elements regarding the affective dimension, and at showing elements pertaining to teachers and students, and their relationship with math learning and teaching. It was concluded that the role of the affective dimension in math learning must be addressed by math educators in order to understand the process from the perspective of the actors associated with it, both students and teachers, as well as to achieve a change in the discipline by improving the beliefs and attitudes of students and teachers.
Learn to master basic programming tasks from scratch with real-life scientifically relevant examples and solutions drawn from both science and engineering. Students and researchers at all levels are increasingly turning to the powerful Python programming language as an alternative to commercial packages and this fast-paced introduction moves from the basics to advanced concepts in one complete volume, enabling readers to quickly gain proficiency. Beginning with general programming concepts such as loops and functions within the core Python 3 language, and moving onto the NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib libraries for numerical programming and data visualisation, this textbook also discusses the use of IPython notebooks to build rich-media, shareable documents for scientific analysis. Including a final chapter introducing challenging topics such as floating-point precision and algorithm stability, and with extensive online resources to support advanced study, this textbook represents a targeted package for students...
Kwok, Ron Chi-Wai; Cheng, Shuk Han; Ip, Horace Ho-Shing; Kong, Joseph Siu-Lung
This study proposes a teaching and research initiative, named SAMAL (Smart AMbience for Affective Learning) that will provide a unique ambient mediated environment for integrating cognitive and affective approaches to enhance learning. Also, this study illustrates a design of SAMAL classroom with affectively evocative scenarios for learning de…
Kabaran, Seray; Besler, H Tanju
In this study discussed the primary and regulatory roles of fatty acids, and investigated the affects of fatty acids on metabolic programming. Review of the literature was carried out on three electronic databases to assess the roles of fatty acids in metabolic programming. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined, and the most relevant articles were selected for screening and inclusion in this review. The mother's nutritional environment during fetal period has important effects on long term health. Fatty acids play a primary role in growth and development. Alterations in fatty acid intake in the fetal period may increase the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. Maternal fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and lactation are passed to the fetus and the newborn via the placenta and breast milk, respectively. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during the fetal period change the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids, which can cause structural and functional problems in cells. Additionally, the metabolic and neuroendocrine environments of the fetus and the newborn play key roles in the regulation of energy balance. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during pregnancy and lactation may result in permanent changes in appetite control, neuroendocrine function and energy metabolism in the fetus, leading to metabolic programming. Further studies are needed to determine the role of fatty acid intake in metabolic programming.
According to Wlodkowski (2003), "accelerated learning programs are one of the fastest growing transformations in higher education" (p. 5). The Center for the Study of Accelerated Learning at Regis University has documented at least 250 colleges or universities that offer accelerated learning programs for working adults. By definition, accelerated…
VAN HOOFT, GORDON E.
INCLUDED IN THE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ARE BOOKS, MAGAZINE ARTICLES, AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES RELATED TO THE SUBJECTS OF PROGRAMED LEARNING, REPORTS ON RELEVANT RESEARCH STUDIES, LISTS OF TEACHING MACHINES, PUBLICATIONS ON LEARNING THEORY AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING SOURCES OF PROGRAMED MATERIALS, PERIODICALS SPECIALLY DEVOTED TO PROGRAMED…
This article concentrates on the role that affective learning plays in e-learning. Understandably, personal contact is minimal in online learning so the question arises: How do students cope with the lack of personal contact? The purpose of this study was to explore and interpret the participants\\' affective experiences in an
This paper describes two studies into teacher workplace learning. The first study aimed at developing a definition of teacher learning at the workplace and at exploring factors that may affect teacher learning at the workplace. Based on a conceptualization of teacher workplace learning as
Brom, Cyril; Šisler, Vít; Slussareff, Michaela; Selmbacherová, Tereza; Hlávka, Zdenek
Despite the alleged ability of digital game-based learning (DGBL) to foster positive affect and in turn improve learning, the link between affectivity and learning has not been sufficiently investigated in this field. Regarding learning from team-based games with competitive elements, even less is known about the relationship between…
This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…
brings a generic, systematic ap- proach based on foundations-of-learning principles and stan- dard system theory to the ID process ( Tennyson , 989...solving: Ef- fects on learning. Cognitive Science, 12(2), 257–285. Tennyson , R. D. (989). Cognitive science update of instructions systems design models
Iba, Hitoshi; Paul, Topon Kumar
What do financial data prediction, day-trading rule development, and bio-marker selection have in common? They are just a few of the tasks that could potentially be resolved with genetic programming and machine learning techniques. Written by leaders in this field, Applied Genetic Programming and Machine Learning delineates the extension of Genetic Programming (GP) for practical applications. Reflecting rapidly developing concepts and emerging paradigms, this book outlines how to use machine learning techniques, make learning operators that efficiently sample a search space, navigate the searc
Mc Goldrick, Niamh B.; Marzec, Bartosz; Scully, P. Noelle; Draper, Sylvia M.
Since 2002, a multidisciplinary program has been used to encourage science students to build on their chemical knowledge and to appreciate how it applies to the world around them. The program is interactive and instills a new set of core learning skills that are often underrepresented in undergraduate curricula, namely, cooperative learning,…
Caton, Randall; Pinelli, Thomas E.
NASA Langley Research Center and Christopher Newport University (CNU) provide, free to the public, distance learning programs that focus on math, science, and/or technology over a spectrum of education levels from K-adult. The effort started in 1997, and currently there are a suite of five distance-learning programs. This paper presents the major…
Affective learning relates to students' attitudes, emotions, and feelings. This study focuses on measuring affective learning during library instruction by using a student response system. Participants were undergraduate students who received course-related library instruction for a research assignment. Students rated their confidence levels…
This article deals with the functioning of affect and epistemic emotions, such as surprise and curiosity, in self-regulated learning (SRL). The claim is that affect plays a major role in SRL not only as an independent process that can facilitate or impede learning activities and performance but also through its interactions with cognition and…
Muench, Kristin L; Creel, Sarah C
Learners frequently experience phonologically inconsistent input, such as exposure to multiple accents. Yet, little is known about the consequences of phonological inconsistency for language learning. The current study examines vocabulary acquisition with different degrees of phonological inconsistency, ranging from no inconsistency (e.g., both talkers call a picture /vig/) to mild but detectable inconsistency (e.g., one talker calls a picture a /vig/, and the other calls it a /vIg/), up to extreme inconsistency (e.g., the same picture is both a /vig/ and a /dIdʒ/). Previous studies suggest that learners readily extract consistent phonological patterns, given variable input. However, in Experiment 1, adults acquired phonologically inconsistent vocabularies more slowly than phonologically consistent ones. Experiment 2 examined whether word-form inconsistency alone, without phonological competition, was a source of learning difficulty. Even without phonological competition, listeners learned faster in 1 accent than in 2 accents, but they also learned faster in 2 accents (/vig/ = /vIg/) than with completely different labels (/vig/ = /dIdʒ/). Overall, results suggest that learners exposed to multiple accents may experience difficulty learning when 2 forms mismatch by more than 1 phonological feature, plus increased phonological competition due to a greater number of word forms. Implications for learning from variable input are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Shang, Junchen; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan; Shao, Can; Fu, Xiaolan
It is well documented that positive rather than negative moods encourage integrative processing of conscious information. However, the extent to which implicit or unconscious learning can be influenced by affective states remains unclear. A Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task with sequence structures requiring integration over past trials was adopted to examine the effect of affective states on implicit learning. Music was used to induce and maintain positive and negative affective states. The present study showed that participants in negative rather than positive states learned less of the regularity. Moreover, the knowledge was shown by a Bayesian analysis to be largely unconscious as participants were poor at recognizing the regularity. The results demonstrated that negative rather than positive affect inhibited implicit learning of complex structures. Our findings help to understand the effects of affective states on unconscious or implicit processing.
Shang, Junchen; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan; Shao, Can; Fu, Xiaolan
Background It is well documented that positive rather than negative moods encourage integrative processing of conscious information. However, the extent to which implicit or unconscious learning can be influenced by affective states remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings A Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task with sequence structures requiring integration over past trials was adopted to examine the effect of affective states on implicit learning. Music was used to induce and maintain positive and negative affective states. The present study showed that participants in negative rather than positive states learned less of the regularity. Moreover, the knowledge was shown by a Bayesian analysis to be largely unconscious as participants were poor at recognizing the regularity. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrated that negative rather than positive affect inhibited implicit learning of complex structures. Our findings help to understand the effects of affective states on unconscious or implicit processing. PMID:23349953
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well documented that positive rather than negative moods encourage integrative processing of conscious information. However, the extent to which implicit or unconscious learning can be influenced by affective states remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Serial Reaction Time (SRT task with sequence structures requiring integration over past trials was adopted to examine the effect of affective states on implicit learning. Music was used to induce and maintain positive and negative affective states. The present study showed that participants in negative rather than positive states learned less of the regularity. Moreover, the knowledge was shown by a Bayesian analysis to be largely unconscious as participants were poor at recognizing the regularity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrated that negative rather than positive affect inhibited implicit learning of complex structures. Our findings help to understand the effects of affective states on unconscious or implicit processing.
Wiedmann, Michael; Leach, Ryan C.; Rummel, Nikol; Wiley, Jennifer
Schwartz and Martin ("Cogn Instr" 22:129-184, 2004) as well as Kapur ("Instr Sci", this issue, 2012) have found that students can be better prepared to learn about mathematical formulas when they try to invent them in small groups before receiving the canonical formula from a lesson. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how the…
Gladys Molano Caro
Full Text Available This paper explores a teaching method that was conceived through the daily interaction with students who were documented by their teachers for not being able to read and write in a timely manner. Although it synthesizes a new way of teaching children and young people to read and write, it also becomes a method for students who are in a "cognitive limbo", who show a learning disability in grasping these key subjects for their educational process.
Full Text Available Humans follow the example of prestigious, high-status individuals much more readily than that of others, such as when we copy the behavior of village elders, community leaders, or celebrities. This tendency has been declared uniquely human, yet remains untested in other species. Experimental studies of animal learning have typically focused on the learning mechanism rather than on social issues, such as who learns from whom. The latter, however, is essential to understanding how habits spread. Here we report that when given opportunities to watch alternative solutions to a foraging problem performed by two different models of their own species, chimpanzees preferentially copy the method shown by the older, higher-ranking individual with a prior track-record of success. Since both solutions were equally difficult, shown an equal number of times by each model and resulted in equal rewards, we interpret this outcome as evidence that the preferred model in each of the two groups tested enjoyed a significant degree of prestige in terms of whose example other chimpanzees chose to follow. Such prestige-based cultural transmission is a phenomenon shared with our own species. If similar biases operate in wild animal populations, the adoption of culturally transmitted innovations may be significantly shaped by the characteristics of performers.
Duo, Sun; Song, Lu Xue
In recent years, e-learning as a learning system is very popular. But the current e-learning systems cannot instruct students effectively since they do not consider the emotional state in the context of instruction. The emergence of the theory about "Affective computing" can solve this question. It can make the computer's intelligence no longer be a pure cognitive one. In this paper, we construct an emotional intelligent e-learning system based on "Affective computing". A dimensional model is put forward to recognize and analyze the student's emotion state and a virtual teacher's avatar is offered to regulate student's learning psychology with consideration of teaching style based on his personality trait. A "man-to-man" learning environment is built to simulate the traditional classroom's pedagogy in the system.
Degerfält, Jan; Sjöstedt, Staffan; Fransson, Per
BACKGROUND: E-learning is an established concept in oncological education and training. However, there seems to be a scarcity of long-term assessments of E-learning programs in oncology vis-á-vis their structural management and didactic value. This study presents descriptive, nationwide data from...... 2005 to 2014. E-learning oncology programs in chemotherapy, general oncology, pain management, palliative care, psycho-social-oncology, and radiotherapy, were reviewed from our databases. Questionnaires of self-perceived didactic value of the programs were examined 2008-2014. RESULTS: The total number...... of trainees were 4693, allocated to 3889 individuals. The trainees included medical doctors (MDs; n = 759), registered nurses (RNs; n = 2359), radiation therapy technologists (n = 642), and, social and health care assistants (SHCAs; n = 933). The E-learning covered 29 different program classifications...
Yeager, David S.
Adolescents may especially need social and emotional help. They are learning how to handle new demands in school and social life while dealing with new, intense emotions (both positive and negative), and they are increasingly feeling that they should do so without adult guidance. Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are one way to help…
Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David
The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…
Offers seven lesson plans to help blend the affective and cognitive realms of children's learning, connecting an emotional lexicon with written and spoken dialogs, photographs, arguments, and movements. (DMM)
A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group discussions…
Laeeq, Kulsoom; Weatherly, Robert A; Carrott, Alice; Pandian, Vinciya; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I
Kolb portrays four learning styles depending on how an individual grasps or transforms experience: accommodating, assimilating, diverging, and converging. Past studies in surgery, medicine, and anesthesia identified the predominant learning style in each of these specialties. The prevalence of different learning styles and existence of a predominant style, if any, has not been reported for otolaryngology residency programs. The purpose of our study was to determine if otolaryngology residents have a preferred learning style that is different from the predominant learning styles reported for other specialties. We conducted a survey of the otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents at two residency programs. Kolb's Learning Style Index (LSI) version 3.1 was administered to 46 residents from Johns Hopkins University and Kansas University Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery programs. LSI is a widely used 12-item questionnaire, with each item followed by four options. The subjects graded the options depending on how the options applied to them. Forty-three otolaryngology residents completed the survey, with a response rate of 93.47%. The predominant learning style was converging (55.81%) followed by accommodating (18.61%), accounting for the learning styles of 74.42% of the total population. There were only 13.95% assimilating and 6.98% diverging learning styles. Two residents (4.65%) had their preference balanced across four learning styles. The predominant learning styles in otolaryngology were converging and accommodating, accounting for three fourths of the population. It would be desirable to modify our curriculum in a way that will optimize and facilitate learning.
Martínez, Héctor Pérez
over the other examined methods. The second challenge addressed in this thesis refers to the extraction of relevant information from physiological modalities. Deep learning is proposed as an automatic approach to extract input features for models of affect from physiological signals. Experiments...... difficulties, ordinal reports such as rankings and ratings can yield more reliable affect annotations than alternative tools. This thesis explores preference learning methods to automatically learn computational models from ordinal annotations of affect. In particular, an extensive collection of training...... the complexity of hand-crafting feature extractors that combine information across dissimilar modalities of input. Frequent sequence mining is presented as a method to learn feature extractors that fuse physiological and contextual information. This method is evaluated in a game-based dataset and compared...
Bermudez-Gonzalez, Daniel; Miranda-Jiménez, Sabino; García-Moreno, Raúl-Ulises; Calderón-Nepamuceno, Dora
Nowadays, machine learning techniques are being used in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as Opinion Mining (OM). OM is used to analyse and determine the affective orientation of texts. Usually, OM approaches use affective dictionaries in order to conduct sentiment analysis. These lexicons are labeled manually with affective…
This paper examines constraints affecting teaching and learning in indigenous languages by adult farmers in Delta State. Data were collected from 200 randomly selected respondents in the study area. Data analysis was by the use of simple descriptive statistics. The following constraints were identified as affecting the ...
Full Text Available E-learning is becoming a widespread method of gaining knowledge in a global environment. Accessibility and variety of online content encourage more people to get involved in learning from digital resources. However, there has been limited research exploring the factors that could influence students attitudes regarding e-learning. In this study, field research was conducted to determine which factors affect students attitudes towards e-learning. The questionnaire was developed to collect data about factors that influence attitudes towards e-learning. A total of 286 students were the study cohort. Three factors were identified using principal component analysis: e-learning usefulness, ease of use, and content design. Regression analysis was conducted to determine the strength of the factors influencing attitudes towards e-learning. All factors had a significant influence on attitude towards e-learning. Usefulness of e-learning had the strongest impact on students e-learning intention. Our study will contribute to the existing work in this field by emphasizing the importance of perception of content design on attitudes towards e-learning.
important contributions to the conduct and reporting of this work. Lauri Zeman guided this work from the start. Fran Lussier worked to get the project...Table 1.1 reflect plans at Mile - stone B. The third column provides the date of Milestone B, which occurred after 1985 for 17 of the 18 programs. That...following the intensive Mile - stone B review conducted within the Army and OSD. Increased fund- ing was slightly more common than reductions in
Full Text Available The article discusses the goals of teaching programing languages, kinds of programming tasks, evaluation criteria and methods for solutions checking. Many aspects of the assessments need, especially within e-learning framework, dedicated tools for solutions checking. Considered are the possibilities and methods for their automatic application. Integration of automatic evaluation tools in a consistent system is proposed. Through the rich content of the interaction with students such a system would lead to increase of e-learning quality. Examples presented in this article apply to programs and tools for the Java platform.
Myers, Scott A.; Goodboy, Alan K.
Sukamto, R. A.; Prabawa, H. W.; Kurniawati, S.
Programming skill is an important skill for computer science students, whereas nowadays, there many computer science students are lack of skills and information technology knowledges in Indonesia. This is contrary with the implementation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) since the end of 2015 which is the qualified worker needed. This study provided an effort for nailing programming skills by mapping program code to visual analogies as learning media. The developed media was based on state machine and compiler principle and was implemented in C programming language. The state of every basic condition in programming were successful determined as analogy visualization.
McArthur, John A.
This study examined the extent to which instructional proxemics--the physical space of the learning environment--impacts student behavioral, affective, and cognitive learning. Participants included 234 college students enrolled in 15 sections of public speaking. Each section was assigned to a study learning environment and an instructor, ensuring…
Hussain, Shahid; Rao, M. R. K. Krishna
In this paper we study exact learning of Prolog programs from entailment and present an algorithm to learn two rich classes of Prolog programs namely hereditary and reductive Prolog programs. These classes contain standard Prolog programs with and without recursion like append, merge, split, delete, member, prefix, suffix, length, add, etc. Additionally our algorithm learns the hereditary Prolog programs in polynomial time.
Rohrmeier, Martin; Cross, Ian
Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990) melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011), the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet) manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints.
Jensen, Annie Aarup; Thomassen, Anja Overgaard
This chapter explores teachers' reflective practice in lifelong learning programs based on a qualitative study of five teachers representing three part-time Master's programs. The theoretical framework for analysis of the interview data is Ellström's (1996) model for categorizing levels of action......, knowledge and learning, activity theory (Engeström, 1987) and expansive learning (Engeström & Sannino, 2010). The results show a divergence between what the teachers perceive as the Master students' learning goals and the teachers' goals and objectives. This is highlighted through the teachers' experience...... with the students' understandings of the theories they are introduced to and how they apply them in relation to their practice context. The insights and the issues raised by the study are relevant for teachers in Higher Education....
Seyedeh Zahra Aemmi
Full Text Available One of the goals of education can be considered the transfer of knowledge, skills, competencies, wisdom, norms and values between generations. Intergenerational learning program provide this goal and opportunities for lifelong learning and sharing knowledge and experience between generations. This review aimed to investigate the benefits of this program for the children and older adult and its application in health care systems. An extensive literature search was conducted in some online databases such as Magiran, SID, Scopus, EMBASE, and Medline via PubMed until July 2016 and Persian and English language publications studied that met inclusion criteria. The review concluded that this program can be provided wonderful resources for the social and emotional growth of the children and older adults and can be used for caring, education and follow-up in health care systems especially by nurses. Also, this review highlighted the need for research about this form of learning in Iran.
Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon
With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.
Ahokas, Jorma; Donohue, Diana; Rix, Colin; Wright, Paul
RMIT University was the first to offer a comprehensive Masters of Toxicology in Australasia 19 years ago. In 2001 the program was transformed into two stages, leading to a Graduate Diploma and Master of Applied Science in Toxicology. Now, these programs are fully online and suitable for graduates living and working anywhere in the world. The modular distance-learning courses are specifically designed to equip students with essential skills for entering fields such as chemical and drug evaluation; risk assessment of chemicals in the workplace; environmental and food toxicology. RMIT's online course delivery system has made it possible to deliver the toxicology programs, both nationally and internationally. The learning material and interactive activities (tests and quizzes, discussion boards, chat sessions) use Blackboard and WebBoard, each with a different educational function. Students log in to a Learning Hub to access their courses. The Learning Hub enables students to extend their learning beyond the classroom to the home, workplace, library and any other location with Internet access. The teaching staff log in to the Learning Hub to maintain and administer the online programs and courses which they have developed and/or which they teach. The Learning Hub is also a communication tool for students and staff, providing access to email, a diary and announcements. The early experience of delivering a full toxicology program online is very positive. However this mode of teaching continues to present many interesting technical, educational and cultural challenges, including: the design and presentation of the material; copyright issues; internationalization of content; interactive participation; and the assessment procedures.
LUELSDORFF, PHILIP A.
PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A TEACHING METHOD WHICH INCORPORATES (1) A DETAILED SPECIFICATION OF TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, (2) A CAREFUL SEQUENCING OF THE MATERIAL INTO GRADED STEPS, AND (3) THE REINFORCEMENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE, WORKS MORE FAVORABLY IN CERTAIN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA THAN IN OTHERS. CARROLL AND SKINNER BELIEVE THAT SUCCESS IN PROGRAMED…
Kordjamshidi, Parisa; Roth, Dan; Wu, Hao
We present Saul, a new probabilistic programming language designed to address some of the shortcomings of programming languages that aim at advancing and simplifying the development of AI systems. Such languages need to interact with messy, naturally occurring data, to allow a programmer to specify what needs to be done at an appropriate level of abstraction rather than at the data level, to be developed on a solid theory that supports moving to and reasoning at this level of abstraction and, finally, to support flexible integration of these learning and inference models within an application program. Saul is an object-functional programming language written in Scala that facilitates these by (1) allowing a programmer to learn, name and manipulate named abstractions over relational data; (2) supporting seamless incorporation of trainable (probabilistic or discriminative) components into the program, and (3) providing a level of inference over trainable models to support composition and make decisions that respect domain and application constraints. Saul is developed over a declaratively defined relational data model, can use piecewise learned factor graphs with declaratively specified learning and inference objectives, and it supports inference over probabilistic models augmented with declarative knowledge-based constraints. We describe the key constructs of Saul and exemplify its use in developing applications that require relational feature engineering and structured output prediction.
Caton, Randall; Pinelli, Thomas E.
NASA Langley Research Center and Christopher Newport University (CNU) provide, free to the public, distance learning programs that focus on math, science, and/or technology over a spectrum of education levels from K-adult. The effort started in 1997, and we currently have a suite of five distance-learning programs. We have around 450,000 registered educators and 12.5 million registered students in 60 countries. Partners and affiliates include the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the Aerospace Education Coordinating Committee (AECC), the Alliance for Community Media, the National Educational Telecommunications Association, Public Broadcasting System (PBS) affiliates, the NASA Learning Technologies Channel, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), the Council of the Great City Schools, Hampton City Public Schools, Sea World Adventure Parks, Busch Gardens, ePALS.com, and Riverdeep. Our mission is based on the "Horizon of Learning," a vision for inspiring learning across a continuum of educational experiences. The programs form a continuum of educational experiences for elementary youth through adult learners. The strategic plan for the programs will evolve to reflect evolving national educational needs, changes within NASA, and emerging system initiatives. Plans for each program component include goals, objectives, learning outcomes, and rely on sound business models. It is well documented that if technology is used properly it can be a powerful partner in education. Our programs employ both advances in information technology and in effective pedagogy to produce a broad range of materials to complement and enhance other educational efforts. Collectively, the goals of the five programs are to increase educational excellence; enhance and enrich the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology; increase scientific and technological literacy; and communicate the results of NASA discovery, exploration, innovation and research
Narasimhamurthy, Uma; Al Shawkani, Khuloud
This article describes a model for teaching Java Programming Language through Dynamic Learning Objects. The design of the learning objects was based on effective learning design principles to help students learn the complex topic of Java Programming. Visualization was also used to facilitate the learning of the concepts. (Contains 1 figure and 2…
Jang, Keum-Seong; Kim, Yun-Min; Park, Soon-Joo
This study sought to evaluate the feasibility of applying the blended learning program that combines the advantages of face-to-face(FTF) learning and e-learning. The blended learning program was developed by the authors and implemented for 4 weeks. 56 senior nursing students were recruited at a university in Korea. Significant improvement was noted in learning achievement. No significant differences were noted between FTF and web-based learning in learning motivation. Learning satisfaction and students' experience in taking this course revealed some positive effects of blended learning. The use of blended learning program for undergraduate nursing students will provide an effective learning model.
Chu, Hui-Chin; Hsieh, Mei-Chi; Chang, Shan-Chih
The study aimed at investigating the relationships among career development, learning motivation, and learning satisfaction of adult learners in master's programs at S University. Questionnaires were distributed with 211 valid returns (71%). The results indicated that some of the demographics are factors affecting both of the learners' learning…
Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.
One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings relating to handicapped and gifted children, the bibliography contains 96 references selected from Exceptional Child Education Abstracts concerning programing for children with learning disabilities. References include conference papers, journal articles, texts for parents and teachers, and…
Rivas, Olivia; Jones, Irma S.; Pena, Eli E.
Assessment, accountability, and strategic planning are all processes that are included in accreditation for colleges and universities. For most colleges and universities, starting the reaffirmation process means identifying current assessment practices and reports from academic units and programs. This paper discusses the lessons learned during a…
Wagner, Stephen Allen
This basic qualitative study, using interviews and document analysis, examined reflections from a Work Based Learning (WBL) program to understand how utilizing digital collaborative communication tools influence the educational experience. The Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework was used as a theoretical frame promoting the examination of the…
"Game Maker" is widely used in UK secondary schools, yet under-researched in that context. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative case study that explores how authoring computer games using "Game Maker" can support the learning of basic programming concepts in a mainstream UK secondary setting. The research draws on…
Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.
This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…
Dean, Rebecca J.; Dagostino, Lorraine
This article explores the possible intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that community college students may bring with them into the classroom. It examines how these motivational factors affect students' learning inside and outside the community college classroom walls. The motivational factors such as mastery, self-determination,…
Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather
This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…
Kessler, Ronald P.
John Bowlby's theory of affectional bonding and the reformulated learned helplessness theory of depression were integrated into a multivariate model in order to expand the breadth of current attributional theories of depression. This retrospective study focused upon the quality of parent-child relations, the types of discipline parents employed,…
Gold, Benjamin P; Frank, Michael J; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira
Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy.
Benjamin P Gold
Full Text Available Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB, and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy.
Gold, Benjamin P.; Frank, Michael J.; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira
Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy. PMID:23970875
Existing research programs in field-based geocognition include assessment of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains. Assessment of the affective domain often involves the use of instruments and techniques uncommon to the geosciences. Research regarding the affective domain also commonly results in the collection and production of qualitative data that is difficult for geoscientists to analyze due to their lack of familiarity with these data sets. However, important information about students’ affective responses to learning in field environments can be obtained by using these methods. My research program focuses on data produced by students’ affective responses to field-based learning environments, primarily among students at the introductory level. For this research I developed a Likert-scale Novelty Space Survey, which presents student ‘novelty space’ (Orion and Hofstien, 1993) as a polygon; the larger the polygons, the more novelty students are experiencing. The axises for these polygons correspond to novelty domains involving geographic, social, cognitive, and psychological factors. In addition to the Novelty Space Survey, data which I have collected/generated includes focus group interviews on the role of recreational experiences in geology field programs. I have also collected data concerning the motivating factors that cause students to take photographs on field trips. The results of these studies give insight to the emotional responses students have to learning in the field and are important considerations for practitioners of teaching in these environments. Collaborative investigations among research programs that cross university departments and include multiple institutions is critical at this point in development of geocognition as a field due to unfamiliarity with cognitive science methodology by practitioners teaching geosciences and the dynamic nature of field work by cognitive scientists. However, combining the efforts of cognitive
Weng, Cathy; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Weng, Apollo
Drawing from the social influence theory and acknowledging that the others' support within the work context affects employees' learning, values, and behaviours, an alternative framework was proposed to explain employees' learning satisfaction and future intention to participate in e-training programs in the current study. 578 survey data collected…
Ray, Ronald J.; Fobel, Laura J.; Brignola, Michael P.
Once a "Troubled Project" threatened with cancellation, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Program has overcome many difficult challenges and recently achieved its first light images. To achieve success, SOFIA had to overcome significant deficiencies in fundamental Systems Engineering identified during a major Program restructuring. This presentation will summarize the lessons learn in Systems Engineering on the SOFIA Program. After the Program was reformulated, an initial assessment of Systems Engineering established the scope of the problem and helped to set a list of priorities that needed to be work. A revised Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) was written to address the new Program structure and requirements established in the approved NPR7123.1A. An important result of the "Technical Planning" effort was the decision by the Program and Technical Leadership team to re-phasing the lifecycle into increments. The reformed SOFIA Program Office had to quickly develop and establish several new System Engineering core processes including; Requirements Management, Risk Management, Configuration Management and Data Management. Implementing these processes had to consider the physical and cultural diversity of the SOFIA Program team which includes two Projects spanning two NASA Centers, a major German partnership, and sub-contractors located across the United States and Europe. The SOFIA Program experience represents a creative approach to doing "System Engineering in the middle" while a Program is well established. Many challenges were identified and overcome. The SOFIA example demonstrates it is never too late to benefit from fixing deficiencies in the System Engineering processes.
Leptien, Jennifer R.
This chapter addresses strengths and difficulties encountered in implementing transfer learning community models and how efficacy is supported through transfer learning community programming. Transfer programming best practices and recommendations for program improvements are presented.
Walvoord, Barbara E.
Discusses these aspects of accelerated learning program assessment: defining learning goals, selecting instruments to evaluate performance, establishing relationships between performance and other factors, and improving performance and programs using evaluation data. (SK)
Wentao, Chen; Jinyu, Zhang; Zhonggen, Yu
English for Library Science is an essential course for students to command comprehensive scope of library knowledge. This study aims to compare the learning outcomes, gender differences and affective factors in the environments of blended and traditional learning. Around one thousand participants from one university were randomly selected to…
Scharff, Jill Savege; Scharff, David E
This paper describes The Group Affective Model, a method for teaching psychoanalytic concepts and their clinical application, using multi-channel teaching, process and review in group settings, and learning from experience in an open systems learning community for psychoanalysts and psychotherapists. This innovation arose in response to criticism of existing methods in psychoanalytic education that have subordinated the primary educational task to that of the training analysis. Noticing this split between education and training analysis, between cognition and affect, and between concepts of individual and group unconscious processes, we developed the Group Affective Model for teaching and learning psychoanalysis and psychotherapy in an open psychological space in which students and faculty experience individual and group processes of digestion, assimilation, and review, which demonstrate the concepts in action and make them available for internalization selectively. We discuss our philosophy and our educational stance. We describe our institution and our participants. We give examples of teaching situations that we have studied to provide some insight about assimilation and internalization of the concepts and clinical approaches being taught. We discuss the transferability of the Group Affective Model to other teaching settings and psychoanalytic training institutions and propose it as the fourth pillar of psychoanalytic training, next to analytic treatment, clinical supervision, and didactic seminars. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Bowden, William R.
Summer programs that experiment with combining media literacy and social-emotional learning can potentially affect students' academic performance. Based on a six-week program, working with rising eighth grade students in a low-income school district, this program allowed students to work on media projects while trying to develop stronger…
Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Shadiev, Rustam; Wang, Chin-Yu; Huang, Zhi-Hua
In this study we proposed a web-based programming assisted system for cooperation (WPASC) and we also designed one learning activity for facilitating students' cooperative programming learning. The aim of this study was to investigate cooperative programming learning behavior of students and its relationship with learning performance. Students'…
... Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education... new awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television Program. We have extended the deadline for...'' with the date ``June 22, 2010.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Ready-to-Learn Television Program...
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Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, J.
This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by ‘learning technology by
Voogt, Joke; Agyei, Douglas; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael
This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning in utilizing Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program characterized by ‘learning technology by collaborative design’
The DOE Lessons Learned Handbook is a two-volume publication developed to supplement the DOE Lessons Learned Standard (DOE-STD-7501-95) with information that will organizations in developing or improving their lessons learned programs. Volume 1 includes greater detail than the Standard in areas such as identification and documentation of lessons learned; it also contains sections on specific processes such as training and performance measurement. Volume 2 (this document) contains examples of program documents developed by existing lessons learned programs as well as communications material, functional categories, transmittal documents, sources of professional and industry lessons learned, and frequently asked questions about the Lessons Learned List Service.
Derégnaucourt, Sébastien; Mitra, Partha P; Fehér, Olga; Pytte, Carolyn; Tchernichovski, Ofer
Sleep affects learning and development in humans and other animals, but the role of sleep in developmental learning has never been examined. Here we show the effects of night-sleep on song development in the zebra finch by recording and analysing the entire song ontogeny. During periods of rapid learning we observed a pronounced deterioration in song structure after night-sleep. The song regained structure after intense morning singing. Daily improvement in similarity to the tutored song occurred during the late phase of this morning recovery; little further improvement occurred thereafter. Furthermore, birds that showed stronger post-sleep deterioration during development achieved a better final imitation. The effect diminished with age. Our experiments showed that these oscillations were not a result of sleep inertia or lack of practice, indicating the possible involvement of an active process, perhaps neural song-replay during sleep. We suggest that these oscillations correspond to competing demands of plasticity and consolidation during learning, creating repeated opportunities to reshape previously learned motor skills.
Adams, Peter; Gearhart, Sarah; Miller, Robert; Roberts, Anne
This article reports on the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP), a new model of basic writing that has produced dramatic successes for the basic writing program at the Community College of Baltimore County. Borrowing from mainstreaming programs, studio courses, fast track programs, and learning communities, ALP, for four consecutive semesters, has…
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Planning programs affecting..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.15 Planning... flood hazards and floodplain management and wetlands protection; and (b) Prescribes planning procedures...
Weiss, Caroline R.; Jamieson, Nancy B.
Surveyed 88 female participants of community-based age-integrated water exercise program designed to enhance comfort and social interaction. Affective measures and observation of membership as a support group elicited few differences by age. Members endorsed having age integration in classes and there was little indication that subgroups of…
Brey, Amanda M.
External stakeholders have demanded evidence that college students learn what their institutions and programs say they will learn (Ewell, 2009; Hutchings 2010; Kuh, 2001). As the architects of curriculum and the defenders of academic freedom, faculty are responsible for any initiatives that may affect those pedagogical goals (Kuh, et al., 2015).…
Chick, Nancy; Karis, Terri; Kernahan, Cyndi
This interdisciplinary project examined how students think and feel about their learning in race-related diversity courses. Students in four classes (literature, psychology, geography) reflected on cognitive and affective dimensions of their own and their classmates' learning. The Color Blind Racial Attitudes Scales (CoBRAS) confirmed qualitative…
Full Text Available This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003 studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study includes 3,250 teachers who had participated in eighty individual professional development1 activities within these studies. Teachers were surveyed at least three months after participating in an activity, which provided them with the opportunity to gauge the impact of programs on their practice. To investigate factors affecting impact, a theoretical model was developed based on recent research into the characteristics of effective professional development and tested using blockwise regression analysis. The model included contextual factors (e.g., school support, structural features of programs (e.g. ,length, process features (e.g., emphasis on content; active learning; examination of student work; feedback; follow-up, a mediating variable (level of professional community generated, and four outcome measures (knowledge; practice; student learning and efficacy. Consistent significant direct effects were found across the four studies for the impact of content focus, active learning, and follow-up on knowledge and professional community. Feedback was rarely incorporated into program design. Impact on efficacy was strongly related to the perceived impact of activities on teachers' practice and student learning outcomes.
Trecca, Fabio; Bleses, Dorthe; Madsen, Thomas O.
Previous research has shown that Danish-learning children lag behind in early lexical acquisition compared with children learning a number of other languages. This delay has been ascribed to the opaque phonetic structure of Danish, which appears to have fewer reliable segmentation cues than other...... closely related languages. In support of this hypothesis, recent work has shown that the phonetic properties of Danish negatively affect online language processing in young Danish children. In this study, we used eye-tracking to investigate whether the challenges associated with processing Danish also...... with a familiar one), through carrier phrases with different phonetic structures (more vs less opaque). Our results showed two main trends. First, Danish-learning children performed poorly on the task of mapping novel labels onto novel objects. Second, when learning did occur, accuracy was affected...
Muennig, Peter; Rosen, Zohn; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty
During the 1990s reforms to the US welfare system introduced new time limits on people's eligibility to receive public assistance. These limits were developed to encourage welfare recipients to seek employment. Little is known about how such social policy programs may have affected participants' health. We explored whether the Florida Family Transition Program randomized trial, a welfare reform experiment, led to long-term changes in mortality among participants. The Florida program included a 24-36-month time limit for welfare participation, intensive job training, and placement assistance. We linked 3,224 participants from the experiment to 17-18 years of prospective mortality follow-up data and found that participants in the program experienced a 16 percent higher mortality rate than recipients of traditional welfare. If our results are generalizable to national welfare reform efforts, they raise questions about whether the cost savings associated with welfare reform justify the additional loss of life.
Leadership is a skill that can be learned through professional development, mentoring, and leadership development programs. In Ontario, the Teacher Learning and Leadership Program (TLLP) helps educators develop their leadership skills through a Ministry of Education--funded project that addresses student learning needs in their classrooms. This…
Meyer, Jessica E; Arnett, Peter A
This study evaluated the Affective Word List (AWL), a measure designed to assess affective bias, as a measure of verbal learning and memory in the context of baseline concussion evaluations. The AWL was developed to assess affective bias in order to circumvent the tendency of some examinees to minimize self-report of depression symptoms. However, because it is designed as a traditional list-learning task, the cognitive indices of the AWL have the added potential to be used as measures of verbal learning and memory. It would be useful to have a performance-based measure that is sensitive to both the affective and cognitive consequences of concussion. Participants from a university-based sports concussion program were used to evaluate the descriptive statistics and distribution of the AWL and its convergent and discriminant validity. A separate sample of undergraduate students, active in intramural or club athletics, served as participants for a delayed alternate-form reliability study. All reliability and validity results were compared with those of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing Verbal Memory Composite (ImPACT-VM). Results of this study showed that the cognitive indices of the AWL have normal distributions, and its four forms are equivalent. The AWL demonstrated moderate delayed alternate-form reliability, moderate convergent validity with other measures of verbal learning and memory, and strong discriminant validity with measures of processing speed and reaction time. Results of this study suggest that the AWL may have clinical utility as a measure of verbal learning and memory in concussion management and research.
A pilot program was developed for gifted learning-disabled students, based on the Enrichment Triad Model. Learning behaviors, time on task, and motivation showed marked improvement as the grade four-five students completed individual creative projects. Described are procedures for identifying program participants, program activities, and program…
Trecca, Fabio; Bleses, Dorthe; Madsen, Thomas O.
Previous research has shown that Danish-learning children lag behind in early lexical acquisition compared with children learning a number of other languages. This delay has been ascribed to the opaque phonetic structure of Danish, which appears to have fewer reliable segmentation cues than other...... by the phonetic opacity of the speech stimuli. We suggest that this finding results from the interplay of a perceptually challenging speech input and a slower onset of early vocabulary experience, which in turn may delay the onset of word learning skills in Danish-learning children....... closely related languages. In support of this hypothesis, recent work has shown that the phonetic properties of Danish negatively affect online language processing in young Danish children. In this study, we used eye-tracking to investigate whether the challenges associated with processing Danish also...
Falter, Rebecca A.; Pignotti-Dumas, Karla; Popish, Sarah J.; Petrelli, Heather M.W.; Best, Mark A.; Wilkinson, Julie J.
Objective. To implement a service learning program in nutrition and assess its impact on pharmacy students' communication skills and professionalism and elementary school children's knowledge of nutrition concepts.
Falter, Rebecca A; Pignotti-Dumas, Karla; Popish, Sarah J; Petrelli, Heather M W; Best, Mark A; Wilkinson, Julie J
To implement a service learning program in nutrition and assess its impact on pharmacy students' communication skills and professionalism and elementary school children's knowledge of nutrition concepts...
For a better understanding of all computer programs, with which nowadays we are surrounded, the demand for knowing programming languages has nowadays been growing. As more and more people have been interested in learning programming languages, even the basic knowledge of only one programming language is very helpful. As there are nowadays already many programming languages, we decided for the programming language Python. It is anticipated as a programming language which is easy to read an...
Full Text Available We examined the association of faces with biographical information that varied in emotional content in patients with Alzheimer's disease and a healthy control group. During two experimental sessions, participants rated neutral male faces on dimensions of hedonic valence and emotional arousal, later paired with fictitious biographical information. Both groups changed their ratings of the faces according to the biographical content. Free recall and recognition were tested in the second session. Patients neither recalled the biographical information nor recognized the faces, whereas the controls did. In addition, psychophysiological measures were taken in response to the face stimuli. Patients showed significant heart rate modulation as a function of their emotion ratings, whereas the controls did not. No correlation of rating changes with skin conductance was found in any group. Results suggest that psychophysiological reactions such as heart rate changes may indicate preserved affective associative learning in dementia patients despite impaired explicit memory.
Blessing, Andreas; Keil, Andreas; Gruss, L Forest; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Dammann, Gerhard; Martin, Mike
We examined the association of faces with biographical information that varied in emotional content in patients with Alzheimer's disease and a healthy control group. During two experimental sessions, participants rated neutral male faces on dimensions of hedonic valence and emotional arousal, later paired with fictitious biographical information. Both groups changed their ratings of the faces according to the biographical content. Free recall and recognition were tested in the second session. Patients neither recalled the biographical information nor recognized the faces, whereas the controls did. In addition, psychophysiological measures were taken in response to the face stimuli. Patients showed significant heart rate modulation as a function of their emotion ratings, whereas the controls did not. No correlation of rating changes with skin conductance was found in any group. Results suggest that psychophysiological reactions such as heart rate changes may indicate preserved affective associative learning in dementia patients despite impaired explicit memory.
McGowan, Ragen T S; Rehn, Therese; Norling, Yezica; Keeling, Linda J
Animals may experience positive affective states in response to their own achievements. We investigated emotional responses to problem-solving in dogs, separating these from reactions to rewards per se using a yoked control design. We also questioned whether the intensity of reaction would vary with reward type. We examined the response (behavior and heart rate) of dogs as they learned to gain access to different rewards: (1) food (2) human contact, and (3) dog contact. Twelve beagles were assigned to matched pairs, and each dog served as both an experimental and a control animal during different stages of the experiment. We trained all dogs to perform distinct operant tasks and exposed them to additional devices to which they were not trained. Later, dogs were tested in a new context. When acting as an experimental dog, access to the reward was granted immediately upon completion of trained operant tasks. When acting as a control, access to the reward was independent of the dog's actions and was instead granted after a delay equal to their matched partner's latency to complete their task. Thus, differences between the two situations could be attributed to experimental dogs having the opportunity to learn to control access to the reward. Experimental dogs showed signs of excitement (e.g., increased tail wagging and activity) in response to their achievements, whereas controls showed signs of frustration (e.g., chewing of the operant device) in response to the unpredictability of the situation. The intensity of emotional response in experimental dogs was influenced by the reward type, i.e., greatest response to food and least to another dog. Our results suggest that dogs react emotionally to problem-solving opportunities and that tail wagging may be a useful indicator of positive affective states in dogs.
Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh
provide specific assignments and individual contributions from each group member. Cognitive as well as social benefits are expected, as students clarify their own understanding and share their insights and ideas with each other as they interact within the group (Deutsch, 1949).Experiments in the science laboratory have always required students to work in groups of two to four, due to the constraints of experimental processes and limited equipment and sup- plies. Thus, science courses are a natural curriculum area for examining cooperative learning practices. Now that cooperative methods are being refined to develop particular capabilities in the students, science teachers need to examine ways of structuring specific tasks to achieve the academic, affective, and socialization goals for their students. Although most of the studies of cooperative learning in the high school science classroom have centered around the cognitive outcomes of achievement testing and process skills, affective and social outcomes are also significant with students of this age. But few studies in science classes have attempted to assess such aspects of students' progress.As part of a previous revision, the science faculty at the high school where this study was conducted developed an exemplary individualized mastery learning (1ML) program for teaching science. This program seemed to alleviate the severe motivational problems and the extreme individual differences among the students in this rural/bhe-collar community. Students learned to work independently on their science studies. They had almost no lectures and few large group activities. As they worked through their assignments, however, they were free to interdct with other students. Looking in on a typical class, one would see several clusters of two or three students working together, sometimes tutoring each other, sometimes just talking through an assignment. Yet at least half of the class members would be working all alone. The importance of
Tolosa, Constanza; Ordóñez, Claudia Lucía; Guevara, Diana Carolina
We present findings of a project that investigated the potential of an online tandem program to enhance the foreign language learning of two groups of school-aged beginner learners, one learning English in Colombia and the other learning Spanish in New Zealand. We assessed the impact of the project on students' learning with a free writing…
Hayes, Paul; Weibelzahl, Stephan; Hall, Tim
Learning in the affective domain includes the manner by which people deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations and attitudes. While out-of-class communication between instructors and students can impact all types of student learning it has its greatest impact on student affective learning. One…
Johan Muliadi Kerta
Full Text Available Online learning has become a way to improve efficiency in the learning process without reducing the quality of learning itself. Colleges that run it hope that the program becomes an attraction for prospective students, especially those with limitation to follow the regular program. The goal of this research was to find out whether Binus Online Learning Program has any influence to the competitive advantage of Binus University. Data were compiled by distributing questionnaires to 100 respondents consist of the students and lecturers on Binus Online Learning Program. This thesis is based on a quantitative methodology to gather and analyze the data to find out if they were any correlation between Online Learning Program and the competitive advantage of Binus University. It can be concluded that there are some positive and significant influences of Online Learning Program to the competitive advantage of Binus University. Therefore, promoting and developing Online Learning Program will increase the competitive advantage of Binus University, and cover the target market which regular programs do not.
Aber, J Lawrence; Tubbs, Carly; Torrente, Catalina; Halpin, Peter F; Johnston, Brian; Starkey, Leighann; Shivshanker, Anjuli; Annan, Jeannie; Seidman, Edward; Wolf, Sharon
Improving children's learning and development in conflict-affected countries is critically important for breaking the intergenerational transmission of violence and poverty. Yet there is currently a stunning lack of rigorous evidence as to whether and how programs to improve learning and development in conflict-affected countries actually work to bolster children's academic learning and socioemotional development. This study tests a theory of change derived from the fields of developmental psychopathology and social ecology about how a school-based universal socioemotional learning program, the International Rescue Committee's Learning to Read in a Healing Classroom (LRHC), impacts children's learning and development. The study was implemented in three conflict-affected provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and employed a cluster-randomized waitlist control design to estimate impact. Using multilevel structural equation modeling techniques, we found support for the central pathways in the LRHC theory of change. Specifically, we found that LRHC differentially impacted dimensions of the quality of the school and classroom environment at the end of the first year of the intervention, and that in turn these dimensions of quality were differentially associated with child academic and socioemotional outcomes. Future implications and directions are discussed.
Hayes, Barry; Ringwood, John
The past decade has seen the proliferation of e-learning and distance learning programs across a wealth of discipline areas. In order to preserve maximum flexibility in outreach, student assessment based exclusively on remotely submitted work has become commonplace. However, there is also growing evidence that e-learning also provides increased opportunity for plagiarism with obvious consequences for learning effectiveness. This paper reports on the development of a prototype student...
Guasch, Teresa; Espasa, Anna; Alvarez, Ibis; Kirschner, Paul A.
Guasch, T., Espasa, A., Alvarez, I., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 31 May). How does feedback and peer feedback affect collaborative writing in a virtual learning environment? Presentation at a Learning & Cognition meeting, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands, Heerlen, The Netherlands.
Nan L. Travers and Marnie T. Evans
Full Text Available Over the past two decades, American institutions have been expected to include systematic program reviews to meet accrediting standards, either by independent or governmental review agencies. Program evaluation is critical for several reasons: it provides systematic ways to assess what needs improvement or what needs changing and it provides ways to validate practices, whether to internal or external audiences (Mishra, 2007. Most program evaluative models are focused on academic programs, which don’t fit the uniqueness of prior learning assessment programs. This paper proposes an evaluative framework for prior learning assessment programs, which takes into account the type of work within prior learning assessment programs and uses program portfolios, similar to how students are asked to document their work.
Fazeli, Seyed Hossein
The present study aims at discovering the impact of personality traits in the prediction use of the Affective English Language Learning Strategies (AELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language. Four instruments were used, which were Adapted Inventory for Affective English Language Learning Strategies based on Affective category of…
Full Text Available Planning older adult learning programs is really a complex work. Program planners go through different learning stages and accumulate experiences to be able to undertake the task alone. This study aimed to explore the experiential learning process of older adult learning program planners who work in the Active Ageing Learning Centers (AALCs. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with seven program planners. The findings of this study were identified as follows. 1 Before being a program planner, the participants’ knowledge results from grasping and transforming experience gained from their family, their daily lives and past learning experiences; 2 after being a program planner, the participants’ experiential learning focused on leadership, training in the institute, professional development, as well as involvement in organizations for elderly people; and 3 the participants’ experiential learning outcomes in the older adult learning program planning include: their ability to reflect on the appropriateness and fulfillment of program planning, to apply theoretical knowledge and professional background in the field, and to make plans for future learning and business strategies.
Tan, Meng; Hew, Khe Foon
In this study, we investigated how the use of meaningful gamification affects student learning, engagement, and affective outcomes in a short, 3-day blended learning research methods class using a combination of experimental and qualitative research methods. Twenty-two postgraduates were randomly split into two groups taught by the same…
Schreurs, Bernard G.
A rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease including beta amyloid accumulation and learning and memory changes. Although we have shown that feeding 2% cholesterol and adding copper to the drinking water can retard learning, other studies have shown that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition and feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explore the devel...
Scherer, Klaus R; Ellgring, Heiner
In earlier work, the authors analyzed emotion portrayals by professional actors separately for facial expression, vocal expression, gestures, and body movements. In a secondary analysis of the combined data set for all these modalities, the authors now examine to what extent actors use prototypical multimodal configurations of expressive actions to portray different emotions, as predicted by basic emotion theories claiming that expressions are produced by fixed neuromotor affect programs. Although several coherent unimodal clusters are identified, the results show only 3 multimodal clusters: agitation, resignation, and joyful surprise, with only the latter being specific to a particular emotion. Finding variable expressions rather than prototypical patterns seems consistent with the notion that emotional expression is differentially driven by the results of sequential appraisal checks, as postulated by componential appraisal theories. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Suci Utami Putri
Full Text Available The Curriculum 2013 for primary school education which is now applied in Indonesia put emphasis on thematic learning model using the scientific approach. The application of this curriculum has raised certain concerns on teachers and student teachers of primary school. The lack of confidence and the lack of mastery of science concepts by student teachers, especially those whose major are nonscience department have the potential to affect the quality of thematic science teaching when they carry out their duties in the future. Development of in-depth understanding from science material training program and its relevance to the curriculum 2013 using blended learning model can be one of the ways to overcome these problems. Blended learning is a learning strategy that combines offline or online interaction with face-to-face learning interaction. The training programs for in-depth understanding of science material using blended learning models is expected to increase the self-confidence, mastery of science concepts, and the ability to design a thematic science learning for elementary school student teachers. Keywords: science material training program, blended learning, preservice teacher program.
Whittle, Christopher Henry
The purpose of the present dissertation is to determine whether the viewing of two particular prime-time television programs, ER and The X-Files, increases viewer knowledge of science and to identify factors that may influence learning from entertainment television programming. Viewer knowledge of scientific dialogue from two science-based prime-time television programs, ER, a serial drama in a hospital emergency room and The X-Files, a drama about two Federal Bureau of Investigation agents who pursue alleged extraterrestrial life and paranormal activity, is studied. Level of viewing, education level, science education level, experiential factors, level of parasocial interaction, and demographic characteristics are assessed as independent variables affecting learning from entertainment television viewing. The present research involved a nine-month long content analysis of target television program dialogue and data collection from an Internet-based survey questionnaire posted to target program-specific on-line "chat" groups. The present study demonstrated that entertainment television program viewers incidentally learn science from entertainment television program dialogue. The more they watch, the more they learn. Viewing a pseudoscientific fictional television program does necessarily influence viewer beliefs in pseudoscience. Higher levels of formal science study are reflected in more science learning and less learning of pseudoscience from entertainment television program viewing. Pseudoscience learning from entertainment television programming is significantly related to experience with paranormal phenomena, higher levels of viewer parasocial interaction, and specifically, higher levels of cognitive parasocial interaction. In summary, the greater a viewer's understanding of science the more they learn when they watch their favorite science-based prime-time television programs. Viewers of pseudoscience-based prime-time television programming with higher levels
Teng, Chih-Ching; Luo, Yu-Ping
This study investigates how students perceived social loafing and social interdependence influence group learning performance through group affective tone in undergraduate hospitality and tourism curricula...
Full Text Available This paper presents a programming education support method based on Agile Development that encourages and builds on communication between students. Through mutual discussion, students using our approach transform their ideas into software and cooperate to write a program. The students complete the software through repetition and programming. Before completing the software program, the students learn to solve problems by working together. The students are encouraged to think and share ideas, and gain experience writing software. With this approach, students not only learn how to write programs, but also increase their logical thinking, problem-solving, and communication skills.
Full Text Available This semi-experimental study aims to examine the impact of a learning environment that uses interactive electronic textbook on the affective learning of prospective mathematics teachers. The study group consisted of 64 prospective teachers attending the Mathematics Teaching program at Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey. For 14 weeks, experimental group received the Development and Learning course in a blended learning environment, in which an interactive e-textbook was used inside and outside the classroom. In this period, only face to face education was conducted with the control group in the classroom environment. A course attitude scale and a blended learning environment satisfaction scale were employed for the purpose of data collection. In addition, observations were conducted with both of the groups during the application. The analysis of the findings indicated that there was a significant increase between pre- and post-course attitude scores of experimental group students, the students were satisfied with the learning environment formed, and the electronic text book increased interest in the course.Key Words: Interactive electronic textbook, prospective mathematics teachers, blended learning model, affective learning
The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning
We survey the literature about the teaching and learning of recursive programming. After a short history of the advent of recursion in programming languages and its adoption by programmers, we present curricular approaches to recursion, including a review of textbooks and some programming methodology, as well as the functional and imperative…
Verdu, Elena; Regueras, Luisa M.; Verdu, Maria J.; Leal, Jose P.; de Castro, Juan P.; Queiros, Ricardo
Several Web-based on-line judges or on-line programming trainers have been developed in order to allow students to train their programming skills. However, their pedagogical functionalities in the learning of programming have not been clearly defined. EduJudge is a project which aims to integrate the "UVA On-line Judge", an existing…
A study was conducted to gather information about the use of microcomputers within the learning disabilities (LD) programs in California community colleges. Surveys were sent to all 106 two-year colleges in the state, requesting information on the number of students enrolled in LD programs, the kind and number of computers used in the LD programs,…
Thweatt, Katherine S.; Wrench, Jason S.
Mortier, Teresa; Yatczak, Jayne
Understanding student learning in health science professional programs is both timely and relevant and is the focus of this article. "The Table of Learning" by Lee Shulman (2002) provided a tool for an interdisciplinary reflection surrounding student learning in clinical laboratory science and occupational therapy. Utilizing the taxonomy…
Glassner, Amnon; Eran-Zoran, Yael
The study presents a new pedagogical idea and practice for educational practitioners. The practice was developed as a workshop of MA program in order to change and expand the meaning of education for the wellbeing of the community. The "place-based learning" workshop combined action learning (AL) with project-based learning (PBL). The…
Miller, Julie; Berkey, Becca; Griffin, Francis
As the number of international students studying in the United States continues to grow, the body of literature about service-learning in English Language Learning (ELL) curricula is growing in tandem. The primary goal of this paper is to explore how service-learning impacts the development and transition of pathway program students in the United…
Strang, Aimee F; Baia, Patricia
Objective. To investigate published, peer-reviewed literature on pharmacy teaching and learning development programs and to synthesize existing data, examine reported efficacy and identify future areas for research. Methods. Medline and ERIC databases were searched for studies on teaching development programs published between 2001 and 2015. Results. Nineteen publications were included, representing 21 programs. Twenty programs were resident teaching programs, one program described faculty development. The majority of programs spanned one year and delivered instruction on teaching methodologies and assessment measures. All except one program included experiential components. Thirteen publications presented outcomes data; most measured satisfaction and self-perceived improvement. Conclusion. Published literature on teacher development in pharmacy is focused more on training residents than on developing faculty members. Although programs are considered important and highly valued by program directors and participants, little data substantiates that these programs improve teaching. Future research could focus on measurement of program outcomes and documentation of teaching development for existing faculty members.
Objective. To investigate published, peer-reviewed literature on pharmacy teaching and learning development programs and to synthesize existing data, examine reported efficacy and identify future areas for research. Methods. Medline and ERIC databases were searched for studies on teaching development programs published between 2001 and 2015. Results. Nineteen publications were included, representing 21 programs. Twenty programs were resident teaching programs, one program described faculty development. The majority of programs spanned one year and delivered instruction on teaching methodologies and assessment measures. All except one program included experiential components. Thirteen publications presented outcomes data; most measured satisfaction and self-perceived improvement. Conclusion. Published literature on teacher development in pharmacy is focused more on training residents than on developing faculty members. Although programs are considered important and highly valued by program directors and participants, little data substantiates that these programs improve teaching. Future research could focus on measurement of program outcomes and documentation of teaching development for existing faculty members. PMID:27293226
Benjamin P Gold; Frank, Michael J.; Brigitte eBogert; Elvira eBrattico
Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the p...
Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.
Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they wer...
Dobish, Melisa; Griffiths, Jacqueline; Meyer, Richard
This study examines the impact of implementing the professional development program, Keeping Learning on Track (KLT), on teaching and learning in a rural school in a Midwestern state. KLT was a program developed by Dylan William and his colleagues at the Educational Training Service and published by the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA).…
Harris, Lisa; Jones, Martyn; Coutts, Sally
The paper describes and analyses the design and implementation of a higher education student placement program in the community services sector. Principally ideas about partnerships and social learning informed the design. The placement program represents a significant innovation in work-integrated learning, achieved through collaboration between…
Schreurs, Bernard G
A rabbit model of Alzheimer's disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease including beta amyloid accumulation and learning and memory changes. Although we have shown that feeding 2% cholesterol and adding copper to the drinking water can retard learning, other studies have shown that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition and feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explore the development of this model, the issues surrounding the role of copper, and the particular contributions of the late D. Larry Sparks.
Bernard G. Schreurs
Full Text Available A rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease including beta amyloid accumulation and learning and memory changes. Although we have shown that feeding 2% cholesterol and adding copper to the drinking water can retard learning, other studies have shown that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition and feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explore the development of this model, the issues surrounding the role of copper, and the particular contributions of the late D. Larry Sparks.
Kazemi, Donna; Behan, Jennifer; Boniauto, Maria
A service-learning component was added to the existing preceptor practicum program at the University of North Carolina Charlotte's School of Nursing (UNCC SON) in the fall of 2007 for nursing students in the community health nursing (CHN) practicum course. The preceptorship model is commonly used in undergraduate nursing education. The aim of this study was to improve teaching strategies in the existing school health nursing (SHN) preceptor program by the addition of a service-learning community partnership. Adding the service-learning component was based on the Polvika model. A total of 27 nursing students and 33 preceptors participated in the study. Percentages, means, standard deviations, and rankings were used to analyze the data. The participants completed a multiple-choice survey and ranked a list of tasks. The students were able to fulfill their task responsibilities, and the service-learning preceptor program was cost effective for the SHN preceptors through hours saved by the nursing students. The preceptor role is associated with many factors, including perceived burden, which affects their willingness to work with students. The findings demonstrated that service learning is an effective teaching strategy in the CHN nursing students' learning by fostering the preceptors' benefits, rewards, support, and commitment to the role. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Putnam, Jennifer D.
This dissertation was designed to examine the degree to which the fidelity of implementation of the Renaissance Learning program impacts teacher instruction, as well as teacher perception of student reading motivation and achievement. The teachers at a western North Carolina elementary school used the Renaissance Learning program for over 15…
Full Text Available Laptop learning programs have been developed to create ubiquitous online learning environments. Given the infancy of many programs, there is little understanding of aspects of the program are perceived to provide value to faculty and students. This paper focuses on the value proposition (with respect to perceived benefits versus capital investment for undergraduate students in a mandatory, campus-wide, comprehensive laptop learning program. Results indicate that the perceived value of the laptop for technical programs such as science, engineering, and information technology, and liberal arts programs such as business and criminology, justice, and policy studies are significantly different. This difference results in a clear need to use different laptop learning models for each type of program and that a single campus-wide model will likely prove unsatisfactory for most students. A need to better communicate the true value of industry-specific software and skills acquisition is also highlighted.
Peruso, Florence Mary
The current quantitative study measured the perceptions of students towards online-only learning and towards blended-hybrid learning. Descriptive statistics were implemented to analyze the data from a Likert-type survey, administered to students in degree-seeking programs at an institution of higher learning. A "t"-test and…
Rubin, Sharon G.
Full institutionalization of experiential learning programs remains a major challenge for educators. Their reasons for resistance to change and strategies for overcoming it are discussed. A checklist for change agents is provided. (MLW)
Full Text Available Both learning how to program and understanding algorithms or data structures are often difficult. This paper presents three complementary approaches that we employ to help our students in learning to program, especially during the first term of their study. We use a web-based programming task database as an easy and risk-free environment for taking the first steps in programming Java. The Animal algorithm visualization system is used to visualize the dynamic behavior of algorithms and data structures. We complement both approaches with tutorial videos on using the Eclipse IDE. We also report on the experiences with this combined approach.
Hao-Chiang Koong Lin; Sheng-Hsiung Su; Ching-Ju Chao; Cheng-Yen Hsieh; Shang-Chin Tsai
This study aims to design a non-simultaneous distance instruction system with affective computing, which integrates interactive agent technology with the curricular instruction of affective design...
Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción
Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…
Khanna, Maya M.; Cortese, Michael J.; Birchwood, Katharine S.
In two experiments we examined how children's nonword pronunciations are influenced by learning words. In Experiment 1, children pronounced nonwords before and after learning words sharing orthographic rimes with the nonwords. These rimes varied in spelling-to-sound consistency and regularity. Children's nonword pronunciations were more sensitive…
Klopp, Eric; Stark, Robin; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.
The acquisition of diagnostic competence is seen as a major goal during the course of study in medicine. One innovative method to foster this goal is problem-based learning with erroneous worked examples provided in a computer learning environment. The present study explores the relationship of attitudinal, emotional and cognitive factors for…
Lim, Byung-Ro; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara
Can use of technology make a difference in student learning? Although a considerable literature describes its advantages in conceptual terms, research documenting its effective use in this context is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a graduate-level Web design activity on student attitudes toward learning. Students…
With the vast array of contextual factors, pedagogical approaches, models of implementation, and purposes of education and training related to online learning, educators, learners, and the general public alike are seeking answers regarding utility and effectiveness of online learning. This article identifies and responds to many of the challenges…
May 2, 2016 ... Under the project, IDRC grantee IT for Change (ITfC), isimplementing action research on a professional learning communities(PLCs) model for collaborative creation of open educational resources ... Teachers across 34 districts have learned to use digital tools and resources in their classroom teaching.
Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor
Educational TV has been consistently linked to children's learning. In this research, educational TV characteristics were identified, coded, and tested for their influence on children's program-specific comprehension and vocabulary outcomes. Study 1 details a content analysis of TV features including a program's macrostructure (i.e., narrative or expository) and learning strategies embedded in the macrostructure that support learning in print-based contexts. In Study 2, regression analyses were used to predict outcomes involving 71 second and third graders (average age=7.63 years). Strategies were categorized as organizing, rehearsing, elaborating, or affective in function. Outcomes were uniformly higher for narrative macrostructures. Strategies used in narratives predicted relatively homogenous relations across outcomes, whereas strategies in expositories predicted quite heterogeneous relations across outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
da Costa, Fábio Reis; Pelissari, Anderson Soncini
New information technologies enable different interactions in the educational environment, affecting how the image of educational institutions adopting distance-learning programmes is perceived. This article identifies factors affecting the perception of corporate image from the viewpoint of distance-learning students at public higher education…
Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi
This article focuses specifically on one type of undergraduate intervention and its contribution to facilitating success for women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM): the living-learning program (LLP). LLPs are a type of learning community best described as curricular linkages designed to provide students with a deeper and…
Djenic, S.; Krneta, R.; Mitic, J.
This paper presents an advanced variant of learning programming by the use of the Internet and multimedia. It describes the development of a blended learning environment, which, in addition to classroom (face-to-face) lessons, introduces lessons delivered over the Internet: the use of multimedia teaching material with completely dynamic…
Compton, David A.; Compton, Cynthia M.
The authors describe an intensive graduate program involving compressed classroom preparation followed by a period of experiential activities designed to reinforce and enhance the knowledge base. Beginning with a brief review of the andragogical issues, they describe methods undertaken to track learning styles via the Kolb Learning Styles…
Rotatori, Anthony J.; And Others
A school-based diet program for learning disabled children stresses modifying eating behavior by learning alternative ways of interacting with the environment. Techniques stress the importance of self regulation, strategies for self monitoring, the establishment of realistic weight goals, use of stimulus control procedures, increased physical…
Weinfeld, Rich; Barnes-Robinson, Linda; Jeweler, Sue; Shevitz, Betty
This article discusses a comprehensive program for gifted students with learning disabilities in Maryland's Montgomery Country Public Schools (MCPS). MCPS has developed special self-contained classes for gifted students with severe learning disabilities while those with moderate and mild disabilities receive gifted instruction and services in…
Afterschool Alliance, 2015
Afterschool programs have been among the pioneers in applying a connected learning approach-creating a learning environment for students that builds on their interests; introduces them to new passions; provides mentors and a supportive peer network; and links this engagement to academics, careers and civic participation. This report, discusses the…
Asmara, Candra Hadi; Anwar, Khoirul; Muhammad, Ribeh Najib
The aim of this study was to investigate EFL learners' perception of an outdoor learning program, called English Scout Organization which was developed to strengthen their students' interests in learning English at secondary school. For this purpose, the 20 secondary school students in YPI Darussalam Cerme Gresik, Indonesia, were given…
Henrichsen, Lynn; Tanner, Mark
This article shares the results of a multisemester effort to create learning outcomes and related assessment measures for a graduate-level teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) teacher preparation program. It starts by explaining what learning outcomes are, why they are important, and how to create them. It then describes the…
Although e-learning has been thoroughly presented and analysed in recent years, this paper aims to present a new concept, about web-based learning used as a tool to provide "products' education" for customers, and the ways enterprises of the financial sector, may use it in order to promote their brand name and services by affecting crucial factors…
Thompson, Laetitia L; Claus, Eric D; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Banich, Marie T; Crowley, Thomas; Krmpotich, Theodore; Miller, David; Tanabe, Jody
Negative reinforcement results in behavior to escape or avoid an aversive outcome. Withdrawal symptoms are purported to be negative reinforcers in perpetuating substance dependence, but little is known about negative reinforcement learning in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine reinforcement learning in substance dependent individuals (SDI), with an emphasis on assessing negative reinforcement learning. We modified the Iowa Gambling Task to separately assess positive and negative reinforcement. We hypothesized that SDI would show differences in negative reinforcement learning compared to controls and we investigated whether learning differed as a function of the relative magnitude or frequency of the reinforcer. Thirty subjects dependent on psychostimulants were compared with 28 community controls on a decision making task that manipulated outcome frequencies and magnitudes and required an action to avoid a negative outcome. SDI did not learn to avoid negative outcomes to the same degree as controls. This difference was driven by the magnitude, not the frequency, of negative feedback. In contrast, approach behaviors in response to positive reinforcement were similar in both groups. Our findings are consistent with a specific deficit in negative reinforcement learning in SDI. SDI were relatively insensitive to the magnitude, not frequency, of loss. If this generalizes to drug-related stimuli, it suggests that repeated episodes of withdrawal may drive relapse more than the severity of a single episode. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, Charles Frederick
Lessons learned are more in vogue today than at any time in our history. You can’t tune into a news broadcast without hearing a reference to the concept – and for good reason. People are finally accepting the idea that they may be able to benefit from the experiences of others. Corporations, government departments, and even the military are actively using lessons learned information to help them to achieve their varied goals. The Department of Energy is one of the government departments that has a Lessons Learned Program and requires its contractors to develop a program of their own. Unfortunately, adequate guidance is not available to enable contractors to design a fully mature program (i.e., a program that will immediately meet their every need) and to ensure that it is implemented such that it will be deemed acceptable during subsequent assessments. The purpose of this paper is to present the reader with information that might help him or her better plan and develop a new or upgraded Lessons Learned Program. The information is based on the actual development and implementation of a “second generation” lessons learned program and is presented as a chronicle of the steps taken to build the rudimentary system and the subsequent events and problems that led to the programs present-day configuration.
Wu, Xi Vivien; Chan, Yah Shih; Tan, Kimberlyn Hui Shing; Wang, Wenru
Nurse preceptors guide students to integrate theory into practice, teach clinical skills, assess clinical competency, and enhance problem solving skills. Managing the dual roles of a registered nurse and preceptor poses tremendous challenges to many preceptors. Online learning is recognized as an effective learning approach for enhancing nursing knowledge and skills. The systematic review aims to review and synthesise the online learning programs for preceptors. A systematic review was designed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Programs. Articles published between January 2000 and June 2016 were sought from six electronic databases: CINAHL, Medline OVID, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. All papers were reviewed and quality assessment was performed. Nine studies were finally selected. Data were extracted, organized and analysed using a narrative synthesis. The review identified five overarching themes: development of the online learning programs for nurse preceptors, major contents of the programs, uniqueness of each program, modes of delivery, and outcomes of the programs. The systematic review provides insightful information on educational programs for preceptors. At this information age, online learning offers accessibility, convenience, flexibility, which could of great advantage for the working adults. In addition, the online platform provides an alternative for preceptors who face challenges of workload, time, and support system. Therefore, it is paramount that continuing education courses need to be integrated with technology, increase the flexibility and responsiveness of the nursing workforce, and offer alternative means to take up courses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jutharat Changthong; Lampang Manmart; Chollabhas Vongprasert
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the different learning styles of Thai youths and their information behavior at a time where rapidly developing information and communication...
Altintas, Tugba; Gunes, Ali; Sayan, Hamiyet
Peer learning or, as commonly expressed, peer-assisted learning (PAL) involves school students who actively assist others to learn and in turn benefit from an effective learning environment. This research was designed to support students in becoming more autonomous in their learning, help them enhance their confidence level in tackling computer…
Meyer, Stephen J.
Research in correctional education has focused on examining outcomes for participants and identifying principles and guidelines that reflect best practice. Relatively few studies have focused on postsecondary education programs and fewer still have sought to relate program implementation to student outcomes to inform program design and improve…
This paper looks critically at the Responsive Classroom (RC) program, a social/emotional learning program used ubiquitously in elementary schools for teacher and student training, in the US as well as in Australia, the UK, and other parts of Western Europe. The paper examines empirical studies on RC's efficacy and outcomes, many of which were…
Teachers may benefit more from a professional learning community (PLC) than from professional development initiatives presented in single day workshops. The purpose of this program evaluation study was to identify characteristics of an effective PLC and to determine how the members of the PLC have benefitted from the program. Fullan's educational…
Madsen, Wendy; O'Mullan, Cathy; Keen-Dyer, Helen
Leadership programs have been extensively promoted in rural communities in Australia. However, few have been evaluated. The results of the evaluation of a rural leadership program provided in this paper highlight the need for adult learning theories to be more overtly identified and utilised as the basis of planning and implementing leadership…
Wang, Yanlin; Crooks, Steven M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how social cues associated with the personalization and embodiment principles in multimedia learning affect the learning and attitude of students studying the culture of a foreign language. University students were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions that consisted of an…
Liao, Aries Meng-Wei
The understanding of the factors impacting MSW students' interests and motivation to learn child welfare competencies, and how they affect learning transfer of the subject is important for the development of a knowledgeable, competent, and committed workforce that serves children and families in the United States. Practitioners need to attain…
Bell, Randy L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Binns, Ian C.
This investigation explores the effectiveness of a teacher preparation program aligned with situated learning theory on preservice science teachers' use of technology during their student teaching experiences. Participants included 26 preservice science teachers enrolled in a 2-year Master of Teaching program. A specific program goal was to…
Nossal, S. M.; Watson, L. E.; Jacob, A. T.; Reading, J. A.
The Physics Learning Program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides a supportive learning environment for introductory physics students potentially at-risk for having academic trouble or for feeling isolated at the University. Physics is a gateway course for many undergraduate science majors such as biology, physics, geophysics, atmospheric science, and astronomy, and for pre-health professions. Many students struggle with their physics courses due to factors including large class sizes, isolation and lack of study partners, and/or lack of confidence in mathematical problem solving skills. Our students include those with learning disabilities, no high school physics, weak math backgrounds, and/or on academic probation. We also work with students who may be feeling isolated, such as students from historically underrepresented racial and ethnic groups, first generation college students, returning adults, international students, and students from small rural schools. Many of our students are also part of retention programs such as the TRIO program, the Academic Advancement Program, the McNair Scholars Program, and the McBurney Disability Resource Center. The Physics Learning Program's Peer Mentor Tutor program is run in conjunction with similar programs for chemistry and biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin. We will discuss strategies we use for creating an inclusive learning environment that engages students in their learning. Such strategies include small group instruction, ongoing training of the tutors, teaching problem solving skills, and creating a welcoming atmosphere.
Full Text Available According to the training literature, a supervisor's role in training programs has two major elements: supervisor support and supervisor communication. The ability of supervisors to play effective roles in training programs may increase employees' motivation to learn. The nature of this relationship is interesting, but the role of supervisor's role as a predicting variable is less emphasized in a training program models. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the effect of supervisor's role in training programs on motivation to learn using 152 usable questionnaires gathered from non-academic employees who have worked in a technological based public university, Malaysia. The outcomes of stepwise regression analysis showed that the supervisor support and supervisor communication significantly associated with motivation to learn. Statistically, this result demonstrates that supervisor's role in training programs does act as an important predictor of motivation to learn in the organizational sample. In addition, discussion, implication and conclusion are elaborated.
Anicic, Obrad; Jović, Srđan; Skrijelj, Hivzo; Nedić, Bogdan
Heat affected zone (HAZ) of the laser cutting process may be developed based on combination of different factors. In this investigation the HAZ forecasting, based on the different laser cutting parameters, was analyzed. The main goal was to predict the HAZ according to three inputs. The purpose of this research was to develop and apply the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) to predict the HAZ. The ELM results were compared with genetic programming (GP) and artificial neural network (ANN). The reliability of the computational models were accessed based on simulation results and by using several statistical indicators. Based upon simulation results, it was demonstrated that ELM can be utilized effectively in applications of HAZ forecasting.
Arora, Ritu; Goel, Sanjay
Most software development is carried out by teams of software engineers working collaboratively to achieve the desired goal. Consequently software development education not only needs to develop a student's ability to write programs that can be easily comprehended by others and be able to comprehend programs written by others, but also the ability…
Mahdan, D.; Kamaludin, M.; Wendi, H. F.; Simanjuntak, M. V.
The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT), especially the internet, computers and communication devices requires the innovation in learning; one of which is Blended Learning. The concept of Blended Learning is the mixing of face-to-face learning models by learning online. Blended learning used in the learner teacher program organized by the Indonesian department of education and culture that a program to improve the competence of teachers, called “Guru Pembelajar” (GP). Blended learning model is perfect for learning for teachers, due to limited distance and time because online learning can be done anywhere and anytime. but the problems that arise from the implementation of this activity are many teachers who do not follow the activities because teachers, especially the elderly do not want to follow the activities because they cannot use computers and the internet, applications that are difficult to understand by participants, unstable internet connection in the area where the teacher lives and facilities and infrastructure are not adequate.
Rufer, Rosalyn; Adams, Ruifang Hope
It has well been established that it is important to be able to leverage any organization's processes and core competencies to sustain its competitive advantage. Thus, one learning objective of an online MBA is to teach students how to apply the VRIO (value, rarity, inimitable, operationalized) model, developed by Barney and Hesterly (2006), in…
Gollan, Jackie K; Norris, Catherine J; Hoxha, Denada; Irick, John Stockton; Hawkley, Louise C; Cacioppo, John T
Detecting and learning the location of unpleasant or pleasant scenarios, or spatial affect learning, is an essential skill that safeguards well-being (Crawford & Cacioppo, 2002). Potentially altered by psychiatric illness, this skill has yet to be measured in adults with and without major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD). This study enrolled 199 adults diagnosed with MDD and AD (n=53), MDD (n=47), AD (n=54), and no disorders (n=45). Measures included clinical interviews, self-reports, and a validated spatial affect task using affective pictures (IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005). Participants with MDD showed impaired spatial affect learning of negative stimuli and irrelevant learning of pleasant pictures compared with non-depressed adults. Adults with MDD may use a "GOOD is UP" heuristic reflected by their impaired learning of the opposite correlation (i.e., "BAD is UP") and performance in the pleasant version of the task.
Full Text Available This article presents the factors affecting the integration of information literacy in the teaching and learning processes of general education courses at an undergraduate level, where information literacy is used as a tool in the student-centered teaching approach. The research was divided into two phases: (1 The study of factors affecting at a policy level – a qualitative research method conducted through an in-depth interview of the vice president for academic affairs and the Director of the General Education Management Center, and (2 The survey of factors affecting in the teaching and learning processes, which is concluded through the questioning of lecturers of general education courses, and librarians. The qualitative data was analyzed on content, and the quantitative data was analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics, weight of score prioritization and percentage. Two major categories were found to have an impact on integrating information literacy in the teaching and learning of general education courses at an undergraduate level. (1 Six factors at a policy level, namely, institutional policy, administrative structure and system, administrators’ roles, resources and infrastructures, learning resources and supporting programs, and teacher evaluation and development. (2 There are eleven instructional factors: roles of lecturers, roles of librarians, roles of learners, knowledge and understanding of information literacy of lecturers and librarians, cooperation between librarians and lecturers, learning outcomes, teaching plans, teaching methods, teaching activities, teaching aids, and student assessment and evaluation.
Full Text Available This study is designed to identify which competencies have predictive relationship with knowledge sharing in virtual learning team in distance education. The study was conducted with 1,355 distance education students at undergraduate and graduate levels. This study suggests that loyalty, integrity, cooperativeness and trust have statistically significant predictive relationship with knowledge sharing. The results of the study have implications for instructional designers and instructors to design learning environments and to provide instruction in virtual classrooms by taking into consideration the impact of the identified variables on knowledge sharing.
It is well documented that Augmented Reality (AR) enhances and supports learning. Earlier research compares AR applications with existing methods. Published research typically focuses on one AR in general. Nevertheless, there are different ways of using AR. This paper gives further insight into how to use AR as a learning tool as part of a museum experience. It focuses on AR through smartphones, where the world is measured through the phone’s sensors and the virtual content is displayed on th...
Dall, Timothy M; Askarinam Wagner, Rachel C; Zhang, Yiduo; Yang, Wenya; Arday, David R; Gantt, Cynthia J
To share outcomes and lessons learned from an evaluation of disease management (DM) programs for asthma, congestive heart failure (CHF), and diabetes for TRICARE patients. Multiyear evaluation of participants in voluntary, opt-out DM programs. Patient-centered programs, administered by 3 regional contractors, provide phone-based consultations with a care manager, educational materials, and newsletters. The study sample consisted of 23,793 asthma, 4092 CHF, and 29,604 diabetes patients with at least 6 months' tenure in the program. Medical claims were analyzed to quantify program effect on healthcare utilization, medical costs, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate regression analysis with an historical control group was used to predict patient outcomes in the absence of DM. The difference between actual and predicted DM patient outcomes was attributed to the program. A patient survey collected data on program satisfaction and perceived usefulness of program information and services. Modest improvements in patient outcomes included reduced inpatient days and medical costs, and (with few exceptions) increased percentages of patients receiving appropriate medications and tests. Annual per patient reductions in medical costs were $453, $371, and $783 for asthma, CHF, and diabetes program participants, respectively. The estimated return on investment was $1.26 per $1.00 spent on DM services. Findings suggest that the DM programs more than pay for themselves, in addition to improving patient health and quality of life. Lessons learned in program design, implementation, effectiveness, and evaluation may benefit employers contemplating DM, DM providers, and evaluators of DM programs.
Liu, Allison; Newsom, Jeff; Schunn, Chris; Shoop, Robin
Schools everywhere are using robotics education to engage kids in applied science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) activities, but teaching programming can be challenging due to lack of resources. This article reports on using Robot Virtual Worlds (RVW) and curriculum available on the Internet to teach robot programming. It also…
... providing teachers with regular and ongoing opportunities for structured collaboration and planning can be a... increasing the amount of time regularly provided to teachers for common planning and collaboration during the... personalization strategies, such as student advisories, family advocate systems, and mentoring programs. Program...
Ramirez, Beatriz U.
Second-year undergraduate students from 2008, 2009, and 2010 cohorts were asked to respond a questionnaire to determine their learning style preferences, the VARK questionnaire (where V is visual, A is aural, R is reading-writing, and K is kinesthetic), which was translated into Spanish by the author. The translated questionnaire was tested for…
(Dugger and Naik, 2001; Hansbøl 2013). The Theory of Science MOOC project is a subproject within the larger ongoing Project Learning without Boarders (LUG) 2013-2014. The Theory of Science MOOC project aims to develop educational design principles for Multiple Open Online Courses (MOOCs) for Danish...
Katz, Yaacov J.; Yablon, Yaacov B.
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to examine the efficiency of SMS based cell-phone vocabulary learning as compared to email vocabulary delivery and snail mail vocabulary delivery at the university level. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 241 first year university students studied English vocabulary in their mandatory English foundation…
Pi, Z.; Hong, J.; Yang, J.
One of the most commonly used forms of video lectures is a combination of an instructor's image and accompanying lecture slides as a picture-in-picture. As the image size of the instructor varies significantly across video lectures, and so do the learning outcomes associated with this technology, the influence of the instructor's image size should…
Hazari, Sunil; Thompson, Sandra
With the widespread popularity of distance learning, there is a need to investigate elements of online courses that continue to pose significant challenges for educators. One of the challenges relates to creating and managing group projects. This study investigated business students' perceptions of group work in online classes. The constructs of…
In productive classrooms, teachers do not just teach children skills: they build emotionally and relationally healthy learning communities. Teachers create intellectual environments that produce not only technically competent students, but also caring, secure, actively literate human beings. Choice Words shows how teachers accomplish this using…
Danielle Ribeiro Ganda
Full Text Available Self-regulation is the process by which individuals monitor, control, and reflect on their learning. Self-regulated students have motivational, metacognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that enhance their learning. As the importance of self-regulated learning is well acknowledged by research nowadays, the aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an innovative course designed to promote self-regulated learning among Brazilian preservice student teachers. The innovative approach was developed in the format of a program of intervention based heavily on self-reflection. The content involved student exposure to self-reflexive activities, lectures on the self-regulated learning framework, and theoretical tasks aimed at fostering self-regulation of students in a double perspective: as a student and as a future teacher. The efficacy of the approach was tested by comparison with both the results of students who had taken a course with theoretical content only and those who had not taken any course at all. The sample consisted of 109 students in 4 different freshman classes in a Teacher Education Program in a Brazilian public university in an inner city in the state of São Paulo. The research was conducted using a quasi-experimental design with three stages: pretest, intervention, and posttest. The classes were randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions as follows: an experimental group involving intervention, an experimental group exposed to theory, and two control groups not taking the course. Before and after the intervention program, all the participants responded to the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory and the Self-efficacy for Self-regulated Learning scales. Overall, the results showed that the intervention program format had a positive impact in enhancing student self-regulation. Moreover, students in both the experimental groups reported both higher gains in self-efficacy for self-regulated learning
Mobile devices and applications are expected to have a significant impact on teaching and learning in the near future. Yet colleges and universities are currently facing severe budget constraints and discretionary funding is restricted for new initiatives. The question addressed in this paper is: "What strategy should an institution of higher…
Alvarez Manilla, J M
The article is based on three facts. One is that at the present day the computer is tending to be used in all fields, including that of education. The second is that, when a new teaching device appears, the first tendency is to add it to the stock of existing devices, which fails to extract the full benefit from the new device. The third is that for the educator, the computer is an alien and in many cases an unintelligible instrument, the mastery of which requires time which he does not have at his disposal. The author proposes a number of teaching strategies for initiation of the educator who wishes to use the computer in support of some teaching-learning process, and as a bridge between the educator and the computer programmer. To this end he proposes routine, formative evaluation, simulation and game strategies. The routine strategies, as their name indicates, use the repetition of a central learning practice. The formative evaluation is based on the principle of providing the subject with immediate information on his performance of a task in order to improve his efficiency. Simulation promotes learning by changing the values of one or more variables in a situation and verifying the effects. The game, apart from its intrinsic purpose, results in learning through the immediate manipulation of objects and the immediate circumstances in which it takes place.
Mishra, Kirtishri; Snow-Lisy, Devon C; Ross, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David A; Goldman, Howard; Campbell, Steven C
To address the challenges that today's trainees encounter, such as information overload and reduced immersion in the field, and recognizing their preference for novel educational resources, an electronic case-based urology learning program was developed. Each case was designed to illustrate the basic principles of the disease process and the fundamentals of evaluation and management using the Socratic method, recapitulating a prototypical patient encounter. A 21-question survey was developed after review of published reports of classroom and clinical learning environment surveys. The target group was 2 pilot urology training programs (the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals-Case Medical Center). The responses were entirely anonymous. A total of 32 trainees participated (8 fellows and 24 residents), representing a 53% response rate. Most trainees (79%) were able to process cases within an average of ≤ 10 minutes. Of the trainees, 91% reported referring back to particular cases for patient care, to review for examinations, or for studying. Most trainees believed a case-based urology learning program would be a potentially important resource for clinical practice (69%) and for preparing for the in-service (63%) or board (69%) examinations. Most trainees believed the program met its goals of illustrating the basics principles of the disease process (88%), outlining the fundamentals of evaluation and management (94%), and improving the trainees' knowledge base (91%). An electronic case-based urology learning program is feasible and useful and stimulates learning at all trainee levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Landry, John M.
This quantitative study utilized the VARK learning style preference assessment instrument to examine how full-time sworn law enforcement officers learn and attempted to identify a predominant learning style preference among the participants. The primary question was: Which is the dominant learning style preference of full-time sworn law…
Scogin, Stephen C.; Kruger, Christopher J.; Jekkals, Regan E.; Steinfeldt, Chelsea
Standardized testing pressure sometimes discourages schools from broadly implementing experiential learning opportunities. However, some K-12 schools are challenging the trend with greater commitment to learning by experience. STREAM (science, technology, reading, engineering, arts, mathematics) school is a project-based program providing students…
This study is designed to identify which competencies have predictive relationship with knowledge sharing in virtual learning team in distance education. The study was conducted with 1,355 distance education students at undergraduate and graduate levels. This study suggests that loyalty, integrity, cooperativeness and trust have statistically significant predictive relationship with knowledge sharing. The results of the study have implications for instructional designers and instructors to de...
Full Text Available The present study attempted to investigate the role of using word games in L2 vocabulary acquisition. 12 female participants from Uludag University were selected for control and experimental groups. Additionally, 35 participants from different universities in Turkey were invited to attend the study. First, an online questionnaire about the effect of games on vocabulary learning was administered to 35 participants. And results were analysed. Secondly, 12 female participants were divided into two groups as control group and experimental group. Both groups were taught certain words, however, a word game known as “Bingo” were utilized for the experimental group. Finally, a vocabulary quiz was administered to both groups to determine the differences between them. The scores obtained from vocabulary quiz showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in vocabulary quiz. Even so, there was not a significant difference between the results of the quiz. Similarly, the findings of the questionnaire indicated that the participants preferred learning through vocabulary games rather than traditional way. Also, the findings revealed that games reduce negative feelings during the learning process. It was suggested that teachers should reconsider the role of games and appreciate their educational value.
Rhatigan, Jennifer L. (Editor)
This document (Volume I) provides an executive summary of the lessons learned from the Constellation Program. A companion Volume II provides more detailed analyses for those seeking further insight and information. In this volume, Section 1.0 introduces the approach in preparing and organizing the content to enable rapid assimilation of the lessons. Section 2.0 describes the contextual framework in which the Constellation Program was formulated and functioned that is necessary to understand most of the lessons. Context of a former program may seem irrelevant in the heady days of new program formulation. However, readers should take some time to understand the context. Many of the lessons would be different in a different context, so the reader should reflect on the similarities and differences in his or her current circumstances. Section 3.0 summarizes key findings developed from the significant lessons learned at the program level that appear in Section 4.0. Readers can use the key findings in Section 3.0 to peruse for particular topics, and will find more supporting detail and analyses in Section 4.0 in a topical format. Appendix A contains a white paper describing the Constellation Program formulation that may be of use to readers wanting more context or background information. The reader will no doubt recognize some very similar themes from previous lessons learned, blue-ribbon committee reviews, National Academy reviews, and advisory panel reviews for this and other large-scale human spaceflight programs; including Apollo, Space Shuttle, Shuttle/Mir, and the ISS. This could represent an inability to learn lessons from previous generations; however, it is more likely that similar challenges persist in the Agency structure and approach to program formulation, budget advocacy, and management. Perhaps the greatest value of these Constellation lessons learned can be found in viewing them in context with these previous efforts to guide and advise the Agency and its
Brodersen, R. Marc; Melluzzo, Daniel
This report summarizes the methodology, measures, and findings of research on the influence on student achievement outcomes of K-12 online and blended face-to-face and online learning programs that offer differentiated learning options. The report also describes the characteristics of the learning programs. Most of the examined programs used…
Lotrecchiano, G R; McDonald, P L; Lyons, L; Long, T; Zajicek-Farber, M
This field report outlines the goals of providing a blended learning model for an interdisciplinary training program for healthcare professionals who care for children with disabilities. The curriculum blended traditional face-to-face or on-site learning with integrated online interactive instruction. Credit earning and audited graduate level online coursework, community engagement experiences, and on-site training with maternal and child health community engagement opportunities were blended into a cohesive program. The training approach emphasized adult learning principles in different environmental contexts integrating multiple components of the Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities Program. This paper describes the key principles adopted for this blended approach and the accomplishments, challenges, and lessons learned. The discussion offers examples from training content, material gathered through yearly program evaluation, as well as university course evaluations. The lessons learned consider the process and the implications for the role of blended learning in this type of training program with suggestions for future development and adoption by other programs.
Full Text Available In recent years, many tools have been proposed to reduce programming learning difficulties felt by many students. Our group has contributed to this effort through the development of several tools, such as VIP, SICAS, OOP-Anim, SICAS-COL and H-SICAS. Even though we had some positive results, the utilization of these tools doesn’t seem to significantly reduce weaker student’s difficulties. These students need stronger support to motivate them to get engaged in learning activities, inside and outside classroom. Nowadays, many technologies are available to create contexts that may help to accomplish this goal. We consider that a promising path goes through the integration of solutions. In this paper we analyze the features, strengths and weaknesses of the tools developed by our group. Based on these considerations we present a new environment, integrating different types of pedagogical approaches, resources, tools and technologies for programming learning support. With this environment, currently under development, it will be possible to review contents and lessons, based on video and screen captures. The support for collaborative tasks is another key point to improve and stimulate different models of teamwork. The platform will also allow the creation of various alternative models (learning objects for the same subject, enabling personalized learning paths adapted to each student knowledge level, needs and preferential learning styles. The learning sequences will work as a study organizer, following a suitable taxonomy, according to student’s cognitive skills. Although the main goal of this environment is to support students with more difficulties, it will provide a set of resources supporting the learning of more advanced topics. Software engineering techniques and representations, object orientation and event programming are features that will be available in order to promote the learning progress of students.
This case study briefly explores how an online, multimedia learning module based on a Cognitive Apprenticeship higher level pedagogy can positively affect students achieving the learning outcomes of a Constructivist project-based curriculum in a blended e-business management program in the Middle East. The cohort in this program is nonnative…
Full Text Available Introduction. Lifelong learning (LLL is an intentional learning that people engage in throughout their lives for personal and professional fulfillment and to improve the quality of their lives. Develop the capability for lifelong learning in Higher Education is important to facilitate the incorporation of new graduates to work. To this end, we have designed a program on "Lifelong learning competencies for Higher Education students', which we have applied to students at University of San Diego, California, USA and to the University of Distance Education, Spain. Methodology. We have presented the program by means a workshop where the debate and the reflection played one important strategy. To check the program’s achievements we used mixed methodologies, according to the evaluative research. We applied one questionnaire, and together to a practice and the students' personal portfolio, they enabled us to assess the program effectiveness, satisfaction and impact. Results. The comparison of the answers in the questionnaire, before and after of the workshops sing that students improved in their knowledge and awareness about the importance of LLL and key competencies for their profession development plan. Discussion. The program contributes to improve key competencies and commitment to learning throughout the people’s lives.
Rogo, Ellen J; Portillo, Karen M
The literature abounds with research related to building online communities in a single course; however, limited evidence is available on this phenomenon from a program perspective. The intent of this qualitative case study inquiry was to explore student experiences in a graduate dental hygiene program contributing or impeding the development and sustainability of online learning communities. Approval from the IRB was received. A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants from a stratification of students and graduates. A total of 17 participants completed semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was completed through 2 rounds - 1 for coding responses and 1 to construct categories of experiences. The participants' collective definition of an online learning community was a complex synergistic network of interconnected people who create positive energy. The findings indicated the development of this network began during the program orientation and was beneficial for building a foundation for the community. Students felt socially connected and supported by the network. Course design was another important category for participation in weekly discussions and group activities. Instructors were viewed as active participants in the community, offering helpful feedback and being a facilitator in discussions. Experiences impeding the development of online learning communities related to the poor performance of peers and instructors. Specific categories of experiences supported and impeded the development of online learning communities related to the program itself, course design, students and faculty. These factors are important to consider in order to maximize student learning potential in this environment. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Kilic-Cakmak, Ebru; Karatas, Sercin; Ocak, Mehmet Akif
There are many factors that affect the e-learning process. Instructor, assessment and evaluation, communication, and technical support are among the leading factors. It is obvious that these factors influence the effectiveness of e-learning and may be related to different expectations of e-learners. Therefore, this study focuses on examining the…
This study sought to examine instructor immediacy and presence in an online learning environment in relation to student affective learning, cognition, and motivation. It found a statistically significant positive relationship between instructor immediacy and presence. It also found that the linear combination of instructor immediacy and presence…
Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim
This paper presents the voice emotion recognition part of the FILTWAM framework for real-time emotion recognition in affective e-learning settings. FILTWAM (Framework for Improving Learning Through Webcams And Microphones) intends to offer timely and appropriate online feedback based upon learner's vocal intonations and facial expressions in order…
Fryer, Ashley-Kay; Tucker, Anita L; Singer, Sara J
Recent literature suggests that middle manager affective commitment (emotional attachment, identification, and involvement) to an improvement program may influence implementation success. However, less is known about the interplay between middle manager affective commitment and frontline worker commitment, another important driver of implementation success. We contribute to this research by surveying middle managers who directly manage frontline workers on nursing units. We assess how middle manager affective commitment is related to their perceptions of implementation success and whether their perceptions of frontline worker support mediate this relationship. We also test whether a set of organizational support factors foster middle manager affective commitment. We adapt survey measures of manager affective commitment to our research context of hospitals. We surveyed 67 nurse managers from 19 U.S. hospitals. We use hierarchical linear regression to assess relationships among middle manager affective commitment to their units' falls reduction program and their perceptions of three constructs related to the program: frontline worker support, organizational support, and implementation success. Middle manager affective commitment to their unit's falls reduction program is positively associated with their perception of implementation success. This relationship is mediated by their perception of frontline worker support for the falls program. Moreover, middle managers' affective commitment to their unit's falls program mediates the relationship between perceived organizational support for the program and perceived implementation success. We, through this research, offer an important contribution by providing empirical support of factors that may influence successful implementation of an improvement program: middle manager affective commitment, frontline worker support, and organizational support for an improvement program. Increasing levels of middle manager affective
This study is focused on the relationships among learning styles, participation types, and learning performance for programming language learning supported by an online forum. Kolb's learning style inventory was used in this study to determine a learner's learning type: "Diverger", "Assimilator", "Converger", and "Accommodator". Social Learning…
Baars, Martine; Wijnia, Lisette; Paas, Fred
Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale), motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation), mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels). In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.
Full Text Available Self-regulated learning (SRL skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation, mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels. In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.
Baars, Martine; Wijnia, Lisette; Paas, Fred
Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale), motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation), mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels). In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way. PMID:28848467
Rosenholtz, Susan J.
Identifies critical dimensions of the social organization of schools associated with teachers' commitment: rewards, task autonomy and discretion, learning opportunities, and efficacy. Suggests policy recommendations necessary to develop a successful teacher induction program. (RJC)
Full Text Available Development of any graduate program is an extensive and timely process. Once the development phase is complete the program continues into the implementation phase. The implementation phase of a hybrid delivered program can present with many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation and challenges of delivering a hybrid graduate program. This is a follow-up paper to "Developing a Hybrid Graduate Program," . This follow-up will provide information from both a faculty and graduate student perspective. Challenges of implementation, lessons learned, and future program delivery recommendations will also be presented. R. Sturgill, J. Wilson, and J.C. Andersen, "Developing a Hybrid Graduate Program," Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics, and Informatics, Vol. 12, No. 7, 2014, pp. 22-24.
Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan meningkatkan pengetahuan bidang studi (content knowledge sebagai unsur pembentuk kompetensi mahasiswa calon guru matematika dengan pembelajaran blended learning. Pengetahuan bidang studi dalam hal ini disebut hasil belajar. Desain penelitian menggunakan kuasi eksperimen karena akan membandingkan pengaruh suatu perlakuan. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan tes. Untuk uji persyaratan normalitas, digunakan uji Kolmogorov-Smirnov, sedangkan uji homogenitas digunakan uji Levene. Untuk mengetahui perbedaan rerata, digunakan uji-t jika data berdistribusi normal. Sementara, jika data tidak berdistribusi normal digunakan uji Mann-Whitney. Hasil tes akhir pembelajaran dibandingkan untuk mengetahui pengaruh blended learning terhadap hasil belajar. Hasil pengolahan data menunjukkan bahwa hasil belajar kelas blended learning lebih baik daripada kelas biasa. Selain itu, mahasiswa blended learning lebih aktif mengerjakan tugas daripada kelas biasa. Kata Kunci: blended learning, calon guru matematika, content knowledge A BLENDED LEARNING MODEL IN THE MATHEMATICS EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM IN UNTIRTA Abstract:This study was aimed to improve the content knowledge as an element for developing students’ competence through blended learning. In this study, this content knowledge is called learning achievement. The study used the experimental design. The data were collected using a test. To test the normality of data distribution, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was utilized, while to test the homogeneity of the variances, the Levene’s test was used. To test the hypothesis, the t-test was used. The findings showed that the learning achievement of the students taught using blended learning was better than that of those taught using the conventional method. In addition, the students taught using the blended learning were more active in doing the assignment than those in the conventional class. Kata Kunci: blended learning
Trujillo, Gloriana; Tanner, Kimberly D.
Conceptual learning is a uniquely human behavior that engages all aspects of individuals: cognitive, metacognitive, and affective. The affective domain is key in learning. In this paper, that authors have explored three affective constructs that may be important for understanding biology student learning: self-efficacy--the set of beliefs that one…
Gerhardt, Jill; Olan, Michael
This article describes our experience with peer tutoring in introductory programming courses. This tutoring concept was one of the integral support services out of five student services, which were part of a National Science Foundation Grant, designed to improve education, increase retention, improve professional development and employability, and…
Calabrese, Raymond L.; Shoho, Alan
Presents a model for overcoming traditional, culturally rooted resistance to change in educational administration programs. The systems model offered proceeds from the premise that reflective awareness is the starting point for change. Aligning the operator, engineer, and executive cultures within a university enables the development of a…
Richards, Jan S.
The US student population is increasing; consequently, 50,000 additional teachers will be needed within the next ten years. Overcrowded teacher education programs in traditional universities cannot guarantee the availability of necessary classes, however, and students desiring a teaching credential anticipate an extended time frame for credential…
Colton, Don; Curtis, Aaron
Programming is a fundamental skill for Information Systems and Information Technology students. It is also a subject that some students fear, avoid, fail, retake, and fail again. An effective, inexpensive, one-semester approach is presented. Early indications suggest dramatically improved student interest and performance compared to our previous…
This study examined the relationships among group size, participation, and learning performance factors when learning a programming language in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) context. An online forum was used as the CSCL environment for learning the Microsoft ASP.NET programming language. The collaborative-learning experiment…
Witchalls, Jeremy B; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Blanch, Peter
1. To determine whether individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have lower proprioception sensitivity scores from a test on the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus (AMEDA). 2. To determine whether individuals with CAI can improve proprioception sensitivity scores with repeated active movement testing using the AMEDA. 3. To assess the test-retest reliability of the AMEDA. A cohort study comparing those with CAI or healthy ankles. University clinical laboratory. 61 healthy university students, 36 with CAI, 25 with stable ankles. A 2-way ANOVA was conducted to compare performance of CAI and stable ankle groups, over 3 test repetitions on the AMEDA. The reliability intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was obtained for test repetitions. The scores improved in both groups when the AMEDA test was repeated (p = proprioception test scores differed, with the CAI group showing a slower learning rate than the stable ankle group (p = 0.047). The ICC for the whole group across the three trials was 0.80 (95% CI = 0.69 to 0.87, p = proprioception scores more slowly upon repeated AMEDA testing, suggesting differences in learning strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Get the hands-on experience you need to program for the iPhone and iPod Touch. With this easy-to-follow guide, you'll build several sample applications by learning how to use Xcode tools, the Objective-C programming language, and the core frameworks. Before you know it, you'll not only have the skills to develop your own apps, you'll know how to sail through the process of submitting apps to the iTunes App Store. Whether you're a developer new to Mac programming or an experienced Mac developer ready to tackle the iPhone and iPod Touch, Learning iPhone Programming will give you a head start o
Sander, Elisabeth; Heiß, Andrea
Three different versions of a learning program on trigonometry were compared, a program controlled, non-interactive version (CG), an interactive, conflict inducing version (EG 1), and an interactive one which was supposed to reduce the occurrence of a cognitive conflict regarding the central problem solution (EG 2). Pupils (N = 101) of a…
This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…
Gnaur, Dorina; Hüttel, Hans
This paper reports initial experiences with flipping the classroom in an undergraduate computer science course as part of an overall attempt to enhance the pedagogical support for student learning. Our findings indicate that, just as the flipped classroom implies, a shift of focus in the learning...... context influences the way students engage with the course and their learning strategies....
Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Me
Mobile technology for learning empowers the shift from traditionally pure instructor-centered classroom teaching to fully learner-centered educational settings. Although mobile learning (m-learning) accessing Internet resources anytime and anywhere and it may cause gender difference toward it; thus the issue of the relationship between gender…
Martin, Taylor; Berland, Matthew; Benton, Tom; Smith, Carmen Petrick
In this paper, we present two studies examining how high school students learn to program in a mobile, social programming environment that we have developed and deployed ("IPRO"). IPRO is delivered, with an associated curriculum, as an iPod Touch app and is freely and publicly available. We find that the affordances of mobility and…
Damiano, Peter C.; And Others
Telephone interviews with 92 dentists in California identified low fees, denial of payment, and broken appointments by patients as the 3 most important problems with the Medicaid program. Results suggest reasons for the decreasing participation in Medicaid by dentists. (Author/DB)
If you are a game developer or a general programmer who wishes to focus on programming systems and techniques to build your game AI without creating low-level interfaces in a game engine, then this book is for you. Knowledge of C++ will come in handy to debug the entirety of the AI sandbox and expand on the features present within the book, but it is not required.
Johnson, Saralyn S.
Factors affecting enrollment in agricultural education at the secondary level were determined in a two-part study. One part focused on factors influencing students' decisions to enroll in agricultural education; the other examined 64 recruitment and retention practices teachers use. Purposive sampling ensured geographic and demographic…
Young, Allison; Klossner, Joanne; Docherty, Carrie L; Dodge, Thomas M; Mensch, James M
Context A better understanding of why students leave an undergraduate athletic training education program (ATEP), as well as why they persist, is critical in determining the future membership of our profession. Objective To better understand how clinical experiences affect student retention in undergraduate ATEPs. Design Survey-based research using a quantitative and qualitative mixed-methods approach. Setting Three-year undergraduate ATEPs across District 4 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants Seventy-one persistent students and 23 students who left the ATEP prematurely. Data Collection and Analysis Data were collected using a modified version of the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed on the quantitative data, followed by a univariate analysis of variance on any significant findings. The qualitative data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Results A difference was identified between the persister and dropout groups (Pillai trace = 0.42, F1,92 = 12.95, P = .01). The follow-up analysis of variance revealed that the persister and dropout groups differed on the anticipatory factors (F1,92 = 4.29, P = .04), clinical integration (F1,92 = 6.99, P = .01), and motivation (F1,92 = 43.12, P = .01) scales. Several themes emerged in the qualitative data, including networks of support, authentic experiential learning, role identity, time commitment, and major or career change. Conclusions A perceived difference exists in how athletic training students are integrated into their clinical experiences between those students who leave an ATEP and those who stay. Educators may improve retention by emphasizing authentic experiential learning opportunities rather than hours worked, by allowing students to take on more responsibility, and by facilitating networks of support within clinical education experiences. PMID:23672327
Mariia A. Umryk
Full Text Available In the research it was reviewed the use of distance learning technologies in the organization of research tasks while studying modern programming languages. The article contains an example of a training project on the subject "Modern programming languages". The authors argue the necessity of the use of modern information and communication technologies, in particular in modern programming languages distance learning, for the formation of students' 21st century skills that are essential in the process of programming (it is skills such as self-organization and self-discipline, communication skills, teamwork skills etc.. It is pointed out the structural units of the training project in accordance with the use of distance learning technologies. It is described the general characteristics and the use of appropriate methods of modern information and communication technologies.
Arkan, Burcu; Ordin, Yaprak; Yılmaz, Dilek
Clinical education is an essential part of nursing education. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse students' experiences related to cinical learning environments, factors effecting to clinical learning process. Descriptive qualitative design was used in this study, and data were collected from 2nd class nursing student (n = 14). The study took the form of in-depth interviews between August-October 2015. The qualitative interviews were analyzed by using simple content analysis. Data were analyzed manually. Experiences nurse students are described five themes. The themes of the study are (1) effecting persons to clinical learning, (2) educational atmosphere, (3) students' personal charactering, (4) the impact of education in school, and (5) students' perceptions related to clinical learning. Participants stated that they experienced many difficulties during clinical learning process. All students importantly stated that nurse teacher is very effecting to clinical learning. This study contributes to the literature by providing data on beginner nursing student' experiences about clinical learning process. The data of this present study show to Turkish nursing student is affecting mostly from persons in clinical learning. The data of this present study will guide nurse teacher when they plan to interventions to be performed to support student during clinical learning process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Noschang, Cristie; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Huffell, Ana Paula; Dalmaz, Carla
Early life experiences have profound influences on behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult life. The aim of this study is to verify neonatal handling-induced sex specific differences on learning and reversal learning as well as oxidative stress parameters in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of adult rats. Litters of rats were non-handled or handled (10 min/day, days 1-10 after birth). In adulthood, learning and reversal learning were evaluated using a Y maze associated with palatable food in male and female rats. Morris water maze reversal learning was verified in males. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in both genders. Male neonatal handled animals had a worse performance in the Y maze reversal learning compared to non-handled ones and no difference was observed in the water maze reversal learning task. Regarding females, neonatal handled rats had a better performance during the Y maze learning phase compared to non-handled ones. In addition, neonatal handled female animals showed a decreased SOD/CAT ratio in the PFC compared to non-handled females. We conclude that neonatal handling effects on learning and memory in adult rats are sex and task specific. The sex specific differences are also observed in the evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities with neonatal handling affecting only females. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Distance learning presents great potential for mitigating field problems on pesticide application technology. Thus, due to the lack of teaching material about pesticide spraying technology in the Portuguese language and the increasing availability of distance learning, this study developed and evaluated a computer program for distance learning about the theory of pesticide spraying technology using the tools of information technology. The modules comprising the course, named Pulverizar, were: (1 Basic concepts, (2 Factors that affect application, (3 Equipments, (4 Spraying nozzles, (5 Sprayer calibration, (6 Aerial application, (7 Chemigation, (8 Physical-chemical properties, (9 Formulations, (10 Adjuvants, (11 Water quality, and (12 Adequate use of pesticides. The program was made available to the public on July 1st, 2008, hosted at the web site www.pulverizar.iciag.ufu.br, and was simple, robust and practical on the complementation of traditional teaching for the education of professionals in Agricultural Sciences. Mastering pesticide spraying technology by people involved in agricultural production can be facilitated by the program Pulverizar, which was well accepted in its initial evaluation.O ensino à distância apresenta grande potencial para minorar os problemas ocorridos no campo na área de tecnologia de aplicação de agroquímicos. Dessa forma, diante da escassez de material instrucional na área de tecnologia de aplicação de agroquímicos em Português e do crescimento elevado da educação à distância, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar um programa computacional para o ensino à distância da parte teórica de tecnologia de aplicação de agroquímicos, utilizando as ferramentas de tecnologia da informação. Os módulos que compuseram o curso, intitulado Pulverizar, foram: (1 Conceitos básicos, (2 Fatores que afetam a aplicação, (3 Equipamentos, (4 Pontas de pulverização, (5 Calibração de pulverizadores
Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Waldmann, Michael R
In three experiments we investigated whether two procedures of acquiring knowledge about the same causal structure, predictive learning (from causes to effects) versus diagnostic learning (from effects to causes), would lead to different base-rate use in diagnostic judgments. Results showed that learners are capable of incorporating base-rate information in their judgments regardless of the direction in which the causal structure is learned. However, this only holds true for relatively simple scenarios. When complexity was increased, base rates were only used after diagnostic learning, but were largely neglected after predictive learning. It could be shown that this asymmetry is not due to a failure of encoding base rates in predictive learning because participants in all conditions were fairly good at reporting them. The findings present challenges for all theories of causal learning.
Full Text Available This paper extracts five emotional features according to the emotions that may affect in learning,and introduces psychological theory to generate emotional susceptibility matrix and to draw personalized emotion vector by different learners' temperament type vectors,which all reflect the emotional state of the learners more realistically.This paper also recommends learners of different emotions and emotional intensity to learn the knowledge of different levels of difficulty,making learning more humane.Temperament type is a temperament doctrine evolved based on the Hippocratic humoral theory and can be a good expression of human personality foundation.Temperament type has been introduced into affective computing in the E－Learning in this paper so that computer can be better on the classification of the learner's personality and learning state and realistically be individualized.
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the personalisation of teaching/learning paths in mathematics education. Such personalisation would exploit the research results on the connection between the affective experience of the student learning mathematics and his/her success or failure in mathematics, which produces the learner’s attitude towards mathematics. We present a model for the learner’s affective profile in mathematics, which would extend the current user profile in an e-learning platform taking into account the learner’s attitude, to be used in order to offer and manage a Unit of Learning in mathematics better tailored on the global student’ needs. Tools for the implementation of the model in an e-learning platform have been devised. Activities templates suitable to various attitudes towards mathematics have been designed and their experimentation is in progress.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do legislation and procurement requirements affect... Miscellaneous Provisions § 170.606 How do legislation and procurement requirements affect the IRR Program? Other legislation and procurement requirements apply to the IRR Program as shown in the following table. Legislation...
Pollak, Seth D
The influence of childhood affective experiences across development may be understood in terms of preparedness to learn about emotion, combined with general immaturity and neuro-plasticity of perceptual systems. Early in development, processing resources are relatively immature and limited in capacity, thereby constraining how much information the young child can absorb. But it is clear that learning about emotions proceeds swiftly in nearly all children, suggesting biological preparedness to track associations between certain stimuli and outcomes. It is proposed here that limited processing capacity, in tandem with dispositions to filter or select key privileged stimuli in the environment, facilitates adaptive, rapid, affective learning. The developmental organization of affective systems is contingent upon those features of input that are most learnable, such as signals that are particularly salient, frequent, or predictable. Therefore, plasticity confers risk for maladaptation in that children's learning will be based upon these prominent features of the environment, however aberrant.
Full Text Available Students are rarely given an opportunity to think deeply about experimental design or asked to develop experimental skills on their own. Without participating in these endeavors, they are often unaware of the many decisions necessary to construct a precise methodology. This article describes the Joko Tingkir Program as an Early Warning Tsunami, and how we have used this program as a learning tool for physics teacher candidates to improve their experimental design skills. The Joko Tingkir computer program has implemented a Tsunami Faulting Model (TFM. The TFM uses the principle that the tsunami is affected by the length and width of earthquake rupture. Both can be represented by the duration of rupture (Tdur or Exceed 50 second duration (T50Ex and the dominant period (Td. The TFM has been implemented by the Joko Tingkir computer program. When students are given a simple method using the Joko Tingkir program - such as the tutorial, observation of seismic station distribution, seismograms of the earthquake, equipment and software for this experiment, measurement of P time onset and determination of Tdur, Td and T50Ex - it allows them to focus exclusively on improving experiment design skills as indicated by significantly improved gain scores. Based on the gain analysis it can be inferred that the experiment design skills can be improved by implementation of Joko Tingkir Program as a Learning Tool of Tsunami Warning in the learning process
Ill-structured tasks presented in an inquiry learning environment have the potential to affect students' beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics. This empirical research followed a Design Experiment approach to explore how aspects of using ill-structured tasks may have affected students' beliefs and attitudes. Results showed this task type and…
This article explores the idea of pedagogic affect in both onsite and online graphic design learning spaces, and speculates on the role that this affect plays in the formation of the design student. I argue that embodied design knowledge is built by interactions with design professionals, activities that mimic the daily work of designers, and…
Gondim, Sonia Maria Guedes; Mutti, Clara
Purpose: This paper aims to present the results of a study whose general objective is to characterize the affective states experienced in response to different teaching activities used in a workshop for developing entrepreneurial skills. It seeks to answer the following question: how affections and experiential learning strategies interrelate in…
Ehret, Christian; Hollett, Ty
This article argues that current approaches to participatory design research (PDR) risk eliding the affective life of making educational change by locating change in cultural mediation alone. Locating change only in mediation subordinates affect, potentially overlooking lived dimensions of learning and being essential to lasting, transformative…
Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chao, Ching-Ju; Huang, Tsu-Ching
According to Krashen's affective filter hypothesis, students who are highly motivated have their self-consciousness. When they enter a learning context with a low level of anxiety, they are much more likely to become successful language acquirers than those who do not. Affective factors such as motivation, attitude, and anxiety, have a direct…
Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY.
The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…
Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY.
The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…
Norris, John M., Ed.; Davis, John McE., Ed.
Changes in accreditation policies and institutional practices have led to the emergence of student learning outcomes assessment as an important, increasingly common expectation in U.S. college foreign language programs. This volume investigates contemporary outcomes assessment activity, with a primary focus on useful assessment, that is,…
Students are attracted to university aviation programs for a number of reasons. How well they learn from instruction in a classroom, an airplane, a simulator or in other environments is impacted by their ability to react to stimuli and to process dif...
Arendale, David R., Comp.
Purpose: This 2016 annotated bibliography reviews seven postsecondary peer cooperative learning programs that have been implemented nationally to increase student achievement. Methodology: An extensive literature search was conducted of published journal articles, newspaper accounts, book chapters, books, ERIC documents, thesis and dissertations,…
Susla, Brenda M.
The social and emotional development needs of fourth and fifth grade students (N=16) with learning disabilities were addressed through development and implementation of a 12-week awareness program called "Pupils' Over-Whelming Esteem Rise" (Project POWER). This project targeted: (1) self-awareness; (2) social awareness; (3) coping, organizing,…
Arendale, David R., Comp.
This 2017 annotated bibliography reviews seven postsecondary peer cooperative learning programs that have been implemented nationally to increase student achievement. An extensive literature search was conducted of published journal articles, newspaper accounts, book chapters, books, ERIC documents, thesis and dissertations, online documents, and…
The purpose of this study was to contrast undergraduate students' descriptions about transformational teaching practices, and student deep learning in bachelor English programs in selected universities within Pakistan. This study utilized a survey to gather responses from five hundred and twenty three students. A paired sample t test was utilized…
Huntley, Loisann B.
SHOP, or Search Handicapped Outreach Program, identifies gifted/learning-disabled students, develops enrichment activities using J. Renzulli's Triad Model, and implements effective delivery models to provide an environment in which the students can utilize their strengths and interact with gifted peers. (JDD)
Wilson, Kelly R.
Describes the People United To Enrich the Neighborhood through Education (Puente) Learning Center, a nonprofit center in Los Angeles (California) providing programs in literacy, English-as-a-Second-Language, study skills, job training, and computer skills for people who traditionally have had limited access to education and technology. (SLD)
Vaknin, Lauren Weiner; Bresciani, Marilee J.
This cross-case comparative study at Western Community College and the University of the Coast explored through a constructive lens the characteristics that lead to sustainable, high quality service-learning programs and how they are implemented at institutions of higher education. The researchers determined that both Western Community College and…
Workman, Jamie L.; Redington, Lyn
This is the first of a three-part series which will share information about how a mid-size, comprehensive university developed a learning community program, including a residential curriculum. Through intentional collaboration and partnerships, the team, comprised of faculty and staff throughout the university, developed a "multi-year plan…
David Cameron HAUSEMAN
Full Text Available This study examines how homeschooling, unschooling and alternative learners have been portrayed in five recent films and television programs. It also investigates whether the media are grounding their representations of these students and their parents in reality, or if it is disseminating harmful stereotypes that may have detrimental effects for those who choose to learn in this manner in real life.
Zoran T Lovreković
Full Text Available This paper discusses how some of Knowledge Management postulates can be applied in the training of students for Web Programming. CMS is a most vital part of every web applications. Because of that, it is suggested that professor should give students lessons about some as simple as possible CMS in detail, and after that allow them to change, upgrade, and improve this CMS in a several steps, throw their own work and consultations and discussion with teacher and other students. Some of possible requirements for students work are givent in this paper, too.
Kang, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kwon, Yong-Eun; Kim, Tae-Bum; Park, Hye-Kyung; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jee, Young-Koo; Moon, Hee-Bom; Min, Kyung-Up; Cho, Sang-Heon
Effective educational tools are important for increasing adherence to asthma guidelines and clinical improvement of asthma patients. We developed a computer-based interactive education program for asthma guideline named the Virtual Learning Center for Asthma Management (VLCAM). We evaluated the usefulness of program in terms of its effects on user awareness of asthma guideline and level of satisfaction. Physicians-in-training at tertiary hospitals in Korea were enrolled in a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The e-learning program on asthma guideline was conducted over a 2-week period. We investigated changes in the awareness of asthma guideline using 35-item self-administered questionnaire aiming at assessing physicians' knowledge, attitude, and practice. Satisfaction with the program was scored on 4-point Likert scales. A total of 158 physicians-in-training at six tertiary hospitals completed the survey. Compared with baseline, the overall awareness obtained from the scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice was improved significantly. Participants were satisfied with the VLCAM program in the following aspects: helpfulness, convenience, motivation, effectiveness, physicians' confidence, improvement of asthma management, and willingness to recommend. All items in user satisfaction questionnaires received high scores over 3 points. Moreover, the problem-based learning with a virtual patient received the highest user satisfaction among all parts of the program. Our computer-based e-learning program is useful for improving awareness of asthma management. It could improve adherence to asthma guidelines and enhance the quality of asthma care.
Shin, Hyunsook; Sok, Sohyune; Hyun, Kyung Sun; Kim, Mi Ja
To evaluate the effect of an active learning program on competency of senior students. Active learning strategies have been used to help students achieve desired nursing competency, but their effectiveness has not been systematically examined. A descriptive, cross-sectional comparative design was used. Two cohort group comparisons using t-test were made: one in an active learning group and the other in a traditional learning group. A total of 147 senior nursing students near graduation participated in this study: 73 in 2010 and 74 in 2013. The active learning program incorporated high-fidelity simulation, situation-based case studies, standardized patients, audio-video playback, reflective activities and technology such as a SmartPad-based program. The overall scores of the nursing competency in the active group were significantly higher than those in the traditional group. Of five overall subdomains, the scores of the special and general clinical performance competency, critical thinking and human understanding were significantly higher in the active group than in the traditional group. Importance-performance analysis showed that all five subdomains of the active group clustered in the high importance and high performance quadrant, indicating significantly better achievements. In contrast, the students in the traditional group showed scattered patterns in three quadrants, excluding the low importance and low performance quadrants. This pattern indicates that the traditional learning method did not yield the high performance in most important areas. The findings of this study suggest that an active learning strategy is useful for helping undergraduate students to gain competency. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gurpinar, Erol; Kulac, Esin; Tetik, Cihat; Akdogan, Ilgaz; Mamakli, Sumer
The aim of this research was to determine the satisfaction of medical students with problem-based learning (PBL) and their approaches to learning to investigate the effect of learning approaches on their levels of satisfaction. The study group was composed of medical students from three different universities, which apply PBL at different levels in their curricula. The revised two-factor study process survey was applied to the study group to determine their approaches to learning as "deep" or "surface" learning. In addition, another survey of 20 questions was used to determine satisfaction levels of students with PBL and other variables. Of the study group, 64.6% were found to adopt a deep approach to learning, and we confirmed that these students were reasonably more satisfied with PBL.
... organizations for programs in the United States to promote the economic and social development of developing... of Affected Programs Types of Federal Financial Assistance Administered by AID Subject to Age... their capacity to develop and carry out programs concerned with the economic and social development of...
In spring 2013, the Washington Center administered a national survey to find what campuses assessed when they assessed their learning community programs, how they assessed those outcomes, and what they did with the results. Sixty-six campuses responded to the survey. Most campuses assess at least one measure of student success (pass rates, course…
Full Text Available This study assumes that the affective dimensions involves the process of planning and developing pedagogical practices and are an important factor in determining the nature of relations between the students and the various objects of knowledge. In this sense, the study aimed to analyze how students represent the affective aspects of both the teaching and learning process and what are their perceptions of the learning environment. The participants were 120 students of the 5th year of elementary school of public schools in the metropolitan region of Campinas, 60 of those students having satisfactory academic performance and 60 having learning disabilities. To gather the data, three instruments were used: “Psychopedagogical Educational Par Proof”, “AffectionsZanon Scale” and “Teacher Expectations Scale”. The results revealed that students with learning disabilities differ significantly from those with adequate performance. Students with learning difficulties establish fewer ties with the formal school learning and for their teachers and this portrays non-school situations while students with satisfactory performance have a better understanding of the expectations of their teachers and this shows that they have a more emotional relationship with the school environment. It is believed that this study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between the feelings experienced by students in the context of the classroom and its implications for the academic performance of the same. Keywords: Positive Psychology. Interpersonal relationships. Learning experiences.
Full Text Available In 2003, the content and form of Swedish firefighter training were reformed. New curricula and guidelines were implemented, instructors from different fields of knowledge were recruited and the training program was extended. In this study, 29 instructors were interviewed with a view to identifying and analyzing the salient conceptions of professional learning among them and how their conceptions have been affected by, and have affected, the implementation of the new training program. The results show that the dominant conception among fire and rescue instructors continues to be adaptation-oriented, and that it has not changed significantly, despite revised training goals and challenges from the development-oriented attitude prevalent among the risk and safety instructors. It is also shown that this fundamental contradiction between instructor conceptions is manifested in several dilemmas and conflicts during the negotiation and implementation phases of the new training program.
Silva, Cristiana Silveira; Souza, Murilo Barreto; Silva Filho, Roberto Silveira; Medeiros, Luciana Molina de; Criado, Paulo Ricardo
Dermatological disorders are common in medical practice. In medical school, however, the time devoted to teaching dermatology is usually very limited. Therefore, online educational systems have increasingly been used in medical education settings to enhance exposure to dermatology. The present study was designed to develop a e-learning program for medical students in dermatology and evaluate the impact of this program on learning. This prospective study included second year medical students at the University of Technology and Science, Salvador, Brazil. All students attended discussion seminars and practical activities, and half of the students had adjunct online seminars (blended learning). Tests were given to all students before and after the courses, and test scores were evaluated. Students who participated in online discussions associated with face-to-face activities (blended learning) had significantly higher posttest scores (9.0 ± 0.8) than those who only participated in classes (7.75±1.8, p learning of medical students in dermatology.
Patten, Kathryn E.; Campbell, Stephen R.
Although research on Emotion Regulation (ER) is developing at a rapid rate, much of it lacks a clear theoretical framework and most focuses on a narrow set of ER strategies. This work presents the details of a pilot project, the Neuro Emotional Literacy Program (NELP), designed for parents and based on the Somatic Appraisal Model of Affect (SAMA).…
Zhuang, Yun; Feng, Wenfeng; Liao, Yu
The primary goal of the present study was to investigate how positive and negative feedback may differently facilitate learning throughout development. In addition, the role of motivation as a modulating factor was examined. Participants (children, adolescents, and adults) completed two forms of the guess and application task (GAT). Feedback from the Cool-GAT task has low motivational salience because there are no consequences, while feedback from the Hot-GAT task has high motivational salience as it pertains to receiving a reward. The results indicated that negative feedback leads to a reduction in learning compared to positive feedback. The effect of negative feedback was greater in adolescent participants compared to children and adults in the Hot-GAT task, suggesting an interaction between age and motivation level on learning. Further analysis indicated that greater risk was associated with a greater reduction in learning from negative feedback and again, the reduction was greatest in adolescents. In summary, the current study supports the idea that learning from positive feedback and negative feedback differs throughout development. In a rule-based learning task, when associative learning is primarily in practice, participants learned less from negative feedback. This reduction is amplified during adolescence when task-elicited motivation is high.
Chaparro-Pelaez, Julian; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Pascual-Miguel, Felix J.; Hernandez-Garcia, Angel
Although literature about problem based learning (PBL) is not scarce, there is little research on experiences about learning methodologies that combine PBL and the use of simulation tools. This lack of studies is even more notable in the case of engineering courses. The motivation for this study is to show how such a combination of PBL and…
McGrath, April L.
This study examined the experiences of and challenges faced by students when completing a statistics course. As part of the requirement for this course, students completed a learning check-in, which consisted of an individual meeting with the instructor to discuss questions and the completion of a learning reflection and study plan. Forty…
In 1993, a workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to discuss the issues of applying renewable energy in a sustainable manner to international rural development. One of the summary recommendations was that NREL could assist in the renewable energy for rural electrification effort by developing and supplying six related activities: resource assessment, comparative analysis and modeling, performance monitoring and analysis, pilot project development, internet-based project data, communications, and training. In response to this recommendation, NREL launched its Village Power Program consisting of these activities that cut across NREL technologies and disciplines. Currently NREL is active in 20 countries, with pilot projects in 12 of those countries. At this time the technologies include photovoltaics, wind, biomass, and hybrids. The rural applications include home lighting and communications, water pumping, schools and health posts, battery charging stations, ecotourism, and village systems. These pilot projects are central to the renewable energy village power development through the demonstration of three aspects critical to replication and implementation of the projects on a significant scale. The three aspects are technical functionality, economic competitiveness, and institutional sustainability. It is important to note that the pilot projects from which NREL's experience has been gained were funded and, in many cases, developed by other organizations and agencies. NREL's role has been one of technical assistance or project management or both. The purpose of this paper is to describe the lessons NREL staff has gleaned from their participation in the various pilot projects. The author hopes that these lessons will help the Renewable Energy-Based Rural Electrification (RERE) community in implementing sustainable projects that lead to replication.
There are three types of problem classification: the deterministic, the approximated and the stochastic problems. First, in the deterministic problems the law of the phenomenon and the data are known in the entire domain and for each instant of time. In the approximated problems, the law of the phenomenon behavior is unknown but the data can be known in the entire domain and for each instant of time. In the stochastic problems much of the law and the data are unknown in the domain, so in this case the spatial behavior of the data can only be explained with probabilistic laws. This is the most important reason why the students of geo-sciences careers and others related careers need to take courses in advance estimation methods. A good example of this situation is the estimation grades in ore mineral deposit for which the Geostatistics was formalized by G. Matheron in 1962 . Geostatistics is defined as the application of the theory of Random Function to the recognition and estimation of natural phenomenon . Nowadays, Geostatistics is widely used in several fields of earth sciences, for example: Mining, Oil exploration, Environment, Agricultural, Forest and others . It provides a wide variety of tools for spatial data analysis and allows analysing models which are subjected to degrees of uncertainty with the rigor of mathematics and formal statistical analysis . Adequate models for the Kriging interpolator has been developed according to the data behavior; however there are two key steps in applying this interpolator properly: the semivariogram determination and the Kriging neighborhood selection. The main objective of this paper is to present these two elements using an instructive program.
Brent, D A; Poling, K; McKain, B; Baugher, M
The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of a family psychoeducational program for the parents of affectively ill adolescents. Sixty-two parents of 34 affectively ill adolescents received one 2-hour psychoeducational session that covered information about the diagnosis, course, and treatment of affective illness. Methods of coping with an affectively ill family member also were discussed. The view of depression as a chronic and recurrent illness was strongly emphasized. Participants showed improvement in knowledge about depression and in modification of dysfunctional beliefs about depression and its treatment. Almost all participants found the program both useful and interesting. These findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and to a modest degree, the efficacy of a family psychoeducational program for parents of affectively ill adolescents. Additional studies should address the impact of such programs on compliance with treatment, clinical outcome, and family life.
Goodness, Kelly R; Renfro, Nancy S
This report presents outcome data collected for a three-year period from a maximum-security forensic psychiatric program. Admission and discharge variables, restraint/seclusion, and client abuse/neglect data are presented from a one-year period that preceded the advent of the Behavior Management Treatment Program's (BMTP's) Social Learning Diagnostic Program to two years after implementing the Social Learning Diagnostic Program. Significant overall progress and improvement was observed in all variables analyzed after instituting a social learning program paradigm. This report provides a brief summary of the BMTP's Social Learning Diagnostic Program along with a discussion of the role played by Dangerousness Management Plans in the treatment of patients within the social learning milieu. Additionally the patient population served, and the rationale for implementation of a program based in social learning theory, are discussed. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lykke, Marianne; Coto Chotto, Mayela; Mora, Sonia
Retention of first year students in Computer Science is a concern for universities internationally. Especially programming courses are regarded as difficult, and often have the highest failure and dropout rates. The Informatics School at Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica is not an exception....... For this reason the school is focusing on different teaching methods to help their students master these skills. This paper introduces an experimental, controlled comparison study of three learning designs, involving a problem based learning (PBL) approach in connection with the use of LEGO Mindstorms to improve...
McKean, K J
Rather than examining the effect of the pessimistic explanatory style on an outcome variable reflecting a single domain, I studied the effects of multiple learned-helplessness risk factors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective variables. Undergraduate students completed the Learned Helplessness Scale (Quinless & McDermott-Nelson, 1988) as a measure of their expectation of uncontrollability and the Explanatory Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) to determine their explanations for both positive and negative events. Results revealed a significant effect for risk level, with students at greater risk of helplessness reporting significantly more procrastination, lower grade point averages, and more dysphoria. These results support the use of multiple risk factors representing all learned-helplessness precursors and the assessment of learned-helplessness deficits drawn simultaneously from behavioral, cognitive, and affective domains.
Blanchette, I; Treillet, V; Davies, S R
Evaluative conditioning is a form of affective learning in which initially neutral stimuli acquire an affective value through association with negative or positive stimuli. Recent research shows an important role for cognitive resources in this type of learning. This form of affective learning has rarely been studied in intellectual disability (ID). We examined evaluative conditioning in 16 adults with mild to moderate ID compared to age- and gender-matched control participants. Neutral shapes and symbols were repeatedly paired with positive, neutral or negative unconditioned stimuli (faces or International Affective Picture System images). There was also an extinction phase. There was significant acquisition of conditioning in both groups. Stimuli paired with positive images were evaluated more positively, and stimuli paired with negative images were evaluated more negatively. Post-extinction ratings however show that these novel affective associations were not maintained by individuals with ID as much as by individuals in the control group. We conclude that ID modulates some aspects of affective learning but not necessarily initial preference acquisition. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wigington, Corinne J; Sobelson, Robyn K; Duncan, Heather L; Young, Andrea C
The "learn by doing" approach to training is common in the public health field and is a core component of service-learning programs. Trainee satisfaction, learning, and application of learning have been studied. What is less understood is the perspective of the agencies that host trainees. This study aimed to identify whether and how the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Associate Program (PHAP) adds value to the agencies that host trainees during 2-year field assignments. An exploratory, qualitative study design consisting of 9 semistructured telephone interviews with PHAP host agency supervisors was used. Results suggested that PHAP increased host agencies' capacity by assigning capable trainees to host agencies. Trainees made quality contributions that led to agency- and/or community-wide improvements and positively affected the agencies' culture. Further evaluation of the host perspective is necessary; as coupled with the trainee's perspective, it will provide a more holistic understanding of program value.
Phillips, Susan D; O'Brien, Patricia
Beginning in the fall of 2007, Illinois' Division of Mental Health began piloting an early intervention program targeting children of incarcerated parents. The pilot program was situated within a community-based agency on the Westside of Chicago with a high number of currently and formerly incarcerated community members. This article describes the program theory upon which the pilot program was based, the perceived benefits from the perspective of participants and the service provider agency, lessons learned, and recommendations for making incarceration-sensitive interventions a routine part of children's mental health services.
Tamaraukuro Tammy Amasuomo
Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between students’ perceived thermal discomfort and stress behaviours affecting their learning in lecture theatres in the humid tropics. Two lecture theatres, LTH-2 and 3, at the Niger Delta University, Nigeria, were used for the study. Two groups of students from the Faculties of Agriculture and Engineering and the Department of Technology Education constituted the population. The sample size selected through random sampling for Groups A and B was 210 and 370 students, respectively. Objective and self-report instruments were used for data collection. The objective instrument involved physical measurement of the two lecture theatres and of the indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement. The self-report instrument was a questionnaire that asked for the students perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and the effect of indoor thermal comfort level on perceived stress behaviours affecting their learning. The objective indoor environmental data indicated thermal discomfort with an average temperature of 29–32 °C and relative humidity of 78% exceeding the ASHARE  and Olgyay .The students’ experienced a considerable level of thermal discomfort and also perceived that stress behaviours due to thermal discomfort affected their learning. Further, there were no significant differences in the perceived thermal discomfort levels of the two groups of students in LTH-2 and 3. Furthermore, stress behaviours affecting learning as perceived by the two groups of students did not differ significantly. In addition, no correlation existed between the perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and stress behaviour levels affecting learning for students in LTH-2, because the arousal level of the students in the thermal environment was likely higher than the arousal level for optimal performance [3,4]. However, a correlation existed in the case of students in LTH-3, which was expected because it only
Witt, Arnaud; Puspitawati, Ira; Vinter, Annie
Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised. PMID:23326409
Jones, Edward Samuel
investigates how various aspects of classroom composition, including class size and the achievement distribution of classmates, affect individual learning. Using test score data for over 250,000 children, such compositional factors are found to be relevant. However, their influence on learning is not so large......There is widespread agreement that schooling quality should be a priority in the post-2015 education agenda, but less agreement on how quality can be enhanced in a cost effective manner. In Uganda, classroom overcrowding is often considered a critical cause of poor learning outcomes. This paper...
Full Text Available Source code plagiarism in students solutions of programming tasks is a serious problem, especially important in distance learning. Naturally, it should be prevented, but publicly available code plagiarism detection tools are not fully adjusted to this purpose. This paper proposes the specific approach to detecting code duplicates. This approach is based on adapting of detection process to characteristics of programming tasks and comprise of freshly developed detecting tools, which could be configured and tuned to fit individual features of the programming task. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of an automatic elimination of duplicate codes from the set of all solutions. As a minimum, this requires the rejection of false-positive duplicates, even for simple, schematic tasks. The case in the use of tools is presented in this context. The discussion is illustrated by applying of proposed tools to duplicates detection in the set of actual, real-life, codes written in Java programming language.
Ignacio Polo Martínez
Full Text Available The inclusion of measurable learning standards as an element of the curriculum has definitely opened the door to the connection between the curriculum and external assessments. Since its origin, the potential impact of that element in improving our educational system has been defended and criticized. The truth is that in our country, though all regions are based on the same Royal Decree of core curriculum, and therefore the same reference for the evaluation, curriculum that ultimately applies to students ( teaching-learning- assessment from the different regions can have significant differences . This article proposes, from the analysis of various research , training programs, the plan of action for inspection and the author's own experience in processes of curriculum specifications , assess the potential strengths and weaknesses of the learning standards.
Steele, Sara C
The study was undertaken to determine how position of informative context, rate of word presentation and part of speech impacted novel word learning during reading in children with language learning disability. Children with language learning disability (LLD; n = 13), age-matched peers (n = 13) and vocabulary-matched peers (n = 13) read four narrative passages containing 10 nouns and 10 verbs. Informative context provided clues to word meanings and was either adjacent or non-adjacent to the target words. Target words occurred either twice (low rate) or 5-times (high rate). Following reading, word learning was assessed using dynamic assessment, including oral definitions, contextual clues and forced choices. Overall, age-matched peers performed better than children with LLD and vocabulary-matched peers, who performed similarly. No effect was found for position of informative context; however, word learning improved with high rate of presentation for children with LLD. Nouns were easier to learn than verbs for all groups. Results indicated that children with LLD show limitations gaining semantic knowledge of novel words during reading, which could negatively impact their overall rate of vocabulary acquisition.
Silva, Cristiana Silveira; Souza, Murilo Barreto; Filho, Roberto Silveira Silva; de Medeiros, Luciana Molina; Criado, Paulo Ricardo
INTRODUCTION: Dermatological disorders are common in medical practice. In medical school, however, the time devoted to teaching dermatology is usually very limited. Therefore, online educational systems have increasingly been used in medical education settings to enhance exposure to dermatology. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to develop an e-learning program for medical students in dermatology and evaluate the impact of this program on learning. METHODS: This prospective study included second year medical students at the University of Technology and Science, Salvador, Brazil. All students attended discussion seminars and practical activities, and half of the students had adjunct online seminars (blended learning). Tests were given to all students before and after the courses, and test scores were evaluated. RESULTS: Students who participated in online discussions associated with face-to-face activities (blended learning) had significantly higher posttest scores (9.0±0.8) than those who only participated in classes (7.75±1.8, p dermatology. PMID:21655756
Kogetsu, Hisashi; Taniguchi, Kazunari
In our preliminary survey of students' conceptual understanding of a mechanical wave with Wave Diagnostic Test, we found that Japanese students have "particle pulses mental model" such that the wave speed changes depending on frequency and/or amplitude of the wave source. We have developed an active-learning program about the mechanical wave based on instructional strategies used by Physics Education Group to improve students' mental model.
Durham, Ian; Durham, Alyson
Inspiring students to enter the sciences, in particular more traditional hard sciences and certain engineering disciplines, has become a greater challenge in the days of high tech computer jobs that pay far higher wages. In addition maintaining student interest in the classroom has also become more difficult with the increasing complexity and sophistication of home computer technology. Often students have better technology at home than they have in school. There is no substitute for actually being in an exciting location, but the cost of such elaborate field trips often outweighs the learning advantage. By developing state-of-the-art and inexpensive distance learning tools based on existing technology, Durham Research is bringing remote and exciting places and experiences live into the classroom as a way of inspiring students to eventually enter the sciences. In this presentation we will speak about our cornerstone distance learning program, the Space Experiment Education Kit, and how we hope it helps to inspire a future generation of scientists and people who appreciate science. We will also briefly talk about some of our other related programs. All programs are geared toward all grade levels from elementary through graduate school.
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships among affect, self-regulated learning (SRL strategy use, and course attainment in the didactics of mathematics (teaching mathematics subject matter domain. The sample consisted of 180 undergraduate students attending a didactics of mathematics course (mean age = 21.1 years at the School of Early Childhood Education. The participants were asked to respond to the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS and the Cognitive Interference Questionnaire (CIQ. They also completed the Learning Strategies Scales of the MSLQ. Examination grades were used as the measure of course attainment. Pearson correlations and path analysis revealed that negative affect was positively related to cognitive interference, and positive affect influenced positively the use of almost all of the SRL strategies. Elaboration was the only SRL strategy found to predict the didactics of mathematics course attainment. Finally, cognitive interference was found to negatively predict course attainment.
Pstross, Mikulas; Corrigan, Trudy; Knopf, Richard C.; Sung, HeeKyung; Talmage, Craig A.; Conroy, Carmel; Fowley, Cathy
This article focuses on the role of universities in the promotion of intergenerational learning and the facilitation of reciprocal sharing of expertise among learners of all ages. The principles of the Age Friendly University are used as a particular lens for interpreting two university programs, one in the United States and one in Ireland. Though…
Workman, Jamie L.; Redington, Lyn
This is the second of a three-part series which will share information about how a mid-size, comprehensive university developed a learning community program, including a residential curriculum. Through intentional collaboration and partnerships, the team, comprised of faculty and staff throughout the university, developed a "multi-year plan…
Wahyuni, Ida; Amdani, Khairul
This study aims to determine the influence of scientific approach based learning program (P2BPS) against generic science skills of students. The method used in this research is "quasi experiment" with "two-group pretest posttest" design.The population in this study were all students who take courses in general physics II at the…
Full Text Available Affects—emotions and moods—have an impact on cognitive activities and the working performance of individuals. Development tasks are undertaken through cognitive processes, yet software engineering research lacks theory on affects and their impact on software development activities. In this paper, we report on an interpretive study aimed at broadening our understanding of the psychology of programming in terms of the experience of affects while programming, and the impact of affects on programming performance. We conducted a qualitative interpretive study based on: face-to-face open-ended interviews, in-field observations, and e-mail exchanges. This enabled us to construct a novel explanatory theory of the impact of affects on development performance. The theory is explicated using an established taxonomy framework. The proposed theory builds upon the concepts of events, affects, attractors, focus, goals, and performance. Theoretical and practical implications are given.
Georgia Papantoniou; Despina Moraitou; Maria Kaldrimidou; Katerina Plakitsi; Dimitra Filippidou; Effie Katsadima
The present study examined the relationships among affect, self-regulated learning (SRL) strategy use, and course attainment in the didactics of mathematics (teaching mathematics) subject matter domain. The sample consisted of 180 undergraduate students attending a didactics of mathematics course (mean age = 21.1 years) at the School of Early Childhood Education. The participants were asked to respond to the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Cognitive Interference Question...
The study examined the effects of perceptions of instructor's verbal aggressiveness on students' affective learning, and, in particular, students' affect toward the course, course-related behaviour, the instructor, as well as students' satisfaction as a function of perceived verbal aggressiveness by the instructor. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine the psychometric integrity of the affective learning scale employed. The sample comprised 146 physical education undergraduate students (18-22 years old, M = 18.9, SD = 1.0). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the factorial validity of the affective learning measure. Correlational analysis revealed a negative relationship between perceived verbal aggressiveness of the instructor and students' affect toward the course, course-related behaviour and the instructor, and students' satisfaction. The results of regression analysis revealed that perceived verbal aggression could significantly predict all the dependent variables; the prediction was particularly high for students' affect towards the instructor and students' satisfaction. Findings and implications for teachers' type of communication were discussed and future research suggestions were made.
Neal, Jeremy H; Neal, Laura D M
Self-directed learning (SDL) portfolios are underused in the educational process and should be considered by physician assistant (PA) programs. Clinicians such as PAs are responsible for self-identifying their learning needs, competencies, and ongoing educational requirements. This article introduces an outline for SDL in the PA profession, for direct use by learners and indirect use by educators. Without a plan, many professionals may lack the insight, motivation, and knowledge needed to improve their skill set and establish goals for individual lifelong learning. This study conducted a review of the literature. Then, by incorporating SDL portfolios into PA educational methodologies, it constructed a concept map for individuals to monitor, self-direct, and actively participate in their own learning in academic settings and throughout their career.
Rosenberg, D. E.; Shirley, B.; Roark, M. F.
The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Outdoor Recreation, and Parks and Recreation programs at Utah State University (USU) have partnered to offer a new, unique river-based experiential learning opportunity for undergraduates called the Bear River Fellows Program. The program allows incoming freshmen Fellows to experience a river first hand during a 5-day/4-night river trip on the nearby Bear River two weeks before the start of their first Fall semester. As part of the program, Fellows will navigate the Bear River in canoes, camp along the banks, interact with local water and environmental managers, collect channel cross section, stream flow, vegetation cover, and topological complexity data, meet other incoming freshmen, interact with faculty and graduate students, develop boating and leadership skills, problem solve, and participate as full members of the trip team. Subsequently, Fellows will get paid as undergraduate researchers during their Fall and Spring Freshman semesters to analyze, synthesize, and present the field data they collect. The program is a collaborative effort between two USU academic units and the (non-academic) division of Student Services and supports a larger National Science Foundation funded environmental modelling and management project for the lower Bear River, Utah watershed. We have advertised the program via Facebook and emails to incoming USU freshmen, received 35 applications (60% women), and accepted 5 Fellows into the program (3 female and 2 male). The river trip departs August 14, 2012. The poster will overview the Bear River Fellows Program and present qualitative and preliminary outcomes emerging from the trip and Fellows' work through the Fall semester with the field data they collect. We will also undertake more rigorous and longer longitudinal quantitative evaluation of Program outcomes (for example, in problem-solving and leadership) both in Spring 2013 and in subsequent 2013 and 2014 offerings of the
Santamaria Makang, Doris
This study was an examination of how science teachers' teaching abilities---content and pedagogical knowledge and skills---were affected by an inquiry-oriented science education professional development program. The study researched the characteristics of an inservice program, Microcosmos, designed to equip teachers with new perspectives on how to stimulate students' learning and to promote a self-reflective approach for the implementation of instructional practices leading to improving teachers' and students' roles in the science classroom. The Microcosmos Inservice Program, which focused on the use of microorganisms as a vehicle to teach science for middle and high school grades, was funded by the National Science Foundation and developed by the Microcosmos Project based at the School of Education, Boston University. The teacher-training program had as its main objective to show teachers and other educators how the smallest life forms---the microbes---can be a usable and dynamic way to stimulate science interest in students of all ages. It combines and integrates a number of training components that appear to be consistent with the recommendations listed in the major reform initiatives. The goal of the study was to explore weather the program provoked any change(s) in the pedagogical practices of teachers over time, and if these changes fostered inquiry-based practices in the classroom. The exploratory analysis used a qualitative methodology that followed a longitudinal design for the collection of the data gathered from a sample of 31 participants. The data was collected in two phases. Phase One - The Case History group, involved 5 science teachers over a period of seven years. Phase Two - The Expanded Teacher sample, involved 26 teachers---22 new teachers plus four teachers from Phase One---contacted at two different points on time during the study. Multiple data sources allowed for the collection of a varied and rigorous set of data for each individual in the
Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William
The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…
Wichmann, Theodore F.
Environmental stress-challenge programs for delinquent youths as an alternative to the juvenile justice system in the US have shown very favorable results, though little research has been done to determine why. In order to provide information about processes involved in such programs, a checklist of 40 affective role expectations for delinquent…
Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran ARIAS dan ARIAS Dipadu Peta Konsep terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis, Kognitif, dan Afektif Abstract: The learning model Assurance, Relevance, Interest, Assessment, and Satisfaction (ARIAS combined concept maps can enhance critical thinking skills, cognitive, and affective. The study aims to examine the effect of learning model ARIAS, combined ARIAS concept maps and concept maps on the ability of critical thinking, cognitive, and affective. The research data were collected through the test description and observation sheet. The result showed that the average value of critical thinking skills, cognitive and affective for group learning model combined ARIAS Concept maps very well classified category, class learning ARIAS treatment, and treatment classes Concept maps including both categories. Key Words: influence, ARIAS, concept maps, critical thinking, cognitive, and affective Abstrak: Model pembelajaran Assurance, Relevance, Interest, Assessment, dan Satisfaction (ARIAS dipadu peta konsep dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis, kognitif, dan afektif. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh model pembelajaran ARIAS, ARIAS dipadu peta konsep, dan peta konsep terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis, kognitif, dan afektif. Data penelitian dikumpulkan melalui tes uraian dan lembar observasi. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa nilai rata-rata kemampuan berpikir kritis, kognitif dan afektif untuk kelompok model pembelajaran ARIAS dipadu Peta Konsep tergolong kategori sangat baik, kelas perlakuan pembelajaran ARIAS, dan kelas perlakuan Peta Konsep termasuk kategori baik. Kata kunci: pengaruh, ARIAS, peta konsep, berpikir kritis, kognitif, afektif
Langdon, Henriette W.
This article focuses on factors that impact identification of and services for English-language learners (ELLs) with suspected language-learning disabilities. These factors include (a) home and school environments, (b) the school's philosophy, (c) instructional strategies, and (d) other contextual variables that affect language use. In addition,…
To investigate whether a persuasive game may serve as a way to change attitude towards the homeless and increase affective learning, this study examined, experimentally, the effects of persuasive rhetoric and ethos in a video game designed to put the player in the shoes of an almost-homeless person for thirty days. Data were collected from 5139…
Flesch, Michael; Ostler, Elliott
This paper presents the results of a study focused on the issue of how proctored testing affects the learning outcomes and integrity in an Intermediate Algebra course setting. The study follows a model of assessment where students in one group have taken two of their five unit exams as proctored tests along with a proctored Comprehensive Final…
Swift, Peter E.; Hwang, Alvin
Purpose: This paper seeks to add to the research on the role of cognitive and affective trust in promoting knowledge sharing between executives and consequently establishing an organizational learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper examines the influence of one conceptualization of trust, one that has two…
Plax, Timothy G.; And Others
Recognizing that nonverbal behaviors typically provide the framework for interpreting verbal messages, this project (the sixth in a series of projects designed to examine teacher power in the classroom) proposed and sequentially tested a heuristic model of student affective learning as a function of behavior alteration techniques and teacher…
Fechner, Sabine; van Vorst, H.; Kölbach, E.; Sumfleth, E.
This chapter focuses on the evaluation of affective variables in contextbased learning (cbl) environments. Although the majority of studies in the field have shown positive effects on attitude, the need to investigate specific elements of cbl tasks has become evident. On the basis of prior research
Cahoy, Ellysa Stern
"Affective competence," managing the feelings and emotions that students encounter throughout the content creation/research process, is essential to academic success. Just as it is crucial for students to acquire core literacies, it is essential that they learn how to manage the anxieties and emotions that will emerge throughout all…
Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil
The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…
Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Gomez-Martinez, Susana
This article analyses factors affecting L2 learning, using Regression and Correlation Analysis. Some of the the results are in line with those reported in the literature: for example, the positive role of "Reading" and the negative role of "L1" transfer. Other results, however, are surprising, such as the current use of…
Chyung, Seung Youn; Moll, Amy; Marx, Brian; Frary, Megan; Callahan, Janet
During the 2006-2007 academic year, five faculty members from the College of Engineering at Boise State University initiated a curriculum augmentation project using new instructional technologies with the intention to help improve undergraduate engineering students' cognitive and affective preparedness for their classroom learning. The…
Kim, Shinwoo; Rehder, Bob
Research has shown that category learning is affected by (a) attention, which selects which aspects of stimuli are available for further processing, and (b) the existing semantic knowledge that learners bring to the task. However, little is known about how knowledge affects what is attended. Using eyetracking, we found that (a) knowledge indeed changes what features are attended, with knowledge-relevant features being fixated more often than irrelevant ones, (b) this effect was not due to an initial attentional bias toward relevant dimensions but rather emerged gradually as a result of observing category members, and (c) this effect grew even after a learning criterion was reached, that is, despite the absence of negative feedback. We argue that models of knowledge-based learning will remain incomplete until they specify mechanisms that dynamically select prior knowledge in response to observed category members and which then directs attention to knowledge-relevant dimensions and away from irrelevant ones.
Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Atkins, Marc; Horwitz, Sarah; Kutash, Krista; Olin, S Serene; Burns, Barbara; Peth-Pierce, Robin; Kuppinger, Anne; Burton, Geraldine; Shorter, Priscilla; Kelleher, Kelly J
Children stand to lose if the federal government follows through on threats to cut funding for critical safety-net programs that have long supported families and communities. Although cuts directly targeting children's mental health are a great concern, cuts to policies that support health, housing, education, and family income are equally disturbing. These less publicized proposed cuts affect children indirectly, but they have direct effects on their families and communities. The importance of these services is supported by an extensive body of social learning research that promotes collective efficacy-neighbors positively influencing each other-shown to have positive long-term effects on children's development and adult outcomes. In this article, the authors describe two federal programs that by virtue of their impact on families and communities are likely to promote collective efficacy and positively affect children's mental health; both programs are facing severe cutbacks. They suggest that states adopt a cross-system approach to promote policies and programs in general medical health, mental health, housing, education, welfare and social services, and juvenile justice systems as a viable strategy to strengthen families and communities and promote collective efficacy. The overall goal is to advance a comprehensive national mental health policy for children that enhances collaboration across systems and strengthens families and communities, which is especially critical for children living in marginalized communities.
Kundaje, Anshul; Lianoglou, Steve; Li, Xuejing; Quigley, David; Arias, Marta; Wiggins, Chris H; Zhang, Li; Leslie, Christina
Inferring gene regulatory networks from high-throughput genomic data is one of the central problems in computational biology. In this paper, we describe a predictive modeling approach for studying regulatory networks, based on a machine learning algorithm called MEDUSA. MEDUSA integrates promoter sequence, mRNA expression, and transcription factor occupancy data to learn gene regulatory programs that predict the differential expression of target genes. Instead of using clustering or correlation of expression profiles to infer regulatory relationships, MEDUSA determines condition-specific regulators and discovers regulatory motifs that mediate the regulation of target genes. In this way, MEDUSA meaningfully models biological mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. MEDUSA solves the problem of predicting the differential (up/down) expression of target genes by using boosting, a technique from statistical learning, which helps to avoid overfitting as the algorithm searches through the high-dimensional space of potential regulators and sequence motifs. Experimental results demonstrate that MEDUSA achieves high prediction accuracy on held-out experiments (test data), that is, data not seen in training. We also present context-specific analysis of MEDUSA regulatory programs for DNA damage and hypoxia, demonstrating that MEDUSA identifies key regulators and motifs in these processes. A central challenge in the field is the difficulty of validating reverse-engineered networks in the absence of a gold standard. Our approach of learning regulatory programs provides at least a partial solution for the problem: MEDUSA's prediction accuracy on held-out data gives a concrete and statistically sound way to validate how well the algorithm performs. With MEDUSA, statistical validation becomes a prerequisite for hypothesis generation and network building rather than a secondary consideration.
Full Text Available Introduction: Teaching renal physiology for undergraduate medical students in an understandable way using methods which improve their deep learning has always been a problem. In this study, Early Clinical Exposure (ECE was used in teaching renal physiology for the second year medical students in Shiraz Medical School. This article aims to introduce and develop this program and also measure the attitude of medical students toward ECE in learning renal physiology. Methods: This is a mixed method study conducted on 120 second year undergraduate students. After performing the course, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used for measuring the viewpoints of the students. In the qualitative part, 10 high rank medical students were selected. These students participated in brain storming sessions to express their opinion about the program based on the strengths and weaknesses. For trustworthiness of the qualitative part, member check and peer check were done. In the quantitative part, a researcher-made questionnaire was used based on the objectives of the program in a 4 point Likert scale. The validity of questionnaire was determined by medical education experts and reliability was determined after a pilot study. Results: Based on the results of the quantitative part of the study, 98 percent of the students stated that the ECE program was generally a useful program. In the qualitative part, the students’ comments were obtained. The benefits of the program were summarized in 4 main themes. These themes are “understanding of renal physiology”, “Integration of basic and clinical knowledge”, “Improvement of attitude toward importance of physiology”, and “encouragement to study”. In response to the questions about negetive aspects of this program in qualitative part, the two main themes were insufficient time and large grup size. Conclusion: Students reported that ECE was useful, but they stated that they needed to have more
Lum, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
The purpose of this presentation is to relay the experience of the Office of New Production Reactors (NP) in developing and implementing its pollution prevention program. NP was established to plan, design, and construct a new safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear reactor capacity necessary to provide an assured supply of tritium to maintain the nation`s long-term deterrent capability. The Program offered the Department of Energy an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to environmental protection via minimization of environmental releases; new design offers the best opportunity for pollution prevention. The NP pollution prevention program was never fully implemented because NP`s tritium production design activity was recovery terminated. The information in this paper represented lessons learned from the last three years of NP operation.
Full Text Available Video games are part of our culture like TV, movies, and books. We believe that this kind of software can be used to increase students' interest in computer science. Video games with other goals than entertainment, serious games, are present, today, in several fields such as education, government, health, defence, industry, civil security, and science. This paper presents a study around a serious game dedicated to strengthening programming skills. Real-Time Strategy, which is a popular game genre, seems to be the most suitable kind of game to support such a serious game. From programming teaching features to video game characteristics, we define a teaching organisation to experiment if a serious game can be adapted to learn programming.
Elske N. de Haas
Full Text Available High fearfulness could disrupt learning and likely affects judgment in animals, especially when it is part of an animals’ personality, i.e., trait anxiety. Here, we tested whether high fearfulness affects discrimination learning and judgment bias (JB in laying hens. Based on the response to an open field at 5 weeks of age, birds were categorized as fearful (FC by showing no walking or vocalizing or non-fearful (NFC by showing walking and vocalizing. At adult age, birds (n = 24 were trained in a go–go task to discriminate two cues (white or black with a small or large reward. Birds that reached training criteria were exposed to three unrewarded ambiguous cues (25, 50, and 75% black to assess JB. Task acquisition took longer for FC birds than for NFC birds, due to a left side bias, and more sessions were needed to unlearn this side bias. Changes in trial setup increased response latencies for FC birds but not for NFC birds. A larger number of FC birds than NFC birds chose optimistically in the last ambiguous trial (25% black. FC birds had a longer latency to choose in the ambiguous trial (75% black compared to NFC birds. Prior choice in ambiguous trials and a preceding large or small trial affected latencies and choices for both types of birds. Our study showed that fearfulness was associated with differences in discrimination learning ability and JB. It appeared that FC birds used a rigid response strategy during early learning phases by choosing a specific side repeatedly irrespective of success. FC birds were more affected by changes in the setup of the trials in comparison to NFC birds. We speculate that FC birds are more sensitive to changes in environmental cues and reward expectancy. These factors could explain how high fearfulness affects learning.
de Haas, Elske N; Lee, Caroline; Rodenburg, T Bas
High fearfulness could disrupt learning and likely affects judgment in animals, especially when it is part of an animals' personality, i.e., trait anxiety. Here, we tested whether high fearfulness affects discrimination learning and judgment bias (JB) in laying hens. Based on the response to an open field at 5 weeks of age, birds were categorized as fearful (FC) by showing no walking or vocalizing or non-fearful (NFC) by showing walking and vocalizing. At adult age, birds (n = 24) were trained in a go-go task to discriminate two cues (white or black) with a small or large reward. Birds that reached training criteria were exposed to three unrewarded ambiguous cues (25, 50, and 75% black) to assess JB. Task acquisition took longer for FC birds than for NFC birds, due to a left side bias, and more sessions were needed to unlearn this side bias. Changes in trial setup increased response latencies for FC birds but not for NFC birds. A larger number of FC birds than NFC birds chose optimistically in the last ambiguous trial (25% black). FC birds had a longer latency to choose in the ambiguous trial (75% black) compared to NFC birds. Prior choice in ambiguous trials and a preceding large or small trial affected latencies and choices for both types of birds. Our study showed that fearfulness was associated with differences in discrimination learning ability and JB. It appeared that FC birds used a rigid response strategy during early learning phases by choosing a specific side repeatedly irrespective of success. FC birds were more affected by changes in the setup of the trials in comparison to NFC birds. We speculate that FC birds are more sensitive to changes in environmental cues and reward expectancy. These factors could explain how high fearfulness affects learning.
Schuck, Nicolas W; Petok, Jessica R; Meeter, Martijn; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M; Schröder, Julia; Bertram, Lars; Gluck, Mark A; Li, Shu-Chen
Probabilistic category learning involves complex interactions between the hippocampus and striatum that may depend on whether acquisition occurs via feedback or observation. Little is known about how healthy aging affects these processes. We tested whether age-related behavioral differences in probabilistic category learning from feedback or observation depend on a genetic factor known to influence individual differences in hippocampal function, the KIBRA gene (single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145). Results showed comparable age-related performance impairments in observational as well as feedback-based learning. Moreover, genetic analyses indicated an age-related interactive effect of KIBRA on learning: among older adults, the beneficial T-allele was positively associated with learning from feedback, but negatively with learning from observation. In younger adults, no effects of KIBRA were found. Our results add behavioral genetic evidence to emerging data showing age-related differences in how neural resources relate to memory functions, namely that hippocampal and striatal contributions to probabilistic category learning may vary with age. Our findings highlight the effects genetic factors can have on differential age-related decline of different memory functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Denise; Lestition, Kathleen; Squires, Gordon; Biferno, Anya A.; Cominsky, Lynn; Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team
NASA's Universe of Learning creates and delivers science-driven, audience-driven resources and experiences designed to engage and immerse learners of all ages and backgrounds in exploring the universe for themselves. The project is the result of a unique partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Caltech/IPAC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and Sonoma State University, and is one of 27 competitively-selected cooperative agreements within the NASA Science Mission Directorate STEM Activation program. The NASA's Universe of Learning team draws upon cutting-edge science and works closely with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) from across the NASA Astrophysics Physics of the Cosmos, Cosmic Origins, and Exoplanet Exploration themes. Together we develop and disseminate data tools and participatory experiences, multimedia and immersive experiences, exhibits and community programs, and professional learning experiences that meet the needs of our audiences, with attention to underserved and underrepresented populations. In doing so, scientists and educators from the partner institutions work together as a collaborative, integrated Astrophysics team to support NASA objectives to enable STEM education, increase scientific literacy, advance national education goals, and leverage efforts through partnerships. Robust program evaluation is central to our efforts, and utilizes portfolio analysis, process studies, and studies of reach and impact. This presentation will provide an overview of NASA's Universe of Learning, our direct connection to NASA Astrophysics, and our collaborative work with the NASA Astrophysics science community.
Brady, Teresa J; Murphy, Louise B; O'Colmain, Benita J; Hobson, Reeti Desai
To evaluate whether implementation factors or fidelity moderate chronic disease self-management education program outcomes. Meta-analysis of 34 Arthritis Self-Management Program and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program studies. Community. N = 10 792. Twelve implementation factors: program delivery fidelity and setting and leader and participant characteristics. Eighteen program outcomes: self-reported health behaviors, physical health status, psychological health status, and health-care utilization. Meta-analysis using pooled effect sizes. Modest to moderate statistically significant differences for 4 of 6 implementation factors; these findings were counterintuitive with better outcomes when leaders and participants were unpaid, leaders had less than minimum training, and implementation did not meet fidelity requirements. Exploratory study findings suggest that these interventions tolerate some variability in implementation factors. Further work is needed to identify key elements where fidelity is essential for intervention effectiveness.
Smith, Wade Clay, Jr.
The primary goals of this dissertation were to determine the relationships between interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes. The instrument used to collect student perceptions of teacher interpersonal teaching behaviors was the Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI). The instrument used to assess student affective learning outcomes was the Biology Student Affective Instrument (BSAI). The interpersonal teaching behavior data were collected using students as the observers. 111 students in an urban influenced, rural high school answered the QTI and BSAI in September 1997 and again in April 1998. At the same time students were pre and post tested using the Biology End of Course Examination (BECE). The QTI has been used primarily in European and Oceanic areas. The instrument was also primarily used in educational stratified environment. This was the first time the BSAI was used to assess student affective learning outcomes. The BECE is a Texas normed cognitive assessment test and it is used by Texas schools districts as the end of course examination in biology. The interpersonal teaching behaviors model was tested to ascertain if predictive power in the USA and in a non-stratified educational environment. Findings indicate that the QTI is an adequate predictor of student achievement in biology. The results were not congruent with the non-USA data and results, this indicates that the QTI is a society/culturally sensitive instrument and the instrument needs to be normed to a particular society/culture before it is used to affect teachers' and students' educational environments.
Christopher R Madan
Full Text Available While the effects of reward, affect, and motivation on learning have each developed into their own fields of research, they largely have been investigated in isolation. As all three of these constructs are highly related, and use similar experimental procedures, an important advance in research would be to consider the interplay between these constructs. Here we first define each of the three constructs, and then discuss how they may influence each other within a common framework. Finally, we delineate several sources of evidence supporting the framework. By considering the constructs of reward, affect, and motivation within a single framework, we can develop a better understanding of the processes involved in learning and how they interplay, and work towards a comprehensive theory that encompasses reward, affect, and motivation.
Shahrabi Farahani, Hossein; Lagergren, Jens
Cancer can be a result of accumulation of different types of genetic mutations such as copy number aberrations. The data from tumors are cross-sectional and do not contain the temporal order of the genetic events. Finding the order in which the genetic events have occurred and progression pathways are of vital importance in understanding the disease. In order to model cancer progression, we propose Progression Networks, a special case of Bayesian networks, that are tailored to model disease progression. Progression networks have similarities with Conjunctive Bayesian Networks (CBNs) ,a variation of Bayesian networks also proposed for modeling disease progression. We also describe a learning algorithm for learning Bayesian networks in general and progression networks in particular. We reduce the hard problem of learning the Bayesian and progression networks to Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). MILP is a Non-deterministic Polynomial-time complete (NP-complete) problem for which very good heuristics exists. We tested our algorithm on synthetic and real cytogenetic data from renal cell carcinoma. We also compared our learned progression networks with the networks proposed in earlier publications. The software is available on the website https://bitbucket.org/farahani/diprog.
Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh
In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization
Beymer, Patrick N; Rosenberg, Joshua M; Schmidt, Jennifer A; Naftzger, Neil J
Out-of-school time programs focused on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) have proliferated recently because they are seen as having potential to appeal to youth and enhance STEM interest. Although such programs are not mandatory, youth are not always involved in making the choice about their participation and it is unclear whether youth's involvement in the choice to attend impacts their program experiences. Using data collected from experience sampling, traditional surveys, and video recordings, we explore relationships among youth's choice to attend out-of-school time programs (measured through a pre-survey) and their experience of affect (i.e., youth experience sampling ratings of happiness and excitement) and engagement (i.e., youth experience sampling ratings of concentration and effort) during program activities. Data were collected from a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 10-16 year old youth (n = 203; 50% female) enrolled in nine different summer STEM programs targeting underserved youth. Multilevel analysis indicated that choice and affect are independently and positively associated with momentary engagement. Though choice to enroll was a significant predictor of momentary engagement, positive affective experiences during the program may compensate for any decrements to engagement associated with lack of choice. Together, these findings have implications for researchers, parents, and educators and administrators of out-of-school time programming.
Linking supervisor’s role in training programs to motivation to learn as an antecedent of job performance Linking supervisor’s role in training programs to motivation to learn as an antecedent of job performance
Sebastian K. Francis
Full Text Available According to the literature pertaining to human resource development (HRD, a supervisor’s role in training programs has two major characteristics: support and communication. The ability of supervisors to play effective roles in training programs may increase employees’ job performance. More importantly, extant research in this field reveals that the effect of the supervisor’s role in training programs on job performance is indirectly affected by the motivation to learn. The nature of this relationship is less emphasized in training management literature. Therefore, this study was conducted to measure the effect of the supervisor’s role in training programs and the motivation to learn on job performance using 91 usable questionnaires gathered from employees who have worked in a state library in East Malaysia, Malaysia. The outcomes of stepwise regression analysis displayed that the inclusion of motivation to learn in the analysis had increased the effects of the two supervisor’s role elements of support and communication on job performance. This result demonstrates that the motivation to learn acts as a mediating variable in the training model of the organizational sample. The implications of this study to the theory and practice of training programs, methodological and conceptual limitations as well as future directions are elaborated.According to the literature pertaining to human resource development (HRD, a supervisor’s role in training programs has two major characteristics: support and communication. The ability of supervisors to play effective roles in training programs may increase employees’ job performance. More importantly, extant research in this field reveals that the effect of the supervisor’s role in training programs on job performance is indirectly affected by the motivation to learn. The nature of this relationship is less emphasized in training management literature. Therefore, this study was conducted to
Aparecido Ferreira de Oliveira
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the process of learning on human resource management in the radiology residency program at Escola Paulista de Medicina – Universidade Federal de São Paulo, aiming at improving radiologists' education. Materials and Methods Exploratory study with a quantitative and qualitative approach developed with the faculty staff, preceptors and residents of the program, utilizing a Likert questionnaire (46, taped interviews (18, and categorization based on thematic analysis. Results According to 71% of the participants, residents have clarity about their role in the development of their activities, and 48% said that residents have no opportunity to learn how to manage their work in a multidisciplinary team. Conclusion Isolation at medical records room, little interactivity between sectors with diversified and fixed activities, absence of a previous culture and lack of a training program on human resources management may interfere in the development of skills for the residents' practice. There is a need to review objectives of the medical residency in the field of radiology, incorporating, whenever possible, the commitment to the training of skills related to human resources management thus widening the scope of abilities of the future radiologists.
Oliveira, Aparecido Ferreira de; Lederman, Henrique Manoel; Batista, Nildo Alves, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina
Objective: to investigate the process of learning on human resource management in the radiology residency program at Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, aiming at improving radiologists' education. Materials and methods: exploratory study with a quantitative and qualitative approach developed with the faculty staff, preceptors and residents of the program, utilizing a Likert questionnaire (46), taped interviews (18), and categorization based on thematic analysis. Results: According to 71% of the participants, residents have clarity about their role in the development of their activities, and 48% said that residents have no opportunity to learn how to manage their work in a multidisciplinary team. Conclusion: Isolation at medical records room, little interactivity between sectors with diversified and fixed activities, absence of a previous culture and lack of a training program on human resources management may interfere in the development of skills for the residents' practice. There is a need to review objectives of the medical residency in the field of radiology, incorporating, whenever possible, the commitment to the training of skills related to human resources management thus widening the scope of abilities of the future radiologists. (author)
This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system for learning electronic circuit making and programming a microcontroller to control a robot. The proposed e-Learning system comprises a virtual-circuit-making function for the construction of circuits with a versatile, Arduino microcontroller and an educational system that can simulate behaviors of…
Said, Asnah; Syarif, Edy
This research aimed to evaluate of online tutorial program design by applying problem-based learning Research Methods currently implemented in the system of Open Distance Learning (ODL). The students must take a Research Methods course to prepare themselves for academic writing projects. Problem-based learning basically emphasizes the process of…
Renner, Jonathan Christopher
Some teens may prefer using a self-directed, constructivist, and technologic approach to learning rather than traditional classroom instruction. If it can be demonstrated, educators may adjust their teaching methodology. The guiding research question for this study focused on how augmented reality affects high school students' learning outcomes in chemistry, as measured by a pretest and posttest methodology when ensuring that the individual outcomes were not the result of group collaboration. This study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental study design that used a comparison and experimental group. Inferential statistical analysis was employed. The study was conducted at a high school in southwest Colorado. Eighty-nine respondents returned completed and signed consent forms, and 78 participants completed the study. Results demonstrated that augmented reality instruction caused posttest scores to significantly increase, as compared to pretest scores, but it was not as effective as traditional classroom instruction. Scores did improve under both types of instruction; therefore, more research is needed in this area. The present study was the first quantitative experiment controlling for individual learning to validate augmented reality using mobile handheld digital devices that affected individual students' learning outcomes without group collaboration. This topic was important to the field of education as it may help educators understand how students learn and it may also change the way students are taught.
Ackerman, Debra J.; Sansanelli, Rachel A.
The proposed federal Early Learning Challenge Fund (ELCF) aims to improve the quality of early care and education programs by promoting the integration of more stringent program and early learning standards than are typically found in child care centers. ELCF grantees also must outline their plans for professional development and technical…
Power, Anne; Truong, Son; Gray, Tonia; Downey, Greg; Hall, Tim; Jones, Benjamin
This project sought to investigate the learning that comes about from the intersection of outbound mobility experience programs (OMEs) with service learning in pre-service teacher education settings. The aim of the program of international service learning in the case study was to encourage pre-service teachers to rethink potentially ethnocentric…
Griffith, Anne Higginbotham
The purpose of this study is to investigate and chart the qualitatively different ways Christian faith-based women make meaning of and understand the learning intervention of The Enlighten Foundation's Learning Program. Research supports the use of an interactive, experienced-based learning program as conducive to developmental change for women.…
Community service-learning (CSL) programs are proliferating in Canadian higher education. University programs promote students' experiential learning in community as part of a course; students most often engage in unpaid work in not-for-profit organizations and reflect on that experience in relation to their classroom learning. However, programs…
Güzide Öner; Tokay Gedikoğlu
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the foreign language anxiety on English learning within the factors affecting foreign language learning. This study was conducted to the preparatory class students at foreign language oriented high schools in central Gaziantep in academic year of 2004-2005. Likert type anxiety scale was applied to 293 randomly selected students. The data were analyzed by using t test, one way ANOVA and Scheffé tests. The effects of the level of education...
Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina
Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.
Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) has been denominated as the third pillar of science and as a set of important skills to solve the problems of a global society. Along with the theoretical and the experimental approaches, computation offers a third alternative to solve complex problems that require processing large amounts of data, or representing complex phenomena that are not easy to experiment with. Despite the relevance of CSE, current professionals and scientists are not well prepared to take advantage of this set of tools and methods. Computation is usually taught in an isolated way from engineering disciplines, and therefore, engineers do not know how to exploit CSE affordances. This dissertation intends to introduce computational tools and methods contextualized within the Materials Science and Engineering curriculum. Considering that learning how to program is a complex task, the dissertation explores effective pedagogical practices that can support student disciplinary and computational learning. Two case studies will be evaluated to identify the characteristics of effective worked examples in the context of CSE. Specifically, this dissertation explores students explanations of these worked examples in two engineering courses with different levels of transparency: a programming course in materials science and engineering glass box and a thermodynamics course involving computational representations black box. Results from this study suggest that students benefit in different ways from writing in-code comments. These benefits include but are not limited to: connecting xv individual lines of code to the overall problem, getting familiar with the syntax, learning effective algorithm design strategies, and connecting computation with their discipline. Students in the glass box context generate higher quality explanations than students in the black box context. These explanations are related to students prior experiences. Specifically, students with
Jouhari, Zahra; Haghani, Fariba; Changiz, Tahereh
Clinical courses are required of all medical students and means that they must develop the key skill of self-regulation during learning. The ability to self-regulate learning strategies is affected by different factors. This study determined the views of medical students on the factors affecting self-regulated learning (SRL). This study uses a qualitative approach and the content analysis method. Nineteen medical students in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years of study at Isfahan University of Medical Science participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The students were selected using purposive sampling based on their overall grade point average (GPA). Five main themes were found to affect SRL. These themes included family with the two subthemes of family supervisory and supportive roles; peers with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting roles; instructors with the two subthemes of personal and educational instructor's characteristics; educational environment with the two subthemes of facilitator and inhibitor roles; and student with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting personal factors. The outcomes of student understanding of the factors affecting self-regulation indicate that facilitating factors should be used on an individual basis to reduce the effect of inhibiting factors to improve self-regulation in students.
Machine Learning Programs for Navy Manpower Analysis 12 Personal Author(s) Dennis E. Pytel, Jr. 13a Type of Report 13b Time Covered 14 Date of Report...NPJT C-* -OUBLE- Source:AI IAker1 Meul p. 2-14 Figure 1: Four Input, Three Layer Polynomial Network. AIM uses seven types of nodes. The algebraic form of...I II iii short dark. blue: - tall red. bhe: + taN L d ak, blue: - 4 b w tall duot brown: - sh"d, blond, blue: + tol blod , br• n: - tall. bland. blue
Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
Renewable energy solutions for village power applications can be economical, functional, and sustainable. Pilot projects are an appropriate step in the development of a commercially viable market for rural renewable energy solutions. Moreover, there are a significant number of rural electrification projects under way that employ various technologies, delivery mechanisms, and financing arrangements. These projects, if properly evaluated, communicated, and their lessons incorporated in future projects and programs, can lead the way to a future that includes a robust opportunity for cost-effective, renewable-based village power systems. This paper summarizes some of NREL`s recent experiences and lessons learned.
Renewable energy solutions for village power applications can be economical, functional, and sustainable. Pilot projects are an appropriate step in the development of a commercially viable market for rural renewable energy solutions. Moreover, there are a significant number of rural electrification projects under way that employ various technologies, delivery mechanisms, and financing arrangements. These projects, if properly evaluated, communicated, and their lessons incorporated in future projects and programs, can lead the way to a future that includes a robust opportunity for cost-effective, renewable-based village power systems. This paper summarizes some of NRELs recent experiences and lessons learned.
Worker, Steven Michael
The purpose of this study was to describe the co-construction of three 4-H STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning by design programs by volunteer educators and youth participants in the 4-H Youth Development Program. The programs advanced STEM learning through design, a pedagogical approach to support youth in planning, designing, and making shareable artifacts. This pedagogical approach is a special case of project-based learning, related to the practices found in the science learning through design literature as well as the making and tinkering movements. Specifically, I explored adult volunteer educators' roles and pedagogical strategies implementing the 4-H Junk Drawer Robotics curriculum (Mahacek, Worker, and Mahacek, 2011) and how that, in turn, afforded and constrained opportunities for youth to display or report engagement in design practices; learning of STEM content; strengthening tool competencies; dispositions of resilience, reciprocity, and playfulness; and psychological ownership. The curriculum targeted middle school youth with a sequence of science inquiry activities and engineering design challenges. This study employed naturalist and multiple-case study methodology relying on participant observations and video, interviews with educators, and focus groups with youth within three 4-H educational robotics programs organized by adult 4-H volunteer educators. Data collection took place in 2014 and 2015 at Santa Clara with an educator and seven youth; Solano with three educators and eight youth; and Alameda with an educator and seven youth. Data analysis revealed six discrete categories of pedagogy and interactions that I labeled as participation structures that included lecture, demonstration, learning activity, group sharing, scripted build, and design & build. These participation structures were related to the observed pedagogical practices employed by the educators. There was evidence of youth engagement in design
Guitart-Masip, Marc; Huys, Quentin J M; Fuentemilla, Lluis; Dayan, Peter; Duzel, Emrah; Dolan, Raymond J
Decision-making invokes two fundamental axes of control: affect or valence, spanning reward and punishment, and effect or action, spanning invigoration and inhibition. We studied the acquisition of instrumental responding in healthy human volunteers in a task in which we orthogonalized action requirements and outcome valence. Subjects were much more successful in learning active choices in rewarded conditions, and passive choices in punished conditions. Using computational reinforcement-learning models, we teased apart contributions from putatively instrumental and Pavlovian components in the generation of the observed asymmetry during learning. Moreover, using model-based fMRI, we showed that BOLD signals in striatum and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) correlated with instrumentally learnt action values, but with opposite signs for go and no-go choices. Finally, we showed that successful instrumental learning depends on engagement of bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Our behavioral and computational data showed that instrumental learning is contingent on overcoming inherent and plastic Pavlovian biases, while our neuronal data showed this learning is linked to unique patterns of brain activity in regions implicated in action and inhibition respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marstaller, Lars; Burianová, Hana; Reutens, David C
Safety learning describes the ability to learn that certain cues predict the absence of a dangerous or threatening event. Although incidental observations of activity within the default mode network (DMN) during the processing of safety cues have been reported previously, there is as yet no evidence demonstrating that the DMN plays a functional rather than a corollary role in safety learning. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction paradigm, we investigated the neural correlates of danger and safety learning. Our results provide evidence for a functional role of the DMN by showing that (i) the DMN is activated by safety but not danger cues, (ii) the DMN is anti-correlated with a fear-processing network, and (iii) DMN activation increases with safety learning. Based on our results, we formulate a novel proposal, arguing that activity within the DMN supports the contextualization of safety memories, constrains the generalization of fear, and supports adaptive fear learning. Our findings have important implications for our understanding of affective and stress disorders, which are characterized by aberrant DMN activity, as they suggest that therapies targeting the DMN through mindfulness practice or brain stimulation might help prevent pathological over-generalization of fear associations. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1082-1091, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schneider, Sascha; Dyrna, Jonathan; Meier, Luis; Beege, Maik; Rey, Günter Daniel
Decorative pictures, which make a learning text aesthetically appealing rather than provide information, have been predominantly found to impair learning by an increase of learning-irrelevant cognitive processes. Recent research, however, indicates that this effect is moderated by various factors. On the basis of cognitive-affective theories and…
Jeong, Yong Sun; Kim, Jin Sun
A blended learning can be a useful learning strategy to improve the quality of fever and fever management education for pediatric nurses. This study compared the effects of a blended and face-to-face learning program on pediatric nurses' childhood fever management, using theory of planned behavior. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. A fever management education program using blended learning (combining face-to-face and online learning components) was offered to 30 pediatric nurses, and 29 pediatric nurses received face-to-face education. Learning outcomes did not significantly differ between the two groups. However, learners' satisfaction was higher for the blended learning program than the face-to-face learning program. A blended learning pediatric fever management program was as effective as a traditional face-to-face learning program. Therefore, a blended learning pediatric fever management-learning program could be a useful and flexible learning method for pediatric nurses.
Otwinowska, Agnieszka; Forys, Malgorzata
CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) is a teaching method in which learners develop linguistic competence and problem-solving abilities by learning content subjects in another language. However, learners' cognitive gains may depend on their affectivity. Negative affect hampers complex cognitive processing essential for problem-solving,…
The purpose of this study is to describe learning that occurred among participants who engaged in a short-term education abroad program using a modified situated learning theoretical framework. In situated learning theory, experience becomes activity and takes on a dynamic relation to learning. For the study, I selected a specific case to examine…
Hu, Weiping; Jia, Xiaojuan; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Shan, Xinxin
Learning motivation has a significant effect on student learning, which is a key determinant of academic performance and creativity. It is increasingly popular and important to cultivate learning motivation in schools. To consider this trend, a long-term intervention program named "Learn to Think" (LTT) was designed not only to improve…
Langshaw, Shelly J.
In the current adult education environment, self-directed learning (SDL) is becoming a necessary learning characteristic and an academic process of learning to allow adult learners to complete programs and further enhance lifelong learning. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and SDL in…
Wittich, Christopher M; Agrawal, Anoop; Cook, David A; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Chaudhry, Saima; Dupras, Denise M; Oxentenko, Amy S; Beckman, Thomas J
E-learning-the use of Internet technologies to enhance knowledge and performance-has become a widely accepted instructional approach. Little is known about the current use of e-learning in postgraduate medical education. To determine utilization of e-learning by United States internal medicine residency programs, program director (PD) perceptions of e-learning, and associations between e-learning use and residency program characteristics. We conducted a national survey in collaboration with the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine of all United States internal medicine residency programs. Of the 368 PDs, 214 (58.2%) completed the e-learning survey. Use of synchronous e-learning at least sometimes, somewhat often, or very often was reported by 85 (39.7%); 153 programs (71.5%) use asynchronous e-learning at least sometimes, somewhat often, or very often. Most programs (168; 79%) do not have a budget to integrate e-learning. Mean (SD) scores for the PD perceptions of e-learning ranged from 3.01 (0.94) to 3.86 (0.72) on a 5-point scale. The odds of synchronous e-learning use were higher in programs with a budget for its implementation (odds ratio, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.04-8.7]; P = .04). Residency programs could be better resourced to integrate e-learning technologies. Asynchronous e-learning was used more than synchronous, which may be to accommodate busy resident schedules and duty-hour restrictions. PD perceptions of e-learning are relatively moderate and future research should determine whether PD reluctance to adopt e-learning is based on unawareness of the evidence, perceptions that e-learning is expensive, or judgments about value versus effectiveness.
Full Text Available Online courses taught using a learning management system are common in higher education. Teaching online requires a new set of skills, knowledge, and professional growth. Faculty development programs often overlook factors that promote or inhibit the use of technologies among professors. This study identified the motivation factors that faculty consider relevant to their personal decision to adopt a learning management system. A needs assessment evaluation methodology was applied to investigate two research questions. The first question analyzed the demographics of the participants in this study including gender, age, tenure status, department, and years of experience using a technology and using an LMS. The second research question investigated the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that motivate faculty to adopt a learning management system in their instruction. Participants (N = 42 were tenured and tenure track faculty instructing at a four-year public university in California.
Full Text Available The research aims to know (1 the differences of the influence of discovery learning and project based learning combined with college ball model’s influence to student’s achievement in conditional structure programming; (2 the differences of learning interest influences to students’ learning achievement; and (3 the effect of interaction between learning-model implementation and students’ interest to students’ learning achievement. The population of this research was students of class X MM in SMK N 6 Surakarta. The sample of this research contained the whole population include X MM 1 and X MM 2 class. This research used quasi experimental method postest only control group design. Data were collected by questionairre, for students learning interest data, and test for the data of students’ learning achievement. Those data were analyzed with two-way Anova test with different content of cell, followed with double comparison of Scheffe’s method with level of significance 0,05. The results showed that (1 there were no significance differences between discovery learning model and project based learning combined with college ball to students’ learning achievement in conditional structure programming. The students taught with project based learning combined with college ball had no better significance learning achievement than those who were taught with discovery learning, although the score of the students who were taught with project based learning combined with college ball had better than those who were taught with discovery learning; (2 there were significance difference between learning interest to students’ learning achievement. Students with high interest had better learning achievement than the students with low interest, but students with high interest had the same learning achievement as those with middle interest and students with middle interest and low interest did. ; (3 there was no effect interaction between learning
A. Askim GULUMBAY, Anadolu University, TURKEY
Full Text Available This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computersupported learning and human-computer interactions.Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cognitive sciences, various aspects of communication and human computer interaction, interface design andcomputer science on one hand and educators and game industry on the other, this should open gates to evolutionary changes of the learning industry. The major topics discussed are emotions, motivation, games and game-experience.
Lancaster, Jason W; Stein, Susan M; MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Van Amburgh, Jenny; Persky, Adam M
Within health science programs there has been a call for more faculty development, particularly for teaching and learning. The primary objectives of this review were to describe the current landscape for faculty development programs for teaching and learning and make recommendations for the implementation of new faculty development programs. A thorough search of the pertinent health science databases was conducted, including the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), MEDLINE, and EMBASE, and faculty development books and relevant information found were reviewed in order to provide recommendations for best practices. Faculty development for teaching and learning comes in a variety of forms, from individuals charged to initiate activities to committees and centers. Faculty development has been effective in improving faculty perceptions on the value of teaching, increasing motivation and enthusiasm for teaching, increasing knowledge and behaviors, and disseminating skills. Several models exist that can be implemented to support faculty teaching development. Institutions need to make informed decisions about which plan could be most successfully implemented in their college or school.
Lancaster, Jason W.; Stein, Susan M.; MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Van Amburgh, Jenny
Within health science programs there has been a call for more faculty development, particularly for teaching and learning. The primary objectives of this review were to describe the current landscape for faculty development programs for teaching and learning and make recommendations for the implementation of new faculty development programs. A thorough search of the pertinent health science databases was conducted, including the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), MEDLINE, and EMBASE, and faculty development books and relevant information found were reviewed in order to provide recommendations for best practices. Faculty development for teaching and learning comes in a variety of forms, from individuals charged to initiate activities to committees and centers. Faculty development has been effective in improving faculty perceptions on the value of teaching, increasing motivation and enthusiasm for teaching, increasing knowledge and behaviors, and disseminating skills. Several models exist that can be implemented to support faculty teaching development. Institutions need to make informed decisions about which plan could be most successfully implemented in their college or school. PMID:24954939
Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin; Dilley, Laura C; Zdziarska, Patrycja A; Jones, Katherine B; Sanders, Lisa D
The distal prosodic patterning established at the beginning of an utterance has been shown to influence downstream word segmentation and lexical access. In this study, we investigated whether distal prosody also affects word learning in a novel (artificial) language. Listeners were exposed to syllable sequences in which the embedded words were either congruent or incongruent with the distal prosody of a carrier phrase. Local segmentation cues, including the transitional probabilities between syllables, were held constant. During a test phase, listeners rated the items as either words or nonwords. Consistent with the perceptual grouping of syllables being predicted by distal prosody, congruent items were more likely to be judged as words than were incongruent items. The results provide the first evidence that perceptual grouping affects word learning in an unknown language, demonstrating that distal prosodic effects may be independent of lexical or other language-specific knowledge.
Full Text Available A concept of software support of learning programming language and technologies is regarded in the article. Present systems of independent study of subjects, related to programming, are examined. Necessary components of a system of support learning programming languages and technologies, which is oriented on independent study, are considered.
Weyer, S. A.; Cannara, A. B.
An experiment was conducted to study how children, aged 10-15 years, learn concepts relevant to computer programing and how they learn modern programing languages. The implicit educational goal was to teach thinking strategies through the medium of programing concepts and their applications. The computer languages Simper and Logo were chosen…
Santos, Olga C.; Saneiro, Mar; Boticario, Jesus G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M. C.
This work explores the benefits of supporting learners affectively in a context-aware learning situation. This features a new challenge in related literature in terms of providing affective educational recommendations that take advantage of ambient intelligence and are delivered through actuators available in the environment, thus going beyond previous approaches which provided computer-based recommendation that present some text or tell aloud the learner what to do. To address this open issue, we have applied TORMES elicitation methodology, which has been used to investigate the potential of ambient intelligence for making more interactive recommendations in an emotionally challenging scenario (i.e. preparing for the oral examination of a second language learning course). Arduino open source electronics prototyping platform is used both to sense changes in the learners' affective state and to deliver the recommendation in a more interactive way through different complementary sensory communication channels (sight, hearing, touch) to cope with a universal design. An Ambient Intelligence Context-aware Affective Recommender Platform (AICARP) has been built to support the whole experience, which represents a progress in the state of the art. In particular, we have come up with what is most likely the first interactive context-aware affective educational recommendation. The value of this contribution lies in discussing methodological and practical issues involved.
Dimitrovsky, L; Spector, H; Levy-Shiff, R; Vakil, E
The ability to identify facial expressions of happiness, sadness, anger, surprise,fear, and disgust was studied in 48 nondisabled children and 76 children with learning disabilities aged 9 through 12. On the basis of their performance on the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and the Benton Visual Retention Test, the LD group was divided into three subgroups: those with verbal deficits (VD), nonverbal deficits (NVD), and both verbal and nonverbal (BD) deficits. The measure of ability to interpret facial expressions of affect was a shortened version of Ekman and Friesen's Pictures of Facial Affect. Overall, the nondisabled group had better interpretive ability than the three learning disabled groups and the VD group had better ability than the NVD and BD groups. Although the identification level of the nondisabled group differed from that of the VD group only for surprise, it was superior to that of the NVD and BD groups for four of the six emotions. Happiness was the easiest to identify, and the remaining emotions in ascending order of difficulty were anger, surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust. Older subjects did better than younger ones only for fear and disgust, and boys and girls did not differ in interpretive ability. These findings are discussed in terms of the need to take note of the heterogeneity of the learning disabled population and the particular vulnerability to social imperception of children with nonverbal deficits.
Tatar, Nilgün; Akpınar, Ercan; Feyzioğlu, Eylem Yıldız
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-assisted learning integrated with metacognitive prompts on elementary students' affective skills on the subject of electricity. The researchers developed educational software to enable students to easily and comprehensively learn the concepts in the subject of electricity. A case study method was used. Eighteen students from the seventh grade (12-13 years) participated in the study. Students' views on their performances while using educational software and the impact of the software on their affective skills towards the subject of electricity were examined. Data were collected by open-ended questions in the educational software. According to the research results, there were students who had negative attitudes and perceptions before starting to learn about the subject of electricity. Interactive activities, animations, and visual experiments in the educational software were effective in overcoming the students' negative attitudes and perceptions about the subject. Besides, students who assessed their own performances during the learning process believed themselves to be more successful over time. In the light of the research results, some suggestions are made for future studies.
Deraniyagala, Rohan; Amdur, Robert J; Boyer, Arthur L; Kaylor, Scott
A major strategy for improving radiation oncology education and competence evaluation is to develop eLearning programs that reproduce the real work environment. A valuable measure of the quality of an eLearning program is "usability," which is a multidimensional endpoint defined from the end user's perspective. The gold standard for measuring usability is the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The purpose of this study is to use the SUMI to measure usability of an eLearning course that uses innovative software to teach and test contouring of nodal stations of the head and neck. This is a prospective institutional review board-approved study in which all participants gave written informed consent. The study population was radiation oncology residents from 8 different programs across the United States. The subjects had to pass all sections of the same 2 eLearning modules and then complete the SUMI usability evaluation instrument. We reached the accrual goal of 25 participants. Usability results for the EduMod eLearning course, "Nodal Stations of the Head and Neck," were compared with a large database of scores of other major software programs. Results were evaluated in 5 domains: Affect, Helpfulness, Control, Learnability, and Global Usability. In all 5 domains, usability scores for the study modules were higher than the database mean and statistically superior in 4 domains. This is the first study to evaluate usability of an eLearning program related to radiation oncology. Usability of 2 representative modules related to contouring nodal stations of the head and neck was highly favorable, with scores that were superior to the industry standard in multiple domains. These results support the continued development of this type of eLearning program for teaching and testing radiation oncology technical skills. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Recent theoretical and empirical research has focused on metacognitive and affective processes in learning and performance in diverse domains of inquiry. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between these processes and achievement in native language (Slovene. 369 pupils in fifth grade of primary school participated in the study. A 41-item questionnaire was constructed to measure pupils' metacognitive and affective processes in learning native language. Factor analysis of the items revealed four different factors that accounted for 38.4% of the explained variance: two metacognitive (strategies of learning and solving tasks in Slovenian, searching for meaning and understanding in Slovenian and two affective (experiencing fear of Slovenian, feelings of success and interest in Slovenian. Further analysis showed negative correlations between achievement and these factors: searching for meaning and understanding in Slovenian, experiencing fear of Slovenian. Positive correlation was found between achievement and the factor feelings of success and interest in Slovenian. In conclusion, implications for educational practice are discussed.
Block, Hannah; Celnik, Pablo
When systematic movement errors occur, the brain responds with a systematic change in motor behavior. This type of adaptive motor learning can transfer intermanually; adaptation of movements of the right hand in response to training with a perturbed visual signal (visuomotor adaptation) may carry over to the left hand. While visuomotor adaptation has been studied extensively, it is unclear whether the cerebellum, a structure involved in adaptation, is important for intermanual transfer as well. We addressed this question with three experiments in which subjects reached with their right hands as a 30° visuomotor rotation was introduced. Subjects received anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation on the trained (experiment 1) or untrained (experiment 2) hemisphere of the cerebellum, or, for comparison, motor cortex (M1). After the training period, subjects reached with their left hand, without visual feedback, to assess intermanual transfer of learning aftereffects. Stimulation of the right cerebellum caused faster adaptation, but none of the stimulation sites affected transfer. To ascertain whether cerebellar stimulation would increase transfer if subjects learned faster as well as a larger amount, in experiment 3 anodal and sham cerebellar groups experienced a shortened training block such that the anodal group learned more than sham. Despite the difference in adaptation magnitude, transfer was similar across these groups, although smaller than in experiment 1. Our results suggest that intermanual transfer of visuomotor learning does not depend on cerebellar activity and that the number of movements performed at plateau is an important predictor of transfer.
Alias, Maizam; Lashari, Tahira Anwar; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd.
Learning in the cognitive domain is highly emphasised and has been widely investigated in engineering education. Lesser emphasis is placed on the affective dimension although the role of affects has been supported by research. The lack of understanding on learning theories and how they may be translated into classroom application of teaching and learning is one factor that contributes to this situation. This paper proposes a working framework for integrating the affective dimension of learning into engineering education that is expected to promote better learning within the cognitive domain. Four major learning theories namely behaviourism, cognitivism, socio-culturalism, and constructivism were analysed and how affects are postulated to influence cognition are identified. The affective domain constructs identified to be important are self-efficacy, attitude and locus of control. Based on the results of the analysis, a framework that integrates methodologies for achieving learning in the cognitive domain with the support of the affective dimension of learning is proposed. It is expected that integrated approach can be used as a guideline to engineering educators in designing effective and sustainable instructional material that would result in the effective engineers for future development.
Ye, Guibo; Tang, Mengfan; Cai, Jian-Feng; Nie, Qing; Xie, Xiaohui
Learning gene expression programs directly from a set of observations is challenging due to the complexity of gene regulation, high noise of experimental measurements, and insufficient number of experimental measurements. Imposing additional constraints with strong and biologically motivated regularizations is critical in developing reliable and effective algorithms for inferring gene expression programs. Here we propose a new form of regulation that constrains the number of independent connectivity patterns between regulators and targets, motivated by the modular design of gene regulatory programs and the belief that the total number of independent regulatory modules should be small. We formulate a multi-target linear regression framework to incorporate this type of regulation, in which the number of independent connectivity patterns is expressed as the rank of the connectivity matrix between regulators and targets. We then generalize the linear framework to nonlinear cases, and prove that the generalized low-rank regularization model is still convex. Efficient algorithms are derived to solve both the linear and nonlinear low-rank regularized problems. Finally, we test the algorithms on three gene expression datasets, and show that the low-rank regularization improves the accuracy of gene expression prediction in these three datasets.
Jukema, Jan S; Harps-Timmerman, Annelies; Stoopendaal, Annemiek; Smits, Carolien H M
Change management is an important area of training in undergraduate nursing education. Successful change management in healthcare aimed at improving practices requires facilitation skills that support teams in attaining the desired change. Developing facilitation skills in nursing students requires formal educational support. A Dutch Regional Care Improvement Program based on a nationwide format of change management in healthcare was designed to act as a Powerful Learning Environment for nursing students developing competencies in facilitating change. This article has two aims: to provide comprehensive insight into the program components and to describe students' learning experiences in developing their facilitation skills. This Dutch Regional Care Improvement Program considers three aspects of a Powerful Learning Environment: self-regulated learning; problem-based learning; and complex, realistic and challenging learning tasks. These three aspects were operationalised in five distinct areas of facilitation: increasing awareness of the need for change; leadership and project management; relationship building and communication; importance of the local context; and ongoing monitoring and evaluation. Over a period of 18 months, 42 nursing students, supported by trained lecturer-coaches, took part in nine improvement teams in our Regional Care Improvement Program, executing activities in all five areas of facilitation. Based on the students' experiences, we propose refinements to various components of this program, aimed at strengthenin the learning environment. There is a need for further detailed empirical research to study the impact this kind of learning environment has on students developing facilitation competencies in healthcare improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Warren, J.F.; Helton, R.A.
Performance of electric vehicles (EVs) is being studied in an ongoing Site Operator Program, as part of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than 200 EVs are being operated by Site Operators in various geographical and climatic regions of the United States. Cold-weather operation of EVs is of particular interest. As expected, low temperatures affect a battery`s ability to accept a charge, which decreases EV range and increases operating costs. Battery types other than lead-acid are being evaluated such as nickel-iron, gelled electrolyte lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, and sodium-sulfur. Also, improved methods of collecting EV performance data are being implemented, thermal management systems are being tested, and a prototype ultracapacitor is being tested as a possible alternative to conventional batteries.
Full Text Available The high rate of dropout is a serious problem in E-learning program. Thus it has received extensive concern from the education administrators and researchers. Predicting the potential dropout students is a workable solution to prevent dropout. Based on the analysis of related literature, this study selected student’s personal characteristic and academic performance as input attributions. Prediction models were developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Decision Tree (DT and Bayesian Networks (BNs. A large sample of 62375 students was utilized in the procedures of model training and testing. The results of each model were presented in confusion matrix, and analyzed by calculating the rates of accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. The results suggested all of the three machine learning methods were effective in student dropout prediction, and DT presented a better performance. Finally, some suggestions were made for considerable future research.
Full Text Available Background: Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective: The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method: Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34 to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST. Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results: Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions: The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area.
Sudarso, Sulistiawati; Rahayu, Gandes Retno; Suhoyo, Yoyo
This study was aimed to explore students' learning response toward feedback during mini-CEX encounter. This study used a phenomenological approach to identify the students' experiences toward feedback during mini-CEX encounter. Data was collected using Focus Group Discussion (FGD) for all students who were in their final week of clerkship in the internal medicine rotation. There were 4 FGD groups (6 students for each group). All FGD were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The FGD transcripts were analyzed thematically and managed using Atlas-ti (version 7.0). Feedback content and the way of providing feedback on mini-CEX stimulated students' internal process, including self-reflection, emotional response, and motivation. These internal processes encouraged the students to take action or do a follow-up on the feedback to improve their learning process. In addition, there was also an external factor, namely consequences, which also influenced the students' reaction to the follow-up on feedback. In the end, this action caused several learning effects that resulted in the students' increased self-efficacy, attitude, knowledge and clinical skill. Feedback content and the way of providing feedback on mini-CEX stimulates the students' internal processes to do a follow-up on feedback. However, another external factor also affects the students' decision on the follow-up actions. The follow-ups result in various learning effects on the students. Feedback given along with summative assessment enhances learning effects on students, as well. It is suggested that supervisors of clinical education are prepared to comprehend every factor influencing feedback on mini CEX to improve the students' learning response.
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J.G.; van Merrienboer, J.J.G.; Paas, Fred G.W.C.
Two complementary processes may be distinguished in learning a complex cognitive skill such as computer programming. First, automation offers task-specific procedures that may directly control programming behavior, second, schema acquisition offers cognitive structures that provide analogies in new
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the foreign language anxiety on English learning within the factors affecting foreign language learning. This study was conducted to the preparatory class students at foreign language oriented high schools in central Gaziantep in academic year of 2004-2005. Likert type anxiety scale was applied to 293 randomly selected students. The data were analyzed by using t test, one way ANOVA and Scheffé tests. The effects of the level of education and the occupation of the parents, the genres of the students, the school type they study, the primary schools they graduated from on the level of foreign language anxiety was investigated and no effects of these parameters were found. On the other hand, some of the schools where the students had high level of foreign language anxiety had low academic successes. As a result of this study, it is determined that foreign language anxiety levels affect secondary school student’s English learning academic successes, the students with high level of foreign language anxiety received low grades in English language courses at the end of the academic year; however, the students with the low level of foreign language anxiety
Donesky, Doranne; Nguyen, Huong Q; Paul, Steven M; Carrieri-Kohlman, Virginia
The perception of dyspnea includes both sensory and affective dimensions that are shaped by emotions and psychological, social, and environmental experiences. Previous investigators have studied either measurement or strategies to decrease the affective dimension with laboratory-induced dyspnea. Few have reported the effect of a therapeutic clinical intervention on the affective dimension of dyspnea. (1) To evaluate the effects of three different versions of a dyspnea self-management program (DM) on the affective dimension of dyspnea, measured by dyspnea-related anxiety (DA) and dyspnea-related distress (DD); and (2) to determine the stability of DA and DD over two baseline incremental treadmill tests (ITTs). Participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were randomly assigned to three 12 month DMs with varying doses of supervised exercise (DM, DM-Exposure, and DM-Training). The measurements of the affective dimension, DA and DD, were rated during ITTs on two baseline days and at two, six, and 12 months. Changes over time in DA and DD were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. Participants in the DM-Training group who received 24 nurse-coached exercise sessions had significantly greater reductions in DA and DD compared with those who had four exercise sessions (DM-Exposure) or only received a home-walking program (DM). Reductions in DA and DD in the DM-Training group were only maintained through six months. There were no significant differences in ratings of DA and DD at end between the two baseline ITTs. These findings provide initial support for the positive impact of a self-management program with nurse-coached exercise on the affective dimension of dyspnea. Further investigation of interventions that target the affective dimension in addition to the sensory dimension of dyspnea should be encouraged. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract As part of a larger study (Rahimi, 2004, this study investigates the use of language learning strategies by post-secondary level Persian EFL learners. Particular attention is paid to the variables affecting learners’ choice of strategies, and the relationship, if any, between these variables and learners’ patterns of strategy use. Data were gathered from 196 low-, mid- and high proficiency learners using such instruments as the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL; Oxford, 1990, and two questionnaires of attitude and motivation (adapted from Laine, 1988 and learning style (Soloman and Felder, 2001. The results of the study point to proficiency level and motivation as major predictors of the use of language learning strategies among this group of learners. Gender, on the other hand, is not found to have any effect while years of language study appear to negatively predict strategy use. The difference between learners’ use of the SILL’s six major strategy categories is found to be significant and indicates learners’ preference for metacognitive strategies.
van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R
In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
This study examined the relationships among learning styles, study habits, and learning performances in an online programming language course. Sixty-two sophomore students who enrolled in an online introductory programming course participated in the study. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) was used to measure the students' learning styles.…
Full Text Available Middlebury Interactive Language (MIL programs are designed to teach world language courses using blended and online learning for students in kindergarten through grade 12. Middlebury Interactive courses start with fundamental building blocks in four key areas of world-language study: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. As students progress through the course levels, they deepen their understanding of the target language, continuing to focus on the three modes of communication: interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational. The extensive use of authentic materials (video, audio, images, or texts is intended to provide a contextualized and interactive presentation of the vocabulary and the linguistic structures. In the present paper, we describe the MIL program and the results of a mixed-methods survey and case-study evaluation of its implementation in a broad sample of schools. Technology application is examined with regard to MIL instructional strategies and the present evaluation approach relative to those employed in the literature.
Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Kok, Gerjo; Hosman, Clemens
Background: This study examined the effects of a universal stress management program (Learn Young, Learn Fair) on stress, coping, anxiety and depression in fifth and sixth grade children. Methods: Fifty-two schools (1467 children) participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Data was collected in the fall of 2002, the spring of 2003,…
Kraag, G.C; Breukelen, G.J.P. van; Kok, G.J.; Hosman, C.M.H.
Background - This study examined the effects of a universal stress management program (Learn Young, Learn Fair) on stress, coping, anxiety and depression in fifth and sixth grade children. Methods - Fiftytwo schools (1467 children) participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Data was
Weeks, Joseph A., Jr.
This research project was a descriptive study which measured the differences between generation, learning style, modality of course delivery and learning outcomes of the education sessions for participants in the regional higher education institution's professional development program. This research study focused on the faculty development program…
Hayes, Kim A.; Entzel, Pamela; Berger, Wendy; Caskey, Rachel N.; Shlay, Judith C.; Stubbs, Brenda W.; Smith, Jennifer S.; Brewer, Noel T.
Background: There has been little evaluation of school-located vaccination programs that offer human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in US schools without health centers (ie, extramural programs). This article summarizes lessons learned from such programs. Methods: In July to August 2010, 5 programs were identi?ed. Semistructured, in-depth telephone…
Ahern, Kathryn A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of teachers who participated in the Satellite Education and Environmental Research (SEER) Program Water Project, a curriculum design course developed at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The distance education course was a complex intervention which used the Nebraska Mathematics and Science Initiative's Model Program criteria for inquiry-based curriculum. Teachers formed communities of inquiry, experienced scientific inquiry processes, integrated different disciplines to create new thematic science curricula, and were encouraged to employ innovative pedagogical practices. National Science Education Standards and Nebraska Mathematics and Science Frameworks were consulted to develop important science process skills and concepts. Multicultural science education was addressed through investigation of local water issues. Teachers were encouraged to form community partnerships, supported with testing materials for conducting scientific research, and expected to use computer technology. Grounded theory was used to examine interviews of 26 participants for their perceptions of the effects of the intervention on their teaching strategies. The self-reports were triangulated through the external evaluation report, classroom artifacts, and a limited number of observations of classroom and field activities. Open coding was used to categorize the interview responses and to propose relationships among them. The central phenomenon that emerged from the axial and select coding was the changed focus: teaching science more thematically. Three theoretical propositions were posed to guide further inquiry: (1) teachers need opportunities and resources to experience science as an authentic, tenable, and realistic process if they are to develop curriculum and focus classroom activities on scientific inquiry; (2) autonomous learning communities must be fostered at downlink sites if distance learning experiences are to affect
Li, Lung-Yu; Lee, Long-Yuan
The purpose of this study was to explore graduate students' competencies in computer use and their attitudes toward online learning in asynchronous online courses of distance learning programs in a Graduate School of Education (GSOE) in Taiwan. The research examined the relationship between computer literacy and the online learning attitudes of…
To consider how Web-based learning program is utilized by learners with different cognitive styles, this study presents a Web-based learning system (WBLS) and analyzes learners' browsing data recorded in the log file to identify how learners' cognitive styles and learning behavior are related. In order to develop an adapted WBLS, this study also…
Carvalho, Elizabeth Simão
Teaching object-oriented programming to students in an in-classroom environment demands well-thought didactic and pedagogical strategies in order to guarantee a good level of apprenticeship. To teach it on a completely distance learning environment (e-learning) imposes possibly other strategies, besides those that the e-learning model of Open…
Esen-Aygun, Hanife; Sahin-Taskin, Cigdem
This research aimed to understand primary teachers' views of primary teachers' social-emotional learning and social-emotional learning programs in Turkey. Findings revealed that although most of the teachers had heard of the concept of social-emotional learning, they could not give a detailed explanation of it. Additionally, most of them were not…
Chism, Lauren P.; Baker, Sarah S.; Hansen, Michele J.; Williams, Gayle
Many colleges offer a summer bridge program and even more offer learning communities for first-year students. Few, however, link these initiatives. This article will offer brief descriptions of IUPUI's successful bridge, learning community, and themed learning community (TLC) initiatives; examine the links between them; and share assessment data,…
A learning environment which increases the desire and efforts of students to attain learning goals leads to greater motivation and success. This study examines the negative and positive opinions of students regarding the effectiveness of the learning process and students' success in a computer programming course in which face-to-face and web-based…
Brink, Kyle E.; Palmer, Timothy B.; Costigan, Robert D.
Learning goals are central to assurance of learning. Yet little is known about what goals are used by business programs or how they are established. On the one hand, business schools are encouraged to develop their own unique learning goals. However, business schools also face pressures that would encourage conformity by adopting goals used by…
Ropes, D.C.; Thölke, J.M.
This paper is about helping human resource development professionals to understand how community of practice theory can inform the design of learning-based programs in order to link individual and organizational learning better. Learning is often considered a major contributor to the success or
Jürg Thölke; Donald Ropes
This paper is about helping human resource development professionals to understand how community of practice theory can inform the design of learning-based programs in order to link individual and organizational learning better. Learning is often considered a major contributor to the success or
Thota, Neena; Whitfield, Richard
This article describes a holistic approach to designing an introductory, object-oriented programming course. The design is grounded in constructivism and pedagogy of phenomenography. We use constructive alignment as the framework to align assessments, learning, and teaching with planned learning outcomes. We plan learning and teaching activities,…
Theodoraki, Aristea; Xinogalos, Stelios
Games for learning are currently used in several disciplines for motivating students and enhancing their learning experience. This new approach of technology-enhanced learning has attracted researchers' and instructors' attention in the area of programming that is one of the most cognitively demanding fields in Computer Science. Several…
Full Text Available The scripts of 288 television episodes were analysed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in television programs from the same subgenres and unrelated television programs from different genres. Episodes from two programs from each of the following three subgenres of the American drama genre: medical, spy/action, and criminal forensic investigation were compared with different sets of random episodes. The results showed that although there were an equivalent number of running words in each set of episodes, the episodes from programs within the same subgenre contained fewer word families than random programs. The findings also showed that low frequency word families (4000-14,000 levels reoccur more often in programs within the same subgenre. Together the results indicate that watching programs within the same subgenre may be an effective approach to language learning with television because it reduces the lexical demands of viewing and increases the potential for vocabulary learning.Los guiones de 288 episodios televisivos se analizaron para determinar el alcance de la recursividad del vocabulario en programas de televisión del mismo subgénero y en programas no relacionados de géneros diferentes. Se compararon episodios de tres subgéneros del drama americano: médico, de espías/acción y de investigación forense, con varios grupos de episodios elegidos al azar. Los resultados muestran que, aunque el número de palabras en cada grupo de episodios era equivalente, los episodios del mismo subgénero contienen menos familias de palabras que aquellos elegidos al azar. Los hallazgos mostraron que las familias de baja frecuencia (niveles de 4.000-14.000 se repiten con más frecuencia en los programas del mismo subgénero. En conjunto, los resultados indican que el visionado de programas del mismo subgénero puede ser un método efectivo para aprender el lenguaje por medio de la televisión porque reduce la demanda léxica de la
Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia
This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…
Albritton, Shelly; Stacks, Jamie
This paper describes two instructors' efforts to more authentically engage students in a preservice leadership program's course called Program Planning and Evaluation by using a project-based learning approach. Markham, Larmer, and Ravitz (2003) describe project-based learning (PjBL) as "a systematic teaching method that engages students in…
Webb, Noreen M.; And Others
Planning and debugging strategies and group processes predicting learning of computer programming were studied in 30 students aged 11 to 14. Students showed little advance planning. Factors associated with learning included high-level planning of program chunks, debugging of single statements, explaining, and verbalizing aloud while typing.…
Mathrani, Anuradha; Christian, Shelly; Ponder-Sutton, Agate
This study demonstrates a game-based learning (GBL) approach to engage students in learning and enhance their programming skills. The paper gives a detailed narrative of how an educational game was mapped with the curriculum of a prescribed programming course in a computing diploma study programme. Two separate student cohorts were invited to…
The capacity model is designed to predict young children's learning from educational television. It posits that select program features and individual child characteristics can support this learning either by increasing total working memory allocated to the program or altering the allocation of
Xia, Belle Selene
Previous research has shown that, despite the importance of programming education, there is limited research done on programming education experiences from the students' point of view and the need to do so is strong. By understanding the student behaviour, their learning styles, their expectation and motivation to learn, the quality of teaching…
Vosinakis, Spyros; Anastassakis, George; Koutsabasis, Panayiotis
Logic Programming (LP) follows the declarative programming paradigm, which novice students often find hard to grasp. The limited availability of visual teaching aids for LP can lead to low motivation for learning. In this paper, we present a platform for teaching and learning Prolog in Virtual Worlds, which enables the visual interpretation and…
Describes a study of an inner-city youth gardening program and the kinds of learning opportunities it supported that emerged from youth-initiated actions. Examines the ways in which the garden environment and the experiential nature of the program gave support to the emergence of learning opportunities while making connections between science,…
Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie; Brousselle, Astrid; Chiocchio, François; Beaudet, Nicole
The health promotion laboratory (HPL-Canada) is a public health professional development program building on a collaborative learning approach in order to support long-term practice change in local health services teams. This study aims to analyse the collaborative learning processes of two teams involved in the program during the first year of…
Lavis, Catherine C.; Williams, Kimberly A.; Fallin, Jana; Barnes, Pamela K.; Fishback, Sarah J.; Thien, Stephen
Kansas State University designed a 20-month faculty development program with the goal of fostering broad, institution-wide adoption of teaching practices that focus on brain-based learning. Components of the program included annual teaching and learning workshops, reading and discussion groups based on content of a book about how the brain learns…
The purpose of this paper was to examine the unique areas of concern when establishing an eLearning program in the field of global business. A survey of eLearning and a global management subject matter appears. This paper identifies potential challenges in program design and raises practical concerns for future research. [For the full proceedings,…
Ingram, Jeffrey G.
This study investigated whether spiritual learning impacts the lives of adult learners in martial arts educational programs. The impact of spirituality has been claimed as a meaningful connection; however, it is not currently known how spiritual learning impacts the lives and experiences of adult learners with these programs. Spiritual learning…
Jaksha, Amanda P.
The goal of this study is to develop an understanding of how participants express their environmental identities during an environmental learning program. Past research on the outcomes of environmental learning programs has focused primarily on changes in knowledge and attitudes. However, even if knowledge or attitudes can be accurately measured,…
Trailor, Colette B.; Huntley, Lois
The paper describes a Norwich, Connecticut, program for gifted learning disabled students. After a definition of giftedness, a chart lists characteristics of gifted/learning disabled students, and a brief discussion examines application of the Enrichment Triad Model of Joseph Renzulli to this population. Other program information pieces include a…
Lundmark, Jennifer; Paradis, Jeffrey; Kapp, Micaela; Lowe, Elizabeth; Tashiro, Lynn
In late 2011, we created a Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) program focused on improving student performance in high-risk STEM courses. Our PALs are modeled after the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) program, which has been shown to provide long- and short-term benefits to both students (Chan & Bauer, 2015; Gosser, Kampeier, & Pratibha, 2010;…
Workman, Jamie L.; Redington, Lyn
This is the third of a three-part series which will share information about how a mid-size, comprehensive university has worked to a learning community program, including a residential curriculum. This article focuses on how those working with Learning Communities navigate program development during changing institutional priorities.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Smaller Learning Communities Program; Notice Inviting... year (FY) 2009 funds for the Smaller Learning Communities Program. There are errors in two of the dates...
Hornyak, Martin J.; Page, Diana
This description explores a form of experiential learning using specific outdoor learning activities in a higher education setting to introduce participants to each other and to build a team in a leadership program. Participants in the Leadership Enhancement and Development Program (LEAD) created at the University of West Florida (UWF) include…
Allinjawi, Arwa A.; Al-Nuaim, Hana A.; Krause, Paul
Students often face difficulties while learning object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts. Many papers have presented various assessment methods for diagnosing learning problems to improve the teaching of programming in computer science (CS) higher education. The research presented in this article illustrates that although max-min composition is…
Kunkle, Wanda M.
Many students experience difficulties learning to program. They find learning to program in the object-oriented paradigm particularly challenging. As a result, computing educators have tried a variety of instructional methods to assist beginning programmers. These include developing approaches geared specifically toward novices and experimenting…
Personalized learning is defined as "tailoring learning for each student's strengths, needs, and interests--including enabling student voice and choice in what, how, when and where they learn-- to provide flexibility and supports to ensure mastery of the highest standards possible". Personalized learning offers school librarians a way to…
Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet
The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…
Teachers are expected to update their instructional strategies. Teaching learning approaches and epistemological beliefs may affect teaching practices. The aim of this study is analyzing the relation of variables that effect epistemological beliefs and teaching learning approaches of teacher candidates on a statistical model. According to…
Gonzalez, Luis A.
The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of staff and faculty regarding factors affecting student success in distance learning at a California community college (CCC). Participants were members of the leadership group known as the distance learning committee. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using open-ended…
Tatar, Nilgün; Akpinar, Ercan; Feyzioglu, Eylem Yildiz
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-assisted learning integrated with metacognitive prompts on elementary students' affective skills on the subject of electricity. The researchers developed educational software to enable students to easily and comprehensively learn the concepts in the subject of electricity. A…
Meijs, Celeste; Hurks, Petra P.M.; Wassenberg, Renske; Feron, Frans J.M.; Jolles, Jelle
This study examines inter-individual differences in how presentation modality affects verbal learning performance. Children aged 5 to 16 performed a verbal learning test within one of three presentation modalities: pictorial, auditory, or textual. The results indicated that a beneficial effect of
Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Shao-Chen
One of the important and challenging objectives of social studies courses is to promote students' affective domain exhibition, including learning interest, positive attitudes and local culture identity. In this paper, a location-aware mobile learning approach was proposed based on a competition strategy for conducting local cultural activities in…
Silva, Cláudia da; Capellini, Simone Aparecida
the Phonological and Reading Remediation Program in learning disabilities. to verify therapeutic effectiveness of the Phonological and Reading Remediation Program in students with learning disabilities. participants of this study were 40 students who were divided in the following groups: GI, subdivided in: GIE (10 students without learning disabilities submitted to the Phonological and Reading Remediation Program), GIC (10 students without learning disabilities who were not submitted to the Phonological and Reading Remediation Program); and GII, subdivided in: GIIE (10 students with learning disabilities submitted to the Phonological and Reading Remediation Program), GIIC (10 students with learning disabilities who were not submitted to the Phonological and Reading Remediation Program). As a procedure, in pre and post testing situations, the Cognitive-Linguistic Performance Test was applied. the results showed statistically significant differences between GIE and GIC and between GIIE and GIIC, indicating that students who were submitted to the Program presented better performances in the post testing condition when compared to the pre-testing condition. this study showed that the Phonological and Reading Remediation Program was effective. The use of the Program improved perception, production and manipulation of sounds and syllables, interfering directly on the reading skills and comprehension of students with learning disabilities.
Paula Nasiatka; David Christenson
How can a unit learn in everyday fuels programs and from program reviews? How can a unit move from living in the âreport cardâ culture to discovering more effective ways to improve what it knows and how it learns? Six specific tasks are critical to organizational learning according to David A. Garvin of Harvard Business School. By engaging in these tasks a unit can...
experience positively affected students' learning, their growth in interprofessional collaboration, and their understanding and appreciation of health care professions besides their own. The experience also generated feelings of gratitude for the opportunity to be a member of an interprofessional team and to serve those in need by giving of themselves.Conclusion: The findings support service learning as a platform to encourage interprofessional collaboration among students in health care professional programs. The research will inform future service-learning experiences in which interdisciplinary collaboration is an outcome of interest.Keywords: content analysis, interdisciplinary collaboration, service-learning, qualitative research
Lu, Owen H. T.; Huang, Jeff C. H.; Huang, Anna Y. Q.; Yang, Stephen J. H.
As information technology continues to evolve rapidly, programming skills become increasingly crucial. To be able to construct superb programming skills, the training must begin before college or even senior high school. However, when developing comprehensive training programmers, the learning and teaching processes must be considered. In order to…
Conrad, Claudius; Konuk, Yusuf; Werner, Paul D; Cao, Caroline G; Warshaw, Andrew L; Rattner, David W; Stangenberg, Lars; Ott, Harald C; Jones, Daniel B; Miller, Diane L; Gee, Denise W
To explore how the 2 most important components of surgical performance--speed and accuracy-are influenced by different forms of stress and what the impact of music is on these factors. On the basis of a recently published pilot study on surgical experts, we designed an experiment examining the effects of auditory stress, mental stress, and music on surgical performance and learning and then correlated the data psychometric measures to the role of music in a novice surgeon's life. Thirty-one surgeons were recruited for a crossover study. Surgeons were randomized to 4 simple standardized tasks to be performed on the SurgicalSIM VR laparoscopic simulator (Medical Education Technologies, Inc, Sarasota, FL), allowing exact tracking of speed and accuracy. Tasks were performed under a variety of conditions, including silence, dichotic music (auditory stress), defined classical music (auditory relaxation), and mental loading (mental arithmetic tasks). Tasks were performed twice to test for memory consolidation and to accommodate for baseline variability. Performance was correlated to the brief Musical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ). Mental loading influences performance with respect to accuracy, speed, and recall more negatively than does auditory stress. Defined classical music might lead to minimally worse performance initially but leads to significantly improved memory consolidation. Furthermore, psychologic testing of the volunteers suggests that surgeons with greater musical commitment, measured by the MEQ, perform worse under the mental loading condition. Mental distraction and auditory stress negatively affect specific components of surgical learning and performance. If used appropriately, classical music may positively affect surgical memory consolidation. It also may be possible to predict surgeons' performance and learning under stress through psychological tests on the role of music in a surgeon's life. Further investigation is necessary to determine the
Hughes, John George
The purpose of this qualitative, comparative case study was to determine the extent to which learning and improvement cultures were perceived to be linked to the traditional and non-traditional accreditation and Program Outcomes Assessment paradigms in use in two university hospitality programs. The findings of this study revealed that the…
Greene, Joshua D
Decades of psychological research have demonstrated that intuitive judgments are often unreliable, thanks to their inflexible reliance on limited information (Kahneman, 2003, 2011). Research on the computational underpinnings of learning, however, indicates that intuitions may be acquired by sophisticated learning mechanisms that are highly sensitive and integrative. With this in mind, Railton (2014) urges a more optimistic view of moral intuition. Is such optimism warranted? Elsewhere (Greene, 2013) I've argued that moral intuitions offer reasonably good advice concerning the give-and-take of everyday social life, addressing the basic problem of cooperation within a "tribe" ("Me vs. Us"), but that moral intuitions offer unreliable advice concerning disagreements between tribes with competing interests and values ("Us vs. Them"). Here I argue that a computational perspective on moral learning underscores these conclusions. The acquisition of good moral intuitions requires both good (representative) data and good (value-aligned) training. In the case of inter-tribal disagreement (public moral controversy), the problem of bad training looms large, as training processes may simply reinforce tribal differences. With respect to moral philosophy and the paradoxical problems it addresses, the problem of bad data looms large, as theorists seek principles that minimize counter-intuitive implications, not only in typical real-world cases, but in unusual, often hypothetical, cases such as some trolley dilemmas. In such cases the prevailing real-world relationships between actions and consequences are severed or reversed, yielding intuitions that give the right answers to the wrong questions. Such intuitions-which we may experience as the voice of duty or virtue-may simply reflect the computational limitations inherent in affective learning. I conclude, in optimistic agreement with Railton, that progress in moral philosophy depends on our having a better understanding of the
van der Vliet, Rick; Ribbers, Gerard M; Vandermeeren, Yves; Frens, Maarten A; Selles, Ruud W
tDCS is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that has been reported to improve motor skill learning after stroke. However, the contribution of tDCS to motor skill learning has only been investigated in a small number of studies. In addition, it is unclear if tDCS effects are mediated by activity-dependent BDNF release and dependent on timing of tDCS relative to training. Investigate the role of activity-dependent BDNF release and timing of tDCS relative to training in motor skill learning. Double-blind, between-subjects randomized controlled trial of circuit tracing task improvement (ΔMotor skill) in 80 chronic stroke patients who underwent tDCS and were genotyped for BDNF Val66Met. Patients received either short-lasting tDCS (20 min) during training (short-lasting online group), long-lasting tDCS (10 min-25 min break - 10 min) one day before training (long-lasting offline group), short-lasting tDCS one day before training (short-lasting offline group), or sham tDCS. ΔMotor skill was defined as the skill difference on the circuit tracing task between day one and day nine of the study. Having at least one BDNF Met allele was found to diminish ΔMotor skill (βBDNF,Met = -0.217 95%HDI = [-0.431 -0.0116]), indicating activity-dependent BDNF release is important for motor skill learning after stroke. However, none of the tDCS protocols affected ΔMotor skill (βShort-lasting,online = 0.0908 95%HDI = [-0.227 0.403]; βLong-lasting,offline = 0.0242 95%HDI = [-0.292 0.349]; βShort-lasting,offline = -0.108 95%HDI = [-0.433 0.210]). BDNF Val66Met is a determinant of motor skill learning after stroke and could be important for prognostic models. tDCS does not modulate motor skill learning in our study and might be less effective than previously assumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pasche, E.; Manojlovic, N.; Basener, S.; Behzadnia, N.
In the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approach the key to initialising this transition stage is capacity building of stakeholders. It supports the effective participation of stakeholders within their role by giving the individuals/professionals and institutions required knowledge and skills. Such a process of empowering targeted stakeholder groups should be based on the interactive learning rather than mere delivering of flood related information. It can be achieved by initiating the learning process and developing life-long learning programs in form of blended learning that combines both, supervised online and face-to-face approaches. The learning concept based on the didactic principle of Kolb/Fry, has been used as a basis for development of the Interactive Learning Program (ILP) presented in this paper. Kolb/Fry define learning as a cyclic process dividing it into four steps: concrete experience, reflection & observation, forming abstract concepts, testing of acquainted knowledge in new situations. As the knowledge to understand the complexity of IFM is extensive and required level usually cannot be achieved within the face-to-face phase, additional autodidactic learning module tailored to the individual skills should be included in the learning program. ILP combines both, the face-to-face sessions following the Kolb?s learning cycle including theoretical and practical aspects and autodidactic phase by means of the e-learning platform based on the web dissemination strategy for IFM- Kalypso Inform (Pasche/Kraus/Manojlovic). According to this strategy, the access to the flood related information is enabled through three different modules Tutorial, Knowledge Base and Virtual Trainer enabling interaction with the system. This ILP is generic and can be tailored to requirements of different stakeholder groups depending on their role and level of integration in IFM. The first results, obtained for both public and private
Rosário, Pedro; Mourao, Rosa; Núñez, José C; González-Pienda, Julio; Solano, Paula; Valle, Antonio
The present study examines the efficacy of a program designed to enhance college students'learning processes and study strategies. The program was organised around a number of letters written by a freshman, Gervásio (Rosário, Núñez, & González-Pienda, 2006), telling about his new experiences, troubles, and successes in the university. This intervention program is intended to promote a series of strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive, and supportive) which allow students to manage their learning processes in a more proficient, successful, and autonomous way. The collected data suggest that students who had the opportunity to follow the program significantly improved their declarative knowledge about learning strategies, reduced their use of surface approaches to study, and extended the newly acquired skills to new and different tasks and assignments.
Pedro Gil Madrona
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a physical education (PE program focused on the affective domain for 6th to 8th grade students with respect to the acquisition and transfer of social skills and values. Further, the extent that general classroom teachers and parents perceived if the learned skills where transferred to other context outside the PE class was examined in a sample of 274 students (ages 11 to 13 years old. One hundred and forty-five males (53% and 129 females (47% from five urban schools in Albacete Spain were studied. Three questionnaires were used (pre and post rating scales as data collection instruments for students, teachers and parents. Results demonstrated encouraging estimates of reliability for the subscales of PE teachers’ perceptions of students’ values and regular education teaches perceptions with very strong values of internal consistency .82 and .93 respectively. Posttest values were slightly higher. Further, findings demonstrated positive outcomes after the intervention in teacher perceptions about students values levels (t =-8,05; p < .01, enjoyment, (t =-7.10; p < .01, fair play (t = -8.09; p < .01, social relation (t = -6.48; p < .01, good habits (t = -7.43; p < .01 and emotional control (t = -6.03; p < .01 in favor of the intervention group. These results support previous studies evidencing that integrating social skills and values intervention in the PE class increase students’ development in the affective domain.
Lorenz, Aaron J.; Coors, James G.
Improving the quality of cellulosic ethanol feedstocks through breeding and genetic manipulation could significantly impact the economics of this industry. Attaining this will require comprehensive and rapid characterization of large numbers of samples. There are many similarities between improving corn silage quality for dairy production and improving feedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol. It was our objective to provide insight into what is needed for genetic improvement of cellulosic feedstocks by reviewing the development and operation of a corn silage breeding program. We discuss the evolving definition of silage quality and relate what we have learned about silage quality to what is needed for measuring and improving feedstock quality. In addition, repeatability estimates of corn stover traits are reported for a set of hybrids. Repeatability of theoretical ethanol potential measured by near-infrared spectroscopy is high, suggesting that this trait may be easily improved through breeding. Just as cell wall digestibility has been factored into the latest measurements of silage quality, conversion efficiency should be standardized and included in indices of feedstock quality to maximize overall, economical energy availability.
Anderson, Debra A.
The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.
Full Text Available In the article the author imparts the experience of teaching project disciplines using medium-level computer sys- tems beginning with lower level with the further transition to upper level systems. The results of the introduction of an ex- perimental technique of teaching project training are given. The article considers the introduction of an experimental tech- nique of project training in the course "The fundamentals of robotic systems automation". The project suggests applying CAD systems to develop a geometrical model of a submersible craft, which will be used in future to design project docu- mentation as well as a control system and a simulator. The project distinction is affected with conditions of individual as- signment fulfilment without using ready solutions. The project subject-matter is defined with knowledge system of future bachelor specialization in the area of robotics. The article demonstrates stage methods of training and supervision over pro- ject fulfilment with IT application according to modular approach. In practice bachelors take intense interest in theoretical and practical project-based learning if they use modern IT.
Full Text Available The paper evaluates the effectiveness of the e-learning approach to linear programming. The goal was to investigate how proper use of information and communication technologies (ICT and interactive learning helps to improve high school students’ understanding, learning and retention of advanced non-curriculum material. The hypothesis was that ICT and e-learning is helpful in teaching linear programming methods. In the first phase of the research, a module of lessons for linear programming (LP was created using the software package Loomen Moodle and other interactive software packages such as Geogebra. In the second phase, the LP module was taught as a short course to two groups of high school students. These two groups of students were second-grade students in a Croatian high school. In Class 1, the module was taught using ICT and e-learning, while the module was taught using classical methods in Class 2. The action research methodology was an integral part in delivering the course to both student groups. The sample student groups were carefully selected to ensure that differences in background knowledge and learning potential were statistically negligible. Relevant data was collected while delivering the course. Statistical analysis of the collected data showed that the student group using the e-learning method produced better results than the group using a classical learning method. These findings support previous results on the effectiveness of e-learning, and also establish a specific approach to e-learning in linear programming.
Full Text Available This case study reports on a teacher training experience for college professors in which participants were trained, taking advantage of technological tools, in two main teaching competences. First, professors were trained to use technology to enrich students’ learning outcomes. Second, they applied strategies of significant learning in the design of students’ learning experiences. The learning experience consisted in an International Certificate on Significant Learning integrated by six modules, 20 hours each. Every module of the program consisted of two consecutive webinars with online activities in between. The results showed the positive impact of the program on participants’ perceptions about the quality of the contents, evidence of learning and products (E-portfolios that served as content mastery evidences, as well as learning products produced by their students. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i1.72
Full Text Available In this results-oriented era of accountability, educator preparation programs are called upon to provide comprehensive data related to student and program outcomes while also providing evidence of continuous improvement. Collaborative Analysis of Student Learning (CASL is one approach for fostering critical inquiry about student learning. Graduate educator preparation programs in our university used collaborative analysis as the basis for continuous improvement during an accreditation cycle. As authors of this study, we sought to better understand how graduate program directors and faculty used collaborative analysis to inform practice and improve programs. Our findings suggested that CASL has the potential to foster collective responsibility for student learning, but only with a strong commitment from administrators and faculty, purposefully designed protocols and processes, fidelity to the CASL method, and a focus on professional development. Through CASL, programs have the ability to produce meaningful data related to student and program outcomes and meet the requirements for accreditation.
Shaikh, Waqas R; Geller, Alan; Alexander, Gwen; Asgari, Maryam M; Chanange, Gunther J; Dusza, Stephen; Eide, Melody J; Fletcher, Suzanne W; Goulart, Jacqueline M; Halpern, Allan C; Landow, Shoshana; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Quigley, Elizabeth A; Weinstock, Martin A
Web-based learning in medical education is rapidly growing. However, there are few firsthand accounts on the rationale for and development of web-based learning programs. We present the experience of clinical educators who developed an interactive online skin cancer detection and management course in a time-efficient and cost-efficient manner without any prior skills in computer programming or technical construction of web-based learning programs. We review the current state of web-based learning including its general advantages and disadvantages as well as its specific utility in dermatology. We then detail our experience in developing an interactive online skin cancer curriculum for primary care clinicians. Finally, we describe the main challenges faced and lessons learned during the process. This report may serve medical educators who possess minimal computer programming and web design skills but want to employ the many strengths of web-based learning without the huge costs associated with hiring a professional development team.
Currier, Joseph M; Foster, Joshua D; Abernethy, Alexis D; Witvliet, Charlotte V O; Root Luna, Lindsey M; Putman, Katharine M; Schnitker, Sarah A; VanHarn, Karl; Carter, Janet
Religion and/or spirituality (R/S) can play a vital, multifaceted role in mental health. While beliefs about God represent the core of many psychiatric patients' meaning systems, research has not examined how internalized images of the divine might contribute to outcomes in treatment programs/settings that emphasize multicultural sensitivity with R/S. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and quantitative information with a religiously heterogeneous sample of 241 adults who completed a spiritually integrative inpatient program over a two-year period, this study tested direct/indirect associations between imagery of how God views oneself, religious comforts and strains, and affective outcomes (positive and negative). When accounting for patients' demographic and religious backgrounds, structural equation modeling results revealed: (1) overall effects for God imagery at pre-treatment on post-treatment levels of both positive and negative affect; and (2) religious comforts and strains fully mediated these links. Secondary analyses also revealed that patients' generally experienced reductions in negative emotion in God imagery over the course of their admission. These findings support attachment models of the R/S-mental health link and suggest that religious comforts and strains represent distinct pathways to positive and negative domains of affect for psychiatric patients with varying experiences of God. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fakhrozaman Naeemi HOSSAINY
Full Text Available Inability to use knowledge is one of the major problems that university graduates face. Some instructional designers recommend situated learning for the solution. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of situated learning on students' school motivation and achievement. The two main hypotheses are: 1- Situated learning increases learning. 2- Situated learning increases school motivation. Thirty four psychology junior students at Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran participated in the study. Classes were randomly selected for situated learning curriculum and lecture- based curriculum. Lecture-based curriculum was performed in face to face classroom. Situated learning was carried out in blended learning approach. Data was collected by school achievement test and the short form of Mc Inerney and Sinclaier standard motivation questionnaire, before and after interventions. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software version 15. It was shown that situated learning increased academic achievement (p<0.001 and motivation (p<0.001 in comparison to lecture- based learning and can serve as a good method in instructional programs.
Stemmans, Catherine L.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Langley, David J.
Objective: The phrase learning style refers to the method one uses to obtain and use information to learn. Personal learning styles can be assessed by specifically designed inventories. We conducted this study to determine if undergraduate athletic training students possess a dominant learning style, according to the Kolb Learning Style Inventory IIA (KLSI IIA), the newest version of the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (KLSI), and whether this style is related to education program admission success. Design and Setting: A 1 × 4 factorial design was used. The independent variable was learning style type with 4 levels (converger, diverger, assimilator, or accommodator). The dependent variable was successful versus unsuccessful admission into selected programs. Subjects: Forty undergraduate students (21 men, 19 women) from 3 institutions (mean ± SD age, 20.7 ± 1.7 years; mean ± SD grade point average, 3.26 ± 0.43) participated in this study. No subjects had previously taken the KLSI IIA, and none had a diagnosed learning disability. Measurements: The KLSI IIA was administered to the participants at their respective institutions. We used 2 separate χ2 analyses to determine if the observed distribution of learning styles differed from the expected distribution. Additionally, a Mann-Whitney U test was performed to determine if the learning style distributions of those subjects who were successfully admitted to the selected programs differed from those who were not. Results: No significant differences existed between the observed distribution and the expected distribution for those admitted and those not admitted (χ23 = 3.8, P = .28; and χ23 = 3.1, P = .4, respectively). Also, no significant differences existed between the learning style distributions of the groups when compared with each other (Mann-Whitney U = 158, P = .5). Conclusions: Learning styles can be easily identified through the use of the KLSI IIA. We found no dominant learning style among undergraduate
... individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING... Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs based on the following: (a) The...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the appropriateness of a nationwide quality assurance framework for e-learning from participants' perspectives. Two types of quality evaluation programs were examined in this study, including the e-Learning Service Certification program (eLSC) and the e-Learning Courseware Certification program (eLCC). Gap…
Torraco, Richard J.
This study examines student learning experiences in nine occupational education programs at two Midwestern community colleges. Interviews with 39 program graduates and 10 of their supervisors provided information about the features of the occupational programs that were most beneficial for job preparation, those that were least beneficial for job…
This article describes a four-week service learning abroad program. Students from a U.S. university assist and teach in elementary school English classes for one month in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany while living with their German partner teachers. The program description and students' feedback illustrate that this program provides students with the…
Roka, Fritz M.; Thissen, Carlene A.; Monaghan, Paul F.; Morera, Maria C.; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Tovar-Aguilar, Jose Antonio
This article outlines a four-step model for developing a training program for farm labor supervisors. The model draws on key lessons learned during the development of the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Farm Labor Supervisor Training program. The program is designed to educate farm supervisors on farm labor laws…
Full Text Available There are two basic approaches in learning new programming language: a bottom-up approach and a top-down approach. It has been said that if a learner has already acquired one language, the top-down approach is more efficient to learn another while, for a person who has absolutely no knowledge of any programming languages; the bottom-up approach is preferable. The major problem of the bottom-up approach is that it requires longer period to acquire the language. For quicker learning, this paper applies a top-down approach for a beginners who has not yet acquired any programming languages.
Li-Tsang, Cecilia; Yeung, Susanna; Chan, Chetwyn; Hui-Chan, Christina
Using information technology (IT) in work and leisure has become an essential part of life. However, people with intellectual disabilities (ID) may have difficulties in learning the complex skills involved in IT. The aim of this study was to explore (1) level of competency in IT, (2) requirements to learn IT and (3) factors related to IT competency for people with ID. Three-hundred-and-fifty-three adults (age 16 years or above, mean age=28.77 years) with ID were assessed on basic IT skills using a self-developed skill-based checklist including the use of the keyboard and mouse and getting onto the Internet. A short questionnaire was sent out to the parents and caregivers to explore the various factors affecting the learning-teaching process. Results indicated that only 6.2% (22) of the participants knew how to operate the keyboard and mouse and 9.1% (32) were able to get onto the Internet; 33.1% of participants could not operate the computer system at all. Younger people with ID and with mild-grade ID have better IT skills. Three-hundred-and-twenty-seven (92.6%) caregivers reported that although they had a computer in their home or at their work place, people with ID were not given any opportunity to use it. They also reported difficulties in training people with ID to use IT due to insufficient knowledge on training techniques and a lack of software that is suitable for training. As modern society relies more and more on IT in daily activities, the poor computer competency of people with ID may lower their level of participation in leisure, functional and vocational aspects of life. Their general perception was that with sufficient training and support, people with ID could also join the world of IT.
Ziori, Eleni; Dienes, Zoltán
The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL), which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants' conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation.
Full Text Available The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL, which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants’ conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation.
In this presentation, I will discuss how my experience with the New Faculty Workshop in fall 2004 affected my course offering and teaching-learning strategies in PHYS 103, PHYS 132 and PHYS 331: Fundamentals of Optics courses. PHYS 103, Elements of Physics, is a general education conceptual physics lab course with no prerequisites for non-science majors. PHYS 132 is an introductory algebra-based general physics lab course which deals with electricity, magnetism, waves, light atomic and nuclear physics. PHYS 331, Fundamentals of Optics, is a lab-based course required for physics majors, which was offered for the first time at the MU Department of Physics in fall 2007. I will discuss curricular changes, as well as new teaching-learning and assessment methods implemented in these courses for the first time at our department. I will offer examples of peer group discussions, just in time teaching and the effect of chapter summaries on motivating the students and their participation in problem solving.
van Raalte, Lisa; Boulay, Rachel
The University of Hawaii's John A. Burns School of Medicine developed a professional development program and virtual learning materials to assist high school science teachers become familiar with laboratory techniques prior to engaging in authentic molecular biology research. The purpose of this paper is to provide an evaluative overview of the program with emphasis on the virtual materials that were designed to employ a blended learning approach to augment offline classroom learning. The virtual learning materials provide a unique sphere for scientific learning in which skills can be reproduced in an offline environment. Twelve high school science teachers participated in the training program and were given full access to the online materials. After participation in the program, teachers filled out a final survey and completed a final written reflective statement as a form of evaluating the program and online materials. Thematic analysis was used to code participants' responses. Results showed that teachers recounted meeting the scientists as a valuable experience, teachers were grateful to learn real-world application of current research, and teachers described the importance of learning skills to prepare students to succeed in higher education. Additionally, results showed teacher's intent to use the virtual learning materials as homework tools and in classroom lessons.
Woltering, Vanessa; Herrler, Andreas; Spitzer, Klaus; Spreckelsen, Cord
Problem-based learning (PBL) is an established didactic approach in medical education worldwide. The impact of PBL depends on the tutors' quality and the students' motivation. To enhance students' motivation and satisfaction and to overcome the problems with the changing quality of tutors, online learning and face-to-face classes were systematically combined resulting in a blended learning scenario (blended problem-based learning--bPBL). The study aims at determining whether bPBL increases the students' motivation and supports the learning process with respect to the students' cooperation, their orientation, and more reliable tutoring. The blended PBL was developed in a cooperation of students and teachers. The well-established Seven Jump-scheme of PBL was carefully complemented by eLearning modules. On the first training day of bPBL the students start to work together with the online program, but without a tutor, on the final training day the tutor participates in the meeting for additional help and feedback. The program was evaluated by a mixed-method study. The traditional PBL course was compared with the blended PBL by means of qualitative and quantitative questionnaires, standardized group interviews, and students' test results. In addition log-files were analyzed. A total of 185 third-year students and 14 tutors took part in the study. Motivation, subjective learning gains and satisfaction achieved significantly higher ratings by the bPBL students compared with the students learning by traditional PBL. The tutors' opinion and the test results showed no differences between the groups. Working with the web-based learning environment was assessed as very good by the students. According to the log-file analysis, the web-based learning module was frequently used and improved the cooperation during the self-directed learning.
Full Text Available The advance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT and the reduction of cost in digital applications motivate course designers to develop new application of distance learning programs so as to meet the increasing educational needs in the knowledge-based society. As a consequence, distance learning courses are increasing in number, credibility and acceptability all over the world. The question is whether these programs are efficient in terms of costs. The main theme of this work is to investigate cost behaviour and estimate cost efficiency of distance learning courses applied in low-inhabited, remote islands. The target group consists of high school students of Grade I. The distance learning course that is designed uses several scenarios of the “what-if form” and reaches the conclusion that cost of such solutions is far lower than that of any traditional course, even at the absence of scale economies.
Pfiffner, S. M.; Davis, K. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; Gihring, T. M.; Onstott, T. C.; Nthangeni, B.; Piater, L.; van Heerden, E.
reviews, leading to final team reports in manuscript format. Students learned how their research contributes to the big picture of biogeochemical processes in the mines. The group research teams and the forums for discussion allowed the students to gain interdisciplinary knowledge and expanded thought processes and views of interdisciplinary research. Thirty-two undergraduates from three countries have participated in this program. Several students are continuing their REU-initiated research as senior thesis projects at their home institutions; some are applying for graduate study in biogeochemistry, and others have started graduate studies.
Zinsser, Katherine M.; Dusenbury, Linda
The state of Illinois in the central United States has long been a trendsetter both in the development of learning standards and in addressing social and emotional learning in education settings. With a recent revision to the state's early learning standards, published in 2013, the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) fully aligned its…
Bumbacher, Engin; Salehi, Shima; Wierzchula, Miriam; Blikstein, Paulo
Studies comparing virtual and physical manipulative environments (VME and PME) in inquiry-based science learning have mostly focused on students' learning outcomes but not on the actual processes they engage in during the learning activities. In this paper, we examined experimentation strategies in an inquiry activity and their relation to…
Doppelt, Yaron; Schunn, Christian D.
Across several decades, educational researchers have investigated the contribution of the learning environment to the attainment of educational goals, such as improving academic achievement and motivation to learn. The term learning environment not only includes physical activities in the classroom (e.g. experiments kits, computers), but also…
K. Richard eRidderinkhof
Full Text Available Reward-based decision-learning refers to the process of learning to select those actions that lead to rewards while avoiding actions that lead to punishments. This process, known to rely on dopaminergic activity in striatal brain regions, is compromised in Parkinson’s disease (PD. We hypothesized that such decision-learning deficits are alleviated by induced positive affect, which is thought to incur transient boosts in midbrain and striatal dopaminergic activity. Computational measures of probabilistic reward-based decision-learning were determined for 51 patients diagnosed with PD. Previous work has shown these measures to rely on the nucleus caudatus (outcome evaluation during the early phases of learning and the putamen (reward prediction during later phases of learning. We observed that induced positive affect facilitated learning, through its effects on reward prediction rather than outcome evaluation. Viewing a few minutes of comedy clips served to remedy dopamine-related problems in putamen-based frontostriatal circuitry and, consequently, in learning to predict which actions will yield reward.
Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; van Wouwe, Nelleke C.; Band, Guido P. H.; Wylie, Scott A.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; van Hees, Pieter; Buitenweg, Jessika; van de Vijver, Irene; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.
Reward-based decision-learning refers to the process of learning to select those actions that lead to rewards while avoiding actions that lead to punishments. This process, known to rely on dopaminergic activity in striatal brain regions, is compromised in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We hypothesized that such decision-learning deficits are alleviated by induced positive affect, which is thought to incur transient boosts in midbrain and striatal dopaminergic activity. Computational measures of probabilistic reward-based decision-learning were determined for 51 patients diagnosed with PD. Previous work has shown these measures to rely on the nucleus caudatus (outcome evaluation during the early phases of learning) and the putamen (reward prediction during later phases of learning). We observed that induced positive affect facilitated learning, through its effects on reward prediction rather than outcome evaluation. Viewing a few minutes of comedy clips served to remedy dopamine-related problems associated with frontostriatal circuitry and, consequently, learning to predict which actions will yield reward. PMID:22707944
Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van Wouwe, Nelleke C; Band, Guido P H; Wylie, Scott A; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; van Hees, Pieter; Buitenweg, Jessika; van de Vijver, Irene; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M
Reward-based decision-learning refers to the process of learning to select those actions that lead to rewards while avoiding actions that lead to punishments. This process, known to rely on dopaminergic activity in striatal brain regions, is compromised in Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized that such decision-learning deficits are alleviated by induced positive affect, which is thought to incur transient boosts in midbrain and striatal dopaminergic activity. Computational measures of probabilistic reward-based decision-learning were determined for 51 patients diagnosed with PD. Previous work has shown these measures to rely on the nucleus caudatus (outcome evaluation during the early phases of learning) and the putamen (reward prediction during later phases of learning). We observed that induced positive affect facilitated learning, through its effects on reward prediction rather than outcome evaluation. Viewing a few minutes of comedy clips served to remedy dopamine-related problems associated with frontostriatal circuitry and, consequently, learning to predict which actions will yield reward.