WorldWideScience

Sample records for program acquisition cost

  1. Analysis of Defense Industry Consolidation Effects on Program Acquisition Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Russell V

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis examines whether cost changes are evident following consolidation within the defense industry by conducting a regression analysis of Major Defense Acquisition Programs across 13 broad defense market sectors...

  2. Cost and Time Overruns in Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Berteau, David; Hofbauer, Joachim; Sanders, Gregory; Ari, Guy Ben

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Cost and time overruns in Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) have become a high-profile problem attracting the interest of Congress, government and watchdog groups. According to the GAO, the 96 MDAPs from FY2008 collectively ran $296 billion over budget and were an average of 22 months behind schedule. President Obama''s memo on government contracting of 4 March 2009 also h...

  3. Cost Estimation Lessons Learned for Future Submarine Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    North Carolina and New Mexico 30 General Dynamics Electric Boat “U.S. Navy Awards General Dynamics $14 Billion Contract for Eight Virginia- Class...NAVSEA Program Executive officer, Submarines PMO 450, June 1995. “New SSN Program Life Cycle Cost Estimate.” Naval Center for Cost Analysis: GE-1300

  4. International Acquisition Programs: Variables Beyond Cost, Schedule and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    US defense budget and often run on a different budgeting timeline.25 For example, the Norwegian defense budget is approximately 1 percent of the US...Defense Acquisition System, 5. 12 Wood , International Military Aerospace Collaboration Case Studies in Domestic and Intergovernmental Politics, 3. 13...Financial Impacts on Foreign Suppliers, 8. 35 Ibid., 55. 36 Hoff, “The F-16 Coproduction Program – An Analysis,” 21. 37 Ibid., 15. 38 Wood

  5. Cost and Time Overruns for Major Defense Acquisition Programs: An Annotated Brief

    OpenAIRE

    Berteau, David; Ben-Ari, Guy; Hofbauer, Joachim; Sanders, Gregory; Ellman, Jesse; Morrow, David

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Cost and time overruns in Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) have become a high-profile problem attracting the interest of Congress, government, and watchdog groups. According to the GAO, the 98 MDAPs from FY2010 collectively ran $402 billion over budget and were an average of 22 months behind schedule since their first full estimate. President Obama''s memorandum on government contracting of 4 March 2009 also highlighted this i...

  6. Post Milestone B Funding Climate and Cost Growth in Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-8091 March 2017 Post-Milestone B Funding Climate and Cost Growth in Major...Jun 2013]. Post-Milestone B Funding Climate and Cost Growth in Major Defense Acquisition Programs David L. McNicol I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F...entered a boom climate for procurement funding some time after passing Milestone (MS) B on average had higher unit cost growth than programs whose

  7. Defense Acquisitions: Better Approach Needed to Account for Number, Cost, and Performance of Non-Major Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and equipment. About 40 percent of that total is for major defense acquisition programs or ACAT I programs. DOD also invests in other, non-major... ACAT II and III programs that are generally less costly at the individual program level. These programs typically have fewer reporting requirements...and are overseen at lower organizational levels than ACAT I programs, although they may have annual funding needs that are just as significant

  8. Further Evidence on the Effect of Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth of Major Defense Acquisition Programs (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Acquisition, Technology and Logistics) (USD(AT&L)) can use the DAB process to bring MDAPs into conformance with acquisition policy at MS II/B. Among other...things, programs should have employed the appropriate contracting mechanism, should have a sound test plan, should not proceed until the technologies ...cases, they probably got to that level by way of the Service’s proposed budgets (and the Comptroller was the backstop enforcer of the requirement for

  9. Further Evidence on the Effect of Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth of Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics) (USD(AT&L)) can use the DAB process to bring MDAPs into conformance with acquisition...should not proceed until the technologies to be employed are reasonably mature, should rest on realistic programmatic assumptions, and should be...the backstop enforcer of the requirement for milestone approval before a program could advance to the next stage.) OSD had a much larger role in

  10. The Correlation of Human Capital on Costs of Air Force Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Some research has considered that optimum for two of the variables we are examining. Wheelwright & Clark (1992) explained the following for engineers...Economic Factors and Acquisition Reforms on the Cost of Defense Weapon Systems.” Air Force Institute of Technology Thesis. Wheelwright , Steven and Kim

  11. Acquisition Research Program Homepage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Includes an image of the main page on this date and compressed file containing additional web pages. Established in 2003, Naval Postgraduate School’s (NPS) Acquisition Research Program provides leadership in innovation, creative problem solving and an ongoing dialogue, contributing to the evolution of Department of Defense acquisition strategies.

  12. Extreme Cost Growth: Themes from Six U.S. Air Force Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Aeronautics and Space Administration NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPOESS National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental...high frequency phased array antennas of a type never before used in this capacity; and a major new encryption and secure communications requirement of...Studies, National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs

  13. Sample application to test site No. 1, Kenedy Co. [Offset well information, drilling fluids program, cost estimates, and data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podio, A.L.; Gray, K.E.; Isokrari, O.F.; Knapp, R.M.; Silberberg, I.H.; Thompson, T.W.

    1976-01-01

    In order to satisfy the objective of outlining the preliminary plan and schedules as well as obtaining representative costs for drilling a geopressured geothermal well the guidelines have been applied to one of the possible test sites identified by the Resource Assessment Phase I of the project. The specific site is the Armstrong lease in the Candelaria Field in Kenedy County, Texas. Offset well information including bit records, drilling fluid programs, formation pressure encountered and casing programs for the Armstrong No. 20 and No. 22 wells are presented. Based on this information a preliminary drilling program has been prepared. Well completion and production considerations were taken into account in the preparation of the drilling program. A brief description of drilling operations is also included to clarify the terminology used.

  14. Acquisition Cost/Price Estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    SYSTEMS, RECOMMENDING COST COALS FOR THOSE SYSTEMS, AND VALIDATING THOSE ESTIMATES THROUGH INDEPENDENT COSTING METHODS. INSTRUMENTS THROUGH WHICH SYSTEM...REVIEW AND VALIDATION, (3) RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY AND (4) DATA ANALYSIS. THESE FUNCTIONAL THRUSTS ARE IN TURN FOCUSED TO ESTIMATING AND ANALISIS ...ANALYSIS OF COST ISSUES -- TO PROVIDE CONSISTENCY AND COMPLETENESS OF ESTIMATES PREPARED BY OTHER FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES. MANAGERIAL 1. COST ANALISIS HAS

  15. Tapping Transaction Costs to Forecast Acquisition Cost Breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    56 Defense ARJ, January 2016, Vol. 23 No. 1 : 56–76 TAPPING Transaction Costs to Forecast Acquisition COST BREACHES Laura E. Armey and Diana I...indicating that a change in the EAC SE/PM ratio is not an indicator of a potential breach. Thus forecasts of cost breaches should focus on initial SE...of looking at cost breaches, using sur- vival analysis to forecast cost breaches in MDAPs over a program’s life cycle. We offer somewhat robust

  16. Introducing Programming Languages Through Data Acquisition Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kocijancic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivating students at low and upper secondary schools to learn programming languages is not an easy task for a teacher. Namely, programming is not and easy job to do and the results of first “programs” seem to be very poor compared even to free software available on the web. So why learn programming languages? To overcome the trouble of motivation in teaching programming languages, we have developed a course to introduce Delphi, Visual basic, C++, LabView, … based on practical examples supported by self developed, low-cost data acquisition modules. In-service teachers at secondary schools who attended the workshops accepted this concept positively, most of them reported about positive change of students’ attitude regarding programming classes.

  17. Affordability of Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    urgency by operational commanders and to promises by industry that “this time it’s different” for ambitious and complex new weapons concepts, that...ways to setting program affordability targets. Another related historical concept is design to cost ( DTC ), or sometimes stated more precisely as design...to unit production cost. This concept took root in DOD in the early 1970s. DTC is thus one (but as noted not the only) approach to CAIV. Like CAIV

  18. Cost-Estimation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    COSTIT computer program estimates cost of electronic design by reading item-list file and file containing cost for each item. Accuracy of cost estimate based on accuracy of cost-list file. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The Sun version (NPO-19587). PC version (NPO-19157).

  19. 75 FR 71560 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... is provided for contractors with accounting software that does not accommodate the additional data... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS Case 2008-D027) AGENCY... Cost and Software Data Reporting system requirements for Major Defense Acquisition Programs and Major...

  20. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  1. Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    mêçÅÉÉÇáåÖë= çÑ=íÜÉ= bfdeqe=^kkr^i=^`nrfpfqflk== obpb^o`e=pvjmlpfrj== qeropa^v=pbppflkp== slirjb ff Developing Program Management Leadership for...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Developing Program  Management   Leadership   for Acquisition Reform    The 8th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Panel #20: Investing in People

  2. 48 CFR 9904.411 - Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-accounting for acquisition costs of material. 9904.411 Section 9904.411 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND...

  3. Transaction Costs from a Program Manager’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-28

    for the governments of Mexico and the Czech Republic on achieving excellence in the public sector. As an adjunct professor for the University of...we attempted to directly measure transactions costs for defense acquisition programs using the expenditures of the Program Management Office ( PMO ...as an approximate measure of the amount of transaction costs present in an acquisition program. We found that DoD does not track PMO costs

  4. A Conceptual Model for Urgent Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    The Defense Acquisition University Project Advisor: Craig Arndt The Senior Service College Fellowship Program Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD ii... Research ............................................................................................... 3 Overview of Research Methodology...7 Articles and Research Papers ................................................................................................ 8

  5. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    current Interim Polar System and serve as a polar adjunct to the Advanced EHF (AEHF) system. EPS consists of three segments : two EHF payloads hosted on...area on GAO’s high- risk list. DOD and Congress have taken steps to improve the acquisition of weapon systems. Still some programs continue to...DOD’s Selected Acquisition Reports from 2010, 2014, and 2015. GAO also collected program office data through two questionnaires on technology

  6. Assessment of Accelerated Acquisition of Defense Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    117A Stealth Attack Aircraft Crash /rapid/time constrained/spiral Mine-Resistant/Ambush-Protected Vehicle (MRAP) Rapid/time constrained Stryker...contractor. The Air Force delivered the aircraft directly from the factory to the front lines with no developmental or operational testing . Prior...availability: 1. Time-constrained acquisition 2. “ Crash ” program 3. Rapid acquisition 4. Early fielding experiments 5. Spiral/evolutionary

  7. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    billion increase in development costs . The Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Segment Enhancement program accounts for $2 billion of the $2.5 billion...than 13GAO, Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide: Best Practices for Developing and Managing Capital Program Costs , GAO-09-3SP (Washington, D.C...development phase to avoid duplication of cost and development efforts, and because market research indicated that only the current vendors were

  8. Army Initial Acquisition Training: An Analysis of Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    civilian university and the vast differences in Graduate Management Admission Test ( GMAT ) scores, total program cost, total credit hours, and cost per...on location Average GMAT Score Program Tuition in State Total Credit Hours Total Cost In State Total Cost Per Credit Hour Cost Per Credit...common qualitative measure of student aptitude. The GMAT 38 is the most readily available measure most business schools use as a qualitative predictor

  9. Variable Cultural Acquisition Costs Constrain Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2011-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission), population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs. PMID:21479170

  10. A regional cooperative acquisition program for monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, D A

    1979-01-01

    A cooperative acquisition program for monographs for the twelve resource libraries in Region IX of the Regional Medical Library Network is described. Each of the participating libraries has agreed to purchase all books of an assigned publisher which fall within a prescribed subject-format profile. It is hoped that this will help to reduce unnecessary duplication and contribute toward the development of resources in the region. PMID:476317

  11. COSTS OF LAND ACQUISITION: FEATURES OF TAX ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov A. Mironova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main features of tax accounting of costs for land acquisition, the main difficulties that might arise. It also analyzes the current legislation and the present judicial positions on evidence of the purposes of capital construction in the purchase of such lands and particularities of obtaining the status of capital facilities of real estate.

  12. Straight Talk: Major Program Manager Views of Defense Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Wood; Al Moseley

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Current efforts by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD[AT&L]) to improve acquisition outcomes are focused on addressing perceived problems that create inefficiencies in major programs. Program Manager (PM) Forums were established by senior acquisition leaders within OSD to hear directly from a sampling of major PMs to help key OSD leaders underst...

  13. The Effect of Processes and Incentives on Acquisition Cost Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    demanding. Four programs are examined by Gilbreth and Hubbard (2008) to develop recommendations for effective incentive use. These recommendations...Author. Gilbreth , A. S., & Hubbard, S. (2008). How to make incentive and award fees work. Defense Acquisition Review Journal, 15(2), 132–149

  14. Next Generation Leadership Improving Acquisition Program Management Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    TE AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY NEXT GENERATION LEADERSHIP IMPROVING ACQUISITION PROGRAM MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT by Jeffrey C. Sobel, Lt...strengths and weaknesses in the current Air Force acquisition leader development process. To improve program manager training, this paper recommends...the existing Air Force Mentorship Program to ensure young program managers are matched with experienced senior leaders . Mentor/Teach requires

  15. An Investigation of Possible Discriminating Earned Value Variables in Department of Defense Major Acquisition Program Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    S-curve (CDF). ......................................................................24 Figure 6. CV% rate of change for EFV program...DFAR Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation DoD Department of Defense EAC Estimate at Completion EFV Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle EMD... EFV ) program. This is an attempt to compare the rates of change of the cost and schedule variance for all sampled programs. Figure 6. CV% rate

  16. Impact evaluation for the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program: Technical appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Taylor, Z.T.; Schrock, D.W.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Chin, R.I.

    1995-10-01

    This document supplements the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) impact evaluation report, Lee et al. (1995). MAP is a voluntary energy-efficiency program for HUD-code manufactured homes conducted in the Pacific Northwest beginning in April 1992. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this and the impact evaluation reports for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville). Lee et al. (1995) presents the objectives, methodology, and findings of the program evaluation. This report presents more details about specific aspects of the analysis. The authors used a three-tier approach to analyze the energy consumption of MAP and baseline homes. Chapter 2 discusses Tier 1, the billing data and simplified regression analysis. Chapter 3 presents the details of the Tier 2 analysis, the PRInceton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). Chapter 4 presents details of the primary analysis technique that they used, a comprehensive regression analysis. Chapter 5 and 6 review two other studies of energy savings associated with MAP. Chapter 5 discusses the simulation model analysis conducted by Ecotope, Inc. Chapter 6 reviews the analysis by Regional Economic Research conducted for three Pacific Northwest investor-owned utilities. The final chapter, Chapter 7, presents details of the Bonneville levelized cost methodology used to estimate the cost of energy savings associated with MAP. Results are presented and discussed in many cases for the three different climate zones found in the Pacific Northwest. 18 refs., 29 tabs.

  17. Weapon Acquisition Program Outcomes and Efforts to Reform DOD’s Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-09

    Range Strike Carrier replacement KC-46 Tanker Ohio Class Replacement DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs (GAO-16-329SP...202-512-9310 Objectives This is GAO’s 14th annual assessment of DOD weapon system acquisitions, an area that has been on GAO’s high-risk list for...amount of future development funding required is likely due to newer programs with less risk entering system development. Changes in the 2015

  18. A low cost concept for data acquisition systems applied to decentralized renewable energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucá, Sandro C S; Carvalho, Paulo C M; Brito, Fábio T

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  19. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucá, Sandro C. S.; Carvalho, Paulo C. M.; Brito, Fábio T.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  20. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio T. Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  1. Technical Competence of Air Force Acquisition Program Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    the new Acquisition Manager Career Development Program selection process; and (6) computer software development is an area which warrants increased...officers who will become SPO directors in the future?" Area Times Mentioned Computer Software Development ... ........... .. 14 Basic Electronics

  2. Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Programming, and Knowledge Refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Roth, Frederick; And Others

    This report describes the principal findings and recommendations of a 2-year Rand research project on machine-aided knowledge acquisition and discusses the transfer of expertise from humans to machines, as well as the functions of planning, debugging, knowledge refinement, and autonomous machine learning. The relative advantages of humans and…

  3. Defense Acquisition University Program Managers Tool Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ORGANIZATION ...................................................................... 55–56 Program Office Organization Structures (Examples...C PM LEGEND: Engr—Engineering Log—Logistics Bus—Business DAU PROGRAM MANAGERS TOOL KIT 56 PROGRAM OFFICE ORGANIZATION STRUCTURES (Continued...the LOG CoP • Life Cycle Logistics Guidebook - Will be posted on the LOG CoP DAU PROGRAM MANAGERS TOOL KIT 55 “Pure” Product Structure PROGRAM OFFICE

  4. Implications of Transaction Costs for Acquisition Program Cost Breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    explanatory variable changes (Barreto and Howland 2006, 508–509). Autocorrelation is the correlation of a variable value with itself across a time series...CA: RAND. Barreto, Humberto and Frank M. Howland . 2006. Introductory Econometrics: Using Monte Carlo Simulation with Microsoft Excel. New York

  5. Transaction Costs and Cost Breaches in Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    is appropriate because it is designed for use with binary - outcome dependent variables. Additionally, a fixed effects logit model adjusts for bias...we use a logistic regression model , or a maximum likelihood estimator such as logit , which uses the natural logarithm of the odds ratio. This model ...introduced by omitted explanatory variables within the clustered panel data, and a population averaged logit model is appropriate for examining across

  6. Product costing program for wood component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This article introduces a product costing program...

  7. 75 FR 33752 - Acquisition Regulation: Socioeconomic Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Executive Order 12866 B. Review Under Executive Order 12988 C. Review Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act D... shall use 923.570, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE Sites. 9. Section 923.570-1 is amended by... reference in paragraph (a) to 970.5223-4, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE Sites. 11. Subpart 923.7...

  8. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Missile Defense ICAP Improved Capability IMU inertial measurement units ISR intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance JNN-N Joint Network Node...Aeronautics and Space Administration NLOS-C Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NSS AP National Security Space... turbulence . Sixty-three percent of the programs we received data from had requirement changes after system development began. These programs

  9. On Aircraft Systems’ Acquisition Cost Estimation : – A Parametric Approach –

    OpenAIRE

    Niskanen, Jonne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to increase the precision of the aircraft systems’ acquisition cost estimations required as input to the Saab in-house software employed in concept studies at the company. This is achieved by developing a systematic methodology based on parametric techniques for data collection, normalization and validation, resulting in a mathematical Cost Estimating Relationship (CER) between a technical parameter and the acquisition cost. The accuracy of the CER is evaluate...

  10. Defense Acquisition Programs: Status of Selected Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    31)))Aqij inrgam Appendix III Air Force Programs ReqtIi re ments The Air Force established the requirement for such a weapon in the laIt 1970s. A 1978...h ard- ware deliveries and test schedules had slipped several times and were in danger of slipping again due to frequent test failures. The Air

  11. 75 FR 69009 - Acquisition Regulation: Socioeconomic Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Regulatory Flexibility Act D. Review Under the Paperwork Reduction Act E. Review Under the National... Technologies, Occupational Safety, and Drug Free Workplace. 8. Subpart 923.5 is amended by adding a new section... FAR Subpart 23.5, contracting activities shall use 923.570, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE...

  12. Defense Acquisitions. Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    System (MRUUVS) 113 Mobile User Objective System (MUOS) 115 National Polar- orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) 117 P-8A Multi...production decisions (5/05-8/08) Initial capabilities (10/07-9/10)Program Essentials Prime contractor: Arete Associates, Boeing, EDO Defense Systems...infrared seeker; EKV discrimination; the Orbital Sciences Corporation booster; the Cobra Dane radar; the Beale radar; the sea-based X-band radar

  13. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    67 low-rate production vehicles. The program official also stated that the SPH’s current steel cannon tube will be replaced with a chrome- plated ...four unique technologies required development—a dual pulse solid rocket motor, thermal batteries, an ignition safety device, and insensitive munitions...Recommended actions included, returning to a "Blue/ Gold " crew rotation model; merging the seaframe and mission package crew into a single

  14. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    29Open systems architecture is a design approach that includes standard interfaces and the use of modular components within a product (like a computer ...releases for the total ship computing environment have been completed and certified to support lead ship activation and delivery and a software spiral...commenting on a draft of this assesment , the program office noted that in October 2011, G/ATOR’s performance requirements were revised, which resulted

  15. Artificial Intelligence Software Acquisition Program. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    formalize the concelpts, p: obl-ins and information flow into a iniore formal knowlodge representation which defines the data strittres, inference...imtrallcl with (,t(- developinent team, the test team translates the c us otneir spec iiica;t ii l to I- I procedures that trlodel the system behavior...task ait a~Ilo’ 4-llicien.N~ . FX.1I I I les- of Issies inItit Ivl: Ata I txectit iont of translated K( IIS programs, t tI at i. t.tit of .self

  16. 75 FR 25165 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... summarized as follows: The objective of the rule is to set forth Cost and Software Data Reporting System...--MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUSITION 3. Add subpart 234.71 to read as follows: Subpart 234.71--Cost and Software Data...

  17. 76 FR 14543 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ..., 42, and 50 RIN 9000-AL78 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost... management of other than firm-fixed-price contracts (e.g., cost-reimbursement, time-and-material, and labor... Government Contracting. Section 864 requires the FAR to be revised to address the use and management of cost...

  18. 77 FR 12925 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ..., 42, and 50 RIN 9000-AL78 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Proper Use and Management of Cost... addresses the use and management of cost- reimbursement contracts. DATES: Effective Date: April 2, 2012 FOR... Contracting. Section 864 of the law requires amending the FAR to address the use and management of cost...

  19. The Decline and Fall of Joint Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    developed using VenSim High-Level Proposition Joint acquisition programs exhibit the essential behavior of a Tragedy of the Commons. Model Test...5 This and subsequent graphs were generated using the Vensim ® modeling tool. These are all behavior-over- time graphs and, as such, the X-axis for

  20. 77 FR 67366 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Travel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Travel Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... collection requirement concerning Travel Costs. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this... Information Collection 9000- 0088, Travel Costs by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www...

  1. Improving the Defense Acquisition System and Reducing System Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-30

    meet personally with PMs, but found they were answerable to long chains of command within the Services) - Increased layering and numbers of reviews...34 attitude throughout the chain of command discourages tailoring strc-egies to shorten the cycle. Figure 1. SYSTEMS ACQUISITION PROCESS EVOLUTION...SYSl’CM SUPIMKT TESTING o RISK REDUCTION/ MVmilAIlOU PLAN »EARLY IMPROVEMENT) SUPPORT RESOURCE DEVOP . oo FIRM-UP CONTRACT SUPPORT PLANS oo

  2. A Low-Cost Data Acquisition System for Automobile Dynamics Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alejandro; Olazagoitia, José Luis; Vinolas, Jordi

    2018-01-27

    This project addresses the need for the implementation of low-cost acquisition technology in the field of vehicle engineering: the design, development, manufacture, and verification of a low-cost Arduino-based data acquisition platform to be used in vehicle dynamics, using low-cost accelerometers. In addition to this, a comparative study is carried out of professional vibration acquisition technologies and low-cost systems, obtaining optimum results for low- and medium-frequency operations with an error of 2.19% on road tests. It is therefore concluded that these technologies are applicable to the automobile industry, thereby allowing the project costs to be reduced and thus facilitating access to this kind of research that requires limited resources.

  3. 76 FR 68040 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Labor Relations Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... contractor business ethics. L. Regulatory Flexibility Act Comment: Two respondents stated that the rule fails... from the FPDS. For Fiscal Year 2010, a search of FPDS revealed 1,822,515 awards to small businesses. Of... importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules, and of promoting...

  4. The Effect of Price Competition on Weapon System Acquisition costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    Examination of Cost-Quantity 2’lation- ships, Competition During Reprocurement and Military Vs. Comercial Prices Jor Tbrce Types of Vehic’es, IDA S-429, March...the defense and non-defense sectors , indicates that these changes lead to reductions in the real unit costs of production over time.’ Thus, even in the

  5. An Analysis of Test And Evaluation in Rapid Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Outfits DT Developmental Testing DT&E Development Test and Evaluation DTC Developmental Test Command E3 Electromagnetic Environmental Effects...by the OEM and evaluated by the Communication-Electronics Command (CECOM) Safety Office and the former Developmental Test Command ( DTC ) covering all...Force Management School AMC Army Materiel Command AOA Analysis of Alternatives AOR Area of Operation APC Acquisition Program Candidates APG Aberdeen

  6. A Best Practices Based Approach to Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    EBSCO . Web. 10 Apr. 2010. Heberling, Michael E. "Open Issues in Acquisition Reform. 11 National Contract Management Journal27.2 (1996): 43-58...1325-1326. America: History & Life. EBSCO . Web. 10 Apr. 2010. Kraft, Jonathan. 11 The Evolution of Program Budgeting in the United States Government...34 Armed Forces Comptroller 54.1 (2009): 40-41. International Security & Counter Terrorism Reference Center. EBSCO . Web. 11 Apr. 2010. Li, Allen

  7. Comparison of E-Book Acquisitions Strategies Across Disciplines Finds Differences in Cost and Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrico, S.B., Cataldo, T.T., Botero, C., & Shelton, T. Objective – To compare e-book cost-usage data across different acquisitions styles and disciplines. Design – Case study. Setting – A public research university serving an annual enrollment of over 49,000 students and employing more than 3,000 faculty members in the Southern United States. Subjects – Cost and usage data from 15,006 e-books acquired by the Library through packages, firm orders, and demand-driven acquisitions. Methods – Data was collected from publishers and vendors across the three acquisitions strategies. Usage, cost, and call number information was collected for the materials purchased via firm order or demand driven acquisitions and these were sorted into disciplines based on the call number assigned. Discipline, cost, and use were determined for each package collection as a whole because information on individual titles was not provided by the publishers. The authors then compared usage and cost across disciplines and acquisitions strategies. Main Results – Overall, e-books purchased in packages had a 50% use rate and an average cost per use of $3.39, e-books purchased through firm orders had a 52% use rate and an average cost per use of $22.21, and e-books purchased through demand driven acquisitions had an average cost per use of $8.88 and 13.9 average uses per title. Package purchasing was cost effective for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM materials and medicine (MED materials. Demand driven acquisition was a particularly good strategy for humanities and social sciences (HSS titles. Conclusion – There are differences between the acquisitions strategies and disciplines in cost and use. Firm orders had a higher cost per use than the other acquisitions strategies. Commentary This study examined cost per use across three acquisitions styles and three disciplinary groups. The results agree with studies from other institutions that have

  8. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ensure that the excluded costs (maintenance, training, etc.) are not reported as part of the software's... systems, subsystems, and spare parts and components furnished or acquired and charged to work in process... designs, develops, fabricates or purchases property for NASA and part of the fees paid to the contractor...

  9. School District Program Cost Accounting: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the value for school districts of a program cost accounting system and examines different approaches to generating program cost data, with particular emphasis on the "cost allocation to program system" (CAPS) and the traditional "transaction-based system." (JG)

  10. 7 CFR 246.14 - Program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the fulfillment of Program objectives are to be considered allowable costs. The two types of nutrition... to two hematological tests for anemia per individual per certification period. The first test shall be to determine anemia status. The second test may be performed only in follow up to a finding of...

  11. Analysis of System Training Impact for Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Dogfighting, cheating death, and Hollywood glory as one of America’s best fighter jocks. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. Booher, H. (1990...ensure that there are no false starts or misunderstandings later in the process. Normally, cost estimates are sponsored by a system program office and

  12. The impact of horizontal mergers and acquisitions on cost and quality in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Porper, R W; Manji, S

    1995-12-01

    Mergers and acquisitions among HMOs, hospitals and other health care providers can be disconcerting to benefits staff and employees, but they can be successfully managed. They may offer an employer the opportunity to improve the quality of care provided and to do so at reduced costs.

  13. 75 FR 19345 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-006, Labor Relations Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-006, Labor Relations Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (Do... or not to exercise, or concerning the manner of exercising, the right to organize and bargain..., or union representatives during work hours, when they are undertaken to persuade employees to...

  14. Cost Functions for Airframe Production Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    were the foundation for the present study. D. Aproach Our goal of unifying the previously separate methods of describing program costs led us to adopt...and procedures on other program data. 4. Write the final report. The first task was to conduct a detailed residual analysis and sensitivity analysis...variables in (3.104), it is possible to write Q as a function of Z. Q(Z) = k1 [-AOZ’(T)/-Il/0 z(t) 1-6 ) Z"[I-Z-1(T)Z" I-I/dZ. (3.105) This integral

  15. Cross-border mergers and acquisitions and the role of trade costs

    OpenAIRE

    Hijzen, Alexander; Görg, Holger; Manchin, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) have increased dramatically over the last two decades. This paper analyses the role of trade costs in explaining the increase in both the number and the value of cross-border mergers and acquisitions. In particular, we distinguish horizontal and non-horizontal M&As and investigate whether distance and trade policy barriers affect these two types of mergers differently. We analyse this question using industry data for 23 OECD countries for the perio...

  16. Acquisition Program Transition Workshops: An Element of the DSMC Program Manager Mission Assistance Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Acquisition Sustainment =Decision Point =Milestone Review =Decision Point if PDR is not conducted before Milestone B ProgramA B Initiation) C IOC FOC...workshop deteriorating into a social event. 5.4 Further Detail Appendix A, Module 0, contains detailed planning elements for the pre-workshop agenda...brief Joint Charter, Issues and Actions PMs Establish Workshop Action Items Figure 5-1 Workshop Participants— More Attendees Means Program Socialization

  17. How Does the Political Nature of the Defense Acquisition Process Affect Cost Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Acquisition Board (DAB) - - formerly DSARC - -out of synchronization with the services’ Program Objective Memorandum ( POM ) cycle Failure to fund for...Industrial College of the Armed Forces, National Defense University Fort McNair , Washington DC., 1993. Christensen, David S., Searle, David A

  18. Use of Low-Cost Acquisition Systems with an Embedded Linux Device for Volcanic Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, David; Torres, Pedro; Casas, Benito; Toma, Daniel; Blanco, María José; Del Río, Joaquín; Manuel, Antoni

    2015-08-19

    This paper describes the development of a low-cost multiparameter acquisition system for volcanic monitoring that is applicable to gravimetry and geodesy, as well as to the visual monitoring of volcanic activity. The acquisition system was developed using a System on a Chip (SoC) Broadcom BCM2835 Linux operating system (based on DebianTM) that allows for the construction of a complete monitoring system offering multiple possibilities for storage, data-processing, configuration, and the real-time monitoring of volcanic activity. This multiparametric acquisition system was developed with a software environment, as well as with different hardware modules designed for each parameter to be monitored. The device presented here has been used and validated under different scenarios for monitoring ocean tides, ground deformation, and gravity, as well as for monitoring with images the island of Tenerife and ground deformation on the island of El Hierro.

  19. Use of Low-Cost Acquisition Systems with an Embedded Linux Device for Volcanic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moure

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a low-cost multiparameter acquisition system for volcanic monitoring that is applicable to gravimetry and geodesy, as well as to the visual monitoring of volcanic activity. The acquisition system was developed using a System on a Chip (SoC Broadcom BCM2835 Linux operating system (based on DebianTM that allows for the construction of a complete monitoring system offering multiple possibilities for storage, data-processing, configuration, and the real-time monitoring of volcanic activity. This multiparametric acquisition system was developed with a software environment, as well as with different hardware modules designed for each parameter to be monitored. The device presented here has been used and validated under different scenarios for monitoring ocean tides, ground deformation, and gravity, as well as for monitoring with images the island of Tenerife and ground deformation on the island of El Hierro.

  20. 77 FR 12930 - Federal Acquisition Regulation: Socioeconomic Program Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    .... Discussion and Analysis The Civilian Agency Acquisition Council and the Defense Acquisition Regulations Council (the Councils) reviewed the public comments in the development of the final rule. A discussion of... acquisition threshold (SAT). These respondents further suggested that FAR 19.203 be amended to include...

  1. 78 FR 6189 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unallowability of Costs Associated With Foreign Contractor Excise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ...DoD, GSA, and NASA are issuing a final rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement certain requirements of section 301 of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010, which imposes a 2 percent excise tax on certain Federal procurement payments to foreign persons. The rule disallows the cost associated with the 2 percent excise tax on certain foreign procurements.

  2. Comparison of acquisition costs of surgical supplies in different health care systems for cataract and glaucoma procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jeremy; Zurakowski, David; Ayyala, Ramesh S

    2014-08-01

    To determine cost identification and acquisition cost comparison of surgical supplies for performing cataract and glaucoma procedures. This is a nonrandomized comparative and cross-sectional study. Six health care systems [state-run charity hospital, a private university hospital, 2 ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs), and 2 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers] participated in the study. A list of input prices for disposable surgical items necessary for phacoemulsification with intraocular lens and for trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C (MMC), Ex-PRESS shunt placement, and Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) with scleral patch graft was administered to 6 facilities. The total acquisition costs for each surgery at each facility was calculated as the sum of necessary items' costs. All costs are expressed in 2011 US dollars. Total acquisition costs for phacoemulsification/intraocular lens, trabeculectomy with MMC, Ex-PRESS shunt and AGV with scleral patch graft implantation in different health care settings were the main outcome measures. The state-run hospital had the highest overall cost of disposable items for both cataract surgery ($648) and trabeculectomy with MMC ($339), whereas the Veterans Affairs Medical Centers had the lowest acquisition costs for cataract ($386) and the ASC ($96) for trabeculectomy. The ASC system had the lowest cost for both Ex-PRESS shunt ($707) and AGV ($865), whereas the University ($1352 for the Ex-PRESS) and the state ($1338 for AGV) had the highest cost. Average difference between total disposable item acquisition costs and Medicare payment after different surgeries per case is as follows: $544.29 for cataract surgery, $1834.50 for trabeculectomy, $763.30 for Ex-PRESS shunt, and $1315.00 for the AGV surgery. The ASC system had the lowest acquisition cost for disposable items for both cataract and glaucoma surgeries, whereas the university hospital and the state hospital carried the highest costs on an average. Among the 3 glaucoma procedures

  3. A calculation program for electricity generation costs using LOTUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ki; Lee, Man Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    This program is designed in order to calculate electricity generation cost by different energy sources, and menu type is adopted for user convenience. This program also graphically shows the share of capital investment cost, O and M cost, and fuel cost. Sensitivity analysis about discount rate can also be carried out by this program, taking into consideration the important role of the discount rate in the generation costs calculation. (Author) 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Owning the program technical baseline for future space systems acquisition: program technical baseline tracking tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.; Hant, James J.; Kizer, Justin R.; Min, Inki A.; Siedlak, Dennis J. L.; Yoh, James

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has recognized the needs for owning the program and technical knowledge within the Air Force concerning the systems being acquired to ensure success. This paper extends the previous work done by the authors [1-2] on the "Resilient Program Technical Baseline Framework for Future Space Systems" and "Portfolio Decision Support Tool (PDST)" to the development and implementation of the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) Tracking Tool (PTBTL) for the DOD acquisition life cycle. The paper describes the "simplified" PTB tracking model with a focus on the preaward phases and discusses how to implement this model in PDST.

  5. 2003 IDA Cost Research Symposium: Cost of Evolutionary Acquisition/Spiral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Naval Cost Analysis Division NCAD David Ziemba Office of Naval Research ONR Jane Alexander Naval Air Systems Command NAVAIR Dave Burgess Naval...Washington, DC 20393-5444 Director: Captain David Ziemba , USN, (202) 764-2430 Size: Professional: 8 civilian; 1 military Support: Consultants

  6. Influences on the Timing and Frequency of Cancellations and Truncations of Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    scientific and technical expertise, and conduct related research on other national challenges. About this Publication This work was conducted by the... climate had statistically discernible associations with cancellations of Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs). Data on reductions of the...Policy and Process and Funding Climate on Cancellations of Major Defense Acquisition Programs,” IDA Paper P-5218 (Alexandria, VA: Institute for

  7. Incidental Foreign-Language Acquisition by Children Watching Subtitled Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Lekkai

    2014-01-01

    Series of international studies have shown that subtitled television programs provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. This study investigated whether incidental language acquisition occurs from watching a television program with/without subtitles. Children in the experimental conditions watch: (a) a 15 minute snapshot of a well…

  8. Automation and schema acquisition in learning elementary computer programming : implications for the design of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J.G.; van Merrienboer, J.J.G.; Paas, Fred G.W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Two complementary processes may be distinguished in learning a complex cognitive skill such as computer programming. First, automation offers task-specific procedures that may directly control programming behavior, second, schema acquisition offers cognitive structures that provide analogies in new

  9. 76 FR 14954 - National Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... National Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement... teachers who work in language instruction educational programs or serve ELs. Grants awarded under this... involved, to meet certification or licensing requirements for teachers who work in language instruction...

  10. Hospital costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Eva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to assess the hospital economic costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition. Methods A retrospective study of all hospital admissions between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006 was carried out in a 420-bed, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Barcelona (Spain. All patients with a first positive clinical culture for P. aeruginosa more than 48 h after admission were included. Patient and hospitalization characteristics were collected from hospital and microbiology laboratory computerized records. According to antibiotic susceptibility, isolates were classified as non-resistant, resistant and multi-drug resistant. Cost estimation was based on a full-costing cost accounting system and on the criteria of clinical Activity-Based Costing methods. Multivariate analyses were performed using generalized linear models of log-transformed costs. Results Cost estimations were available for 402 nosocomial incident P. aeruginosa positive cultures. Their distribution by antibiotic susceptibility pattern was 37.1% non-resistant, 29.6% resistant and 33.3% multi-drug resistant. The total mean economic cost per admission of patients with multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains was higher than that for non-resistant strains (15,265 vs. 4,933 Euros. In multivariate analysis, resistant and multi-drug resistant strains were independently predictive of an increased hospital total cost in compared with non-resistant strains (the incremental increase in total hospital cost was more than 1.37-fold and 1.77-fold that for non-resistant strains, respectively. Conclusions P. aeruginosa multi-drug resistance independently predicted higher hospital costs with a more than 70% increase per admission compared with non-resistant strains. Prevention of the nosocomial emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms is essential to limit the strong economic impact.

  11. Post-Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...... serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we develop three propositions on the sequential effects on post-acquisition IT integration in acquisition programs. Their combined explanation is that serial acquirers must have a growth-by-acquisition strategy that includes the capability to improve...... IT integration capabilities, to sustain high alignment across acquisitions and to maintain a scalable IT infrastructure with a flat or decreasing cost structure. We begin the process of validating the three propositions by investigating a longitudinal case study of a growth-by-acquisition program....

  12. A METHOD OF THE MINIMIZING OF THE TOTAL ACQUISITIONS COST WITH THE INCREASING VARIABLE DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA IONELA FOCȘAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over time, mankind has tried to find different ways of costs reduction. This subject which we are facing more often nowadays, has been detailed studied, without reaching a general model, and also efficient, regarding the costs reduction. Costs reduction entails a number of benefits over the entity, the most important being: increase revenue and default to the profit, increase productivity, a higher level of services / products offered to clients, and last but not least, the risk mitigation of the economic deficit. Therefore, each entity search different modes to obtain most benefits, for the company to succeed in a competitive market. This article supports the companies, trying to make known a new way of minimizing the total cost of acquisitions, by presenting some hypotheses about the increasing variable demand, proving them, and development of formulas for reducing the costs. The hypotheses presented in the model described below, can be maximally exploited to obtain new models of reducing the total cost, according to the modes of the purchase of entities which approach it.

  13. Blockmodeling and the Estimation of Evolutionary Architectural Growth in Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    uncertainty is high and confidence is low Focused Question: Can parametric cost estimation, in conjunction with DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF...qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Blockmodeling and the Estimation of Evolutionary Architectural Growth in...Estimation of Evolutionary Architectural Growth in Major Defense Acquisition Programs LTC Matthew Dabkowski, U.S. Army, University of Arizona Ricardo

  14. Cost estimation for unmanned lunar and planetary programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, J. H.; Pekar, P. R.; Spadoni, D. J.; Stone, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    A basic model is presented for estimating the cost of unmanned lunar and planetary programs. Cost data were collected and analyzed for eight lunar and planetary programs. Total cost was separated into the following components: labor, overhead, materials, and technical support. The study determined that direct labor cost of unmanned lunar and planetary programs comprises 30 percent of the total program cost. Twelve program categories were defined for modeling: six spacecraft subsystem categories (science, structure, propulsion, electrical power, communications, and guidance and integration, test and quality assurance, launch and flight operations, ground equipment, systems analysis and engineering, and program management). An analysis showed that on a percentage basis, direct labor cost and direct labor manhours compare on a one-to-one ratio. Therefore, direct labor hours is used as the parameter for predicting cost, with the advantage of eliminating the effect of inflation on the analysis.

  15. 77 FR 11367 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Test Program for Negotiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Test Program for Negotiation of Comprehensive Small Business... Acquisition Regulation Supplement to extend the program period for the DoD Test Program for Negotiation of...). Section 866 amends the DoD Test Program for Negotiation of Comprehensive Small Business Subcontracting...

  16. 76 FR 31416 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Oversight of Contractor Ethics Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Oversight of Contractor Ethics Programs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... contractors have implemented the mandatory contractor business ethics program requirements. DATES: Effective... to Improve DoD's Oversight of Contractor Ethics Programs. The ethics program requirement flows from...

  17. Low-cost data acquisition systems for photovoltaic system monitoring and usage statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanourakis, S.; Wang, K.; McCarthy, P.; Jiao, L.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the design of a low-cost data acquisition system for monitoring a photovoltaic system’s electrical quantities, battery temperatures, and state of charge of the battery. The electrical quantities are the voltages and currents of the solar panels, the battery, and the system loads. The system uses an Atmega328p microcontroller to acquire data from the photovoltaic system’s charge controller. It also records individual load information using current sensing resistors along with a voltage amplification circuit and an analog to digital converter. The system is used in conjunction with a wall power data acquisition system for the recording of regional power outages. Both data acquisition systems record data in micro SD cards. The data has been successfully acquired from both systems and has been used to monitor the status of the PV system and the local power grid. As more data is gathered it can be used for the maintenance and improvement of the photovoltaic system through analysis of the photovoltaic system’s parameters and usage statistics.

  18. Toward the design of a low cost vision-based gaze tracker for interaction skill acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Francis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The human gaze is a basic mean for non verbal interaction between humans; however, in several situations, especially in the context of upper limb motor impairments, the gaze constitutes also an alternative mean for human’s interactions with the environment (real or virtual. Mastering these interactions through specific tools, requires frequently the acquisition of new skills and understanding of mechanisms which allow to acquire the necessary skills. Therefore the technological tool is a key for new interaction skills’ acquisition. This paper presents a tool for interaction skill acquisition via a gaze. The proposed gaze tracker is a low cost head mounted system based on vision technology “only”. The system hardware specifications and the status of the gaze tracker design are presented; the dedicated algorithm for eye detection and tracking, and an improvement of G. Zelinsky model for eye movement predication during the search of a predefined object in an image are outlined. Results of the software preliminary evaluation are presented.

  19. Cost and cost threshold analyses for 12 innovative US HIV linkage and retention in care programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kriti M; Maulsby, Catherine; Brantley, Meredith; Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Zulliger, Rose; Riordan, Maura; Charles, Vignetta; Holtgrave, David R

    2016-09-01

    Out of >1,000,000 people living with HIV in the USA, an estimated 60% were not adequately engaged in medical care in 2011. In response, AIDS United spearheaded 12 HIV linkage and retention in care programs. These programs were supported by the Social Innovation Fund, a White House initiative. Each program reflected the needs of its local population living with HIV. Economic analyses of such programs, such as cost and cost threshold analyses, provide important information for policy-makers and others allocating resources or planning programs. Implementation costs were examined from societal and payer perspectives. This paper presents the results of cost threshold analyses, which provide an estimated number of HIV transmissions that would have to be averted for each program to be considered cost-saving and cost-effective. The methods were adapted from the US Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Per client program costs ranged from $1109.45 to $7602.54 from a societal perspective. The cost-saving thresholds ranged from 0.32 to 1.19 infections averted, and the cost-effectiveness thresholds ranged from 0.11 to 0.43 infections averted by the programs. These results suggest that such programs are a sound and efficient investment towards supporting goals set by US HIV policy-makers. Cost-utility data are pending.

  20. Costs of cardiac rehabilitation and enhanced lifestyle modification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A James; Shepard, Donald S

    2009-01-01

    Inadequate payment to providers for traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and lifestyle modification programs may contribute to low utilization, but little systematic evidence exists. This article estimates and compares the per-patient costs and revenues for 3 types of secondary prevention programs: the Dr Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish), the Benson-Henry Mind/Body Medical Institute's Cardiac Wellness Program (M/BMI), and CR. The authors developed an Excel spreadsheet template for the costs of a secondary prevention program and calibrated it to 7 programs that provided the necessary data. The calibration was based on budgets, cost accounting, statistical reports, and structured interviews (in person or by telephone). The 4 lifestyle programs (2 Ornish and 2 M/BMI) cost almost 4 times as much per patient as the 3 traditional CR programs (means of $7,176 and $1,828, respectively; difference P costs averaged more than twice those of M/BMI ($9,895 and $4,458, respectively; difference P costs per patient by carefully matching program capacity to demand. In none of the programs did net revenues cover costs. The findings suggest that 4 patients could attend a traditional CR program for the cost of 1 patient in an enhanced program.

  1. The Cost of Quality Out-of-School-Time Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Lind, Christianne; Hayes, Cheryl; McMaken, Jennifer; Gersick, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Funders and program planners want to know: What does it cost to operate a high-quality after-school or summer program? This study answers that question, discovering that there is no "right" number. Cost varies substantially, depending on the characteristics of the participants, the goals of the program, who operates it and where it is located.…

  2. 76 FR 38048 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Pilot Program for Acquisition of Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... effective incentive for nontraditional defense contractors to (1) channel investment and innovation into... Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of... investment and innovation into areas that are useful to DOD and (2) provide items developed exclusively at...

  3. VENVAL : a plywood mill cost accounting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Spelter

    1991-01-01

    This report documents a package of computer programs called VENVAL. These programs prepare plywood mill data for a linear programming (LP) model that, in turn, calculates the optimum mix of products to make, given a set of technologies and market prices. (The software to solve a linear program is not provided and must be obtained separately.) Linear programming finds...

  4. Modularity, Working Memory, and Second Language Acquisition: A Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2017-01-01

    Considerable reason exists to view the mind, and language within it, as modular, and this view has an important place in research and theory in second language acquisition (SLA) and beyond. But it has had very little impact on the study of working memory and its role in SLA. This article considers the need for modular study of working memory,…

  5. Costs of the multimicronutrient supplementation program in Chiclayo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Gross, Rainer; Paulini, Javier; de Romaã, Daniel López

    2006-01-01

    There is little information on the cost parameters of weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs. To assess the cost parameters and cost-effectiveness of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program in an urban population of Peru. Data from the Integrated Food Security Program (Programa Integrado de Seguridad Alimentaria [PISA]), which distributed capsules and foodlets to women and adolescent girls and to children under five, were extrapolated to a population of 100,000 inhabitants. The annual cost per community member was US$1.51. The cost-effectiveness ratio was US$0.12 per 1% of prevented anemia per community member. These costs are in the upper margin of iron supplementation alone. They will decrease notably when weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs are integrated into health packages and participation by women increases. Focusing on micronutrient deficiencies would prevent these problems, and food-distribution programs would be effectively targeted to food-deficient populations.

  6. 20 CFR 641.859 - What other special rules govern the classification of costs as administrative costs or program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... documented distributions of actual time worked or other equitable cost allocation methods. (d) Specific costs charged to an overhead or indirect cost pool that can be identified directly as a program cost must be... classification of costs as administrative costs or program costs? 641.859 Section 641.859 Employees' Benefits...

  7. The Effects of Incentives in Acquisition Competition on Program Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    prevalence of underbidding in acquisition can be found in George Akerlof’s ( Akerlof , 1970) Nobel Prize winning work on “Gresham’s Dynamic,” a corollary to...Gresham’s Law 4 . Akerlof pointed out that effective but dishonest practices in any business would, over time, become commonplace, and drive out...References Akerlof , G. A. (1970). The market for lemons: Quality uncertainty and the market mechanism. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84(3), 488

  8. Study on Cost of Nursing Education. Part 1: Cost of Basic Diploma Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Harold R.; Flitter, Hessel H.

    The cost analysis method developed in a National League for Nursing-Public Health Service study was adapted to determine the cost of nursing education in the sample of 126 hospital-supported programs in this study. Some of the findings were: (1) The median gross cost per student-year for educational functions was $1,100 and the median net cost…

  9. Impact of the Economic Growth and Acquisition of Land to the Construction Cost Index in North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi, H. B.; Daulay, M.; Muda, I.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to test the aggregation of the economic growth of North Sumatra and the influence of the Tax on Acquisition of Land and Building to the Construction Cost Index in North Sumatra. This type of research is explanatory survey with quantitative methods. The population and the sample district in North Sumatra with the observation time series and cross sectional. The analysis tool used is multiple regression. The results showed that there was economic growth aggregation of North Sumatra and the influence of the Tax on Acquisition of Land and Building affect the Construction Cost Index.

  10. Evolutionary Acquisition. Implementation Challenges for Defense Space Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    noted, “[y] ears of chronic cost overruns, delays and technical problems have made law- makers leery of moving too fast on ambitious Air Force space...could be can- celled in the future. For a typical argument advocating cancellation, see Dinerman (2005). According to press accounts, draft budget...contractor’s model; however, joint models tend to make the discussion and recon- ciliation of the cost estimates much more effective. In virtually every

  11. An adaptive structure data acquisition system using a graphical-based programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroth, Edmund C.; Clark, Douglas J.; Losey, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    An example of the implementation of data fusion using a PC and a graphical programming language is discussed. A schematic of the data acquisition system and user interface panel for an adaptive structure test are presented. The computer programs (a series of icons 'wired' together) are also discussed. The way in which using graphical-based programming software to control a data acquisition system can simplify analysis of data, promote multidisciplinary interaction, and provide users a more visual key to understanding their data are shown.

  12. Adaptive Competency Acquisition: Why LPN-to-ADN Career Mobility Education Programs Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle-Rogers, Patricia G.

    Adaptive competencies are the skills required to effectively complete a particular task and are the congruencies (balance) between personal skills and task demands. The differences between the adaptive competency acquisition of students in licensed practical nurse (LPN) programs and associate degree nurse (ADN) programs were examined in a…

  13. A Real Challenge: Incorporating Patron-Driven Acquisitions Programs into Collection Development Strategies and Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Carrico, Steven; Shelton, Trey

    2013-01-01

    Many academic libraries are struggling to revise collection policies and develop improved methods of allocating budgets that integrate Patron or Demand-Driven Acquisitions plans. Two Acquisitions Librarians from the University of Florida will discuss how academic libraries are meeting this challenge and describe how their library has modified collection management policies and approval profiles, and reallocated material budgets to incorporate their ongoing PDA programs.

  14. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. METHODS The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$) for the year of 2010. RESULTS The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. CONCLUSIONS The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources. PMID:27849293

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Military Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Seth L; Smith, Kenneth J; Palmer, Catherine

    2018-02-07

    Occupational noise threatens U.S. worker health and safety and commands a significant financial burden on state and federal government worker compensation programs. Previous studies suggest that hearing conservation programs have contributed to reduced occupational hearing loss for noise-exposed workers. Many military personnel are overexposed to noise and are provided hearing conservation services. Select military branches require all active duty personnel to follow hearing conservation program guidelines, regardless of individual noise exposure. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a military hearing conservation program, relative to no intervention, in relation to cases of hearing loss prevented. We employed cost-effectiveness analytic methods to compare the costs and effectiveness, in terms of hearing loss cases prevented, of a military hearing conservation program relative to no program. We used costs and probability estimates available in the literature and publicly available sources. The effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed based on whether hearing loss occurred over a 20-yr time frame. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention was $10,657 per case of hearing loss prevented. Workers were 28% less likely to sustain hearing loss in our model when they received the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention, which reflected the greater effectiveness of the hearing conservation program. Cost-effectiveness results were sensitive to estimated values for the probability of acquiring hearing loss from both interventions and the cost of hearing protection. We performed a Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis where we simultaneously varied all the model parameters to their extreme plausible bounds. When we ran 10,000 Monte Carlo iterations, we observed that the hearing conservation program was more cost-effective in 99% of cases when decision makers were willing to

  16. 77 FR 58103 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Corporate Aircraft Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... required for a very complex disclosure by a major corporation. Also, the estimated burden hours should only..., 2012. William Clark, Acting Director, Federal Acquisition Policy Division, Office of Acquisition Policy...

  17. Cost effectiveness of two army physical fitness programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A; Metter, E Jeffrey; Fleg, Jerome L; Weinstein, Ali A; Frick, Kevin D

    2013-12-01

    Repeated failure in the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is associated with lower fitness level, premature discharge, and significant career disruption, at high economic and health costs to the individual soldier and the U.S. Army. We used cost-effectiveness analysis to estimate the health and economic implications of two exercise interventions for Army National Guard (ARNG) soldiers who had failed the APFT, a traditional remediation program and a new pedometer-based program called Fitness for Life, involving individual counseling and follow-up telephone calls. Effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed in terms of APFT pass rates and calculated 10-year coronary heart disease risk. Costs were calculated based on tracking of resources used in the programs. APFT pass rates were 54.3% and 47.9%, respectively, for traditional and Fitness for Life programs, p = not significant. Neither program affected 10-year coronary heart disease risk. For assumed APFT pass rates up to 40% without any formal remediation, both the traditional remediation program and the ARNG Fitness for Life intervention had cost savings without significant group differences. Depending on the ARNG unit and personnel preference, although the Fitness for Life Program was more expensive and thus less cost-effective, either program could be cost-effective and of benefit to the military. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. The F-22 Acquisition Program: Consequences for the US Air Force’s Fighter Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    electronic emissions deep in enemy territory. How- ever, neither of the two variants got off the drawing board, and the de- rivatives team stood down...additional pro- duction cuts. Massive cost overruns, combined with a high-profile ac- quisition scandal involving senior acquisition executive Darleen

  19. Acquisition Program Teamwork and Performance Seen Anew: Exposing the Interplay of Architecture and Behaviors in Complex Defense Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Acquisition Program Teamwork and Performance Seen Anew: Exposing the...Polinpapilinho Katina, Postdoctoral Researcher, Old Dominion University Charles Keating, Professor, Old Dominion University Acquisition Program Teamwork ...Institute of Technology ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 215 - Acquisition Program Teamwork and

  20. Cost estimation model for advanced planetary programs, fourth edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadoni, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the planetary program cost model is discussed. The Model was updated to incorporate cost data from the most recent US planetary flight projects and extensively revised to more accurately capture the information in the historical cost data base. This data base is comprised of the historical cost data for 13 unmanned lunar and planetary flight programs. The revision was made with a two fold objective: to increase the flexibility of the model in its ability to deal with the broad scope of scenarios under consideration for future missions, and to maintain and possibly improve upon the confidence in the model's capabilities with an expected accuracy of 20%. The Model development included a labor/cost proxy analysis, selection of the functional forms of the estimating relationships, and test statistics. An analysis of the Model is discussed and two sample applications of the cost model are presented.

  1. 75 FR 77727 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; HUBZone Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... for participating in the program. * * * * * (d)(1) * * * (i) HUBZone small business database search... acquired is manufactured or produced in the United States. 0 14. Amend section 19.1305 by-- 0 a. Removing... manufacturer provided the end items are produced or manufactured in the United States. (3) Paragraphs (e)(1...

  2. Collaboration Practices: An Analysis Within an Army Acquisition Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    8, DASC, TPO , PEO Sensor, PEO Platform, various platform Product Management Offices, contracting staff, and systems integrators. Please take this...Questions: 1) Who is involved in the Sensor Stakeholder Community? a) Program Management Office b) HQDA G-3/5/7 c) HQDA G-8, DASC d) TPO e) PEO Sensor

  3. A computer program for analysis of fuelwood harvesting costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole; Giuseppe Rensi

    1985-01-01

    The fuelwood harvesting computer program (FHP) is written in FORTRAN 60 and designed to select a collection of harvest units and systems from among alternatives to satisfy specified energy requirements at a lowest cost per million Btu's as recovered in a boiler, or thousand pounds of H2O evaporative capacity kiln drying. Computed energy costs are used as a...

  4. Developing a Low-Cost System for 3d Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossieris, S.; Kourounioti, O.; Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a developed low-cost system is described, which aims to facilitate 3D documentation fast and reliably by acquiring the necessary data in outdoor environment for the 3D documentation of façades especially in the case of very narrow streets. In particular, it provides a viable solution for buildings up to 8-10m high and streets as narrow as 2m or even less. In cases like that, it is practically impossible or highly time-consuming to acquire images in a conventional way. This practice would lead to a huge number of images and long processing times. The developed system was tested in the narrow streets of a medieval village on the Greek island of Chios. There, in order to by-pass the problem of short taking distances, it was thought to use high definition action cameras together with a 360˚ camera, which are usually provided with very wide-angle lenses and are capable of acquiring images, of high definition, are rather cheap and, most importantly, extremely light. Results suggest that the system can perform fast 3D data acquisition adequate for deliverables of high quality.

  5. Low cost data acquisition module for evaluating the quantitative performance of daylight systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampini, F.; Scarazzato, P.S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo, P.O. Box 6021, CEP 13083-852 Campinas (Brazil); Neves, A.A.R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Departamento de Eletronica Quantica, P.O. Box 6165, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Pereira, D.C.L.; Yamanaka, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Departamento de Tecnologia da Arquitetura, Rua do Lago, 878 CEP 05508-080, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    The search for efficient, auto-sustainable constructions that allows the user a contact with the outer environment has stimulated the development of advanced strategies, in various devices, for the exploitation of the daylight. A low cost data acquisition system was developed in this study, to observe the distribution of the natural light inside a prototype and to evaluate the quantitative performance for redirecting systems. The luminous sensor is a light dependent resistor, that responds to the illuminance with a reduction in the resistance when illuminated, through a log-log dependence. Calibration curves are set up to relate the change of resistance to absolute illuminance. It therefore provides a continuous investigation of the illuminance for various sampled points in the interior test space with a 0.03% digital error due to the 12-bit resolution. The final measured error of 5% is mainly due to the system calibration and resistance memory history. The circuit connects to a standard parallel port of any Personal Computer and supplies 64 analog inputs, one for each luminous sensor. The circuit can be easily modified to attend different quantities of analog inputs or communication ports. (author)

  6. A Low-Cost Modular Platform for Heterogeneous Data Acquisition with Accurate Interchannel Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Blanco-Claraco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Most experimental fields of science and engineering require the use of data acquisition systems (DAQ, devices in charge of sampling and converting electrical signals into digital data and, typically, performing all of the required signal preconditioning. Since commercial DAQ systems are normally focused on specific types of sensors and actuators, systems engineers may need to employ mutually-incompatible hardware from different manufacturers in applications demanding heterogeneous inputs and outputs, such as small-signal analog inputs, differential quadrature rotatory encoders or variable current outputs. A common undesirable side effect of heterogeneous DAQ hardware is the lack of an accurate synchronization between samples captured by each device. To solve such a problem with low-cost hardware, we present a novel modular DAQ architecture comprising a base board and a set of interchangeable modules. Our main design goal is the ability to sample all sources at predictable, fixed sampling frequencies, with a reduced synchronization mismatch (<1 µs between heterogeneous signal sources. We present experiments in the field of mechanical engineering, illustrating vibration spectrum analyses from piezoelectric accelerometers and, as a novelty in these kinds of experiments, the spectrum of quadrature encoder signals. Part of the design and software will be publicly released online.

  7. Parallel search engine optimisation and pay-per-click campaigns: A comparison of cost per acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter T. Kritzinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is imperative that commercial websites should rank highly in search engine result pages because these provide the main entry point to paying customers. There are two main methods to achieve high rankings: search engine optimisation (SEO and pay-per-click (PPC systems. Both require a financial investment – SEO mainly at the beginning, and PPC spread over time in regular amounts. If marketing budgets are applied in the wrong area, this could lead to losses and possibly financial ruin.Objectives: The objective of this research was to investigate, using three real-world case studies, the actual expenditure on and income from both SEO and PPC systems. These figures were then compared, and specifically, the cost per acquisition (CPA was used to decide which system yielded the best results.Methodology: Three diverse websites were chosen, and analytics data for all three were compared over a 3-month period. Calculations were performed to reduce the figures to single ratios, to make comparisons between them possible.Results: Some of the resultant ratios varied widely between websites. However, the CPA was shown to be on average 52.1 times lower for SEO than for PPC systems.Conclusion: It was concluded that SEO should be the marketing system of preference for e-commerce-based websites. However, there are cases where PPC would yield better results – when instant traffic is required, and when a large initial expenditure is not possible.

  8. [Cost analysis of the colorectal neoplasm screen program in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ayan; Dong, Pei; Yan, Xiaoling; Hu, Guangyu; Chen, Qingkun; Qiu, Wuqi

    2015-05-01

    To conduct with a cost analysis of the colorectal neoplasm screening program in Beijing, and provide data evidence for decision making. Based on stratified cluster sampling method, we carried out a 2-stage colorectal neoplasm screening program within 6 districts, Dongcheng, Xicheng, Chaoyang, Haidian, Fengtai and Shijingshan, of Beijing city between October, 2012 to May. 2013. The first stage of the program was to conducting a cancer risk level evaluation for community residents who were forty years older and the second stage's task was to providing clinical exam for those high risk people who were selected from the first stage. There were about 12 953 residents were involved in this program. We calculated the main cost of the colorectal neoplasm screen program in Beijing. Then estimate the cost of detecting one Colorectal Neoplasm patient of this program and compare it with the total treatment cost for a patient. 2 487 high risk residents were selected by the first stage and 1 055 of them made appointment for the colonoscopy exam but only 375 accepted the exam, participate rate was 35.5%. 9 neoplasm cancer patients and 71 pre-cancer patient were found at the second stage, the detection rate were 69.2/100 000 and 546/100 000, respectively. The direct input for this neoplasm screening program was 227 100 CNY and the transport expense was 4 200 CNY in the calculations. The cost for detecting one cancer patient was about 19 900 CNY. Comparing with the total medical care cost of a cancer patient (1 282 800 CNY), especially for those have been diagnosed as middle to end stage cancer, the screening program (cost 842 800 CNY) might help to reduce the total health expenditure about 128 700 CNY, based on 12 953 local residents age above 40 years old. An colonoscopy based colorectal neoplasm screening program showed its function on medical expenditure saving and might have advantage on health social labor creating.

  9. Development and application of a model for the analysis of trades between space launch system operations and acquisition costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Michael B.

    2005-12-01

    Early design decisions in the development of space launch systems determine the costs to acquire and operate launch systems. Some sources indicate that as much as 90% of life cycle costs are fixed by the end of the critical design review phase. System characteristics determined by these early decisions are major factors in the acquisition cost of flight hardware elements and facilities and influence operations costs through the amount of maintenance and support labor required to sustain system function. Operations costs are also dependent on post-development management decisions regarding how much labor will be deployed to meet requirements of market demand and ownership profit. The ability to perform early trade-offs between these costs is vital to the development of systems that have the necessary capacity to provide service and are profitable to operate. An Excel-based prototype model was developed for making early analyses of trade-offs between the costs to operate a space launch system and to acquire the necessary assets to meet a given set of operational requirements. The model, integrating input from existing models and adding missing capability, allows the user to make such trade-offs across a range of operations concepts (required flight rates, staffing levels, shifts per workday, workdays per week and per year, unreliability, wearout and depot maintenance) and the number, type and capability of assets (flight hardware elements, processing and supporting facilities and infrastructure). The costs and capabilities of hypothetical launch systems can be modeled as a function of interrelated turnaround times and labor resource levels, and asset loss and retirement. The number of flight components and facilities required can be calculated and the operations and acquisition costs compared for a specified scenario. Findings, based on the analysis of a hypothetical two stage to orbit, reusable, unmanned launch system, indicate that the model is suitable for the

  10. Regulatory Burden and Poor Defense Acquisition Program Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear Security 6 Method • Ordered logit models – Efficiently use the information contained in the ranked values of dependent (response) variable, i.e...also modeled binary recodes of assessment rating variables to understand contrasts, i.e., program was either green (=1) in time period j or it was not...Agenda • Overview • Previous Work • Method • Data • Models • Results • Interpretation • Conclusions • Future Work © 2014 by the University of Tennessee

  11. Costs of diarrheal disease and the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccination program in kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flem, Elmira T; Latipov, Renat; Nurmatov, Zuridin S; Xue, Yiting; Kasymbekova, Kaliya T; Rheingans, Richard D

    2009-11-01

    We examined the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus immunization program in Kyrgyzstan, a country eligible for vaccine funding from the GAVI Alliance. We estimated the burden of rotavirus disease and its economic consequences by using national and international data. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from government and societal perspectives, along with a range of 1-way sensitivity analyses. Rotavirus-related hospitalizations and outpatient visits cost US$580,864 annually, of which $421,658 (73%) is direct medical costs and $159,206 (27%) is nonmedical and indirect costs. With 95% coverage, vaccination could prevent 75% of rotavirus-related hospitalizations and deaths and 56% of outpatient visits and could avert $386,193 (66%) in total costs annually. The medical break-even price at which averted direct medical costs equal vaccination costs is $0.65/dose; the societal break-even price is $1.14/dose for a 2-dose regimen. At the current GAVI Alliance-subsidized vaccine price of $0.60/course, rotavirus vaccination is cost-saving for the government. Vaccination is cost-effective at a vaccine price $9.41/dose, according to the cost-effectiveness standard set by the 2002 World Health Report. Addition of rotavirus vaccines to childhood immunization in Kyrgyzstan could substantially reduce disease burden and associated costs. Vaccination would be cost-effective from the national perspective at a vaccine price $9.41 per dose.

  12. Low Cost Motor Demonstration Program. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    Ib/cu ft foam mandrel (S/N 24) and Motor T-640-2 employed a 17.5 Ib/cu ft mandrel (S/N 28). The change in igniter charge makeup from all size 3A...8217:f ;r.ii ■: rr ■ - — l| fX »-j 4 ’_;:_ ’d/ — t; ■ (’ : ’ -- (;-,’,: f 1 ■ 1 :rL /J :rj _" £ •tit Fpi :t"j .r f. •;.:.l..: ■ ■^i.v \\ Si / fei Wt_...not include cutting or finishing costs. t Si 455 ^mtämim^^^’^*^mM^» fx >imr Arnim ,. ffmß:: -»•«■ ••**r**f F«! iltaWHiMiUiMi ’mm HM m—mm~m mmm

  13. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  14. Implications of DOD Funds Execution Policy for Acquisition Program Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    E only 5 3 7 1 Procurement and RDT&E 8 1 5 4 Platform Mod C3 UAS Support Equipment Other 9 3 4 3 2 4 Program by Type 19 to distinguish causes and...2010, full-rate production decision scheduled for September 2012  Increment 2 failed IOT &E (Initial Operational Test and Evaluation)  September 2012...ADM provided only additional Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) quantities, pending completion of follow-on IOT &E  September 2013 ADM again only

  15. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  16. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  17. Planning influenza vaccination programs: a cost benefit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Ian G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although annual influenza vaccination could decrease the significant economic and humanistic burden of influenza in the United States, immunization rates are below recommended levels, and concerns remain whether immunization programs can be cost beneficial. The research objective was to compare cost benefit of various immunization strategies from employer, employee, and societal perspectives. Methods An actuarial model was developed based on the published literature to estimate the costs and benefits of influenza immunization programs. Useful features of the model included customization by population age and risk-level, potential pandemic risk, and projection year. Various immunization strategies were modelled for an average U.S. population of 15,000 persons vaccinated in pharmacies or doctor’s office during the 2011/12 season. The primary outcome measure reported net cost savings per vaccinated (PV from the perspective of various stakeholders. Results Given a typical U.S. population, an influenza immunization program will be cost beneficial for employers when more than 37% of individuals receive vaccine in non-traditional settings such as pharmacies. The baseline scenario, where 50% of persons would be vaccinated in non-traditional settings, estimated net savings of $6 PV. Programs that limited to pharmacy setting ($31 PV or targeted persons with high-risk comorbidities ($83 PV or seniors ($107 PV were found to increase cost benefit. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the scenario-based findings. Conclusions Both universal and targeted vaccination programs can be cost beneficial. Proper planning with cost models can help employers and policy makers develop strategies to improve the impact of immunization programs.

  18. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  19. Matrix Organizational Structure and its Effect on Army Acquisition Program Management Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-20

    restructure program offices with the intent of cutting waste and fraud within the defense acquisition process. The goal was to establish an organizational ... structure which could operate efficiently in an environment of shrinking budgets and increasing technical specialization. To address this challenge, the

  20. Impact of a Novel Cost-Saving Pharmacy Program on Pregabalin Use and Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carolyn; Odell, Kevin; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Bancroft, Tim; Halpern, Rachel; Sadosky, Alesia

    2016-02-01

    Pharmacy cost-saving programs often aim to reduce costs for members and payers by encouraging use of lower-tier or generic medications and lower-cost sales channels. In 2010, a national U.S. health plan began a novel pharmacy program directed at reducing pharmacy expenditures for targeted medications, including pregabalin. The program provided multiple options to avoid higher cost sharing: use mail order pharmacy or switch to a lower-cost alternative medication via mail order or retail. Members who did not choose any option eventually paid the full retail cost of pregabalin. To evaluate the impact of the pharmacy program on pregabalin and alternative medication use, health care costs, and health care utilization. This retrospective analysis of claims data included adult commercial health plan members with a retail claim for pregabalin in the first 13 months of the pharmacy program (identification [ID] period: February 1, 2010-February 28, 2011). Members whose benefit plan included the pharmacy program were assigned to the program cohort; all others were assigned to the nonprogram cohort. The program cohort index date was the first retail pregabalin claim during the ID period and after the program start; the nonprogram cohort index date was the first retail pregabalin claim during the ID period. All members were continuously enrolled for 12 months pre- and post-index and had at least 1 inpatient claim or ≥ 2 ambulatory visit claims for a pregabalin-indicated condition. Cohorts were propensity score matched (PSM) 1:1 with logistic regression on demographic and pre-index characteristics, including mail order and pregabalin use, comorbidity, health care costs, and health care utilization. Pregabalin, gabapentin and other alternative medication use, health care costs, and health care utilization were measured. The program cohort was also divided into 2 groups: members who changed to gabapentin post-index and those who did not. A difference-in-differences (Di

  1. Applied Research of Enterprise Cost Control Based on Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This paper researches the enterprise cost control through the linear programming model, and analyzes the restriction factors of the labor of enterprise production, raw materials, processing equipment, sales price, and other factors affecting the enterprise income, so as to obtain an enterprise cost control model based on the linear programming. This model can calculate rational production mode in the case of limited resources, and acquire optimal enterprise income. The production guiding program and scheduling arrangement of the enterprise can be obtained through calculation results, so as to provide scientific and effective guidance for the enterprise production. This paper adds the sensitivity analysis in the linear programming model, so as to learn about the stability of the enterprise cost control model based on linear programming through the sensitivity analysis, and verify the rationality of the model, and indicate the direction for the enterprise cost control. The calculation results of the model can provide a certain reference for the enterprise planning in the market economy environment, which have strong reference and practical significance in terms of the enterprise cost control.

  2. A Cooperative Serial Acquisition Program: Thoughts on a Response to Mounting Fiscal Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. Lee

    1974-01-01

    A regionally cooperative method of distributing responsibility for every serial title in a region is outlined. The system assures the equitable distribution of the number of titles for which each library is committed. Later refinements suggest an equalization of cost commitments on the basis of fiscal resources available for serial purchases. It is pointed out that fiscal realities will force some sort of serial acquisition cooperation for all viable medical libraries. PMID:4826481

  3. 78 FR 13675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of Defense... approved information collection requirement concerning cost accounting standards administration. A notice... Information Collection 9000- 0129, Cost Accounting Standards Administration by any of the following methods...

  4. 77 FR 69441 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of Defense... approved information collection requirement concerning cost accounting standards administration. Public... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0129, Cost Accounting Standards Administration by any...

  5. Predictors of Acquisition of Competitive Employment for People Enrolled in Supported Employment Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbière, Marc; Lecomte, Tania; Reinharz, Daniel; Kirsh, Bonnie; Goering, Paula; Menear, Matthew; Berbiche, Djamal; Genest, Karine; Goldner, Elliot M

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at assessing the relative contribution of employment specialist competencies working in supported employment (SE) programs and client variables in determining the likelihood of obtaining competitive employment. A total of 489 persons with a severe mental illness and 97 employment specialists working in 24 SE programs across three Canadian provinces were included in the study. Overall, 43% of the sample obtained competitive work. Both client variables and employment specialist competencies, while controlling for the quality of SE programs implementation, predicted job acquisition. Multilevel analyses further indicated that younger client age, shorter duration of unemployment, and client use of job search strategies, as well as the working alliance perceived by the employment specialist, were the strongest predictors of competitive employment for people with severe mental illness, with 51% of variance explained. For people with severe mental illness seeking employment, active job search behaviors, relational abilities, and employment specialist competencies are central contributors to acquisition of competitive employment.

  6. Planning influenza vaccination programs: a cost benefit model

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Ian G; Taitel Michael S; Zhang Junjie; Kirkham Heather S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although annual influenza vaccination could decrease the significant economic and humanistic burden of influenza in the United States, immunization rates are below recommended levels, and concerns remain whether immunization programs can be cost beneficial. The research objective was to compare cost benefit of various immunization strategies from employer, employee, and societal perspectives. Methods An actuarial model was developed based on the published literature to est...

  7. 75 FR 60263 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Offering a Construction Requirement-8(a) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ...The Civilian Agency Acquisition Council and the Defense Acquisition Regulations Council (Councils) are issuing a final rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to revise FAR subpart 19.8, Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program), to conform to the Small Business Administration (SBA) regulations. The FAR Council did not publish this rule for comment because this change will not have a significant effect beyond the internal operating procedures of the Government and will not have a significant effect on contractors or offerors. Furthermore, this requirement has existed in the Small Business Administration Regulations since January 1, 2009, and the FAR is being updated to conform to these regulations. This revision changes the location for submitting offering letters to SBA for a construction requirement for which a specific offeror is nominated and impacts internal procedures that the contracting officer is now required to follow.

  8. Sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost but does not constrain the acquisition of environmental information in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Moreno, Céline; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Across animals, sexual harassment induces fitness costs for females and males. However, little is known about the cognitive costs involved, i.e. whether it constrains learning processes, which could ultimately affect an individual's fitness. Here we evaluate the acquisition of environmental information in groups of fruit flies challenged with various levels of male sexual harassment. We show that, although high sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost for females, all fly groups of both sexes exhibit similar levels of learning. This suggests that, in fruit flies, the fitness benefits of acquiring environmental information are not affected by the fitness costs of sexual harassment, and that selection may favour cognition even in unfavourable social contexts. Our study provides novel insights into the relationship between sexual conflicts and cognition and the evolution of female counterstrategies against male sexual harassment. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. The Social Value Of Vaccination Programs: Beyond Cost-Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Jeroen; Beutels, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In the current global environment of increased strain on health care budgets, all medical interventions have to compete for funding. Cost-effectiveness analysis has become a standard method to use in estimating how much value an intervention offers relative to its costs, and it has become an influential element in decision making. However, the application of cost-effectiveness analysis to vaccination programs fails to capture the full contribution such a program offers to the community. Recent literature has highlighted how cost-effectiveness analysis can neglect the broader economic impact of vaccines. In this article we also argue that socioethical contributions such as effects on health equity, sustaining the public good of herd immunity, and social integration of minority groups are neglected in cost-effectiveness analysis. Evaluations of vaccination programs require broad and multidimensional perspectives that can account for their social, ethical, and economic impact as well as their cost-effectiveness. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. 78 FR 13606 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... the address shown below on or before April 29, 2013, to be considered in the formation of the final... Quinones, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. Therefore, DoD proposes to amend 48 CFR parts 231...

  11. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  12. Cost analysis of Navy acquisition alternatives for the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, T. F.; Smith, G. P.

    1982-12-01

    This research analyzes the life cycle cost (LCC) of the Navy's current and two hypothetical procurement alternatives for NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) user equipment. Costs are derived by the ARINC Research Corporation ACBEN cost estimating system. Data presentation is in a comparative format describing individual alternative LCC and differential costs between alternatives. Sensitivity analysis explores the impact receiver-processor unit (RPU) first unit production cost has on individual alternative LCC, as well as cost differentials between each alternative. Several benefits are discussed that might provide sufficient cost savings and/or system effectiveness improvements to warrant a procurement strategy other than the existing proposal.

  13. The Cost of Commonality: Assessing Value in Joint Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    interdependent networks using game theory . Stakeholders in such networks share a common but not identical range of objectives. Parochial interests prevent...network are often undertaken irrespective of common goals. This consequence is a social dilemma known as the tragedy of the commons . The program...transaction cost theories only partially explain the program dynamics that erode joint commonality . Conceptual designs for complex systems in

  14. Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs to Take More Action to Address Unrealistic Initial Cost Estimates of Space Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaplain, Cristina T; Bothwell, Brian; Campbell, Greg; Chan, Joanna; Echard, Jennifer; Gallegos, Art; Haynes, Barbara; Hobson, Anne; Lee, Jason; McGinty, Sigrid

    2006-01-01

    ... by about $12.2 billion from initial estimates for fiscal years 2006 through 2011. Cost growth for ongoing Air Force programs above initial estimates accounts for a substantial portion of this 44 percent increase...

  15. An Assessment of Early Competitive Prototyping for Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Milestone B. Competitive prototyping involves two or more contractors developing prototypes and verifying (through testing or demonstration) that they...program involved competition between two contractors : General Electric and Pratt and Whitney. Due to cost, the DoD decided to go with just one...Waiver No Early Prototypes EMD Phase Contract Types Contractor Government Cost Reimbursement Type Contracts FFP Incentive Contracts CPIF

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Multidisciplinary Management Program and Exercise Training Program in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Weixiong; Yi, Anji; Jhamnani, Sunny; Wang, Shi-Yi

    2017-10-15

    Heart failure causes significant health and financial burdens for patients and society. Multidisciplinary management program (MMP) and exercise training program (ETP) have been reported as cost-effective in improving health outcomes, yet no study has compared the 2 programs. We constructed a Markov model to simulate life year (LY) gained and total costs in usual care (UC), MMP, and ETP. The probability of transitions between states and healthcare costs were extracted from previous literature. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) over a 10-year horizon. Model robustness was assessed through 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The expected LY for patients treated with UC, MMP, and ETP was 7.6, 8.2, and 8.4 years, respectively. From a societal perspective, the expected cost of MMP was $20,695, slightly higher than the cost of UC ($20,092). The cost of ETP was much higher ($48,378) because of its high implementation expense and the wage loss it incurred. The ICER of MMP versus UC was $976 per LY gained, and the ICER of ETP versus MMP was $165,702 per LY gained. The results indicated that, under current cost-effectiveness threshold, MMP is cost-effective compared with UC, and ETP is not cost-effective compared with MMP. However, ETP is cost-effective compared with MMP from a healthcare payer's perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Annual Growth of Contract Costs for Major Programs in Development and Early Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    particular year). This correction function serves as a kind of negative feedback that keeps costs under control. Figure 1: Actual Growth of Contract...above, none of this work relates to government costs or firm- fixed-price costs, which are the majority of production efforts. The two significant... Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (AT&L), Performance of the Defense Acquisition System, 2015 Annual Report, U.S

  18. A Complex Systems Perspective of Risk Mitigation and Modeling in Development and Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Gale , USN, Program Executive Officer, SHIPS Complex System Governance for Acquisition Joseph Bradley, President, Leading Change, LLC Polinpapilinho...nor the true consequence of a risk can be objectively established. Substantial uncertainty around the interactions among different components of a...their interaction is limited to the time they touch each other, which is very short. In these problems it has been possible to describe the behavior

  19. The Theater High Altitude Area Defense program: an interim examination of its acquisition strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis is an examination of the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) program's implementation of the User Operational Evaluation System (UOES) acquisition strategy. The Missile Defense Act of 1991 imposed significant schedule risk on THAAD's development, necessitating the UOES strategy. The UOES risk management issues are analyzed using DOD's risk management guidance. This guidance incorporates some current methods, applica...

  20. An Application of Answer Set Programming to the Field of Second Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Inclezan, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the contributions of Answer Set Programming (ASP) to the study of an established theory from the field of Second Language Acquisition: Input Processing. The theory describes default strategies that learners of a second language use in extracting meaning out of a text, based on their knowledge of the second language and their background knowledge about the world. We formalized this theory in ASP, and as a result we were able to determine opportunities for refining its natur...

  1. 77 FR 63804 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Indirect Cost Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... cost accounting information normally prepared by organizations under sound management and accounting... Regulation; Information Collection; Indirect Cost Rates AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Secretariat will be submitting to the Office of Management and...

  2. The Impact of Economic Factors and Acquisition Reforms on the Cost of Defense Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    occurred in the 1990’s affect the cost of defense weapon systems? 2. Is war correlated with an increase in weapon system cost overruns? 3. Is estimation error...2. Is war correlated with an increase in weapon system cost overruns? 3. Is estimation error caused by unexpected inflation correlated with an

  3. 78 FR 31550 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Travel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Travel Costs AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... collection requirement concerning Travel Costs. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 67366..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0088, Travel Costs by any...

  4. 76 FR 14570 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Regulation; Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices for Contracts Awarded to Foreign Concerns... Accounting Standards (CAS) Board clause, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices-Foreign... interim rule was issued in response to the Cost Accounting Standard Board's March 26, 2008, publication of...

  5. 77 FR 27550 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Revision of Cost Accounting Standards Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Regulation; Revision of Cost Accounting Standards Threshold AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General... revise the threshold for applicability of cost accounting standards in order to implement a recent rule of the Cost Accounting Standards Board and statutory requirements. DATES: Effective Date: May 10...

  6. 75 FR 3236 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCIES: Department of... requirement concerning cost accounting standards administration. A request for public comments was published... and the provision at 52.230-5 include pertinent rules and regulations related to the Cost Accounting...

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Dengue Vaccination Programs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha

    2017-05-01

    AbstractThe first approved dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV, a chimeric, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus vaccine, was recently licensed in 13 countries, including Brazil. In light of recent vaccine approval, we modeled the cost-effectiveness of potential vaccination policies mathematically based on data from recent vaccine efficacy trials that indicated that vaccine efficacy was lower in seronegative individuals than in seropositive individuals. In our analysis, we investigated several vaccination programs, including routine vaccination, with various vaccine coverage levels and those with and without large catch-up campaigns. As it is unclear whether the vaccine protects against infection or just against disease, our model incorporated both direct and indirect effects of vaccination. We found that in the presence of vaccine-induced indirect protection, the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccination decreased with increasing vaccine coverage levels because the marginal returns of herd immunity decreases with vaccine coverage. All routine dengue vaccination programs that we considered were cost-effective, reducing dengue incidence significantly. Specifically, a routine dengue vaccination of 9-year-olds would be cost-effective when the cost of vaccination per individual is less than $262. Furthermore, the combination of routine vaccination and large catch-up campaigns resulted in a greater reduction of dengue burden (by up to 93%) than routine vaccination alone, making it a cost-effective intervention as long as the cost per course of vaccination is $255 or less. Our results show that dengue vaccination would be cost-effective in Brazil even with a relatively low vaccine efficacy in seronegative individuals.

  8. The costs of transit fare prepayment programs : a parametric cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the renewed interest in transit fare prepayment plans over the past : 10 years, few transit managers have a clear idea of how much it costs to operate : and maintain a fare prepayment program. This report provides transit managers : with the ...

  9. A simple low cost speed log interface for oceanographic data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khedekar, V.D.; Phadte, G.M.

    A speed log interface is designed with parallel Binary Coded Decimal output. This design was mainly required for the oceanographic data acquisition system as an interface between the speed log and the computer. However, this can also be used as a...

  10. Defense Acquisition Research Journal: Strengthening Cost Consciousness, Professionalism, and Technical Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ...Institute of Science and Technology, United Kingdom, respectively; and a PhD in Electrical and Computer Engineering and Statistics from Texas A&M...Hawkins, USAF (Ret.) The Defense Acquisition Professional Reading List The American Warfare State: The Domestic Politics of Military Spending

  11. Programmer's guide to FFE: a fast front-end data-acquisition program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Million, D.L.

    1983-05-01

    The Large Coil Test Facility project of the Fusion Energy Division has a data acquisition system which includes a large host computer and several small, peripheral front-end computers. The front-end processors handle details of data acquisition under the control of the host and pass data back to the host for storage. Some of the front ends are known as fast front ends and are required to collect a maximum of 64,000 samples each second. This speed and other hardware constraints resulted in a need for a stand-alone, assembly language task which could be downline loaded from the host system into the fast front ends. FFE (Fast Front End) was written to satisfy this need. It was written in the PDP-11 MACRO-11 assembly language for an LSI-11/23 processor. After the host loads the task into the front end, it controls the data acquisition process with a series of commands and parameters. This Programmer's Guide describes the structure and operation of FFE in detail from a programming point of view. A companion User's guide provides more information on the use of the program from the host system.

  12. A Low-Cost Modular Platform for Heterogeneous Data Acquisition with Accurate Interchannel Synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Blanco-Claraco; Javier López-Martínez; José Luis Torres-Moreno; Antonio Giménez-Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Most experimental fields of science and engineering require the use of data acquisition systems (DAQ), devices in charge of sampling and converting electrical signals into digital data and, typically, performing all of the required signal preconditioning. Since commercial DAQ systems are normally focused on specific types of sensors and actuators, systems engineers may need to employ mutually-incompatible hardware from different manufacturers in applications demanding heterogeneous inputs and...

  13. Cost-Utility Analysis of a Cardiac Telerehabilitation Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidholm, Kristian; Rasmussen, Maja Kjær; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    and Methods: The analysis was carried out together with a randomized controlled trial with 151 patients during 2012-2014. Costs of the intervention were estimated with a health sector perspective following international guidelines for CU. Quality of life was assessed using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey......Background: Cardiac rehabilitation can reduce mortality of patients with cardiovascular disease, but a frequently low participation rate in rehabilitation programs has been found globally. The objective of the Teledialog study was to assess the cost-utility (CU) of a cardiac telerehabilitation (CTR....... Results: The rehabilitation activities were approximately the same in the two groups, but the number of contacts with the physiotherapist was higher among the intervention group. The mean total cost per patient was (sic)1,700 higher in the intervention group. The quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gain...

  14. 78 FR 73451 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... risk for liability for claiming unallowable costs is significant, while companies that are not subject to CAS have no such liability and do not face the possibility of False Claims Act prosecutions, Civil... respondent asserted that the rule is unnecessary since the FAR cost principles already protect the Government...

  15. 78 FR 43203 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contract Funding-Limitation of Costs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... previously approved information collection requirement concerning limitation of costs/funds. A notice was... review and the serious consideration given to the data gathered for this information collection. However... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contract Funding--Limitation of Costs/Funds AGENCY: Department of...

  16. Life cycle costing as a decision making tool for technology acquisition in radio-diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Abhijit; Debnath, Jyotindu

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle costing analysis is an emerging conceptual tool to validate capital investment in healthcare. A preliminary study was done to analyze the long-term cost impact of acquiring a new 3 T MRI system when compared to technological upgradation of the existing 1.5 T MRI system with a view to evolve a decision matrix for correct investment planning and technology management. Operating costing method was utilized to estimate cost per unit MRI scan, costing inputs were considered for the existing 1.5 T and the proposed 3 T machine. Cost for each expected year in the life span of both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI scan options were then discounted to its Net Present Value. Net Present Value thus calculated for both the alternative options of 1.5 T and 3 T MRI machine was charted along with various intangible but critical Figures of Merit (FOM) to create a decision matrix for capital investment planning. Considering all fixed and variable costs contributing towards assumed operation, unit cost per MRI procedure was found to be Rs. 4244.58 for the 1.5 T upgrade and Rs. 6059.37 for the new 3 T MRI machine. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of the proposed 1.5 T upgrade and new 3 T machine showed a Net Present Value of Rs. 42,148,587.80 and Rs. 27,587,842.38 respectively. The utility of life cycle costing as a strategic decision making tool towards evaluating alternative options for capital investment planning in health care environment is reiterated.

  17. [Cost-effectiveness analysis on colorectal cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q C; Ye, D; Jiang, X Y; Li, Q L; Yao, K Y; Wang, J B; Jin, M J; Chen, K

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening program in different age groups from the view of health economics. Methods: The screening compliance rates, detection rates in different age groups were calculated by using the data from colorectal cancer screening program in Jiashan county, Zhejiang province. The differences in indicator among age groups were analyzed with χ(2) test or trend χ(2) test. The ratios of cost to the number of case were calculated according to cost statistics. Results: The detection rates of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) positivity, advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer and early stage cancer increased with age, while the early diagnosis rates were negatively associated with age. After exclusion the younger counterpart, the cost-effectiveness of individuals aged >50 years could be reduced by 15%-30%. Conclusion: From health economic perspective, it is beneficial to start colorectal cancer screening at age of 50 years to improve the efficiency of the screening.

  18. Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry: Could a Federal Acquisition Program Make a Difference?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, Dr. K. G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company

    2008-10-01

    The North American Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell industry may be at a critical juncture. A large-scale market for automotive fuel cells appears to be several years away and in any case will require a long-term, coordinated commitment by government and industry to insure the co-evolution of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles (Greene et al., 2008). The market for non-automotive PEM fuel cells, on the other hand, may be much closer to commercial viability (Stone, 2006). Cost targets are less demanding and manufacturers appear to be close, perhaps within a factor of two, of meeting them. Hydrogen supply is a significant obstacle to market acceptance but may not be as great a barrier as it is for hydrogen-powered vehicles due to the smaller quantities of hydrogen required. PEM fuel cells appear to be potentially competitive in two markets: (1) Backup power (BuP) supply, and (2) electrically-powered MHE (Mahadevan et al., 2007a, 2007b). There are several Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) of PEM fuel cell systems for these applications but production levels have been quite low (on the order of 100-200 per year) and cumulative production experience is also limited (on the order of 1,000 units to date). As a consequence, costs remain above target levels and PEM fuel cell OEMs are not yet competitive in these markets. If cost targets can be reached and acceptable solutions to hydrogen supply found, a sustainable North American PEM fuel cell industry could be established. If not, the industry and its North American supply chain could disappear within a year or two. The Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested a rapid assessment of the potential for a government acquisition program to bootstrap the market for non-automotive PEM fuel cells by driving down costs via economies of scale and learning-by-doing. The six week study included in-depth interviews of three manufacturers

  19. 34 CFR 263.4 - What training costs may a Professional Development program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What training costs may a Professional Development... GRANT PROGRAMS Professional Development Program § 263.4 What training costs may a Professional Development program include? (a) A Professional Development program may include, as training costs, assistance...

  20. Readout upgrade, hardware and software, for the ALICE data acquisition program

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, F; Denes, E; Frauman, M; Soos, C; Carena, F; Carena, W; Chibante Barroso, V; Divia, R; Fuchs, U; Makhlyueva, I; Roukoutakis, F; Schossmaier, K; Telesca, A; Rodriguez Navarro, D; Vande Vyvre, P; von Haller, B

    2010-01-01

    ALICE [experiment web site, May 10, 2009 (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions. The main aim of the experiment is to study the behavior of strongly interaction matter and quark gluon plasma. The ALICE DAQ (Data Acquisition) system has been deployed and used intensively during the commissioning of the experiment. This paper will present the evolution of one particular area of the system: the detector readout. The data produced by each detector are received by DATE [ALICE data acquisition web site, May 10, 2009 (ALICE Data Acquisition program) using PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) based card called D-RORC [web site, May 10, 2009 (DAQ Readout Receiver Card). Of the order of 400 of these cards are installed in the PCs of the DAQ farm, and they are connected by optical links called DDL [web site, May 10, 2009 (Detector Data Link) to the detector readout electronics. The D-RORC is controlled by the readout so...

  1. Capabilities of the WinLTP data acquisition program extending beyond basic LTP experimental functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William W; Collingridge, Graham L

    2007-05-15

    WinLTP is a Windows data acquisition program designed for the investigation of long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD), and synaptic responses in general. The capabilities required for basic LTP and LTD experiments include alternating two-input extracellular pathway stimulation, LTP induction by single train, theta burst, and primed burst stimulation, and LTD induction by low frequency stimulation. WinLTP provides on-line analyses of synaptic waveforms including measurement of slope, peak amplitude, population-spike amplitude, average amplitude, area, rise time, decay time, duration, cell input resistance, and series resistance. WinLTP also has many advanced capabilities that extend beyond basic LTP experimental capabilities: (1) analysis of all the evoked synaptic potentials individually within a sweep, and the analysis of the entire train-evoked synaptic response as a single entity. (2) Multitasking can be used to run a Continuous Acquisition task (saving data to a gap-free Axon Binary File), while concurrently running the Stimulation/Acquisition Sweeps task. (3) Dynamic Protocol Scripting can be used to make more complicated protocols involving nested Loops (with counters), Delays, Sweeps (with various stimulations), and Run functions (which execute a block of functions). Protocol flow can be changed while the experiment is running. WinLTP runs on National Instruments M-Series and Molecular Devices Digidata 132x boards, and is available at www.winltp.com.

  2. A low cost wireless data acquisition system for a remote photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahjoubi, A.; Mechlouch, R. F.; Brahim, A. B. [National School of Engineering of Gabes, Gabes University, Chemical and Processes Engineering Department, Gabes (Tunisia)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a 16F877 microcontroller-based wireless data acquisition system and a study of the feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field data acquisition from remote photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems. Various existing data transmission techniques were studied, especially satellite, radio, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The system's hardware and software and an application to test its performance are described. The system will be used for reading, storing and analyzing information from several PV water pumping stations situated in remote areas in the arid region of the south of Tunisia. The remote communications are based on the GSM network and, in particular, on the Short text Message Service (SMS). With this integrated system, we can compile a complete database of the different parameters related to the PV water pumping systems of Tunisia. This data could be made available to interested parties over the Internet. (authors)

  3. A Low Cost Wireless Data Acquisition System for a Remote Photovoltaic (PV Water Pumping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Mahjoubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a 16F877 microcontroller-based wireless data acquisition system and a study of the feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field data acquisition from remote photovoltaic (PV water pumping systems. Various existing data transmission techniques were studied, especially satellite, radio, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS. The system’s hardware and software and an application to test its performance are described. The system will be used for reading, storing and analyzing information from several PV water pumping stations situated in remote areas in the arid region of the south of Tunisia. The remote communications are based on the GSM network and, in particular, on the Short text Message Service (SMS. With this integrated system, we can compile a complete database of the different parameters related to the PV water pumping systems of Tunisia. This data could be made available to interested parties over the Internet.

  4. User Delay Cost Model and Facilities Maintenance Cost Model for a Terminal Control Area : Volume 3. User's Manual and Program Documentation for the Facilities Maintenance Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    The Facilities Maintenance Cost Model (FMCM) is an analytic model designed to calculate expected annual labor costs of maintenance within a given FAA maintenance sector. The model is programmed in FORTRAN IV and has been demonstrated on the CDC Krono...

  5. Medicaid service use and program costs for pregnant teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Norma I; Kuo, May; Adams, E Kathleen; Ayadi, M Femi; Gilbert, Brenda Colley

    2005-12-01

    Teen pregnancy is an important public health issue for all teens, but particularly for low-income teens who rely on the public health safety net for services. Medicaid pays for more than two-thirds of deliveries among teenagers in the USA. To discern how this public program serves pregnant teens (aged 11-19 years), the authors used Medicaid enrollment and claims data for Florida, Georgia and New Jersey in 1995 to examine teens' enrollment duration, service use and average payments relative to 20-24-year-olds on Medicaid. Teens were more likely than the older women to have been enrolled in Medicaid before pregnancy and to have maintained coverage through the third month following delivery. If not enrolled prepregnancy, teens were more likely than older women to enroll later in pregnancy. Teens were less likely to receive early prenatal care and more likely to be hospitalized during pregnancy, usually for preterm labor. While total Medicaid payments for routine prenatal and delivery-related care were equivalent between teens and older women, payments for nonroutine care during pregnancy were modestly higher for teens in Florida and Georgia. Thus, only modest cost savings can accrue from lower average costs per pregnancy and delivery among teens who delay pregnancy. Additional and larger cost savings to the Medicaid program from preventing teen pregnancy would accrue from the expected lower enrollment in Medicaid among the teens as they age.

  6. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  7. Competition as an Acquisition Strategy: Impact of Competitive Research and Development on Procurement Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    T.K., and Shubert, G.H., "The Role oLý Prototypes in Development," RM-3467-1-PR, The Rand , orporatior, qanta Monica, California, April, 1971. Patnode...cost segment for which the design-to-unit-hardware-cost (DTUHC) ceiling of $507,790 (in constant 1972 dollars) was established at the beginning of the...competitive phase. This is the segment for which the competitors were required to propose firm ceiling prices for the first two production options. As

  8. Acquisition of Appropriate Social Behaviors in a Fourth Grade Student through the Use of Positive Reinforcement and Response Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, David

    A 10-year-old boy with inappropriate social behavior was placed in a program of positive reinforcement and response cost. The boy earned plastic coins for good behavior and lost coins for inappropriate behavior. Rewards for given levels of earnings included extra recess time and field trips. Inappropriate behaviors decreased from a mean of 6.8…

  9. Predicting Schedule Duration for Defense Acquisition Programs: Program Initiation to Initial Operational Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    in-depth finance and schedule data for selected programs (Brown et al., 2015). We also give extra focus on Research Development Test & Evaluation...rudimentary justification to collect pre-MS-B data for the purpose of predicting schedule, as the researchers were able to derive predictive factors...McDaniel (2004), and Rossetti (2004). Their modified research database consisted of 52 program derived from this SAR database. Towards the end of

  10. 78 FR 60173 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Allowability of Legal Costs for Whistleblower Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... (NDAA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 that addresses the allowability of legal costs incurred by a contractor... a finding of contractor liability where the proceeding involves an allegation of fraud or similar... involve an allegation of fraud or similar misconduct; * * * * * BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P ...

  11. 78 FR 25443 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Indirect Cost Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Secretariat will be submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning Indirect Cost Rates. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 63804, on October 17, 2012. No comments were received.

  12. Computer-based programs on acquisition of reading skills in schoolchildren (review of contemporary foreign investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhoda N.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a description of 17 computer-based programs, which were used over the last 5 years (2008—2013 in 15 studies of computer-assisted reading instruction and intervention of schoolchildren. The article includes a description of specificity of various terms used in the above-mentioned studies and the contents of training sessions. The article also carries out a brief analysis of main characteristics of computer-based techniques — language of instruction, age and basic characteristics of students, duration and frequency of training sessions, dependent variables of education. Special attention is paid to efficiency of acquisition of different reading skills through computer-based programs in comparison to traditional school instruction.

  13. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-11-10

    To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$) for the year of 2010. The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources. Analisar os custos do Programa de Tratamento do Tabagismo no Sistema Único de Saúde e estimar o custo de sua implementação plena em um município brasileiro. A

  14. DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS: Cost to Deliver Zumwalt-Class Destroyers Likely to Exceed Budget

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francis, Paul L; Zuckerstein, Karen; Ahearn, Marie P; Carson, Erin; Chitikila, Raj; Moldafsky, Diana; Woolwine, Gwyneth B

    2008-01-01

    A recent decision to restructure and add 1 year to the program's schedule will provide more time to produce and test key combat systems that will be installed on the lead ships, but calls for doing...

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Handwriting Skills in Pre-Schoolers: The Acquisition of Syllable Oriented Programming Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler Vilageliu, Olga; Kandel, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the relevance of the syllable as a programming unit in handwriting production, both in adults and elementary school children. This longitudinal study focuses on the acquisition of writing skills in a group of preschoolers. It examines how and when the syllable structure of the word starts regulating motor programming in…

  16. The costs of mergers and acquisitions in the U.S. health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, P; Weissman, R

    1997-01-01

    Important trends are emerging from evidence of health care industry concentration in the United States. Some of these are the durable consumer concerns--cost, choice, and access--which have received attention throughout the introduction of managed care. But with the intensified industry concentration, these have been joined by concerns about pricing power, control and quality, integrity of health system and health policy-making, and clashing institutional mandates. Such trends are particularly evident in the hospital and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been challenged to be cost effective in their educational programming. The cost effectiveness ratio is a versatile evaluation indicator for Extension educators to compare the cost of achieving a unit of outcomes or educating a client in similar educational programs. This article describes the cost effectiveness ratio and…

  18. A Study of Ship Acquisition Cost Estimating in the Naval Sea Systems Command. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    inflation on Navy programs by appropriation (SCN, APN , WPN and MILCON) and to examine techniques used to project it. The most recent Wharton forecast of...Bushmaster; a special purpose vehicle MICV; a mechanized infantry combat vehicle Copperhead; a laser guided projectile SLEEP ; a family of silent

  19. The role of risk and cost benefit in program budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The primary Environmental Management (EM) program mission is protecting human health and the environment. EM is currently facing a decreasing budget while still having to deal with competing requirements and risks to workers, public, and environment. There has been no consistent framework for considering in an integrated fashion the multiple types of risks and hazards present in the nuclear weapons complex. Therefore, to allocate resources during the budget process, EM is using risk, long term costs, mortgage reduction, compliance issues, and stakeholders concerns to prioritize the funding of activities. Risk and cost-benefit analysis are valuable tools to help make decisions to reduce risks to health, safety, and the environment in a sensible and cost-effective manner. Principles for priority setting using risk analysis are to seek to compare risks by grouping them into broad categories of concern (e.g., high, medium, and low); to set priorities in managing risks to account for relevant management and social considerations; to inform priorities by as broad a range of views as possible, ideally with consensus; and, to try to coordinate risk reduction efforts among programs. The Draft Risk Report to Congress, Risks and the Risk Debate: Searching for Common Ground {open_quote}The First Step,{close_quote} provides the first link between budget, compliance requirements, and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities. The process used for the report provides an initial framework to capture the spectrum of risks associated with environmental management activities and to link these risks in a qualitative fashion to compliance and the budget.

  20. An Analysis of the Relationship Between the Professionalism of Defense Acquisition Program Managers and Program Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    manager’s job: Folklore and fact . Harvard Business Review, 53(4), 49–61. Mohr, L. (1995). Impact analysis for social evaluation (2nd ed.). Thousand...and Mintzberg (1975) documented the attributes and competencies of effective managers. B. Fox’s Studies J. Ronald Fox’s two books (1974, 1988...significantly better than those of other components. In almost no cases, however, was this relationship evident. In fact , outcomes of Army programs

  1. Review of demand-side bidding programs: Impacts, costs, and cost-effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01

    In December 1987, Central Maine Power (CMP) instituted the first competitive bidding program that allowed developers to propose installation of conservation measures. Since then, about 30 utilities in 14 states have solicited bids from energy service companies (ESCOs) and customers to reduce energy demand in residential homes and in commercial and industrial facilities. Interest in the use of competitive procurement mechanisms for demand-side resources continues to grow. In this study, the authors build upon earlier work conducted by LBL in collaboration with others (Goldman and Busch 1992; Wolcott and Goldman 1992). They have developed methods to compare bid prices and program costs among utilities. They also characterize approaches used by utilities and developers to allocate risks associated with DSM resources based on their review of a large sample of signed contracts. These contracts are analyzed in some detail because they provide insights into the evolving roles and responsibilities of utilities, customers, and third party contractors in providing demand-side management (DSM) services. The analysis also highlights differences in the allocation of risks between traditional utility rebate programs and DSM bidding programs.

  2. Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE's ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

  3. Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE`s ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

  4. The impact of patient assistance programs and the 340B Drug Pricing Program on medication cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellon, Yelba M; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Masatsugu, Miles; Contreras, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Patient assistance programs and the 340B Drug Pricing Program promise to improve the financial stability, better serve vulnerable patients, and decrease the burden of cost for uninsured patients. Our objective is to examine the financial impact that PAPs and the 340B Program have on improving medication cost. Retrospective analysis of medication dispensary data. Dispensary data for uninsured patients obtaining medications at 2 community health centers were collected from February 1 to February 29, 2012. Uninsured patients were divided into 2 samples: (1) patients receiving PAP medications and (2) patients receiving 340B medications. The main outcome measured was the patient's cost savings. Cost savings were calculated based on the amount a medication would have cost had it been purchased by patients at prices found on Epocrates software (drugstore.com). A paired sample t test model using continuous variables was utilized to calculate confidence intervals. A total of 1420 PAP and 2772 340B individual medications were dispensed to uninsured patients in February 2012. For patients receiving PAP medications the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for age = 52 ± 10. Average cost was $0.11 (95% CI, $0.04-$0.17) and average savings was $617.36 (95% Cl, $581.32-$653.40). For patients receiving 340B medications the mean ±SD for age = 50 ± 14. Average cost was $11.50 (95% CI, $10.55-$12.45). Average saving was $62.31 (95% CI, $57.99-$66.63). PAPs and 340B provide significant medication savings for uninsured patient. More research is needed to establish "best practices" for the successful integration of PAPs.

  5. New benchmarks for costs and cost-efficiency of school-based feeding programs in food-insecure areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Cavallero, Andrea; Minervini, Licia; Mirabile, Mariana; Molinas, Luca; de la Mothe, Marc Regnault

    2011-12-01

    School feeding is a popular intervention that has been used to support the education, health and nutrition of school children. Although the benefits of school feeding are well documented, the evidence on the costs of such programs is remarkably thin. Address the need for systematic estimates of the cost of different school feeding modalities, and of the determinants of the considerable cost variation among countries. WFP project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected for 78 projects in 62 countries through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The standardized yearly average school feeding cost per child, not including school-level costs, was US$48. The yearly costs per child were lowest at US$23 for biscuit programs reaching school-going children and highest at US$75 for take-home rations programs reaching families of schoolgoing children. The average cost of programs combining on-site meals with extra take-home rations for children from vulnerable households was US$61. Commodity costs were on average 58% of total costs and were highest for biscuit and take-home rations programs (71% and 68%, respectively). Fortified biscuits provided the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery, whereas take-home rations were more cost-efficient in terms of food quantities delivered. Both costs and effects should be considered carefully when designing school feeding interventions. The average costs of school feeding estimated here are higher than those found in earlier studies but fall within the range of costs previously reported. Because this analysis does not include school-level costs, these

  6. Cost Effectiveness of Iran National Plasma Contract Fractionation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Majid Cheraghali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma derived medicines (PDM including immunoglobulins, clotting factors and albumin are life saving medicines which due to their high costs are inaccessible for many patients living in developing countries. By contrary substantial volume of plasma as raw materials for production of these medicines are discarded worldwide. Good quality recovered plasma, as a result of separation of donated blood into its components, could be used for production of PDM. In 2011 Iranian donors donated about 2 million units of blood. A shift fromadministration of whole blood to components therapy has resulted in the generation of over 250,000 liters of surplus of recovered plasma. This created a good opportunity for Iran’s health care system to use this plasma for production of PDM. Therefore Iran national transfusion service has started a contract fractionation program for converting recovered plasma into PDM. This program not only provided essential PDM for Iran pharmaceutical market but also has created a direct saving of about 8.5 million Euros in 2011 for national health sector. In addition this program has drastically contributed to improvement of overall quality of working procedures and services provided by Iran national blood transfusion organization.

  7. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Air Force Risk Management Practices in Program Acquisition Using Survey Instrument Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) Program Management Tools ( PMT ) courses, PMT 251 and PMT 257. Those courses focus on program 37 management...Management PMI Project Management Institute PMT Program Management Tools RM Risk Management SE Systems Engineering TRL Technology Readiness...Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that

  8. Cost benefit analysis of the California HVS program

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ); • Compile a set of assumptions required for a benefit/cost analysis including analysis period, initial construction costs, routine maintenance costs, rehabilitation timing and costs, discount rate etc.; • Conduct initial benefit/cost analyses based... Pf Ca Cb Cc Concrete Base Pavement Notation: Pi = Probability that option I would be implemented Ci = Discounted life cycle cost for each alternative Asphalt Base Pavement G1 Base Pavement Effective cost for each alternative = (P i ) x (C i...

  9. Development of Low-Cost Microcontroller-Based Interface for Data Acquisition and Control of Microbioreactor Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Abdul Rashid; Hadad, Yaser; Zainal Alam, Muhd Nazrul Hisham

    2016-10-01

    This article presents the development of a low-cost microcontroller-based interface for a microbioreactor operation. An Arduino MEGA 2560 board with 54 digital input/outputs, including 15 pulse-width-modulation outputs, has been chosen to perform the acquisition and control of the microbioreactor. The microbioreactor (volume = 800 µL) was made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) and poly(methylmethacrylate) polymers. The reactor was built to be equipped with sensors and actuators for the control of reactor temperature and the mixing speed. The article discusses the circuit of the microcontroller-based platform, describes the signal conditioning steps, and evaluates the capacity of the proposed low-cost microcontroller-based interface in terms of control accuracy and system responses. It is demonstrated that the proposed microcontroller-based platform is able to operate parallel microbioreactor operation with satisfactory performances. Control accuracy at a deviation less than 5% of the set-point values and responses in the range of few seconds have been recorded. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. Two Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri, Carlos J.; Corripio, Armando B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two computer programs for use in process design courses: an easy-to-use equipment cost estimation program based on latest cost correlations available and an economic evaluation program which calculates two profitability indices. Comparisons between programed and hand-calculated results are included. (JM)

  11. Cost analysis of school-based sexuality education programs in six countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Policy-makers who are making decisions on sexuality education programs face important economic questions: what are the costs of developing sexuality education programs; and what are the costs of implementing and scaling them up? This study responds to these questions by assessing the costs of six school-based sexuality education programs (Nigeria, Kenya, Indonesia, India, Estonia and the Netherlands). Methods Cost analyses were carried out in schools that were fully implementing a SE program, as this best reflects the resources needed to run an effective program. The costs were analyzed from the program perspective, meaning that all costs borne by the governmental and (international) non-governmental organizations supporting the program were included. Cost analyses were based on financial records, interviews and school surveys. We distinguished costs in three consecutive program phases: development, update and implementation. Recommendations on the most efficient program characteristics and scale-up pathways were drawn from results of three fully scaled up programs (Estonia, Nigeria and the Netherlands), scale-up scenarios of two pilot programs (Kenya and Indonesia), and an implementation plan (India), The costs of the programs were compared by converting cost per student reached in US dollars (US$) to international dollars (I$). Results Findings revealed a range of costs and coverage of sexuality education programs. Costs per student reached were; US$7 in Nigeria, US$13.50 in India, US$33 in Estonia and the Netherlands, US$50 in Kenya, and US$160 in Indonesia. Conclusions Intra-curricular sexuality education programs have, because of their compulsory nature, the most potential to be scaled up and are therefore most efficient. Extra-curricular sexuality education programs have lower potential to be scaled up and are therefore less efficient. In terms of class size and number of lessons, countries need to strike a balance between the quality (demanding

  12. Cost analysis of school-based sexuality education programs in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivela, Jari; Ketting, Evert; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-08-01

    Policy-makers who are making decisions on sexuality education programs face important economic questions: what are the costs of developing sexuality education programs; and what are the costs of implementing and scaling them up? This study responds to these questions by assessing the costs of six school-based sexuality education programs (Nigeria, Kenya, Indonesia, India, Estonia and the Netherlands). Cost analyses were carried out in schools that were fully implementing a SE program, as this best reflects the resources needed to run an effective program. The costs were analyzed from the program perspective, meaning that all costs borne by the governmental and (international) non-governmental organizations supporting the program were included. Cost analyses were based on financial records, interviews and school surveys.We distinguished costs in three consecutive program phases: development, update and implementation. Recommendations on the most efficient program characteristics and scale-up pathways were drawn from results of three fully scaled up programs (Estonia, Nigeria and the Netherlands), scale-up scenarios of two pilot programs (Kenya and Indonesia), and an implementation plan (India), The costs of the programs were compared by converting cost per student reached in US dollars (US$) to international dollars (I$). Findings revealed a range of costs and coverage of sexuality education programs. Costs per student reached were; US$7 in Nigeria, US$13.50 in India, US$33 in Estonia and the Netherlands, US$50 in Kenya, and US$160 in Indonesia. Intra-curricular sexuality education programs have, because of their compulsory nature, the most potential to be scaled up and are therefore most efficient. Extra-curricular sexuality education programs have lower potential to be scaled up and are therefore less efficient. In terms of class size and number of lessons, countries need to strike a balance between the quality (demanding smaller classes and many lessons) and the

  13. Experiments with a low-cost system for computer graphics material model acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmeier, Holly; Lockerman, Yitzhak; Cartwright, Luke; Pitera, David

    2015-03-01

    We consider the design of an inexpensive system for acquiring material models for computer graphics rendering applications in animation, games and conceptual design. To be useful in these applications a system must be able to model a rich range of appearances in a computationally tractable form. The range of appearance of interest in computer graphics includes materials that have spatially varying properties, directionality, small-scale geometric structure, and subsurface scattering. To be computationally tractable, material models for graphics must be compact, editable, and efficient to numerically evaluate for ray tracing importance sampling. To construct appropriate models for a range of interesting materials, we take the approach of separating out directly and indirectly scattered light using high spatial frequency patterns introduced by Nayar et al. in 2006. To acquire the data at low cost, we use a set of Raspberry Pi computers and cameras clamped to miniature projectors. We explore techniques to separate out surface and subsurface indirect lighting. This separation would allow the fitting of simple, and so tractable, analytical models to features of the appearance model. The goal of the system is to provide models for physically accurate renderings that are visually equivalent to viewing the original physical materials.

  14. A versatile and low-cost 3D acquisition and processing pipeline for collecting mass of archaeological findings on the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattet, E.; Devogelaere, J.; Raffin, R.; Bergerot, L.; Daniel, M.; Jockey, Ph.; De Luca, L.

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, advances in the fields of photogrammetry and computer vision have produced several solutions for generating 3D reconstruction starting from simple images. Even if the potentialities of the image-based 3D reconstruction approach are nowadays very well-known in terms of reliability, accuracy and flexibility, there is still a lack of low-cost, open-source and automated solutions for collecting mass of archaeological findings, specially if one consider the real (and non theoretical) contextual aspects of a digitization campaign on the field (number of objects to acquire, available time, lighting conditions, equipment transport, budget, etc...) as well as the accuracy requirements for an in-depth shape analysis and classification purpose. In this paper we present a prototype system (integrating hardware and software) for the 3D acquisition, geometric reconstruction, documentation and archiving of large collections of archaeological findings. All the aspects of our approach are based on high-end image-based modeling techniques and designed basing on an accurate analysis of the typical field conditions of an archaeological campaign, as well as on the specific requirements of archaeological finding documentation and analysis. This paper presents all the aspects integrated into the prototype: - a hardware development of a transportable photobooth for the automated image acquisition consisting of a turntable and three DSLR controlled by a microcontroller; - an automatic image processing pipeline (based on Apero/Micmac) including mask generation, tie-point extraction, bundle adjustment, multi-view stereo correlation, point cloud generation, surface reconstruction; - a versatile (off-line/on-line) portable database for associating descriptive attributes (archaeological description) to the 3D digitizations on site; - a platform for data-gathering, archiving and sharing collections of 3D digitizations on the Web. The presentation and the assessment of this

  15. Automatic 3D relief acquisition and georeferencing of road sides by low-cost on-motion SfM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Bornemann, Perrick; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    3D terrain relief acquisition is important for a large part of geosciences. Several methods have been developed to digitize terrains, such as total station, LiDAR, GNSS or photogrammetry. To digitize road (or rail tracks) sides on long sections, mobile spatial imaging system or UAV are commonly used. In this project, we compare a still fairly new method -the SfM on-motion technics- with some traditional technics of terrain digitizing (terrestrial laser scanning, traditional SfM, UAS imaging solutions, GNSS surveying systems and total stations). The SfM on-motion technics generates 3D spatial data by photogrammetric processing of images taken from a moving vehicle. Our mobile system consists of six action cameras placed on a vehicle. Four fisheye cameras mounted on a mast on the vehicle roof are placed at 3.2 meters above the ground. Three of them have a GNNS chip providing geotagged images. Two pictures were acquired every second by each camera. 4K resolution fisheye videos were also used to extract 8.3M not geotagged pictures. All these pictures are then processed with the Agisoft PhotoScan Professional software. Results from the SfM on-motion technics are compared with results from classical SfM photogrammetry on a 500 meters long alpine track. They were also compared with mobile laser scanning data on the same road section. First results seem to indicate that slope structures are well observable up to decimetric accuracy. For the georeferencing, the planimetric (XY) accuracy of few meters is much better than the altimetric (Z) accuracy. There is indeed a Z coordinate shift of few tens of meters between GoPro cameras and Garmin camera. This makes necessary to give a greater freedom to altimetric coordinates in the processing software. Benefits of this low-cost SfM on-motion method are: 1) a simple setup to use in the field (easy to switch between vehicle types as car, train, bike, etc.), 2) a low cost and 3) an automatic georeferencing of 3D points clouds. Main

  16. 76 FR 54999 - Notice of 2011 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of 2011 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... Departments of Agriculture for the National Organic Certification Cost- Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice... Service (AMS) for the allocation of National Organic Certification Cost-Share Funds. Beginning in Fiscal...

  17. 75 FR 54590 - Notice of 2010 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of 2010 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice invites all States of the United... allocation of National Organic Certification Cost-Share Funds. The AMS has allocated $22.0 million for this...

  18. 75 FR 54591 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share... Applications for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This... the Agricultural Management Assistance (AMA) Program. Total amount of cost-share payments provided to...

  19. Organizational Change Efforts: Methodologies for Assessing Organizational Effectiveness and Program Costs versus Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Barry A.; Mirvis, Philip H.

    1982-01-01

    A standardized methodology for identifying, defining, and measuring work behavior and performance rather than production, and a methodology that estimates the costs and benefits of work innovation are presented for assessing organizational effectiveness and program costs versus benefits in organizational change programs. Factors in a cost-benefit…

  20. 42 CFR 137.301 - How are project and program environmental review costs identified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... development to identify program and project related costs associated with carrying out environmental... costs identified? 137.301 Section 137.301 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Construction Nepa Process § 137.301 How are project and program environmental review costs identified? (a) The...

  1. The Associating Abilities of Pre-Service Teachers Science Education Program Acquisitions with Engineering According to STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumen, Ozlem Ozcakir; Calisici, Hamza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the associating abilities of elementary education pre-service teachers science education program acquisitions with engineering using STEM education. In the study which is a case study, firstly pre-service teachers were trained about the STEM education approach. Then "Elementary School Science Education…

  2. Effectiveness of a Heritage Educational Program for the Acquisition of Oral and Written French and Tahitian in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocus, Isabelle; Guimard, Philippe; Vernaudon, Jacques; Paia, Mirose; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Florin, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    The research examines the effects of a bilingual pedagogical program (French/Tahitian) on the acquisition of oral and written French as well as the Tahitian language itself in primary schools in French Polynesia. 125 children divided into an experimental group (partially schooled in Tahitian for 300 min per week) and a control group (schooled in…

  3. Littoral Combat Ship and Frigate: Slowing Planned Frigate Acquisition Would Enable Better Informed Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-08

    quality. Evolution of Expectations for the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program Early program Updated program Quantity and cost 55 seaframes @ $220...on the acquisition struggles facing LCS and now the frigate. This statement discusses: (1) the evolution of the LCS acquisition strategy and where...With that context in mind , I will discuss today: (1) how the LCS program has evolved over time to where it stands today; (2) LCS program cost

  4. Updating Linear Schedules with Lowest Cost: a Linear Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruk, Sławomir; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Czarnigowska, Agata

    2017-10-01

    Many civil engineering projects involve sets of tasks repeated in a predefined sequence in a number of work areas along a particular route. A useful graphical representation of schedules of such projects is time-distance diagrams that clearly show what process is conducted at a particular point of time and in particular location. With repetitive tasks, the quality of project performance is conditioned by the ability of the planner to optimize workflow by synchronizing the works and resources, which usually means that resources are planned to be continuously utilized. However, construction processes are prone to risks, and a fully synchronized schedule may expire if a disturbance (bad weather, machine failure etc.) affects even one task. In such cases, works need to be rescheduled, and another optimal schedule should be built for the changed circumstances. This typically means that, to meet the fixed completion date, durations of operations have to be reduced. A number of measures are possible to achieve such reduction: working overtime, employing more resources or relocating resources from less to more critical tasks, but they all come at a considerable cost and affect the whole project. The paper investigates the problem of selecting the measures that reduce durations of tasks of a linear project so that the cost of these measures is kept to the minimum and proposes an algorithm that could be applied to find optimal solutions as the need to reschedule arises. Considering that civil engineering projects, such as road building, usually involve less process types than construction projects, the complexity of scheduling problems is lower, and precise optimization algorithms can be applied. Therefore, the authors put forward a linear programming model of the problem and illustrate its principle of operation with an example.

  5. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  6. The Opportunity Cost of Study Abroad Programs: An Economics-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, George

    2008-01-01

    Most colleges and universities offer study abroad programs, and an increasing number of students participate in such programs. The cost of offering and promoting study abroad programs is often misunderstood and incorrectly assessed. This paper provides an analysis of study abroad costs that will be of general interest, but will be especially…

  7. Evaluating Intangible Outcomes: Using Multiattribute Utility Analysis to Compare the Benefits and Costs of Social Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selameab, Tehout; Yeh, Stuart S.

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, program managers are required to evaluate programs with multiple outcomes against costs. This is difficult when program outcomes are not easily translated into a common metric. This article compares cost benefit analysis with Multiple Attribute Utility Technology and discusses the application of judgment in both analytical…

  8. A Cost Model for Air Force Institute of Technology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    specific Air Force require- ments in science, engineering management, medicine, and the social sciences. The peograms administered by CI include officer...Difference Direct Costs: $ 73.11 $ 67.77 $ 5.34 Indirect Costs: AFIT Indirect Costs 19.31 22.51 (3.20) Base Sico =rt Costs .97 1.01 (.04) Crmand Overhead...cost model’s forecast potential. A final determination regarding the quantification of the risk involved in using the AFIT cost model as a forecast

  9. 78 FR 5164 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share... Applications From State Departments of Agriculture for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This notice invites the following eligible States: Connecticut...

  10. 76 FR 55000 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share... INFORMATION: This Organic Certification Cost-Share Program is part of the Agricultural Management Assistance... Applications from State Departments of Agriculture for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic...

  11. Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: global carbon cycle impact from an improved plant nitrogen cycle in the Community Land Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mingjie; Fisher, Joshua B; Brzostek, Edward R; Phillips, Richard P

    2016-03-01

    Plants typically expend a significant portion of their available carbon (C) on nutrient acquisition - C that could otherwise support growth. However, given that most global terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) do not include the C cost of nutrient acquisition, these models fail to represent current and future constraints to the land C sink. Here, we integrated a plant productivity-optimized nutrient acquisition model - the Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen Model - into one of the most widely used TBMs, the Community Land Model. Global plant nitrogen (N) uptake is dynamically simulated in the coupled model based on the C costs of N acquisition from mycorrhizal roots, nonmycorrhizal roots, N-fixing microbes, and retranslocation (from senescing leaves). We find that at the global scale, plants spend 2.4 Pg C yr(-1) to acquire 1.0 Pg N yr(-1) , and that the C cost of N acquisition leads to a downregulation of global net primary production (NPP) by 13%. Mycorrhizal uptake represented the dominant pathway by which N is acquired, accounting for ~66% of the N uptake by plants. Notably, roots associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi - generally considered for their role in phosphorus (P) acquisition - are estimated to be the primary source of global plant N uptake owing to the dominance of AM-associated plants in mid- and low-latitude biomes. Overall, our coupled model improves the representations of NPP downregulation globally and generates spatially explicit patterns of belowground C allocation, soil N uptake, and N retranslocation at the global scale. Such model improvements are critical for predicting how plant responses to altered N availability (owing to N deposition, rising atmospheric CO2 , and warming temperatures) may impact the land C sink. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  13. Understanding the Drivers Behind Software Acquisition Program Performance: Enabling Mission Success through Improved Software Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    limit in the system that worsens with growth. • Example: Town stops growing when traffic becomes intolerable • Example: Overpopulation and limited...side-effects • Poor acquisition management has major cost, schedule, and quality impacts Conventional Training is Limited • Conventional training...Get out of the storm …But there are: 1. Things you can do beforehand to avoid it or minimize its impact , and 2. Things that you can do during

  14. Manufactured Homes Acquisition Program : Heat Loss Assumptions and Calculations, Heat Loss Coefficient Tables.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Bob; Baylon, David

    1992-05-01

    This manual is intended to assist builders of manufactured homes in assessing the thermal performance of structural components used in the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). U-factors for these components are calculated using the ASHRAE (1989) parallel heat loss method, with adaptations made for the construction practices found in the Pacific Northwest manufactured home industry. This report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the general assumptions and calculation procedures used to develop U-factors and R-values for specific materials used in the construction industry, overall U-factors for component sections, and the impact of complex framing and thermal configurations on various components' heat loss rates. The individual components of manufactured homes are reviewed in terms of overall thermal conductivity. The second part contains tables showing the results of heat loss calculations expressed as U-factors for various configurations of the major building components: floor systems, ceiling systems, wall systems, windows, doors and skylights. These values can be used to establish compliance with the MAP specifications and thermal performance criteria or to compare manufactured homes built to different standards.

  15. Manufactured Homes Acquisition Program : Heat Loss Assumptions and Calculations, Heat Loss Coefficient Tables.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Bob; Baylon, David.

    1992-05-01

    This manual is intended to assist builders of manufactured homes in assessing the thermal performance of structural components used in the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). U-factors for these components are calculated using the ASHRAE (1989) parallel heat loss method, with adaptations made for the construction practices found in the Pacific Northwest manufactured home industry. This report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the general assumptions and calculation procedures used to develop U-factors and R-values for specific materials used in the construction industry, overall U-factors for component sections, and the impact of complex framing and thermal configurations on various components` heat loss rates. The individual components of manufactured homes are reviewed in terms of overall thermal conductivity. The second part contains tables showing the results of heat loss calculations expressed as U-factors for various configurations of the major building components: floor systems, ceiling systems, wall systems, windows, doors and skylights. These values can be used to establish compliance with the MAP specifications and thermal performance criteria or to compare manufactured homes built to different standards.

  16. When pharmacodynamics trump costs: an antimicrobial stewardship program's approach to selecting optimal antimicrobial agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goff, Debra A; Nicolau, David P

    2013-01-01

    .... Antimicrobial stewardship programs provide guidance for clinicians regarding use of the most appropriate antimicrobial at the right dose, duration, and route in addition to being cost-effective...

  17. THE ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH NEGATION 'NO' AND 'NOT': EVIDENCES FROM AN INDONESIAN CHILD IN NON-NATIVE PARENTS BILINGUAL PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Holila Pulungan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Every child is born with an innate endowment by which (a language(s acquisition is possible. This view emphasizes the role of universal properties every child is born with to acquire (a language(s. This paper presents the acquisition of English negation 'no' and 'not' by an Indonesian child brought up in Indonesian - English Non-native Parents Bilingual Program (NPBP. The analysis is directed to reveal the pattern of 'no' and 'not' use as the evidence that a child still acquires a targeted language despite the poor targeted language input s/he is exposed to. The result of the analysis shows that the acquisition of English negation 'no' and 'not' by an Indonesian child in Indonesian - English NPBP also has a pattern which falls into syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic cases. To some extent, it supports Universal Grammar frame, but there are some which provide new insights on this issue.

  18. The cost and performance of utility commercial lighting programs. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.; Vine, E.; Shown, L.; Sonnenblick, R.; Payne, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) is to document the measured cost and performance of utility-sponsored, energy-efficiency, demand-side management (DSM) programs. Consistent documentation of DSM programs is a challenging goal because of problems with data consistency, evaluation methodologies, and data reporting formats that continue to limit the usefulness and comparability of individual program results. This first DEEP report investigates the results of 20 recent commercial lighting DSM programs. The report, unlike previous reports of its kind, compares the DSM definitions and methodologies that each utility uses to compute costs and energy savings and then makes adjustments to standardize reported program results. All 20 programs were judged cost-effective when compared to avoided costs in their local areas. At an average cost of 3.9{cents}/kWh, however, utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs are not ``too cheap to meter.`` While it is generally agreed upon that utilities must take active measures to minimize the costs and rate impacts of DSM programs, the authors believe that these activities will be facilitated by industry adoption of standard definitions and reporting formats, so that the best program designs can be readily identified and adopted.

  19. A Sensitivity Analysis of the Rigid Pavement Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Original Report Date: September 1999. This report describes the sensitivity analysis performed on the Rigid Pavement Life-Cycle Cost Analysis program, a computer program developed by the Center for Transportation Research for the Texas Department of ...

  20. A model to predict the cost-effectiveness of disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2010-06-01

    High costs and deficits in the care of patients with chronic diseases have triggered numerous programs to improve the quality and efficiency of treatment of chronic diseases. Decision makers need to estimate the impact of a disease management program (DMP) on long-term costs and cost-effectiveness in order to decide which programs to introduce. This prediction, however, requires formalizing the relations between a variety of variables. The purpose of this paper is to formalize these relations and develop a model that enhances the quality of predictions of the costs and cost-effectiveness of a DMP. The model's cost function is able to portray a reduction both of treatment overuse and underuse by improving both physician and patient compliance. The model's applicability is demonstrated by a simulated DMP for patients with hypertension. The application example shows that implementation costs may have a larger financial impact than downstream costs.

  1. Implementing Suicide Prevention Programs: Costs and Potential Life Years Saved in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lesage, Alain; Latimer, Eric; Seguin, Monique

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the costs and effects of suicide prevention programs at the population level. We aimed to determine (i) the costs associated with a suicide death and using prospective values (ii) the costs and effects of transferring, into a Canadian context, the results of the European Nuremberg Alliance against Depression (NAD) trial with the addition of 4 community-based suicide prevention strategies. These included the training of family physicians in the detection and treatment of depression, population campaigns aimed at increasing awareness about depression, the training of community leaders among first responders and follow-up of individuals who attempted suicide. This study includes a prospective value implementation study design. Using published data and information from interviews with Canadian decision makers, we assessed the costs of a suicide death in the province of Quebec and the costs of potentially implementing the NAD multi-modal suicide prevention programs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), from a health care system and societal perspective, associated with the NAD program while considering the friction cost method (FCM) and human capital approach (HCA) (discounted at 3%.) The costs considered included those incurred for the suicide prevention program and direct medical and non-medical costs as well as those related to a police investigation and funeral costs. Indirect costs associated with loss of productivity and short term disability were also considered. Sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Costs presented were in 2010 dollars. The annual total cost of implementing the suicide prevention programs in Quebec reached CAD23,982,293. The most expensive components of the program included the follow-up of individuals who had attempted suicide and psychotherapy for bereaved individuals. These accounted for 39% and 34% of total costs. The ICER associated with the implementation of the programs reached on average CAD3

  2. Cost analysis of an exercise program for older women with respect to social welfare and healthcare costs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, L; Rantanen, T; Mäkinen, E; Timonen, T E; Törmäkangas, T; Sulkava, R

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze social welfare and healthcare costs and fall-related healthcare costs after a group-based exercise program. The 10-week exercise program, which started after discharge from the hospital, was designed to improve physical fitness, mood, and functional abilities in frail elderly women. Sixty-eight acutely hospitalized and mobility-impaired women (mean age 83.0, SD 3.9 years) were randomized into either group-based (intervention) or home exercise (control) groups. Information on costs was collected during 1 year after hospital discharge. There were no differences between the intervention and control groups in the mean individual healthcare costs: 4381 euros (SD 3829 euros) vs 3539 euros (SD 3967 euros), P=0.477, in the social welfare costs: 3336 euros (SD 4418 euros) vs 4073 euros (SD 5973 euros), P=0.770, or in the fall-related healthcare costs: 996 euros (SD 2612 euros) vs 306 euros (SD 915), P=0.314, respectively. This exercise intervention, which has earlier proved to be effective in improving physical fitness and mood, did not result in any financial savings in municipal costs. These results serve as a pilot study and further studies are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness of this exercise intervention for elderly people.

  3. An Assessment of Cost Improvements in the NASA COTS - CRS Program and Implications for Future NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    This review brings rigorous life cycle cost (LCC) analysis into discussions about COTS program costs. We gather publicly available cost data, review the data for credibility, check for consistency among sources, and rigorously define and analyze specific cost metrics.

  4. Maternal influenza immunization in Malawi: Piloting a maternal influenza immunization program costing tool by examining a prospective program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Pecenka

    Full Text Available This costing study in Malawi is a first evaluation of a Maternal Influenza Immunization Program Costing Tool (Costing Tool for maternal immunization. The tool was designed to help low- and middle-income countries plan for maternal influenza immunization programs that differ from infant vaccination programs because of differences in the target population and potential differences in delivery strategy or venue.This analysis examines the incremental costs of a prospective seasonal maternal influenza immunization program that is added to a successful routine childhood immunization and antenatal care program. The Costing Tool estimates financial and economic costs for different vaccine delivery scenarios for each of the major components of the expanded immunization program.In our base scenario, which specifies a donated single dose pre-filled vaccine formulation, the total financial cost of a program that would reach 2.3 million women is approximately $1.2 million over five years. The economic cost of the program, including the donated vaccine, is $10.4 million over the same period. The financial and economic costs per immunized pregnancy are $0.52 and $4.58, respectively. Other scenarios examine lower vaccine uptake, reaching 1.2 million women, and a vaccine purchased at $2.80 per dose with an alternative presentation.This study estimates the financial and economic costs associated with a prospective maternal influenza immunization program in a low-income country. In some scenarios, the incremental delivery cost of a maternal influenza immunization program may be as low as some estimates of childhood vaccination programs, assuming the routine childhood immunization and antenatal care systems are capable of serving as the platform for an additional vaccination program. However, purchasing influenza vaccines at the prices assumed in this analysis, instead of having them donated, is likely to be challenging for lower-income countries. This result

  5. Cost and quality planning for large NASA programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rone, Kyle Y.

    1990-01-01

    The Software Cost and Quality Engineering methodology developed over the last two decades at IBM Federal Sector Div. is used to plan the NASA Space Station Data Management System (DMS). An ongoing project to capture this methodology, which is built on a foundation of experiences and lessons learned, has resulted in the development of a PC-based tool that integrates cost and quality forecasting methodologies and data in a consistent manner. This tool, Software Cost and Quality Engineering Starter Set (SCQESS), is being used to assist in the DMS costing exercises. At the same time, DMS planning serves as a forcing function and provides a platform for the continuing, iterative development, calibration, and validation and verification of SCQESS. The data that forms the cost and quality engineering data base is derived from more than 17 years of development of NASA Space Shuttle software, ranging from low criticality, low complexity support tools to highly complex and highly critical onboard software.

  6. TEAM-HF Cost-Effectiveness Model: A Web-Based Program Designed to Evaluate the Cost-Effectiveness of Disease Management Programs in Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shelby D.; Neilson, Matthew P.; Gardner, Matthew; Li, Yanhong; Briggs, Andrew H.; Polsky, Daniel E.; Graham, Felicia L.; Bowers, Margaret T.; Paul, Sara C.; Granger, Bradi B.; Schulman, Kevin A.; Whellan, David J.; Riegel, Barbara; Levy, Wayne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure disease management programs can influence medical resource use and quality-adjusted survival. Because projecting long-term costs and survival is challenging, a consistent and valid approach to extrapolating short-term outcomes would be valuable. Methods We developed the Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure (TEAM-HF) Cost-Effectiveness Model, a Web-based simulation tool designed to integrate data on demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics, use of evidence-based medications, and costs to generate predicted outcomes. Survival projections are based on a modified Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM). Projections of resource use and quality of life are modeled using relationships with time-varying SHFM scores. The model can be used to evaluate parallel-group and single-cohort designs and hypothetical programs. Simulations consist of 10,000 pairs of virtual cohorts used to generate estimates of resource use, costs, survival, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from user inputs. Results The model demonstrated acceptable internal and external validity in replicating resource use, costs, and survival estimates from 3 clinical trials. Simulations to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of heart failure disease management programs across 3 scenarios demonstrate how the model can be used to design a program in which short-term improvements in functioning and use of evidence-based treatments are sufficient to demonstrate good long-term value to the health care system. Conclusion The TEAM-HF Cost-Effectiveness Model provides researchers and providers with a tool for conducting long-term cost-effectiveness analyses of disease management programs in heart failure. PMID:26542504

  7. Cost analysis of school-based sexuality education programs in six countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivela, J.; Ketting, E.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Policy-makers who are making decisions on sexuality education programs face important economic questions: what are the costs of developing sexuality education programs; and what are the costs of implementing and scaling them up? This study responds to these questions by assessing the

  8. A Cost-Benefit Study of a Breaking the Cycle Program for Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Alexander J.; Lattimore, Pamela K.; Krebs, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a cost-benefit analysis of a Juvenile Breaking the Cycle (JBTC) program in Oregon designed to provide juvenile justice system monitoring and coordinated treatment and services to youth who are assessed as at high risk for recidivism and substance use. Detailed cost analyses are presented for youth in the JBTC program and a…

  9. Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.G. Steuten (Lotte); K.M.M. Lemmens (Karin); A.P. Nieboer (Anna); H.J.M. Vrijhoef (Hubertus)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified. Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multicomponent disease

  10. 75 FR 78798 - Airport Improvement Program: Proposed Changes to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program: Proposed Changes to Benefit Cost Analysis... requiring benefit cost analyses (BCA) for capacity projects when applying for Airport Improvement Program... Friday, except Federal holidays. Privacy: We will post all comments we receive, without change, to http...

  11. Cost-Benefit Considerations of New Careers Programs. Career Options Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Robert K.; And Others

    Since the early 1960's, new programs have been developed to prepare poor people for jobs in hospitals, schools, social agencies, and community centers offering human services. To ascertain the cost effectiveness of these programs the Career Options Research and Development (CORD) Project focused on the need for cost and benefit studies that…

  12. 78 FR 53425 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... policy for these fiscal years. For cases not settled and cost claims not paid prior to the effective date of the fiscal year in question, costs will be recalculated using the revised rates in this policy for... Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 2012...

  13. Cost Management Competencies for Department of Defense Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Posner .................................................................................................... 22 Cadbury -Schweppes...Posner’s Problems and Skills .............................................................................. . 23 8. Cadbury -Schweppes Model...goals make organizational skills critical. Cadbury -Schweppes Cadbury -Schweppes conducted an extensive research program involving program manager

  14. Cost effectiveness of the MDOT preventive maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportations (MDOT) pavement preservation program dates back to 1992. MDOTs pavement preservation strategy is primarily implemented through its capital preventive maintenance (CPM) program, in which preventive main...

  15. The PrePex device is unlikely to achieve cost-savings compared to the forceps-guided method in male circumcision programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Obiero

    Full Text Available Male circumcision (MC reduces the risk of heterosexual HIV acquisition in men by approximately 60%. MC programs for HIV prevention are currently being scaled-up in fourteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The current standard surgical technique for MC in many sub-Saharan African countries is the forceps-guided male circumcision (FGMC method. The PrePex male circumcision (PMC method could replace FGMC and potentially reduce MC programming costs. We compared the potential costs of introducing the PrePex device into MC programming to the cost of the forceps-guided method.Data were obtained from the Nyanza Reproductive Health Society (NRHS, an MC service delivery organization in Kenya, and from the Kenya Ministry of Health. Analyses are based on 48,265 MC procedures performed in four Districts in western Kenya from 2009 through 2011. Data were entered into the WHO/UNAIDS Decision Makers Program Planning Tool. The tool assesses direct and indirect costs of MC programming. Various sensitivity analyses were performed. Costs were discounted at an annual rate of 6% and are presented in United States Dollars.Not including the costs of the PrePex device or referral costs for men with phimosis/tight foreskin, the costs of one MC surgery were $44.54-$49.02 and $54.52-$55.29 for PMC and FGMC, respectively.The PrePex device is unlikely to result in significant cost-savings in comparison to the forceps-guided method. MC programmers should target other aspects of the male circumcision minimum package for improved cost efficiency.

  16. The Distinction between Direct and General Costs with Regard to the Deduction of Input VAT - The Case of Acquisition, Holding and Sale of Shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl; Stensgaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    is of general importance to all types of costs, but judged from the case law of the ECJ it has especially materialised itself when it comes to costs related to the acquisition, holding or sales of shares. The purpose of this article is therefore twofold. On the one hand it deals with the difficult question...... of distinguishing between direct and general costs. On the other hand the aim is to describe and analyse the law as it stands regarding the treatment of shares in the EU VAT system, with a special focus on the right to deduct input VAT on costs re-lating to transactions in shares. As a part of this analysis the aim...

  17. Agile Methods and Request for Change (RFC): Observations from DoD Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    projects describe the type and size of the software development, and the schedule and labor resources needed for the development. • The treatment of COTS...the Defense Acquisition System, 2 December 2008. http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/500002p.pdf [DoD 2011a] Department of Defense. DTM ...11-009, Directive-Type Memorandum ( DTM ) 11-009, Acquisition Policy for Defense Business Systems (DBS), 23 June 2011. https://dap.dau.mil/policy

  18. Cost-effectiveness of the Norwegian breast cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, P A; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

    2017-02-15

    The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) has a nation-wide coverage since 2005. All women aged 50-69 years are invited biennially for mammography screening. We evaluated breast cancer mortality reduction and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis, using our microsimulation model, calibrated to most recent data. The microsimulation model allows for the comparison of mortality and costs between a (hypothetical) situation without screening and a situation with screening. Breast cancer incidence in Norway had a steep increase in the early 1990s. We calibrated the model to simulate this increase and included recent costs for screening, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and travel and productivity loss. We estimate a 16% breast cancer mortality reduction for a cohort of women, invited to screening, followed over their complete lifetime. Cost-effectiveness is estimated at NOK 112,162 per QALY gained, when taking only direct medical costs into account (the cost of the buses, examinations, and invitations). We used a 3.5% annual discount rate. Cost-effectiveness estimates are substantially below the threshold of NOK 1,926,366 as recommended by the WHO guidelines. For the Norwegian population, which has been gradually exposed to screening, breast cancer mortality reduction for women exposed to screening is increasing and is estimated to rise to ∼30% in 2020 for women aged 55-80 years. The NBCSP is a highly cost-effective measure to reduce breast cancer specific mortality. We estimate a breast cancer specific mortality reduction of 16-30%, at the cost of 112,162 NOK per QALY gained. © 2016 UICC.

  19. Multisite Cost Analysis of a School-Based Voluntary Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R.; D'amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. Method: The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. Results: From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100–$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14—$28). Conclusions: Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites. PMID:21906509

  20. Multisite cost analysis of a school-based voluntary alcohol and drug prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-09-01

    This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100-$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14-$28). Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites.

  1. Collecting costs of community prevention programs: communities putting prevention to work initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavjou, Olga A; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Hoerger, Thomas J; Trogdon, Justin G; Cash, Amanda J

    2014-08-01

    Community-based programs require substantial investments of resources; however, evaluations of these programs usually lack analyses of program costs. Costs of community-based programs reported in previous literature are limited and have been estimated retrospectively. To describe a prospective cost data collection approach developed for the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) program capturing costs for community-based tobacco use and obesity prevention strategies. A web-based cost data collection instrument was developed using an activity-based costing approach. Respondents reported quarterly expenditures on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead; partner efforts; and in-kind contributions. Costs were allocated across CPPW objectives and strategies organized around five categories: media, access, point of decision/promotion, price, and social support and services. The instrument was developed in 2010, quarterly data collections took place in 2011-2013, and preliminary analysis was conducted in 2013. Preliminary descriptive statistics are presented for the cost data collected from 51 respondents. More than 50% of program costs were for partner organizations, and over 20% of costs were for labor hours. Tobacco communities devoted the majority of their efforts to media strategies. Obesity communities spent more than half of their resources on access strategies. Collecting accurate cost information on health promotion and disease prevention programs presents many challenges. The approach presented in this paper is one of the first efforts successfully collecting these types of data and can be replicated for collecting costs from other programs. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. An Analysis of Cost Growth in the F/A-18 Airplane Acquisition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Chapter Two provides the reader with the background needed to understand the analysis presented in Chapter Three. Re~ders who are thoroughly familia ~r with...priorities arc recognized, met and maintained by the Services and ltne orga;znations. Examples include our nuclear forces, C11, 00D-wjdu manpower

  3. Program Cost Allocation and the Validation of Faculty Activity Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilles, William C.

    1973-01-01

    The author reviews the historical use of effort measure in cost allocation studies, examines criticism of the effort technique, and reports on several recent attempts by academic health centers to achieve a more valid measure of faculty activities. (Editor)

  4. Technology Transfer Program (TTP) Cost Accounting Final Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1980-01-01

    .... Shipbuilding Maritime Administration. The material contained herein was developed from the study of the Cost Accounting systems presently in operation in the shipyards of Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI) of Japan...

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of childhood asthma management through school-based clinic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Teresa; Bame, Sherry I

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is a leading chronic illness among American children. School-based health clinics (SBHCs) reduced expensive ER visits and hospitalizations through better healthcare access and monitoring in select case studies. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-benefit of SBHC programs in managing childhood asthma nationwide for reduction in medical costs of ER, hospital and outpatient physician care and savings in opportunity social costs of lowing absenteeism and work loss and of future earnings due to premature deaths. Eight public data sources were used to compare costs of delivering primary and preventive care for childhood asthma in the US via SBHC programs, including direct medical and indirect opportunity costs for children and their parents. The costs of nurse staffing for a nationwide SBHC program were estimated at $4.55 billion compared to the estimated medical savings of $1.69 billion, including ER, hospital, and outpatient care. In contrast, estimated total savings for opportunity costs of work loss and premature death were $23.13 billion. Medical savings alone would not offset the expense of implementing a SBHC program for prevention and monitoring childhood asthma. However, even modest estimates of reducing opportunity costs of parents' work loss would be far greater than the expense of this program. Although SBHC programs would not be expected to affect the increasing prevalence of childhood asthma, these programs would be designed to reduce the severity of asthma condition with ongoing monitoring, disease prevention and patient compliance.

  6. [Relationship between community-based dental health programs and health care costs for the metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noriko; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Hirai, Aya; Morita, Manabu; Kodera, Ryousei

    2010-11-01

    Health care costs have been increasing year by year and health programs are needed which will allow reduction in the burden. The present community-based ecological study examined the relationship between implementation of dental health care programs and health care costs for the metabolic syndrome. We calculated the monthly health care cost for the metabolic syndrome per capita for each municipality in Okayama Prefecture (n = 27) using the national health insurance receipts for 1997 and 2007 for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disorder, cerebral vascular disorder, and atherosclerosis as principal diseases. Information was obtained from each municipality on the implementation of public dental health services consisting of 10 programs, including visits for oral hygiene guidance, health consultation for periodontal disease, preventive long-term care, participation of dental hygienists in public health service, programs for improving oral function in the aged, and etc. The municipalities were divided into two groups based on the implementation/non-implementation of each dental health program. Then, the change in health care cost for metabolic syndrome per capita between 1997 and 2007 was compared between the two groups according to each dental health program. RESULTS Health care costs for metabolic syndrome were reduced in decade in the municipalities which executed dental health care programs such as 'preventive long-term care' or 'health consultation for periodontal disease', being greater in the municipalities which did not. More decrease in health care costs was further observed in the municipalities where the other seven programs were also implemented. Any direct relationship between dental health programs and health care costs for the metabolic syndrome remains unclear. However, our data suggests that costs might be decreased in municipalities which can afford to implement dental health programs. Health care costs for the metabolic syndrome in

  7. Physician adherence to hypertension treatment guidelines and drug acquisition costs of antihypertensive drugs at the cardiac clinic: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulameer SA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer1, Mohanad Naji Sahib1, Noorizan Abd Aziz1,2, Yahaya Hassan1,2, Hadeer Akram Abdul AlRazzaq1, Omar Ismail31School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Hospital Pulau Pinang, 10900, Penang, MalaysiaAbstract: Prescribing pattern surveys are one of the pharmacoepidemiological techniques that provide an unbiased picture of prescribing habits. Prescription surveys permit the identification of suboptimal prescribing patterns for further evaluation. The aims of this study were to determine the prescribing trend, adherence of the prescribers to the guideline, and the impact of drug expenditure on drug utilization at the cardiac clinic of Penang Hospital, Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study. Demographic data of the patients, diagnoses and the drugs prescribed were recorded. The average drug acquisition costs (ADAC were calculated for each antihypertensive drug class on a daily and annual basis. Adherence to the guideline was calculated as a percentage of the total number of patients. A total of 313 individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The average age of the study population was 59.30 ± 10.35 years. The mean number of drugs per prescription in the study was 2.09 ± 0.78. There were no significant differences in the demographic data. Antihypertensive drugs were used in monotherapy and polytherapy in 20.8% and 79.2% of the patients, respectively. Adherence to the guideline regarding prescription occurred in 85.30% of the patients. The lowest priced drug class was diuretics and the highest was angiotensin-receptor blockers. In conclusion, the total adherence to the guideline was good; the adherence percentage only slightly decreased with a co-existing comorbidity (such as diabetes mellitus. The use of thiazide diuretics was encouraged because they are well tolerated and

  8. Characteristics of cats sterilized through a subsidized, reduced-cost spay-neuter program in Massachusetts and of owners who had cats sterilized through this program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benka, Valerie A; McCobb, Emily

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine characteristics of cats sterilized through a subsidized, reduced-cost spay-neuter program in Massachusetts and of owners who had their cats sterilized through this program. DESIGN Cross-sectional anonymous survey and telephone interviews. SAMPLE 1,188 (anonymous surveys) and 99 (telephone interviews) cat owners. PROCEDURES Owners who had a cat sterilized at clinics held between January 2006 and December 2008 were invited to complete anonymous surveys. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with owners who had a cat sterilized during clinics held in 2009. RESULTS Most cats had never been seen by a veterinarian previously; "too expensive" was the most common reason for this. Total annual household income was significantly associated with the number of times the cat had been examined by a veterinarian and reason why the cat had not been spayed or neutered previously. Most cats were acquired through informal means and without actively being sought, and there was often a time lag between acquisition and sterilization. Undesirable behavior and avoiding pregnancy were primary motivations for neutering and spaying, respectively. Nearly half of owners who indicated they would have had their cat sterilized through a private veterinarian if the clinic had not been available stated that the surgery would have been delayed because of cost. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that spay-neuter decisions were related to owner income and procedure cost, that elimination of the reduced-cost spay-neuter program would likely have exacerbated the spay-delay problem, and that gradations of financial need should be considered when evaluating relationships between income and spay-neuter decisions.

  9. Program-specific cost-effectiveness analysis: breast cancer screening policies for a safety-net program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikow, Joy; Tancredi, Daniel J; Yang, Zhuo; Ritley, Dominique; Jiang, Yun; Slee, Christina; Popova, Svetlana; Rylett, Phillip; Knutson, Kirsten; Smalley, Sherie

    2013-01-01

    Every Woman Counts (EWC), a California breast cancer screening program, faced challenging budget cutbacks and policy choices. A microsimulation model evaluated costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of EWC program mammography policy options on coverage for digital mammography (which has a higher cost than film mammography but recent legislation allowed reimbursement at the lower film rate); screening eligibility age; and screening frequency. Model inputs were based on analyses of program claims data linked to California Cancer Registry data, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, and the Medi-Cal literature. Outcomes included number of procedures, cancers, cancer deaths, costs, and incremental cost per life-year. Projected model outcomes matched program data closely. With restrictions on the number of clients screened, strategies starting screening at age 40 years were dominated (not cost-effective). This finding was highly robust in sensitivity analyses. Compared with no screening, biennial film mammography for women aged 50 to 64 years was projected to reduce 15-year breast cancer mortality by nearly 7.8% at $18,999 per additional life-year, annual film mammography was $106,428 per additional life-year, and digital mammography $180,333 per additional life-year. This more effective, more expensive strategy was projected to reduce breast cancer mortality by 8.6%. Under equal mammography reimbursement, biennial digital mammography beginning at age 50 years was projected to decrease 15-year breast cancer mortality by 8.6% at an incremental cost per additional life-year of $17,050. For the EWC program, biennial screening mammography starting at age 50 years was the most cost-effective strategy. The impact of digital mammography on life expectancy was small. Program-specific cost-effectiveness analysis can be completed in a policy-relevant time frame to assist policymakers faced with difficult program choices. Copyright © 2013, International Society for

  10. The cost of policy simplification in conservation incentive programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Acs, Szvetlana; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    of biodiversity. Common policy simplifications result in a 49100% loss in biodiversity benefits depending on the conservation target chosen. Failure to differentiate prices for conservation improvements in space is particularly problematic. Additional implementation costs that accompany more complicated policies......Incentive payments to private landowners provide a common strategy to conserve biodiversity and enhance the supply of goods and services from ecosystems. To deliver cost-effective improvements in biodiversity, payment schemes must trade-off inefficiencies that result from over-simplified policies...

  11. Economic Appraisal of Ontario's Universal Influenza Immunization Program: A Cost-Utility Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Beate; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Bauch, Chris T.; Maetzel, Andreas; McGeer, Allison; Raboud, Janet M.; Krahn, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Background In July 2000, the province of Ontario, Canada, initiated a universal influenza immunization program (UIIP) to provide free seasonal influenza vaccines for the entire population. This is the first large-scale program of its kind worldwide. The objective of this study was to conduct an economic appraisal of Ontario's UIIP compared to a targeted influenza immunization program (TIIP). Methods and Findings A cost-utility analysis using Ontario health administrative data was performed. The study was informed by a companion ecological study comparing physician visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths between 1997 and 2004 in Ontario and nine other Canadian provinces offering targeted immunization programs. The relative change estimates from pre-2000 to post-2000 as observed in other provinces were applied to pre-UIIP Ontario event rates to calculate the expected number of events had Ontario continued to offer targeted immunization. Main outcome measures were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs in 2006 Canadian dollars, and incremental cost-utility ratios (incremental cost per QALY gained). Program and other costs were drawn from Ontario sources. Utility weights were obtained from the literature. The incremental cost of the program per QALY gained was calculated from the health care payer perspective. Ontario's UIIP costs approximately twice as much as a targeted program but reduces influenza cases by 61% and mortality by 28%, saving an estimated 1,134 QALYs per season overall. Reducing influenza cases decreases health care services cost by 52%. Most cost savings can be attributed to hospitalizations avoided. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is Can$10,797/QALY gained. Results are most sensitive to immunization cost and number of deaths averted. Conclusions Universal immunization against seasonal influenza was estimated to be an economically attractive intervention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

  12. The changing cost to prevent diabetes: A retrospective analysis of the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carris, Nicholas W; Cheng, Feng; Kelly, William N

    Diabetes prevention interventions are poorly implemented. While health care costs generally increase, 2 factors affect the relative cost of diabetes prevention interventions: the declining cost of metformin (even without insurance) and the new recommendation for vitamin B12 monitoring during metformin treatment. The study's objective was to update the relative health system cost estimate of metformin for diabetes prevention by incorporating the current health system cost of metformin and the cost of addressing potential metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency. The study was designed to assess whether metformin with vitamin B12 supplementation is a cost-saving measure for diabetes prevention and for the updated cost estimate to be useful in assessing future implementation studies. In 2012, the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group published detailed per capita total direct health system costs for the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). The present analysis incorporated the declining cost of metformin and the increasing cost of metformin monitoring into the detailed per capita health system costs found in the DPP and DPPOS. The updated costs were used to assess the total cost of metformin use for diabetes prevention relative to placebo and lifestyle intervention. The current health system cost to acquire metformin ranges from $0 to $72 per year. The estimated health system cost to address potential metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency is $28 per metformin-treated patient per year. The 10-year total health system cost for metformin in diabetes prevention can decrease by $329 or increase by $21 depending on the cost to acquire metformin. Compared with placebo, the unadjusted cost savings of metformin is generally maintained, although it may double or quadruple depending on how metformin is acquired by patients. Metformin with vitamin B12 supplementation remained less costly and less effective

  13. Cost Study of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Minnesota Early Learning Foundation created the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program, a pilot program to provide families with scholarships to cover the cost of high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs. Although there is a large body of research about the benefits of preschool specifically and early learning…

  14. Very Low-Cost Nutritious Diet Plans Designed by Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foytik, Jerry

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedural details of Linear Programing, developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to devise a dietary guide for consumers that minimizes food costs without sacrificing nutritional quality. Compares Linear Programming with the Thrifty Food Plan, which has been a basis for allocating coupons under the Food Stamp Program. (CS)

  15. 76 FR 65769 - Airport Improvement Program: Modifications to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program: Modifications to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA... Airport Improvement Program (AIP) discretionary funds. On December 16, 2010, the FAA issued a Notice of... which BCAs are required from $5 million to $10 million in Airport Improvement Program (AIP...

  16. Cost-utility analysis of neonatal screening program, shiraz university of medical sciences, shiraz, iran, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Nahid; Shirvani, Samad; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Askarian, Mehrdad; Rastegar, Mohsen

    2013-10-01

    The most important cause of infant mortality during the first month of life is related to congenital abnormalities. Nevertheless, timely diagnosis of these diseases can reduce the severity of their effects. The present study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the neonatal screening program in Fars Province, Iran. In this study, costs of executing the screening programs, treatment of the diagnosed cases, treatment of affected, non-screened individuals, quality of life, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were measured in two study groups. Performing the screening programs for phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, and favism resulted in respectively $3386, $13078, $19641, and $1088 saving per patient. Overall, the study results revealed the cost-effectiveness of execution of the neonatal screening program. Neonatal screening program is one of the health interventions which lead to long-term beneficial outcome for the patients, financial saving for the society, and improvement of the patients' quantity as well as quality of life.

  17. The Cost of Commonality: Assessing Value in Joint Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    dire consequences for the survival and performance of the network as a whole ( Emerson , 1976). Military services are independent stakeholders who join...maximize provincial outcomes at the expense of collective optimization. Thus, rational actions within the network are often undertaken irrespective of...incentives for opportunistic behavior at the expense of collective optimization. The associated transaction costs and suboptimal performance can have

  18. Health care utilization and costs after entry into an outreach program for homeless mentally ill veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, R; Gallup, P; Frisman, L K

    1993-12-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a Department of Veterans Affairs outreach and residential treatment program for homeless mentally ill veterans on utilization and cost of health care services provided by the VA. Veterans at nine program sites (N = 1,748) were assessed with a standard intake instrument. Services provided by the outreach program were documented in quarterly clinical reports and in residential treatment discharge summaries. Data on nonprogram VA health service utilization and health care costs were obtained from national VA data bases. Changes in use of services and cost of services from the year before initial contact with the program to the year after were analyzed by t test. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship of these changes to indicators of clinical need and to participation in the outreach program. Although utilization of inpatient service did not increase after veterans' initial contact with the program, use of domiciliary and outpatient services increased substantially. Total annual costs to the VA also increased by 35 percent, from $6,414 to $8,699 per veteran per year. Both clinical need and participation in the program were associated with increased use of health services and increased cost. Veterans with concomitant psychiatric and substance abuse problems used fewer health care services than others. Specialized programs to improve the access of homeless mentally ill persons to health care services appear to be effective, but costly. Dually diagnosed persons seem especially difficult to engage in treatment.

  19. ShapeGrabber FootScanner: a low cost high accuracy 3D system for the acquisition of human feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Francois; Bisson, Joel A.; Williams, Steve; Robertson, Nancy; Rozin, Serge; Nelson, Andrew

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents a new acquisition method and the application of the technology for the acquisition of a person's foot. The sensor is designed to meet the requirements of measuring a variety of feet under various ambient optical conditions that can, in other circumstances, seriously affect the data measurements and reduce the reliability of the system. The most important distinction between this ranging method and other more classical approaches is the high tolerance of the method to external optical perturbations as well as reflections form other sensor heads. This allows its use in conventional 'store' or 'medical offices' that are usually bright places.

  20. 75 FR 34283 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-025, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Regulation (FAR) to align the FAR with the revised Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board clause, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices-Foreign Concerns. DATES: Effective Date: June 16, 2010... and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices-Foreign Concerns, in CAS- covered contracts and...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of a disease management program for early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnaliev, Mihail; Wijeratne, Rashmi; Kwon, Eunhae Grace; Ohiomoba, Henry; Ng, Man Wai

    2015-01-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of a pilot disease management (DM) program aimed at preventing early childhood caries among children younger than 5 years. The DM program was implemented in the Boston Children's Hospital-based dental practice in 2008. Health care costs were obtained from the hospital finance department and non-health care costs were estimated through a parent survey. The measure of effectiveness was avoided hospital-based visits for restorative treatment or extractions. Incremental costs (2011 US$) and effectiveness were estimated from a health care system, societal, and public payer perspectives over 3, 6, and 12 months, by comparing DM participants (n = 395) to a historical comparison group (n = 123) using generalized linear models. Bootstrapping and other sensitivity analyses were used to incorporate uncertainty in the analyses. The DM program was associated with a reduction in societal costs of $20 (p = 0.85), $215 (p = 0.24), and $669 (p costly and more effective was 61.5 percent, 81.9 percent, and 98.6 percent over 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Consistent results were observed from a health care system and public payer perspectives. The DM program appears cost-effective and has the potential to reduce health care costs. Our results justify a multicenter trial to evaluate the DM program on a larger scale. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. Variation in average costs among federally sponsored state-organized cancer detection programs: economies of scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansley, Edward C; Duñet, Diane O; May, Daniel S; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; McKenna, Matthew T

    2002-01-01

    Societal cost-effectiveness analysis and its variants help decision makers achieve an efficient allocation of resources across the set of all possible health interventions. Sometimes, however, decision makers are focused instead on the efficient allocation of resources within a particular intervention program that has already been implemented. This is especially true when the intervention is being delivered at several different sites. An analysis of average cost across program sites may help program officials to maximize the health benefits that can be achieved with limited resources. In this article, the authors present such an analysis, with special attention paid to the possible existence and implications of economies of scale. Focusing on federally sponsored, state-organized cancer detection programs, the authors modeled 19 state programs as productive processes and examined their average costs over a 2- to 5-year period of operation. They considered 3 alternative definitions of output: women served, screens performed, and conditions detected. Average federal costs and average total costs were estimated for each grant period. Multivariate regression analysis was used to help explain the variation in average costs. The average cost estimates were distributed in a skewed pattern with the majority of observations falling close to the median and substantially below the mean. For all measures considered, average cost decreased as output expanded. This inverse relationship between average cost and output level persisted even after controlling for the effects of other predictors, suggesting the possible existence of economies of scale. The potential existence of economies of scale calls into question the assumption of a constant average cost frequently made in economic analyses of proposed public health programs. It also implies that a) differences in output level should be taken into account when comparing operating efficiency across program sites; b) conclusions

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community Exercise and Nutrition Program for Older Adults: Texercise Select

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufolake (Odufuwa Akanni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread dissemination of evidence-based programs that can improve health outcomes among older populations often requires an understanding of factors influencing community adoption of such programs. One such program is Texercise Select, a community-based health promotion program previously shown to improve functional health, physical activity, nutritional habits and quality of the life among older adults. This paper assesses the cost-effectiveness of Texercise Select in the context of supportive environments to facilitate its delivery and statewide sustainability. Participants were surveyed using self-reported instruments distributed at program baseline and conclusion. Program costs were based on actual direct costs of program implementation and included costs of recruitment and outreach, personnel costs and participant incentives. Program effectiveness was measured using quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained, as well as health outcomes, such as healthy days, weekly physical activity and Timed Up-and-Go (TUG test scores. Preference-based EuroQol (EQ-5D scores were estimated from the number of healthy days reported by participants and converted into QALYs. There was a significant increase in the number of healthy days (p < 0.05 over the 12-week program. Cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from $1374 to $1452 per QALY gained. The reported cost-effective ratios are well within the common cost-effectiveness threshold of $50,000 for a gained QALY. Some sociodemographic differences were also observed in program impact and cost. Non-Hispanic whites experienced significant improvements in healthy days from baseline to the follow-up period and had higher cost-effectiveness ratios. Results indicate that the Texercise Select program is a cost-effective strategy for increasing physical activity and improving healthy dietary practices among older adults as compared to similar health promotion interventions. In line with the significant improvement in

  4. Cost of providing injectable contraceptives through a community-based social marketing program in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Downing, Janelle; Bell, Suzanne; Weidert, Karen; Godefay, Hagos; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2016-06-01

    To provide a cost analysis of an injectable contraceptive program combining community-based distribution and social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia. We conducted a cost analysis, modeling the costs and programmatic outcomes of the program's initial implementation in 3 districts of Tigray, Ethiopia. Costs were estimated from a review of program expense records, invoices, and interviews with health workers. Programmatic outcomes include number of injections and couple-year of protection (CYP) provided. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the average number of injections provided per month by community health workers (CHWs), the cost of the commodity, and the number of CHWs trained. The average programmatic CYP was US $17.91 for all districts with a substantial range from US $15.48-38.09 per CYP across districts. Direct service cost was estimated at US $2.96 per CYP. The cost per CYP was slightly sensitive to the commodity cost of the injectable contraceptives and the number of CHWs. The capacity of each CHW, measured by the number of injections sold, was a key input that drove the cost per CYP of this model. With a direct service cost of US $2.96 per CYP, this study demonstrates the potential cost of community-based social marketing programs of injectable contraceptives. The findings suggest that the cost of social marketing of contraceptives in rural communities is comparable to other delivery mechanisms with regards to CYP, but further research is needed to determine the full impact and cost-effectiveness for women and communities beyond what is measured in CYP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of a mandatory infection control education program on nosocomial acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Todd C; Moore, Christine; Raboud, Janet M; Muller, Matthew P; Green, Karen; Tong, Agnes; Dhaliwal, Jastej; McGeer, Allison

    2009-03-01

    To assess the impact of an institution-wide infection control education program on the rate of transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Before-and-after study. A 472-bed, urban, university-affiliated hospital.Intervention. During the period March-May 2004, all hospital staff completed a mandatory infection control education program, including the receipt of hospital-specific MRSA data and case-based practice with additional precautions. The rate of nosocomial MRSA acquisition was calculated as the number of cases of nosocomial MRSA acquisition per 100 days that a person with MRSA colonization or infection detected at admission is present in the hospital ("admission MRSA" exposure-days) for 3 time periods: June 2002-February 2003 (before the Toronto outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), June 2003-February 2004 (after the outbreak of SARS), and June 2004-February 2005 (after education). A case of nosocomial acquisition of MRSA colonization or infection represented a patient first identified as colonized or infected more than 72 hours after admission or at admission after a previous hospitalization. The rate of nosocomial acquisition of MRSA colonization or infection was 8.8 cases per 100 admission MRSA exposure-days for the period before SARS, 3.8 cases per 100 admission MRSA exposure-days for the period after SARS (Pcases per 100 admission MRSA exposure-days for the period after education (P=.02 for after education vs before education). The volume of alcohol-based handrub purchased was apparently stable, with 4,010 L during fiscal year 2003-2004 (April 2003-March 2004) compared with 3,780 L during fiscal year 2004-2005. The observed rate of compliance with hand washing did not change significantly (40.9% during education vs 44.2% after education; P=.23). The total number of patients screened for MRSA colonization was not different in the 3 periods. The rate of nosocomial acquisition of MRSA colonization or infection

  6. Economic Modeling of Heart Failure Telehealth Programs: When Do They Become Cost Saving?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena Xin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth programs for congestive heart failure have been shown to be clinically effective. This study assesses clinical and economic consequences of providing telehealth programs for CHF patients. A Markov model was developed and presented in the context of a home-based telehealth program on CHF. Incremental life expectancy, hospital admissions, and total healthcare costs were examined at periods ranging up to five years. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses were also conducted on clinical performance parameters. The base case analysis yielded cost savings ranging from $2832 to $5499 and 0.03 to 0.04 life year gain per patient over a 1-year period. Applying telehealth solution to a low-risk cohort with no prior admission history would result in $2502 cost increase per person over the 1-year time frame with 0.01 life year gain. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the cost savings were most sensitive to patient risk, baseline cost of hospital admission, and the length-of-stay reduction ratio affected by the telehealth programs. In sum, telehealth programs can be cost saving for intermediate and high risk patients over a 1- to 5-year window. The results suggested the economic viability of telehealth programs for managing CHF patients and illustrated the importance of risk stratification in such programs.

  7. Costs of vaccine programs across 94 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Allison; Ozawa, Sachiko; Grewal, Simrun; Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Gorham, Katrin M; Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-05-07

    While new mechanisms such as advance market commitments and co-financing policies of the GAVI Alliance are allowing low- and middle-income countries to gain access to vaccines faster than ever, understanding the full scope of vaccine program costs is essential to ensure adequate resource mobilization. This costing analysis examines the vaccine costs, supply chain costs, and service delivery costs of immunization programs for routine immunization and for supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) for vaccines related to 18 antigens in 94 countries across the decade, 2011-2020. Vaccine costs were calculated using GAVI price forecasts for GAVI-eligible countries, and assumptions from the PAHO Revolving Fund and UNICEF for middle-income countries not supported by the GAVI Alliance. Vaccine introductions and coverage levels were projected primarily based on GAVI's Adjusted Demand Forecast. Supply chain costs including costs of transportation, storage, and labor were estimated by developing a mechanistic model using data generated by the HERMES discrete event simulation models. Service delivery costs were abstracted from comprehensive multi-year plans for the majority of GAVI-eligible countries and regression analysis was conducted to extrapolate costs to additional countries. The analysis shows that the delivery of the full vaccination program across 94 countries would cost a total of $62 billion (95% uncertainty range: $43-$87 billion) over the decade, including $51 billion ($34-$73 billion) for routine immunization and $11 billion ($7-$17 billion) for SIAs. More than half of these costs stem from service delivery at $34 billion ($21-$51 billion)-with an additional $24 billion ($13-$41 billion) in vaccine costs and $4 billion ($3-$5 billion) in supply chain costs. The findings present the global costs to attain the goals envisioned during the Decade of Vaccines to prevent millions of deaths by 2020 through more equitable access to existing vaccines for people in all

  8. Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    of suggested Life Cycle Complexity Factors (LCCFs). The suggested method has been tested in an action based research study with promising results. The case study shows how the allocation of complexity costs on individual product variants provides previously unknown insights into the true cost structure......This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component...... inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number...

  9. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed...... in Euro. The results revealed an estimated total cost of 310 Euro per included child (net present value) in the 3-year program. Half of the costs were attributed to the first year of the program and the costs of manpower constituted 45% of the total costs. When the total cost was reduced with the cost......The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively...

  10. Streamlined library programming how to improve services and cut costs

    CERN Document Server

    Porter-Reynolds, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    In their roles as community centers, public libraries offer many innovative and appealing programs; but under current budget cuts, library resources are stretched thin. With slashed budgets and limited staff hours, what can libraries do to best serve their publics? This how-to guide provides strategies for streamlining library programming in public libraries while simultaneously maintaining-or even improving-quality delivery. The wide variety of principles and techniques described can be applied on a selective basis to libraries of all sizes. Based upon the author's own extensive experience as

  11. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Corban, J.E. [Guided Systems Technologies, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  12. Complex System Governance for Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    indicate a similar meaning for governance as the CSG meaning? and (3) Is there any concrete indication that the tools and methods of CSG would have...formulation of the structure and execution of a system (e.g., acquisition program). This structure and its execution ultimately determine the level...missing cost, schedule, performance expectations). Instead, more fundamental systems based pathologies (i.e., aberrations from healthy system conditions

  13. The National Shipbuilding Research Program: Producibility Cost Reductions through Alternative Materials and Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horsmon, Jr., Albert W; Johnson, Karl; Gans-Devney, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    .... The research, sponsored by the National Shipbuilding Research Program (NSRP), looks specifically at increased use of fiberglass and plastic pipe, adhesives, and flexible and rubber hose as areas where cost and producibility gains may be found...

  14. Do volunteers reduce the costs of parent training programs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scavenius Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer; Amilon, Anna; Schultz, Esben Anton

    ADHD in children has considerable negative consequences for both affected individuals and their families. One way to milden these negative consequences is by offering parents training in how to handle the child’s difficulties. However, running parent training programs is associated with substantial...

  15. Plenary III–04: Responses to Drug Costs: Year Three of the Medicare Part D Program

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Vicki; Reed, Mary; Hsu, John

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Many Medicare Part D beneficiaries face substantial prescription drug cost-sharing. In the first year of the program, many beneficiaries reported substantial drug use changes in response to the coverage gap. In response, an increasing number of plans offer generic drug coverage during the gap. We compared responses to Part D costs among beneficiaries with generic-only gap coverage and full gap coverage in 2008, the third year of the Part D program.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reading Programs: A Demonstration with Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Fiona M.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Cheng, Henan; Levin, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the value of cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluation and decision making with respect to educational programs and discuss its application to early reading interventions. We describe the conditions for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis and illustrate the challenges of applying the method in practice, providing examples of programs…

  17. The growing importance of costs and ways to maintain cost control on a large program in today's competitive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. J.; Grimes, D. W.; Gaetano, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of management techniques that make it possible to overcome inflationary and developmental cost rises while holding schedule and performance fixed in scientific space programs. The techniques reviewed pertain to high personnel motivation, continual review of contract rigidity for de facto modification by senior judgment, standardization vs design innovation, cooperative customer/contractor goal orientation vs task orientation, and deep real-time management visibility.

  18. Costs to Automate Demand Response - Taxonomy and Results from Field Studies and Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Becky Z [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    During the past decade, the technology to automate demand response (DR) in buildings and industrial facilities has advanced significantly. Automation allows rapid, repeatable, reliable operation. This study focuses on costs for DR automation in commercial buildings with some discussion on residential buildings and industrial facilities. DR automation technology relies on numerous components, including communication systems, hardware and software gateways, standards-based messaging protocols, controls and integration platforms, and measurement and telemetry systems. This report compares cost data from several DR automation programs and pilot projects, evaluates trends in the cost per unit of DR and kilowatts (kW) available from automated systems, and applies a standard naming convention and classification or taxonomy for system elements. Median costs for the 56 installed automated DR systems studied here are about $200/kW. The deviation around this median is large with costs in some cases being an order of magnitude great or less than the median. This wide range is a result of variations in system age, size of load reduction, sophistication, and type of equipment included in cost analysis. The costs to automate fast DR systems for ancillary services are not fully analyzed in this report because additional research is needed to determine the total cost to install, operate, and maintain these systems. However, recent research suggests that they could be developed at costs similar to those of existing hot-summer DR automation systems. This report considers installation and configuration costs and does include the costs of owning and operating DR automation systems. Future analysis of the latter costs should include the costs to the building or facility manager costs as well as utility or third party program manager cost.

  19. Evaluation of Government Quality Assurance Oversight for DoD Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-03

    basic concepts and definitions for quality management systems, ISO 9001 :2008 identifies requirements for quality management systems, and ISO 9004...source, The AS9100, “Quality Management Systems – Requirements for Aviation, Space, and Defense Organizations,” is based on ISO 9001 requirements...Defense Acquisition System and the Joint Capability,” briefly described the requirement for quality assurance and referenced ISO 9001 , “Quality

  20. The Universal Core Information Exchange Framework: Assessing Its Implications for Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Acquisition SS subsurface UCore Universal Core ULEX Universal Lexical Exchange VMF variable message format XML Extensible Markup Language 1 CHAPTER...built on the Universal Lexical Exchange ( ULEX ) schema, which incorporates a structured payload for extensibility and for wrapping other data schemas...extensible ULEX pack- age structure and is designed to support information exchange between DoD, DoJ, DHS, and the IC. UCore also leverages a number

  1. Scandal and Tragedy Or Acquisition Lessons Relearned by the F-35 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    weapons acquisition reform. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Creswell , J. (2009). Research design : Qualitative , quantitative, and mixed...dissertation’s research methodology and lessons learned about strategy challenges from a triangulated, qualitative case study analysis on previous joint...breaking- news/2016/08/02/f35-ioc-air-force-operational-acc-combat/87948142/ Jogulu, U., & Pansiri, J. (2011). Mixed methods: A research design for

  2. Modeling the Integration of Open Systems and Evolutionary Acquisition in DoD Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-19

    Integration Production Readiness, LRIP & IOT &E Full Rate Production & Deployment 80% Solution FRP 80% Solution LRIP System Development...Demonstration System Demonstration System Integration Full Rate Production & Deployment Production & Deployment Production Readiness, LRIP & IOT ...3 A3 B3 DRR3 C3 FRP3 Time Periods Figure 4. Information Flows in a Three-block Acquisition Project - 15 - A Formal Simulation Model of an

  3. Intraoperative waste in spine surgery: incidence, cost, and effectiveness of an educational program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroceanu, Alex; Canacari, Elena; Brown, Eric; Robinson, Adam; McGuire, Kevin J

    2011-09-01

    Prospective observational study. This study aims to quantify the incidence of intraoperative waste in spine surgery and to examine the efficacy of an educational program directed at surgeons to induce a reduction in the intraoperative waste. Spine procedures are associated with high costs. Implants are a main contributor of these costs. Intraoperative waste further exacerbates the high cost of surgery. Data were collected during a 25-month period from one academic medical center (15-month observational period, 10-month post-awareness program). The total number of spine procedures and the incidence of intraoperative waste were recorded prospectively. Other variables recorded included the type of product wasted, cost associated with the product or implant wasted, and reason for the waste. Intraoperative waste occurred in 20.2% of the procedures prior to the educational program and in 10.3% of the procedures after the implementation of the program (P spine budget. After the awareness program this proportion decrease to an average of 1.2% (P = 0.003). Intraoperative waste in spine surgery exacerbates the already costly procedures. Extrapolation of this data to the national level leads to an annual estimate of $126,722,000 attributable to intraoperative spine waste. A simple educational program proved to be and continues to be effective in making surgeons aware of the import of their choices and the costs related to surgical waste.

  4. A cost effectiveness study of integrated care in health services delivery: a diabetes program in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Jill

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is rapidly growing as a proportion of the disease burden in Australia as elsewhere. This study addresses the cost effectiveness of an integrated approach to assisting general practitioners (GPs with diabetes management. This approach uses a centralized database of clinical data of an Australian Division of General Practice (a network of GPs to co-ordinate care according to national guidelines. Methods Long term outcomes for patients in the program were derived using clinical parameters after 5 years of program participation, and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS Outcomes Model, to project outcomes for 40 years from the time of diagnosis and from 5 years post-diagnosis. Cost information was obtained from a range of sources. While program costs are directly available, and costs of complications can be estimated from the UKPDS model, other costs are estimated by comparing costs in the Division with average costs across the state or the nation. The outcome and cost measures are used derive incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results The clinical data show that the program is effective in the short term, with improvement or no statistical difference in most clinical measures over 5 years. Average HbA1c levels increased by less than expected over the 5 year period. While the program is estimated to generate treatment cost savings, overall net costs are positive. However, the program led to projected improvements in expected life years and Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE, with incremental cost effectiveness ratios of $A8,106 per life-year saved and $A9,730 per year of QALE gained. Conclusions The combination of an established model of diabetes progression and generally available data has provided an opportunity to establish robust methods of testing the cost effectiveness of a program for which a formal control group was not available. Based on this methodology, integrated health care

  5. Virtualization for cost-effective teaching of assembly language programming

    OpenAIRE

    Cadenas, Jose O.; Sherratt, Simon; Howlett, Des; Guy, Chris; Lundqvist, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    A virtual system that emulates an ARM-based processor machine has been created to replace a traditional hardware-based system for teaching assembly language. The proposed virtual system integrates, in a single environment, all the development tools necessary to deliver introductory or advanced courses on modern assembly language programming. The virtual system runs a Linux operating system in either a graphical or console mode on a Windows or Linux host machine. No software licenses or extra ...

  6. Potential Cost Savings and Cost Avoidances Associated With Security Cooperation Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Joint Combined Exchange Trainings MBA Masters of Business Administration MERHC Medicare-eligible retiree health care MODA Ministry of Defense...Related Construction (ERC) Title 10 Ministry of Defense Advisors ( MODA ) Program Title 10 Coalition Support Funds (CSF), including Coalition Readiness

  7. Study of the environmental costs to nuclear power plants using the SIMPACTS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Francine; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia, E-mail: fmenzel@ipen.b, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear energy presents advantages in comparison with other kinds of energy sources, when their externalities are evaluated. Externality is a term that represents the side effects of production of goods or services on other people not directly involved in the activity. The externalities can be identified and related to the term environmental cost. The environmental cost is a externality that somehow affects the environment, converted into economic terms, to then be compared with other costs of an action or enterprise. The environmental cost can be calculated through programs for that purpose, however for the nuclear area is the most used SIMPACTS, developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The motivation for this work arose from the need to have a complete assessment of environmental costs from nuclear power reactors, although it is known that this kind of form of energy generation show an advantage over others with regard to externalities. This work is the first step in implementing the program SIMPACTS in plant Angra 2 in order to calculate the environmental cost of their operation. The objective is to develop a methodology for calculating environmental cost for nuclear power reactors. SIMPACTS program will be used to identify the advantages and disadvantages of a cost analysis of environmental and perform the calculation of environmental costs for Angra 2, with the aim of minimizing the environmental impacts of its operation. From an extensive literature search, is presented in this paper the methodology for calculating the environmental cost of the program SIMPACTS and some results of calculations with the environmental cost in international power reactors other power generation plants. (author)

  8. [Cost-benefit analysis of primary prevention programs for mental health at the workplace in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kensuke; Kawakami, Norito; Tsusumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Takeuchi, Ayano; Fukuda, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    To determine the cost-benefits of primary prevention programs for mental health at the workplace, we conducted a meta-analysis of published studies in Japan. We searched the literature, published as of 16 November 2011, using the Pubmed database and relevant key words. The inclusion criteria were: conducted in the workplace in Japan; primary prevention focus; quasi-experimental studies or controlled trials; and outcomes including absenteeism or presenteeism. Four studies were identified: one participatory work environment improvement, one individual-oriented stress management, and two supervisor education programs. Costs and benefits in yen were estimated for each program, based on the description of the programs in the literature, and additional information from the authors. The benefits were estimated based on each program's effect on work performance (measured using the WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire in all studies), as well as sick leave days, if available. The estimated relative increase in work performance (%) in the intervention group compared to the control group was converted into labor cost using the average bonus (18% of the total annual salary) awarded to employees in Japan as a base. Sensitive analyses were conducted using different models of time-trend of intervention effects and 95% confidence limits of the relative increase in work performance. For the participatory work environment improvement program, the cost was estimated as 7,660 yen per employee, and the benefit was 15,200-22,800 yen per employee. For the individual-oriented stress management program, the cost was 9,708 yen per employee, and the benefit was 15,200-22,920 yen per employee. For supervisor education programs, the costs and benefits were respectively 5,209 and 4,400-6,600 yen per employee, in one study, 2,949 and zero yen per employee in the other study. The 95% confidence intervals were wide for all these studies. For the point estimates based on these cases, the

  9. Cost-utility of a disease management program for patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte; Palmer, Stephen; Vrijhoef, Bert; van Merode, Frits; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Severens, Hans

    2007-01-01

    The long-term cost-utility of a disease management program (DMP) for adults with asthma was assessed compared to usual care. A DMP for patients with asthma has been developed and implemented in the region of Maastricht (The Netherlands). By integrating care, the program aims to continuously improve quality of care within existing budgets. A clinical trial was performed over a period of 15 months to collect data on costs and effects of the program and usual care. These data were used to inform a probabilistic decision-analytic model to estimate the 5-year impact of the program beyond follow-up. A societal perspective was adopted, with outcomes assessed in terms of costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). The DMP is associated with a gain in QALYs compared to usual care (2.7+/-.2 versus 3.4+/-.8), at lower costs (3,302+/-314 euro versus 2,973+/-304 euro), thus leading to dominance. The probability that disease management is the more cost-effective strategy is 76 percent at a societal willingness to pay (WTP) for an additional QALY of 0 euro, reaching 95 percent probability at a WTP of 1,000 euro per additional QALY. Organizing health care according to the principles of disease management for adults with asthma has a high probability of being cost-effective and is associated with a gain in QALYs at lower costs.

  10. Boston children's hospital community asthma initiative: Five-year cost analyses of a home visiting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Urmi; Sommer, Susan J; Giller-Leinwohl, Judith; Norris, Kerri; Tsopelas, Lindsay; Nethersole, Shari; Woods, Elizabeth R

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the costs and benefits of the Boston Children's Hospital Community Asthma Initiative (CAI) through reduction of Emergency Department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for the full pilot-phase program participants. A cost-benefit analyses was conducted using hospital administrative data to determine an adjusted Return on Investment (ROI): on all 268 patients enrolled in the CAI program during the 33-month pilot program phase of CAI intervention between October 1, 2005 and June 30, 2008 using a comparison group of 818 patients from a similar cohort in neighboring ZIP codes without CAI intervention. Cost data through June 30, 2013 were used to examine cost changes and calculate an adjusted ROI over a 5-year post-intervention period. CAI patients had a cost reduction greater than the comparison group of $1,216 in Year 1 (P = 0.001), $1,320 in Year 2 (P management programs can decrease the incidence of costly hospitalizations and ED visits from asthma. An ROI of greater than one, as found in this cost analysis, supports the business case for the provision of community-based asthma services as part of patient-centered medical homes and Accountable Care Organizations.

  11. DEP : a computer program for evaluating lumber drying costs and investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart Holmes; George B. Harpole; Edward Bilek

    1983-01-01

    The DEP computer program is a modified discounted cash flow computer program designed for analysis of problems involving economic analysis of wood drying processes. Wood drying processes are different from other processes because of the large amounts of working capital required to finance inventories, and because of relatively large shares of costs charged to inventory...

  12. Recidivism, Costs, and Psychosocial Outcomes for a Post-Arrest Juvenile Diversion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Kay; Martin, Lisa A.; Smith, Cynthia; Cooper, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    Recidivism, costs, and psychosocial outcomes are reported for a post-arrest diversion program in Wayne County (Detroit), MI. Program features included: rapid, standardized assessment of psychosocial functioning with the Juvenile Inventory For Functioning[R], an individualized plan for addressing needs, engagement of caregivers, service provision…

  13. 76 FR 61089 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... fiscal year in question, costs will be recalculated using the revised rates in this policy for these..., and Restoration Program for Fiscal Years 2009 and 2010 AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., and Restoration Program for Fiscal Years 2009 and 2010. SUMMARY: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  14. A Cost-Savings Analysis of a Statewide Parenting Education Program in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Erin J.; Corwin, Tyler W.; Hodnett, Rhenda; Faulk, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a cost-savings analysis of the statewide implementation of an evidence-informed parenting education program. Methods: Between the years 2005 and 2008, the state of Louisiana used the Nurturing Parenting Program (NPP) to impart parenting skills to child welfare-involved families. Following these families' outcomes…

  15. Lowering employee health care costs through the Healthy Lifestyle Incentive Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Hyatt, Beverly; Aldana, Steven G; Kinnersley, Dan

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the Healthy Lifestyle Incentive Program (HLIP), a worksite health program, on lowering prescription drug and medical costs. Health care cost data for Salt Lake County employees during 2004 through 2008 were linked with HLIP enrollment status. Additional program information was obtained from a cross-sectional survey administered in 2008. The program includes free annual screenings, tailored feedback on screening results, financial incentives for maintaining and modifying certain behaviors, and periodic educational programs and promotions to raise awareness of health topics. Frequency and cost of prescription drug and medical claims. Participation increased from 16% to 23% in men and 34% to 45% in women over the 5-year study period and was associated with a significantly greater level of physical activity and improved general health. Participants were generally satisfied with the HLIP (43% were very satisfied, 51% satisfied, 5% dissatisfied, and 1% very dissatisfied). The primary factors contributing to participation were financial incentives (more so among younger employees), followed by a desire to improve health (more so among older employees). Over the study period, the cost savings in lower prescription drug and medical costs was $3,568,837. For every dollar spent on the HLIP the county saved $3.85. Financial incentives and then a desire for better health were the primary reasons for participation. The HLIP resulted in substantial health care cost savings for Salt Lake County Government.

  16. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report, 1 October 1977-31 December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabenhorst, D.W.; Small, T.R.; Wilkinson, W.O.

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 1979. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1-kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; development of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  17. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Use of linear programming...... both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear...... programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods...

  18. Spike-train acquisition, analysis and real-time experimental control using a graphical programming language (LabView).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, M A; Mapletoft, E A; Miles, T S

    1995-11-01

    A solution is described for the acquisition on a personal computer of standard pulses derived from neuronal discharge, measurement of neuronal discharge times, real-time control of stimulus delivery based on specified inter-pulse interval conditions in the neuronal spike train, and on-line display and analysis of the experimental data. The hardware consisted of an Apple Macintosh IIci computer and a plug-in card (National Instruments NB-MIO16) that supports A/D, D/A, digital I/O and timer functions. The software was written in the object-oriented graphical programming language LabView. Essential elements of the source code of the LabView program are presented and explained. The use of the system is demonstrated in an experiment in which the reflex responses to muscle stretch are assessed for a single motor unit in the human masseter muscle.

  19. Management of Joint Service Acquisition: An Analysis of the Joint Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    the future unless certain changes are made to the acquisition process. I’his thesis examines the (’nmanned Aerial Vehicles J’Ay, progzram and...mroiran’.’ d) What arc the actual benefits of the ioint status as experienced %% ithin the (,AV JPR)? c) What recommended changes to the current...he acqLiisi lion cliimate dur 1112 a speciftic uinc I ram c and \\% ith a spccihtc pro,-ramn I his, tllI h\\% Ill idcnt i t\\ thc I )( )lM polic ies at

  20. The impact of an online disease management program on medical costs among health plan members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Steven M; Day, Brian; Wildenhaus, Kevin; Silberman, Anna; Wang, Chun; Silberman, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the economic impact of an online disease management program within a broader population health management strategy. A retrospective, quasi-experimental, cohort design evaluated program participants and a matched cohort of nonparticipants on 2003-2007 claims data in a mixed model. The study was conducted through Highmark Inc, Blue Cross Blue Shield, covering 4.8 million members in five regions of Pennsylvania. Overall, 413 online self-management program participants were compared with a matched cohort of 360 nonparticipants. The costs and claims data were measured per person per calendar year. Total payments were aggregated from inpatient, outpatient, professional services, and pharmacy payments. The costs of the online program were estimated on a per-participant basis. All dollars were adjusted to 2008 values. The online intervention, implemented in 2006, was a commercially available, tailored program for chronic condition self management, nested within the Blues on Call(SM) condition management strategy. General linear modeling (with covariate adjustment) was used. Data trends were also explored using second-order polynomial regressions. Health care costs per person per year were $757 less than predicted for participants relative to matched nonparticipants, yielding a return on investment of $9.89 for every dollar spent on the program. This online intervention showed a favorable and cost-effective impact on health care cost.

  1. Cost-effective management of the hospital-based hospice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M

    1992-01-01

    As hospital-based hospice programs proliferate across the country, most are under the leadership of a nurse administrator. Nurse administrators must be prepared to manage the many components that constitute the broad scope of this role. Cost-effective management is the greatest challenge. The author explores this management role, including a discussion of hospice-program reimbursement, hospital-based program advantages, options to increase staff productivity, management of drugs and durable medical equipment, inpatient admissions, volunteer services, and fund-raising. Cost-effective measures are explored throughout the discussion, along with a history and explanation of the hospice concept of care.

  2. [Costs of population cervical cancer screening program in Poland between 2007-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaczyński, Marek; Karowicz-Bilinska, Agata; Kedzia, Witold; Molińska-Glura, Marta; Seroczyński, Przemysław; Januszek-Michalecka, Lucyna; Rokita, Wojciech; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa

    2010-10-01

    Screening programs may contribute to decreasing the mortality rate in a given population and their main target, in case of cervical cancer; is to find and to cure preclinical stages of this malignancy. Regularly repeated tests in defined time intervals can diagnose the illness at its early stages but the results come with a high cost. Population program of early detection of cervical cancer has been conducted since 2007 and is run by the Central Coordinating Center and 16 regional centers. Funds for promotional, educational, monitoring and medical activities are obtained from the National Health Service. The aim of this study was to present the cost-effectiveness of the Program between 2007 and 2009. The material for the analysis was obtained from the SIMP system, where all the data about women participating in the Program are implemented. The analysis of the cervical carcinoma treatment and procedure costs was made on the basis of the National Health Service estimates. The number of new cervical carcinoma cases was calculated with the help of the newly introduced system code--C53. Between 2007 and 2009 the cost of one cytological smear was similar in all regions (about 10 PLN). The highest costs were noted in Lubuski and Swietokrzyski regions. The costs of promotional and educational activities amounted up to 4.5 million PLN. A single cervical smear test cost for one woman has increased in the analyzed years from 3.95 up to 7.34 PLN. The total cost of one woman cytological examination--medical and non-medical elements--was more than 60 PLN. In 2009, 622 new cases of cervical cancer were found thanks to the Program. The cost of one case of cervical cancer diagnosis was 15 000 PLN. The total costs of all cases of cervical cancer in 2009 was 45.5 million PLN. The situation calls for creating new and effective tools for monitoring medical, epidemiological and financial parameters of the Program. Otherwise, the estimates of the health and social impact of the Program

  3. Cost-effectiveness of the "helping babies breathe" program in a missionary hospital in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Vossius

    Full Text Available The Helping Babies Breathe" (HBB program is an evidence-based curriculum in basic neonatal care and resuscitation, utilizing simulation-based training to educate large numbers of birth attendants in low-resource countries. We analyzed its cost-effectiveness at a faith-based Haydom Lutheran Hospital (HLH in rural Tanzania.Data about early neonatal mortality and fresh stillbirth rates were drawn from a linked observational study during one year before and one year after full implementation of the HBB program. Cost data were provided by the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW, the research department at HLH, and the manufacturer of the training material Lærdal Global Health.Costs per life saved were USD 233, while they were USD 4.21 per life year gained. Costs for maintaining the program were USD 80 per life saved and USD 1.44 per life year gained. Costs per disease adjusted life year (DALY averted ranged from International Dollars (ID; a virtual valuta corrected for purchasing power world-wide 12 to 23, according to how DALYs were calculated.The HBB program is a low-cost intervention. Implementation in a very rural faith-based hospital like HLH has been highly cost-effective. To facilitate further global implementation of HBB a cost-effectiveness analysis including government owned institutions, urban hospitals and district facilities is desirable for a more diverse analysis to explore cost-driving factors and predictors of enhanced cost-effectiveness.

  4. Costs of Development and Maintenance of an Internet Program for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Margaret; Liberti, Lauren; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-07-01

    Many adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have difficulty completing self-management tasks within the context of their social environments. Group-based approaches to psycho-educational support have been shown to prevent declines in glucose control, but are challenging to implement due to youths' many activities and costs. A novel solution is providing psycho-educational support via the internet. The purpose of this study is to describe the cost of developing and maintaining two internet psycho-educational programs, both of which have been shown to improve health outcomes in adolescents with T1D. We calculated actual costs of personnel and programming in the development of TEENCOPE(™) and Managing Diabetes, two highly interactive programs that were evaluated in a multi-site clinical trial (n=320). Cost calculations were set at U.S. dollars and converted to value for 2013 as expenses were incurred over 6 years. Development costs over 1.5 years totaled $324,609, with the majority of costs being for personnel to develop and write content in a creative and engaging format, to get feedback from teens on content and a prototype, and IT programming. Maintenance of the program, including IT support, a part-time moderator to assure safety of the discussion board (0.5-1 hour/week), and yearly update of content was $43,845/year, or $137.00 per youth over 4.5 years. Overall, program and site development were relatively expensive, but the program reach was high, including non-white youth from 4 geographically distinct regions. Once developed, maintenance was minimal. With greater dissemination, cost-per-youth would decrease markedly, beginning to offset the high development expense.

  5. Life prolonging of disease management programs in patients with type 2 diabetes is cost-effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, A; Büscher, G; Sawicki, P T; Thomas, K; Graf, C; Müller, D; Stock, S

    2012-02-01

    Our objective was to examine the cost-effectiveness of disease management programs (DMPs) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) taking into account their life prolonging effect. We compared real life costs in 19,888 propensity score matched pairs of T2DM DMP participants and T2DM patients in routine care (RC) according to sickness funds data. We estimated mean annual costs for survivors, last year of life costs for decedents, the influence of ageing on costs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and effects on hospitalization. Annual costs for survivors were 3,318€ (DMP) and 3,570€ (RC). The mean costs in the last year of life were 16,911€ (DMP) and 15,763€ (RC). Ageing had a cost triggering effect for survivors (30€/36€ per year in DMP-/RC-group; pcost decreasing effect in the last year of life (546€/483€ per year in DMP-/RC-group; pcost-effectiveness ratio of the DMP vs. RC was -1396€ per life-year gained. Hospitalizations increased with age in case of survival and decreased with age in case of death but were always lower in the DMP-group. Despite increase in costs due to longer life DMPs are cost-effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M G Steuten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L M G Steuten1, K M M Lemmens2, A P Nieboer2, H JM Vrijhoef31Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Health, Organisation, Policy and Economics, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Erasmus University Medical Centre, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Integrated Care, Maastricht, The NetherlandsObjective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified.Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multi-component disease management or chronic care programs for adults with COPD, describing process, intermediate, and end results of care. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and descriptively summarized.Results: Twenty articles describing 17 unique COPD programs were included. There is little evidence for significant improvements in process and intermediate outcomes, except for increased provision of patient self-management education and improved disease-specific knowledge. Overall, the COPD programs generate end results equivalent to usual care, but programs containing ≥3 components show lower relative risks for hospitalization. There is limited scope for programs to break-even or save money.Conclusion: Identifying cost effective multi-component COPD programs remains a challenge due to scarce methodologically sound studies that demonstrate significant improvements on process, intermediate and end results of care. Estimations of potential cost effectiveness of specific programs illustrated in this paper can, in the absence of ‘perfect data’, support timely decision-making regarding these programs. Nevertheless, well-designed health economic studies are needed to decrease the current decision

  7. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a multimedia learning education program for stoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shu-Fen; Wang, Yun-Tung; Wu, Li-Yue; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Chang, Shu-Chuan; Hayter, Mark

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the costs and effectiveness of enterostomal education using a multimedia learning education program (MLEP) and a conventional education service program (CESP). Multimedia health education programs not only provide patients with useful information in the absence of health professionals, but can also augment information provided in traditional clinical practice. However, the literature on the cost-effectiveness of different approaches to stoma education is limited. This study used a randomised experimental design. A total of 54 stoma patients were randomly assigned to MLEP or CESP nursing care with a follow-up of one week. Effectiveness measures were knowledge of self-care (KSC), attitude of self-care (ASC) and behavior of self-care (BSC). The costs measures for each patient were: health care costs, MLEP cost and family costs. Subjects in the MLEP group demonstrated significantly better outcomes in the effectiveness measures of KSC, ASC and BSC. Additionally, the total social costs for each MLEP patient and CESP patient were US$7396·90 and US$8570·54, respectively. The cost-effectiveness ratios in these two groups showed that the MLEP model was better than the CESP model after one intervention cycle. In addition, the Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio was -20·99. This research provides useful information for those who would like to improve the self-care capacity of stoma patients. Due to the better cost-effectiveness ratio of MLEP, hospital policy-makers may consider these results when choosing to allocate resources and develop care and educational interventions. This study provides a cost effective way of addressing stoma care in the post-operative period that could be usefully transferred to stoma care settings internationally. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of family planning programs in rural Bangladesh: evidence from Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, G B; Balk, D; Faiz, K K

    1991-01-01

    The Family Planning Health Services Project in Matlab is often seen as more expensive than similar activities carried out by the government of Bangladesh. At the same time, it as been observed that the project is much more effective. The alleged high cost of the project is said to make it difficult to replicate throughout the nation. Previously, the true costs of the project had not been documented. This study systemically examines the cost of the project and assesses its cost-effectiveness. An experimental design framework is used as a basis for understanding the cost-effectiveness of the project, although a sensitivity analysis lends further support to the relative efficiency of the approach undertaken in Matlab. Although in the aggregate, the Matlab Project is more expensive than the government's family planning program, it is also more effective, generating enough output to offset the extra costs of the intensified delivery system.

  10. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  11. GPACC program cost work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated Model 101 configuration of the general purpose Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the ACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the ACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/ACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering payloads to a 160 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  12. Purposive facebook recruitment endows cost-effective nutrition education program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara; Wamboldt, Patricia

    2013-08-15

    Recent legislation established a requirement for nutrition education in federal assistance programs to be evidence-based. Recruitment of low-income persons to participate and evaluate nutrition education activities can be challenging and costly. Facebook has been shown to be a cost-effective strategy to recruit this target audience to a nutrition program. The purpose of our study was to examine Facebook as a strategy to recruit participants, especially Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) eligible persons, to view and evaluate an online nutrition education program intended to be offered as having some evidence base for SNAP-Ed programming. English-speaking, low-income Pennsylvania residents, 18-55 years with key profile words (eg, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Food bank), responded to a Facebook ad inviting participation in either Eating Together as a Family is Worth It (WI) or Everyone Needs Folic Acid (FA). Participants completed an online survey on food-related behaviors, viewed a nutrition education program, and completed a program evaluation. Facebook set-up functions considered were costing action, daily spending cap, and population reach. Respondents for both WI and FA evaluations were similar; the majority were white, Cost per completed evaluation was US $25.48; cost per low-income completer was US $39.92. Results were similar for the FA evaluation; 795 Facebook users clicked on the ad with 110 unique site visitors, and 73 completing the evaluation (ie, 73/795, 9.2% of ad clickers and 73/110, 66% of site visitors completed the evaluation). Cost per valid completed survey with program evaluation was US $18.88; cost per low-income completer was US $27.53. With Facebook we successfully recruited low-income Pennsylvanians to online nutrition program evaluations. Benefits using Facebook as a recruitment strategy included real-time recruitment management with lower costs and more efficiency compared to previous data from

  13. Severe Obesity In Adults Cost State Medicaid Programs Nearly $8 Billion In 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Claire; Pamplin, John; Long, Michael W; Ward, Zachary J; Gortmaker, Steven L; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2015-11-01

    Efforts to expand Medicaid while controlling spending must be informed by a deeper understanding of the extent to which the high medical costs associated with severe obesity (having a body mass index of [Formula: see text] or higher) determine spending at the state level. Our analysis of population-representative data indicates that in 2013, severe obesity cost the nation approximately $69 billion, which accounted for 60 percent of total obesity-related costs. Approximately 11 percent of the cost of severe obesity was paid for by Medicaid, 30 percent by Medicare and other federal health programs, 27 percent by private health plans, and 30 percent out of pocket. Overall, severe obesity cost state Medicaid programs almost $8 billion a year, ranging from $5 million in Wyoming to $1.3 billion in California. These costs are likely to increase following Medicaid expansion and enhanced coverage of weight loss therapies in the form of nutrition consultation, drug therapy, and bariatric surgery. Ensuring and expanding Medicaid-eligible populations' access to cost-effective treatment for severe obesity should be part of each state's strategy to mitigate rising obesity-related health care costs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Examining neural correlates of skill acquisition in a complex videogame training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika S Prakash

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of complex skills is a universal feature of human behavior that has been conceptualized as a process that starts with intense resource dependency, requires effortful cognitive control, and ends in relative automaticity on the multi-faceted task. The present study examined the effects of different theoretically-based training strategies on cortical recruitment during acquisition of complex videogame skills. Seventy-five participants were recruited and assigned to one of three training groups: Fixed Emphasis Training (FET, in which participants practiced the game, Hybrid Variable Priority Training (HVT, in which participants practiced using a combination of part-task training and variable priority training, or a Control group that received limited game play. After 30 hours of training, game data indicated a significant advantage for the two training groups relative to the control group. The HVT group demonstrated enhanced benefits of training, as indexed by an improvement in overall game score and a reduction in cortical recruitment post-training. Specifically, while both groups demonstrated a significant reduction of activation in attentional control areas, namely the right middle frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, participants in the control group continued to engage these areas post-training, suggesting a sustained reliance on attentional regions during challenging task demands. The HVT group showed a further reduction in neural resources post-training compared to the FET group in these cognitive control regions, along with reduced activation in the motor and sensory cortices and the posteromedial cortex. Findings suggest that training, specifically one that emphasizes cognitive flexibility can reduce the attentional demands of a complex cognitive task, along with reduced reliance on the motor network.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of national health insurance programs in high-income countries: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Nghiem

    Full Text Available National health insurance is now common in most developed countries. This study reviews the evidence and synthesizes the cost-effectiveness information for national health insurance or disability insurance programs across high-income countries.A literature search using health, economics and systematic review electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Medline, Econlit, RepEc, Cochrane library and Campbell library, was conducted from April to October 2015.Two reviewers independently selected relevant studies by applying screening criteria to the title and keywords fields, followed by a detailed examination of abstracts.Studies were selected for data extraction using a quality assessment form consisting of five questions. Only studies with positive answers to all five screening questions were selected for data extraction. Data were entered into a data extraction form by one reviewer and verified by another.Data on costs and quality of life in control and treatment groups were used to draw distributions for synthesis. We chose the log-normal distribution for both cost and quality-of-life data to reflect non-negative value and high skew. The results were synthesized using a Monte Carlo simulation, with 10,000 repetitions, to estimate the overall cost-effectiveness of national health insurance programs.Four studies from the United States that examined the cost-effectiveness of national health insurance were included in the review. One study examined the effects of medical expenditure, and the remaining studies examined the cost-effectiveness of health insurance reforms. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER ranged from US$23,000 to US$64,000 per QALY. The combined results showed that national health insurance is associated with an average incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$51,300 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY. Based on the standard threshold for cost-effectiveness, national insurance programs are cost-effective interventions

  16. War-gaming application for future space systems acquisition: MATLAB implementation of war-gaming acquisition models and simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienhage, Paul; Barcomb, Heather; Marshall, Karel; Black, William A.; Coons, Amanda; Tran, Hien T.; Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.; Yoh, James; Kizer, Justin; Rogers, Blake A.

    2017-05-01

    The paper describes the MATLAB (MathWorks) programs that were developed during the REU workshop1 to implement The Aerospace Corporation developed Unified Game-based Acquisition Framework and Advanced Game - based Mathematical Framework (UGAF-AGMF) and its associated War-Gaming Engine (WGE) models. Each game can be played from the perspectives of the Department of Defense Acquisition Authority (DAA) or of an individual contractor (KTR). The programs also implement Aerospace's optimum "Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) and associated acquisition" strategy that combines low Total Ownership Cost (TOC) with innovative designs while still meeting warfighter needs. The paper also describes the Bayesian Acquisition War-Gaming approach using Monte Carlo simulations, a numerical analysis technique to account for uncertainty in decision making, which simulate the PTB development and acquisition processes and will detail the procedure of the implementation and the interactions between the games.

  17. Defense Acquisitions: Department of Defense Actions on Program Manager Empowerment and Accountability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... In addition, as part of a new strategy for program manager empowerment and accountability, DOD plans a variety of actions to enhance development opportunities, provide more incentives, and arrange...

  18. Agile Software Teams: How They Engage with Systems Engineering on DoD Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    software malleability —Software is the most easily changed element in a system since no “remanufacturing” of completed hardware components is required...without being called out in that role explicitly, and they have a positive perception of the practices being used, espe- cially the iteration...reviews, and the associated program office is reported to be planning to execute an ACAT 1D program in the future with alternative life-cycle language

  19. Improving Program Success Through Systems Engineering Tools in Pre-Milestone B Acquisition Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Southampton Universities ( Furlong , McPhail, & Stevenson, 2007). We developed a Improving Program Success...technologies for achieving endurance that were based on experience with the Autosub UUV ( Furlong , McPhail, & Stevenson, 2007) being designed for an...Faulkenberg, S., & Wiecek, M. (2010). Quality discrete representation in multiple objective programming. Optimization and Engineering, 11(3), 423–440. Furlong

  20. Predicting Cost Growth Using Programs Reviews and Milestones for DoD Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    growth, percent of programs with cost growth, mean, median, standard deviation, interquartile range, minimum, and maximum. We used Microsoft Excel to...rc en t t ot al  c os t g ro w th Percent Program Completion Mean: % Complete vs % Total Cost  Growth Development Procurement Total 0% 20% 40% 60% 80...100% 120% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Pe rc en t t ot al  c os t g ro w th Percent Program Completion Median: % Complete vs % Total Cost  Growth

  1. The Fox Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Reconnaissance System : |blessons-learned from a foreign non-developmental item acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, James W.

    1995-01-01

    Non-developmental Item acquisition represent a viable approach to meet procurement needs of the Defense Department. The reduced acquisition cycle times and resultant cost savings of this acquisition strategy presents significant potential benefits to DoD. One weapon system program that has successfully used such an NDI strategy is the U.S. Army's Fox Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Reconnaissance System. This thesis examines the DoD acquisition process and how NDIs are used within the proce...

  2. Cost-effectiveness of SHINE: A Telephone Translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Hollenbeak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The Support, Health Information, Nutrition, and Exercise (SHINE trial recently showed that a telephone adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP lifestyle intervention was effective in reducing weight among patients with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether a conference call (CC adaptation was cost effective relative to an individual call (IC adaptation of the DPP lifestyle intervention in the primary care setting. Methods We performed a stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a clinical trial comparing two telephone adaptations of the DPP lifestyle intervention. The primary outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios estimated for weight loss, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Costs were estimated from the perspective of society and included direct medical costs, indirect costs, and intervention costs. Results After one year, participants receiving the CC intervention accumulated fewer costs ($2,831 vs. $2,933 than the IC group, lost more weight (6.2 kg vs. 5.1 kg, had greater reduction in BMI (2.1 vs. 1.9, and had greater reduction in waist circumference (6.5 cm vs. 5.9 cm. However, participants in the CC group had fewer QALYs than those in the IC group (0.635 vs. 0.646. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for CC vs. IC was $9,250/QALY, with a 48% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay of $100,000/QALY. Conclusions CC delivery of the DPP was cost effective relative to IC delivery in the first year in terms of cost per clinical measure (weight lost, BMI, and waist circumference but not in terms of cost per QALY, most likely because of the short time horizon.

  3. Infusing Motor Learning Research Into Neurorehabilitation Practice: A Historical Perspective With Case Exemplar From the Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstein, Carolee; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Blanton, Sarah R.; Wolf, Lois B.; Wishart, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    This special interest article provides a historical framework with a contemporary case example that traces the infusion of the science of motor learning into neurorehabilitation practice. The revolution in neuroscience provided the first evidence for learning-dependent neuroplasticity and presaged the role of motor learning as critical for restorative therapies after stroke. The scientific underpinnings of motor learning have continued to evolve from a dominance of cognitive or information processing perspectives to a blend with neural science and contemporary social-cognitive psychological science. Furthermore, advances in the science of behavior change have contributed insights into influences on sustainable and generalizable gains in motor skills and associated behaviors, including physical activity and other recovery-promoting habits. For neurorehabilitation, these insights have tremendous relevance for the therapist–patient interactions and relationships. We describe a principle-based intervention for neurorehabilitation termed the Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program that we developed. This approach emphasizes integration from a broad set of scientific lines of inquiry including the contemporary fields of motor learning, neuroscience, and the psychological science of behavior change. Three overlapping essential elements—skill acquisition, impairment mitigation, and motivational enhancements—are integrated. PMID:24828523

  4. Infusing motor learning research into neurorehabilitation practice: a historical perspective with case exemplar from the accelerated skill acquisition program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstein, Carolee; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Blanton, Sarah R; Wolf, Lois B; Wishart, Laurie

    2014-07-01

    : This special interest article provides a historical framework with a contemporary case example that traces the infusion of the science of motor learning into neurorehabilitation practice. The revolution in neuroscience provided the first evidence for learning-dependent neuroplasticity and presaged the role of motor learning as critical for restorative therapies after stroke. The scientific underpinnings of motor learning have continued to evolve from a dominance of cognitive or information processing perspectives to a blend with neural science and contemporary social-cognitive psychological science. Furthermore, advances in the science of behavior change have contributed insights into influences on sustainable and generalizable gains in motor skills and associated behaviors, including physical activity and other recovery-promoting habits. For neurorehabilitation, these insights have tremendous relevance for the therapist-patient interactions and relationships. We describe a principle-based intervention for neurorehabilitation termed the Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program that we developed. This approach emphasizes integration from a broad set of scientific lines of inquiry including the contemporary fields of motor learning, neuroscience, and the psychological science of behavior change. Three overlapping essential elements-skill acquisition, impairment mitigation, and motivational enhancements-are integrated. (See Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A71) for more insights from the authors.

  5. 25 CFR 170.607 - Can a tribe use its allocation of IRR Program funds for contract support costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... costs? Yes. Contract support costs are an eligible item out of a tribe's IRR Program allocation and need... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use its allocation of IRR Program funds for contract support costs? 170.607 Section 170.607 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  6. Cost-Utility Analysis of a Cardiac Telerehabilitation Program: The Teledialog Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidholm, Kristian; Rasmussen, Maja Kjær; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Hansen, John; Nielsen, Gitte; Spindler, Helle; Dinesen, Birthe

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation can reduce mortality of patients with cardiovascular disease, but a frequently low participation rate in rehabilitation programs has been found globally. The objective of the Teledialog study was to assess the cost-utility (CU) of a cardiac telerehabilitation (CTR) program. The aim of the intervention was to increase the patients' participation in the CTR program. At discharge, an individualized 3-month rehabilitation plan was formulated for each patient. At home, the patients measured their own blood pressure, pulse, weight, and steps taken for 3 months. The analysis was carried out together with a randomized controlled trial with 151 patients during 2012-2014. Costs of the intervention were estimated with a health sector perspective following international guidelines for CU. Quality of life was assessed using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. The rehabilitation activities were approximately the same in the two groups, but the number of contacts with the physiotherapist was higher among the intervention group. The mean total cost per patient was €1,700 higher in the intervention group. The quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gain was higher in the intervention group, but the difference was not statistically significant. The incremental CU ratio was more than €400,000 per QALY gained. Even though the rehabilitation activities increased, the program does not appear to be cost-effective. The intervention itself was not costly (less than €500), and increasing the number of patients may show reduced costs of the devices and make the CTR more cost-effective. Telerehabilitation can increase participation, but the intervention, in its current form, does not appear to be cost-effective.

  7. Comparing the Medicaid Retrospective Drug Utilization Review Program Cost-Savings Methods Used by State Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Sergio I

    2017-12-01

    The Medicaid Drug Utilization Review (DUR) program is a 2-phase process conducted by Medicaid state agencies. The first phase is a prospective DUR and involves electronically monitoring prescription drug claims to identify prescription-related problems, such as therapeutic duplication, contraindications, incorrect dosage, or duration of treatment. The second phase is a retrospective DUR and involves ongoing and periodic examinations of claims data to identify patterns of fraud, abuse, underutilization, drug-drug interaction, or medically unnecessary care, implementing corrective actions when needed. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services requires each state to measure prescription drug cost-savings generated from its DUR programs on an annual basis, but it provides no guidance or unified methodology for doing so. To describe and synthesize the methodologies used by states to measure cost-savings using their Medicaid retrospective DUR program in federal fiscal years 2014 and 2015. For each state, the cost-savings methodologies included in the Medicaid DUR 2014 and 2015 reports were downloaded from Medicaid's website. The reports were then reviewed and synthesized. Methods described by the states were classified according to research designs often described in evaluation textbooks. In 2014, the most often used prescription drugs cost-savings estimation methodology for the Medicaid retrospective DUR program was a simple pre-post intervention method, without a comparison group (ie, 12 states). In 2015, the most common methodology used was a pre-post intervention method, with a comparison group (ie, 14 states). Comparisons of savings attributed to the program among states are still unreliable, because of a lack of a common methodology available for measuring cost-savings. There is great variation among states in the methods used to measure prescription drug utilization cost-savings. This analysis suggests that there is still room for improvement in terms of

  8. The cost-effectiveness of a successful community-based obesity prevention program: the be active eat well program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Marjory L; Herbert, Jessica K; de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Mavoa, Helen M; Keating, Catherine L; Carter, Robert C; Waters, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Lisa; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the cost-effectiveness of Be Active Eat Well (BAEW), a large, multifaceted, community-based capacity-building demonstration program that promoted healthy eating and physical activity for Australian children aged 4-12 years between 2003 and 2006. A quasi-experimental, longitudinal design was used with anthropometric data collected at baseline (1001 children-intervention; 1183-comparator) and follow-up. A societal perspective was employed, with intervention resource use measured retrospectively based on process evaluation reports, school newsletters, reports, and key stakeholder interviews, and valued in 2006 Australian dollars (AUD). Outcomes were measured as Body Mass Index (BMI) units saved and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) averted over the predicted cohort lifetime, and reported as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (with 95% uncertainty intervals). The intervention cost AUD0.34M ($0.31M; $0.38M) annually, and resulted in savings of 547 (-104; 1209) BMI units and 10.2 (-0.19; 21.6) DALYs. This translated to modest cost offsets of AUD27 311 (-$1803; $58 242) and a net cost per DALY saved of AUD29 798 (dominated; $0.26M). BAEW was affordable and cost-effective, and generated substantial spin-offs in terms of activity beyond funding levels. Elements fundamental to its success and any potential cost efficiencies associated with scaling-up now require identification. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  9. A Comparison of Four Software Programs for Implementing Decision Analytic Cost-Effectiveness Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Chase; Paulden, Mike; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; McCabe, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    The volume and technical complexity of both academic and commercial research using decision analytic modelling has increased rapidly over the last two decades. The range of software programs used for their implementation has also increased, but it remains true that a small number of programs account for the vast majority of cost-effectiveness modelling work. We report a comparison of four software programs: TreeAge Pro, Microsoft Excel, R and MATLAB. Our focus is on software commonly used for building Markov models and decision trees to conduct cohort simulations, given their predominance in the published literature around cost-effectiveness modelling. Our comparison uses three qualitative criteria as proposed by Eddy et al.: "transparency and validation", "learning curve" and "capability". In addition, we introduce the quantitative criterion of processing speed. We also consider the cost of each program to academic users and commercial users. We rank the programs based on each of these criteria. We find that, whilst Microsoft Excel and TreeAge Pro are good programs for educational purposes and for producing the types of analyses typically required by health technology assessment agencies, the efficiency and transparency advantages of programming languages such as MATLAB and R become increasingly valuable when more complex analyses are required.

  10. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuitto, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

  11. An analysis of potential costs of adverse events based on Drug Programs in Poland. Pulmonology focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkultecka-Debek Monika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The project was performed within the Polish Society for Pharmacoeconomics (PTFE. The objective was to estimate the potential costs of treatment of side effects, which theoretically may occur as a result of treatment of selected diseases. We analyzed the Drug Programs financed by National Health Fund in Poland in 2012 and for the first analysis we selected those Programs where the same medicinal products were used. We based the adverse events selection on the Summary of Product Characteristics of the chosen products. We extracted all the potential adverse events defined as frequent and very frequent, grouping them according to therapeutic areas. This paper is related to the results in the pulmonology area. The events described as very common had an incidence of ≥ 1/10, and the common ones ≥ 1/100, <1/10. In order to identify the resources used, we performed a survey with the engagement of clinical experts. On the basis of the collected data we allocated direct costs incurred by the public payer. We used the costs valid in December 2013. The paper presents the estimated costs of treatment of side effects related to the pulmonology disease area. Taking into account the costs incurred by the NHF and the patient separately e calculated the total spending and the percentage of each component cost in detail. The treatment of adverse drug reactions generates a significant cost incurred by both the public payer and the patient.

  12. An Approach to the Application of Life Cycle Cost Concept in Weapon Systems Acquisition for the Venezuelan Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    considerations of system effectiveness and schedules, will properly influence virtually all decisions. Perhaps the most important decisions of all will...repair of failed equipment; personnel; support systems; operating procedures; in short, virtually anything that can influence the life cycle costs and...1010 Venezuela S.A. 9. Jefatura de Logistics 4 * Comandancia Gereral de la 1arina Caracas 1010 Venezuela S.A. 10. Jefatura de Educacion 2 * Comandancia

  13. Effect of Medicaid disease management programs on emergency admissions and inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Matthew S

    2013-08-01

    To determine the impact of state Medicaid diabetes disease management programs on emergency admissions and inpatient costs. National InPatient Sample sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Project for the years from 2000 to 2008 using 18 states. A difference-in-difference methodology compares costs and number of emergency admissions for Washington, Texas, and Georgia, which implemented disease management programs between 2000 and 2008, to states that did not undergo the transition to managed care (N = 103). Costs and emergency admissions were extracted for diabetic Medicaid enrollees diagnosed in the reform and non-reform states and collapsed into state and year cells. In the three treatment states, the implementation of disease management programs did not have statistically significant impacts on the outcome variables when compared to the control states. States that implemented disease management programs did not achieve improvements in costs or the number of emergency of admissions; thus, these programs do not appear to be an effective way to reduce the burden of this chronic disease. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. The Myth of Jointness in Department of Defense Requirements and Major Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    for a commercial off-the-shelf solution to meet their FCA program requirement. The Air Force, new into the game and their LCA program still in the...Away’ from Issuing First LCA Solicitation,” Insidedefense.com, December 9, 2005, under “Inside the Air Force,” http://insidedefense.com/Inside-the...Air-Force/Inside-the-Air-Force-12/09/2005/air-force-likely-several-years-away-from-issuing-first- lca - solicitation/menu-id-151.html (accessed February 9

  15. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Realized Impacts of Public R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Jordan, Gretchen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others. Retrospective evaluations may be contrasted to prospective evaluations that reflect expected or potential outcomes only if assumptions hold. The retrospective approach described in this Guide is based on realized results only and the extent they can be attributed to the efforts of an R&D program. While it has been prepared specifically to guide retrospective benefit-cost analysis of EERE R&D Programs, this report may be used for similar analysis of other public R&D organizations.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Elderly Health Examination Program: The Example of Hypertension Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Hwa Deng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Health Insurance (NHI and social welfare agencies have implemented the Elderly Health Examination Program (EHEP for years. No study has ever attempted to evaluate whether this program is cost-effective. The purposes of this study were, firstly, to understand the prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension and, secondly, to estimate the cost and effectiveness of the EHEP, focusing on hypertension screening. The data sources were: (1 hypertension and clinical information derived from the 1996 and 1997 EHEP, which was used to generate prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension; and (2 claim data of the NHI that included treatment costs of stroke patients (in-and outpatients. Hypothetical models were used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the hypertension screening program in various conditions. Sensitivity analysis was also employed to evaluate the effect of each estimation indicator on the cost and effectiveness of the hypertension screening program. A total of 28.3% of the elderly population in Kaohsiung (25,174 of 88,812 participated in the 1996 EHEP; 14,915 of them participated in the following 1997 EHEP, with a retention rate of 59.3%. Criteria from the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI (systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure ≥ 160/95mmHg or taking antihypertensive drugs were used; we found that prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension were 24.6% and 6.6%, respectively. Hypertension rates are increasing in the aging process as shown in both prevalence and incidence models. In comparison with non-participants, the prevalence model indicates that each hypertension patient who had attended the EHEP not only saved NT$34,570–34,890 in medical and associated costs, but also increased their lifespan by 128 days. The present findings suggest that the EHEP is a cost-effective program with health and social welfare policy

  17. Critical Thinking Skill Acquisition in Accelerated LVN to RN Nursing Programs: An Evaluative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Billy Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated transitional nursing programs (ATNPs) designed specifically for licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) to transition to become registered nurses (RNs) are graduating novice nurses who need critical thinking skills to solve patient problems. The health care industry and patient outcomes depend on graduate nurses to be proficient with quality…

  18. Engineering the Business of Defense Acquisition: An Analysis of Program Office Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    combines both systems engineering rigor and humanistic behavior as it relates to program outcomes and ultimately may provide a perspective on the how value...the Cuban Missile Crisis. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co. Amaral, L. A. N., & Uzzi, B. (2007). Complex systems—A new paradigm for the integrative

  19. Acquisition, Custody, and Storage of Firearms Used in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J.; Smith, Jedediah D.

    2014-01-01

    Shooting sports has been a 4-H program offering since the 1930's. Tragic events related to the use of firearms as weapons have caused public and private entities to evaluate and consider the appropriateness of youth access to and usage of firearms. 4-H educators have the primary responsibility for managing the risk associated with shooting sports…

  20. Three Methods for Language Acquisition: Total Physical Response; the Tomatis Program; Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Total Physical Response is a strategy for learning second languages developed by James J. Asher. The Tomatis program, developed in France by Alfred Tomatis, is a method for treating dyslexia and communication problems and is also used for teaching basic elements of foreign languages. Suggestology is a psychotherapeutic system based on yogic…

  1. Acquisition Logistics Constraints and Recommended Solutions: Perceptions of Senior Deputy Program Managers for Logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    logistics personnel and other functional specialists within the program office. 6. LOGISTICS DESIGN GOAL DEFINITION: Inadequate definition of logistics design...assigned? 1. ASD 2. ESD K95 * -. * CONSTRAINTS TO IMPLEMENTING R&M INITIATIVES A. REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION: Inadequate definition of logistics design

  2. Analysis of Foreign Military Sales (FMS) in U.S. Army Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Defense Security Cooperation Agency FAA Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 FM Field Manual FMF Foreign Military Financing FMFP Foreign Military... Financing Program FMS Foreign Military Sales FMSA Foreign Military Sales Act of 1968 (now AECA) FMSCR Foreign Military Sales Credit (also FMFP... Greek and Turkish affairs, the withdrawal of British assistance to Greece provided the necessary catalyst for the Truman Administration to reorient

  3. Coast Guard Deepwater Acquisition Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    industry team led by Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman Ship Systems ( NGSS ). ICGS was awarded an indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity (ID/IQ...the Record, Mr. James E. Anton, Vice President Deepwater Program, Northrop Grumman Ship Systems ( NGSS ), Testimony Before: The House Maritime and

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in China: should universal screening be prioritized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Hui; Zhang, Luo; Tobe, Ruo-Yan Gai; Qi, Fang-Hua; Sun, Long; Teng, Yue; Ke, Qing-Lin; Mai, Fei; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Ru-Lan; Tu, Lin; Li, Hong-Hui; Gu, Yan-Qing; Xu, Sai-Nan; Yue, Xiao-Yan; Li, Xiao-Dong; Qi, Bei-Er; Cheng, Xiao-Huan; Tang, Wei; Xu, Ling-Zhong; Han, De-Min

    2012-04-17

    Neonatal hearing screening (NHS) has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This study also showed that both strategies especially universal strategy

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in china: should universal screening be prioritized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Li-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal hearing screening (NHS has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. Results and discussion A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This

  6. A cost-reducing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) program model: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarocchi, N C; Wallace, S; Hong, E Y; Tropea, A; Byrne, J; Pitcher, H T; Hirose, H

    2015-03-01

    The worldwide demand for ECMO support has grown. Its provision remains limited due to several factors (high cost, complicated technology, lack of expertise) that increase healthcare cost. Our goal was to assess if an intensive care unit (ICU)-run ECMO model without continuous bedside perfusionists would decrease costs while maintaining patient safety and outcomes. A new ECMO program was implemented in 2010, consisting of dedicated ICU multidisciplinary providers (ICU-registered nurses, mid-level providers and intensivists). In year one, we introduced an education platform, new technology and dedicated space. In year two, continuous bedside monitoring by perfusionists was removed and new management algorithms designating multidisciplinary providers as first responders were established. The patient safety and cost benefit from the removal of the continuous bedside monitoring of the perfusionists of this new ECMO program was retrospectively reviewed and compared. During the study period, 74 patients (28 patients in year 1 and 46 patients in year 2) were placed on ECMO (mean days: 8 ± 5.7). The total annual hospital expenditure for the ECMO program was significantly reduced in the new model ($234,000 in year 2 vs. $600,264 in year 1), showing a 61% decrease in cost. This cost decrease was attributed to a decreased utilization of perfusion services and the introduction of longer lasting and more efficient ECMO technology. We did not find any significant changes in registered nurse ratios or any differences in outcomes related to ICU safety events. We demonstrated that the ICU-run ECMO model managed to lower hospital cost by reducing the cost of continuous bedside perfusion support without a change in outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. What linear programming contributes: world food programme experience with the "cost of the diet" tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frega, Romeo; Lanfranco, Jose Guerra; De Greve, Sam; Bernardini, Sara; Geniez, Perrine; Grede, Nils; Bloem, Martin; de Pee, Saskia

    2012-09-01

    Linear programming has been used for analyzing children's complementary feeding diets, for optimizing nutrient adequacy of dietary recommendations for a population, and for estimating the economic value of fortified foods. To describe and apply a linear programming tool ("Cost of the Diet") with data from Mozambique to determine what could be cost-effective fortification strategies. Based on locally assessed average household dietary needs, seasonal market prices of available food products, and food composition data, the tool estimates the lowest-cost diet that meets almost all nutrient needs. The results were compared with expenditure data from Mozambique to establish the affordability of this diet by quintiles of the population. Three different applications were illustrated: identifying likely "limiting nutrients," comparing cost effectiveness of different fortification interventions at the household level, and assessing economic access to nutritious foods. The analysis identified iron, vitamin B2, and pantothenic acid as "limiting nutrients." Under the Mozambique conditions, vegetable oil was estimated as a more cost-efficient vehicle for vitamin A fortification than sugar; maize flour may also be an effective vehicle to provide other constraining micronutrients. Multiple micronutrient fortification of maize flour could reduce the cost of the "lowest-cost nutritious diet" by 18%, but even this diet can be afforded by only 20% of the Mozambican population. Within the context of fortification, linear programming can be a useful tool for identifying likely nutrient inadequacies, for comparing fortification options in terms of cost effectiveness, and for illustrating the potential benefit of fortification for improving household access to a nutritious diet.

  8. Economic impact of dengue illness and the cost-effectiveness of future vaccination programs in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R Carrasco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue illness causes 50-100 million infections worldwide and threatens 2.5 billion people in the tropical and subtropical regions. Little is known about the disease burden and economic impact of dengue in higher resourced countries or the cost-effectiveness of potential dengue vaccines in such settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimate the direct and indirect costs of dengue from hospitalized and ambulatory cases in Singapore. We consider inter alia the impacts of dengue on the economy using the human-capital and the friction cost methods. Disease burden was estimated using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and the cost-effectiveness of a potential vaccine program was evaluated. The average economic impact of dengue illness in Singapore from 2000 to 2009 in constant 2010 US$ ranged between $0.85 billion and $1.15 billion, of which control costs constitute 42%-59%. Using empirically derived disability weights, we estimated an annual average disease burden of 9-14 DALYs per 100 000 habitants, making it comparable to diseases such as hepatitis B or syphilis. The proportion of symptomatic dengue cases detected by the national surveillance system was estimated to be low, and to decrease with age. Under population projections by the United Nations, the price per dose threshold for which vaccines stop being more cost-effective than the current vector control program ranged from $50 for mass vaccination requiring 3 doses and only conferring 10 years of immunity to $300 for vaccination requiring 2 doses and conferring lifetime immunity. The thresholds for these vaccine programs to not be cost-effective for Singapore were $100 and $500 per dose respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue illness presents a serious economic and disease burden in Singapore. Dengue vaccines are expected to be cost-effective if reasonably low prices are adopted and will help to reduce the economic and disease burden of dengue in Singapore substantially.

  9. Acquisition: Acquisition of the Evolved SEASPARROW Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Evolved SEASPARROW Missile, a Navy Acquisition Category II program, is an improved version of the RIM-7P SEASPARROW missile that will intercept high-speed maneuvering, anti-ship cruise missiles...

  10. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable.

  11. The effect of repair costs on the profitability of a ureteroscopy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Ludwig, Wesley; Sopko, Nikolai; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Matlaga, Brian R

    2015-04-01

    Ureteroscopy (URS) is a common treatment for patients with stone disease. One of the disadvantages of this approach is the great capital expense associated with the purchase and repair of endoscopic equipment. In some cases, these costs can outpace revenues and lead to an unprofitable and unsustainable enterprise. We sought to characterize the profitability of our URS program when accounting for endoscope maintenance and repair costs. We identified all URS cases performed at a single hospital during fiscal year 2013 (FY2013). Charges, collection rates, and fixed and variable costs including annual equipment repair costs were obtained. The net margin and break-even point of URS were derived on a per-case basis. For 190 cases performed in FY2013, total endoscope repair costs totaled $115,000, resulting in an average repair cost of $605 per case. The vast majority of cases (94.2%) were conducted in the outpatient setting, which generated a net margin of $659 per case, while inpatient cases yielded a net loss of $455. URS was ultimately associated with a net positive margin approaching $600 per case. On break-even analysis, URS remained profitable until repair costs reached $1200 per case. Based on these findings, an established URS program can sustain profitability even with large equipment repair costs. Nonetheless, our findings serve to emphasize the importance of controlling costs, particularly in the current setting of decreasing reimbursement. A multifaceted approach, based on improving endoscope durability and exploring digital and disposable platforms, will be critical in maintaining the sustainability of URS.

  12. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Parlesak

    Full Text Available Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost.Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA, or dietary guidelines (DG, or nutrient recommendations (N, or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN, or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN. The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods.The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6. The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8. The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN to 134 (DGN foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN. Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN tripled it.Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable.

  13. D Models for All: Low-Cost Acquisition Through Mobile Devices in Comparison with Image Based Techniques. Potentialities and Weaknesses in Cultural Heritage Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagati, C.; Lo Turco, M.; Bocconcino, M. M.; Donato, V.; Galizia, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, 3D digital imaging proposes effective solutions for preserving the expression of human creativity across the centuries, as well as is a great tool to guarantee global dissemination of knowledge and wide access to these invaluable resources of the past. Nevertheless, in several cases, a massive digitalisation of cultural heritage items (from the archaeological site up to the monument and museum collections) could be unworkable due to the still high costs in terms of equipment and human resources: 3D acquisition technologies and the need of skilled team within cultural institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to explore new possibilities offered by growing technologies: the lower costs of these technologies as well as their attractive visual quality constitute a challenge for researchers. Besides these possibilities, it is also important to consider how information is spread through graphic representation of knowledge. The focus of this study is to explore the potentialities and weaknesses of a newly released low cost device in the cultural heritage domain, trying to understand its effective usability in museum collections. The aim of the research is to test their usability, critically analysing the final outcomes of this entry level technology in relation to the other better assessed low cost technologies for 3D scanning, such as Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques (also produced by the same device) combined with dataset generated by a professional digital camera. The final outcomes were compared in terms of quality definition, time processing and file size. The specimens of the collections of the Civic Museum Castello Ursino in Catania have been chosen as the site of experimentation.

  14. 3D MODELS FOR ALL: LOW-COST ACQUISITION THROUGH MOBILE DEVICES IN COMPARISON WITH IMAGE BASED TECHNIQUES. POTENTIALITIES AND WEAKNESSES IN CULTURAL HERITAGE DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Santagati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, 3D digital imaging proposes effective solutions for preserving the expression of human creativity across the centuries, as well as is a great tool to guarantee global dissemination of knowledge and wide access to these invaluable resources of the past. Nevertheless, in several cases, a massive digitalisation of cultural heritage items (from the archaeological site up to the monument and museum collections could be unworkable due to the still high costs in terms of equipment and human resources: 3D acquisition technologies and the need of skilled team within cultural institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to explore new possibilities offered by growing technologies: the lower costs of these technologies as well as their attractive visual quality constitute a challenge for researchers. Besides these possibilities, it is also important to consider how information is spread through graphic representation of knowledge. The focus of this study is to explore the potentialities and weaknesses of a newly released low cost device in the cultural heritage domain, trying to understand its effective usability in museum collections. The aim of the research is to test their usability, critically analysing the final outcomes of this entry level technology in relation to the other better assessed low cost technologies for 3D scanning, such as Structure from Motion (SfM techniques (also produced by the same device combined with dataset generated by a professional digital camera. The final outcomes were compared in terms of quality definition, time processing and file size. The specimens of the collections of the Civic Museum Castello Ursino in Catania have been chosen as the site of experimentation.

  15. Evaluation Of Model Based Systems Engineering Processes For Integration Into Rapid Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    integration of new capabilities seamlessly into an existing software baseline or architecture  the ability to effectively assess performance at... software development,” (b) “model driven development,” (c) “ architecture centric development,” (d) “specification-driven development,” and (e) “generative...Development Process Like the MK54 program, this Radar project utilized an agile Vee process, in a Scrum environment. However, in this case, the software

  16. Predictors of technical skill acquisition among resident trainees in a laparoscopic skills education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hove, Corey; Perry, Kyle A; Spight, Donn H; Wheeler-Mcinvaille, Krissy; Diggs, Brian S; Sheppard, Brett C; Jobe, Blair A; O'Rourke, Robert W

    2008-09-01

    Administrative and financial pressures on surgical education have created a need for efficient training curricula. Predictors of innate technical ability, which would guide the optimization of such a curriculum, are not well described. The goal of this study was to identify student characteristics predictive of innate pretraining skill level and response to training during the course of a four-week laparoscopic skills development program. Laparoscopic skills in 35 first-year surgical residents were assessed with the McGill Inanimate System for Training and Evaluation of Laparoscopic Skills (MISTELS) before and after a four-week skills training program and after an interval of approximately 1 year. The correlation between trainee characteristics, including age, sex, designated surgical specialty, and laparoscopic skill level was assessed by using Pearson's correlation and paired t-test studies. Intake MISTELS scores showed no significant correlation to age, sex, or designated field. Interns designated for the general surgery training program had significantly higher final scores than those entering other fields (p = 0.02). There was a negative correlation between trainee age and both degree of improvement during training and final scores (p = 0.02 and 0.05). A history of video game use correlated with significantly higher initial scores and better skills retention (p = 0.03 and 0.04). A laparoscopic technical curriculum can achieve basic proficiency even when taught to a diverse group of trainees. Older residents beginning their surgical careers may be slower to develop technical skills. Choice of subspecialty seems to predict higher level of proficiency after completion of a skills training program among resident students.

  17. LINE-1 couples EMT programming with acquisition of oncogenic phenotypes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M; Aispuro, Ivan; Tavera-Garcia, Marco A; Field, Matthew; Moore, Sara; Ramos, Irma; Ramos, Kenneth S

    2017-11-28

    Although several lines of evidence have established the central role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) in malignant progression of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), the molecular events connecting EMT to malignancy remain poorly understood. This study presents evidence that Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon couples EMT programming with malignancy in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). This conclusion is supported by studies showing that: 1) activation of EMT programming by TGF-β1 increases LINE-1 mRNAs and protein; 2) the lung carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene coregulates TGF-β1 and LINE-1 mRNAs, with LINE-1 positioned downstream of TGF-β1 signaling; and, 3) forced expression of LINE-1 in BEAS-2B cells recapitulates EMT programming and induces malignant phenotypes and tumorigenesis in vivo . These findings identify a TGFβ1-LINE-1 axis as a critical effector pathway that can be targeted for the development of precision therapies during malignant progression of intractable NSCLCs.

  18. A program against bacterial bioterrorism: improved patient management and acquisition of new knowledge on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Michael; Dargis, Rimtas; Andresen, Keld; Christensen, Jens Jørgen E

    2012-06-01

    In 2002 it was decided to establish laboratory facilities in Denmark for diagnosing agents associated with bioterrorism in order to make an immediate appropriate response to the release of such agents possible. Molecular assays for detection of specific agents and molecular and proteomic techniques for identification of bacteria were introduced as part of the program. All assays and techniques were made accessible for use in diagnosing patients, even when an intentional release was not suspected. Medical expertise on different diseases was established at the department as an integrated part of the program. The analyses included PCR assays for specific bacteria, identification of isolated bacteria by DNA sequencing, detection and identification of bacteria in clinical sample material by universal bacterial PCR and DNA sequencing, and identification of bacteria by mass spectrometry. The established analyses formed a basis on which a series of further developments was built. In addition to reducing the time for obtaining diagnoses and improving the accuracy of diagnosis of individual infected patients, the analyses provided new knowledge on the frequency and distribution of some bacterial infections, including Q fever, tularemia, trench fever, brucellosis, and melioidosis. The implementation of an antibioterrorism program in a clinical diagnostic setting improved the diagnostic possibilities for patients in Denmark and provided new epidemiologic information. It also introduced a number of diagnostic assays for bacterial infections not associated with bioterrorism that are difficult to culture or identify.

  19. Community Partnership to Address Snack Quality and Cost in After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Weaver, Robert G.; Jones, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Policies call on after-school programs (ASPs) to serve more nutritious snacks. A major barrier for improving snack quality is cost. This study describes the impact on snack quality and expenditures from a community partnership between ASPs and local grocery stores. Methods: Four large-scale ASPs (serving ~500 children, aged 6-12?years,…

  20. Analysis of the Children's Hospital Graduate Medical Education Program Fund Allocations for Indirect Medical Education Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Barbara O.; Kawata, Jennifer

    This study analyzed issues related to estimating indirect medical education costs specific to pediatric discharges. The Children's Hospital Graduate Medical Education (CHGNE) program was established to support graduate medical education in children's hospitals. This provision authorizes payments for both direct and indirect medical education…

  1. 78 FR 6140 - Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... BUDGET Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs AGENCY: Office of Management... and Budget revised Circular A-94 in 1992. The revised Circular specified certain discount rates to be... States Government were changed. These discount rates are found in Appendix C of the revised Circular. The...

  2. 77 FR 1743 - Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... BUDGET Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs AGENCY: Office of Management... and Budget revised Circular A-94 in 1992. The revised Circular specified certain discount rates to be... States Government were changed. These discount rates are found in Appendix C of the revised Circular. The...

  3. 76 FR 7881 - Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... BUDGET Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs AGENCY: Office of Management... and Budget revised Circular A-94 in 1992. The revised Circular specified certain discount rates to be... States Government were changed. These discount rates are found in Appendix C of the revised Circular. The...

  4. A Fresh Look at the Benefits and Costs of the US Acid Rain Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Acid Rain Program (Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments) has achieved substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants in the United States. We compare new estimates of the benefits and costs of Title IV to th...

  5. 77 FR 57074 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... resolved matters for the purpose of applying the revised rates in this policy for these fiscal years. For..., costs will be recalculated using the revised rates in this policy for these fiscal years. Where a..., and Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  6. Age 26 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Early Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; White, Barry A. B.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Robertson, Dylan L.

    2011-01-01

    Using data collected up to age 26 in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, this cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) is the first for a sustained publicly funded early intervention. The program provides services for low-income families beginning at age 3 in 20 school sites. Kindergarten and school-age services are provided up to age 9…

  7. West Coast tree improvement programs: a break-even, cost-benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Richard L Porterfield

    1981-01-01

    Three tree improvement programs were analyzed by break-even, cost-benefit technique: one for ponderosa pine in the Pacific Northwest, and two for Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest-one of low intensity and the other of high intensity. A return of 8 percent on investment appears feasible by using short rotations or by accompanying tree improvement with thinning....

  8. NATIONAL STORMWATER CALCULATOR: LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT STORMWATER CONTROL COST ESTIMATION PROGRAMMING & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development Stormwater Control Cost Estimation Programming & Future EnhancementsJason Berner1; Michael Tryby1; Scott Struck2, Dan Pankani2, Marion Deerhake3, Michelle Simon11. USEPA2. GeoSyntec, Inc.3. RTI, Inc.The National Stormwater Ca...

  9. Hospital-centered violence intervention programs: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Vincent E; Smith, Randi; Garcia, Arturo; Lee, Wayne S; Ashley, Linnea; Marks, Anne; Liu, Terrence H; Victorino, Gregory P

    2015-04-01

    Hospital-centered violence intervention programs (HVIPs) reduce violent injury recidivism. However, dedicated cost analyses of such programs have not yet been published. We hypothesized that the HVIP at our urban trauma center is a cost-effective means for reducing violent injury recidivism. We conducted a cost-utility analysis using a state-transition (Markov) decision model, comparing participation in our HVIP with standard risk reduction for patients injured because of firearm violence. Model inputs were derived from our trauma registry and published literature. The 1-year recidivism rate for participants in our HVIP was 2.5%, compared with 4% for those receiving standard risk reduction resources. Total per-person costs of each violence prevention arm were similar: $3,574 for our HVIP and $3,515 for standard referrals. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for our HVIP was $2,941. Our HVIP is a cost-effective means of preventing recurrent episodes of violent injury in patients hurt by firearms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost Savings From the Provision of Specific Methods of Contraception in a Publicly Funded Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostovtseva, Daria P.; Brindis, Claire D.; Biggs, M. Antonia; Hulett, Denis; Darney, Philip D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the cost-effectiveness of contraceptive methods dispensed in 2003 to 955 000 women in Family PACT (Planning, Access, Care and Treatment), California's publicly funded family planning program. Methods. We estimated the number of pregnancies averted by each contraceptive method and compared the cost of providing each method with the savings from averted pregnancies. Results. More than half of the 178 000 averted pregnancies were attributable to oral contraceptives, one fifth to injectable methods, and one tenth each to the patch and barrier methods. The implant and intrauterine contraceptives were the most cost-effective, with cost savings of more than $7.00 for every $1.00 spent in services and supplies. Per $1.00 spent, injectable contraceptives yielded savings of $5.60; oral contraceptives, $4.07; the patch, $2.99; the vaginal ring, $2.55; barrier methods, $1.34; and emergency contraceptives, $1.43. Conclusions. All contraceptive methods were cost-effective—they saved more in public expenditures for unintended pregnancies than they cost to provide. Because no single method is clinically recommended to every woman, it is medically and fiscally advisable for public health programs to offer all contraceptive methods. PMID:18703437

  11. Fitting of full Cobb-Douglas and full VRTS cost frontiers by solving goal programming problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, B.; Mahaboob, B.; Subbarami Reddy, C.; Madhusudhana Rao, B.

    2017-11-01

    The present research article first defines two popular production functions viz, Cobb-Douglas and VRTS production frontiers and their dual cost functions and then derives their cost limited maximal outputs. This paper tells us that the cost limited maximal output is cost efficient. Here the one side goal programming problem is proposed by which the full Cobb-Douglas cost frontier, full VRTS frontier can be fitted. This paper includes the framing of goal programming by which stochastic cost frontier and stochastic VRTS frontiers are fitted. Hasan et al. [1] used a parameter approach Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA) to examine the technical efficiency of the Malaysian domestic banks listed in the Kuala Lumpur stock Exchange (KLSE) market over the period 2005-2010. AshkanHassani [2] exposed Cobb-Douglas Production Functions application in construction schedule crashing and project risk analysis related to the duration of construction projects. Nan Jiang [3] applied Stochastic Frontier analysis to a panel of New Zealand dairy forms in 1998/99-2006/2007.

  12. Public health sealant delivery programs: optimal delivery and the cost of practice acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Christina R; Griffin, Paul M; Swann, Julie L

    2007-01-01

    The greatest unmet health need for US children is dental care. School-based sealant programs target low-income, high-risk second graders and are effective in preventing caries for as long as the sealant material remains in place. However, it is not clear whether such programs make efficient use of available resources and staffing. The authors used discrete event simulation to determine the optimal combinations of staffing levels and sealant stations for school-based sealant programs. Using data provided by state programs and the literature, they modeled different-sized programs under different practice act constraints and determined times and associated costs. A detailed economic analysis was done for Wisconsin. For general, direct, or indirect supervision, it is optimal to have only 1 dentist or no dentists for no supervision. For general supervision, it is optimal to have the dentist and dental assistant to come on separate days to screen. The cost savings for adding an assistant and chair averaged over all of the program sizes and travel distances ranged from 4.50% (SE= 0.89) to 10.94% (SE= 0.56). Significant cost savings also result from reducing the required supervision level (8.72% [SE = 1.61] to 29.96% [SE= 1.67]). The cost of the practice act for the state of Wisconsin for 2003 was from USD 83,041 to USD 346,156, significantly more than its annual budget. States could save money by relaxing restrictions on the type of personnel who can deliver sealants in public health settings and by productivity gains through proper consideration of staffing. The savings could be used to improve access to sealant programs and further reduce disparities in oral health.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of a Family Planning Voucher Program in Rural Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ivor Broughton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThis study reports on the effectiveness and efficiency from the program funder’s perspective of the Suraj Social Franchise (SSF voucher program in which private health-care providers in remote rural areas were identified, trained, upgraded, and certified to deliver family planning services to underserved women of reproductive age in 29 districts of Sindh and 3 districts of Punjab province, Pakistan between October 2013 and June 2016.MethodA decision tree compared the cost of implementing SSF to the program funder and its effects of providing additional couple years of protection (CYPs to targeted women, compared to business-as-usual. Costs included vouchers given to women to receive a free contraceptive method of their choice from the SSF provider. The vouchers were then reimbursed to the SSF provider by the program.ResultsA total of 168,206 married women of reproductive age (MWRA received SSF vouchers between October 2013 and June 2016, costing $3,278,000 ($19.50/recipient. The average effectiveness of the program per voucher recipient was an additional 1.66 CYPs, giving an incremental cost-effectiveness of the program of $4.28 per CYP compared to not having the program (95% CI: $3.62–5.31.ConclusionThe result compares favorably to other interventions with similar objectives and appears affordable for the Pakistan national health-care system. It is therefore recommended to help address the unmet need for contraception among MWRA in these areas of Pakistan and is worthy of trial implementation in the country more widely.

  14. Assessing Programming Costs of Explicit Memory Localization on a Large Scale Shared Memory Multiprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Picano

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We present detailed experimental work involving a commercially available large scale shared memory multiple instruction stream-multiple data stream (MIMD parallel computer having a software controlled cache coherence mechanism. To make effective use of such an architecture, the programmer is responsible for designing the program's structure to match the underlying multiprocessors capabilities. We describe the techniques used to exploit our multiprocessor (the BBN TC2000 on a network simulation program, showing the resulting performance gains and the associated programming costs. We show that an efficient implementation relies heavily on the user's ability to explicitly manage the memory system.

  15. Cost analysis of a domiciliary program of supportive and palliative care for patients with hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartoni, Claudio; Brunetti, Gregorio Antonio; D'Elia, Gianna Maria; Breccia, Massimo; Niscola, Pasquale; Marini, Maria Giulia; Nastri, Antonio; Alimena, Giuliana; Mandelli, Franco; Foà, Robin

    2007-05-01

    The costs of home care (HC) programs may be tailored to the specific needs of patients with hematological malignancies. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of resources and the costs of a program of HC for four different prognostic groups of patients subdivided according to disease status. Over 2 years, 144 patients with hematological malignancies were assisted at home. Patients were subdivided according to disease status and life expectancy in the following groups: (i) terminal phase, with a life expectancy of 3 months or less; (ii) advanced phase, with a life expectancy of 6 months or less; (iii) chronic phase, with a life expectancy of more than 6 months; (iv) discharged early from the hospital with curable disease, following anticancer chemotherapy. Median mean monthly costs (MMC) in Euro (x) have been compared with the costs of hospitalization (DRG). Among the 4 groups of patients, those discharged early and in terminal phase required the highest mean monthly number of home visits (27.2 and 24.1), transfusions (6.1 and 6.8) and days of care (22.8 and 19.7) respectively. MMC were affected by the following variables: disease status and transfusion requirements. MMC for terminal patients (4,232.50x) and those discharged early (3,986.40x) were higher than those for advanced (2,303.80x) and chronic patients (1,488,30x). The cost of HC was lower than the corresponding DRG charges, but exceeded the district fares for HC of cancer patients. In hematological patients, the costs of HC differ according to disease status and transfusion requirements. For some categories of patients, costs of HC are lower than those of hospitalization, although higher than the current national fares for HC programs.

  16. Contract case managers prove cost effective in federal workers' compensation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Timothy Michael; Cloeren, Marianne; Firestone, Lisa Michelle; Burch, Helen Christine

    2008-03-01

    This pilot study examined whether contract case managers are cost effective in reducing workers' compensation (WC) costs and preventing injuries. We placed contract medical case managers at four installations where they employed private industry best practices. A needs assessment was performed and site-specific targeted interventions were developed. Case managers improved WC program effectiveness by ensuring command support, and strengthening the case management process. They minimized lost work time and provided the WC team resources to review the oldest cases. Case managers cost $1.25 million and they generated $4.4 million in savings for a 3.52 return on investment. Case managers removed 73 workers from long-term rolls by making use of vocational rehabilitation, finding modified duty jobs, offering workers medical retirement, and terminating benefits when workers refused to work after being offered a job. This study of medical case managers demonstrates they can reduce WC costs.

  17. Nutritional, Economic, and Environmental Costs of Milk Waste in a Classroom School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Cash, Sean B; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Griffin, Timothy S; Economos, Christina D

    2017-04-01

    To measure fluid milk waste in a US School Breakfast in the Classroom Program and estimate its nutritional, economic, and environmental effects. Fluid milk waste was directly measured on 60 elementary school classroom days in a medium-sized, urban district. The US Department of Agriculture nutrition database, district cost data, and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions and water footprint estimates for fluid milk were used to calculate the associated nutritional, economic, and environmental costs. Of the total milk offered to School Breakfast Program participants, 45% was wasted. A considerably smaller portion of served milk was wasted (26%). The amount of milk wasted translated into 27% of vitamin D and 41% of calcium required of School Breakfast Program meals. The economic and environmental costs amounted to an estimated $274 782 (16% of the district's total annual School Breakfast Program food expenditures), 644 893 kilograms of CO2e, and 192 260 155 liters of water over the school year in the district. These substantial effects of milk waste undermine the School Breakfast Program's capacity to ensure short- and long-term food security and federal food waste reduction targets. Interventions that reduce waste are urgently needed.

  18. Patterns of Growth Costs and Nitrogen Acquisition in Cytisus striatus (Hill Rothm. and Cytisus balansae (Boiss. Ball are Mediated by Sources of Inorganic N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez-Fernández

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-fixing shrubby legumes in the Mediterranean area partly overcome nutrient limitations by making use of soil N and atmospheric N2 sources. Their ability to switch between different sources lets them adjust to the carbon costs pertaining to N acquisition throughout the year. We investigated the utilization of different inorganic N sources by Cytisus balansae and Cytisus striatus, shrubby legumes under low and a sufficient (5 and 500 µM P, respectively levels of P. Plants grew in sterile sand, supplied with N-free nutrient solution and inoculated with effective Bradyrhizobium strains; other treatments consisted of plants treated with (i 500 µM NH4NO3; and (ii 500 µM NH4NO3 and inoculation with effective rhizobial strains. The application of NH4NO3 always resulted in greater dry biomass production. Carbon construction costs were higher in plants that were supplied with mineral and symbiotic N sources and always greater in the endemic C. striatus. Photosynthetic rates were similar in plants treated with different sources of N although differences were observed between the two species. Non-fertilized inoculated plants showed a neat dependence on N2 fixation and had more effective root nodules. Results accounted for the distribution of the two species with regards to their ability to use different N sources.

  19. Uav-Based Acquisition of 3d Point Cloud - a Comparison of a Low-Cost Laser Scanner and Sfm-Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, D.; Blaskow, R.; Westfeld, P.; Maas, H.-G.

    2015-08-01

    The Project ADFEX (Adaptive Federative 3D Exploration of Multi Robot System) pursues the goal to develop a time- and cost-efficient system for exploration and monitoring task of unknown areas or buildings. A fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with appropriate sensors (laser scanner, RGB camera, near infrared camera, thermal camera) were designed and built. A typical operational scenario may include the exploration of the object or area of investigation by an UAV equipped with a laser scanning range finder to generate a rough point cloud in real time to provide an overview of the object on a ground station as well as an obstacle map. The data about the object enables the path planning for the robot fleet. Subsequently, the object will be captured by a RGB camera mounted on the second flying robot for the generation of a dense and accurate 3D point cloud by using of structure from motion techniques. In addition, the detailed image data serves as basis for a visual damage detection on the investigated building. This paper focuses on our experience with use of a low-cost light-weight Hokuyo laser scanner onboard an UAV. The hardware components for laser scanner based 3D point cloud acquisition are discussed, problems are demonstrated and analyzed, and a quantitative analysis of the accuracy potential is shown as well as in comparison with structure from motion-tools presented.

  20. [Needle exchange programs are a cost-effective preventative measure against HIV in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eythórsson, Elías Sæbjorn; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Gottfređsson, Magnús

    2014-07-01

    In 2007 there was a sudden increase in HIV cases among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Iceland. In 2007 - 2011 there were 34 new HIV cases among IDUs compared to four in the previous four year period. The purpose of this study was to assess whether needle exchange programs (NEPs) were cost-effective in preventing the spread of HIV among IDUs in Iceland. Cost-utility analysis was conducted from a societal perspective. Costs are presented at the 2011 price level and values were discounted using a 3% discount rate. A ten year period, 2011 - 2020 was compared with and without NEPs. The Incremental Cost-Utility Ratio (ICUR) was calculated as societal cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Sensitivity analysis was performed on study assumptions. The estimated societal costs associated with HIV infections among IDUs from 2011 - 2020 was 914.369.621 ISK without NEP and 947.653.758 ISK with NEP. Excess societal cost due to NEP was 33.284.137 ISK. Societal utility from NEP was 7,39 QALYs. Additionally, NEP prevented 4-5 HIV infections. The ICUR of providing NEP was 4.506.720 ISK. According to WHO an intervention is considered cost-effective if the ICUR is less than three-fold national GDP per capita. In 2011 the GDP per capita in Iceland was 15.315.000 ISK. Sensitivity analysis on study assumptions yielded a societal cost within the WHO limit. Therefore, the results indicate that NEPs are cost-effective in preventing the spread of HIV among IDUs in Iceland.

  1. The cost-effectiveness of a school-based overweight program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelscher Deanna M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses the net benefit and the cost-effectiveness of the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH intervention program, using parameter estimates from the El Paso trial. There were two standard economic measures used. First, from a societal perspective on costs, cost-effectiveness ratios (CER were estimated, revealing the intervention costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs saved. QALY weights were estimated using National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data. Second, the net benefit (NB of CATCH was estimated, which compared the present value of averted future costs with the cost of the CATCH intervention. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES and NHANES follow-up data, we predicted the number of adult obesity cases avoided for ages 40–64 with a lifetime obesity progression model. Results The results show that CATCH is cost-effective and net beneficial. The CER was US$900 (US$903 using Hispanic parameters and the NB was US$68,125 (US$43,239 using Hispanic parameters, all in 2004 dollars. This is much lower than the benchmark for CER of US$30,000 and higher than the NB of US$0. Both were robust to sensitivity analyses. Conclusion Childhood school-based programs such as CATCH are beneficial investments. Both NB and CER declined when Hispanic parameters were included, primarily due to the lower wages earned by Hispanics. However, both NB and CER for Hispanics were well within standard cost-effectiveness and net benefit thresholds.

  2. The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T.; Fang, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

  3. Cost, utilization, and quality of care: an evaluation of illinois' medicaid primary care case management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert L; Han, Meiying; Petterson, Stephen M; Makaroff, Laura A; Liaw, Winston R

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, Illinois established Illinois Health Connect (IHC), a primary care case management program for Medicaid that offered enhanced fee-for-service, capitation payments, performance incentives, and practice support. Illinois also implemented a complementary disease management program, Your Healthcare Plus (YHP). This external evaluation explored outcomes associated with these programs. We analyzed Medicaid claims and enrollment data from 2004 to 2010, covering both pre- and post-implementation. The base year was 2006, and 2006-2010 eligibility criteria were applied to 2004-2005 data to allow comparison. We studied costs and utilization trends, overall and by service and setting. We studied quality by incorporating Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures and IHC performance payment criteria. Illinois Medicaid expanded considerably between 2006 (2,095,699 full-year equivalents) and 2010 (2,692,123). Annual savings were 6.5% for IHC and 8.6% for YHP by the fourth year, with cumulative Medicaid savings of $1.46 billion. Per-beneficiary annual costs fell in Illinois over this period compared to those in states with similar Medicaid programs. Quality improved for nearly all metrics under IHC, and most prevention measures more than doubled in frequency. Medicaid inpatient costs fell by 30.3%, and outpatient costs rose by 24.9% to 45.7% across programs. Avoidable hospitalizations fell by 16.8% for YHP, and bed-days fell by 15.6% for IHC. Emergency department visits declined by 5% by 2010. The Illinois Medicaid IHC and YHP programs were associated with substantial savings, reductions in inpatient and emergency care, and improvements in quality measures. This experience is not typical of other states implementing some, but not all, of these same policies. Although specific features of the Illinois reforms may have accounted for its better outcomes, the limited evaluation design calls for caution in making causal inferences. © 2014 Annals of

  4. War-gaming application for future space systems acquisition part 1: program and technical baseline war-gaming modeling and simulation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes static Bayesian game models with "Pure" and "Mixed" games for the development of an optimum Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) solution for affordable acquisition of future space systems. The paper discusses System Engineering (SE) frameworks and analytical and simulation modeling approaches for developing the optimum PTB solutions from both the government and contractor perspectives.

  5. First and Second Language Acquisition in German Children Attending a Kindergarten Immersion Program: A Combined Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Kirstin; Klatte, Maria; Steinbrink, Claudia; Lachmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated first (L1) and second (L2) language acquisition in two age-matched groups of 2- to 6-year-old kindergarten children over the course of 2.5 years. The immersion group participated in a partial English immersion program whereas the conventional instruction group received a conventional L2 course (30 minutes per week); the…

  6. Computer programs for capital cost estimation, lifetime economic performance simulation, and computation of cost indexes for laser fusion and other advanced technology facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendergrass, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Three FORTRAN programs, CAPITAL, VENTURE, and INDEXER, have been developed to automate computations used in assessing the economic viability of proposed or conceptual laser fusion and other advanced-technology facilities, as well as conventional projects. The types of calculations performed by these programs are, respectively, capital cost estimation, lifetime economic performance simulation, and computation of cost indexes. The codes permit these three topics to be addressed with considerable sophistication commensurate with user requirements and available data.

  7. Costs and cost-effectiveness of hypertension screening and treatment in adults with hypertension in rural Nigeria in the context of a health insurance program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosendaal, N.T.A. (Nicole T. A.); M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); Verhagen, M.D. (Mark D.); O.A. Bolarinwa (Oladimeji Akeem); Sanya, E.O. (Emmanuel O.); Kolo, P.M. (Philip M.); P. Adenusi (Peju); K. Agbede (Kayode); Van Eck, D. (Diederik); S.S. Tan (Siok Swan); T.M. Akande (Tanimola); W.K. Redekop (Ken); C. Schultsz (Constance); Gomez, G.B. (Gabriela B.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High blood pressure is a leading risk factor for death and disability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of hypertension care provided within the Kwara State Health Insurance (KSHI) program in rural Nigeria. Methods: A Markov model was

  8. Adoption of robotics in a general surgery residency program: at what cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaffey, J Hunter; Michaels, Alex D; Mullen, Matthew G; Yount, Kenan W; Meneveau, Max O; Smith, Philip W; Friel, Charles M; Schirmer, Bruce D

    2017-06-01

    Robotic technology is increasingly being utilized by general surgeons. However, the impact of introducing robotics to surgical residency has not been examined. This study aims to assess the financial costs and training impact of introducing robotics at an academic general surgery residency program. All patients who underwent laparoscopic or robotic cholecystectomy, ventral hernia repair (VHR), and inguinal hernia repair (IHR) at our institution from 2011-2015 were identified. The effect of robotic surgery on laparoscopic case volume was assessed with linear regression analysis. Resident participation, operative time, hospital costs, and patient charges were also evaluated. We identified 2260 laparoscopic and 139 robotic operations. As the volume of robotic cases increased, the number of laparoscopic cases steadily decreased. Residents participated in all laparoscopic cases and 70% of robotic cases but operated from the robot console in only 21% of cases. Mean operative time was increased for robotic cholecystectomy (+22%), IHR (+55%), and VHR (+61%). Financial analysis revealed higher median hospital costs per case for robotic cholecystectomy (+$411), IHR (+$887), and VHR (+$1124) as well as substantial associated fixed costs. Introduction of robotic surgery had considerable negative impact on laparoscopic case volume and significantly decreased resident participation. Increased operative time and hospital costs are substantial. An institution must be cognizant of these effects when considering implementing robotics in departments with a general surgery residency program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost-effectiveness outcomes of the national gastric cancer screening program in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun; Kang, Moon Hae; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Although screening is necessary where gastric cancer is particularly common in Asia, the performance outcomes of mass screening programs have remained unclear. This study was conducted to evaluate cost-effectiveness outcomes of the national cancer screening program (NCSP) for gastric cancer in South Korea. People aged 40 years or over during 2002-2003 (baseline) were the target population. Screening recipients and patients diagnosed with gastric cancers were identified using the NCSP and Korea Central Cancer Registry databases. Clinical outcomes were measured in terms of mortality and life-years saved (LYS) of gastric cancer patients during 7 years based on merged data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation and National Statistical Office. We considered direct, indirect, and productivity-loss costs associated with screening attendance. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) estimates were produced according to screening method, sex, and age group compared to non-screening. The age-adjusted ICER for survival was 260,201,000-371,011,000 Korean Won (KW; 1USD=1,088 KW) for the upper-gastrointestinal (UGI) tract over non-screening. Endoscopy ICERs were lower (119,099,000-178,700,000 KW/survival) than UGI. To increase 1 life-year, additional costs of approximately 14,466,000-15,014,000 KW and 8,817,000-9,755,000 KW were required for UGI and endoscopy, respectively. Endoscopy was the most cost-effective strategy for males and females. With regard to sensitivity analyses varying based on the upper age limit, endoscopy NCSP was dominant for both males and females. For males, an upper limit of age 75 or 80 years could be considered. ICER estimates for LYS indicate that the gastric cancer screening program in Korea is cost-effective. Endoscopy should be recommended as a first-line method in Korea because it is beneficial among the Korean population.

  10. Telemedicine-based diabetic retinopathy screening programs: an evaluation of utility and cost-effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuadros JA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jorge A Cuadros Optometry/Vision Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract: Diabetes is the main cause of blindness among working age adults, although treatment is highly effective in preventing vision loss. Eye examinations are recommended on a yearly basis for most patients for timely detection of retinal disease. Telemedicine-based diabetic retinopathy screening (TMDRS programs have been developed to identify patients with sight-threatening diabetic eye disease because patients are often noncompliant with recommended live eye examinations. This article reviews the cost-effectiveness of the various forms of TMDRS. A review of relevant articles, mostly published since 2008, shows that societal benefits generally outweigh the costs of TMDRS. However, advances in technology to improve efficacy, lower costs, and broaden screening to other sight-threatening conditions, such as glaucoma and refractive error, are necessary to improve the sustainability of TMDRS within health care organizations. Patient satisfaction with these telemedicine programs is generally high. New models of shared care with primary care providers and staff are emerging to improve patient engagement and follow-up care when individuals are found to have sight-threatening eye disease. TMDRS programs are growing and provide valuable clinical benefit. The cost-utility is currently well proven in locations with limited access to regular eye care services, such as rural areas, poor communities, and prison systems; however, improvements over time are necessary for these programs to be cost-effective in mainstream medical settings in the future. Keywords: telemedicine, diabetes, retinopathy, retinal imaging

  11. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 156 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For all 156 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $210.6 million, total reported cost savings were $215.1 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $204.5 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 97% of the estimated cost savings; projects reported achieving 102% of the estimated cost savings; and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 155 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 11.938 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 12.138 million MMBtu, 101.7% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 155 projects were 19.052 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 19.516 million MMBtu, 102.4% of the estimated energy savings.

  12. Benefits and costs of intensive lifestyle modification programs for symptomatic coronary disease in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wu; Stason, William B; Fournier, Stephen; Razavi, Moaven; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Bhalotra, Sarita M; Shepard, Donald S

    2013-05-01

    This study reports outcomes of a Medicare-sponsored demonstration of two intensive lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) in patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease: the Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute (MBMI) and the Dr Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease® (Ornish). This multisite demonstration, conducted between 2000 and 2008, enrolled Medicare beneficiaries who had had an acute myocardial infarction or a cardiac procedure within the preceding 12 months or had stable angina pectoris. Health and economic outcomes are compared with matched controls who had received either traditional or no cardiac rehabilitation following similar cardiac events. Each program included a 1-year active intervention of exercise, diet, small-group support, and stress reduction. Medicare claims were used to examine 3-year outcomes. The analysis includes 461 elderly, fee-for-service, Medicare participants and 1,795 controls. Cardiac and non-cardiac hospitalization rates were lower in participants than controls in each program and were statistically significant in MBMI (P < .01). Program costs of $3,801 and $4,441 per participant for the MBMI and Ornish Programs, respectively, were offset by reduced health care costs yielding non-significant three-year net savings per participant of about $3,500 in MBMI and $1,000 in Ornish. A trend towards lower mortality compared with controls was observed in MBMI participants (P = .07). Intensive, year-long LMPs reduced hospitalization rates and suggest reduced Medicare costs in elderly beneficiaries with symptomatic coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section 50.504... APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount which may be expended from program funds for the acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1) The...

  14. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 151 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project.

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of a micronutrient supplementation and early childhood stimulation program in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Boo, Florencia; Palloni, Giordano; Urzua, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the cost-benefit ratio for an integrated early childhood development program in Nicaragua (PAININ). Using longitudinal data, we estimate the average treatment effects of PAININ including micronutrient sprinkles on the prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin levels among disadvantaged children aged 6-36 months. We also estimate the effects of PAININ excluding sprinkles on cognitive outcomes among children aged 2.5-5 years. In the younger age group the program reduced anemia by 4 percentage points after 8 months and nearly 6 percentage points after 1 year; the latter is a 26% decrease in anemia. In the older age group, the program improved verbal and numeric memory after a year and a half, but the effects were modest (0.13 SD). When analyzing its potential impact on earnings, we conclude that the discounted annual costs of the program per child are less than the discounted annual increase in beneficiary earnings. Specifically, we estimate a cost-benefit ratio of 1.50 from the PAININ plus sprinkles package. Our sensitivity analysis suggests a range for this ratio between 1.30 and 2.30. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. 78 FR 5781 - Cost-Sharing Rates for Pharmacy Benefits Program of the TRICARE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... benefits program as $5 for generic medications, $17 for formulary medications and $44 for non-formulary medications for not more than a 30-day supply obtained through retail pharmacies, and $0 for generic medications, $13 for formulary medications, and $43 for non-formulary medications for not more than a 90-day...

  17. Enhancing the CDF's B physics program with a faster data acquisition system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Petar Maksimovic

    2011-03-02

    The physics program of Run II at the Tevatron includes precision electroweak measurements such as the determination of the top quark and W boson masses; bottom and charm physics including the determination of the B{sub s} and D{sup 0} mixing parameters; studies of the strong interaction; and searches for the Higgs particle, supersymmetric particles, hidden space-time dimensions and quark substructure. All of these measurements benefit from a high-resolution tracking detector. Most of them rely heavily on the efficient identification of heavy flavored B hadrons by detection of displaced secondary vertices, and are enhanced by the capability to trigger on tracks not coming from the primary vertex. This is uniquely provided by CDF's finely-segmented silicon detectors surrounding the interaction region. Thus CDF experiment's physics potential critically depends on the performance of its silicon detectors. The CDF silicon detectors were designed to operate up to 2-3 fb{sup -1} of accumulated pji collisions, with an upgrade planned thereafter. However, the upgrade project was canceled in 2003 and Run II has been extended through 2011, with an expected total delivered integrated luminosity of 12 fb{sup -1} or more. Several preventive measures were taken to keep the original detector operational and maintain its performance. The most important of these are the decrease in the operating temperature of the detector, which reduces the impact of radiation exposure, and measures to minimize damage due to integrated radiation dose, thermal cycles, and wire bond resonance conditions. Despite these measures the detectors operating conditions continue to change with issues arising from radiation damage to the sensors, aging infrastructure and electronics. These, together with the basic challenges posed by the inaccessibility of the detector volume and large number (about 750 thousand) of readout channels, make the silicon detector operations the single most complex and

  18. The High/Scope Perry Preschool Program: Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data from the Age-40 Followup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Clive R.; Nores, Milagros; Barnett, Steve; Schweinhart, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an updated cost-benefit analysis of the High/Scope Perry preschool Program, using data on individuals aged 40. Children were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Program costs are compared against treatment impacts on educational resources, earnings, criminal activity, and welfare receipt. Net present values are…

  19. A stump-to-truck cost estimating program for cable logging young-growth Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1989-01-01

    WCOST is a computer program designed to estimate the stump-to-truck logging cost of cable logging young-growth Douglas-fir. The program uses data from stand inventory, cruise data, and the logging plan for the tract in question to produce detailed stump-to-truck cost estimates for specific proposed timber sales. These estimates are then used, in combination with...

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Four Parenting Programs and Bibliotherapy for Parents of Children with Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Filipa; Enebrink, Pia; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Feldman, Inna

    2016-12-01

    Parenting programs and self-help parenting interventions employing written materials are effective in reducing child conduct problems (CP) in the short-term compared to control groups, however evidence on the cost-effectiveness of such interventions is insufficient. Few studies have looked at the differences in effects between interventions in the same study design. This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of four parenting programs: Comet, Incredible Years (IY), Cope and Connect, and bibliotherapy, compared to a waitlist control (WC), with a time horizon of 4 months, targeting CP in children aged 3-12 years. This economic evaluation was conducted alongside an RCT of the four parenting interventions and bibliotherapy compared to a WC. The study sample consisted of 961 parents of 3-12 year-old children with CP. CP was measured by the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Effectiveness was expressed as the proportion of "recovered" cases of CP. The time horizon of the study was four months with a limited health sector perspective, including parents' time costs. We performed an initial comparative cost analysis for interventions whose outcomes differed significantly from the WC, and later a cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions whose outcomes differed significantly from both the WC and each other. Secondary analyses were performed: (i) joint outcome "recovered and improved", (ii) intervention completers, (iii) exclusion of parents' time costs, (iv) exclusion of training costs. All interventions apart from Connect significantly reduced CP compared to the WC. Of the other interventions Comet resulted in a significantly higher proportion of recovered cases compared to bibliotherapy. A comparative cost analysis of the effective interventions rendered an average cost per recovered case for bibliotherapy of USD 483, Cope USD 1972, Comet USD 3741, and IY USD 6668. Furthermore, Comet had an ICER of USD 8375 compared to bibliotherapy. Secondary analyses of

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Disease Management Programs for Cardiovascular Risk and COPD in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiachristas, Apostolos; Burgers, Laura; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2015-12-01

    Disease management programs (DMPs) for cardiovascular risk (CVR) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are increasingly implemented in The Netherlands to improve care and patient's health behavior. The aim of this study was to provide evidence about the (cost-) effectiveness of Dutch DMPs as implemented in daily practice. We compared the physical activity, smoking status, quality-adjusted life-years, and yearly costs per patient between the most and the least comprehensive DMPs in four disease categories: primary CVR prevention, secondary CVR prevention, both types of CVR prevention, and COPD (N = 1034). Propensity score matching increased comparability between DMPs. A 2-year cost-utility analysis was performed from the health care and societal perspectives. Sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate the impact of DMP development and implementation costs on cost-effectiveness. Patients in the most comprehensive DMPs increased their physical activity more (except for primary CVR prevention) and had higher smoking cessation rates. The incremental QALYs ranged from -0.032 to 0.038 across all diseases. From a societal perspective, the most comprehensive DMPs decreased costs in primary CVR prevention (certainty 57%), secondary CVR prevention (certainty 88%), and both types of CVR prevention (certainty 98%). Moreover, the implementation of comprehensive DMPs led to QALY gains in secondary CVR prevention (certainty 92%) and COPD (certainty 69%). The most comprehensive DMPs for CVR and COPD have the potential to be cost saving, effective, or cost-effective compared with the least comprehensive DMPs. The challenge for Dutch stakeholders is to find the optimal mixture of interventions that is most suited for each target group. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acquisition and Transfer of Values and Social Skills through a Physical Education Program Focused in the Affective Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gil Madrona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a physical education (PE program focused on the affective domain for 6th to 8th grade students with respect to the acquisition and transfer of social skills and values. Further, the extent that general classroom teachers and parents perceived if the learned skills where transferred to other context outside the PE class was examined in a sample of 274 students (ages 11 to 13 years old. One hundred and forty-five males (53% and 129 females (47% from five urban schools in Albacete Spain were studied. Three questionnaires were used (pre and post rating scales as data collection instruments for students, teachers and parents. Results demonstrated encouraging estimates of reliability for the subscales of PE teachers’ perceptions of students’ values and regular education teaches perceptions with very strong values of internal consistency .82 and .93 respectively. Posttest values were slightly higher. Further, findings demonstrated positive outcomes after the intervention in teacher perceptions about students values levels (t =-8,05; p < .01, enjoyment, (t =-7.10; p < .01, fair play (t = -8.09; p < .01, social relation (t = -6.48; p < .01, good habits (t = -7.43; p < .01 and emotional control (t = -6.03; p < .01 in favor of the intervention group. These results support previous studies evidencing that integrating social skills and values intervention in the PE class increase students’ development in the affective domain.

  3. The Effects of School-Based Condom Availability Programs (CAPs) on Condom Acquisition, Use and Sexual Behavior: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Timothy; Lurie, Mark; Govindasamy, Darshini; Mathews, Catherine

    2017-06-17

    We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of school-based condom availability programs (CAPs) on condom acquisition, use and sexual behavior. We searched PubMed to identify English-language studies evaluating school-based CAPs that reported process (i.e. number of condoms distributed or used) and sexual behavior measures. We identified nine studies that met our inclusion criteria, with the majority conducted in the United States of America. We judged most studies to have medium risk of bias. Most studies showed that school-based CAPs increased the odds of students obtaining condoms (odds ratios (ORs) for individual studies ranged between 1.81 and 20.28), and reporting condom use (OR 1.36-3.2). Three studies showed that school-based CAPs positively influenced sexual behavior, while no studies reported increase in sexual activity. Findings suggest that school-based CAPs may be an effective strategy for improving condom coverage and promoting positive sexual behaviors.

  4. Awareness of pharmaceutical cost-assistance programs among inner-city seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Alex D; Safran, Dana Gelb; Keyhani, Salomeh; Cole, Helen; Halm, Ethan A; Siu, Albert L

    2009-04-01

    Lack of awareness may be a significant barrier to participation by low- and middle-income seniors in pharmaceutical cost-assistance programs. The goal of this study was to determine whether older adults' awareness of 2 major state and federal pharmaceutical cost-assistance programs was associated with the seniors' ability to access and process information about assistance programs. Data were gathered from a cross-sectional study of independently living, English- or Spanish-speaking adults aged > or =60 years. Participants were interviewed in 30 community-based settings (19 apartment complexes and 11 senior centers) in New York, New York. The analysis focused on adults aged > or =65 years who lacked Medicaid coverage. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model program awareness as a function of information access (family/social support, attendance at senior or community centers and places of worship, viewing of live health insurance presentations, instrumental activities of daily living, site of medical care, computer use, and having a proxy decision maker for health insurance matters) and information-processing ability (education level, English proficiency, health literacy, and cognitive function). The main outcome measure was awareness of New York's state pharmaceutical assistance program (Elderly Pharmaceutical Insurance Coverage [EPIC

  5. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee; Sabouini, Ridah; Evans, Tracy

    2013-07-01

    Industrial companies are seeking to manage energy consumption and costs, mitigate risks associated with energy, and introduce transparency into reports of their energy performance achievements. Forty industrial facilities are participating in the U.S. DOE supported Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program in which facilities implement an energy management system based on the ISO 50001 standard, and pursue third-party verification of their energy performance improvements. SEP certification provides industrial facilities recognition for implementing a consistent, rigorous, internationally recognized business process for continually improving energy performance and achievement of established energy performance improvement targets. This paper focuses on the business value of SEP and ISO 50001, providing an assessment of the costs and benefits associated with SEP implementation at nine SEP-certified facilities across a variety of industrial sectors. These cost-benefit analyses are part of the U.S. DOE?s contribution to the Global Superior Energy Performance (GSEP) partnership, a multi-country effort to demonstrate, using facility data, that energy management system implementation enables companies to improve their energy performance with a greater return on investment than business-as-usual (BAU) activity. To examine the business value of SEP certification, interviews were conducted with SEP-certified facilities. The costs of implementing the SEP program, including internal facility staff time, are described and a marginal payback of SEP certification has been determined. Additionally, more qualitative factors with regard to the business value and challenges related to SEP and ISO 50001 implementation are summarized.

  6. The Cost and Threshold Analysis of Retention in Care (RiC): A Multi-Site National HIV Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulsby, Catherine; Jain, Kriti M; Weir, Brian W; Enobun, Blessing; Riordan, Maura; Charles, Vignetta E; Holtgrave, David R

    2017-03-01

    Persons diagnosed with HIV but not retained in HIV medical care accounted for the majority of HIV transmissions in 2009 in the United States (US). There is an urgent need to implement and disseminate HIV retention in care programs; however little is known about the costs associated with implementing retention in care programs. We assessed the costs and cost-saving thresholds for seven Retention in Care (RiC) programs implemented in the US using standard methods recommended by the US Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Data were gathered from accounting and program implementation records, entered into a standardized RiC economic analysis spreadsheet, and standardized to a 12 month time frame. Total program costs for from the societal perspective ranged from $47,919 to $423,913 per year or $146 to $2,752 per participant. Cost-saving thresholds ranged from 0.13 HIV transmissions averted to 1.18 HIV transmission averted per year. We estimated that these cost-saving thresholds could be achieved through 1 to 16 additional person-years of viral suppression. Across a range of program models, retention in care interventions had highly achievable cost-saving thresholds, suggesting that retention in care programs are a judicious use of resources.

  7. Environmental Restoration Program project management plan for the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office Major System Acquisition OR-1. Revision 1, Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    In the early 1940s, the Manhattan Project was conducted in a regulatory and operational environment less sophisticated than today. Less was known of the measures needed to protect human health and safety and the environment from the dangers posed by radioactive and hazardous wastes, and experience in dealing with these hazardous materials has grown slowly. Certain hazards were recognized and dealt with from the beginning. However, the techniques used, though standard practices at the time, are now known to have been inadequate. Consequently, the DOE has committed to an aggressive program for cleaning up the environment and has initiated an Environmental Restoration Program involving all its field offices. The objective of this program is to ensure that inactive and surplus DOE facilities and sites meet current standards to protect human health and the environment. The objective of these activities is to ensure that risks posed to human health and safety and the environment by inactive sites and surplus facilities contaminated with radioactive, hazardous, and/or mixed wastes are either eliminated or reduced to prescribed safe levels. This Project Management Plan for Major System Acquisition OR-1 Project documents, communicates, and contributes to the evolution of, the management organizations, systems, and tools necessary to carry out effectively the long-range complex cleanup of the DOE sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation, and at the Paducah, Kentucky, and Piketon, Ohio, uranium enrichment plants managed by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office; the cleanup of off-site contamination resulting from past releases; and the Decontamination and Decommissioning of surplus DOE facilities at these installations.

  8. A Web-Based Computer-Tailored Alcohol Prevention Program for Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness and Intersectoral Costs and Benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    st, Ruben M. W. A; Paulus, Agnes; Jander, Astrid F; Mercken, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Ruwaard, Dirk; Evers, Silvia M. A. A

    2016-01-01

    .... Computer tailoring can be both effective and cost-effective for working with many lifestyle behaviors, yet the available information on the cost-effectiveness of computer tailoring for reducing...

  9. On-Line Acquisitions by LOLITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances G. Spigai

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available The on-line acquisition program (LOLITA in use at the Oregon State University Library is described in terms of development costs, equipment requirements, and overall design philosophy. In particular, the record format and content of records in the on-order file, and the on-line processing of these records (input, search, correction, output using a cathode ray tube display terminal are detailed.

  10. Resource and cost adjustment in the design of allocation funding formulas in public health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, James W; Bernet, Patrick M; Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    Multiple federal public health programs use funding formulas to allocate funds to states. To characterize the effects of adjusting formula-based allocations for differences among states in the cost of implementing programs, the potential for generating in-state resources, and income disparities, which might be associated with disease risk. Fifty US states and the District of Columbia. Formula-based funding allocations to states for 4 representative federal public health programs were adjusted using indicators of cost (average salaries), potential within-state revenues (per-capita income, the Federal Medical Assistance Percentage, per-capita aggregate home values), and income disparities (Theil index). Percentage of allocation shifted by adjustment, the number of states and the percentage of US population living in states with a more than 20% increase or decrease in funding, maximum percentage increase or decrease in funding. Each adjustor had a comparable impact on allocations across the 4 program allocations examined. Approximately 2% to 8% of total allocations were shifted, with adjustments for variations in income disparity and housing values having the least and greatest effects, respectively. The salary cost and per-capita income adjustors were inversely correlated and had offsetting effects on allocations. With the exception of the housing values adjustment, fewer than 10 states had more than 20% increases or decreases in allocations, and less than 10% of the US population lived in such states. Selection of adjustors for formula-based funding allocations should consider the impacts of different adjustments, correlations between adjustors and other data elements in funding formulas, and the relationship of formula inputs to program objectives.

  11. Age-26 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Early Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; White, Barry A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Robertson, Dylan L.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) early childhood intervention. Using data collected up to age 26 on health and well-being, the study is the first adult economic analysis of a sustained large-scale and publicly-funded intervention. As part of the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a complete cohort of 900 low-income children who enrolled in 20 CPCs beginning at age 3 were compared to 500 well-matched low-income children who participated in the usual educational interventions for the economically disadvantaged in Chicago schools. School-age services were provided up to age 9 (third grade). Findings indicated that the three components of CPC had economic benefits in 2007 dollars that exceeded costs. The preschool program provided a total return to society of $10.83 per dollar invested (net benefits per participant of $83,708). Benefits to the public (other than program participants and families) were $7.20 per dollar invested. The primary sources of benefits were increased earnings and tax revenues, averted criminal justice system and victim costs, and savings for child welfare, special education, and grade retention. The school-age program had a societal return of $3.97 per dollar invested and a $2.11 public return. The extended intervention program (4 to 6 years of participation) had a societal return of $8.24 and public return of $5.21. Estimates were robust across a wide range of discount rates and alternative assumptions, and were consistent with the results of Monte Carlo simulations. Males, 1-year preschool participants, and children from higher risk families had greater economic benefits. Findings provide strong evidence that sustained early childhood programs can contribute to well-being for individuals and society. PMID:21291448

  12. The cost-effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Results from a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Linda; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to bullying affects around 3-5 percent of adolescents in secondary school and is related to various mental health problems. Many different anti-bullying programmes are currently available, but economic evaluations are lacking. The aim of this study is to identify the cost effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP). We constructed a decision-tree model for a Swedish secondary school, using a public payer perspective, and retrieved data on costs and effects from the published literature. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis to reflect the uncertainty in the model was conducted. The base-case analysis showed that using the OBPP to reduce the number of victims of bullying costs 131,250 Swedish kronor (€14,470) per victim spared. Compared to a relevant threshold of the societal value of bullying reduction, this indicates that the programme is cost-effective. Using a relevant willingness-to-pay threshold shows that the OBPP is a cost-effective intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementation of a shared-savings program for surgical supplies decreases inventory cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiferman, Daniel; Bhakta, Ankur; Khan, Safdar

    2015-10-01

    Management of operating room inventory has substantial cost-saving opportunities if surgeons agree to standardize supplies used to perform procedures; however, there is no incentive for surgeons to participate in these decisions, because the cost-savings are realized only by the hospital, not the practitioner. In an attempt to engage surgeons with the management of the operating room supply chain, a shared-savings programs was instituted that returned 50% of money saved to the surgery divisions. Opportunities for savings in the use of biologic mesh, cranial plating systems, and neurostimulators was identified. Each item was assigned a physician champion responsible for ensuring that there was clinical equipoise between the products being used. Any cost-savings realized during the fiscal year were shared 50-50 between the hospital and the surgery divisions. The total cost-savings was $893,865 with $446,932 being shared across 15 surgery divisions. Standardization of cranial plating systems ($374,805) generated the greatest amounts of savings followed by neurostimulators ($278,404) and biologic mesh ($240,655). Aligning hospital and surgeon incentives led to dramatic cost-savings and standardization of the operative inventory used. Quality of care is not compromised by this approach, and no conflicts of interest are created. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 48 CFR 34.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 34... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.004 Acquisition strategy. The program manager, as specified in agency procedures, shall develop an acquisition strategy tailored to the particular...

  15. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Emily R; Agarwal, Smisha; L'Engle, Kelly; Lasway, Christine; Zan, Trinity; van Beijma, Hajo; Orkis, Jennifer; Karam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth") can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH), a national text-message (SMS) based health communication service in Tanzania. We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320) and at any possible break-even volume. In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively) from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS) was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs. These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners. While this

  16. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Mangone

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth" can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH, a national text-message (SMS based health communication service in Tanzania.We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320 and at any possible break-even volume.In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs.These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners

  17. The St. Jude Cancer Education for Children Program Pilot Study: Determining the Knowledge Acquisition and Retention of 4th-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Katherine; Villalobos, Aubrey Van Kirk; Li, Zhenghong; Krasin, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In 2006, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital began developing a school-based outreach program known as the St. Jude Cancer Education for Children Program (SJCECP). The program aimed to teach children about cancer and healthy habits that can prevent the formation of cancers into adulthood. During the 2010-2011 academic years, we conducted a pilot evaluation of the SJCECP curriculum, with the primary objective of evaluating the impact of the intervention on knowledge acquisition and retention among 4th-grade students participating in the program. Seven local schools and 481 students from the Memphis area participated in the program evaluation. The results of this study show that 4th-grade students are able to acquire gains in knowledge related to cells, cancer, and healthy living after receiving the SJCECP intervention. We conclude that the program can be a useful tool for improving knowledge of cancer concepts at the 4th-grade level.

  18. The SmokingPaST Framework: illustrating the impact of quit attempts, quit methods, and new smokers on smoking prevalence, years of life saved, medical costs saved, programming costs, cost effectiveness, and return on investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael P; Roizen, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    Describe the specifications of the Smoking Prevalence, Savings, and Treatment (SmokingPaST) Framework and show how it can illustrate the impact of quit attempts, quit method, number of new smokers, smoking rates of immigrants and emigrants, and death rates of smokers and nonsmokers on future smoking prevalence rates, program costs, years of life saved, medical costs saved, cost effectiveness of programs, and return on investment (ROI). FRAMEWORK SPECIFICATIONS: Mathematical relationships among factors in SmokingPaST are described. Input variables include baseline smoking rates among current adults, new adults, immigrants, and emigrants; population counts for these groups; annual quit attempts; and distribution of quit methods. Assumption variables include success rate by quit method, death rates of smokers and nonsmokers, annual medical costs of smoking, costs per person for four tobacco treatment methods, age distribution of quitters, and distribution of medical cost funding by source. Output variables include year-end adult smoking rates, successful quitters, years of life saved by quitting, medical costs saved by quitting and by not hiring smokers, total costs of smoking treatment programs, cost per quitter, cost per life-year saved, distribution of medical cost savings from quitting, and ROI of treatment costs. The Framework was applied at the employer, county, state, and national levels. The SmokingPaST Framework provides a conceptually simple framework that can be applied to any population. It illustrates that significant drops in smoking rates can be achieved and significant savings in medical costs can be captured by employers as well as state and federal governments through tobacco treatment and prevention programs. Savings are especially important for reducing state and federal government deficits and enhancing job competitiveness.

  19. The cost of a pediatric neurocritical care program for traumatic brain injury: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven W; Zhang, Zidong; Buchanan, Paula; Bernell, Stephanie L; Williams, Christine; Pearson, Lindsey; Huetsch, Michael; Gill, Jeff; Pineda, Jose A

    2018-01-12

    Inpatient care for children with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is expensive, with inpatient charges averaging over $70,000 per case (Hospital Inpatient, Children Only, National Statistics. Diagnoses- clinical classification software (CCS) principal diagnosis category 85 coma, stupor, and brain damage, and 233 intracranial injury. Diagnoses by Aggregate charges [ https://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/#setup ]). This ranks sTBI in the top quartile of pediatric conditions with the greatest inpatient costs (Hospital Inpatient, Children Only, National Statistics. Diagnoses- clinical classification software (CCS) principal diagnosis category 85 coma, stupor, and brain damage, and 233 intracranial injury. Diagnoses by Aggregate charges [ https://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/#setup ]). The Brain Trauma Foundation developed sTBI intensive care guidelines in 2003, with revisions in 2012 (Kochanek, Carney, et. al. PCCM 3:S1-S2, 2012). These guidelines have been widely disseminated, and are associated with improved health outcomes (Pineda, Leonard. et. al. LN 12:45-52, 2013), yet research on the cost of associated hospital care is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the costs of providing hospital care to sTBI patients through a guideline-based Pediatric Neurocritical Care Program (PNCP) implemented at St. Louis Children's Hospital, a pediatric academic medical center in the Midwest United States. This is a retrospective cohort study. We used multi-level regression to estimate pre-/post-implementation effects of the PNCP program on inflation adjusted total cost of in-hospital sTBI care. The study population included 58 pediatric patient discharges in the pre-PNCP implementation group (July 15, 1999 - September 17, 2005), and 59 post-implementation patient discharges (September 18, 2005 - January 15, 2012). Implementation of the PNCP was associated with a non-significant difference in the cost of care between the pre- and post-implementation periods (eβ = 1.028, p = 0

  20. The Swift Project Contamination Control Program: A Case Study of Balancing Cost, Schedule and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Day, Diane T.; Secunda, Mark S.; Rosecrans, Glenn P.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Observatory will be launched in early 2004 to examine the dynamic process of gamma ray burst (GRB) events. The multi-wavelength Observatory will study the GRB afterglow characteristics, which will help to answer fundamental questions about both the structure and the evolution of the universe. The Swift Observatory Contamination Control Program has been developed to aid in ensuring the success of the on-orbit performance of two of the primary instruments: the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT). During the design phase of the Observatory, the contamination control program evolved and trade studies were performed to assess the risk of contaminating the sensitive UVOT and XRT optics during both pre-launch testing and on-orbit operations, within the constraints of the overall program cost and schedule.

  1. Cost Analysis of Physician Assistant Home Visit Program to Reduce Readmissions After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabagiez, John P; Shariff, Masood A; Molloy, William J; Demissie, Seleshi; McGinn, Joseph T

    2016-09-01

    A physician assistant home care (PAHC) program providing house calls was initiated to reduce hospital readmissions after adult cardiac surgery. The purpose of our study was to compare 30-day PAHC and pre-PAHC readmission rate, length of stay, and cost. Patients who underwent adult cardiac surgery in the 48 months from September 2008 through August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed using pre-PAHC patients as the control group. Readmission rate, length of stay, and health care cost, as measured by hospital billing, were compared between groups matched with propensity score. Of the 1,185 patients who were discharged directly home, 155 (13%) were readmitted. Total readmissions for the control group (n = 648) was 101 patients (16%) compared with the PAHC group (n = 537) total readmissions of 54 (10%), a 38% reduction in the rate of readmission (p = 0.0049). Propensity score matched groups showed a rate reduction of 41% with 17% (62 of 363) for the control compared with 10% (37 of 363) for the PAHC group (p = 0.0061). The average hospital bill per readmission was $39,100 for the control group and $56,600 for the PAHC group (p = 0.0547). The cost of providing home visits was $25,300 for 363 propensity score matched patients. The PAHC program reduced the 30-day readmission rate by 41% for propensity score matched patients. Analysis demonstrated a savings of $977,500 at a cost of $25,300 over 2 years, or $39 in health care saved, in terms of hospital billing, for every $1 spent. Therefore, a home visit by a cardiac surgical physician assistant is a cost-effective strategy to reduce readmissions after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Building evidence for peer-led interventions: assessing the cost of the Adolescent Asthma Action program in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otim, Michael E; Jayasinha, Ranmalie; Forbes, Hayley; Shah, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness among adolescents in Australia. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents, in particular, face substantial inequalities in asthma-related outcomes. Triple A (Adolescent Asthma Action) is a peer-led education intervention, which aims to improve asthma self-management and reduce the uptake of smoking among adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of implementing the Triple A program in Australia. Standard economic costing methods were used. It involved identifying the resources that were utilised (such as personnel and program materials), measuring them and then valuing them. We later performed sensitivity analysis so as to identify the cost drivers and a stress test to test how the intervention can perform when some inputs are lacking. Results indicate that the estimated cost of implementing the Triple A program in five schools was $41060, assuming that the opportunity cost of all the participants and venues was accounted for. This translated to $8212 per school or $50 per target student. From sensitivity analysis and a stress test, it was identified that the cost of the intervention (in practice) was $14 per student. This appears to be a modest cost, given the burden of asthma. In conclusion, the Triple A program is an affordable intervention to implement in high schools. The potential asthma cost savings due to the program are significant. If the Triple A program is implemented nation-wide, the benefits would be substantial.

  3. Improving Maternal Care through a State-Wide Health Insurance Program: A Cost and Cost-Effectiveness Study in Rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gabriela B; Foster, Nicola; Brals, Daniella; Nelissen, Heleen E; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A; Hendriks, Marleen E; Boers, Alexander C; van Eck, Diederik; Rosendaal, Nicole; Adenusi, Peju; Agbede, Kayode; Akande, Tanimola M; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Wit, Ferdinand W; Hankins, Catherine A; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    While the Nigerian government has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, further investments are needed to achieve the targets of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, including Universal Health Coverage. Economic evaluations of innovative interventions can help inform investment decisions in resource-constrained settings. We aim to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of maternal care provided within the new Kwara State Health Insurance program (KSHI) in rural Nigeria. We used a decision analytic model to simulate a cohort of pregnant women. The primary outcome is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the KSHI scenario compared to the current standard of care. Intervention cost from a healthcare provider perspective included service delivery costs and above-service level costs; these were evaluated in a participating hospital and using financial records from the managing organisations, respectively. Standard of care costs from a provider perspective were derived from the literature using an ingredient approach. We generated 95% credibility intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the base case separately through a scenario analysis. Finally, we assessed the sustainability and feasibility of this program's scale up within the State's healthcare financing structure through a budget impact analysis. The KSHI scenario results in a health benefit to patients at a higher cost compared to the base case. The mean ICER (US$46.4/disability-adjusted life year averted) is considered very cost-effective compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of one gross domestic product per capita (Nigeria, US$ 2012, 2,730). Our conclusion was robust to uncertainty in parameters estimates (PSA: median US$49.1, 95% credible interval 21

  4. Cost-effective early childhood development programs from preschool to third grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A

    2008-01-01

    Although findings on the positive effects of early childhood development programs have been widely disseminated, less attention has been given to program impacts across the entire period of early childhood. This review summarizes evidence on the effects and cost-effectiveness of programs and services from ages 3 to 9. The major focus is preschool programs for 3- and 4-year-olds, full-day kindergarten, school-age programs including reduced class sizes, and preschool-to-third-grade interventions. Participation in preschool programs was found to have relatively large and enduring effects on school achievement and child well-being. High-quality programs for children at risk produce strong economic returns ranging from about $4 per dollar invested to over $10 per dollar invested. Relative to half-day kindergarten, the positive effects of full-day kindergarten have been found to be relatively small and generally do not last for more than a year. Although no formal economic analyses have been conducted, the economic return per dollar invested would be expected to be close to zero. Among early-school-age programs, preschool plus school-age interventions (PK-3) for children at risk are linked to higher levels of school performance into adolescence. The Child-Parent Center PK-3 Program shows a return of $6 to $9 per dollar invested. Class-size reductions show evidence of positive effects, with economic returns of roughly $3 per dollar invested. The causal mechanisms of long-term effects are discussed. Key principles to promote intervention effectiveness are offered.

  5. Evaluation of the Super ESPC Program: Level 2 -- Recalculated Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This report presents the results of Level 2 of a three-tiered evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program's Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) Program. Level 1 of the analysis studied all of the Super ESPC projects for which at least one Annual Measurement & Verification (M&V) Report had been produced by April 2006. For those 102 projects in aggregate, we found that the value of cost savings reported by the energy service company (ESCO) in the Annual M&V Reports was 108% of the cost savings guaranteed in the contracts. We also compared estimated energy savings (which are not guaranteed, but are the basis for the guaranteed cost savings) to the energy savings reported by the ESCO in the Annual M&V Report. In aggregate, reported energy savings were 99.8% of estimated energy savings on the basis of site energy, or 102% of estimated energy savings based on source energy. Level 2 focused on a random sample of 27 projects taken from the 102 Super ESPC projects studied in Level 1. The objectives were, for each project in the sample, to: repeat the calculations of the annual energy and cost savings in the most recent Annual M&V Report to validate the ESCO's results or correct any errors, and recalculate the value of the reported energy, water, and operations and maintenance (O&M) savings using actual utility prices paid at the project site instead of the 'contract' energy prices - the prices that are established in the project contract as those to be used by the ESCO to calculate the annual cost savings, which determine whether the guarantee has been met. Level 3 analysis will be conducted on three to five projects from the Level 2 sample that meet validity criteria for whole-building or whole-facility data analysis. This effort will verify energy and cost savings using statistical analysis of actual utility use, cost, and weather data. This approach, which can only be used for projects meeting

  6. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  7. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehlika Toy

    Full Text Available Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15-25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293 per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10-19.02 for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32-75 (195-460 RMB per month, highly cost-effective at $62-110 (379-670 RMB per month and cost-effective at $63-120 (384-734 RMB per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level.

  8. A fuzzy inventory model with unit production cost, time depended holding cost, with-out shortages under a space constraint: a parametric geometric programming approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sahidul Islam; Wasim Akram Mandal

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an Inventory model with unit production cost, time depended holding cost, with-out shortages is formulated and solved. We have considered here a single objective inventory model. In most real world situation, the objective and constraint function of the decision makers are imprecise in nature, hence the coefficients, indices, the objective function and constraint goals are imposed here in fuzzy environment. Geometric programming provides a powerful tool for solving a variety of...

  9. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Hypertension Screening and Treatment in Adults with Hypertension in Rural Nigeria in the Context of a Health Insurance Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole T A Rosendaal

    Full Text Available High blood pressure is a leading risk factor for death and disability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. We evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of hypertension care provided within the Kwara State Health Insurance (KSHI program in rural Nigeria.A Markov model was developed to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of population-level hypertension screening and subsequent antihypertensive treatment for the population at-risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD within the KSHI program. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted in the KSHI scenario compared to no access to hypertension care. We used setting-specific and empirically-collected data to inform the model. We defined two strategies to assess eligibility for antihypertensive treatment based on 1 presence of hypertension grade 1 and 10-year CVD risk of >20%, or grade 2 hypertension irrespective of 10-year CVD risk (hypertension and risk based strategy and 2 presence of hypertension in combination with a CVD risk of >20% (risk based strategy. We generated 95% confidence intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the reference scenario.Screening and treatment for hypertension was potentially cost-effective but the results were sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions with a wide range of uncertainty. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the first and second strategy respectively ranged from US$ 1,406 to US$ 7,815 and US$ 732 to US$ 2,959 per DALY averted, depending on the assumptions on risk reduction after treatment and compared to no access to antihypertensive treatment.Hypertension care within a subsidized private health insurance program may be cost-effective in rural Nigeria and public-private partnerships such as the KSHI program may provide opportunities

  10. Proceedings of Management of Risk and Uncertainty in the Acquisition of Major Programs, U. S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, February 9-11, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    oroanizational Perspective. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Naval Post graduate School’, Monterey, CA. March 1975. LD-36971A. 33 Lev . Baruch ...such as the Apollo Space Program with a 200% overrun, and the Space Shuttle Pro- gram are added to this list, the types and lev - els of technologies...as how they apply to the acquisition process. Lev (33) defines risk as the condition where each outcome of the decision maker leads to one of a

  11. Impacts of Community-driven Development Programs on Income and Asset Acquisition in Africa: The Case of Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nkonya, Ephraim

    2012-01-01

    .... Using recall data, difference-in-differences, and propensity score matching approaches, the study finds that the project succeeded in targeting the poor and women farmers in its productive asset acquisition component...

  12. Community partnership to address snack quality and cost in after-school programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Weaver, Robert G; Jones, Sonya

    2014-08-01

    Policies call on after-school programs (ASPs) to serve more nutritious snacks. A major barrier for improving snack quality is cost. This study describes the impact on snack quality and expenditures from a community partnership between ASPs and local grocery stores. Four large-scale ASPs (serving ˜500 children, aged 6-12 years, each day) and a single local grocery store chain participated in this study. The nutritional quality of snacks served was recorded preintervention (18 weeks spring/fall 2011) and postintervention (7 weeks spring 2012) via direct observation, along with cost/child/snack/day. Preintervention snacks were low-nutrient-density salty snacks (eg, chips, 3.0 servings/week), sugar-sweetened beverages (eg, powdered-lemonade, 1.9 servings/week), and desserts (eg, cookies, 2.1 servings/week), with only 0.4 servings/week of fruits and no vegetables. By postintervention, fruits (3.5 servings/week) and vegetables (1.2 servings/week) were increased, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages and desserts were eliminated. Snack expenditures were $0.26 versus $0.24 from preintervention to postintervention. Partnership savings versus purchasing snacks at full retail cost was 24.5% or $0.25/serving versus $0.34/serving. This innovative partnership can serve as a model in communities where ASPs seek to identify low-cost alternatives to providing nutritious snacks. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  13. [Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer.

  14. Dynamic Programming and Error Estimates for Stochastic Control Problems with Maximum Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokanowski, Olivier, E-mail: boka@math.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Université Paris-Diderot (Paris 7) UFR de Mathématiques - Bât. Sophie Germain (France); Picarelli, Athena, E-mail: athena.picarelli@inria.fr [Projet Commands, INRIA Saclay & ENSTA ParisTech (France); Zidani, Hasnaa, E-mail: hasnaa.zidani@ensta.fr [Unité de Mathématiques appliquées (UMA), ENSTA ParisTech (France)

    2015-02-15

    This work is concerned with stochastic optimal control for a running maximum cost. A direct approach based on dynamic programming techniques is studied leading to the characterization of the value function as the unique viscosity solution of a second order Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation with an oblique derivative boundary condition. A general numerical scheme is proposed and a convergence result is provided. Error estimates are obtained for the semi-Lagrangian scheme. These results can apply to the case of lookback options in finance. Moreover, optimal control problems with maximum cost arise in the characterization of the reachable sets for a system of controlled stochastic differential equations. Some numerical simulations on examples of reachable analysis are included to illustrate our approach.

  15. A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Johanna M; Proper, Karin I; van Wier, Marieke F; van der Beek, Allard J; Bongers, Paulien M; van Mechelen, Willem; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to appraise and summarize the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportDiscus, PsycInfo, NIOSHTIC-2, NHSEED, HTA, and Econlit for studies published up to 14 January 2011. Additionally, we searched for articles by reviewing references, searching authors' databases, and contacting authors of included studies. Two researchers independently selected articles. Articles had to include a cost-effectiveness and/or cost-utility analysis comparing a worksite physical activity and/or nutrition program to usual care or an abridged version of the program. Data were extracted on study characteristics and results. Two researchers independently assessed the risk of bias using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). Ten studies (18 programs) were included. More than 50% of the studies fulfilled 11 (58%) of the 19 CHEC-list items. From various perspectives, worksite nutrition and worksite physical activity and nutrition programs (N=6) were more costly and more effective in reducing body weight than usual care. When only intervention costs were considered, most worksite nutrition (N=4/5) and worksite physical activity and nutrition programs (N=5/6) were more costly and more effective in reducing cholesterol level and cardiovascular disease risks, respectively. The cost-effectiveness of more costly and more effective programs depends on the "willingness to pay" for their effects. It is unknown how much decision-makers are willing to pay for reductions in body weight, cholesterol level, and cardiovascular disease risks. Therefore, conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs cannot be made. There is substantial need for improvement of the methodological quality of studies and particular emphasis should be placed on the handling of uncertainty.

  16. A low-cost multielectrode system for data acquisition enabling real-time closed-loop processing with rapid recovery from stimulation artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Rolston

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available data acquisition systems for multielectrode recording from freely moving animals are expensive, often rely on proprietary software, and do not provide detailed, modifiable circuit schematics. When used in conjunction with electrical stimulation, they are prone to prolonged, saturating stimulation artifacts that prevent the recording of short-latency evoked responses. Yet electrical stimulation is integral to many experimental designs, and critical for emerging brain-computer interfacing and neuroprosthetic applications. To address these issues, we developed an easy-to-use, modifiable, and inexpensive system for multielectrode neural recording and stimulation. Setup costs are less than US$10,000 for 64 channels, an order of magnitude lower than comparable commercial systems. Unlike commercial equipment, the system recovers rapidly from stimulation and allows short-latency action potentials (<1 ms post-stimulus to be detected, facilitating closed-loop applications and exposing neural activity that would otherwise remain hidden. To illustrate this capability, evoked activity from microstimulation of the rodent hippocampus is presented. The system is modular, in banks of 16 channels, and flexible in usage: while primarily designed for in vivo use, it can be combined with commercial preamplifiers to record from in vitro multielectrode arrays. The system’s open-source control software, NeuroRighter, is implemented in C#, with an easy-to-use graphical interface. As C# functions in a managed code environment, which may impact performance, analysis was conducted to ensure comparable speed to C++ for this application. Hardware schematics, layout files, and software are freely available. Since maintaining wired headstage connections with freely moving animals is difficult, we describe a new method of electrode-headstage coupling using neodymium magnets.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of rapid syphilis screening in prenatal HIV testing programs in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R Schackman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available New rapid syphilis tests permit simple and immediate diagnosis and treatment at a single clinic visit. We compared the cost-effectiveness, projected health outcomes, and annual cost of screening pregnant women using a rapid syphilis test as part of scaled-up prenatal testing to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Haiti.A decision analytic model simulated health outcomes and costs separately for pregnant women in rural and urban areas. We compared syphilis syndromic surveillance (rural standard of care, rapid plasma reagin test with results and treatment at 1-wk follow-up (urban standard of care, and a new rapid test with immediate results and treatment. Test performance data were from a World Health Organization-Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases field trial conducted at the GHESKIO Center Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes in Port-au-Prince. Health outcomes were projected using historical data on prenatal syphilis treatment efficacy and included disability-adjusted life years (DALYs of newborns, congenital syphilis cases, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths. Cost-effectiveness ratios are in US dollars/DALY from a societal perspective; annual costs are in US dollars from a payer perspective. Rapid testing with immediate treatment has a cost-effectiveness ratio of $6.83/DALY in rural settings and $9.95/DALY in urban settings. Results are sensitive to regional syphilis prevalence, rapid test sensitivity, and the return rate for follow-up visits. Integrating rapid syphilis testing into a scaled-up national HIV testing and prenatal care program would prevent 1,125 congenital syphilis cases and 1,223 stillbirths or neonatal deaths annually at a cost of $525,000.In Haiti, integrating a new rapid syphilis test into prenatal care and HIV testing would prevent congenital syphilis cases and stillbirths, and is cost-effective. A similar approach may be beneficial in other resource

  18. Cost-effectiveness of rapid syphilis screening in prenatal HIV testing programs in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R; Neukermans, Christopher P; Fontain, Sandy N Nerette; Nolte, Claudine; Joseph, Patrice; Pape, Jean W; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2007-05-01

    New rapid syphilis tests permit simple and immediate diagnosis and treatment at a single clinic visit. We compared the cost-effectiveness, projected health outcomes, and annual cost of screening pregnant women using a rapid syphilis test as part of scaled-up prenatal testing to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Haiti. A decision analytic model simulated health outcomes and costs separately for pregnant women in rural and urban areas. We compared syphilis syndromic surveillance (rural standard of care), rapid plasma reagin test with results and treatment at 1-wk follow-up (urban standard of care), and a new rapid test with immediate results and treatment. Test performance data were from a World Health Organization-Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases field trial conducted at the GHESKIO Center Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes in Port-au-Prince. Health outcomes were projected using historical data on prenatal syphilis treatment efficacy and included disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of newborns, congenital syphilis cases, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths. Cost-effectiveness ratios are in US dollars/DALY from a societal perspective; annual costs are in US dollars from a payer perspective. Rapid testing with immediate treatment has a cost-effectiveness ratio of $6.83/DALY in rural settings and $9.95/DALY in urban settings. Results are sensitive to regional syphilis prevalence, rapid test sensitivity, and the return rate for follow-up visits. Integrating rapid syphilis testing into a scaled-up national HIV testing and prenatal care program would prevent 1,125 congenital syphilis cases and 1,223 stillbirths or neonatal deaths annually at a cost of $525,000. In Haiti, integrating a new rapid syphilis test into prenatal care and HIV testing would prevent congenital syphilis cases and stillbirths, and is cost-effective. A similar approach may be beneficial in other resource-poor countries

  19. Ref Tek Ultra-low Power Seismic Recorder With Low-cost High Speed Internet Telemetry U An Advanced Real-time Seismological Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, P.; Zimakov, L.; Rozhkov, M.

    The 3rd Generation Seismic Recorder, Model 130-01, has been designed to be easier to use - more compact, lighter in weight, lower power, and requires less maintenance than other recorders. Not only is the hardware optimized for field deployments, soft- ware tools as well have been specially developed to support both field and base station operation. The 130's case is a clamshell design, inherently waterproof, with easy access to all user features on the top of the unit. The 130 has 6 input/output connectors, an LCD display, and a removable lid on top of the case. There are two Channel input connectors on a 6-channel unit (only one on a 3-channel unit), a Terminal connector for setup and control, a Net connector combining Ethernet and Serial PPP for network access, a 12 VDC Power connector, and a GPS receiver connector. The LCD display allows the user to monitor the status of various sub systems within the 130 without having a terminal device attached. For storing large amounts of data the IBM MicrodriveTM is offered. User setup, control and status monitoring is done either with a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) (Palm OS compatible) using our Palm Field Controller (PFC) software or from a PC/workstation using our REF TEK Network Controller (RNC) GUI interface. StarBand VSAT is the premier two-way, always-on, high-speed satellite Internet ser- vice. StarBand means high-speed Internet without the constraints and congestion of land-based cable or telephone networks. StarBand uses a single satellite dish antenna for receiving and for sending dataUno telephone connection is needed. The hardware ° cost is much less than standard VSAT equipment with double or single hop transmis- sion. REF TEK protocol (RTP) provides end-to-end error-correcting data transmission and command/control. StarBandSs low cost VSAT provides two-way, always-on, high speed satellite Internet data availability. REF TEK and StarBand create the most ad- vanced real-time seismological data acquisition

  20. Online Advertising to Reach and Recruit Latino Smokers to an Internet Cessation Program: Impact and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ye; Moreno, Jose L; Streiff, Shawn L; Villegas, Jorge; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Vallone, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco cessation among Latinos is a public health priority in the United States, particularly given the relatively high growth of this population segment. Although a substantial percentage of American Latinos use the Internet, they have not engaged in Web-based cessation programs as readily as other racial/ethnic subgroups. A lack of culturally specific advertising efforts may partly explain this disparity. Objective Phase I of this study focused on the development of four Spanish-language online banner advertisements to promote a free Spanish-language smoking cessation website (es.BecomeAnEX.org). Phase II examined the relative effectiveness of the four banner ads in reaching and recruiting Latino smokers to the cessation website. Methods In Phase I, 200 Spanish-speaking Latino smokers completed an online survey to indicate their preference for Spanish-language banner ads that incorporated either the cultural value of family (familismo) or fatalism (fatalismo). Ads included variations on message framing (gain vs loss) and depth of cultural targeting (surface vs deep). In Phase II, a Latin square design evaluated the effectiveness of the four preferred ads from Phase I. Ads were systematically rotated across four popular Latino websites (MySpace Latino, MSN Latino, MiGente, and Yahoo! en Español) over four months from August to November 2009. Tracking software recorded ad clicks and registrants on the cessation website. Negative binomial regression and general linear modeling examined the main and interacting effects of message framing and depth of cultural targeting for four outcomes: number of clicks, click-through rate, number of registrants, and cost per registrant. Results In Phase I, smokers preferred the four ads featuring familismo. In Phase II, 24,829,007 impressions were placed, yielding 24,822 clicks, an overall click-through rate of 0.10%, and 500 registrants (2.77% conversion rate). Advertising costs totaled US $104,669.49, resulting in an

  1. Online advertising to reach and recruit Latino smokers to an internet cessation program: impact and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L; Fang, Ye; Moreno, Jose L; Streiff, Shawn L; Villegas, Jorge; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Vallone, Donna M

    2012-08-27

    Tobacco cessation among Latinos is a public health priority in the United States, particularly given the relatively high growth of this population segment. Although a substantial percentage of American Latinos use the Internet, they have not engaged in Web-based cessation programs as readily as other racial/ethnic subgroups. A lack of culturally specific advertising efforts may partly explain this disparity. Phase I of this study focused on the development of four Spanish-language online banner advertisements to promote a free Spanish-language smoking cessation website (es.BecomeAnEX.org). Phase II examined the relative effectiveness of the four banner ads in reaching and recruiting Latino smokers to the cessation website. In Phase I, 200 Spanish-speaking Latino smokers completed an online survey to indicate their preference for Spanish-language banner ads that incorporated either the cultural value of family (familismo) or fatalism (fatalismo). Ads included variations on message framing (gain vs loss) and depth of cultural targeting (surface vs deep). In Phase II, a Latin square design evaluated the effectiveness of the four preferred ads from Phase I. Ads were systematically rotated across four popular Latino websites (MySpace Latino, MSN Latino, MiGente, and Yahoo! en Español) over four months from August to November 2009. Tracking software recorded ad clicks and registrants on the cessation website. Negative binomial regression and general linear modeling examined the main and interacting effects of message framing and depth of cultural targeting for four outcomes: number of clicks, click-through rate, number of registrants, and cost per registrant. In Phase I, smokers preferred the four ads featuring familismo. In Phase II, 24,829,007 impressions were placed, yielding 24,822 clicks, an overall click-through rate of 0.10%, and 500 registrants (2.77% conversion rate). Advertising costs totaled US $104,669.49, resulting in an overall cost per click of US $4

  2. Joint pricing and production management: a geometric programming approach with consideration of cubic production cost function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Hamidi Hesarsorkh, Aghil; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Bonyadi Naeini, Ali

    2014-08-01

    Coordination and harmony between different departments of a company can be an important factor in achieving competitive advantage if the company corrects alignment between strategies of different departments. This paper presents an integrated decision model based on recent advances of geometric programming technique. The demand of a product considers as a power function of factors such as product's price, marketing expenditures, and consumer service expenditures. Furthermore, production cost considers as a cubic power function of outputs. The model will be solved by recent advances in convex optimization tools. Finally, the solution procedure is illustrated by numerical example.

  3. Recruitment strategies and costs for a community-based physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L

    2008-04-01

    A community-based participatory research project using social marketing strategies was implemented to promote physical activity among women aged 35 to 54 who were insufficiently active or completely inactive. A variety of media were used to disseminate messages about how to enroll in Step Up. Step Out! This article describes the effectiveness and cost of the recruitment strategies and lessons learned in recruiting the women. Of the total inquiries (n = 691), 430 women were eligible and enrolled in the program. Based on data from questionnaires, the most effective method of recruiting women into Step Up. Step Out! was word of mouth (36%). Newspaper ads accounted for 29% of the women's responses. The least effective method was billboards. Mass media was not as effective in recruiting women for the program as interpersonal efforts such as word of mouth. Interpersonal efforts are a valuable and possibly underrated recruitment and promotion tool.

  4. Uses Of Infrared Thermography In The Low-Cost Solar Array Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Stuart D.

    1982-03-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has used infrared thermography extensively in the Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) photovoltaics program. A two-dimensional scanning infrared radiometer has been used to make field inspections of large free-standing photovoltaic arrays and smaller demonstration sites consisting of integrally mounted rooftop systems. These field inspections have proven especially valuable in the research and early development phases of the program, since certain types of module design flaws and environmental degradation manifest themselves in unique thermal patterns. The infrared camera was also used extensively in a series of laboratory tests on photovoltaic cells to obtain peak cell temperatures and thermal patterns during off-design operating conditions. The infrared field inspections and the laboratory experiments are discussed, and sample results are presented.

  5. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered in this model, and the price of the resources, the yield of grain and the market demands were regarded as interval numbers instead of constants. An interval linear programming was developed, and a method for solving interval linear programming was presented. An illustrative case was studied by the proposed model, and the results showed that the proposed model is feasible for designing biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilizing Information Technology to Facilitate Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ordering systems to facilitate streamlined commercial item acquisitions that reap the benefits of improved efficiency, reduced overall costs, and...PAGES 109 14. SUBJECT TERMS Rapid Acquisition, eCommerce , eProcurement, Information Technology, Contracting, Global Information Network...streamlined commercial item acquisitions that reap the benefits of improved efficiency, reduced overall costs, and timeliness. This thesis

  7. 78 FR 956 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is publishing an updated monetary amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy...

  8. Cost and cost-effectiveness of a school-based education program to reduce salt intake in children and their families in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Li

    Full Text Available The School-based Education Program to Reduce Salt Intake in Children and Their Families study was a cluster randomized control trial among grade five students in 28 primary schools and their families in Changzhi, China. It achieved a significant effect in lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP in all family adults by 2.3 mmHg and in elderlies (aged > = 60 years by 9.5 mmHg. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of this salt reduction program.Costs of the intervention were assessed using an ingredients approach to identify resource use. A trial-based incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was estimated based on the observed effectiveness in lowering SBP. A Markov model was used to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of the intervention, and then based on population data, extrapolated to a scenario where the program is scaled up nationwide. Findings were presented in terms of an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY. The perspective was that of the health sector.The intervention cost Int$19.04 per family and yielded an ICER of Int$2.74 (90% CI: 1.17-12.30 per mmHg reduction of SBP in all participants (combining children and adult participants together compared with control group. If scaled up nationwide for 10 years and assumed deterioration in treatment effect of 50% over this period, it would reach 165 million families and estimated to avert 42,720 acute myocardial infarction deaths and 107,512 stroke deaths in China. This would represent a gain of 635,816 QALYs over 10-year time frame, translating into Int$1,358 per QALY gained.Based on WHO-CHOICE criteria, our analysis demonstrated that the proposed salt reduction strategy is highly cost-effective, and if scaled up nationwide, the benefits could be substantial.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01821144.

  9. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  10. Salty or Sweet? Nutritional quality, consumption, and cost of snacks served in afterschool programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S.; Freedman, Darcy A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3–6pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially-flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks meet existing nutrition policies, whether children eat the snacks, and their cost. METHODS Direct observation of snacks served and consumed was collected in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The number of days snacks were served/week was evaluated for compliance with nutrition policies. Costs of snacks were collected via receipts. RESULTS Programs served desserts and artificially-flavored salty-snacks on 2.7 and 2.1 days/week. Fruits and vegetables were served 0.6 and 0.1 days/wk, respectively. Sugar-sweetened-beverages were served 1.8 days/wk. Of the children (N=383) observed, 75–100% consumed the snack served, with 95% and 100% of served fruits/vegetables consumed. No ASP served fruit/vegetables daily, 18 served sugar-sweetened foods, 16 served artificially-flavored snacks, and 14 served sugar-sweetened-beverages. Desserts and salty-snacks cost $0.27–$0.32/snack vs. $0.38–$0.40/snack for vegetables/fruits. CONCLUSIONS The quality of snacks failed to meet nutrition policies and consists of predominately high-sugar and artificially-flavored options. Strategies to improve snack offerings in ASPs while addressing price barriers are required. PMID:25564980

  11. Salty or sweet? Nutritional quality, consumption, and cost of snacks served in afterschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Weaver, Robert G; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy A

    2015-02-01

    Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3-6 pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks meet existing nutrition policies, whether children eat the snacks, and their cost. Direct observation of snacks served and consumed was collected in 20 ASPs serving over 1700 elementary age children. The number of days that snacks were served/week was evaluated for compliance with nutrition policies. Costs of snacks were collected via receipts. Programs served desserts and artificially flavored salty snacks on 2.7 and 2.1 days/week. Fruits and vegetables were served 0.6 and 0.1 days/week, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages were served 1.8 days/week. Of the children (N = 383) observed, 75% to 100% consumed the snack served, with 95% and 100% of served fruits/vegetables consumed. No ASP served fruit/vegetables daily, 18 served sugar-sweetened foods, 16 served artificially flavored snacks, and 14 served sugar-sweetened beverages. Desserts and salty snacks cost $0.27-$0.32/snack vs $0.38-$0.40/snack for vegetables/fruits. The quality of snacks failed to meet nutrition policies and consists of predominately high-sugar and artificially flavored options. Strategies to improve snack offerings in ASPs while addressing price barriers are required. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  12. Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model: A Web-based program designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of disease management programs in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shelby D; Neilson, Matthew P; Gardner, Matthew; Li, Yanhong; Briggs, Andrew H; Polsky, Daniel E; Graham, Felicia L; Bowers, Margaret T; Paul, Sara C; Granger, Bradi B; Schulman, Kevin A; Whellan, David J; Riegel, Barbara; Levy, Wayne C

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure disease management programs can influence medical resource use and quality-adjusted survival. Because projecting long-term costs and survival is challenging, a consistent and valid approach to extrapolating short-term outcomes would be valuable. We developed the Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model, a Web-based simulation tool designed to integrate data on demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics; use of evidence-based medications; and costs to generate predicted outcomes. Survival projections are based on a modified Seattle Heart Failure Model. Projections of resource use and quality of life are modeled using relationships with time-varying Seattle Heart Failure Model scores. The model can be used to evaluate parallel-group and single-cohort study designs and hypothetical programs. Simulations consist of 10,000 pairs of virtual cohorts used to generate estimates of resource use, costs, survival, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from user inputs. The model demonstrated acceptable internal and external validity in replicating resource use, costs, and survival estimates from 3 clinical trials. Simulations to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of heart failure disease management programs across 3 scenarios demonstrate how the model can be used to design a program in which short-term improvements in functioning and use of evidence-based treatments are sufficient to demonstrate good long-term value to the health care system. The Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model provides researchers and providers with a tool for conducting long-term cost-effectiveness analyses of disease management programs in heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 22, Number 1, Issue 72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    growth in new acquisition programs by associ- ating these programs with previous ones. This technique reduces cost estimate error in the earliest...perhaps best described in a three-sentence essay about Socrates writ - ten by a fourth-grader: “Socrates was a philos- opher,” she wrote. “He went...of doing things. Once better ideas are identified, they are captured as standard work and spelled out in procedures, training, checklists, and

  14. Community Partnership to Address Snack Quality and Cost in Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Weaver, Robert Glenn; Jones, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background Policies call on afterschool programs (ASPs) to serve more nutritious snacks. A major barrier for improving snack quality is cost. This study describes the impact on snack quality and expenditures from a community-partnership between ASPs and local grocery stores. Methods Four large-scale ASPs (serving ∼500 children aged 6-12 years each day) and a single local grocery store chain participated in the study. The nutritional quality of snacks served was recorded pre-intervention (18 weeks spring/fall 2011) and post-intervention (7 weeks spring 2012) via direct observation, along with cost/child/snack/day. Results Pre-intervention snacks were low-nutrient-density salty snacks (eg, chips, 3.0 servings/week), sugar-sweetened beverages (eg, powdered-lemonade, 1.9 servings/week), and desserts (eg, cookies, 2.1servings/week), with only 0.4 servings/week of fruits and no vegetables. By post-intervention, fruits (3.5 servings/week) and vegetables (1.2 servings/week) increased, while sugar-sweetened beverages and desserts were eliminated. Snack expenditures were $0.26 versus $0.24 from pre-intervention to post-intervention. Partnership savings versus purchasing snacks at full retail cost was 24.5% or $0.25/serving versus $0.34/serving. Conclusions This innovative partnership can serve as a model in communities where ASPs seek to identify low-cost alternatives to providing nutritious snacks. PMID:25040123

  15. Evidence for the long term cost effectiveness of home care reablement programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin GF

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gill F Lewin,1,2 Helman S Alfonso,3 Janine J Alan41Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Research Department, Silver Chain Group, Perth, WA, Australia; 3School of Population Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 4Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, AustraliaBackground: The objectives of this study were to determine whether older individuals who participated in a reablement (restorative program rather than immediately receiving conventional home care services had a reduced need for ongoing support and lower home care costs over the next 57 months (nearly 5 years.Materials and methods: Data linkage was used to examine retrospectively the service records of older individuals who had received a reablement service versus a conventional home care service to ascertain their use of home care services over time.Results: Individuals who had received a reablement service were less likely to use a personal care service throughout the follow-up period or any other type of home care over the next 3 years. This reduced use of home care services was associated with median cost savings per person of approximately AU $12,500 over nearly 5 years.Conclusion: The inclusion of reablement as the starting point for individuals referred for home care within Australia's reformed aged care system could increase the system's cost effectiveness and ensure that all older Australians have the opportunity to maximize their independence as they age.Keywords: restorative, older adults, community dwelling, service costs

  16. Can a transitional work grant program in a workers' compensation system reduce cost and facilitate return to work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, K K; Davis, K G; Kotowski, S E; Elliott, T; Jewell, G; Lockey, J

    2008-09-01

    Although previous research has shown returning the injured worker to work as soon as possible is important to the long-term prospects of the worker remaining in the work force, there is limited economic support for implementing such programs. Thus, the purpose of this case control study was to determine the cost savings of the implementation of a Transitional Work Grant (TWG) program, which consisted of several components including job analyses, education, communication and transitional work (TW). Companies that enrolled in the TWG program were matched to nonparticipating companies (NTW) based on employer size, type of industry, number of overall claims, and number of claims with > 7 days lost time (LT claims) submitted the year prior to enrollment. The study analyzed economic data: number of claims, number of LT claims, indemnity costs, medical costs, and days lost (days away from the workplace). An additional outcome was the ratio of LT claims (> 7 days lost work) to medical only (MO) claims (LT/MO ratio). Overall, participation in the TWG program was associated with decreased indemnity cost and decreased LT/MO ratio. However, effectiveness of the program varied by employer size and industry. In terms of the state of Ohio, these costs translate into substantial savings: more than $2.3 million per year. Although the cost savings and reduction in lost time claims is encouraging, the true benefit of TW has yet to be completely quantified. Future work must account for other potential co-factors and programs that could also contribute to the savings as well as document further the indirect benefits associated with a TWG program, such as improved employee morale and increased productivity and product quality that could be four times greater than the direct savings. In summary, programs such as this one adopted by several companies in Ohio can reduce the cost burden of injuries.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a transitional home-based palliative care program for patients with end-stage heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; So, Ching; Ng, Alina Yee Man; Lam, Po-Tin; Ng, Jeffrey Sheung Ching; Ng, Nancy Hiu Yim; Chau, June; Sham, Michael Mau Kwong

    2018-02-01

    Studies have shown positive clinical outcomes of specialist palliative care for end-stage heart failure patients, but cost-effectiveness evaluation is lacking. To examine the cost-effectiveness of a transitional home-based palliative care program for patients with end-stage heart failure patients as compared to the customary palliative care service. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial (Trial number: NCT02086305). The costs included pre-program training, intervention, and hospital use. Quality of life was measured using SF-6D. The study took place in three hospitals in Hong Kong. The inclusion criteria were meeting clinical indicators for end-stage heart failure patients including clinician-judged last year of life, discharged to home within the service area, and palliative care referral accepted. A total of 84 subjects (study = 43, control = 41) were recruited. When the study group was compared to the control group, the net incremental quality-adjusted life years gain was 0.0012 (28 days)/0.0077 (84 days) and the net incremental costs per case was -HK$7935 (28 days)/-HK$26,084 (84 days). The probability of being cost-effective was 85% (28 days)/100% (84 days) based on the cost-effectiveness thresholds recommended both by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (£20,000/quality-adjusted life years) and World Health Organization (Hong Kong gross domestic product/capita in 2015, HK$328117). Results suggest that a transitional home-based palliative care program is more cost-effective than customary palliative care service. Limitations of the study include small sample size, study confined to one city, clinic consultation costs, and societal costs including patient costs and unpaid care-giving costs were not included.

  18. The Michigan Surgical Home and Optimization Program is a scalable model to improve care and reduce costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englesbe, Michael J; Grenda, Dane R; Sullivan, June A; Derstine, Brian A; Kenney, Brooke N; Sheetz, Kyle H; Palazzolo, William C; Wang, Nicholas C; Goulson, Rebecca L; Lee, Jay S; Wang, Stewart C

    2017-06-01

    The Michigan Surgical Home and Optimization Program is a structured, home-based, preoperative training program targeting physical, nutritional, and psychological guidance. The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in this program was associated with reduced hospital duration of stay and health care costs. We conducted a retrospective, single center, cohort study evaluating patients who participated in the Michigan Surgical Home and Optimization Program and subsequently underwent major elective general and thoracic operative care between June 2014 and December 2015. Propensity score matching was used to match program participants to a control group who underwent operative care prior to program implementation. Primary outcome measures were hospital duration of stay and payer costs. Multivariate regression was used to determine the covariate-adjusted effect of program participation. A total of 641 patients participated in the program; 82% were actively engaged in the program, recording physical activity at least 3 times per week for the majority of the program; 182 patients were propensity matched to patients who underwent operative care prior to program implementation. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that participation in the Michigan Surgical Home and Optimization Program was associated with a 31% reduction in hospital duration of stay (P < .001) and 28% lower total costs (P < .001) after adjusting for covariates. A home-based, preoperative training program decreased hospital duration of stay, lowered costs of care, and was well accepted by patients. Further efforts will focus on broader implementation and linking participation to postoperative complications and rigorous patient-reported outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Model for Youth EFNEP Programs: What Do We Measure and How Do We Do It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Elena; McFerren, Mary; Lambur, Michael; Ellerbock, Michael; Hosig, Kathy; Franz, Nancy; Townsend, Marilyn; Baker, Susan; Muennig, Peter; Davis, George

    2011-01-01

    The Youth Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is one of the United States Department of Agriculture's hallmark nutrition education programs for limited-resource youth. The objective of this study was to gather opinions from experts in EFNEP and related content areas to identify costs, effects (impacts), and related instruments to…

  20. A simulation model to estimate cost-offsets for a disease-management program for chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin; Tschulena, Ulrich; Steppan, Sonja; Gatti, Emanuele

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a simulation model that analyzes cost-offsets of a hypothetical disease management program (DMP) for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Germany compared to no such program. A lifetime Markov model with simulated 65-year-old patients with CKD was developed using published data on costs and health status and simulating the progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), cardiovascular disease and death. A statutory health insurance perspective was adopted. This modeling study shows considerable potential for cost-offsets from a DMP for patients with CKD. The potential for cost-offsets increases with relative risk reduction by the DMP and baseline glomerular filtration rate. Results are most sensitive to the cost of dialysis treatment. This paper presents a general 'prototype' simulation model for the prevention of ESRD. The model allows for further modification and adaptation in future applications.

  1. Costs of Low-Scale Distance Learning Programs: A Case of Distance Learning Courses in the Aegean Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Tsolakidis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The advance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT and the reduction of cost in digital applications motivate course designers to develop new application of distance learning programs so as to meet the increasing educational needs in the knowledge-based society. As a consequence, distance learning courses are increasing in number, credibility and acceptability all over the world. The question is whether these programs are efficient in terms of costs. The main theme of this work is to investigate cost behaviour and estimate cost efficiency of distance learning courses applied in low-inhabited, remote islands. The target group consists of high school students of Grade I. The distance learning course that is designed uses several scenarios of the “what-if form” and reaches the conclusion that cost of such solutions is far lower than that of any traditional course, even at the absence of scale economies.

  2. Cost analysis of large-scale implementation of the 'Helping Babies Breathe' newborn resuscitation-training program in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sumona; Arlington, Lauren; Brenan, Shelby; Kairuki, Allan Kaijunga; Meda, Amunga Robson; Isangula, Kahabi G; Mponzi, Victor; Bishanga, Dunstan; Thomas, Erica; Msemo, Georgina; Azayo, Mary; Molinier, Alice; Nelson, Brett D

    2016-12-01

    Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) has become the gold standard globally for training birth-attendants in neonatal resuscitation in low-resource settings in efforts to reduce early newborn asphyxia and mortality. The purpose of this study was to do a first-ever activity-based cost-analysis of at-scale HBB program implementation and initial follow-up in a large region of Tanzania and evaluate costs of national scale-up as one component of a multi-method external evaluation of the implementation of HBB at scale in Tanzania. We used activity-based costing to examine budget expense data during the two-month implementation and follow-up of HBB in one of the target regions. Activity-cost centers included administrative, initial training (including resuscitation equipment), and follow-up training expenses. Sensitivity analysis was utilized to project cost scenarios incurred to achieve countrywide expansion of the program across all mainland regions of Tanzania and to model costs of program maintenance over one and five years following initiation. Total costs for the Mbeya Region were $202,240, with the highest proportion due to initial training and equipment (45.2%), followed by central program administration (37.2%), and follow-up visits (17.6%). Within Mbeya, 49 training sessions were undertaken, involving the training of 1,341 health providers from 336 health facilities in eight districts. To similarly expand the HBB program across the 25 regions of mainland Tanzania, the total economic cost is projected to be around $4,000,000 (around $600 per facility). Following sensitivity analyses, the estimated total for all Tanzania initial rollout lies between $2,934,793 to $4,309,595. In order to maintain the program nationally under the current model, it is estimated it would cost $2,019,115 for a further one year and $5,640,794 for a further five years of ongoing program support. HBB implementation is a relatively low-cost intervention with potential for high impact on perinatal

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of the “Helping Babies Breathe” Program in a Missionary Hospital in Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossius, Corinna; Lotto, Editha; Lyanga, Sara; Mduma, Estomih; Msemo, Georgina; Perlman, Jeffrey; Ersdal, Hege L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Helping Babies Breathe” (HBB) program is an evidence-based curriculum in basic neonatal care and resuscitation, utilizing simulation-based training to educate large numbers of birth attendants in low-resource countries. We analyzed its cost-effectiveness at a faith-based Haydom Lutheran Hospital (HLH) in rural Tanzania. Methods Data about early neonatal mortality and fresh stillbirth rates were drawn from a linked observational study during one year before and one year after full implementation of the HBB program. Cost data were provided by the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), the research department at HLH, and the manufacturer of the training material Lærdal Global Health. Findings Costs per life saved were USD 233, while they were USD 4.21 per life year gained. Costs for maintaining the program were USD 80 per life saved and USD 1.44 per life year gained. Costs per disease adjusted life year (DALY) averted ranged from International Dollars (ID; a virtual valuta corrected for purchasing power world-wide) 12 to 23, according to how DALYs were calculated. Conclusion The HBB program is a low-cost intervention. Implementation in a very rural faith-based hospital like HLH has been highly cost-effective. To facilitate further global implementation of HBB a cost-effectiveness analysis including government owned institutions, urban hospitals and district facilities is desirable for a more diverse analysis to explore cost-driving factors and predictors of enhanced cost-effectiveness. PMID:25006802

  4. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant cost model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cost analysis of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant includes two parts: a method for estimation of system capital costs, and an economic analysis which determines the levelized annual cost of operating the system used in the capital cost estimation. A FORTRAN computer has been developed for this cost analysis.

  5. 45 CFR 95.631 - Cost identification for purpose of FFP claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost identification for purpose of FFP claims. 95... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH... Participation (FFP) Federal Financial Participation in Costs of Adp Acquisitions § 95.631 Cost identification...

  6. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  7. EX6AFS: A data acquisition system for high-speed dispersive EXAFS measurements implemented using object-oriented programming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Guy; Lee, Peter L.

    1995-02-01

    In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a computerized data-acquisition system for high-speed energy-dispersive EXAFS experiments on the X6A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The acquisition system drives the stepper motors used to move the components of the experimental setup and controls the readout of the EXAFS spectra. The system runs on a Macintosh IIfx computer and is written entirely in the object-oriented language C++. Large segments of the system are implemented by means of commercial class libraries, specifically the MacApp application framework from Apple, the Rogue Wave class library, and the Hierarchical Data Format datafile format library from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. This reduces the amount of code that must be written and enhances reliability. The system makes use of several advanced features of C++: Multiple inheritance allows the code to be decomposed into independent software components and the use of exception handling allows the system to be much more reliable in the event of unexpected errors. Object-oriented techniques allow the program to be extended easily as new requirements develop. All sections of the program related to a particular concept are located in a small set of source files. The program will also be used as a prototype for future software development plans for the Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team beamlines being designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source.

  8. [Health risks and economic costs associated with obesity requiring a comprehensive weight reduction program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stunkard, A

    1997-06-12

    An increasing prevalence of obesity all over the world reflects a lack of effective measures in both prevention and treatment of obesity. Obesity as a disease has been underestimated by the lay-public as well as health care providers. However, obesity represents a substantial health problem associated with a decreased quality of life. Obesity is linked to numerous chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gout, osteoarthritis, gall-stones, and bowel, breast and genitourinary cancers) that lead to premature disability and mortality. Health risks increase with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 in individuals 19-35 years of age and with a BMI over 27 in those 35 years of age and older. Health risks also increase with an excess accumulation of visceral fat manifested as an increase in waist circumference (> 100 cm) or in waist to hip ratio (> 0.85 for females and > 1.00 for males). According to studies carried out in different countries current economic costs of obesity represent 5-8% of all direct health costs. In contrast, effective treatment of obesity results in a substantial decrease in expenditures associated with pharmacotherapy of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and osteoarthritis. Both scientists and clinicians involved in obesity research and treatment recommend to introduce the long-term weight management programs focussing more on the overall health of the participants than the weight loss per se. Therefore, it will be necessary to establish new realistic goals in the obesity management that reflect reasonable weights and recently experienced beneficial health effects of modest (5-10%) weight loss. Comprehensive obesity treatment consisting of low fat diet, exercise, behavioral modification, drug therapy and surgical procedures requires differentiated weight management programs modified according to the degree and type of obesity as well as to current health complications present. The Czech Society for the Study of Obesity

  9. DACC program cost and work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated 201 configuration of the dedicated Aft Cargo Carrier (DACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the DACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the DACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/DACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering an orbital transfer vehicle to a 120 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  10. An Acquisition Leader’s Model for Building Collaborative Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    14. SUBJECT TERMS Collaboration, Collaboration Capacity, Defense Acquisition, Acquisition Leader , Program Management , Project Management ...with key stakeholders? 5) How can acquisition leaders manage the “stove piped” acquisition system’s network? D. INFORMED FOUNDATION In...military deputy to the Army Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition Logistics and Technology who states: A program manager is a leader with a

  11. 48 CFR 434.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 434... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 434.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) The program... Systems Executive, a written charter outlining the authority, responsibility, accountability, and budget...

  12. Development of a Low-Cost, Noninvasive, Portable Visual Speech Recognition Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Gal, Ya'akov Kobi; Lalwani, Anil K

    2016-09-01

    Loss of speech following tracheostomy and laryngectomy severely limits communication to simple gestures and facial expressions that are largely ineffective. To facilitate communication in these patients, we seek to develop a low-cost, noninvasive, portable, and simple visual speech recognition program (VSRP) to convert articulatory facial movements into speech. A Microsoft Kinect-based VSRP was developed to capture spatial coordinates of lip movements and translate them into speech. The articulatory speech movements associated with 12 sentences were used to train an artificial neural network classifier. The accuracy of the classifier was then evaluated on a separate, previously unseen set of articulatory speech movements. The VSRP was successfully implemented and tested in 5 subjects. It achieved an accuracy rate of 77.2% (65.0%-87.6% for the 5 speakers) on a 12-sentence data set. The mean time to classify an individual sentence was 2.03 milliseconds (1.91-2.16). We have demonstrated the feasibility of a low-cost, noninvasive, portable VSRP based on Kinect to accurately predict speech from articulation movements in clinically trivial time. This VSRP could be used as a novel communication device for aphonic patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Programas de mantenimiento de metadona con servicios auxiliares: un estudio de coste-efectividad Methadone maintenance programs with supplementary services: a cost-effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Puigdollers

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Actualmente, los programas de mantenimiento con metadona (PMM son la mejor alternativa de tratamiento para los adictos a opiáceos. Se pretende valorar el coste-efectividad de tres PMM que ofrecían diferentes servicios auxiliares utilizando como medida de efectividad el incremento de la calidad de vida. Métodos: Estudio de seguimiento a 12 meses de 586 pacientes que iniciaron tratamiento con metadona en los centros de atención y seguimiento municipales de Barcelona. Para medir la evolución de la calidad de vida se utilizó el Perfil de Salud de Nottingham (PSN. Se calcularon los costes unitarios estándar y el coste total por paciente a partir de los registros de actividad. Los datos sociodemográficos, de salud y toxicológicos se obtuvieron a través de una entrevista semiestructurada. El análisis coste-efectividad se realizó mediante dos modelos multivariados con idénticas variables de ajuste. Resultados: Cuanto mayor es la intensidad de programa, más elevado es el coste. Los modelos ajustados detectaron un aumento significativo de la calidad de vida (mejora de un 8% en el PSN y de los costes (17% entre el programa de intensidad baja y el de intensidad media. Conclusiones: El programa de media intensidad demostró la mejor relación coste-efectividad pero, dadas las limitaciones del estudio, es difícil ser taxativo en la generalización de sus resultados.Objective: Methadone maintenance programs (MMP currently offer the best treatment for opioid-addicted patients. The aim of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of three MMPs that offered varying levels of supplementary services. Health-related quality of life was used as a measure of effectiveness. Methods: A 12-month follow-up study of 586 patients beginning methadone treatment in Drug Care Centers in Barcelona was performed. The Nottingham Health Profile was used to measure quality of life. Standard unit costs and total cost per patient were calculated from

  14. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact analysis of a population-based screening program for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pil, L; Fobelets, M; Putman, K; Trybou, J; Annemans, L

    2016-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in Belgium. In Flanders (Belgium), a population-based screening program with a biennial immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) in women and men aged 56-74 has been organised since 2013. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of the colorectal population-based screening program in Flanders (Belgium). A health economic model was conducted, consisting of a decision tree simulating the screening process and a Markov model, with a time horizon of 20years, simulating natural progression. Predicted mortality and incidence, total costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) with and without the screening program were calculated in order to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CRC screening. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted, taking into account uncertainty of the model parameters. Mortality and incidence were predicted to decrease over 20years. The colorectal screening program in Flanders is found to be cost-effective with an ICER of 1681/QALY (95% CI -1317 to 6601) in males and €4,484/QALY (95% CI -3254 to 18,163). The probability of being cost-effective given a threshold of €35,000/QALY was 100% and 97.3%, respectively. The budget impact analysis showed the extra cost for the health care payer to be limited. This health economic analysis has shown that despite the possible adverse effects of screening and the extra costs for the health care payer and the patient, the population-based screening program for CRC in Flanders is cost-effective and should therefore be maintained. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A screening program to test and treat for Helicobacter pylori infection: Cost-utility analysis by age, sex and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Andrea M; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Nair, Nisha; McLeod, Melissa; Wilson, Nick; Blakely, Tony

    2017-02-20

    The World Health Organization recommends all countries consider screening for H. pylori to prevent gastric cancer. We therefore aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a H. pylori serology-based screening program in New Zealand, a country that includes population groups with relatively high gastric cancer rates. A Markov model was developed using life-tables and morbidity data from a national burden of disease study. The modelled screening program reduced the incidence of non-cardia gastric cancer attributable to H. pylori, if infection was identified by serology screening, and for the population expected to be reached by the screening program. A health system perspective was taken and detailed individual-level costing data was used. For adults aged 25-69 years old, nation-wide screening for H. pylori was found to have an incremental cost of US$196 million (95% uncertainty interval [95% UI]: $182-$211 million) with health gains of 14,200 QALYs (95% UI: 5,100-26,300). Cost per QALY gained was US$16,500 ($7,600-$38,400) in the total population and 17% (6%-29%) of future gastric cancer cases could be averted with lifetime follow-up. A targeted screening program for Māori only (indigenous population), was more cost-effective at US$8,000 ($3,800-$18,500) per QALY. This modeling study found that H. pylori screening was likely to be cost-effective in this high-income country, particularly for the indigenous population. While further research is needed to help clarify the precise benefits, costs and adverse effects of such screening programs, there seems a reasonable case for policy-makers to give pilot programs consideration, particularly for any population groups with relatively elevated rates of gastric cancer.

  16. An analysis of the costs of Uganda's Child Days Plus: do low costs reveal an efficient program or an underfinanced one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Semakula, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Twice annually, Uganda implements Child Days Plus (CDP), a month-long outreach activity that distributes vitamin A capsules to preschool children and deworms children 6 months to 14 years old. Introduced initially as a temporary, interim strategy, CDP is now a decade old. To assess how well CDP is implemented using an activity-based cost analysis. In the absence of a cost-accounting system for CDP, we defined the six major CDP activities as cost centers and identified five important subactivities required to implement a round of CDP. Based on a purposive sample, we conducted a structured interview survey of 59 Ministry of Health facilities, 9 district offices, and national-level CDP staff. Only one-third of the facilities implemented all 11 CDP core activities. The survey revealed that Ministry of Health staff and volunteers are frequently paid substantially less in allowances than they are entitled to for their CDP outreach activities. Viewing these two practices--nonimplementation and less-than-full-reimbursement--as indicators of CDP's underfinancing, we estimate the program is underfinanced by the equivalent of 37% of its 'full implementation" costs. Two-thirds of underfinancing is manifested in nonimplementation and one-third as less-than full-reimbursement. CDP exploits economies of scale and scope and has an average cost per child served of US$0.22. We estimate that it annually saves 367,000 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) at an average cost of US$12.5, making it--despite its underfinancing--highly cost-effective. Increased CDP funding would enable its vitamin A coverage rate of 58% and its deworming coverage rate of 62% to be increased, thereby increasing its effectiveness and efficiency. CDP should be "relaunched," as part of an effort to improve the structure of the program, set expectations about it, and earmark a minimum of resources for CDP. The Ministry of Health should demonstrate its new, greater commitment to CDP by introducing a program

  17. A cost-benefit analysis of Wisconsin's screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment program: adding the employer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbeck, Andrew; Lang, Katharine; Enami, Kohei; Brown, Richard L

    2010-02-01

    A previous cost-benefit analysis found Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) to be cost-beneficial from a societal perspective. This paper develops a cost-benefit model that includes the employer's perspective by considering the costs of absenteeism and impaired presenteeism due to problem drinking. We developed a Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate the costs and benefits of SBIRT implementation to an employer. We first presented the likely costs of problem drinking to a theoretical Wisconsin firm that does not currently provide SBIRT services. We then constructed a cost-benefit model in which the firm funds SBIRT for its employees. The net present value of SBIRT adoption was computed by comparing costs due to problem drinking both with and without the program. When absenteeism and impaired presenteeism costs were considered from the employer's perspective, the net present value of SBIRT adoption was $771 per employee. We concluded that implementing SBIRT is cost-beneficial from the employer's perspective and recommend that Wisconsin employers consider covering SBIRT services for their employees.

  18. Formulas for estimating the costs averted by sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koski Kathryn

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs can mitigate the health and economic burden of STIs. A tool to estimate the economic benefits of STI programs could prove useful to STI program personnel. Methods We developed formulas that can be applied to estimate the direct medical costs and indirect costs (lost productivity averted by STI programs in the United States. Costs and probabilities for these formulas were based primarily on published studies. Results We present a series of formulas that can be used to estimate the economic benefits of STI prevention (in 2006 US dollars, using data routinely collected by STI programs. For example, the averted sequelae costs associated with treating women for chlamydia is given as (Cw(0.16(0.925(0.70($1,995, where Cw is the number of infected women treated for chlamydia, 0.16 is the absolute reduction in the probability of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID as a result of treatment, 0.925 is an adjustment factor to prevent double-counting of PID averted in women with both chlamydia and gonorrhea, 0.70 is an adjustment factor to account for the possibility of re-infection, and $1,995 is the average cost per case of PID, based on published sources. Conclusion The formulas developed in this study can be a useful tool for STI program personnel to generate evidence-based estimates of the economic impact of their program and can facilitate the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of their activities.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of the strong African American families-teen program: 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Justin B; Corso, Phaedra S; Kogan, Steve M; Brody, Gene H

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use poses a major threat to the health and well being of rural African American adolescents by negatively impacting academic performance, health, and safety. However, rigorous economic evaluations of prevention programs targeting this population are scarce. Cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted of SAAF-T relative to an attention-control intervention (ACI), as part of a randomized prevention trial. Outcomes of interest were the number of alcohol use and binge drinking episodes prevented, one year following the intervention. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) were used to determine the cost-effectiveness of SAAF-T compared to the ACI intervention. For the 473 participating youth completing baseline and follow-up assessments, the incremental per participant costs were $168, while the incremental per participant effects were 3.39 episodes of alcohol use prevented and 1.36 episodes of binge drinking prevented. Compared to the ACI intervention, the SAAF-T program cost $50 per reduction in an alcohol use episode and $123 per reduced episode of binge drinking. For the CEACs, at thresholds of $100 and $440, SAAF-T has at least a 90% probability of being cost-effective, relative to the ACI, for reductions in alcohol use and binge drinking episodes, respectively. The SAAF-T intervention provides a potentially cost-effective means for reducing the African American youths' alcohol use and binge drinking episodes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An ultra-low cost NMR device with arbitrary pulse programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh-Ying; Kim, Yaewon; Nath, Pulak; Hilty, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Ultra-low cost, general purpose electronics boards featuring microprocessors or field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are reaching capabilities sufficient for direct implementation of NMR spectrometers. We demonstrate a spectrometer based on such a board, implemented with a minimal need for the addition of custom electronics and external components. This feature allows such a spectrometer to be readily implemented using typical knowledge present in an NMR laboratory. With FPGA technology, digital tasks are performed with precise timing, without the limitation of predetermined hardware function. In this case, the FPGA is used for programming of arbitrarily timed pulse sequence events, and to digitally generate required frequencies. Data acquired from a 0.53 T permanent magnet serves as a demonstration of the flexibility of pulse programming for diverse experiments. Pulse sequences applied include a spin-lattice relaxation measurement using a pulse train with small-flip angle pulses, and a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill experiment with phase cycle. Mixing of NMR signals with a digitally generated, 4-step phase-cycled reference frequency is further implemented to achieve sequential quadrature detection. The flexibility in hardware implementation permits tailoring this type of spectrometer for applications such as relaxometry, polarimetry, diffusometry or NMR based magnetometry.