WorldWideScience

Sample records for program 1-4 cip

  1. Polymer Science. Program CIP: 15.0607

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Curriculum Unit, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  2. Efficacy of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) Primary Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Bellinger, Jillian; Cheng, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    A multisite cluster randomized trial was conducted to examine the effects of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007) on students' classroom social behavior. The final sample included 432 students across 38 second grade classrooms. Social skills and problem behaviors were measured…

  3. Social Validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E.; DiPerna, James C.; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings…

  4. Efficacy of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) primary version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Bellinger, Jillian; Cheng, Weiyi

    2015-03-01

    A multisite cluster randomized trial was conducted to examine the effects of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007) on students' classroom social behavior. The final sample included 432 students across 38 second grade classrooms. Social skills and problem behaviors were measured via the SSIS rating scale for all participants, and direct observations were completed for a subsample of participants within each classroom. Results indicated that the SSIS-CIP demonstrated positive effects on teacher ratings of participants' social skills and internalizing behaviors, with the greatest changes occurring in classrooms with students who exhibited lower skill proficiency prior to implementation. Statistically significant differences were not observed between treatment and control participants on teacher ratings of externalizing problem behaviors or direct observation.

  5. Welding Technology. Program CIP: 48.0508 - WELDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  6. Installation and Service: HVAC. Program CIP: 47.0201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Curriculum Unit, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  7. Culinary Arts. Program CIP: 12.0500-Culinary Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Ashleigh, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  8. Diesel Service Technician. Program CIP: 47.0605

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Kelly, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  9. Management. Program CIP: Business Management: 52.0204

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Ashleigh Barbee, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary career-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  10. A Cluster Randomized Trial of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Cheng, Weiyi; Hart, Susan Crandall; Bellinger, Jillian

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal social skills program, the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007), for students in first grade. Classrooms from 6 elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment or business-as-usual control conditions.…

  11. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Horticulture Technology Cluster (Program CIP: 01.0601--Horticulture Serv. Op. & Mgmt., Gen.) (Program CIP: 01.0605--Landscaping Op. & Mgmt.). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the horticulture technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a framework of programs and courses, description of the programs, and suggested course sequences for…

  12. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Welding (Program CIP: 48.0508--Welder/Welding Technologist). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for welding I and II. Presented first are a program description and course…

  13. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Physical Therapist Assistant (CIP: 51.0806--Physical Therapy Assistant). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the physical therapy assistant program. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies, and section…

  14. CIPS Validation Data Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam Dinh

    2012-03-01

    This report documents analysis, findings and recommendations resulted from a task 'CIPS Validation Data Plan (VDP)' formulated as an POR4 activity in the CASL VUQ Focus Area (FA), to develop a Validation Data Plan (VDP) for Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) challenge problem, and provide guidance for the CIPS VDP implementation. The main reason and motivation for this task to be carried at this time in the VUQ FA is to bring together (i) knowledge of modern view and capability in VUQ, (ii) knowledge of physical processes that govern the CIPS, and (iii) knowledge of codes, models, and data available, used, potentially accessible, and/or being developed in CASL for CIPS prediction, to devise a practical VDP that effectively supports the CASL's mission in CIPS applications.

  15. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Welding and Cutting Programs (Program CIP: 48.0508--Welder/Welding Technologist). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the welding and cutting programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies, and…

  16. 2005 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Cosmetology. (Program CIP: 12.0401 - Cosmetology/Cosmetologist, General)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanon, Rouser; Farmer, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  17. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Computer Graphics. (Program CIP: 50.0402 - Commercial and Advertising Art)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Jo Anne; Denson, Cornelius; New, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  18. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Fashion Marketing Technology (Program CIP: 08.0101--Apparel and Accessories Mkt. Op., Gen.). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the fashion marketing technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies,…

  19. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Diesel Equipment Repair & Service (Program CIP: 47.0605--Diesel Engine Mechanic & Repairer). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for diesel engine mechanics I and II. Presented first are a program…

  20. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Agriculture Production (Program CIP: 01.0301--Agricultural Prod. Workers & Mgrs.). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for agriculture production I and II. Presented first are a program…

  1. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Medical Radiologic Technology (Radiography) (CIP: 51.0907--Medical Radiologic Technology). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the radiologic technology program. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies for the program,…

  2. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Diesel Equipment Technology (CIP: 47.0605--Diesel Engine Mechanic & Repairer). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the diesel equipment technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies,…

  3. 2005 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management. (Program CIP: 52.0901--Hospitality Administration/Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Lady Anne; Chandler, Mark; Nichols, Raynette; Nevill, Becky

    2005-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  4. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Design Technology for Fashion and Interiors. (Program CIP: 19.0901 - Apparel and Textiles, General)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Carol; Lawrence, Angie; Pou, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  5. 2006 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Culinary and Related Foods Technology. (Program CIP: 20.0401 - Institutional Food Workers & Admin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Linda; Early, Lanell; Wood, Becky Jolly

    2006-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  6. 2005 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Horticulture. (Program CIP: 01.0601 - Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Operations, General)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Curriculum Unit, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  7. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification Version 1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros III, James H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeBonis, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grant, Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelly, Suzanne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Levenhagen, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olivier, Stephen Lecler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pedretti, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  8. CIP/CIR Community Services offered by CIPRNet's Virtual Centre of Competence & Expertise in CIP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rome, E.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Rosato, V

    2017-01-01

    The EU FP7 Network of Excellence project CIPRNet has bundled its ser-vices to the CIP/CIR community in a Virtual Centre of Competence & Ex-pertise in CIP (VCCC). The VCCC services include CIP/CIR knowledge sharing, demonstrations of new technical capabilities, an e-Lear-ning platform, and access to

  9. Evaluation Manual for CIP Courses: Objectives and Implementation Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, Carmen

    This manual has been designed to guide courses on potato production sponsored by the International Potato Center (CIP) in Lima (Peru). It describes the CIP Course Evaluation System that is presently used and provides guidelines on how to use feedback more effectively for improving training. CIP evaluations are largely formative. The CIP focuses on…

  10. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Automotive Collision Repair Technology. (Program CIP: 47.0603 - Autobody/Collision and Repair Technology/Technician)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowds, Eris; Anderson, Daniel; Sizemore, Rick; Johnson, John

    2007-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  11. Spent nuclear fuels project: FY 1995 multi-year program plan, WBS {number_sign}1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denning, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) program is to safely, reliably, and efficiently manage, condition, transport, and store Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF, so that it meets acceptance criteria for disposal in a permanent repository. The Hanford Site Spent Nuclear Fuel strategic plan for accomplishing the project mission is: Establish near-term safe storage in the 105-K Basins; Complete national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to obtain a decision on how and where spent nuclear fuel will be managed on the site; Define and establish alternative interim storage on site or transport off site to support implementation of the NEPA decision; and Define and establish a waste package qualified for final disposition. This report contains descriptions of the following: Work Breakdown Structure; WBS Dictionary; Responsibility Assignment Matrix; Program Logic Diagrams; Program Master Baseline Schedule; Program Performance Baseline Schedule; Milestone List; Milestone Description Sheets; Cost Baseline Summary by Year; Basis of Estimate; Waste Type Data; Planned Staffing; and Fiscal Year Work Plan.

  12. The MER/CIP Portal for Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Louise; Desai, Sanjay; DOrtenzio, Matthew; Filman, Robtert E.; Heher, Dennis M.; Hubbard, Kim; Johan, Sandra; Keely, Leslie; Magapu, Vish; Mak, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    We developed the Mars Exploration Rover/Collaborative Information Portal (MER/CIP) to facilitate MER operations. MER/CIP provides a centralized, one-stop delivery platform integrating science and engineering data from several distributed heterogeneous data sources. Key issues for MER/CIP include: 1) Scheduling and schedule reminders; 2) Tracking the status of daily predicted outputs; 3) Finding and analyzing data products; 4) Collaboration; 5) Announcements; 6) Personalization.

  13. application à une population de Listeria monocytogenes CIP 7831 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude de l'impact de la variation de la température sur les activités microbiennes : application à une population de Listeria monocytogenes CIP 7831, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A CIP 103575 et Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.

  14. GeoT User's Guide: A Computer Program for Multicomponent Geothermometry and Geochemical Speciation, Version 1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spycher, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Peiffer, Loic N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-10

    GeoT (Spycher et al., 2011) was developed by automating the multicomponent chemical geothermometry method of Reed and Spycher (1984). As needed, this program can be integrated with parameter estimation software. Without optimization, GeoT is useful for fast geothermometry computations with fluid compositions from single locations, and for independently processing fluids from multiple locations in one single program run.

  15. Recommended Guidelines for NERC CIP Compliance for Synchrophasor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mix, Scott R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Silverstein, Alison [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-11-14

    Compliance with the NERC requirements for Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) for synchrophasor systems in the Version 5 paradigm seems to be a matter of some uncertainty for those in the synchrophasor user community. This report aims to provide clarification and guidance in the form of case studies based on methods seen in the industry

  16. Formation of high electrical-resistivity thin surface layer on carbonyl-iron powder (CIP) and thermal stability of nanocrystalline structure and vortex magnetic structure of CIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, K.; Miyajima, Y.; Sonehara, M.; Sato, T.; Hayashi, F.; Zettsu, N.; Teshima, K.; Mizusaki, H.

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the carbonyl-iron powder (CIP) used in the metal composite bulk magnetic core for high-efficient/light-weight SiC/GaN power device MHz switching dc-dc converter, where the fine CIP with a mean diameter of 1.1 μm is used to suppress the MHz band eddy current inside the CIP body. When applying the CIP to composite core together with the resin matrix, high electrical resistivity layer must be formed on the CIP-surface in order to suppress the overlapped eddy current between adjacent CIPs. In this study, tens nm thick silica (SiO2) was successfully deposited on the CIP-surface by using hydrolysis of TEOS (Si(OC2H5)4). Also tens nm thick oxidized layer of the CIP-surface was successfully formed by using CIP annealing in dry air. The SiC/GaN power device can operate at ambient temperature over 200 degree-C, and the composite magnetic core is required to operate at such ambient temperature. The as-made CIP had small coercivity below 800 A/m (10 Oe) due to its nanocrystalline-structure and had a single vortex magnetic structure. From the experimental results, both nanocrystalline and single vortex magnetic structure were maintained after heat-exposure of 250 degree-C, and the powder coercivity after same heat-exposure was nearly same as that of the as-made CIP. Therefore, the CIP with thermally stable nanocrystalline-structure and vortex magnetic state was considered to be heat-resistant magnetic powder used in the iron-based composite core for SiC/GaN power electronics.

  17. Formation of high electrical-resistivity thin surface layer on carbonyl-iron powder (CIP and thermal stability of nanocrystalline structure and vortex magnetic structure of CIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sugimura

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the carbonyl-iron powder (CIP used in the metal composite bulk magnetic core for high-efficient/light-weight SiC/GaN power device MHz switching dc-dc converter, where the fine CIP with a mean diameter of 1.1 μm is used to suppress the MHz band eddy current inside the CIP body. When applying the CIP to composite core together with the resin matrix, high electrical resistivity layer must be formed on the CIP-surface in order to suppress the overlapped eddy current between adjacent CIPs. In this study, tens nm thick silica (SiO2 was successfully deposited on the CIP-surface by using hydrolysis of TEOS (Si(OC2H54. Also tens nm thick oxidized layer of the CIP-surface was successfully formed by using CIP annealing in dry air. The SiC/GaN power device can operate at ambient temperature over 200 degree-C, and the composite magnetic core is required to operate at such ambient temperature. The as-made CIP had small coercivity below 800 A/m (10 Oe due to its nanocrystalline-structure and had a single vortex magnetic structure. From the experimental results, both nanocrystalline and single vortex magnetic structure were maintained after heat-exposure of 250 degree-C, and the powder coercivity after same heat-exposure was nearly same as that of the as-made CIP. Therefore, the CIP with thermally stable nanocrystalline-structure and vortex magnetic state was considered to be heat-resistant magnetic powder used in the iron-based composite core for SiC/GaN power electronics.

  18. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact (EA/FONSI) for 2012-14 Capital Improvements Program (CIP) at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    solid waste; record - keeping and reporting; and pollution prevention. AFI 32-7080, Pollution Prevention Program, addresses source reduction, resource...wildlife community with more than 120 avian species; numerous mammalian, reptilian, and amphibian species; and hundreds of invertebrate species (Davis...turn heats the surface of the Earth. Human activities that involve combustion of fossil fuels (i.e., fuels containing carbon, such as wood, coal

  19. CIP2A Promotes T-Cell Activation and Immune Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Côme

    Full Text Available The oncoprotein Cancerous Inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase 2A (CIP2A is overexpressed in most malignancies and is an obvious candidate target protein for future cancer therapies. However, the physiological importance of CIP2A-mediated PP2A inhibition is largely unknown. As PP2A regulates immune responses, we investigated the role of CIP2A in normal immune system development and during immune response in vivo. We show that CIP2A-deficient mice (CIP2AHOZ present a normal immune system development and function in unchallenged conditions. However when challenged with Listeria monocytogenes, CIP2AHOZ mice display an impaired adaptive immune response that is combined with decreased frequency of both CD4+ T-cells and CD8+ effector T-cells. Importantly, the cell autonomous effect of CIP2A deficiency for T-cell activation was confirmed. Induction of CIP2A expression during T-cell activation was dependent on Zap70 activity. Thus, we reveal CIP2A as a hitherto unrecognized mediator of T-cell activation during adaptive immune response. These results also reveal CIP2AHOZ as a possible novel mouse model for studying the role of PP2A activity in immune regulation. On the other hand, the results also indicate that CIP2A targeting cancer therapies would not cause serious immunological side-effects.

  20. CIP2A influences survival in colon cancer and is critical for maintaining Myc expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Wiegering

    Full Text Available The cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A is an oncogenic factor that stabilises the c-Myc protein. CIP2A is overexpressed in several tumours, and expression levels are an independent marker for long-term outcome. To determine whether CIP2A expression is elevated in colon cancer and whether it might serve as a prognostic marker for survival, we analysed CIP2A mRNA expression by real-time PCR in 104 colon cancer samples. CIP2A mRNA was overexpressed in colon cancer samples and CIP2A expression levels correlated significantly with tumour stage. We found that CIP2A serves as an independent prognostic marker for disease-free and overall survival. Further, we investigated CIP2A-dependent effects on levels of c-Myc, Akt and on cell proliferation in three colon cancer cell lines by silencing CIP2A using small interfering (si and short hairpin (sh RNAs. Depletion of CIP2A substantially inhibited growth of colon cell lines and reduced c-Myc levels without affecting expression or function of the upstream regulatory kinase, Akt. Expression of CIP2A was found to be dependent on MAPK activity, linking elevated c-Myc expression to deregulated signal transduction in colon cancer.

  1. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-115, Shelton- Fairmount # 1-4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippetts, Greg P. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-12-20

    Vegetation Management along the Shelton Fairmount # 1-4 230kV & 115kV transmission lines corridor from structure 34/3 through structure 60/2. BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of- way, access roads and around tower structures along the subject transmission line corridors. Approximately 26 miles of right-of-way will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Approximately 1.5 miles of access roads will be cleared using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Tower sites will be treated 35 feet from center of poles and or tower legs using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Vegetation management is required for unimpeded operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. See Section 1of the attached checklist for a complete description of the proposal.

  2. Cardiomyocyte-enriched protein CIP protects against pathophysiological stresses and regulates cardiac homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhan-Peng; Kataoka, Masaharu; Chen, Jinghai; Wu, Gengze; Ding, Jian; Nie, Mao; Lin, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jianming; Hu, Xiaoyun; Ma, Lixin; Zhou, Bin; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Zeng, Chunyu; Kyselovic, Jan; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Seidman, Christine E; Seidman, J G; Pu, William T; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2015-11-02

    Cardiomyopathy is a common human disorder that is characterized by contractile dysfunction and cardiac remodeling. Genetic mutations and altered expression of genes encoding many signaling molecules and contractile proteins are associated with cardiomyopathy; however, how cardiomyocytes sense pathophysiological stresses in order to then modulate cardiac remodeling remains poorly understood. Here, we have described a regulator in the heart that harmonizes the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and dilation. We determined that expression of the myocyte-enriched protein cardiac ISL1-interacting protein (CIP, also known as MLIP) is reduced in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. As CIP is highly conserved between human and mouse, we evaluated the effects of CIP deficiency on cardiac remodeling in mice. Deletion of the CIP-encoding gene accelerated progress from hypertrophy to heart failure in several cardiomyopathy models. Conversely, transgenic and AAV-mediated CIP overexpression prevented pathologic remodeling and preserved cardiac function. CIP deficiency combined with lamin A/C deletion resulted in severe dilated cardiomyopathy and cardiac dysfunction in the absence of stress. Transcriptome analyses of CIP-deficient hearts revealed that the p53- and FOXO1-mediated gene networks related to homeostasis are disturbed upon pressure overload stress. Moreover, FOXO1 overexpression suppressed stress-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in CIP-deficient cardiomyocytes. Our studies identify CIP as a key regulator of cardiomyopathy that has potential as a therapeutic target to attenuate heart failure progression.

  3. Overexpression and small molecule-triggered downregulation of CIP2A in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with a five-year overall survival rate of only 15%. Cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A is a human oncoprotein inhibiting PP2A in many human malignancies. However, whether CIP2A can be a new drug target for lung cancer is largely unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Normal and malignant lung tissues were derived from 60 lung cancer patients from southern China. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of CIP2A. We found that among the 60 patients, CIP2A was undetectable or very low in paratumor normal tissues, but was dramatically elevated in tumor samples in 38 (63.3% patients. CIP2A overexpression was associated with cigarette smoking. Silencing CIP2A by siRNA inhibited the proliferation and clonogenic activity of lung cancer cells. Intriguingly, we found a natural compound, rabdocoetsin B which is extracted from a Traditional Chinese Medicinal herb Rabdosia coetsa, could induce down-regulation of CIP2A and inactivation of Akt pathway, and inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in a variety of lung cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings strongly indicate that CIP2A could be an effective target for lung cancer drug development, and the therapeutic potentials of CIP2A-targeting agents warrant further investigation.

  4. Synthesis and electromagnetic properties of PANI/PVP/CIP core–shell composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jihai [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); No. 59 Research Institute of China Ordnance Industry, Chongqing 400039 (China); Ma, Li, E-mail: mlsys607@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Tian, Nan; Gan, Mengyu; Xu, Fenfang; Zeng, Jun; Tu, Ying [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • PANI/PVP/CIP core–shell composite was prepared, where PVP can hinder aggregation of CIP and PANI/PVP/CIP composites. • Core–shell structure increases absorbent interface, benefiting reflection, scattering and electromagnetic wave absorption. • PANI/PVP/CIP core–shell composites show better electromagnetic matching and microwave absorption in a wider frequency range. - Abstract: The polyaniline/polyvinylpyrrolidone/carbonyl iron powder (PANI/PVP/CIP) core–shell composites were prepared by in-situ polymerization in the PVP aqueous solution using toluenesulfonic acid (TSA) as dopant and ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant. The PANI/PVP/CIP was systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR spectroscopy, electrochemical workstation, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and vector network analyzer. The results showed that the PANI/PVP can dramatically improve corrosion resistance of CIP. Compared with pure CIP, the PANI/PVP/CIP composites exhibited better impedance match and excellent microwave absorption properties. The reflection loss was found to <–10 dB in the 27.3–39.5 GHz range at thickness of 1.1 mm, and the minimum reflection loss of −15.28 dB was observed at 29.47 GHz with a matching thickness of 1.2 mm. A possible mechanism of the improved microwave absorption properties of the core–shell structure was obtained.

  5. p21WAF1/CIP1 interacts with protein kinase CK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götz, C; Wagner, P; Issinger, O G

    1996-01-01

    p21WAF1/CIP1 which belongs to a class of regulatory proteins that interact with cyclin dependent kinases is a potent inhibitor of these kinases. The inhibition of the cyclin dependent kinases induces an arrest of cells in the G phase of the cell cycle. In addition p21WAF1/CIP1 associates with PCN...

  6. Development of an abbreviated Career Indecision Profile-65 using item response theory: The CIP-Short.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Tracey, Terence J G

    2017-03-01

    The current study developed an abbreviated version of the Career Indecision Profile-65 (CIP-65; Hacker, Carr, Abrams, & Brown, 2013) by using item response theory. In order to improve the efficiency of the CIP-65 in measuring career indecision, the individual item performance of the CIP-65 was examined with respect to the ordering of response occurrence and gender differential item functioning. The best 5 items of each scale of the CIP-65 (i.e., neuroticism/negative affectivity, choice/commitment anxiety, lack of readiness, and interpersonal conflicts) were retained in the CIP-Short using a sample of 588 college students. A validation sample (N = 174) supported the reliability and structural validity of the CIP-Short. The convergent and divergent validity of the CIP-Short was additionally supported in the findings of a hypothesized differential relational pattern in a separate sample (N = 360). While the current study supported the CIP-Short being a sound brief measure of career indecision, the limitations of this study and suggestions for future research were discussed as well. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Aves do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó: o Vale do Rio Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brasil The birds of "Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó": the Rio Cipó valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um levantamento de espécies de aves do Vale do alto Rio Cipó durante o período de maio de 1998 a novembro de 2002. A região está totalmente inserida em uma das unidades de conservação mais importantes do sudeste do Brasil, o Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, em Minas Gerais. O método utilizado foi o de observação direta ao longo de 'transectos', captura com redes e identificação a partir do uso de vocalizações. A riqueza de espécies foi estimada usando-se o método de 'jackknife'. Foram registradas 226 espécies de aves pertencentes a 43 famílias. Isso corresponde cerca de 27% das 837 espécies já registradas para o bioma do Cerrado. Foram capturados 2.249 indivíduos num total de 4.486,82 horas-rede, onde foram amostradas 119 espécies pertencentes a 23 famílias. A riqueza foi estimada em 239 ± 5 espécies. Constam nesta lista seis espécies endêmicas do Cerrado: Augastes scutatus (Temminck, 1824 (Trochilidae, Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied-NeuWied, 1821 (Furnariidae, Antilophia galeata (Lichtenstein, 1832 (Pipridae, Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823 (Corvidae, Charitospiza eucosma (Oberholser, 1905, Saltator atricollis (Vieillot, 1817, e Porphyrospiza caerulescens (Wied-Neuwied, 1830 (Emberizidae. Ocorrem também três espécies quase-ameaçadas de extinção: Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758 (Cathartidae, Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 e Charitospiza eucosma (Emberizidae. O Vale do Rio Cipó abriga uma porção significativa da avifauna do Cerrado. Alguns dos habitat encontrados no Vale estão se tornando cada vez mais raros na região do Cerrado de todo o Brasil, como as matas ciliares e o sistema de lagoas temporárias ao longo dos rios. Mesmo as cachoeiras, habitat importante para várias espécies, vêm desaparecendo em outras regiões do Brasil. Nesse sentido, a região do Vale do Rio Cipó dentro Parque consolida um dos seus objetivos que é a conservação da biodiversidade.It is

  8. SUMO regulates p21Cip1 intracellular distribution and with p21Cip1 facilitates multiprotein complex formation in the nucleolus upon DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Brun

    Full Text Available We previously showed that p21Cip1 transits through the nucleolus on its way from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and that DNA damage inhibits this transit and induces the formation of p21Cip1-containing intranucleolar bodies (INoBs. Here, we demonstrate that these INoBs also contain SUMO-1 and UBC9, the E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme. Furthermore, whereas wild type SUMO-1 localized in INoBs, a SUMO-1 mutant, which is unable to conjugate with proteins, does not, suggesting the presence of SUMOylated proteins at INoBs. Moreover, depletion of the SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9 or the sumo hydrolase SENP2 changed p21Cip1 intracellular distribution. In addition to SUMO-1 and p21Cip1, cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins, including Cdk2, Cyclin E, PCNA, p53 and Mdm2, and PML were also detected in INoBs. Importantly, depletion of UBC9 or p21Cip1 impacted INoB biogenesis and the nucleolar accumulation of the cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins following DNA damage. The impact of p21Cip1 and SUMO-1 on the accumulation of proteins in INoBs extends also to CRM1, a nuclear exportin that is also important for protein translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleolus. Thus, SUMO and p21Cip1 regulate the transit of proteins through the nucleolus, and that disruption of nucleolar export by DNA damage induces SUMO and p21Cip1 to act as hub proteins to form a multiprotein complex in the nucleolus.

  9. The development of a thermostable CiP (Coprinus cinereus peroxidase) through in silico design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jeong Ah; Joo, Jeong Chan; Yoo, Young Je; Kim, Yong Hwan; Song, Bong Keun

    2010-01-01

    Protein thermostability is a crucial issue in the practical application of enzymes, such as inorganic synthesis and enzymatic polymerization of phenol derivatives. Much attention has been focused on the enhancement and numerous successes have been achieved through protein engineering methods. Despite fruitful results based on random mutagenesis, it was still necessary to develop a novel strategy that can reduce the time and effort involved in this process. In this study, a rapid and effective strategy is described for increasing the thermal stability of a protein. Instead of random mutagenesis, a rational strategy was adopted to theoretically stabilize the thermo labile residues of a protein using computational methods. Protein residues with high flexibility can be thermo labile due to their large range of movement. Here, residue B factor values were used to identify putatively thermo labile residues and the RosettaDesign program was applied to search for stable sequences. Coprinus cinereus (CiP) heme peroxidase was selected as a model protein for its importance in commercial applications, such as the polymerization of phenolic compounds. Eleven CiP residues with the highest B factor values were chosen as target mutation sites for thermostabilization, and then redesigned using RosettaDesign to identify sequences. Eight mutants based on the redesigns, were produced as functional enzymes and two of these (S323Y and E328D) showed increased thermal stability over the wild-type in addition to conserved catalytic activity. Thus, this strategy can be used as a rapid and effective in silico design tool for obtaining thermostable proteins. (c) 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  10. Inhibition of CIP2A attenuates tumor progression by inducing cell cycle arrest and promoting cellular senescence in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Qu, Kai; Tao, Jie; Yin, Guozhi; Han, Shaoshan; Liu, Qingguang; Sun, Hao

    2018-01-08

    CIP2A is a recent identified oncogene that inhibits protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and stabilizes c-Myc in cancer cells. To investigate the potential oncogenic role and prognostic value of CIP2A, we comprehensively analyzed the CIP2A expression levels in pan-cancer and observed high expression level of CIP2A in majority cancer types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Based on a validation cohort including 60 HCC and 20 non-tumorous tissue samples, we further confirmed the high mRNA and protein expression levels of CIP2A in HCC, and found high CIP2A mRNA expression level was associated with unfavorable overall and recurrence-free survival in patients with HCC. Mechanistic investigations revealed that inhibition of CIP2A significantly attenuated cellular proliferation in vitro and tumourigenicity in vivo. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that CIP2A might be involved in regulating cell cycle. Our experimental data further confirmed CIP2A knockdown induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. We found accumulated cellular senescence in HCC cells with CIP2A knockdown, companying expression changes of senescence associated proteins (p21, CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, MCM7 and FoxM1). Mechanistically, CIP2A knockdown repressed FoxM1 expression and induced FoxM1 dephosphorylation. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A by phosphatase inhibitor rescued the repression of FoxM1. Taken together, our results showed that CIP2A was highly expressed in HCC. Inhibition of CIP2A induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cellular senescence via repressing FoxM1 transcriptional activity, suggesting a potential anti-cancer target for patients with HCC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors prevent disease progression in high-risk (high CIP2A) chronic myeloid leukaemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C M; Harris, R J; Holcroft, A K; Scott, L J; Carmell, N; McDonald, E; Polydoros, F; Clark, R E

    2015-07-01

    High cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein levels at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) are predictive of disease progression in imatinib-treated patients. It is not known whether this is true in patients treated with second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2G TKI) from diagnosis, and whether 2G TKIs modulate the CIP2A pathway. Here, we show that patients with high diagnostic CIP2A levels who receive a 2G TKI do not progress, unlike those treated with imatinib (P=BCR-ABL suppression. CIP2A increases proliferation and this is only reduced by 2G TKIs. Patients with high CIP2A levels should be offered 2G TKI treatment in preference to imatinib. 2G TKIs disrupt the CIP2A/c-Myc/E2F1 positive feedback loop, leading to lower disease progression risk. The data supports the view that CIP2A inhibits PP2Ac, stabilising E2F1, creating a CIP2A/c-Myc/E2F1 positive feedback loop, which imatinib cannot overcome.

  12. [The mechanisms of p21WAF1/Cip-1 expression in MOLT-4 cell line induced by TSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Liu, Mei-Ju; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Qian, Jun-Jie; Dong, Yan; Liu, Hua; Sun, Guo-Jing; Mei, Zhu-Zhong; Liu, Bin; Tian, Bao-Lei; Sun, Zhi-Xian

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the function and molecular mechanism of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) expression in MOLT-4 cells induced by HDAC inhibitor TSA, the expression pattern of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) and the distribution of cell cycle in TSA treated cells were analyzed. The results showed that TSA could effectively induce G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis of MOLT-4 cells. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that p21(WAF1/Cip-1) were upregulated quickly before cell arrested in G(2)/M and began decreasing at the early stage of apoptosis. Meanwhile, the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 could inhibit the decrease of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) at the early stage of apoptosis, which showed that proteasome pathway involved in p21(WAF1/Cip-1) degradation during the TSA induced G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis responses. This study also identified that the protein level of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) was highly associated with the cell cycle change induced by TSA. Compared to cells treated by TSA only, exposure MOLT-4 cells to TSA meanwhile treatment with MG-132 increased the protein level of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) and increased the numbers of cell in G(2)/M-phase, whereas the cell apoptosis were delayed. It is concluded that p21(WAF1/Cip-1) plays a significant role in G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis signaling induced by TSA in MOLT-4 cells.

  13. Potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy; Effetti della vendita tramite asta dell'energia CIP 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campidoglio, C. [Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale, Milan (Italy). Osservatorio Energia

    2000-12-01

    This paper analyses the potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy. This would both reduce the supply shortage and the prices on the eligible market, increase competition on the contract-for-difference market, indicate a clear price to which regulated energy charges could be indexed, thus extending the auction benefits to the franchise market to avoid the reintroduction of cross-subsidies. [Italian] L'articolo analizza i possibili benefici della vendita tramita asta dell'energia CIP 6. In particolare, l'asta ridurrebbe la scarsita' d'offerta e quindi i pressi sul mercato libero, aumenterebbe la concorrenza nel mercato dei contratti per differenza, fornirebbe un prezzo chiaro a cui indicizzare il prezzo dell'energia in tariffa, estendendo i benefici dell'asta sul mercato vincolato ed evitando la reintroduzione di sussidi incrociati.

  14. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may suspend...

  15. DACH1 regulates cell cycle progression of myeloid cells through the control of cyclin D, Cdk 4/6 and p21{sup Cip1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Woong; Kim, Hyeng-Soo; Kim, Seonggon; Hwang, Junmo; Kim, Young Hun; Lim, Ga Young [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Wern-Joo [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, IHBR, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-412 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Suk-Ran [Cell Therapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Young [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, IHBR, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-412 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Sung [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwon Moo [Department of Anatomy, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanggyu, E-mail: slee@knu.ac.kr [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DACH1 increases cyclin D, F and Cdk 1, 4, 6 in mouse myeloid progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of DACH1 blocked the cell cycle progression of HL-60 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel effect of DACH1 related with cell cycle regulation and leukemogenesis. -- Abstract: The cell-fate determination factor Dachshund, a component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN), has a role in breast tumor proliferation through the repression of cyclin D1 and several key regulators of embryonic stem cell function, such as Nanog and Sox2. However, little is known about the role of DACH1 in a myeloid lineage as a cell cycle regulator. Here, we identified the differential expression levels of extensive cell cycle regulators controlled by DACH1 in myeloid progenitor cells. The forced expression of DACH1 induced p27{sup Kip1} and repressed p21{sup Cip1}, which is a pivotal characteristic of the myeloid progenitor. Furthermore, DACH1 significantly increased the expression of cyclin D1, D3, F, and Cdk 1, 4, and 6 in myeloid progenitor cells. The knockdown of DACH1 blocked the cell cycle progression of HL-60 promyeloblastic cells through the decrease of cyclin D1, D3, F, and Cdk 1, 4, and 6 and increase in p21{sup Cip1}, which in turn decreased the phosphorylation of the Rb protein. The expression of Sox2, Oct4, and Klf4 was significantly up-regulated by the forced expression of DACH1 in mouse myeloid progenitor cells.

  16. CipA of Acinetobacter baumannii Is a Novel Plasminogen Binding and Complement Inhibitory Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Arno; Stahl, Julia; Averhoff, Beate; Göttig, Stephan; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Wallich, Reinhard; Zipfel, Peter F; Kraiczy, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen, responsible for up to 10% of gram-negative, nosocomial infections. The global increase of multidrug-resistant and pan-resistant Acinetobacter isolates presents clinicians with formidable challenges. To establish a persistent infection,A. baumannii must overcome the detrimental effects of complement as the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. However, the immune evasion principles underlying serum resistance inA. baumannii remain elusive. Here, we identified a novel plasminogen-binding protein, termed CipA. Bound plasminogen, upon conversion to active plasmin, degraded fibrinogen and complement C3b and contributed to serum resistance. Furthermore, CipA directly inhibited the alternative pathway of complement in vitro, irrespective of its ability to bind plasminogen. A CipA-deficient mutant was efficiently killed by human serum and showed a defect in the penetration of endothelial monolayers, demonstrating that CipA is a novel multifunctional protein that contributes to the pathogenesis ofA. baumannii. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Making limb and nadir measurements comparable: A common volume study of PMC brightness observed by Odin OSIRIS and AIM CIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benze, Susanne; Gumbel, Jörg; Randall, Cora E.; Karlsson, Bodil; Hultgren, Kristoffer; Lumpe, Jerry D.; Baumgarten, Gerd

    2018-01-01

    Combining limb and nadir satellite observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) has long been recognized as problematic due to differences in observation geometry, scattering conditions, and retrieval approaches. This study offers a method of comparing PMC brightness observations from the nadir-viewing Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument and the limb-viewing Odin Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). OSIRIS and CIPS measurements are made comparable by defining a common volume for overlapping OSIRIS and CIPS observations for two northern hemisphere (NH) PMC seasons: NH08 and NH09. We define a scattering intensity quantity that is suitable for either nadir or limb observations and for different scattering conditions. A known CIPS bias is applied, differences in instrument sensitivity are analyzed and taken into account, and effects of cloud inhomogeneity and common volume definition on the comparison are discussed. Not accounting for instrument sensitivity differences or inhomogeneities in the PMC field, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness (CIPS - OSIRIS) is -102 ± 55%. The differences are largest for coincidences with very inhomogeneous clouds that are dominated by pixels that CIPS reports as non-cloud points. Removing these coincidences, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness reduces to -6 ± 14%. The correlation coefficient between the CIPS and OSIRIS measurements of PMC brightness variations in space and time is remarkably high, at 0.94. Overall, the comparison shows excellent agreement despite different retrieval approaches and observation geometries.

  18. Yeast Cip1 is activated by environmental stress to inhibit Cdk1-G1 cyclins via Mcm1 and Msn2/4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Lan; Tseng, Shun-Fu; Huang, Yu-Ching; Shen, Zih-Jie; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Hsieh, Meng-Hsun; Yang, Chia-Wei; Tognetti, Silvia; Canal, Berta; Subirana, Laia; Wang, Chien-Wei; Chen, Hsiao-Tan; Lin, Chi-Ying; Posas, Francesc; Teng, Shu-Chun

    2017-07-04

    Upon environmental changes, proliferating cells delay cell cycle to prevent further damage accumulation. Yeast Cip1 is a Cdk1 and Cln2-associated protein. However, the function and regulation of Cip1 are still poorly understood. Here we report that Cip1 expression is co-regulated by the cell-cycle-mediated factor Mcm1 and the stress-mediated factors Msn2/4. Overexpression of Cip1 arrests cell cycle through inhibition of Cdk1-G1 cyclin complexes at G1 stage and the stress-activated protein kinase-dependent Cip1 T65, T69, and T73 phosphorylation may strengthen the Cip1and Cdk1-G1 cyclin interaction. Cip1 accumulation mainly targets Cdk1-Cln3 complex to prevent Whi5 phosphorylation and inhibit early G1 progression. Under osmotic stress, Cip1 expression triggers transient G1 delay which plays a functionally redundant role with another hyperosmolar activated CKI, Sic1. These findings indicate that Cip1 functions similarly to mammalian p21 as a stress-induced CDK inhibitor to decelerate cell cycle through G1 cyclins to cope with environmental stresses.A G1 cell cycle regulatory kinase Cip1 has been identified in budding yeast but how this is regulated is unclear. Here the authors identify cell cycle (Mcm1) and stress-mediated (Msn 2/4) transcription factors as regulating Cip1, causing stress induced CDK inhibition and delay in cell cycle progression.

  19. A COUPLED TH/NEUTRONICS/CRUD FRAMEWORK IN PREDICTION OF CIPS PHENOMENON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang; Jess Gehin; Brendan Kochunas

    2012-04-01

    A coupled TH/Neutronics/CRUD framework, which is able to simulate the CRUD deposits impact on CIPS phenomenon, was described in this paper. This framework includes the coupling among three essential physics, thermal-hydraulics, CRUD and neutronics. The overall framework was implemented by using the CFD software STAR-CCM+, developing CRUD codes, and using the neutronics code DeCART. The coupling was implemented by exchanging data between softwares using intermediate exchange files. A typical 3 by 3 PWR fuel pin problem was solved under this framework. The problem was solved in a 12 months length period of time. Time-dependent solutions were provided, including CRUD deposits inventory and their distributions on fuels, boron hideout amount inside CRUD deposits, as well as power shape changing over time. The results clearly showed the power shape suppression in regions where CRUD deposits exist, which is a strong indication of CIPS phenomenon.

  20. Celastrol inhibits chondrosarcoma proliferation, migration and invasion through suppression CIP2A/c-MYC signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcomas (CS is the second most frequent tumors of cartilage origin. A small compound extracted from Thunder God Vine (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. called celastrol can directly bound CIP2A protein and effectively inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, little knowledge is concern about the important role of CIP2A in CS patients and the therapeutic value of celastrol on CS. Our results showed that CIP2A and c-MYC were verified to be oncoproteins by detecting their mRNA and protein expression in 10 human CS tissues by qRT-PCR and Western blots. After treatment of celastrol, the proliferation, migration and invasion were significantly inhibited; whereas the apoptosis was largely induced in human CS cell lines. In addition, celastrol inhibited the expression of CIP2A, c-MYC, and suppressed apoptotic proteins BAX and caspase-8 in human CS cells, on the other hand, it induced the expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Finally, knockdown of CIP2A also inhibited the migration and invasion and induced apoptosis of human CS cells. To sum up, we found that celastrol had effects on inhibiting proliferation, migration, invasion and inducing apoptosis through suppression CIP2A/c-MYC signaling pathway in vitro, which may provide a new therapeutic regimen for CS.

  1. Arctigenin inhibits triple-negative breast cancers by targeting CIP2A to reactivate protein phosphatase 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuyue; Qin, Shanshan; Yuan, Xiaoning; Zhang, Liang; Ji, Juanli; Liu, Xuewen; Ma, Wenjing; Zhang, Yunfei; Liu, Pengfei; Sun, Zhiting; Zhang, Jingxuan; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    We have shown that a novel STAT3 inhibitor arctigenin (Atn) induces significant cytotoxicity in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. This study further delineated molecular mechanisms where by Atn triggered cytotoxicity in TNBC cells. We found Atn can also inhibit metastasis in TNBC cells through cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) pathway. CIP2A is an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which can increase the migration and invasion of various cancer cells. PP2A is a tumor suppressor, which is functionally defective in various cancers. Atn-induced metastasis inhibition was associated with reactivation of PP2A, downregulation of CIP2A and Akt phosphorylation. Silencing CIP2A enhanced Atn-induced metastasis inhibition and apoptosis in TNBCs. Furthermore, ectopic expression of CIP2A or inhibition of PP2A in TNBC cells abolished the effects of Atn. In conclusion, we found that enhancement of PP2A activity by inhibition of CIP2A, at least in part, promotes the anti-metastasis effect induced by Atn. Our findings disclose the novel therapeutic mechanism of this targeted agent, and suggest the therapeutic potential and feasibility of developing PP2A enhancers as a novel anticancer strategy.

  2. 1/4-pinched contact sphere theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Jian; Huang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Given a closed contact 3-manifold with a compatible Riemannian metric, we show that if the sectional curvature is 1/4-pinched, then the contact structure is universally tight. This result improves the Contact Sphere Theorem in [EKM12], where a 4/9-pinching constant was imposed. Some tightness...... results on positively curved contact open 3-manifold are also discussed....

  3. 1-[1-(4-Nitrophenylethylidene]thiosemicarbazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Ding

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C9H10N4O2S, was prepared by the reaction of 1-(4-nitrophenylethanone and thiosemicarbazide in ethanol at 367 K. There are weak intermolecular N—H...S and N—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions in the crystal structure involving the amine and nitrile groups, respectively, as donors.

  4. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.1 (4) November, 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    AFRREV IJAH. An International Journal of Arts and Humanities. Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Vol. 1 (4), November, 2012:86-97. ISSN: 2225-8590 (Print) .... absence of preposition; examples 4c, 4d and 4e are completely ungrammatical while example 4f is ambiguous because it is prone to different interpretations. It can mean that the ...

  5. Interactions of ciprofloxacin (CIP), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles and natural organic matter (NOM) in aqueous suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Elke, E-mail: elke.fries@bgr.de [Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), Orléans (France); Crouzet, Catherine; Michel, Caroline; Togola, Anne [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), Orléans (France)

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate interactions of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NP) and natural organic matter (NOM) in aqueous suspensions. The mean hydrodynamic diameter of particles of TiO{sub 2} NP and NOM in the suspensions ranged from 113 to 255 nm. During batch experiments the radioactivity resulting from {sup 14}CIP was determined in the filtrate (filter pore size 100 nm) by scintillation measurements. Up to 72 h, no significant sorption of NOM to TiO{sub 2} NP was observed at a TiO{sub 2} NP concentration of 5 mg/L. When the concentration of TiO{sub 2} NP was increased to 500 mg/L, a small amount of NOM of 9.5% ± 0.6% was sorbed at 72 h. The low sorption affinity of NOM on TiO{sub 2} NP surfaces could be explained by the negative charge of both components in alkaline media or by the low hydrophobicity of the NOM contents. At a TiO{sub 2} NP concentration of 5 mg L{sup −1}, the sorption of CIP on TiO{sub 2} NP was insignificant (TiO{sub 2} NP/CIP ratio: 10). When the TiO{sub 2} NP/CIP ratio was increased to 1000, a significant amount of 53.6% ± 7.2% of CIP was sorbed on TiO{sub 2} NP under equilibrium conditions at 64 h. In alkaline media, CIP is present mainly as zwitterions which have an affinity to sorb on negatively charged TiO{sub 2} NP surfaces. The sorption of CIP on TiO{sub 2} NP in the range of TiO{sub 2} NP concentrations currently estimated for municipal wastewater treatment plants is estimated to be rather low. The Freundlich sorption coefficients (K{sub F}) in the presence of NOM of 2167 L{sup n} mg mg{sup −n} kg{sup −1} was about 10 times lower than in the absence of NOM. This is an indication that the particle fraction of NOM < 100 nm could play a role as a carrier for ionic organic micro-pollutants as CIP. - Highlights: • Ciprofloxacine (CIP) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NP) interact. • Organic carbon (OC) could influence such interactions. • Batch

  6. The transcriptional coactivators p/CIP and SRC-1 control insulin resistance through IRS1 in obesity models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    Full Text Available Three p160 family members, p/CIP, SRC1, and TIF2, have been identified as transcriptional coactivators for nuclear hormone receptors and other transcription factors in vitro. In a previous study, we reported initial characterization of the obesity-resistant phenotypes of p/CIP and SRC-1 double knockout (DKO mice, which exhibit increased energy expenditure, and suggested that nuclear hormone receptor target genes were involved in these phenotypes. In this study, we demonstrate that p/CIP and SRC1 control insulin signaling in a cell-autonomous manner both in vitro and in vivo. Genetic deletion of p/CIP and SRC-1 increases glucose uptake and enhances insulin sensitivity in both regular chow- and high fat diet-fed DKO mice despite increased food intake. Interestingly, we discover that loss of p/CIP and SRC-1 results in resistance to age-related obesity and glucose intolerance. We show that expression levels of a key insulin signaling component, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1, are significantly increased in two cell lines representing fat and muscle lineages with p/CIP and SRC-1 deletions and in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of DKO mice; this may account for increased glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. This is the first evidence that the p160 coactivators control insulin signaling and glucose metabolism through IRS1. Therefore, our studies indicate that p/CIP and SRC-1 are potential therapeutic targets not only for obesity but also for diabetes.

  7. EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with suppression of p21cip1/waf1 and a worse prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Su-Ming

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 30-50% of Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs harbor the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, but the impact of EBV infection on clinical outcomes has been unclear. EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs are presented in all EBV-infected cells, but their functions are still less understood. Results EBER1 was transfected into two HL cell lines, KMH2 and L428, and microarrays were used to screen for EBER1-induced changes. We found that EBER1 suppressed p21cip1/waf1 transcription in HL cell lines. In addition, positive regulators of p21cip1/waf1 transcription, such as p53, EGR1, and STAT1, were decreased. Suppression of p21cip1/waf1 in the EBER1+ HL cell lines was associated with increased resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors or proteasome inhibitors, drugs known to cause apoptosis by increasing p21cip1/waf1 levels. On biopsy specimens, EBV+ HLs had weaker expression of both p21cip1/waf1 and active caspase 3. Clinically, suppression of p21cip1/waf1 in EBV+ HLs was associated with a worse 2-year disease-free survival rate (45% for EBV+ HLs vs. 77% for EBV- HLs, p = 0.002. Conclusion Although the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unclear, EBER1 inhibits p21cip1/waf1 transcription and prevents apoptosis through down-regulation of p53, EGR1, and STAT1. The anti-apoptotic activity of EBER1 may be important in the rescue of Reed-Sternberg cells from drug-induced apoptosis and in the clinical behaviors of EBV+ HLs.

  8. Regioselective iodination of aryl amines using 1,4-dibenzyl-1,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,4-Dibenzyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dichloroiodate is an efficient and regioselective reagent for iodination of aryl amines. A wide variety of aryl amines in reaction with this reagent afforded regioselectively iodinated products. The iodination reaction can be carried out in solution or under solvent-free condition at ...

  9. Bacillus aeolius DSM 15084T (=CIP 107628T) is a strain of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukall, R; Schumann, P; Clermont, D; Bizet, C

    2008-05-01

    Based on phenotypic properties, 16S rRNA gene sequence and MALDI-TOF analysis, strains DSM 15084T and CIP 107628T, deposited as the type strain of Bacillus aeolius, do not represent the original type strain, strain 4-1T. It is therefore proposed that the Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes places the name Bacillus aeolius on the list of rejected specific and subspecific epithets in names of species and subspecies of bacteria if a suitable replacement for the type strain or a neotype cannot be found within 2 years of publication of this Request.

  10. 75 FR 32797 - Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health... transferring Health Center Program (section 330 of the Public Health Service Act) Community Health Center (CHC), Increased Demand for Services (IDS), and Capital Improvement Program (CIP) funds originally awarded to...

  11. 75 FR 21001 - Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health... Health Center Program (section 330 of the Public Health Service Act) New Access Point (NAP), Increased Demand for Service (IDS), and Capital Improvement Program (CIP) funds originally awarded to Community...

  12. Effect of the bio-absorbent on the microwave absorption property of the flaky CIPs/rubber absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yang; Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-09-01

    Microwave absorbing composites filled with flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and the bio-absorbent were prepared by using a two-roll mixer and a vulcanizing machine. The electromagnetic (EM) parameters were measured by a vector network analyzer and the reflection loss (RL) was measured by the arch method in the frequency range of 1–4 GHz. The uniform dispersion of the absorbents was verified by comparing the calculated RL with the measured one. The results confirm that as the bio-absorbent was added, the permittivity was increased due to the volume content of absorbents, and the permeability was enlarged owing to the volume content of CIPs and interactions between the two absorbents. The composite filled with bio-absorbents achieved an excellent absorption property at a thickness of 1 mm (minimum RL reaches −7.8 dB), and as the RL was less than −10 dB the absorption band was widest (2.1–3.8 GHz) at a thickness of 2 mm. Therefore, the bio-absorbent is a promising additive candidate on fabricating microwave absorbing composites with a thinner thickness and wider absorption band. - Graphical abstract: Morphology of composites filled with flaky CIPs and the bio-absorbent. The enhancement of bio-absorbent on the electromagnetic absorption property of composites filled with flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) is attributed to the interaction of the two absorbents. The volume content of the FCMPs with the larger shape CIPs play an important role in this effects, the composites filled with irons and bio-absorbents can achieve wider-band and thinner-thickness absorbing materials. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with bio-absorbents and CIPs was fabricated. • Bio-absorbents enhanced the permittivity and permeability of the composites. • The absorbent interactions play a key role in the enhancement mechanism. • Bio-absorbents enhanced the composite RL in 1–4 GHz.

  13. Sensitivity of CIPS-computed PVC location to measurement errors in ECG electrode position: the need for the 3D Camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, P.M. van; Gordon, J.P.; Laks, M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Cardiac Isochrone Positioning System (CIPS) is a non-invasive method able to localize the origins of PVCs, VT and WPW from the 12 lead ECG. The CIPS model integrates a standard 12-lead ECG with an MRI derived model of the heart, lungs, and torso in order to compute the precise

  14. Lapatinib inhibits CIP2A/PP2A/p-Akt signaling and induces apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Yu; Hu, Ming-Hung; Hsu, Chia-Jung; Huang, Chun-Teng; Wang, Duen-Shian; Tsai, Wen-Chun; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lee, Chia-Han; Chu, Pei-Yi; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chen, Ming-Huang; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2016-02-23

    We tested the efficacy of lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor which interrupts the HER2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways, in a panel of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, and examined the drug mechanism. Lapatinib showed an anti-proliferative effect in HCC 1937, MDA-MB-468, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Lapatinib induced significant apoptosis and inhibited CIP2A and p-Akt in a dose and time-dependent manner in the three TNBC cell lines. Overexpression of CIP2A reduced lapatinib-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 cells. In addition, lapatinib increased PP2A activity (in relation to CIP2A inhibition). Moreover, lapatinib-induced apoptosis and p-Akt downregulation was attenuated by PP2A antagonist okadaic acid. Furthermore, lapatinib indirectly decreased CIP2A transcription by disturbing the binding of Elk1 to the CIP2A promoter. Importantly, lapatinib showed anti-tumor activity in mice bearing MDA-MB-468 xenograft tumors, and suppressed CIP2A as well as p-Akt in these xenografted tumors. In summary, inhibition of CIP2A determines the effects of lapatinib-induced apoptosis in TNBC cells. In addition to being a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of HER2 and EGFR, lapatinib also inhibits CIP2A/PP2A/p-Akt signaling in TNBC cells.

  15. Enlarged test catalysts during the hydrogenation of 1,4-butynediol to 1,4-butanediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The highly effective catalyzer for butynediol-1;4 hydrogenation was designed and synthesized. Enlarged tests showed that the selectivity on butanediol-1.4 at the hydrogenation of butynediol-1.4 on the alloyed catalyst SKN-39H during 320 h was 84.6 %; that on 18 % higher than for  industrial MNH. The yield of product on the catalyst SKN-39 increases slowly from 3.1 to 7.3 % when on a catalyst MNH – 7.1 to 11.7 % from the initial content of butynediol-1;4. At the hydrogenation of  butynediol on catalyst SKN-39H process efficiency increases in 1.5-2 times and product purity on 2-3 % is higher in comparing with the industrial catalyst MNH. 

  16. Bioaerosol sampling by a personal rotating cup sampler CIP 10-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görner, Peter; Fabriès, Jean-François; Duquenne, Philippe; Witschger, Olivier; Wrobel, Richard

    2006-01-01

    High concentrations of bioaerosols containing bacterial, fungal and biotoxinic matter are encountered in many workplaces, e.g. solid waste treatment plants, waste water treatment plants and sewage networks. A personal bioaerosol sampler, the CIP 10-M (M-microbiologic), has been developed to measure worker exposure to airborne biological agents. This sampler is battery operated; it is light and easy to wear and offers full work shift autonomy. It can sample much higher concentrations than biological impactors and limits the mechanical stress on the microorganisms. Biological particles are collected in 2 ml of liquid medium inside a rotating cup fitted with radial vanes to maintain an air flow rate of 10 l min(-1) at a rotational speed of approximately 7,000 rpm. The rotating cup is made of sterilisable material. The sampled particles follow a helicoidal trajectory as they are pushed to the surface of the liquid by centrifugal force, which creates a thin vertical liquid layer. Sterile water or another collecting liquid can be used. Three particle size selectors allow health-related aerosol fractions to be sampled according to international conventions. The sampled microbiological particles can be easily recovered for counting, incubation or further biochemical analysis, e.g., for airborne endotoxins. Its physical sampling efficiency was laboratory tested and field trials were carried out in industrial waste management conditions. The results indicate satisfactory collection efficiency, whilst experimental application has demonstrated the usefulness of the CIP 10-M personal sampler for individual bioaerosol exposure monitoring.

  17. Antihelminthic drug niclosamide inhibits CIP2A and reactivates tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Ok; Choe, Min Ho; Yoon, Yi Na; Ahn, Jiyeon; Yoo, Minjin; Jung, Kwan-Young; An, Sungkwan; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2017-11-15

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a critical tumor suppressor complex responsible for the inactivation of various oncogenes. Recently, PP2A reactivation has emerged asan anticancer strategy. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), an endogenous inhibitor of PP2A, is upregulated in many cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We demonstrated that the antihelminthic drug niclosamide inhibited the expression of CIP2A and reactivated the tumor suppressor PP2A in NSCLC cells. We performed a drug-repurposing screen and identified niclosamide asa CIP2A suppressor in NSCLC cells. Niclosamide inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumor sphere formation, and induced mitochondrial dysfunction through increased mitochondrial ROS production in NSCLC cells; however, these effects were rescued by CIP2A overexpression, which indicated that the antitumor activity of niclosamide was dependent on CIP2A. We found that niclosamide increased PP2A activity through CIP2A inhibition, which reduced the phosphorylation of several oncogenic proteins. Moreover, we found that a niclosamide analog inhibited CIP2A expression and increased PP2A activity in several types of NSCLC cells. Finally, we showed that other well-known PP2A activators, including forskolin and FTY720, did not inhibit CIP2A and that their activities were not dependent on CIP2A. Collectively, our data suggested that niclosamide effectively suppressed CIP2A expression and subsequently activated PP2A in NSCLC cells. This provided strong evidence for the potential use of niclosamide asa PP2A-activating drug in the clinical treatment of NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. KDM6A addiction of cervical carcinoma cell lines is triggered by E7 and mediated by p21CIP1 suppression of replication stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Soto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Expression of E7 proteins encoded by carcinogenic, high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs triggers increased expression of the histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase KDM6A. KDM6A expression is necessary for survival of high-risk HPV E7 expressing cells, including several cervical cancer lines. Here we show that increased KDM6A in response to high-risk HPV E7 expression causes epigenetic de-repression of the cell cycle and DNA replication inhibitor p21CIP1, and p21CIP1 expression is necessary for survival of high-risk HPV E7 expressing cells. The requirement for KDM6A and p21CIP1 expression for survival of high-risk HPV E7 expressing cells is based on p21CIP1's ability to inhibit DNA replication through PCNA binding. We show that ectopic expression of cellular replication factors can rescue the loss of cell viability in response to p21CIP1 and KDM6A depletion. Moreover, we discovered that nucleoside supplementation will override the loss of cell viability in response to p21CIP1 depletion, suggesting that p21CIP1 depletion causes lethal replication stress. This model is further supported by increased double strand DNA breaks upon KDM6A or p21CIP1 depletion and DNA combing experiments that show aberrant re-replication upon KDM6A or p21CIP1 depletion in high-risk HPV E7 expressing cells. Therefore, KDM6A and p21CIP1 expression are essential to curb E7 induced replication stress to levels that do not markedly interfere with cell viability.

  19. 1-Methylpiperazine-1,4-diium dipicrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 1-methylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenolate], C5H14N22+·2C6H2N3O7−, the ionic components are connected by relatively strong N—H...O hydrogen bonds into centrosymmetric six-membered conglomerates, which comprise two dications and four anions. Besides Coulombic interactions, only weak C—H...O interactions and some stacking between picrates (separation between the planes of ca. 3.4 Å but only a small overlapping can be identified between these `building blocks' of the crystal structure. The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation with the methyl substituent in the equatorial position. In the picrate anions, the twist angles of the nitro groups depend on their positions relative to the phenolate O atom: it is much smaller for the NO2 groups para to the C—O− group [15.23 (9and 3.92 (14°] than for the groups in the ortho positions [28.76 (13–39.84 (11°].

  20. 2008 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Pharmacy Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0805 - Pharmacy Technician/Assistant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergens, John; Sanders, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  1. 2011 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Forestry Technology. (Program CIP: 03.0511 - Forest Technology/Technician)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke; Keeton, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  2. 2009 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Ophthalmic Technology. (Program CIP-51.1801 - Opticianry/Dispensing Optician)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciple, Eddie

    2009-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  3. 2009 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Occupational Safety and Health Technology. Program CIP: 15.0701

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  4. 2010 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Clothing and Textile Services. (Program CIP-19.0905)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Verlene

    2010-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  5. 2009 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Cardiovascular Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0901 - Cardiovascular Technology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford-Means, Cynthia; Stevens, Richard

    2009-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  6. 2011 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Occupational Therapy Assistant. (Program CIP: 51.0803 - Occupational Therapist Assistant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Sherry; Pulver, Tim; Chittom, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  7. ETS1 mediates MEK1/2-dependent overexpression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchit Khanna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available EGFR-MEK-ERK signaling pathway has an established role in promoting malignant growth and disease progression in human cancers. Therefore identification of transcriptional targets mediating the oncogenic effects of the EGFR-MEK-ERK pathway would be highly relevant. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A is a recently characterized human oncoprotein. CIP2A promotes malignant cell growth and is over expressed at high frequency (40-80% in most of the human cancer types. However, the mechanisms inducing its expression in cancer still remain largely unexplored. Here we present systematic analysis of contribution of potential gene regulatory mechanisms for high CIP2A expression in cancer. Our data shows that evolutionary conserved CpG islands at the proximal CIP2A promoter are not methylated both in normal and cancer cells. Furthermore, sequencing of the active CIP2A promoter region from altogether seven normal and malignant cell types did not reveal any sequence alterations that would increase CIP2A expression specifically in cancer cells. However, treatment of cancer cells with various signaling pathway inhibitors revealed that CIP2A mRNA expression was sensitive to inhibition of EGFR activity as well as inhibition or activation of MEK-ERK pathway. Moreover, MEK1/2-specific siRNAs decreased CIP2A protein expression. Series of CIP2A promoter-luciferase constructs were created to identify proximal -27 to -107 promoter region responsible for MEK-dependent stimulation of CIP2A expression. Additional mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed ETS1 as the transcription factor mediating stimulation of CIP2A expression through EGFR-MEK pathway. Thus, ETS1 is probably mediating high CIP2A expression in human cancers with increased EGFR-MEK1/2-ERK pathway activity. These results also suggest that in addition to its established role in invasion and angiogenesis, ETS1 may support malignant cellular growth via regulation of

  8. Development of the radical-stable Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CiP) by blocking the radical attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Joo, Jeong Chan; Kim, Han Sang; Kwon, Inchan; Song, Bong Keun; Yoo, Young Je; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2014-11-10

    Despite the potential use of peroxidases as industrial biocatalysts, their practical application is often impeded due to suicide inactivation by radicals generated in oxidative reactions. Using a peroxidase from Coprinus cinereus (CiP) as a model enzyme, we revealed a dominant factor for peroxidase inactivation during phenol oxidation, and we engineered radical-stable mutants by site-directed mutagenesis of an amino acid residue susceptible to modification by phenoxyl radical. Mass spectrometry analysis of inactivated CiP identified an adduct between F230 and a phenoxyl radical, and subsequently, the F230 residue was mutated to amino acids that resisted radical coupling. Of the F230 mutants, the F230A mutant showed the highest stability against radical inactivation, retaining 80% of its initial activity, while the wild-type protein was almost completely inactivated. The F230A mutant also exhibited a 16-fold higher turnover of the phenol substrate compared with the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the F230A mutant was stable during the oxidation of other phenolic compounds, including m-cresol and 3-methoxyphenol. No structural changes were observed by UV-vis and CD spectra of CiP after radical coupling, implying that the F230-phenol radical adduct inactivated CiP by blocking substrate access to the active site. Our novel strategy can be used to improve the stability of other peroxidases inactivated by radicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inline UV-Vis spectroscopy to monitor and optimize cleaning-in-place (CIP) of whey filtration plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thilo Heinz Alexander; Ottosen, Niels; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J.

    2017-01-01

    transferred to a pilot plant equipped with inline UV-Vis spectroscopy on both the retentate and permeate side. Then the dynamics of multiple fouling and cleaning of these membranes were investigated. The results indicate that the first CIP step, caustic cleaning could be shortened and possibly reduced...

  10. FOXO target gene CTDSP2 regulates cell cycle progression through Ras and p21Cip1/Waf1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, David E.A.; Polderman, Paulien E.; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Smits, Lydia M.; vanTriest, Miranda H.; vandenBerg, Maaike C.W.; Koerkamp, Marian J. Groot; vanLeenen, Dik; Lijnzaad, Philip; Holstege, Frank C.; Burgering, Boudewijn M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Activity of FOXO (forkhead box O) transcription factors is inhibited by growth factor–PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)–PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt signalling to control a variety of cellular processes including cell cycle progression. Through comparative analysis of a number of microarray datasets we identified a set of genes commonly regulated by FOXO proteins and PI3K–PKB/Akt, which includes CTDSP2 (C-terminal domain small phosphatase 2). We validated CTDSP2 as a genuine FOXO target gene and show that ectopic CTDSP2 can induce cell cycle arrest. We analysed transcriptional regulation after CTDSP2 expression and identified extensive regulation of genes involved in cell cycle progression, which depends on the phosphatase activity of CTDSP2. The most notably regulated gene is the CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor p21Cip1/Waf1 and in the present study we show that p21Cip1/Waf1 is partially responsible for the cell cycle arrest through decreasing cyclin–CDK activity. Our data suggest that CTDSP2 induces p21Cip1/Waf1 through increasing the activity of Ras. As has been described previously, Ras induces p21Cip1/Waf1 through p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways and indeed both p53 and MEK inhibition can mitigate the CTDSP2-induced p21Cip1/Waf1 mRNA up-regulation. In support of Ras activation by CTDSP2, depletion of endogenous CTDSP2 results in reduced Ras activity and thus CTDSP2 seems to be part of a larger set of genes regulated by FOXO proteins, which increase growth factor signalling upon FOXO activation. PMID:25990325

  11. FOXO target gene CTDSP2 regulates cell cycle progression through Ras and p21(Cip1/Waf1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, David E A; Polderman, Paulien E; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Smits, Lydia M; van Triest, Miranda H; van den Berg, Maaike C W; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J; van Leenen, Dik; Lijnzaad, Philip; Holstege, Frank C; Burgering, Boudewijn M T

    2015-07-15

    Activity of FOXO (forkhead box O) transcription factors is inhibited by growth factor-PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt signalling to control a variety of cellular processes including cell cycle progression. Through comparative analysis of a number of microarray datasets we identified a set of genes commonly regulated by FOXO proteins and PI3K-PKB/Akt, which includes CTDSP2 (C-terminal domain small phosphatase 2). We validated CTDSP2 as a genuine FOXO target gene and show that ectopic CTDSP2 can induce cell cycle arrest. We analysed transcriptional regulation after CTDSP2 expression and identified extensive regulation of genes involved in cell cycle progression, which depends on the phosphatase activity of CTDSP2. The most notably regulated gene is the CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor p21(Cip1/Waf1) and in the present study we show that p21(Cip1/Waf1) is partially responsible for the cell cycle arrest through decreasing cyclin-CDK activity. Our data suggest that CTDSP2 induces p21(Cip1/Waf1) through increasing the activity of Ras. As has been described previously, Ras induces p21(Cip1/Waf1) through p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways and indeed both p53 and MEK inhibition can mitigate the CTDSP2-induced p21(Cip1/Waf1) mRNA up-regulation. In support of Ras activation by CTDSP2, depletion of endogenous CTDSP2 results in reduced Ras activity and thus CTDSP2 seems to be part of a larger set of genes regulated by FOXO proteins, which increase growth factor signalling upon FOXO activation. © 2015 Authors.

  12. High expression of CIP2A protein is associated with tumor aggressiveness in stage I–III NSCLC and correlates with poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha GQ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geqi Cha,1 Jianyu Xu,1 Xiangying Xu,1 Bin Li,2 Shan Lu,1 Abiyasi Nanding,3 Songliu Hu,1 Shilong Liu1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 2Department of Plastic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 3Department of Pathology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China Abstract: The aim of this work was to examine the expression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and analyze its correlation with clinical outcomes. CIP2A protein levels were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC. One hundred and eighty-four of 209 (88.3% primary stage I–III NSCLC specimens and 4 of 38 (10.5% adjacent normal lung tissue specimens expressed CIP2A protein. High expression of CIP2A was detected in 38.8% (81/209 of the NSCLC specimens. Patients diagnosed histologically with late-stage NSCLC (p<0.001 and malignant nodes (p=0.001 exhibited high CIP2A expression. Univariate analysis using the log-rank test identified CIP2A expression as a prognostic predictor for overall survival (p=0.005. In multivariate analyses using the Cox regression test, CIP2A expression, T stage, N stage, histological type, and chemotherapy were identified as independent prognostic factors (p=0.007, 0.001, 0.003, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively. Furthermore, Kaplan–Meier survival curves demonstrated that high CIP2A expression indicated poor prognosis in the subgroup of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (p=0.008. Similar results were noted in the subgroup of patients with adenocarcinoma, but the results did not reach statistical significance (p=0.084. We also used univariate analysis and multivariate analysis to assess the prognostic factors for overall survival in the subgroup of patients who received postoperative chemotherapy. CIP2A expression was also an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC

  13. 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium bis(3-chlorobenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Shuo Yao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt C6H14N22+·2C7H4ClO2−, two 3-chlorobenzoate (3CBA anions are bridged by one diprotonated 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium (H2DABCO2+ dication through N—H...O hydrogen bonds. In this way, a trimeric unit is generated, in which the mean planes of the two 3CBA anions are twisted with respect to each other by a dihedral angle of 59.87 (9°. The trimeric units are linked into a three-dimensional network via weak C—H...O interactions.

  14. TGFbeta induces apoptosis and EMT in primary mouse hepatocytes independently of p53, p21Cip1 or Rb status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison David J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGFβ has pleiotropic effects that range from regulation of proliferation and apoptosis to morphological changes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Some evidence suggests that these effects may be interconnected. We have recently reported that P53, P21Cip1 and pRB, three critical regulators of the G1/S transition are variably involved in TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes. As these proteins are also involved in the regulation of apoptosis in many circumstances, we investigated their contribution to other relevant TGFβ-induced effects, namely apoptosis and EMT, and examined how the various processes were interrelated. Methods Primary mouse hepatocytes deficient in p53, p21 and/or Rb, singly or in combination were treated with TGFβ for 24 to 96 hours. Apoptosis was quantified according to morphology and by immunostaining for cleaved-capsase 3. Epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was studied using immunocytochemistry and real time PCR. Results We found that TGFβ similarly induced morphological changes regardless of genotype and independently of proliferation index or sensitivity to inhibition of proliferation by TGFβ. Morphological changes were accompanied by decrease in E-cadherin and increased Snail expression but the mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, SMAα and Vimentin studied remained unchanged. TGFβ induced high levels of apoptosis in p53-/-, Rb-/-, p21cip1-/- and control hepatocytes although with slight differences in kinetics. This was unrelated to proliferation or changes in morphology and loss of cell-cell adhesion. However, hepatocytes deficient in both p53 and p21cip1were less sensitive to TGFβ-induced apoptosis. Conclusion Although p53, p21Cip1 and pRb are well known regulators of both proliferation and apoptosis in response to a multitude of stresses, we conclude that they are critical for TGFβ-driven inhibition of hepatocytes proliferation, but only slightly modulate TGF

  15. 8,8-Diethyl-1,4,5,8-tetrahydronaphthalene-1,4,5-trione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Araya-Maturana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C14H14O3, contains two fused six-membered carbon rings with keto groups at positions 1, 4 and 5 and a gem-diethyl group at position 8. The molecule is close to planar (maximum deviation = 0.044 Å, with one ethyl group at each side of the molecular plane, with exception of the keto group at position 1 which is slightly deviated from the plane and disordered over two positions one on each side of it (occupancies 0.80/0.20. The packing of the molecule shows weak bonded chains along a through C—H...O contacts and two intramolecular C—H...O interactions are also present.

  16. p21WAF1/CIP1 Expression is Differentially Regulated by Metformin and Rapamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Molnar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway plays an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy and other age-related diseases. One of the features of DN is the elevated expression of p21WAF1/CIP1. However, the importance of the mTOR signalling pathway in p21 regulation is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of metformin and rapamycin on mTOR-related phenotypes in cell lines of epithelial origin. This study reports that metformin inhibits high glucose-induced p21 expression. High glucose opposed metformin in regulating cell size, proliferation, and protein synthesis. These effects were associated with reduced AMPK activation, affecting downstream mTOR signalling. However, the inhibition of the mTOR pathway by rapamycin did not have a negative effect on p21 expression, suggesting that metformin regulates p21 upstream of mTOR. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that AMPK activation may regulate p21 expression, which may have implications for diabetic nephropathy and other age-related pathologies.

  17. 47 CFR 1.4 - Computation of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of time. 1.4 Section 1.4... Procedure General § 1.4 Computation of time. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this rule section is to detail the... deadlines established by the Commission. It also applies to computation of time for seeking both...

  18. 26 CFR 303.1-4 - Computation of taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of taxes. 303.1-4 Section 303.1-4... ADMINISTRATION TAXES UNDER THE TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT § 303.1-4 Computation of taxes. (a) Detail of employees... General such employees of the Internal Revenue Service as may be necessary to make the computations under...

  19. 1/4-BPS states on noncommutative tori

    OpenAIRE

    Konechny, A.; Schwarz, A

    1999-01-01

    We give an explicit expression for classical 1/4-BPS fields in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on noncommutative tori. We use it to study quantum 1/4-BPS states. In particular we calculate the degeneracy of 1/4-BPS energy levels.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A promotes cellular proliferation by repression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Tursiella

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Latent infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is highly associated with the endemic form of Burkitt lymphoma (eBL, which typically limits expression of EBV proteins to EBNA-1 (Latency I. Interestingly, a subset of eBLs maintain a variant program of EBV latency - Wp-restricted latency (Wp-R - that includes expression of the EBNA-3 proteins (3A, 3B and 3C, in addition to EBNA-1. In xenograft assays, Wp-R BL cell lines were notably more tumorigenic than their counterparts that maintain Latency I, suggesting that the additional latency-associated proteins expressed in Wp-R influence cell proliferation and/or survival. Here, we evaluated the contribution of EBNA-3A. Consistent with the enhanced tumorigenic potential of Wp-R BLs, knockdown of EBNA-3A expression resulted in abrupt cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 that was concomitant with conversion of retinoblastoma protein (Rb to its hypophosphorylated state, followed by a loss of Rb protein. Comparable results were seen in EBV-immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs, consistent with the previous observation that EBNA-3A is essential for sustained growth of these cells. In agreement with the known ability of EBNA-3A and EBNA-3C to cooperatively repress p14(ARF and p16(INK4a expression, knockdown of EBNA-3A in LCLs resulted in rapid elevation of p14(ARF and p16I(NK4a. By contrast, p16(INK4a was not detectably expressed in Wp-R BL and the low-level expression of p14(ARF was unchanged by EBNA-3A knockdown. Amongst other G1/S regulatory proteins, only p21(WAF1/CIP1, a potent inducer of G1 arrest, was upregulated following knockdown of EBNA-3A in Wp-R BL Sal cells and LCLs, coincident with hypophosphorylation and destabilization of Rb and growth arrest. Furthermore, knockdown of p21(WAF1/CIP1 expression in Wp-R BL correlated with an increase in cellular proliferation. This novel function of EBNA-3A is distinct from the functions previously described that are shared with EBNA-3C, and likely contributes to

  1. Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs. Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of  ∼ 20–60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent  =  −3.2 and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of −2.9 and −2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.

  2. Chesapeake Inundation Prediction System (CIPS): A regional prototype for a national problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamey, B.; Smith, W.; Carey, K.; Garbin, D.; Klein, F.; Wang, Hongfang; Shen, J.; Gong, W.; Cho, J.; Forrest, D.; Friedrichs, C.; Boicourt, W.; Li, M.; Koterba, M.; King, D.; Titlow, J.; Smith, E.; Siebers, A.; Billet, J.; Lee, J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Szatkowski, G.; Wilson, D.; Ahnert, P.; Ostrowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent Hurricanes Katrina and Isabel, among others, not only demonstrated their immense destructive power, but also revealed the obvious, crucial need for improved storm surge forecasting and information delivery to save lives and property in future storms. Current operational methods and the storm surge and inundation products do not adequately meet requirements needed by Emergency Managers (EMs) at local, state, and federal levels to protect and inform our citizens. The Chesapeake Bay Inundation Prediction System (CIPS) is being developed to improve the accuracy, reliability, and capability of flooding forecasts for tropical cyclones and non-tropical wind systems such as nor'easters by modeling and visualizing expected on-land storm-surge inundation along the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. An initial prototype has been developed by a team of government, academic and industry partners through the Chesapeake Bay Observing System (CBOS) of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (MACOORA) within the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). For demonstration purposes, this initial prototype was developed for the tidal Potomac River in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The preliminary information from this prototype shows great potential as a mechanism by which NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Forecast Offices (WFOs) can provide more specific and timely forecasts of likely inundation in individual localities from significant storm surge events. This prototype system has shown the potential to indicate flooding at the street level, at time intervals of an hour or less, and with vertical resolution of one foot or less. This information will significantly improve the ability of EMs and first responders to mitigate life and property loss and improve evacuation capabilities in individual communities. This paper provides an update and expansion of the initial prototype that was presented at the Oceans 2006 MTS/IEEE Conference in Boston, MA

  3. p21(WAF1/CIP1 RNA expression in highly HIV-1 exposed, uninfected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Herbeck

    Full Text Available Some individuals remain HIV-1 antibody and PCR negative after repeated exposures to the virus, and are referred to as HIV-exposed seronegatives (HESN. However, the causes of resistance to HIV-1 infection in cases other than those with a homozygous CCR5Δ32 deletion are unclear. We hypothesized that human p21WAF1/CIP1 (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor could play a role in resistance to HIV-1 infection in HESN, as p21 expression has been associated with suppression of HIV-1 in elite controllers and reported to block HIV-1 integration in cell culture. We measured p21 RNA expression in PBMC from 40 HESN and 40 low exposure HIV-1 seroconverters (LESC prior to their infection using a real-time PCR assay. Comparing the 20 HESN with the highest exposure risk (median = 111 partners/2.5 years prior to the 20 LESC with the lowest exposure risk (median = 1 partner/2.5 years prior, p21 expression trended higher in HESN in only one of two experiments (P = 0.11 vs. P = 0.80. Additionally, comparison of p21 expression in the top 40 HESN (median = 73 partners/year and lowest 40 LESC (median = 2 partners/year showed no difference between the groups (P = 0.84. There was a weak linear trend between risk of infection after exposure and increasing p21 gene expression (R2 = 0.02, P = 0.12, but again only in one experiment. Hence, if p21 expression contributes to the resistance to viral infection in HESN, it likely plays a minor role evident only in those with extremely high levels of exposure to HIV-1.

  4. 26 CFR 302.1-4 - Computation of taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of taxes. 302.1-4 Section 302.1-4... Computation of taxes. (a) Detail of employees of the Internal Revenue Service. The Commissioner will detail... necessary to make the computations under the regulations in this part promptly and accurately. (b...

  5. Epoxidation and oxidation reactions using 1, 4-butanediol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1,4-Butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDDMA) crosslinked polystyrene-supported -butyl hydroperoxide was employed in the epoxidation of olefins and oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds. The reagent proved to be successful as a recyclable solid phase organic reagent with as much or more efficiency when ...

  6. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for the Binary Mixtures 1,4-Xylene + Ethylbenzene and 1,4-Xylene + Toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyghe, Raphaël; Rasmussen, Peter; Thomsen, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K.......Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K....

  7. Exploração e manejo do cipó-titica (Heteropsis spp.)Exploitation and management of the vine Heteropsis spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Scipioni, Marcelo Callegari; Serviço Florestal Brasileiro; Alves, Cristina Galvão; Serviço Florestal Brasileiro; Durigan, Carlos César; Fundação Vitória Amazônica; Soares Morais, Maria de Lourdes da Costa; Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA

    2012-01-01

    ResumoAs espécies hemiepífitas do gênero Heteropsis produzem raízes aéreas que são conhecidas na Amazônia brasileira como cipó-titica e titicão ou cipó timbó-açu, sendo fonte produtora de fibra de alto valor comercial, principalmente na fabricação de artesanatos e móveis. Essa matéria-prima é intensamente explorada de forma insustentável, tendo grande redução da disponibilidade desse recurso florestal, devido à diminuição ou extinção regional das plantas de cipó provocadas pelo inadequado man...

  8. CDK inhibitors, p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}, participate in cell cycle exit of mammalian cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tane, Shoji; Ikenishi, Aiko; Okayama, Hitomi; Iwamoto, Noriko [School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Nakayama, Keiichi I. [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Takeuchi, Takashi, E-mail: takeuchi@med.tottori-u.ac.jp [School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Expression of p21 and p27 in the hearts showed a peak during postnatal stages. •p21 and p27 bound to cyclin E, cyclin A and CDK2 in the hearts at postnatal stages. •Cardiomyocytes in both KO mice showed failure in the cell cycle exit at G1-phase. •These data show the first apparent phenotypes in the hearts of Cip/Kip KO mice. -- Abstract: Mammalian cardiomyocytes actively proliferate during embryonic stages, following which cardiomyocytes exit their cell cycle after birth. The irreversible cell cycle exit inhibits cardiac regeneration by the proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes. Exactly how the cell cycle exit occurs remains largely unknown. Previously, we showed that cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities are inhibited before the CDKs levels decrease in postnatal stages. This result suggests that factors such as CDK inhibitors (CKIs) inhibit CDK activities, and contribute to the cell cycle exit. In the present study, we focused on a Cip/Kip family, which can inhibit cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities. Expression of p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} but not p57{sup Kip2} showed a peak around postnatal day 5, when cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities start to decrease. p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} bound to cyclin E, cyclin A and CDK2 at postnatal stages. Cell cycle distribution patterns of postnatal cardiomyocytes in p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} knockout mice showed failure in the cell cycle exit at G1-phase, and endoreplication. These results indicate that p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip} play important roles in the cell cycle exit of postnatal cardiomyocytes.

  9. Deficiency of G1 regulators P53, P21Cip1 and/or pRb decreases hepatocyte sensitivity to TGFβ cell cycle arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison David J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGFβ is critical to control hepatocyte proliferation by inducing G1-growth arrest through multiple pathways leading to inhibition of E2F transcription activity. The retinoblastoma protein pRb is a key controller of E2F activity and G1/S transition which can be inhibited in viral hepatitis. It is not known whether the impairment of pRb would alter the growth inhibitory potential of TGFβ in disease. We asked how Rb-deficiency would affect responses to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest. Results Primary hepatocytes isolated from Rb-floxed mice were infected with an adenovirus expressing CRE-recombinase to delete the Rb gene. In control cells treatment with TGFβ prevented cells to enter S phase via decreased cMYC activity, activation of P16INK4A and P21Cip and reduction of E2F activity. In Rb-null hepatocytes, cMYC activity decreased slightly but P16INK4A was not activated and the great majority of cells continued cycling. Rb is therefore central to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes. However some Rb-null hepatocytes remained sensitive to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest. As these hepatocytes expressed very high levels of P21Cip1 and P53 we investigated whether these proteins regulate pRb-independent signaling to cell cycle arrest by evaluating the consequences of disruption of p53 and p21Cip1. Hepatocytes deficient in p53 or p21Cip1 showed diminished growth inhibition by TGFβ. Double deficiency had a similar impact showing that in cells containing functional pRb; P21Cip and P53 work through the same pathway to regulate G1/S in response to TGFβ. In Rb-deficient cells however, p53 but not p21Cip deficiency had an additive effect highlighting a pRb-independent-P53-dependent effector pathway of inhibition of E2F activity. Conclusion The present results show that otherwise genetically normal hepatocytes with disabled p53, p21Cip1 or Rb genes respond less well to the antiproliferative effects of TGFβ. As the function of

  10. Characterisation of the artificial neural network CiPS for cirrus cloud remote sensing with MSG/SEVIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Strandgren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds remain one of the key uncertainties in atmospheric research. To better understand the properties and physical processes of cirrus clouds, accurate large-scale observations from satellites are required. Artificial neural networks (ANNs have proved to be a useful tool for cirrus cloud remote sensing. Since physics is not modelled explicitly in ANNs, a thorough characterisation of the networks is necessary. In this paper the CiPS (Cirrus Properties from SEVIRI algorithm is characterised using the space-borne lidar CALIOP. CiPS is composed of a set of ANNs for the cirrus cloud detection, opacity identification and the corresponding cloud top height, ice optical thickness and ice water path retrieval from the imager SEVIRI aboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellites. First, the retrieval accuracy is characterised with respect to different land surface types. The retrieval works best over water and vegetated surfaces, whereas a surface covered by permanent snow and ice or barren reduces the cirrus detection ability and increases the retrieval errors for the ice optical thickness and ice water path if the cirrus cloud is thin (optical thickness less than approx. 0.3. Second, the retrieval accuracy is characterised with respect to the vertical arrangement of liquid, ice clouds and aerosol layers as derived from CALIOP lidar data. The CiPS retrievals show little interference from liquid water clouds and aerosol layers below an observed cirrus cloud. A liquid water cloud vertically close or adjacent to the cirrus clearly increases the average retrieval errors for the optical thickness and ice water path, respectively, only for thin cirrus clouds with an optical thickness below 0.3 or ice water path below 5.0 g m−2. For the cloud top height retrieval, only aerosol layers affect the retrieval error, with an increased positive bias when the cirrus is at low altitudes. Third, the CiPS retrieval error is

  11. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number is... sequentially, within blocks, designating basic balance sheet classifications. The first two digits of the four...

  12. New Developments in 1,4 Dioxane Site Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    release; distribution is unlimited. N/A New research is changing the conventional conceptual model for how the emerging contaminant 1,4-dioxane...occurring contaminants like chlorinated solvents. A combination of data mining, modeling, and both bench-scale and field scale studies was used to meet...conceptual model for how the emerging contaminant 1,4-dioxane behaves following its release to the environment. This fact sheet summarizes the

  13. Parâmetros fitossociológicos de um cerrado no Parque Nacional Da Serra Do Cipó, MG Phytosociological parameters of a cerrado in "Serra Do Cipó" national park, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Augusto Alves Meira Neto

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza de espécies e os fatores determinantes da ocorrência da vegetação de cerrado há muito têm despertado o interesse de pesquisadores. Muitos cerrados protegidos em unidades de conservação ainda não foram investigados florística e estruturalmente. Neste trabalho foi realizado um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (19º22'01''S e 43º37'10''W. Foram instaladas 12 parcelas de 150 m² e foram amostrados todos os indíviduos lenhosos com circunferência do caule à altura do solo maior ou igual a 10 cm. Foram relacionadas 44 espécies de 37 gêneros e 30 famílias. Entre estas, Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae Mimosoideae e Guttiferae, com três espécies cada, foram as mais ricas. As espécies mais importantes (VI foram Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Allagoptera campestris, Diospyros hispida, Rapanea guianensis e Piptocarpha rotundifolia.The diversity of species and the factors determining the occurrence of cerrado vegetation have long called the attention of researchers. Many protected cerrados in Conservation Units have not been floristically and structurally studied. This work conducted a floristic and phytosociological survey of the Parque Nacional da "Serra do Cipó" ("Serra do Cipó" National Park (19º22'01''S and 43º37'10''W. Twelve quadrats of 150 m² were established and all individuals with a stem circumference at ground level larger than or equal to 10 cm were sampled. A total of 44 species of 37 genera and 30 families were found. The richest families were Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae Mimosoideae and Guttiferae, with three species each. The most important species (VI were Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Allagoptera campestris, Diospyros hispida, Rapanea guianensis and Piptocarpha rotundifolia.

  14. Tsunami Simulation using CIP Method with Characteristic Curve Equations and TVD-MacCormack Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Souki; Tosaka, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    After entering 21st century, we already had two big tsunami disasters associated with Mw9 earthquakes in Sumatra and Japan. To mitigate the damages of tsunami, the numerical simulation technology combined with information technologies could provide reliable predictions in planning countermeasures to prevent the damage to the social system, making safety maps, and submitting early evacuation information to the residents. Shallow water equations are still solved not only for global scale simulation of the ocean tsunami propagation but also for local scale simulation of overland inundation in many tsunami simulators though three-dimensional model starts to be used due to improvement of CPU. One-dimensional shallow water equations are below: partial bm{Q}/partial t+partial bm{E}/partial x=bm{S} in which bm{Q}=( D M )), bm{E}=( M M^2/D+gD^2/2 )), bm{S}=( 0 -gDpartial z/partial x-gn2 M|M| /D7/3 )). where D[m] is total water depth; M[m^2/s] is water flux; z[m] is topography; g[m/s^2] is the gravitational acceleration; n[s/m1/3] is Manning's roughness coefficient. To solve these, the staggered leapfrog scheme is used in a lot of wide-scale tsunami simulator. But this scheme has a problem that lagging phase error occurs when courant number is small. In some practical simulation, a kind of diffusion term is added. In this study, we developed two wide-scale tsunami simulators with different schemes and compared usual scheme and other schemes in practicability and validity. One is a total variation diminishing modification of the MacCormack method (TVD-MacCormack method) which is famous for the simulation of compressible fluids. The other is the Cubic Interpolated Profile (CIP) method with characteristic curve equations transformed from shallow water equations. Characteristic curve equations derived from shallow water equations are below: partial R_x±/partial t+C_x±partial R_x±/partial x=∓ g/2partial z/partial x in which R_x±=√{gD}± u/2, C_x±=u± √{gD}. where u

  15. ELEFUNT test results under X1. 4 on the Encore Multimax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, W.J.

    1986-04-01

    Two libraries of Fortran test programs for elementary functions, MACHAR and ELEFUNT, were run on an Encore Multimax computer with 20 CPUs and 20 Megabytes of memory. The test program libraries were run under the X1.4 operating system (a version of 4.2 BSD UNIX). PARANOIA, an arithmetic test program, was run under the X1.2 operating system. Accuracy of the elementary functions, error detection, and error responses for the functions are discussed. 5 refs., 3 tabs. (DWL)

  16. Sennius Bridwell (Coleoptera, Bruchidae: novas espécies predadoras de sementes de Chamaecrista Moench (Caesalpinaceae da Serra do Cipó, Santana do Riacho, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva José Aldir Pinto da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The four new species Sennius bruneus sp. nov., S. kingsolveri sp. nov., S. maculatus sp. nov. and S. niger sp. nov., predators of seeds of Chamaecrista Moench (Caesalpinaceae from Serra do Cipó, Santana doRiacho, Minas Gerais, Brazil are described, and their host species listed. A key to the four species is also included.

  17. Sennius Bridwell (Coleoptera, Bruchidae): novas espécies predadoras de sementes de Chamaecrista Moench (Caesalpinaceae) da Serra do Cipó, Santana do Riacho, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, José Aldir Pinto da; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare; Johnson, Clarence Dan

    2003-01-01

    The four new species Sennius bruneus sp. nov., S. kingsolveri sp. nov., S. maculatus sp. nov. and S. niger sp. nov., predators of seeds of Chamaecrista Moench (Caesalpinaceae) from Serra do Cipó, Santana doRiacho, Minas Gerais, Brazil are described, and their host species listed. A key to the four species is also included.

  18. Oxidative stress biomarkers in different tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to Disinfectant-CIP formulated with peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Halyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine the effects of exposure to the product DEZYNFEKTANT-CIP (Eng. - Disinfectant-CIP, which is formulated with peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, on oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation (LPO levels and the carbonyl content of oxidatively modified proteins and antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total antioxidant capacity in muscle, gill, hepatic, and cardiac tissues of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum. LPO and carbonyl contents changed with tissue type. Exposure to Disinfectant-CIP led to a significant decrease in LPO in muscle tissues and carbonyl content in muscle and gill tissues. The inhibition of SOD and CAT activity in muscle, hepatic, and cardiac tissues was observed probably because of increased oxidative stress during disinfection; however, hepatic and cardiac GPx activity increased in an attempt to counteract oxidative stress. We suggest that oxidative stress during the oxidation of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide could be counteracted by the antioxidant system in trout tissues. Correlative analysis between oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant defense confirms the pivotal role of SOD and CAT against CIP-induced oxidative stress

  19. Improved features of MARS 1.4 and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Don; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    MARS 1.4 code has been developed as a basic code frame for multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis of light water reactor transients. This report describes the newly improved features of MARS 1.4 and their verification results. The new features of MARS 1.4 include the implementation of point kinetics model in the 3D module, the coupled heat structure model, the extension of control functions and input check functions in the 3D module, the implementation of new features of RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 -version, the addition of automatic initialization function for fuel 3-D analysis and the unification of material properties and forcing functions, etc. These features have been implemented in the code in order to extend the code modeling capability and to enhance the user friendliness. Among these features, this report describes the implementation of new features of RELAP5/MOD3.3.3-version such as reflood model and critical heat flux models, etc., the automatic initialization function, the unification of material properties and forcing functions and the other code improvements and error corrections, which were not reported in the previous report. Through the verification calculations, the new features of MARS 1.4 have been verified well implemented in the code. In conclusion, MARS 1.4 code has been developed and verified as implemented in the code. In conclusion, MARS 1.4 code has been developed and verified as a multi-dimensional system thermal-hydraulic analysis tool. And, it can play its role as a basic code frame for the future development of a multi-purpose consolidated code, MARS 2.x, for coupled analysis of multi-dimensional system thermal hydraulics, 3D core kinetics, core CHF and containment as well as for further improvement of thermal-hydraulic and numerical models. 4 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  20. Cell cycle arrest by the isoprenoids perillyl alcohol, geraniol, and farnesol is mediated by p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Dean A; Werner, Sean R; Crowell, Pamela L

    2007-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the United States, usually presents in an advanced stage and is generally refractory to chemotherapy. As such, there is a great need for novel therapies for this disease. The naturally derived isoprenoids perillyl alcohol, farnesol, and geraniol have chemotherapeutic potential in pancreatic and other tumor types. However, their mechanisms of action in these systems are not completely defined. In this study, we investigated isoprenoid effects on the cell cycle and observed a similar antiproliferative mechanism of action among the three compounds. First, when given in combination, the isoprenoids exhibited an additive antiproliferative effect against MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, all three compounds induced a G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest that coincided with an increase in the expression of the cyclin kinase inhibitor proteins p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) and a reduction in cyclin A, cyclin B1, and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2 protein levels. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated increased association of both p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) with Cdk2 as well as diminished Cdk2 kinase activity after isoprenoid exposure, indicating a cell cycle-inhibitory role for p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. When siRNA was used to inhibit expression of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) proteins in MIA PaCa-2 cells, conditional resistance to all three isoprenoid compounds was evident. Given similar findings in this cell line and in BxPC-3 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells, we conclude that the chemotherapeutic isoprenoid compounds perillyl alcohol, farnesol, and geraniol invoke a p21(Cip1)- and p27(Kip1)-dependent antiproliferative mechanism in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.

  1. An Introduction to the Model of Crisis Intervention Procedure for Borderline Patients (CIP-BP): A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koweszko, Tytus; Gierus, Jacek; Więdłocha, Magdalena; Mosiołek, Anna; Szulc, Agata

    2017-06-01

    Borderline personality disorder is highly associated with suicidal behaviors. The authors of the current case study present the introduction model of original Crisis Intervention Procedure for Borderline Patients (CIP-BP) which is a method focused on restoring emotional balance, reducing the severity of symptoms and the risk of suicidal behavior, as well as developing optimum solutions for further action. Its aim is to enable the patient to regain control of their emotional memory, increase autonomy and restore important interpersonal relations by using the original resources of this person. The procedure aims at providing nursing personnel with a practical tool to effectively avert the crisis and prevent further decompensation of BPD patients. Further pre-post study is required to determine the effectiveness of the procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) protein is involved in centrosome separation through the regulation of NIMA (never in mitosis gene A)-related kinase 2 (NEK2) protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ae Lee; Lee, Sunyi; Park, Jeong Su; Han, Sora; Jang, Chang-Young; Lim, Jong-Seok; Lee, Myung Sok; Yang, Young

    2014-01-03

    Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is overexpressed in most human cancers and has been described as being involved in the progression of several human malignancies via the inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity toward c-Myc. However, with the exception of this role, the cellular function of CIP2A remains poorly understood. On the basis of yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate here that NIMA (never in mitosis gene A)-related kinase 2 (NEK2) is a binding partner for CIP2A. CIP2A exhibited dynamic changes in distribution, including the cytoplasm and centrosome, depending on the cell cycle stage. When CIP2A was depleted, centrosome separation and the mitotic spindle dynamics were impaired, resulting in the activation of spindle assembly checkpoint signaling and, ultimately, extension of the cell division time. Our data imply that CIP2A strongly interacts with NEK2 during G2/M phase, thereby enhancing NEK2 kinase activity to facilitate centrosome separation in a PP1- and PP2A-independent manner. In conclusion, CIP2A is involved in cell cycle progression through centrosome separation and mitotic spindle dynamics.

  3. A numerical study of tsunami wave impact and run-up on coastal cliffs using a CIP-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xizeng; Chen, Yong; Huang, Zhenhua; Hu, Zijun; Gao, Yangyang

    2017-05-01

    There is a general lack of understanding of tsunami wave interaction with complex geographies, especially the process of inundation. Numerical simulations are performed to understand the effects of several factors on tsunami wave impact and run-up in the presence of gentle submarine slopes and coastal cliffs, using an in-house code, a constrained interpolation profile (CIP)-based model. The model employs a high-order finite difference method, the CIP method, as the flow solver; utilizes a VOF-type method, the tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing/slope weighting (THINC/SW) scheme, to capture the free surface; and treats the solid boundary by an immersed boundary method. A series of incident waves are arranged to interact with varying coastal geographies. Numerical results are compared with experimental data and good agreement is obtained. The influences of gentle submarine slope, coastal cliff and incident wave height are discussed. It is found that the tsunami amplification factor varying with incident wave is affected by gradient of cliff slope, and the critical value is about 45°. The run-up on a toe-erosion cliff is smaller than that on a normal cliff. The run-up is also related to the length of a gentle submarine slope with a critical value of about 2.292 m in the present model for most cases. The impact pressure on the cliff is extremely large and concentrated, and the backflow effect is non-negligible. Results of our work are highly precise and helpful in inverting tsunami source and forecasting disaster.

  4. [Obtaining antibodies to 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, A A; Murkin, M A

    2008-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits with amlodipine conjugated with horseradish peroxidase resulted in raising polyclonal antibodies that allowed group determination of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in aqueous solutions by ELISA with a sensitivity of 0.1 to 1.0 ng/ml for amlodipine, felodipine, nifedipine, and isradipine.

  5. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...

  6. substituted analogues of 1,4-benzodiazepin-5-carboxamides li

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    strategy depicted in schemes 1 and 2. Keywords. 1,4-benzodiazepine; oxadiazole; pyrimidine; imidazole; benzimidazole; amidine and imidate ester. 1. ..... Research in Basic Sciences' under their Consolidation of University Research for Innovation and Excellence in Women Universities (CURIE) programme. References. 1.

  7. Epoxidation and oxidation reactions using 1,4-butanediol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    droperoxide capacity of the polymeric reagent from. 2⋅86 meq/g to 3⋅31 meq/g when the reaction was performed under identical conditions. This may be attributed to the hydrophilic and flexible nature of the 1,4-BDDMA crosslinks imparting better hydro- phobic–hydrophilic balance for the macromolecular environment.

  8. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Enantiopure 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobolev, A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Duburs, G.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    1,4-Dihydropyridines possess a broad range of biological activities, such as the ability to control the influx of calcium into cells, as well as neuroprotective, antineuro-degenerative, cognition and memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and many other properties. Chirality plays an

  9. Synthesis of 3-Substituted 1,4-Benzodiazepin-2-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungjin Kim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepines by benzodiazepine enolate alkylation has been explored. Employing this approach, multigram quantities of benzodiazepine 1 have been prepared for animal studies to evaluate a new approach for the treatment of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.

  10. SHORT COMMUNICATION REACTION OF NITRILIMINES WITH 1,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    downfield from internal TMS. Electron impact (EI) mass spectra were run on Shimadzu GCMS-. QP1000 EX spectrometer at 70 eV. Elemental analyses were performed at the Microanalytical. Center of Cairo University, Egypt. The hydrazonoyl halides 1 [14-16], 1,4-bismaleimidobenzene. 3 [17] were prepared according to ...

  11. 1,4-Diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wei Zhu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C6H14N2+·C8H4O42−, the protonated 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cations and the deprotonated terephthalate anions are alternately linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains.

  12. N,N′-Bis(2-thienylmethylenebenzene-1,4-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Wei Dong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Schiff base, C16H12N2S2, has been synthesized by refluxing an ethanolic solution of thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and benzene-1,4-diamine. The center of the benzene ring is located on a crystallographic center of inversion. The dihedral angle between the benzene and thiophene rings is 63.6 (1°.

  13. A mechanism for 1,4-Benzoquinone-induced genotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.Y. Son (Mi Young); Deng, C.-X. (Chu-Xia); Hoeijmarkers, J.H. (Jan H.); V.I. Rebel (Vivienne); P. Hasty (Paul)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBenzene is a common environmental toxin and its metabolite, 1-4-Benzoquinone (BQ) causes hematopoietic cancers like myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). BQ has not been comprehensively assessed for its impact on genome maintenance, limiting our understanding

  14. Subchronic Toxicity Study on 1,4-Dithiane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    respectively. The left-ear clipped control male in cage 14 had malocclusion (a bite defect) and was excluded from all statistical analyses. An ANOVA on the...to test an oronasal species, e.g., a rabbit . 5.) Studying other compounds (e.g., 1,4-thioxane or other mustard metabolites or 1,3-dithiane) for

  15. Convenient Synthesis of 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol from D-Ribose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Oba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a convenient synthesis of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol (DRB from D-ribose. L-Lyxonolactone, a key intermediate in this synthesis, was prepared by base-promoted hydrolysis of a 5-chlorinated D-ribonolactone derivative with inversion of configuration at the C-4 position. Cyclization of the generated dimesylated L-lyxitol with benzylamine proceeded with another configurational inversion at C-4 to afford the D-ribo-configured pyrrolidine system, which upon deprotection gave DRB.

  16. 1-Cyclohexyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,4-dihydronaphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yuan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H24O2, was isolated from the leaves extract of Ficus carica L. The cyclohexane ring displays a chair conformation whereas the cyclohexa-1,4-diene ring adopts a flattened boat conformation with methyl C atoms at the prow and stern. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds into supramolecular chains propagated along the b-axis direction.

  17. and 1,4-Bis(N'-Substituted Thioureido)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    cInstitut für Anorganische Chemie, J.W.-Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, D-60438 Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Received 31 December 2012, revised 20 May 2013, accepted 19 August 2013. ABSTRACT. Synthesis of two series of 1,2- and 1,4-bis(thioureido)benzene derivatives was accomplished by the treatment of ...

  18. 2-Phenylimidazolium hemi(benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Da Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C9H9N2+.0.5C8H4O4−·3H2O, contains one 2-phenylimidazolium cation, half a benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate anion and three water molecules, which are connected by O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.

  19. Direct Aminolysis of Ethoxycarbonylmethyl 1,4-Dihydropyridine-3-carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Vigante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ethoxycarbonylmethyl esters of 1,4-dihydropyridines were directly converted into carbamoylmethyl esters in the presence of 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD in good to excellent yields under mild conditions. The use of TBD is crucial for the successful aminolysis of ethoxycarbonylmethyl ester of 1,4-dihydropyridines with secondary amines as without it the reaction does not proceed at all. The aminolysis reaction proceeded regioselectively, as the alkyl ester conjugated with the 1,4-dihydropyridine cycle was not involved in the reaction. Screening of other N-containing bases, such as triethylamine (TEA, pyridine, 4-(N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP, 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU, 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN, imidazole, tetramethyl guanidine (TMG and 7-methyl-1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (MTBD as catalysts revealed no activity in the studied reaction.

  20. 2011 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Conservation Law Enforcement Technology. (Program CIP: 03.0208 - Natural Resources Management and Policy, Other)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke; Myrick, Dwight

    2011-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  1. 2008 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Massage Therapy. (Program CIP: 51.3501 - Massage Therapy/Therapeutic Massage)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Teresa; Russell, Cydnee

    2008-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  2. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Small Engine and Turf Equipment Repair Technology. (Program CIP: 01.0299 Agricultural Mechanization, Other )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Allen; Campus, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  3. 2008 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Food Production and Management Technology. (Program CIP: 12.0508 - Institutional Food Workers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Matthew; Hoff, Jody; Little, Lisa; Samuel, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  4. 2009 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Nuclear Medicine Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0905 - Nuclear Medical Technology/Technologist)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boney, Linda; Lee, Joanne; Pyles, Alice; Whitfield, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  5. 2009 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Health Information Technology. (Program CIP-51.0707-Medical Records Technology/Technician)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Casey; Jones, Robin; McGuffee, Michelle; Scott, Nena

    2009-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  6. Final Environmental Assessment for Capital Improvements Program (CIP) at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    116 miles north; the Mazatzal Wilderness, 142 miles north; the Mount Baldy Wilderness, 145 miles north-northeast; the Gila Wilderness in New Mexico ...Petrified Forest NP Saguaro NM Chiricahua NM Saguaro NM Mount Baldy Wilderness Phoenix Tucson Mexico §̈¦40 §̈¦17 §̈¦19 §̈¦10 §̈¦8 §̈¦10 A ri zo n a N e w M... maize production. People developed sophisticated irrigation technologies, elaborately decorated ceramics, long distance trade, and solar calendars

  7. 2010 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Meat Merchandising Technology. (Program CIP: 12.0506 - Meat Cutting/Meat Cutter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger; Currie, Lamar; Clayton, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  8. 2009 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Early Childhood Education Technology. (Program CIP: 19.0709 - Child Care Provider/Assistant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, Win; Greene, Mary A.; Ford, Sandra; Jones, Pamela; Anders, Sheri

    2009-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  9. 2010 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Banking and Finance Technology. (Program CIP: 52.0803 - Banking and Financial Support Services)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Janet; Dinkins, Shivochie

    2010-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  10. The effects of two polymorphisms on p21cip1 function and their association with Alzheimer's disease in a population of European descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon C Yates

    Full Text Available With the exception of ApoE4, genome-wide association studies have failed to identify strong genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, despite strong evidence of heritability, suggesting that many low penetrance genes may be involved. Additionally, the nature of the identified genetic risk factors and their relation to disease pathology is also largely obscure. Previous studies have found that a cancer-associated variant of the cell cycle inhibitor gene p21cip1 is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to confirm this association and to elucidate the effects of the variant on protein function and Alzheimer-type pathology. We examined the association of the p21cip1 variant with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease with dementia. The genotyping studies were performed on 719 participants of the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing, 225 participants of a Parkinson's disease DNA bank, and 477 participants of the Human Random Control collection available from the European Collection of Cell Cultures. The post mortem studies were carried out on 190 participants. In the in-vitro study, human embryonic kidney cells were transfected with either the common or rare p21cip1 variant; and cytometry was used to assess cell cycle kinetics, p21cip1 protein expression and sub-cellular localisation. The variant was associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease with dementia, relative to age matched controls. Furthermore, the variant was associated with an earlier age of onset of Alzheimer's disease, and a more severe phenotype, with a primary influence on the accumulation of tangle pathology. In the in-vitro study, we found that the SNPs reduced the cell cycle inhibitory and anti-apoptotic activity of p21cip1. The results suggest that the cancer-associated variant of p21cip1 may contribute to the loss of cell cycle control in neurons that may lead to

  11. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U.

    2015-01-01

    well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes...... reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment....

  12. Photoluminescent carbon dots from 1,4-addition polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Nolan, Andrew; Walton, Jeffrey G A; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Zhang, Rong; Bradley, Mark

    2014-08-25

    Photoluminescent carbon dots were synthesised directly by thermopyrolysis of 1,4-addition polymers, allowing precise control of their properties. The effect of polymer composition on the properties of the carbon dots was investigated by TEM, IR, XPS, elemental analysis and fluorescence analysis, with carbon dots synthesised from nitrogen-containing polymers showing the highest fluorescence. The carbon dots with high nitrogen content were observed to have strong fluorescence in the visible region, and culture with cells showed that the carbon dots were non-cytotoxic and readily taken up by three different cell lines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. 1,4-Dimethylpiperazin-1-ium 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Johnson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 1,4-dimethylpiperazine and 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid gives the title 1:1 salt, C6H15N2+·C11H7O3−, with a singly protonated piperazinium cation. In the crystal, a single N—H...O hydrogen bond links the cations and anions into discrete pairs and the aromatic anions stack along the crystallographic a-axis direction. This results in layers of cations and anions alternating along the crystallographic c-axis direction. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is also present.

  14. Bis[diethyl(hydroxyammonium] benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Ming Xie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the centrosymmetric title compound, 2C4H12NO+·C8H4O42−, two N,N-diethyl(hydroxyammonium cations are linked to a benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate dianion by a combination of O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which can be described in graph-set terminology as R22(7. The crystal structure is further stabilized by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to the fomation of a ribbon-like network.

  15. Measuring Gross Output, Value Added, Employment and Labor Productivity of the Chinese Economy at Industry Level, 1987-2008 — An Introduction to the CIP Database (Round 1.0)

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Harry

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the preliminary version of the China Industrial Productivity Database (CIP Round 1.0), a first of its kind covering the period 1987-2008, including data problems and the construction procedures to deal with the problems. It also discusses the outstanding methodological and data issues aiming to invite constructive comments and suggestions for further improvement of the database. Finally, using the CIP data, this paper provides a preliminary measure of China's labor produ...

  16. p21Waf1/Cip1 is a common target induced by short-chain fatty acid HDAC inhibitors (valproic acid, tributyrin and sodium butyrate) in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Paola; Tonelli, Roberto; Camerin, Consuelo; Purgato, Stefania; Fronza, Raffaele; Bianucci, Fabrizio; Guerra, Francesco; Pession, Andrea; Ferreri, Anna Maria

    2005-06-01

    Histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) determine the acetylation status of histones, and thereby control the regulation of gene expression. HDAC inhibitors have been found to inhibit the growth of a variety of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated previously that the short-chain fatty acid compound butyrate and its derivative tributyrin (both HDAC inhibitors) arrest cell growth and induce differentiation in human neuroblastoma (NB) cells. In the current study we investigated the effect of the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on proliferation and differentiation in human NB cells (SJ-N-KP, AF8). Treatment with VPA resulted in a strong inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of cell differentiation, as revealed by neurite outgrowth and increase of acetylcholinesterase specific activity. Moreover, we addressed the question of whether the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) are involved in the mechanism of action of members of the short-chain fatty acids class (VPA, sodium butyrate and tributyrin) of HDAC inhibitors, in human NB cells. We demonstrated that p21(Cip1) is a common target of induction of transcription and protein expression for all the three compounds, while only VPA induced a concomitant increase of p27(Kip1) gene expression. These results suggest that p21(Cip1) could be involved in the inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation in human NB cells induced by treatment with VPA or tributyrin or sodium butyrate. Moreover, p21(Cip1) could be applied in the molecular monitoring of drug action in the possible therapeutic application of these short-chain fatty acid members of HDAC inhibitors for human NB treatment.

  17. Computation of Flow Past an In-Line Oscillating Circular Cylinder and a Stationary Cylinder in Tandem Using a CIP-Based Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yingnan Fu; Xizeng Zhao; Xinggang Wang; Feifeng Cao

    2015-01-01

    Viscous flow past an upstream in-line forced oscillating circular cylinder with a stationary cylinder downstream at Reynolds number of 100 is investigated using a CIP model. The model is established in a Cartesian coordinate system using a high-order difference method to discretise the Navier-Stokes equations. The fluid-structure interaction is treated as a multiphase flow with fluid and solid phases solved simultaneously. An immersed boundary method is used to deal with the fluid-body coupli...

  18. Simultaneous observation of gravity waves at PMC altitude from AIM/CIPS experiment and PANSY radar over Syowa (69°S, 39°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurairajah, Brentha; Sato, Kaoru; Yue, Jia; Nakamura, Takuji; Kohma, Masashi; Bailey, Scott M.; Russell, James M.

    2017-11-01

    Simultaneous observation of gravity waves (GWs) in the polar summer mesosphere over Syowa (69°S, 39°E) by a ground-based radar and satellite instrument are presented. On 21 January 2016, at 2.3 UT, the CIPS instrument on the AIM satellite observed Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) with GW structures over Syowa. The orientation of the wave crests suggests north-west propagation direction. A periodogram analysis indicates GWs with horizontal wavelengths of 105 ± 5 and 60 ± 5 km. Cross-spectral analysis of the PANSY radar horizontal wind components at the same time, location, and altitude indicate two dominant waves with apparent periods of 15 and 9 h, with respective horizontal wavelengths of 100 ± 5 km and 302 ± 130 km. At the PMC altitude of ∼83 km, the mean zonal component of the vertical momentum flux spectra of the observed GWs is westward and the meridional component is northward. The comparable horizontal wavelengths of the 15 h wave observed by PANSY radar and the CIPS instrument, along with the agreement between the direction of vertical flux of horizontal momentum from PANSY, the propagation direction estimated from the cross-spectral analysis, and the orientation of the wave crests from CIPS i.e. north-west propagation direction suggests that the same wave is observed by both instruments. This simultaneous observation of the same wave by CIPS and PANSY radar provide a distinctive view of both the horizontal and vertical extent of a GW in the Antarctic summer mesosphere.

  19. Individual variation in p53 and Cip1 expression profiles in normal human fibroblast strains following exposure to high-let radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, T.R.; Johnson, N.F.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Exposure to {alpha}-particles emitted by radon progeny appears to be the second-leading cause of lung cancer mortality. However, individual susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of {alpha}-particles remains poorly characterized. Variation in susceptibility to cancer produced by certian classes of DNA-damaging chemicals is suspected to involve differences in metabolic activation and detoxication. Susceptibility to {alpha}-particle-induced cancer may involve variations in capacity or opportunity to repair DNA damage. Subtle variations in DNA repair capacity would more likely explain radon-related lung cancer susceptibility. The p53 tumor suppressor protein accumulates as a cellular response to DNA damage from ionizing radiation and regulates arrest in the G{sub 1} portion of the cell cycle. Arrest in G{sub 1} portion of the cell cycle. While upstream regulation of p53 protein stability is poorly understood, variations in the ability to accumulate p53 following DNA damage represent potential variations in lung cancer susceptibility related to radon progeny. Further, transcription of the cell-cycle regulatory gene Cip1 is regulated by p53 and increases following ionizing radiation. Therefore, variations in the expression of Cip1 following {alpha}-particle exposure may also be a susceptibility factor in radon-related lung cancers. The purpose of the present investigation was to measure p53 and Cip1 protein induction following {alpha}-particle exposure of fibroblast lines from nine individuals to determine if there were significant variations. The expression of Cip1 protein indicates the differences in response are biologically relevant.

  20. Involvement of p27CIP/KIP in HSP25 or inducible HSP70 mediated adaptive response by low dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hang Rhan; Lee, Yoon Jin; Bae, Sangwoo; Lee, Yun Sil; Lee, Su Jae [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hee Yong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Ministry of Science and Technology, Gwacheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    ThermoResistant (TR) clones of Radiation-Induced Fibrosarcoma (RIF) cells have been reported to show an adaptive response to 1cGy of low dose radiation, and HSP25 and inducible HSP70 are involved in this process. In this study, to further elucidate the mechanism by which HSP25 and inducible HSP70 regulate the adaptive response, HSP25 or inducible HSP70 overexpressed RIF cells were irradiated with 1cGy and the cell cycle was analyzed. HSP25 or inducible HSP70 overexpressed cells together with TR cells showed increased G1 phase after 1cGy irradiation, while RIF cells did not. [{sup 3}H]-Thymidine and BrdU incorporation also indicated that both HSP25 and inducible HSP70 are involved in G1 arrest after 1cGy irradiation. Molecular analysis revealed upregulation of p27Cip/Kip protein in HSP25 and inducible HSP70 overexpressed cells, and cotransfection of p27Cip/Kip antisense abolished the induction of the adaptive response and 1cGy-mediated G1 arrest. The above results indicate that induction of an adaptive response by HSP25 and inducible HSP70 is mediated by upregulation of p27Cip/Kip protein, resulting in low dose radiation-induced G1 arrest.

  1. SM-like Higgs decay into two muons at 1.4 TeV CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The branching fraction measurement of the SM-like Higgs boson decay into two muons at 1.4 TeV CLIC will be described in this paper contributed to the LCWS13. The study is performed in the fully simulated ILD detector concept for CLIC, taking into consideration all the relevant physics and the beam-induced backgrounds, as well as the instrumentation of the very forward region to tag the high-energy electrons. Higgs couplings are known to be sensitive to BSM physics and we prove that BR times the Higgs production cross section can be measured with approximately 35.5% statistical accuracy in four years of the CLIC operation at 1.4 TeV centre-of-mass energy with unpolarised beams. The result is preliminary as the equivalent photon approximation is not considered in the cross-section calculations. This study complements the Higgs physics program foreseen at CLIC.

  2. 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne as a potential tritium getter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, H.H.; Bissell, E.E.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Souers, P.C.

    1980-10-01

    Research on the acetylene compound 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne is an effort to develop an air-operative tritium gas scavenger. T/sub 2/ adds to the acetylene bond of the organic in the presence of a metal catalyst. The catalyst also stimulates the oxidation reaction as well. The butadiyne compound has shown good reaction efficiency at 300 ppM T/sub 2/ in static dry air. At this concentration 75% of the scavenged tritium was in the organic. This work has expanded to the investigation of liquid acetylenes, metal acetylene complexes, organometallics and acetylene based alcohols. The best of these compounds has gettered 100% of 10 to 500 ppM T/sub 2/ for both static and dynamic air flow conditions.

  3. 1,4-Diazoniacyclohexane bis(3-carboxypyrazine-2-carboxylate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Eshtiagh-Hosseini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C4H12N22+·2C6H3N2O4−·2H2O or (1,4-dacH2(pyzdcH2·2H2O, the complete dication is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond occurs in the anion. In the crystal, O—H...O, O—H...N, N—H...O and N—H...N hydrogen bonds result in the formation of a three-dimensional network. Additionally, π–π stacking interactions between the pyrazine rings with centroid–centroid distances of 3.7065 (2 Å are observed.

  4. Antibiotic drug tigecycline inhibits melanoma progression and metastasis in a p21CIP1/Waf1-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huanrong; Dong, Zhen; Tan, Peng; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Lichao; Yang, Liqun; Liu, Yaling; Cui, Hongjuan

    2016-01-19

    Antibiotics are common drugs with low toxicity but high effectiveness. They have been suggested to be drug candidates for cancer therapy in recent years. Here, we tried to investigate the antitumour effect of tigecycline on malignant melanoma. We showed that tigecycline dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. At the same time, tigecycline suppressed cell invasion and migration through preventing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. In addition, tigecycline also significantly blocked tumor growth in vivo. Expression of cell cycle-related proteins were investigated and resulted in downregulation of G1/S checkpoint proteins, such as CDK2 and Cyclin E. However, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (CDKN1A, p21(CIP1/Waf1)) was downregulated after tigecycline treatment, which was not conformed to its conventional function. To explain this, we overexpressed p21 in melanoma cells. We found that p21 overexpression significantly rescued tigecycline-induced cell proliferation inhibition as well as migration and invasion suppression. Taken together, our results revealed that the essential role of p21 in the inhibitory effect of tigecycline on proliferation, migration and invasion of melanoma. Tigecycline might act as a candidate therapeutic drug for treatment of patients suffering from malignant melanoma.

  5. Solar-induced 27-day variations of polar mesospheric clouds from the AIM SOFIE and CIPS experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurairajah, Brentha; Thomas, Gary E.; von Savigny, Christian; Snow, Martin; Hervig, Mark E.; Bailey, Scott M.; Randall, Cora E.

    2017-09-01

    Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) observations from the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) and the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) experiment are used to investigate the response of PMCs to forcing associated with the 27-day solar rotation. We quantify the PMC response in terms of sensitivity values. Analysis of PMC data from 14 seasons indicate a large seasonal variability in sensitivity with both correlation and anti-correlation between PMC properties and Lyman-alpha irradiance for individual seasons. However, a superposed epoch analysis reveals the expected anti-correlation between variations in solar Lyman-alpha and variations in PMC ice water content, albedo, and frequency of occurrence. The PMC height is found to significantly correlate with 27-day variations in solar Lyman-alpha in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), but not in the Northern hemisphere (NH). Depending on instrument and property, the time lag between variations in PMC properties and solar Lyman-alpha ranges from 0 to 3 days in the NH and from 6 to 7 days in the SH. These hemispheric differences in PMC height and time lag are not understood, but it is speculated that they result from dynamical forcing that is controlled by the 27-day solar cycle.

  6. N-(3-Bromo-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydro-2-naphthyl-2-chloro-N-(2-chlorobenzoylbenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S. Akinboye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H12BrCl2NO4, was synthesized from 2-amino-3-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-chlorobenzoyl chloride. The crystal structure shows that each of the chlorophenyl rings is inclined at about 60° to the naphthoquinone ring system. The two chlorophenyl rings adopt a conformation that ensures that chlorine substituents are anti so as to reduce electronic repulsion. An examination of the packing shows close O...Br and Cl...Cl contacts of 2.947 (2 and 3.346 (1 Å, respectively. In addition, the molecules are linked by weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...Cl interactions.

  7. Crystal structure of 1,4-bis(3-ammoniopropylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis[dichromate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vetrivel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the organic–inorganic title salt, (C10H28N4[Cr2O7]2, comprises one half of an 1,4-bis(3-ammoniopropylpiperazinediium cation (the other half being generated by the application of inversion symmetry and a dichromate anion. The piperazine ring of the cation adopts a chair conformation, and the two CrO4 tetrahedra of the anion are in an almost eclipsed conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions form a layered arrangement parallel to (001. N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions and additional C—H...O interactions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure.

  8. Estruturas secretoras em cipó-d'alho (Mansoa standleyi (Steyerm. A. H. Gentry, Bignoniaceae: ocorrência e morfologia Secretory structures in cipó-d'alho (Mansoa standleyi (Steyerm. A. H. Gentry, Bignoniaceae: occurrence and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Conceição Vilhena-Potiguara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de Mansoa são denominadas de "cipó-d'alho", por exalarem odor de alho das partes vegetativas e reprodutivas. Contudo, dados sobre morfologia e distribuição das estruturas secretoras presentes em Mansoa são escassos e ausentes para M. standleyi. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar a ocorrência e morfologia das estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo de M. standleyi. Para tanto, amostras da lâmina foliolar e de regiões nodais foram fixadas e submetidas às técnicas histológicas e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Testes histoquímicos, com os respectivos controles foram aplicados nas estruturas secretoras em fase secretora. Indivíduos de formigas e moscas, que visitavam a espécie foram amostrados, preservados e identificados por entomólogo. As estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo de M. standleyi estão representadas por tricomas glandulares dos tipos pateliformes e peltados. Todos com desenvolvimento assincrônico e presentes nas regiões nodais e lâmina foliolar, principalmente nas partes mais jovens. Nas regiões nodais, os tricomas formam um complexo secretor e, na lâmina foliolar, estão dispersos. As análises histoquímicas revelaram que os tricomas pateliformes são de fato nectários extraflorais e que os tricomas peltados, apresentam uma fração de alcaloides. Os visitantes das glândulas nodais correspondem a formigas Crematogaster (Formicidae e Ectatomma brunea (Vespoidea, Formicidae e moscas Oxysarcodexia (Sarcophagidae, subfamília Utitidae (Ulidiidae. Mansoa standleyi possui as estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo semelhantes às citadas pela literatura para Bignoniaceae, sendo esta a primeira vez, que um nectário extrafloral é descrito para a espécie.Species of Mansoa are called "cipó-d'alho" because of the smell of garlic that wafts from their vegetative and reproductive parts. Since data on the morphology and occurrence of their secretory structures are

  9. 1,4-Disilacyclohexa-2,5-diene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibbelin, Julius; Wallner, Andreas; Emanuelsson, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    (UPS), and cyclic voltammetry. A particularly strong neutral cyclic cross-hyperconjugation was observed in 1c. Its lowest electron binding energy (7.1 eV) is distinctly different from that of 1b (8.5 eV). Molecular orbital analysis reveals a stronger interaction between filled π(C[double bond, length...... as m-dash]C) and π(SiR2) group orbitals in 1c than in 1a and 1b. The energy shift in the highest occupied molecular orbital is also reflected in the first oxidation potentials as observed in the cyclic voltammograms of the respective compounds (1.47, 0.88, and 0.46 V for 1a, 1b and 1c, respectively......2,3,5,6-Tetraethyl-1,4-disilacyclohexa-2,5-dienes with either four chloro (1a), methyl (1b), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) (1c) substituents at the two silicon atoms were examined in an effort to design rigid compounds with strong neutral cross-hyperconjugation between π- and σ-bonded molecular segments...

  10. Diversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates, yeasts, and microbiological indicators along a longitudinal gradient in Serra do Cipó, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available The main goals of this study were: 1 to evaluate the structure, diversity, and functional trophic group composition of benthic macroinvertebrate communities; 2 to characterize water quality in the headwaters of the Doce river watershed, based on physical, chemical, and biological parameters (benthic macroinvertebrates, fecal coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria, and yeasts; and 3 to contribute to the knowledge of the structure and function of longitudinal gradients in lotic ecosystems in Brazil. A total of 60 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were identified, the dominant group being the aquatic insects, with 50 families distributed in 8 orders. The dry period presented higher values of taxonomic richness and total density of benthic macroinvertebrates. A decreasing gradient was observed in these variable values from the 3rd order stretch down to the 6th order stretch. The highest Shannon-Wiener diversity values were found in the rainy period in the 3rd order stretches, which presented well-developed riparian forest. Besides the 3rd order stretches, the Pielou evenness index values were also high in the 6th order stretch. The collectors, together with the scrapers, predominated in the benthic macroinvertebrate communities in all river stretches, except in the 2nd, 4th, and 5th order stretches in the rainy period, where communities were dominated by filterers. The shredders and predators presented low densities for all river stretches. All microbiological variables presented low levels. Due to the high counts of heterotrophic bacteria and coliforms, the studied river stretches presented inadequate potability but adequate balneability levels. The results suggest that the structure, diversity, and composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities are influenced by the trophic resource availability, seasonality, and sediment heterogeneity. The microbiological results of this study allow inferring that the waters from Serra do Cipó have excellent

  11. Crystal structure of (μ-1,4-dicarboxybutane-1,4-dicarboxylatobis[bis(triphenylphosphanesilver(I] dichloromethane trisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frenzel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure of the tetrakis(triphenylphosphanyldisilver salt of butane-1,1,4,4-tetracarboxylic acid, [Ag2(C8H8O8(C18H15P4]·3CH2Cl2, crystallizes with one and a half molecules of dichloromethane in the asymmetric unit. The coordination complex exhibits an inversion centre through the central CH2—CH2 bond. The AgI atom has a distorted trigonal–planar P2O coordination environment. The packing is characterized by intermolecular T-shaped π–π interactions between the phenyl rings of the PPh3 substituents in neighbouring molecules, forming a ladder-type superstructure parallel to [010]. These ladders are arranged in layers parallel to (101. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds between the OH group and one O atom of the Ag-bonded carboxylate group results in an asymmetric bidendate coordination of the carboxylate moiety to the AgI ion.

  12. Zero-Gravity Research Facility Drop Test (1/4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    An experiment vehicle plunges into the deceleration pit at the end of a 5.18-second drop in the Zero-Gravity Research Facility at NASA's Glenn Research Center. The Zero-Gravity Research Facility was developed to support microgravity research and development programs that investigate various physical sciences, materials, fluid physics, and combustion and processing systems. Payloads up to 1 meter in diameter and 455 kg in weight can be accommodated. The facility has a 145-meter evacuated shaft to ensure a disturbance-free drop. This is No.1 of a sequence of 4 images. (Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center)

  13. MiTF links Erk1/2 kinase and p21CIP1/WAF1 activation after UVC radiation in normal human melanocytes and melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Feng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a survival factor for melanocytes lineage cells, MiTF plays multiple roles in development and melanomagenesis. What role MiTF plays in the DNA damage response is currently unknown. In this report we observed that MiTF was phosphorylated at serine 73 after UVC radiation, which was followed by proteasome-mediated degradation. Unlike after c-Kit stimulation, inhibiting p90RSK-1 did not abolish the band shift of MiTF protein, nor did it abolish the UVC-mediated MiTF degradation, suggesting that phosphorylation on serine 73 by Erk1/2 is a key event after UVC. Furthermore, the MiTF-S73A mutant (Serine 73 changed to Alanine via site-directed mutagenesis was unable to degrade and was continuously expressed after UVC exposure. Compared to A375 melanoma cells expressing wild-type MiTF (MiTF-WT, cells expressing MiTF-S73A mutant showed less p21WAF1/CIP1 accumulation and a delayed p21WAF1/CIP1 recovery after UVC. Consequently, cells expressing MiTF-WT showed a temporary G1 arrest after UVC, but cells expressing MiTF-S73A mutant or lack of MiTF expression did not. Finally, cell lines with high levels of MiTF expression showed higher resistance to UVC-induced cell death than those with low-level MiTF. These data suggest that MiTF mediates a survival signal linking Erk1/2 activation and p21WAF1/CIP1 regulation via phosphorylation on serine 73, which facilitates cell cycle arrest. In addition, our data also showed that exposure to different wavelengths of UV light elicited different signal pathways involving MiTF.

  14. p21WAF1/CIP1 and 14-3-3 sigma gene expression in degenerated aortic valves: a link between cell cycle checkpoints and calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubnitschaja, O; Yeghiazaryan, K; Skowasch, D; Schild, H; Bauriedel, G

    2006-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying aortic valve degeneration are largely unknown. Cardiac tissue responds to a variety of stimuli by hypertrophic growth. Molecular mechanisms resulting in the hypertrophic response indicate similarity and overlap with those involved in both cell growth and death. We hypothesized cell cycle control to be the key event in progression regulation of heart valve degeneration followed by tissue mineralization. Human post-operative tissue samples of native non-rheumatic stenosed aortic valves were categorized according to absence (group 1) or presence of calcification (group 2). The samples were ex vivo examined for cell density and presence of macrophage (CD68), as well as expression of two checkpoint genes, p21WAF1/CIP1 and 14-3-3 sigma, arresting the G1 and G2 cell cycle phases, respectively. Expression rates were measured by "Real-Time"-PCR on transcriptional level. Target protein expression was measured and their co-localization in different kinds of valvular cells was tested using immunohistochemical analysis. Whereas macrophages were localized predominantly in sub-endothelial layer of valvular fibrosis, p21WAF1/CIP1 and 14-3-3 sigma expression was observed also in the valvular spongiosa co-localized with alpha-actin positive cells. Significantly higher cell density and inflammation grade were observed in group 2 versus group 1. Accordingly, p21WAF1/CIP1 and 14-3-3 sigma expression was several fold higher in group 1 versus group 2 on both transcription and translation levels. The present findings on degenerated aortic valves show that increased cell density accompanied with consequent calcification might be attributed to the down-regulation of both G1 and G2 checkpoint genes.

  15. RXR antagonism induces G0 /G1 cell cycle arrest and ameliorates obesity by up-regulating the p53-p21(Cip1) pathway in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Atsuko; Wada, Jun; Hida, Kazuyuki; Hida, Aya; Eguchi, Jun; Teshigawara, Sanae; Murakami, Kazutoshi; Kanzaki, Motoko; Inoue, Kentaro; Terami, Takahiro; Katayama, Akihiro; Ogawa, Daisuke; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Makino, Hirofumi

    2012-04-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist, pioglitazone (PIO), exerts anti-diabetic properties associated with increased fat mass, whereas the retinoid X receptor (RXR) antagonist HX531 demonstrates anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects with reduced body weight and fat pad mass. The cell cycle abnormality in adipocytes has not been well-investigated in obesity or during treatment with modulators of nuclear receptors. We therefore investigated cell size and cell cycle distributions of adipocytes in vivo and examined the expression of cell cycle regulators in cultured human visceral preadipocytes. The cell size distribution and cell cycle analyses of in vivo adipocytes derived from OLETF rats demonstrated that HX531 brought about G0/G1 cell cycle arrest associated with the inhibition of cellular hypertrophy, which resulted in the reduction of fat pad mass. In contrast, PIO promoted proliferation activities associated with the increase in M + late M:G0 + G1 ratio and the appearance of both small and hypertrophied adipocytes. In cultured human visceral preadipocytes HX531 up-regulated cell cycle regulators, p53, p21(Cip1), cyclin D1, Fbxw7 and Skp2, which are known contributors towards G0 /G1 cell cycle arrest. The knockdown of p53 with a shRNA lentivirus reversed the HX531-induced up-regulation of p21(Cip1), which is one of the major p53-effector molecules. We conclude that HX531 exerts anti-obesity and anti-diabetes properties by up-regulating the p53-p21(Cip1) pathway, resulting in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and the inhibition of cellular hypertrophy of adipocytes. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) Bill of Materials (BOM) for FEMIS Version 1.4.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, B.J., Johnson, D.M.; Wood, B.M.; Stoops, L.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Loveall, R.M.; Millard, W.D.; Johnson, S.M.; Downing, T.R.

    1999-03-12

    This document describes the hardware and software required for the Federal Emergency Management Information System version 1.4.6 (FEMIS{copyright} v1.4.6). FEMIS is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCS via a Wide Area Network (WAN).

  17. Experiment data report for LOFT nonnuclear Test L1-4. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batt, D. L.

    1977-07-01

    Test L1-4 was the fourth in a series of five nonnuclear isothermal blowdown tests conducted by the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Test L1-4 was the first Nuclear Regulatory Commission standard problem (International Problem No. 5 and U.S. Problem No. 7) experiment conducted at LOFT. Data from this test will be compared with predictions generated by the standard problem participants. For this test the LOFT Facility was configured to simulate a loss-of-coolant accident in a large pressurized water reactor resulting from a 200% double-ended offset shear break in a cold leg of the primary coolant system. A hydraulic core simulator assembly was installed in place of the nuclear core. The initial conditions in the primary coolant system intact loop were temperature at 279/sup 0/C, gauge pressure at 15.65 MPa, and intact loop flow at 268.4 kg/s. During system depressurization into a simulated containment, emergency core cooling water was injected into the primary coolant system cold leg to provide data on the effects of emergency core cooling on system thermalhydraulic response.

  18. Development of a highly accurate interpolation method for mesh-free flow simulations I. Integration of gridless, particle and CIP methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Nobuatsu

    1999-08-01

    A simple, efficient, flexible and accurate interpolation method, CIVA, is introduced for use with mesh-free methods for flow simulations. The method enables mesh-free cubic interpolation with the local co-ordinate system, such as volume and area co-ordinates, by utilizing the concept of the CIP scheme and allows the development of new highly accurate mesh-free methods. The mesh-free methods integrate the gridless, particle and CIP methods since they have flexibility in the treatment of moving calculation points. For achieving high accuracy with the CIVA method, it is also important to correctly evaluate particle movement. The improvement of the evaluating algorithm is another objective of this study. The validity of the algorithms is confirmed by applying them to the convection and convection-diffusion problems. Since the CIVA-based mesh-free methods enable flexible, efficient and accurate fluid simulation, they make it possible to perform highly accurate simulations of many kinds of problems that involve complicated geometries and phenomena. Copyright

  19. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Silva Lana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas, in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park.

  20. Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress Reduces Proliferation in Embryonic Stem Cells via FOXO3A/β-Catenin-Dependent Transcription of p21cip1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcie L. McClelland Descalzo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs, which are derived from a peri-implantation embryo, are routinely cultured in medium containing diabetic glucose (Glc concentrations. While pregnancy in women with pre-existing diabetes may result in small embryos, whether such high Glc levels affect ESC growth remains uncovered. We show here that long-term exposure of ESCs to diabetic Glc inhibits their proliferation, thereby mimicking in vivo findings. Molecularly, Glc exposure increased oxidative stress and activated Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a, promoting increased expression and activity of the ROS-removal enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase and the cell-cycle inhibitors p21cip1 and p27kip1. Diabetic Glc also promoted β-catenin nuclear localization and the formation of a complex with FOXO3a that localized to the promoters of Sod2, p21cip1, and potentially p27kip1. Our results demonstrate an adaptive response to increases in oxidative stress induced by diabetic Glc conditions that promote ROS removal, but also result in a decrease in proliferation.

  1. Exploração e manejo do cipó-titica (Heteropsis spp. / Exploitation and management of the vine Heteropsis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos César Durigan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAs espécies hemiepífitas do gênero Heteropsis produzem raízes aéreas que são conhecidas na Amazônia brasileira como cipó-titica e titicão ou cipó timbó-açu, sendo fonte produtora de fibra de alto valor comercial, principalmente na fabricação de artesanatos e móveis. Essa matéria-prima é intensamente explorada de forma insustentável, tendo grande redução da disponibilidade desse recurso florestal, devido à diminuição ou extinção regional das plantas de cipó provocadas pelo inadequado manejo exploratório. Assim, alguns governos estaduais regulamentaram a conduta de manejo e exploração de cipós produtores de fibra, visando a sua manutenção e regeneração de suas raízes aéreas. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho buscou, na literatura geral e científica, as informações sobre o marco legal da exploração e o plano de manejo, a ecologia das espécies, as etapas ligadas ao manejo florestal, inventário, intensidade e ciclo de corte bem como os procedimentos de coleta e beneficiamento dessas plantas, que são conhecimentos atualmente consolidados com normatização em poucos estados da Amazônia. Apesar disso, as áreas que foram intensamente exploradas se fazem necessário o desenvolvimento da produção sustentável com novos estudos, visando recuperação dessas populações por meio de técnicas de multiplicação vegetativa, plantio e nutrição vegetal, agregando-os ao manejo ecológico dos indivíduos remanescentes na floresta.AbstractThe hemiepiphytes species of the genus Heteropsis produces aerial roots that are known in the Brazilian Amazon as “cipó-titica and titicão or timbó-açu, and are a source of fiber of considerable commercial value used primarily to manufacture handicrafts and furniture. This raw material has been heavily exploited and mismanaged. As the consequent depletion and regional extinction of the plant vines has greatly reduced its availability likely a forest resource. This

  2. Interaction of 2'-deoxyguanosine with cis-2-butene-1,4-dial: Computational approach to analysis of multistep chemical reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviatenko L. K.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available cis-2-Butene-1,4-dial represents a microsomal metabolite of furan, an industrially important chemical found in cigarette smoke, air pollution, and also in canned or jarred food. It is expected to be a human carcinogen. Aim. Investigation an effect of cis-2-butene-1,4-dial on the 2'-deoxyguanine which is a model of DNA site. Methods. Optimization of reaction species molecular structures, spectral parameters and Gibbs free energy calculations were performed using Gaussian09 program. Systems of differential equations for kinetics generation were solved using Mathcad15 program. Results. The predicted mechanism of the reaction of cis-2-butene-1,4-dial with 2'-deoxyguanine consists of four-step process formation of four diastereomeric primary adducts and further base-mediated five-step transformation of the primary adducts to the secondary one. The reaction kinetics, which allows defining theconcentration change of any reaction species was calculated. Conclusions. Under physiological conditions the interaction between cis-2-butene-1,4-dial and 2'-deoxyguanine leads to the formation of a stable adduct which could be responsible for the furan genotoxicity.

  3. In Silico Studies of Quinoxaline-2-Carboxamide 1,4-di-N-Oxide Derivatives as Antimycobacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awwad A. Radwan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular modelling studies were performed on some previously reported novel quinoxaline-2-carboxamide 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives (series 1–9. Using the LigandScout program, a pharmacophore model was developed to further optimize the antimycobacterial activity of this series of compounds. Using the Dock6 program, docking studies were performed in order to investigate the mode of binding of these compounds. The molecular modeling study allowed us to confirm the preferential binding mode of these quinoxaline-2-carboxamide 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives inside the active site. The obtained binding mode was as same as that of the novobiocin X-ray structure.

  4. System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) v. 2.1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, O.; Bechtel, B.; Bock, M.; Dietrich, H.; Fischer, E.; Gerlitz, L.; Wehberg, J.; Wichmann, V.; Böhner, J.

    2015-02-01

    The System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) is an open-source Geographic Information System (GIS), mainly licensed under the GNU General Public License. Since its first release in 2004, SAGA has rapidly developed from a specialized tool for digital terrain analysis to a comprehensive and globally established GIS platform for scientific analysis and modeling. SAGA is coded in C++ in an object oriented design and runs under several operating systems including Windows and Linux. Key functional features of the modular organized software architecture comprise an application programming interface for the development and implementation of new geoscientific methods, an easily approachable graphical user interface with many visualization options, a command line interpreter, and interfaces to scripting and low level programming languages like R and Python. The current version 2.1.4 offers more than 700 tools, which are implemented in dynamically loadable libraries or shared objects and represent the broad scopes of SAGA in numerous fields of geoscientific endeavor and beyond. In this paper, we inform about the system's architecture, functionality, and its current state of development and implementation. Further, we highlight the wide spectrum of scientific applications of SAGA in a review of published studies with special emphasis on the core application areas digital terrain analysis, geomorphology, soil science, climatology and meteorology, as well as remote sensing.

  5. Effect of human papillomavirus on cell cycle-related proteins p16INK4A, p21waf1/cip1, p53 and cyclin D1 in sinonasal inverted papilloma and laryngeal carcinoma. An in situ hybridization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Stasikowska-Kanicka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is implicated as an important risk factor in the developmentof head and neck cancers. Many studies focusing on the relationships between HPV infection and cell cycleproteins immunoexpression in laryngeal lesions have provided contradictory results. The aim of this study was toevaluate the relationships between HPV DNA presence and p16INK4a, p21waf1/cip1, p53 and cyclin D1 immunoexpressionin heterogenous HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups of laryngeal cancers and inverted papillomas.The HPV DNA expression was detected using an in situ hybridization method and immunoexpression ofp16INK4a, p21waf1/cip1, p53 and cyclin D1 using immunohistochemistry. The immunoexpression of p21waf1//cip1 and p53 proteins was lower in the HPV-positive group compared to the HPV-negative group, althoughonly the difference of p53 staining was statistically significant. The immunoexpression of p16INK4a and cyclinD1 was significantly increased in the HPV-positive group compared to the HPV-negative group. The increasedimmunoexpression of p16INK4a and cyclin D1, and the lower immunoexpression of p21waf1/cip1 and p53 inthe HPV-positive group compared to the HPV-negative group, supports the hypothesis that HPV may play animportant role in cell cycle dysregulation.

  6. DFT calculations on 1,4-dithiine and S-oxygenated derivatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The molecular structures of 1,4-dithiine and S-oxygenated derivatives are studied using B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. These compounds have 8π-electrons in the ring. This led to stabilization of non-planar conformation. DFT calculations show that 1,4-dithiine, C4H4SS, 1,4-dithiine-1-oxide, C4H4SOS, 1,4-dithiine-1 ...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN P-03...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN P-95...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4... NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The siting... by the evidence specified below. ...

  10. 37 CFR 1.4 - Nature of correspondence and signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of correspondence and signature requirements. 1.4 Section 1.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... General Information and Correspondence § 1.4 Nature of correspondence and signature requirements. (a...

  11. Transcriptional inhibition of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} gene (CDKN1) expression by survivin is at least partially p53-dependent: Evidence for survivin acting as a transcription factor or co-factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lei [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Pre-Doctoral Chinese Fellowship Student, Second West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Sichuan (China); Ling, Xiang; Liu, Wensheng; Das, Gokul M. [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Li, Fengzhi, E-mail: fengzhi.li@roswellpark.org [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin inhibits the expression of p21 protein, mRNA and promoter activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin neutralizes p53-induced p21 expression and promoter activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin physically interacts with p53 in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genetic silencing of endogenous survivin upregulates p21 in p53 wild type cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both p53 and survivin interacts on the two p53-binding sites in the p21 promoter. -- Abstract: Growing evidence suggests a role for the antiapoptotic protein survivin in promotion of cancer cell G1/S transition and proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Further, although upregulation of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} by p53 plays an important role in p53-mediated cell G1 arrests in response to various distresses, it is unknown whether survivin plays a role in the regulation of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} expression. Here, we report that exogenous expression of survivin in p53-wild type MCF-7 breast cancer cells inhibits the expression of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} protein, mRNA and promoter activity, while the survivin C84A mutant and antisense failed to do so. Cotransfection experiments in the p53 mutant H1650 lung cancer cell line showed that survivin neutralizes p53-induced p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} expression and promoter activity. Importantly, genetically silencing of endogenous survivin using lentiviral survivin shRNA also enhances endogenous p21 in p53 wild type cancer cells, suggesting the physiological relevance of the fining. We further demonstrated that both p53 and survivin interacts on the two p53-binding sites in the p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} promoter (-2313 to -2212; -1452 to -1310), and survivin physically interacts with p53 in cancer cells. Together, we propose that survivin may act as a transcription factor or cofactor to interact with p53 on the p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} promoter leading to the inhibition of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1

  12. Power Burst Facility (PBF) severe fuel damage test 1-4 test results report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, D.A.; Martinson, Z.R.; Hobbins, R.R.; Allison, C.M.; Carlson, E.R.; Hagrman, D.L.; Cheng, T.C.; Hartwell, J.K.; Vinjamuri, K.; Seifken, L.J.

    1989-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) Test 1-4 performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented. Test SFD 1-4 was the fourth and final test in an internationally sponsored light water reactor severe accident research program, initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The overall technical objective of the test was to contribute to the understanding of fuel and control rod behavior, aerosol and hydrogen generation, and fission product release and transport during a high-temperature, severe fuel damage transient. A test bundle, comprised of 26 previously irradiated (36,000 MWd/MtU) pressurized water-reactor-type fuel rods, 2 fresh instrumented fuel rods, and 4 silver-indium-cadmium control rods, was surrounded by an insulating shroud and contained in a pressurized in-pile tube. The experiment consisted of a 1.3-h transient at a coolant pressure of 6.95 MPa in which the inlet coolant flow to the bundle was reduced to 0.6 g/s while the bundle fission power was gradually increased until dryout, heatup, cladding rupture, and oxidation occurred. With sustained fission power and heat from oxidation, temperatures continued to rise rapidly, resulting in zircaloy and control rod absorber alloy melting, fuel liquefaction, material relocation, and the release of hydrogen, aerosols, and fission products. The transient was terminated over a 2100-s time span by slowly reducing the reactor power and cooling the damaged bundle with argon gas. A description and evaluation of the major phenomena, based upon the response of on-line instrumentation, analysis of fission product and aerosol data, postirradiation examination of the fuel bundle, and calculations using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, are presented. 40 refs., 160 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Inhibition of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth by apigenin through induction of G2/M arrest and histone H3 acetylation-mediated p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Tsui-Hwa; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Wea-Lung; Wen, Yu-Ching; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Chen, Chi-Kuan; Kuo, Tsang-Chih; Lee, Wei-Jiunn

    2017-02-01

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables, has anticancer properties in various malignant cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of the anticancer effect remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the induction of cell cycle arrest by apigenin. Our results showed that apigenin at the nonapoptotic induction concentration inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Immunoblot analysis indicated that apigenin suppressed the expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, and cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK1), which control the G2-to-M phase transition in the cell cycle. In addition, apigenin upregulated p21(WAF1/CIP1) and increased the interaction of p21(WAF1/CIP1) with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which inhibits cell cycle progression. Furthermore, apigenin significantly inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and induced histone H3 acetylation. The subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay indicated that apigenin increased acetylation of histone H3 in the p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter region, resulting in the increase of p21(WAF1/CIP1) transcription. In a tumor xenograft model, apigenin effectively delayed tumor growth. In these apigenin-treated tumors, we also observed reductions in the levels of cyclin A and cyclin B and increases in the levels of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and acetylated histone H3. These findings demonstrate for the first time that apigenin can be used in breast cancer prevention and treatment through epigenetic regulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 434-444, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Methoxylation of Singly Bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn Dimer: Preferential Formation of 1,4-C60 Adduct with Sterically Less Demanding Addends and Stability Difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fa-Gui; Li, Zong-Jun; Gao, Xiang

    2016-08-05

    Methoxylation of the singly bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn dimer afforded 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60, a 1,4-C60 adduct with sterically less demanding addends, as the major adduct. The situation was different from that of direct functionalization of C60, where 1,2-OMe(Bn)C60 was obtained as the major product. The reaction was studied with in situ vis-NIR spectroscopy and computational calculations to obtain a better understanding of this unusual regioselectivity. The stability difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60 was studied.

  15. Computation of Flow Past an In-Line Oscillating Circular Cylinder and a Stationary Cylinder in Tandem Using a CIP-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingnan Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscous flow past an upstream in-line forced oscillating circular cylinder with a stationary cylinder downstream at Reynolds number of 100 is investigated using a CIP model. The model is established in a Cartesian coordinate system using a high-order difference method to discretise the Navier-Stokes equations. The fluid-structure interaction is treated as a multiphase flow with fluid and solid phases solved simultaneously. An immersed boundary method is used to deal with the fluid-body coupling. The CFD model is firstly applied to the computation of flow past a fixed circular cylinder for its validation; then flow over two stationary tandem cylinders is investigated and good agreements are obtained comparing with existing ones. Computations are then performed with flow past two tandem cylinders with an upstream in-line oscillating cylinder with a small spacing L=2D. Considerable attention is paid to the spectrum characteristics and vortex modes.

  16. Transcription regulation of CDKN1A (p21/CIP1/WAF1) by TRF2 is epigenetically controlled through the REST repressor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tabish; Saha, Dhurjhoti; Purohit, Gunjan; Kar, Anirban; Kishore Mukherjee, Anand; Sharma, Shalu; Sengupta, Suman; Dhapola, Parashar; Maji, Basudeb; Vedagopuram, Sreekanth; Horikoshi, Nobuko T; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Pandita, Raj K; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Bajaj, Avinash; Riou, Jean-François; Pandita, Tej K; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2017-09-14

    We observed extra-telomeric binding of the telomere repeat binding factor TRF2 within the promoter of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDKNIA (p21/CIP1/WAF1). This result in TRF2 induced transcription repression of p21. Interestingly, p21 repression was through engagement of the REST-coREST-LSD1-repressor complex and altered histone marks at the p21 promoter in a TRF2-dependent fashion. Furthermore, mutational analysis shows p21 repression requires interaction of TRF2 with a p21 promoter G-quadruplex. Physiologically, TRF2-mediated p21 repression attenuated drug-induced activation of cellular DNA damage response by evading G2/M arrest in cancer cells. Together these reveal for the first time role of TRF2 in REST- repressor complex mediated transcription repression.

  17. Large ice particles associated with small ice water content observed by AIM CIPS imagery of polar mesospheric clouds: Evidence for microphysical coupling with small-scale dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, D.; Thomas, G.; Merkel, A.; Olivero, J.; Chandran, A.; Lumpe, J.; Carstans, J.; Randall, C.; Bailey, S.; Russell, J.

    2017-09-01

    Observations by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite have demonstrated the existence of Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) regions populated by particles whose mean sizes range between 60 and 100 nm (radii of equivalent volume spheres). It is known from numerous satellite experiments that typical mean PMC particle sizes are of the order of 40-50 nm. Determination of particle size by CIPS is accomplished by measuring the scattering of solar radiation at various scattering angles at a spatial resolution of 25 km2. In this size range we find a robust anti-correlation between mean particle size and albedo. These very-large particle-low-ice (VLP-LI) clouds occur over spatially coherent areas. The surprising result is that VLP-LI are frequently present either in the troughs of gravity wave-like features or at the edges of PMC voids. We postulate that an association with gravity waves exists in the low-temperature summertime mesopause region, and illustrate the mechanism by a gravity wave simulation through use of the 2D Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). The model results are consistent with a VLP-LI population in the cold troughs of monochromatic gravity waves. In addition, we find such events in Whole Earth Community Climate Model/CARMA simulations, suggesting the possible importance of sporadic downward winds in heating the upper cloud regions. This newly-discovered association enhances our understanding of the interaction of ice microphysics with dynamical processes in the upper mesosphere.

  18. DNA damage and expression of checkpoint genes p21(WAF1/CIP1) and 14-3-3 sigma in taurine-deficient cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubnitschaja, Olga; Moenkemann, Heike; Kim, Kerstin; Mozaffari, Mahmood S

    2003-08-01

    Taurine depletion is associated with development of cardiomyopathy. Further, oxidative stress is advanced as a critical factor mediating the effect of taurine deficiency on target organs. However, the molecular mechanism(s) linking taurine deficiency with the development of cardiomyopathy remains elusive. Since transition between apoptotic degeneration and cell proliferation in stress conditions is regulated at cell cycle checkpoints, we determined the expression of two such genes, namely p21(WAF1/CIP1) and 14-3-3 sigma as well as p53 that are responsible for oxidative stress and DNA damage. We also carried out quantitative determination of DNA damage. Cardiomyocytes from beta-alanine-induced taurine-depleted (TD) rats were used for this investigation. Single- and double-stranded DNA damage was quantified using comet assay analysis. Western blot and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with immunoblotting analysis were applied for protein analysis. Comet assay analysis indicated that the extent of double-stranded DNA damage was greater in TD than in control cardiomyocytes. Whereas only traces of both p53 and p21(WAF1/CIP1) and no detectable expression of 14-3-3 sigma were found in cardiomyocytes of control animals, the TD cardiomyocytes expressed all three genes. DNA damage and the consequent up-regulation of checkpoint proteins observed in TD cardiomyocytes indicate the involvement of cell cycle control mechanisms in the effect of taurine deficiency on cardiomyocytes. Single- and double-stranded DNA damage and the consequent arrest of cell proliferation in both G(1) and G(2) phases of the cell cycle induced by checkpoint proteins may trigger the cardiomyopathy that is associated with taurine deficiency.

  19. Carfilzomib induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in human endometrial cancer cells via upregulation of p21Waf1/Cip1and p27Kip1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ke; Zhen, Shuai; Wang, Ruili; Luo, Wenjuan

    2016-12-01

    Carfilzomib is a second-generation tetrapeptide epoxyketone proteasome inhibitor used in current clinical therapy of hematologic malignancies. The mechanism of proteasome inhibition in endometrial cancer is not very clear. Carfilzomib inhibition of type I endometrial carcinoma cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase was investigated in our study. HEC-1-A and Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma cell lines and three tumor cell lines were treated by different concentrations of carfilzomib. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to detect cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle. Western blot was used to detect proteins involved in cell cycle progression. Carfilzomib impaired viability of myelogenous leukemia cell line K562, cervical cancer cell line HeLa, hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMCC-7721, and endometrial carcinoma cell lines HEC-1-A and Ishikawa. The cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M phase in carfilzomib-treated HEC-1-A endometrial carcinoma cells, while it was arrested at both S and G2/M phases in carfilzomib-treated Ishikawa cells. Carfilzomib treatment significantly induced p21 Waf1/ Cip1 and p27, while substantially reduced cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1. This study showed that carfilzomib inhibited endometrial cancer proliferation by upregulating cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 Waf1/Cip1 and p27 Kip1 , and reducing cyclin-dependent kinase 1 to arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Electrochemical selenium- and iodonium-initiated cyclisation of hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Röse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt(I-catalysed 1,4-hydrovinylation reaction of allyloxytrimethylsilane and allyl alcohol with substituted 1,3-dienes leads to hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes in excellent regio- and diastereoselective fashion. Those 1,4-dienols can be converted into tetrahydrofuran and pyran derivatives under indirect electrochemical conditions generating selenium or iodonium cations. The reactions proceed in good yields and regioselectivities for the formation of single diastereomers.

  1. Interaction between 1,4-butanediol and ethanol on operant responding and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, Lisa R; Hicks, Alissa R; Winsauer, Peter J; Varner, Kurt J

    2004-12-03

    The current studies characterized the rate-decreasing and cardiovascular responses produced by 1,4-butanediol administered alone and in combination with ethanol to test the hypothesis that these effects resulted from the degradation of 1,4-butanediol to gamma-hydroxybutyrate. One group of rats responded under a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of food presentation; ethanol and 1,4-butanediol dose-dependently decreased response rates. Ethanol administered in combination with 1,4-butanediol attenuated the rate-decreasing effects of 1,4-butanediol without altering the potency of ethanol. In separate groups of conscious rats, radio telemetry was used to record mean arterial pressure and heart rate. In contrast to its depressant effects on schedule-controlled responding, 1,4-butanediol increased mean arterial pressure and heart rate; these increases were attenuated by ethanol. Thus, the behavioral and cardiovascular actions of 1,4-butanediol are similar to those elicited by gamma-hydroxybutyrate. The ability of ethanol to attenuate the behavioral and cardiovascular effects of 1,4-butanediol indicates that these effects require the conversion of 1,4-butanediol to gamma-hydroxybutyrate.

  2. Photo-mediated bromate--1,4-benzoquinone reaction: A novel photochemical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bei; Wang, Jichang

    2006-10-01

    1,4-Benzoquinone is uncovered to react with acidic bromate in the presence of illumination, in which temporal oscillations are observed in the stirred batch system. This new photochemical oscillator shows subtle dependence on compositions of the reaction mixture, in which oscillations could be revived immediately upon the addition of fresh 1,4-benzoquinone solution. A proposed mechanism on the basis of light-induced conversion of 1,4-benzoquinone to 1,4-hydroquinone qualitatively reproduces the oscillatory phenomena as well as the long induction time seen in experiments.

  3. On some 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Yong; Qin, Li

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We use the bulk D3-brane solutions with both electric and magnetic charges on its world-volume to describe some of 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops. The D3-brane supersymmetric solutions are derived form requiring κ-symmetry. We find the two consistent constraints for Killing spinors and calculate the conserved charges of straight 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops and expectation values of circular 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops separately.

  4. Comments on the Moduli Dynamics of 1/4 BPS Dyons

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Dongsu; Lee, Kimyeong

    1999-01-01

    We rederive the nonrelativistic Lagrangian for the low energy dynamics of 1/4 BPS dyons by considering the time dependent fluctuations around classical 1/4 BPS configurations. The relevant fluctuations are the zero modes of the underlying 1/2 BPS monopoles.

  5. Efficient and Simple Synthesis of 6-Aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rault

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic method for the preparation of 6-aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles involving a palladium catalyzed coupling reaction of 1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazole-6-boronic acids and (heteroaryl halides is described.

  6. 1,4-Di(2-butoxycarbonyl-trans-vinyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Molano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound 1,4-di(2-butoxycarbonyl-trans-vinyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene was synthesized in 94% yield through the Heck reaction between 2,5-diiodo-1,4-dimethoxybenzene and n-butyl acrylate, using bis(dibenzylideneacetone palladium(0 as homogeneous catalyst.

  7. Preliminary studies on the production of endo-1,4-β–Dglucanases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the production and characterization of endo-β-1, 4-glucanase from isolated phytopathogenic bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. The bacterium was grown on different carbon sources including carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 2% Avicel, for the production of endo-1, 4-β –D-glucanases enzyme. E. cloacae ...

  8. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations ...

  9. Optimization of biological wastewater treatment conditions for 1,4-dioxane decomposition in polyester manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J S; So, M H; Kim, C G

    2009-01-01

    The solvent stabilizer 1,4-dioxane could have harmful effects on an ecosystem. The discharge limit of 1,4-dioxane in a body of water will be regulated at 5 mg/L in Republic of Korea. Thus, the currently operating activated sludge used in the manufacture of polyester should be properly treated to meet the regulations. Accordingly, the removal rate of 1,4-dioxane and its microbial properties was assessed at K, H and T corporations. The highest removal efficiencies were recorded at H. However, the concentration of 1,4-dioxane in the effluent of T exceeded the criterion. In addition, a microbial degradation test was conducted on 100 mg/L of 1,4-dioxane inoculated with the activated sludge from each of the three corporations. After 7 days, the 1,4-dioxane was completely removed with the H sludge and efficiencies were 67% in the T sludge and 52% in the K sludge. These results confirm that the biodegradability of 1,4-dioxane may vary in relation to the microbial properties. The microbial diversity of activated sludge of each company was therefore investigated by 16S rDNA cloning methods. In conclusion, the activated sludge of H is the most effective for the biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane. This fact is of significant concern for the industrial sector.

  10. 17 CFR 240.12d1-4 - Date of receipt of certification by Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of receipt of certification by Commission. 240.12d1-4 Section 240.12d1-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act...

  11. Synthesis and Structural Analysis of Some New Sulfanyl Amino 1,4-Naphthoquinone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yıldırım

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some new sulfanyl substituted amino 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives which possess two electron donating groups in the amino fragment were synthesized and their structures were analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. First, 2-chloro-3-[(2,4-dimethoxy phenylamino]naphthalene-1,4-dione (3a and 2-chloro-3-[(3,5-dimethoxy phenylamino]naphthalene-1,4-dione (3b were obtained from the reactions of dichloro 1,4-naphthoquinone (1 with 2,4-dimethoxy phenylamine and 3,5-dimethoxy phenylamine. Then the compounds 3a,b were reacted with aliphatic nucleophiles; ethyl-, propyl- and pentyl mercaptan. S-Nucleophiles attacked to the carbon atom of 1,4-naphthoquinone core and displaced with the chlorine atom to create target molecules; 2-aryl amino-3-(ethyl thionaphthalene-1,4-dione (5a,b, 2-aryl amino-3-(propyl thionaphthalene-1,4-dione (5c,d, 2-aryl amino-3-(pentyl thionaphthalene-1,4-dione (5e,f derivatives. The structures of synthesized compounds were proved by utilizing 1D and 2D NMR techniques and also mass spectra and FTIR data.

  12. Genotoxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone in relation to effects on glutathione and NAD(P)H levels in V79 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, G; Dogra, S; Glatt, H

    1989-01-01

    1,4-Benzoquinone is cytotoxic in V79 Chinese hamster cells and induces gene mutations and micronuclei. The cell-damaging effects of quinones are usually attributed to thiol depletion, oxidation of NAD(P)H, and redox-cycling involving the formation of semiquinone radicals and reactive oxygen species. To elucidate the role of these mechanisms in the genotoxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone, we measured various genotoxic effects, cytotoxicity, and the levels of glutathione, NADPH, NADH, and their oxidized forms all in the same experiment. 1,4-Naphthoquinone, which does not induce gene mutations in V79 cells, was investigated for comparative reasons. The quinones had a similar effect on the levels of cofactors. Total glutathione was depleted, but levels of oxidized glutathione were slightly increased. The levels of NADPH and NADH were reduced at high concentrations of the quinones with a simultaneous increase in the levels of NADP+ and NAD+. Both compounds induced micronuclei, but neither increased the frequency of sister chromatid exchange. Only 1,4-benzoquinone induced gene mutations. This effect was observed at low concentrations, where none of the other parameters studied was affected. When the cells were depleted of glutathione prior to treatment with the quinones, the induction of gene mutations and micronuclei remained virtually unchanged. We conclude that a) induction of micronuclei and glutathione depletion by the two quinones are not linked causally, b) 1,4-benzoquinone induces gene mutations by a mechanism different from oxidative stress and glutathione depletion, and c) glutathione does not fully protect the cells against the genotoxicity of quinones. PMID:2792044

  13. Characterization of Cu1.4Te Thin Films for CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangcan Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper telluride thin films were prepared by a coevaporation technique. The single-phase Cu1.4Te thin films could be obtained after annealing, and annealing temperature higher than 220°C could induce the presence of cuprous telluride coexisting phase. Cu1.4Te thin films also demonstrate the high carrier concentration and high reflectance for potential photovoltaic applications from the UV-visible-IR transmittance and reflectance spectra, and Hall measurements. With contacts such as Cu1.4Te and Cu1.4Te/CuTe, cell efficiencies comparable to those with conventional back contacts have been achieved. Temperature cycle tests show that the Cu1.4Te contact buffer has also improved cell stability.

  14. Novel Straight-chained Sulfanyl Members of Arylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones: Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer BAYRAK

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the synthesis and characterization of new members of straight-chained sulfanyl derivatives of arylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones. 2-(4-(trifluoromethylphenylamino-3-chloronaphthalene-1,4-dione (3a and 2-(3-(trifluoromethylphenylamino-3-chloronaphthalene-1,4-dione (3b compounds which prepared by means of nucleophilic substitution reactions between 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (1 and arylamines containing trifluoro group at meta and para positions (2a, 2b were used as building blocks for straight-chained sulfanyl arylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones. The structures of all the novel compounds (5a-f were established by spectroscopic evidence including IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and MS data.

  15. 1,4-Dioxane Vadose Remediation by Enhanced Soil Vapor Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, D. R.; Hinchee, R.; Dahlen, P.; Johnson, P.

    2016-12-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a cyclic diether that is totally miscible in water. It is a chlorinated solvent additive primarily found in 1,1,1-trichloroethane. 1,4-Dioxane becomes sequestered in vadose water and serves as a source of long-term groundwater contamination. Although soil vapor extraction (SVE) can effectively remediate chlorinated solvents, substantial 1,4-dioxane is left behind. Enhanced SVE (XSVE) was conducted to assess its effectiveness in vadose zone remediation of 1,4-dioxane. Primary SVE enhancements included focused extraction, increased air flow and heated air injection. Detailed site assessment to accurately locate the vadose source is needed for effective XSVE since it relies on focused air extraction. At a 14-month field demonstration of XSVE at former McClellan AFB, CA the following parameters were monitored: 1,4-dioxane (soil and soil vapor), soil moisture content, temperature, pressure and flow rate. The XSVE system was configured with four injection wells (in 20-ft square), each with in-line heaters, around a central SVE well and off-gas was treated with existing treatment system. Well screen intervals corresponded to soil interval (38 - 68 ft bgs) containing the highest 1,4-dioxane. Treatment zone (TZ) temperatures reached as high as 90°C and soil moisture sensor readings reached as low as zero near the injection wells. XSVE reduced TZ soil 1,4-dioxane concentrations and soil moisture contents 95% and 45%, respectively. Extraction well monitoring showed that the bulk of 1,4-dioxane removal occurred before TZ temperatures increased substantially. Performance results indicate that focused air injection with increased air flow were the primary SVE enhancements facilitating the effective removal of 1,4-dioxane and soil thermal treatment may not be required. XSVE can provides a cost-effective, easily implemented remedial option for vadose 1,4-dioxane.

  16. Synthesis and conformational analysis of new derivatives of 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-5-phenyl-2h-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-one

    CERN Document Server

    Imanzadeh, G H; Sadra, Y

    2011-01-01

    1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones and their derivatives are prominent structures in medicinal chemistry. These biomolecules have wide biological activities and posses therapeutic applications. In this works, we introduce new derivatives of 1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones which are synthesized using michael addition reaction of 7-chloro- 1,3-dihydro-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones with fumaric esters that matches with green chemistry protocols. The structures of all products are confirmed by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MASS spectroscopy. Since the stereochemistry of 1,4-benzo diazepine-2-ones is important, we study the most stable conformer of one of the products as a model for conformational analysis by hyper chem soft ware and semi empirical AM1 program. Also, using the 1H-NMR spectrum, we investigate the produced diastereomers of one of products as a model.

  17. Isothermal flow measurement using planar PIV in the 1/4 scaled model of CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Sung, Hyung Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Tae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The local temperature of the moderator is a key parameter in determining the available subcooling. To predict the flow field and local temperature distribution in the calandria, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a national R and D research programs from 2012. This research program includes the construction of the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant CFD tools, and development of optical measurement system using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. Small-scale 1/40 and 1/8 small-scale model tests were performed prior to installation of the main MCT facility to identify the potential problems of the flow visualization and measurement expected in the 1/4 scale MCT facility. In the 1/40 scale test, a flow field was measured with a PIV measurement technique under an iso-thermal state, and the temperature field was visualized using a LIF technique. In this experiment, the key point was to illuminate the region of interest as uniformly as possible since the velocity and temperature fields in the shadow regions were distorted and unphysical. In the 1/8 scale test, the flow patterns from the inlet nozzles to the top region of the tank were investigated using PIV measurement at two different positions of the inlet nozzle. For each position of laser beam exposure the measurement sections were divided to 7 groups to overcome the limitation of the laser power to cover the relatively large test section. The MCT facility is the large-scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. It is reduced in a 1/4 scale and a moderator test vessel is built to the specifications of the CANDU6 reactor design, where a working fluid is sub-cooled water with atmospheric pressure. Previous studies were

  18. Fate of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment: from sewage to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Daria K; Diehl, Peter; Helm, Johanna; Thoms, Alina; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Potential health effects of 1,4-dioxane and the limited data on its occurrence in the water cycle command for more research. In the current study, mobility and persistence of 1,4-dioxane in the sewage-, surface-, and drinking water was investigated. The occurrence of 1,4-dioxane was determined in wastewater samples from four domestic sewage treatment plants (STP). The influent and effluent samples were collected during weekly campaigns. The average influent concentrations in all four plants ranged from 262 ± 32 ng L(-1) to 834 ± 480 ng L(-1), whereas the average effluent concentrations were between 267 ± 35 ng L(-1) and 62,260 ± 36,000 ng L(-1). No removal of 1,4-dioxane during water treatment was observed. Owing to its strong internal chemical bonding, 1,4-dioxane is considered non-biodegradable under conventional bio-treatment technologies. The source of increased 1,4-dioxane concentrations in the effluents was identified to originate from impurities in the methanol used in the postanoxic denitrification process in one of the STPs. In view of poor biodegradation in STPs, surface water samples were collected to establish an extent of 1,4-dioxane pollution. Spatial and temporal distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the Rivers Main, Rhine, and Oder was examined. Concentrations reaching 2200 ng L(-1) in the Oder River, and 860 ng L(-1) in both Main and Rhine River were detected. The average monthly load of 1,4-dioxane in the Rhine River was calculated to equal to 172 kg d(-1). In all rivers, concentration of 1,4-dioxane increased with distance from the spring and was found to negatively correlate with the discharge of the river. Additionally, bank filtration and drinking water samples from two drinking water facilities were analyzed for the presence of 1,4-dioxane. The raw water contained 650 ng L(-1)-670 ng L(-1) of 1,4-dioxane, whereas the concentration in the drinking water fell only to 600 ng L(-1) and 490 ng L(-1), respectively. Neither of the purification

  19. Resveratrol and curcumin synergistically induces apoptosis in cigarette smoke condensate transformed breast epithelial cells through a p21(Waf1/Cip1) mediated inhibition of Hh-Gli signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Siddharth, Sumit; Das, Dipon; Nayak, Anmada; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2015-09-01

    Combination therapy using two or more small molecule inhibitors of aberrant signaling cascade in aggressive breast cancers is a promising therapeutic strategy over traditional monotherapeutic approaches. Here, we have studied the synergistic mechanism of resveratrol and curcumin induced apoptosis using in vitro (cigarette smoke condensate mediated transformed breast epithelial cell, MCF-10A-Tr) and in vivo (tumor xenograft mice) model system. Resveratrol exposure increased the intracellular uptake of curcumin in a dose dependent manner and caused apoptosis in MCF-10A-Tr cells. Approximately, ten fold lower IC50 value was noted in cells treated with the combination of resveratrol (3μM) and curcumin (3μM) in comparison to 30μM of resveratrol or curcumin alone. Resveratrol+curcumin combination caused apoptosis by increasing Bax/Bcl-xL ratio, Cytochrome C release, cleaved product of PARP and caspase 3 in cells. Interestingly, this combination unaltered the protein expressions of WNT-TCF and Notch signaling components, β-catenin and cleaved notch-1 val1744, respectively. Furthermore, the combination also significantly decreased the intermediates of Hedgehog-Gli cascade including SMO, SHH, Gli-1, c-MYC, Cyclin-D1, etc. and increased the level of p21(Waf/Cip1) in vitro and in vivo. A significant reduction of Gli- promoter activity was noted in combinational drug treated cells in comparison to individual drug treatment. Un-alteration of the expressions of the above proteins and Gli1 promoter activity in p21(Waf/Cip1) knockout cells suggests this combination caused apoptosis through p21(Waf/Cip1). Thus, our findings revealed resveratrol and curcumin synergistically caused apoptosis in cigarette smoke induced breast cancer cells through p2(Waf/Cip1) mediated inhibition of Hedgehog-Gli cascade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the binding behavior of several histidine-containing proteins with immobilized copper(II) complexes of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane and 1,4-bis(1,4,7-triazacyclononan-1-yl)butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bim; Spiccia, Leone; Hearn, Milton T W

    2011-04-15

    The protein binding characteristics of the immobilized binucleating chelate system, 1,4-bis(1,4,7-triazacyclononan-1-yl)butane (tacn(2)butane), complexed with Cu(2+) ions have been investigated with hen egg white lysozyme, horse skeletal muscle myoglobin and horse heart cytochrome C, as well as three histidine-rich proteins, serum albumin, transferrin, and α(2)-macroglobulin, present in partially fractionated human serum. The effects of pH, ionic strength and elution buffers on protein binding have been examined and compared with those of the analogous immobilized mononuclear copper complex of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn). The Cu(2+)-tacn(2)butane system was generally found to exhibit higher protein binding affinities than the Cu(2+)-tacn system, suggesting that the presence of immobilized binuclear copper(II) species leads to enhanced coordinative interaction with surface-exposed amino acid residues of the studied proteins. However, under some buffer conditions the dependencies of protein binding and elution on pH and ionic strength with these immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic (IMAC) systems were consistent with electrostatic, hydrophobic and π-bonding interactions playing a significant secondary role in addition to the dominant coordinative interactions. As such, the results indicated that the selectivities were not solely dependent on the histidine content of the protein. In accord with this conclusion, differences in the selectivities of the Cu(2+)-tacn and Cu(2+)-tacn(2)butane adsorbents for serum albumin, transferrin, and α(2)-macroglobulin were observed depending on the choice of elution buffer. This attribute suggests that additional selectivity features can be realised for the separation of specific proteins with this new class of adsorbent. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Metabolic Degradation of 1,4-dichloronaphthalene by Pseudomonas sp. HY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern regarding the adverse health effects of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs. The metabolic degradation of 1,4-dichloronaphthalene (1,4-DCN as a model PCN, was studied using a strain of Pseudomonas sp. HY. The metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A series of metabolites including dihydroxy-dichloro-naphthalene, epoxy-dichlorinated naphthalene, dichlorinated naphthol, and dichlorinated salicylic acid were identified. The time-concentration plots of the degradation curves of 1,4-DCN was also obtained from the experiments, which set the initial concentration of 1,4-DCN to 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The results showed that 98% removal could be achieved within 48 h at an initial 1,4-DCN concentration of 10 mg/L. Nevertheless, it took 144 h to reach the same degradation efficiency at an initial concentration of 20 mg/L. The degradation of 1,4-DCN may not remove the chloride ions during the processes and the metabolites may not benefit the bacterial growth. The research suggests a metabolic pathway of 1,4-DCN, which is critical for the treatment of this compound through biological processes.

  2. The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in Serbian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 has a major role in inhibition of firinolysis and normal haemostasis. The presence of the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype leads to increased expression of PAI-1. High blood level of PAI-1 is associated with many diseases such as thrombosis, cerebral insult, myocardial infarction, pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and asthma. In this study, the prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant was determined in healthy subjects from Serbian population. Methods: The study was carried out in a group of 210 healthy subjects (105 women and 105 men. The presence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant was detected by PCR-RFLP analysis. Results: The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/4G genotype was 34.76% and it was increased compared to PAI-1 5G/5G genotype (19.05%. The most frequent was PAI-1 4G/5G genotype (46.19%. Allelic frequency for 4G allele was higher (0.58 compared to 5G allele (0.42. Conclusions: The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in Serbian population is similar to the neighboring populations. Results of this study represent the first data for Serbian population. This study could be useful for further research where the role of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant will be assessed in the pathogenesis of many diseases.

  3. Alterations in TP53, cyclin D2, c-Myc, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 expression associated with progression in B-CLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosz Halina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL originates from B lymphocytes that may differ in the activationlevel, maturation state or cellular subgroups in peripheral blood. Tumour progression in CLL B cells seems to result in gradualaccumulation of the clone of resting B lymphocytes in the early phases (G0/G1 of the cell cycle. The G1 phase isimpaired in B-CLL. We investigated the gene expression of five key cell cycle regulators: TP 53, c-Myc, cyclin D2,p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1, which primarily regulate the G1 phase of the cell cycle, or S-phase entry and ultimately controlthe proliferation and cell growth as well as their role in B-CLL progression. The study was conducted in peripheral bloodCLL lymphocytes of 40 previously untreated patients. Statistical analysis of correlations of TP53, cyclin D2, c-Myc,p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 expressions in B-CLL patients with different Rai stages demonstrated that the progression of diseasewas accompanied by increases in p53, cyclin D2 and c-Myc mRNA expression. The expression of p27KIP1 was nearlystatistically significant whereas that of p21 WAF1/CIP1 showed no such correlation. Moreover, high expression levels of TP53and c-Myc genes were found to be closely associated with more aggressive forms of the disease requiring earlier therapy.

  4. Heats of Formation for CF(sub n) (n = 1 - 4), CF(sup +, sub n) (n = 1 - 4), and CF(sup -, sub n) (n = 1 - 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Accurate heats of formation are computed for CF(sub n) (n = 1 - 4), CF(sup +, sub n) (n = 1 - 4), and CF(sup -, sub n) (n = 1 - 3). The geometries and vibrational frequencies are determined at the B3LYP level of theory. The energetics are determined at the CCSD(T) level of theory. Basis set limit values are obtained by extrapolation. In those cases where the CCSD(T) calculations become prohibitively large, the basis set extrapolation is performed at the MP2 level. The temperature dependence of the heat of formation, heat capacity, and entropy are computed for the temperature range 300 to 4000 K and fit to a polynomial.

  5. 1H NMR spectra of N-methyl-4-tolyl-1-(4-bromonaphthylamine and N-phenyl-1-(4-bromonaphthylamine: a combined experimental and theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy I. Okovytyy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical investigations of the conformational properties and 1H NMR chemical shifts for N-methyl-4-tolyl-1-(4-bromonaphthylamine and N-phenyl-1-(4-bromonaphthylamine are reported. The calculations were performed at the DFT level (PBE1PBE functional using magnetically consistent 6-31G## and STO##-3Gmag basis sets. Conformational properties of the amines were studied using potential energy surface scanning. Chemical shifts were calculated using the GIAO and CSGT methods and averaged in proportion to the population of the corresponding conformations. Solvent effects (CDCl3 were accounted via PCM method. The obtained results allowed to assign the 1H NMR signals for the naphthalene moiety, which could not be done based on the experimental data alone.

  6. Synthesis and crystallographic analysis of meso-2,3-difluoro-1,4-butanediol and meso-1,4-dibenzyloxy-2,3-difluorobutane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Linclau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale synthesis of meso-2,3-difluoro-1,4-butanediol in 5 steps from (Z-but-2-enediol is described. Crystallographic analysis of the diol and the corresponding benzyl ether reveals an anti conformation of the vicinal difluoride moiety. Monosilylation of the diol is high-yielding but all attempts to achieve chain extension through addition of alkyl Grignard and acetylide nucleophiles failed.

  7. Abinitio powder x-ray diffraction and PIXEL energy calculations on thiophene derived 1,4 dihydropyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, N., E-mail: karthin10@gmail.com; Sivakumar, K. [Department of Physics, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Chennai-600 025, Tamilnadu (India); Pachamuthu, M. P. [Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology Sathyamangalam - 638401, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-06

    We focus on the application of powder diffraction data to get abinitio crystal structure determination of thiophene derived 1,4 DHP prepared by cyclocondensation method using solid catalyst. Crystal structure of the compound has been solved by direct-space approach on Monte Carlo search in parallel tempering mode using FOX program. Initial atomic coordinates were derived using Gaussian 09W quantum chemistry software in semi-empirical approach and Rietveld refinement was carried out using GSAS program. The crystal structure of the compound is stabilized by one N-H…O and three C-H…O hydrogen bonds. PIXEL lattice energy calculation was carried out to understand the physical nature of intermolecular interactions in the crystal packing, on which the total lattice energy is contributed into Columbic, polarization, dispersion, and repulsion energies.

  8. An orthorhombic polymorph of N1,N4-diphenyl-3,6-bis(phenyliminocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Ohno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new orthorhombic polymorph of the title compound, C30H24N4, with a density of 1.315 Mg m−3, has been obtained. The molecule is centrosymmetric with the centroid of the cyclohexa-1,4-diene ring located on an inversion center. The two unique benzene rings are almost perpendicular to each other [dihedral angle = 86.70 (6°] and are oriented at dihedral angles of 30.79 (5 and 68.07 (5° with respect to the central cyclohexadiene ring. In the crystal, π–π stacking is observed between the central cyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diamine unit and a phenyl ring of a neighboring molecule [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7043 (7 Å]. The crystal structure of the triclinic polymorph [Ohno et al. (2014. Acta Cryst. E70, o303–o304] showed chains running along the b-axis direction through weak C—H...π interactions.

  9. 1,4-Benzodiazepine drugs adsorption on the Ag colloidal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cîntã, S.; Iliescu, T.; Astilean, S.; David, L.; Cozar, O.; Kiefer, W.

    1999-05-01

    The adsorption behaviour in the SERS complex of diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-3-dihydro-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one) and nitrazepam (1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-5-phenyl-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one) with the Ag colloidal particles is reported and discussed. In both cases, the CN bond vibration of the 1,4-benzodiazepine is strongly affected by adsorption and enhanced. The SERS system of Ag colloid with diazepam or nitrazepam allow the recognition of the drug sample at concentration of 10 -7 mol l -1.

  10. Tetranectin Binds to the Kringle 1-4 Form of Angiostatin and Modifies Its Functional Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogues, Tirsit; Etzerodt, Michael; Hall, Crystal

    2004-01-01

    Tetranectin is a plasminogen kringle 4 domain-binding protein present in plasma and various tissue locations. Decreased plasma tetranectin or increased tetranectin in stroma of cancers correlates with cancer progression and adverse prognosis. A possible mechanism through which tetranectin could...... influence cancer progression is by altering activities of plasminogen or the plasminogen fragment, angiostatin. Tetranectin was found to bind to the kringle 1-4 form of angiostatin (AST $;{\\text{K1-4}}$ ). In addition, tetranectin inhibited binding of plasminogen or AST $;{\\text{K1-4}}$ to extracellular...

  11. Non-invasive temperature imaging with thulium 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (TmDOTMA-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakin, Sait Kubilay; Hekmatyar, S K; Hopewell, Paige; Babsky, Andriy; Bansal, Navin

    2006-02-01

    Non-invasive thermometry using hyperfine-shifted MR signals from paramagnetic lanthanide complexes has attracted attention recently because the chemical shifts of these complexes are many times more sensitive to temperature than the water 1H signal. Among all the lanthanide complexes examined thus far, thulium tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (TmDOTMA-) appears to be the most suitable for MR thermometry. In this paper, the feasibility of imaging the methyl 1H signal from TmDOTMA- using a frequency-selective radiofrequency excitation pulse and chemical shift-selective (CHESS) water suppression is demonstrated. A temperature imaging method using a phase-sensitive spin-echo imaging sequence was validated in phantom experiments. A comparison of regional temperature changes measured with fiber-optic probes and the temperatures calculated from the phase shift near each probe showed that the accuracy of imaging the temperature with TmDOTMA- is at least 0.1-0.2 degrees C. The feasibility of imaging temperature changes in an intact rat at 0.5-0.6 mmol/kg dose in only a few minutes is demonstrated. Similar to commonly used MRI contrast agents, the lanthanide complex does not cross the blood-brain barrier. TmDOTMA- may prove useful for temperature imaging in many biomedical applications but further studies relating to acceptable dose and signal-to-noise ratio are necessary before clinical applications. 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil Parasitos de canídeos domésticos e silvestres na região do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lúcia Costa Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. This study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous in the Serra do Cipó National Park (43-44º W and 19-20º S and endo and ectoparasites of domestic dogs in the Morro da Pedreira Environmental Protection Area (an area surrounding the National Park. The Serra do Cipó is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp., Spirocerca sp., Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Cestoda, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothriidae, Hymenolepidae, Anoplocephalidae, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Isospora sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests. Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. felis felis.Nas últimas décadas, as doenças têm sido apontadas como importantes causas de extinção de espécies silvestres. Maior ênfase tem sido dada às doenças transmitidas por animais domésticos que crescem em número, bem como as populações humanas, em áreas naturais. O presente estudo objetivou verificar a presença de helmintos intestinais de canídeos silvestres (lobo-guará - Chrysocyon brachyurus e cachorro-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (43-44º W e 19-20º S e endo e ectoparasitos de cães domésticos da Área de Proteção Ambiental Morro da Pedreira (entorno do

  13. The Carla Survey: Insights From The Densest Carla Structures At 1.4 < Z < 2.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirot, Gaël; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika; Cooke, Elizabeth A.; Mei, Simona; De Breuck, Carlos; Vernet, Joël; Brodwin, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter; Galametz, Audrey; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Hatch, Nina A.; Jarvis, Matt; Rettura, Alessandro; Seymour, Nick; Stanford, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    Radio-loud AGN (RLAGN) tend to reside in the most massive dark matter halos, and have a long history of being used to efficiently identify rich high-z structures (i.e., clusters and protoclusters). Our team contributed to this effort with a targeted 400hr Spitzer program surveying 420 RLAGN (radio-loud quasars and high-z radio galaxies) at z=1.3-3.2 across the full sky: Clusters Around RLAGN (CARLA; Wylezalek+2013,2014). The CARLA Survey identified 200 cluster candidates at z=1.3-3.2 as 2-8σ overdensities of red color-selected Spitzer/IRAC galaxies around the targeted powerful RLAGN. We present results from our follow-up 40-orbit HST program on the 20 densest CARLA cluster candidates at z=1.4-2.8 (Noirot+2016,2017). We spectroscopically confirm 16/20 distant structures associated with the RLAGN, up to z=2.8. For the first time at these redshifts, we statistically investigate the star-formation content of a large sample of galaxies in dense structures. We show that >10^(10) M⊙ cluster galaxies form significantly fewer stars than their field star-forming counterparts at all redshifts within 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2. This survey represents a unique and large homogenous sample of spectroscopically confirmed clusters at high redshifts, ideal to investigate quenching mechanisms in dense environments.

  14. Lenalidomide inhibits the proliferation of CLL cells via a cereblon/p21WAF1/Cip1-dependent mechanism independent of functional p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Jessie-F.; Corral, Laura G.; Ghia, Emanuela M.; Gaidarova, Svetlana; Futalan, Diahnn; Bharati, Ila Sri; Cathers, Brian; Schwaederlé, Maria; Cui, Bing; Lopez-Girona, Antonia; Messmer, Davorka

    2014-01-01

    Lenalidomide has demonstrated clinical activity in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), even though it is not cytotoxic for primary CLL cells in vitro. We examined the direct effect of lenalidomide on CLL-cell proliferation induced by CD154-expressing accessory cells in media containing interleukin-4 and -10. Treatment with lenalidomide significantly inhibited CLL-cell proliferation, an effect that was associated with the p53-independent upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21WAF1/Cip1 (p21). Silencing p21 with small interfering RNA impaired the capacity of lenalidomide to inhibit CLL-cell proliferation. Silencing cereblon, a known molecular target of lenalidomide, impaired the capacity of lenalidomide to induce expression of p21, inhibit CD154-induced CLL-cell proliferation, or enhance the degradation of Ikaros family zinc finger proteins 1 and 3. We isolated CLL cells from the blood of patients before and after short-term treatment with low-dose lenalidomide (5 mg per day) and found the leukemia cells were also induced to express p21 in vivo. These results indicate that lenalidomide can directly inhibit proliferation of CLL cells in a cereblon/p21-dependent but p53-independent manner, at concentrations achievable in vivo, potentially contributing to the capacity of this drug to inhibit disease-progression in patients with CLL. PMID:24990888

  15. Lenalidomide inhibits the proliferation of CLL cells via a cereblon/p21(WAF1/Cip1)-dependent mechanism independent of functional p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Jessie-F; Corral, Laura G; Ghia, Emanuela M; Gaidarova, Svetlana; Futalan, Diahnn; Bharati, Ila Sri; Cathers, Brian; Schwaederlé, Maria; Cui, Bing; Lopez-Girona, Antonia; Messmer, Davorka; Kipps, Thomas J

    2014-09-04

    Lenalidomide has demonstrated clinical activity in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), even though it is not cytotoxic for primary CLL cells in vitro. We examined the direct effect of lenalidomide on CLL-cell proliferation induced by CD154-expressing accessory cells in media containing interleukin-4 and -10. Treatment with lenalidomide significantly inhibited CLL-cell proliferation, an effect that was associated with the p53-independent upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(WAF1/Cip1) (p21). Silencing p21 with small interfering RNA impaired the capacity of lenalidomide to inhibit CLL-cell proliferation. Silencing cereblon, a known molecular target of lenalidomide, impaired the capacity of lenalidomide to induce expression of p21, inhibit CD154-induced CLL-cell proliferation, or enhance the degradation of Ikaros family zinc finger proteins 1 and 3. We isolated CLL cells from the blood of patients before and after short-term treatment with low-dose lenalidomide (5 mg per day) and found the leukemia cells were also induced to express p21 in vivo. These results indicate that lenalidomide can directly inhibit proliferation of CLL cells in a cereblon/p21-dependent but p53-independent manner, at concentrations achievable in vivo, potentially contributing to the capacity of this drug to inhibit disease-progression in patients with CLL. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production or added to impart desired physical or technical properties. (b) Specifications: Ethylene-1,4... carbonated beverages and beer. Conditions of hot fill not to exceed 82.2 °C (180 °F), storage at temperatures...

  17. Radio variability in complete samples of extragalactic radio sources at 1.4 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, S.; Machalski, J.

    1990-09-01

    Complete samples of extragalactic radio sources obtained in 1970-1975 and the sky survey of Condon and Broderick (1983) were used to select sources variable at 1.4 GHz, and to investigate the characteristics of variability in the whole population of sources at this frequency. The radio structures, radio spectral types, and optical identifications of the selected variables are discussed. Only compact flat-spectrum sources vary at 1.4 GHz, and all but four are identified with QSOs, BL Lacs, or other (unconfirmed spectroscopically) stellar objects. No correlation of degree of variability at 1.4 GHz with Galactic latitude or variability at 408 MHz has been found, suggesting that most of the 1.4-GHz variability is intrinsic and not caused by refractive scintillations. Numerical models of the variability have been computed.

  18. Toxicity of the bionematicide 1,4-naphthoquinone on non-target soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelinho, S; Maleita, C M N; Francisco, R; Braga, M E M; da Cunha, M J M; Abrantes, I; de Sousa, H C; Morais, P V; Sousa, J P

    2017-08-01

    The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects of 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NTQ), a natural-origin compound presenting nematicidal activity, that can be obtained from walnut husk, in plants and soil invertebrates, including non-target soil nematode communities. This research was part of an ongoing project that aims to develop environmentally-friendly nematicides obtained from agricultural residues. The battery of ISO tests included emergence and growth of corn (Zea mays) and rape (Brassica napus); avoidance with the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the collembolan Folsomia candida; and reproduction with the previous species plus the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus. A novel soil nematode community assay was also performed. ISO tests and nematode assays were conducted using a natural uncontaminated soil that was spiked with a range of 1,4-NTQ concentrations. Toxicity of 1,4-NTQ was found for all test-species and the most sensitive were F. candida and E. andrei. After 7 days of exposure to 1,4-NTQ, nematode abundance decreased along the concentration gradient, and a partial recovery was observed after 14 days (1,4-NTQ soil). The number of nematode families consistently decreased in both periods. Overall, results indicate that a 1,4-NTQ concentration of <20 mg kg -1 could be environmentally safe but preliminary data suggest that it might be ineffective for the target-nematodes, root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., and root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus spp. In addition, if higher dosages of 1,4-NTQ bionematicide are necessary, the potential recovery of non-target organisms under real field scenarios also needs to be assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Imaging B. anthracis heme catabolism in mice using the IFP1.4 gene reporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Robinson, Holly; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Nobles, Christopher L.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Maresso, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    B. anthracis is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium which likes all pathogenic bacteria, survive by sequestering heme from its host. To image B. anthracis heme catabolism in vivo, we stably transfect new red excitable fluorescent protein, IFP1.4, that requires the heme catabolism product biliverdin (BV). IFP1.4 reporter has favorable excitation and emission characteristics, which has an absorption peak at 685 nm and an emission peak at 708 nm. Therefore, IFP1.4 reporter can be imaged deeply into the tissue with less contamination from tissue autofluorescence. However, the excitation light "leakage" through optical filters can limit detection and sensitivity of IFP1.4 reporter due to the small Stoke's shift of IFP1.4 fluorescence. To minimize the excitation light leakage, an intensified CCD (ICCD) based infrared fluorescence imaging device was optimized using two band pass filters separated by a focus lens to increase the optical density at the excitation wavelength. In this study, a mouse model (DBA/J2) was first injected with B. anthracis bacteria expressing IFP1.4, 150 μl s.c., on the ventral side of the left thigh. Then mouse was given 250 μl of a 1mM BV solution via I.V. injection. Imaging was conducted as a function of time after infection under light euthanasia, excised tissues were imaged and IFP1.4 fluorescence correlated with standard culture measurements of colony forming units (CFU). The work demonstrates the use of IFP1.4 as a reporter of bacterial utilization of host heme and may provide an important tool for understanding the pathogenesis of bacterial infection and developing new anti-bacterial therapeutics.

  20. Physiological and pathophysiological insights of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildas eLoussouarn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits have been associated with muscular and cardiac channelopathies, respectively. Despite intense research on the structure and function of these channels, a lot of information is still missing to delineate the various physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying their activity at the molecular level. Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 sequences are similar, suggesting structural and functional homologies between the two orthologous channels. This also suggests that any characteristics described for one channel subunit may shed light on the properties of the counterpart channel subunit. In this review article, after a brief clinical description of the muscular and cardiac channelopathies related to Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 mutations, respectively, we compare the knowledge accumulated in different aspects of the expression and function of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits: the regulation of the two encoding genes (SCN4A and SCN5A, the associated/regulatory proteins and at last, the functional effect of the same missense mutations detected in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5. First, it appears that more is known on Nav1.5 expression and accessory proteins. Because of the high homologies of Nav1.5 binding sites and equivalent Nav1.4 sites, Nav1.5-related results may guide future investigations on Nav1.4. Second, the analysis of the same missense mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 revealed intriguing similarities regarding their effects on membrane excitability and alteration in channel biophysics. We believe that such comparison may bring new cues to the physiopathology of cardiac and muscular diseases.

  1. 2010 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Health-Care Assistant. (Program CIP-51.3902 - Nurse/Nursing Assistant/Aide and Client Care Assistant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer; Sims, Addie

    2010-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for 2012-14 Capital Improvements Program (CIP) for Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (AFB), Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    spread of exotic invasive species. Invasive species can be plants, animals (exotic snails), and other organisms (e.g. microbes ), which may cause...diversity of species, and should be contained within important wildlife movement corridors. In addition, maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem functions

  3. 2010 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Veterinary Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0808 - Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Bobby; Sills, Kirby

    2010-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  4. 1,4-Dialkynylbutatrienes: synthesis, stability, and perspectives in the chemistry of carbo-benzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraval, Valérie; Leroyer, Léo; Harano, Aya; Barthes, Cécile; Saquet, Alix; Duhayon, Carine; Shinmyozu, Teruo; Chauvin, Remi

    2011-04-26

    The π-electron-rich C(8)-conjugated sequence of 1,4-dialkynylbutatrienes is identified as a fragile and fascinating motif occurring in carbo-benzene derivatives, and in Diederich's 1,4-bis(arylethynyl)- or 1,4-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)butatriene "capped" representatives, in particular, in tetraalkynylbutatriene. The family of symmetrical 1,4-dialkynylbutatrienes (E-C≡C)RC=C=C=CR(C≡C-E) is extended to functional caps (E=H, CH(3), C≡CPh, CPh=CHBr, or CPh=CBr(2)) with non-alkynyl substituents at the sp(2) vertices (R=Ph or CF(3)). The targets were selected for their potential in appealing retrosynthetic routes to carbo-benzenes, in which the aromatic C(18) macrocycle would be directly generated by sequential metathesis or reductive coupling processes. The functional 1,4-dialkynylbutrienes were synthesized by either classical methods used for the preparation of generic butatrienes (R'Li/CuX-mediated reductive coupling of gem-dihaloenynes or SnCl(2)/HCl-mediated reduction of 3,6-dioxy-octa-1,4,7-triyne precursors). Their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties are compared and analyzed on the basis of the relative extent of total conjugation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Toxic effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene on photosynthesis in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Jie; Feng, Jia; Lv, Junping; Cai, Jin; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-09-01

    1,4-Dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) is a common organic contaminant in water. To determine the effects of this contaminant on photosynthesis in the freshwater alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, algal cells were treated with 1,4-DCB at different concentrations for various times, and their photosynthetic pigment contents and chlorophyll fluorescence traits were analyzed. The results showed that 1,4-DCB exerted toxic effects on photosynthesis in C. pyrenoidosa, especially at concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. The inhibitory effects of 1,4-DCB were time- and concentration-dependent. After treatment with 1,4-DCB (≥10 mg/L), the contents of photosynthetic pigments decreased significantly, the photosystem II reaction center was irreversibly damaged, and the quantum yield of photosystem II decreased significantly. Also, there were sharp decreases in the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport and energy conversion. Photosystem II became overloaded as the amount of excitation energy distributed to it increased. All of these events weakened the photochemical reaction, and ultimately led to serious inhibition of photosynthesis.

  6. An Update on the Synthesis of Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvounis, George

    2016-01-28

    Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines are tricyclic compounds that are considered "privileged structures" since they possess a wide range of biological activities. The first encounter with these molecules was the isolation of anthramycin from cultures of Streptomyces, followed by determination of the X-ray crystal structure of the molecule and a study of its interaction with DNA. This opened up an intensive synthetic and biological study of the pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines that has culminated in the development of the dimer SJG-136, at present in Phase II clinical trials. The synthetic efforts have brought to light some new synthetic methodology, while the contemporary work is focused on building trimeric pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines linked together by various heterocyclic and aliphatic chains. It is the broad spectrum of biological activities of pyrrolo[1,2-a][1,4]benzodiazepines that has maintained the interest of researchers to date whereas several derivatives of the even less studied pyrrolo[1,2-d][1,4]benzodiazepines were found to be potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The present review is an update on the synthesis of pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines since the last major review of 2011, while the overview of the synthesis of the other two tricyclic isomers is comprehensive.

  7. Derivative Quotient Spectrophotometry and an Eco-Friendly Micellar Chromatographic Approach with Time-Programmed UV-Detection for the Separation of Two Fluoroquinolones and Phenazopyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Manar M; Salim, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two analytical approaches were exploited for the resolution of binary mixtures of ciprofloxacin HCl (CIP) or norfloxacin (NOR) and phenazopyridine HCl (PHZ). In the first approach, the amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra were measured at 267 or 287 nm for CIP and at 268 or 291 nm for NOR. PHZ could be directly determined in the presence of CIP or NOR at 405 nm. The calibration graphs were rectilinear over the ranges of 1.0-16.0 µg/mL for CIP or NOR and 1.0-10.0 µg/mL for PHZ. In the second approach, an accurate, reliable and environmentally nontoxic micellar liquid chromatographic (MLC) method was developed. A good chromatographic separation was achieved using a 150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size Spherisorb ODS-2 column. Eco-friendly mobile phase containing 0.12 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 0.3% triethylamine and 6%n-butanol in 0.02 M orthophosphoric acid of pH 3.0 was pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Time programmed UV-detection was applied to allow sensitive determination of the studied drugs. The analytes were eluted without interferences in <10 min. Methocarbamol was used as an internal standard. The MLC method was found to be rectilinear over the concentration range of 0.5-20.0 μg/mL for CIP, NOR or PHZ. These optimized and validated methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of the studied drugs in their synthetic mixtures and co-formulated tablets. Moreover, the second method was further extended to the determination of these drugs in human urine with direct injection and without any pretreatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Derivative Quotient Spectrophotometry and an Eco-Friendly Micellar Chromatographic Approach with Time-Programmed UV-Detection for the Separation of Two Fluoroquinolones and Phenazopyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Manar M.; Salim, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two analytical approaches were exploited for the resolution of binary mixtures of ciprofloxacin HCl (CIP) or norfloxacin (NOR) and phenazopyridine HCl (PHZ). In the first approach, the amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra were measured at 267 or 287 nm for CIP and at 268 or 291 nm for NOR. PHZ could be directly determined in the presence of CIP or NOR at 405 nm. The calibration graphs were rectilinear over the ranges of 1.0–16.0 µg/mL for CIP or NOR and 1.0–10.0 µg/mL for PHZ. In the second approach, an accurate, reliable and environmentally nontoxic micellar liquid chromatographic (MLC) method was developed. A good chromatographic separation was achieved using a 150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size Spherisorb ODS-2 column. Eco-friendly mobile phase containing 0.12 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 0.3% triethylamine and 6% n-butanol in 0.02 M orthophosphoric acid of pH 3.0 was pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Time programmed UV-detection was applied to allow sensitive determination of the studied drugs. The analytes were eluted without interferences in <10 min. Methocarbamol was used as an internal standard. The MLC method was found to be rectilinear over the concentration range of 0.5–20.0 μg/mL for CIP, NOR or PHZ. These optimized and validated methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of the studied drugs in their synthetic mixtures and co-formulated tablets. Moreover, the second method was further extended to the determination of these drugs in human urine with direct injection and without any pretreatment. PMID:26867555

  9. Development of analytical method for determination of 1,4-dioxane in cleansing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, M; Obama, T; Ikarashi, Y

    2013-12-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a toxic by-product formed during the synthesis of surfactants used in finished cosmetic products. There are no set permissible levels of toxic impurities in finished cosmetic products in Japan. In this study, we have established a simple and sufficiently precise analytical method to determine the activity of 1,4-dioxane in finished cosmetic cleansing products. This method involves the standard addition approach and headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry without pre-conditioning. Fifteen cleansing products that are sold in the Japanese market, such as shampoo, hand soap, and dishwashing liquid, were analyzed, and 1,4-dioxane was detected at a concentration of a few micrograms per gram of the product in almost all of them. The concentration of 1,4-dioxane in two dishwashing liquid products was high. The maximum concentration of 1,4-dioxane in all of the cleansing products was below 10 μg g(-1) , which is a limit that is thought to be safe and technically achievable through the application of good manufacturing practices. Since 1,4-dioxane is formed during the synthesis of polyoxyethylene ether sulfate, it was detected at high concentrations in cleansing products that contained a lot of polyoxyethylene ether sulfate. Control of the synthesis of polyoxyethylene ether sulfate can be effective in reducing the concentration of 1,4-dioxane in cleansing products. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Army Programs: Army Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-03

    the Energy Program. o Expands the responsibilities of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (para 1-4). o Includes ridesharing as...not been highlighted. Summary. This regulation establishes poli- cies, procedures, and responsibilities for the Army Energy Program. Applicability ...Energy Technology Service (FETS) • 3–13, page 6 Energy Surveys • 3–14, page 6 Army Energy Awareness Seminars • 3–15, page 6 Army ridesharing • 3–16

  11. Asymmetric radiation-induced inclusion polymerization of 3-methyl-1,4-pentadiene in deoxycholic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Osservatorio di Astrofisica di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); Ursini, Ornella; Angelini, Giancarlo [Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR, Via Salaria Km. 29300 00016 Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The radiation-induced polymerization of 3-methyl-1,3-pentadiene (3MPD) as an inclusion complex in deoxycholic acid (DOCA) has produced in good yield the optically active polymer poly(3-methyl-1,4-pentadiene) (P3MPD) whose structure and properties were studied by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA). The data show that the polymer is essentially trans-1,4-P3MPD as expected for the polymerization in constrained media. Trans-1,4-P3MPD is optically active with [alpha]{sub D} values comprised between +4.3 and +5.6. The optical rotatory dispersion curve of the P3MPD is completely different from that of DOCA as expected.

  12. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues—Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velena, Astrida; Zarkovic, Neven; Gall Troselj, Koraljka; Bisenieks, Egils; Krauze, Aivars; Poikans, Janis; Duburs, Gunars

    2016-01-01

    Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS) and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA). Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL), mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry. PMID:26881016

  13. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues—Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrida Velena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA. Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL, mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry.

  14. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues-Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velena, Astrida; Zarkovic, Neven; Gall Troselj, Koraljka; Bisenieks, Egils; Krauze, Aivars; Poikans, Janis; Duburs, Gunars

    2016-01-01

    Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS) and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA). Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL), mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry.

  15. SINTESIS TURUNAN ASETOFENON DARI 1-(4-ASETOKSIFENIL-3-METOKSI-2-PROPANIL FORMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Synthesis of acetophenone derivative from 1-(4-acetoxyphenyl- 3-methoxy-2-propanyl formate through Fries Rearrangement in order to produce ortho hidroxy acetophenone derivative as starting material of Flavanoid compound has been done. The reaction of 1-(4-acetoxyphenyl-3-methoxy-2-propanyl formate was done by heating at 120 °C for 3 hours under AlCl3, dichloromethane as the catalyst and solvent, respectively. The structure of the compound was identified using Infra Red spectrometry (IR dan GC-MS. Fries rearrangement of 1-(4-acetoxyphenil-3- methoxy-2-propanyl formate produce 1-(2-hyidroxy-3-methoxy-5-propenyl- acetophenone and 1-(2-hyidroxy-3-methoxy-5-propanyl-acetophenone as side product with product rendemen were 43.26% and 9.48%, respectively.

  16. SYNTHESIS OF HALOGEN DERIVATIVES OF N-ARYLAMINOCARBONYL-1,4-BENZOQUINONE MONOIMINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Konovalova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrohalogenation of N-arylaminocarbonyl-1,4-benzoquinone monoimines is optimal method to obtain the halogenated derivatives. This method allows obtaining the pure products in high yield with a halogen atom in the aminophenol ring. The bromination of N-arylaminocarbonyl-1,4-benzoquinone monoimines and their reduced forms allows obtaining of individual products only in several cases. The bromination allows synthesizing of products with a halogen atom not only in the aminophenol ring, but in the aryl moiety too. As a result of the experiment we have found the optimal conditions to synthesis the N-arylaminocarbonyl-1,4-benzoquinone monoimine derivatives containing halogen atom. The bromination and hydrohalogenation products with one free ortho-position toward to the imine carbon atom of the quinoid ring can be used as synthons in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds – 1,3-benzoxazole derivatives.

  17. Recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Theobroma cacao impairs Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Dahyana Santos; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Dos Santos, Tassiara Pereira; Pungartnik, Cristina; Cascardo, Júlio Cezar M; Micheli, Fabienne; Gesteira, Abelmon S

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we identified a gene from Theobroma cacao L. genome and cDNA libraries, named TcGlu2, that encodes a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The TcGlu2 ORF was 720 bp in length and encoded a polypeptide of 239 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.58 kDa. TcGlu2 contains a conserved domain characteristic of β-1,3-1,4-glucanases and presented high protein identity with β-1,3-1,4-glucanases from other plant species. Molecular modeling of TcGlu2 showed an active site of 13 amino acids typical of glucanase with β-1,3 and 1,4 action mode. The recombinant cDNA TcGlu2 obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and whose sequence was confirmed by mass spectrometry, has a molecular mass of about 22 kDa (with His-Tag) and showed antifungal activity against the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the witches' broom disease in cacao. The integrity of the hyphae membranes of M. perniciosa, incubated with protein TcGlu2, was analyzed with propidium iodide. After 1 h of incubation, a strong fluorescence emitted by the hyphae indicating the hydrolysis of the membrane by TcGlu2, was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a cacao β-1,3-1,4-glucanase expression in heterologous system and the first analysis showing the antifungal activity of a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase, in particular against M. perniciosa.

  18. Calmodulin Is a Functional Regulator of Cav1.4 L-type Ca2+ Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessmeier, Kristina; Cuny, Hartmut; Rötzer, Katrin; Griesbeck, Oliver; Harz, Hartmann; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Cav1.4 channels are unique among the high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel family because they completely lack Ca2+-dependent inactivation and display very slow voltage-dependent inactivation. Both properties are of crucial importance in ribbon synapses of retinal photoreceptors and bipolar cells, where sustained Ca2+ influx through Cav1.4 channels is required to couple slow graded changes of the membrane potential with tonic glutamate release. Loss of Cav1.4 function causes severe impairment of retinal circuitry function and has been linked to night blindness in humans and mice. Recently, an inhibitory domain (ICDI: inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation) in the C-terminal tail of Cav1.4 has been discovered that eliminates Ca2+-dependent inactivation by binding to upstream regulatory motifs within the proximal C terminus. The mechanism underlying the action of ICDI is unclear. It was proposed that ICDI competitively displaces the Ca2+ sensor calmodulin. Alternatively, the ICDI domain and calmodulin may bind to different portions of the C terminus and act independently of each other. In the present study, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments with genetically engineered cyan fluorescent protein variants to address this issue. Our data indicate that calmodulin is preassociated with the C terminus of Cav1.4 but may be tethered in a different steric orientation as compared with other Ca2+ channels. We also find that calmodulin is important for Cav1.4 function because it increases current density and slows down voltage-dependent inactivation. Our data show that the ICDI domain selectively abolishes Ca2+-dependent inactivation, whereas it does not interfere with other calmodulin effects. PMID:19717559

  19. Calmodulin is a functional regulator of Cav1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessmeier, Kristina; Cuny, Hartmut; Rötzer, Katrin; Griesbeck, Oliver; Harz, Hartmann; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian

    2009-10-23

    Cav1.4 channels are unique among the high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel family because they completely lack Ca2+-dependent inactivation and display very slow voltage-dependent inactivation. Both properties are of crucial importance in ribbon synapses of retinal photoreceptors and bipolar cells, where sustained Ca2+ influx through Cav1.4 channels is required to couple slow graded changes of the membrane potential with tonic glutamate release. Loss of Cav1.4 function causes severe impairment of retinal circuitry function and has been linked to night blindness in humans and mice. Recently, an inhibitory domain (ICDI: inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation) in the C-terminal tail of Cav1.4 has been discovered that eliminates Ca2+-dependent inactivation by binding to upstream regulatory motifs within the proximal C terminus. The mechanism underlying the action of ICDI is unclear. It was proposed that ICDI competitively displaces the Ca2+ sensor calmodulin. Alternatively, the ICDI domain and calmodulin may bind to different portions of the C terminus and act independently of each other. In the present study, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments with genetically engineered cyan fluorescent protein variants to address this issue. Our data indicate that calmodulin is preassociated with the C terminus of Cav1.4 but may be tethered in a different steric orientation as compared with other Ca2+ channels. We also find that calmodulin is important for Cav1.4 function because it increases current density and slows down voltage-dependent inactivation. Our data show that the ICDI domain selectively abolishes Ca2+-dependent inactivation, whereas it does not interfere with other calmodulin effects.

  20. p21(CIP1/WAF1)-dependent inhibition of cardiac hypertrophy in response to Angiotensin II involves Akt/Myc and pRb signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Ludger; Grothe, Daniela; Billia, Filio

    2016-09-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1) (p21) is highly expressed in the adult heart. However, in response to stress, its expression is downregulated. Therefore, we investigated the role of p21 in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophic growth. At 2 months of age, p21 knockout mice (p21KO) lack an overt cardiac phenotype. In contrast, by 10 months of age, p21KO developed age-dependent cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. After 3 weeks of trans-aortic banding (TAB), the heart/body weight ratio in 11 week old p21KO mice increased by 57%, as compared to 42% in wild type mice indicating that p21KO have a higher susceptibility to pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We then chronically infused 8 week old wild type mice with Angiotensin II (2.0mg/kg/min) or saline subcutaneously by osmotic pumps for 14 days. Recombinant TAT conjugated p21 protein variants (10mg/kg body weight) or saline were intraperitoneally injected once daily for 14 days into Angiotensin II and saline-infused animals. Angiotensin II treated mice developed pathological cardiac hypertrophy with an average increase of 38% in heart/body weight ratios, as compared to saline-treated controls. Reconstitution of p21 function by TAT.p21 protein transduction prevented Angiotensin II-dependent development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Taken together, our genetic and biochemical data show an important function of p21 in the regulation of growth-related processes in the heart. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EZH2 promotes colorectal cancer stem-like cell expansion by activating p21cip1-Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Fang; Luo, Xi; Xiang, Li-Sha; Li, Hong-Tao; Zha, Lin; Li, Ni; He, Jian-Ming; Xie, Gan-Feng; Xie, Xiong; Liang, Hou-Jie

    2016-07-05

    Because colorectal cancer (CRC) stem-like cells (CCS-like cells) contribute to poor patient prognosis, these cells are a potential target for CRC therapy. However, the mechanism underlying the maintenance of CCS-like cell properties remains unclear. Here, we found that patients with advanced stage CRC expressed high levels of polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2). High expression of EZH2 in tumor tissues correlated with poor patient prognosis. Conversely, silencing EZH2 reduced CRC cell proliferation. Surprisingly, EZH2 was more highly expressed in the CCS-like cell subpopulation than in the non-CCS-like cell subpopulation. EZH2 knockdown significantly reduced the CD133+/CD44+ subpopulation, suppressed mammosphere formation, and decreased the expression of self-renewal-related genes and strongly impaired tumor-initiating capacity in a re-implantation mouse model. Gene expression data from 433 human CRC specimens from TCGA database and in vitro results revealed that EZH2 helped maintain CCS-like cell properties by activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. We further revealed that p21cip1-mediated arrest of the cell cycle at G1/S phase is required for EZH2 activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Moreover, the specific EZH2 inhibitor EPZ-6438, a clinical trial drug, prevented CRC progression. Collectively, these findings revealed EZH2 maintaining CCS-like cell characteristics by arresting the cell cycle at the G1/S phase. These results indicate a new approach to CRC therapy.

  2. p21(WAF1/CIP1 upregulation through the stress granule-associated protein CUGBP1 confers resistance to bortezomib-mediated apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gareau

    Full Text Available p21(WAF1/CIP1 is a well known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor induced by various stress stimuli. Depending on the stress applied, p21 upregulation can either promote apoptosis or prevent against apoptotic injury. The stress-mediated induction of p21 involves not only its transcriptional activation but also its posttranscriptional regulation, mainly through stabilization of p21 mRNA levels. We have previously reported that the proteasome inhibitor MG132 induces the stabilization of p21 mRNA, which correlates with the formation of cytoplasmic RNA stress granules. The mechanism underlying p21 mRNA stabilization, however, remains unknown.We identified the stress granules component CUGBP1 as a factor required for p21 mRNA stabilization following treatment with bortezomib ( =  PS-341/Velcade. This peptide boronate inhibitor of the 26S proteasome is very efficient for the treatment of myelomas and other hematological tumors. However, solid tumors are sometimes refractory to bortezomib treatment. We found that depleting CUGBP1 in cancer cells prevents bortezomib-mediated p21 upregulation. FISH experiments combined to mRNA stability assays show that this effect is largely due to a mistargeting of p21 mRNA in stress granules leading to its degradation. Altering the expression of p21 itself, either by depleting CUGBP1 or p21, promotes bortezomib-mediated apoptosis.We propose that one key mechanism by which apoptosis is inhibited upon treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs might involve upregulation of the p21 protein through CUGBP1.

  3. The long noncoding RNA HOTAIR contributes to cisplatin resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via downregualtion of p21(WAF1/CIP1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Liu

    Full Text Available HOTAIR, a long intervening non-coding RNA (lincRNA, associates with the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 and is reported to reprogram chromatin organization and promote tumor progression. However, little is known about the roles of this gene in the development of chemoresistance phenotype of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD. Thus, we investigated the involvement of HOTAIR in the resistance of LAD cells to cisplatin. In this study, we show that HOTAIR expression was significantly upregulated in cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells compared with in parental A549 cells. Knockdown of HOTAIR by RNA interference could resensitize the responses of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, overexpression of HOTAIR could decrease the sensitivity of A549 and SPC-A1 cells to cisplatin. We also found that the siRNA/HOTAIR1-mediated chemosensivity enhancement was associated with inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis enhancement through regulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1 (p21 expression. Also, pcDNA/p21or siRNA/p21 could mimic the effects of siRNA/HOTAIR1 or pcDNA/HOTAIR on the sensitivity of LAD cells to cisplatin. Importantly, siRNA/p21 or pcDNA/p21 could partially rescue the effects of siRNA/HOTAIR1 or pcDNA/HOTAIR on both p21 expression and cisplatin sensitivity in LAD cells. Further, HOTAIR was observed to be significantly downregulated in cisplatin-responding LAD tissues, and its expression was inversely correlated with p21 mRNA expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that upregulation of HOTAIR contributes to the cisplatin resistance of LAD cells, at least in part, through the regulation of p21 expression.

  4. The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in Serbian population

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Valentina; Gvozdenov Maja; Pruner Iva; Tomić Branko; Kovač Mirjana; Antonijević Nebojša; Radojković Dragica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has a major role in inhibition of firinolysis and normal haemostasis. The presence of the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype leads to increased expression of PAI-1. High blood level of PAI-1 is associated with many diseases such as thrombosis, cerebral insult, myocardial infarction, pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and asthma. In this study, the prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant was determined in he...

  5. Simple synthesis, structure and ab initio study of 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-diones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi, Khosrow; Aryan, Reza; Mehrdad, Morteza; Lügger, Thomas; Ekkehardt Hahn, F.; Ng, Seik Weng

    2004-04-01

    A simple procedure for the synthesis of pyrido[2,1-c][1,4] benzodiazepine-6,12-dione ( 1) and 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-diones ( 2a- 2d), using microwave irradiation and/or conventional heating is reported. The configuration of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. A detailed ab initio B3LYP/6-31G* calculation of structural parameters and substituent effects on ring inversion barriers (Δ G#) and also free energy differences (Δ G0) for benzodiazepines are reported.

  6. Study of the complexation of oxacillin in 1-(4-Carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon Stefan; Ficker, Mario; Petersen, Johannes Fabritius

    2013-01-01

    The complexation of oxacillin to three generations of 1-(4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers was studied with NMR in CD3OD and CDCl3. The stochiometries, which were determined from Job plots, were found to be both solvent- and generation-dependent. The dissociation constants (Kd......) and Gibbs energies for complexation of oxacillin into the 1-(4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimer hosts were determined by (1)H NMR titrations and showed weaker binding of oxacillin upon increasing the size (generation) of the dendrimer....

  7. Crystal Structures of Two 1,4-Diamino-1,2,4-triazolium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Laus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bis(1,4-diamino-1,2,4-triazolium sulfate (1 was obtained from the corresponding chloride by ion metathesis using Ag2SO4. Further metathesis with barium 5,5′-azotetrazolate yielded bis(1,4-diamino-1,2,4-triazolium 5,5′-azotetrazolate (2. Numerous NH···N and NH···O interactions were identified in the crystal structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds undergo exothermal decomposition upon heating.

  8. Synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Silva do Nascimento

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones are known according to their important bio-activities, such as their antitumoral and topoisomerase inhibition properties. From 2-azido (3 or 2,3-diacetylene-1,4-naphthoquinone (4 it was possible to obtain triazole derivatives (naphthoquinonic. This work describes the synthesis of two novel molecules, with triazole groups linked to 1,4-naphthoquinone using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions. The synthetic strategy followed two routes (Scheme 1. First, we synthesized the 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (2, yield 98% by using Br2 and CH3CO2H, and then used it to obtain 2-azido-1,4-naphthoquinone (3, yield 62% from compound 1, along with ethanolic solution (reflux and NaN3. Finally, we prepared 1,2,3-triazole compounds (4a, b by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, involving compound (3 and terminal acetylenes (phenylacetylene, a and glycoside (b using Cu(OAc2 and ascorbate, under argon atmosphere. During the second step, 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone was prepared using Br2/CH2Cl2 at room temperature. From compound (5 it was possible to synthesize (6, catalyzed by Pd(PPh32Cl2/CuI/Et3N, under argon atmosphere, in 40% yield. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions involving 2-azido-1,4-naphthoquinone (3 and alkynes (a, yield 23% and b, yield 30% were conducted using the solvent system, (1:1 terc-BuOH/H2O/r.t/ 20 mol% of Cu(OAc2 and sodium ascorbate, under stirring during 24 hours. The reaction involving 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (5, yield 65% and phenylacetylene was prepared using the solvent mixture (2:1 DMSO/CHCl3 and catalytic amount of CuI/Pd(PPh32Cl2. The final products were characterized by elemental analysis and spectrometric techniques (IR, NMR 1H and 13C. Two novel triazole compounds were synthesized from naphthoquinones by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition from suitable 1,4-naphthoquinones obtained by Sonogashira couplings.

  9. Anaerobic transformation of 1,4-Tyrosol to 4-Hydoxyphenylacetate by Desulfovibrio Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamkh, F.; El Bakouchi, I.; Ouazzani, N.; Said Eddarir, S.; Bennisse, R.; Qatibi, A. I.

    2009-07-01

    1,4 Tyrosol (4-hydroxyphenylethanol) is a phenolic compound that is typically found in olive oil, olive brine, and olive oil mill wastewaters. Its anaerobic transformation was investigated in Desulfovibrio strain EMSSDQT (chamkh et al., 2008) and Desulgovibrio alcoholivorans (Qatibi et al., 1991) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance ( {sup 1}3C-NMR) as analysis technic. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the transformation of 1,4-tyrosol to 4-hydroxyphenylacetate (PHPA) by Desulfovibrio sp in anoxic conditions. (Author)

  10. In Situ Treatment and Management Strategies for 1,4-Dioxane-Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    biostimulation using the metagenome analysis. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 302: 144- 150. Kim, Y.M.; Jeon, J.R.; Murugesan, K.; Kim, E.J.; Chang , Y. S...FINAL REPORT In Situ Treatment and Management Strategies for 1,4-Dioxane- Contaminated Groundwater SERDP Project ER-2307 MAY 2017 Dr. David...REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 08/13/2013-06/30/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In Situ Treatment and Management Strategies for 1,4

  11. Synthesis of carbon-13 and carbon-14 labelled triazolo-1,4-benzodiazepines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.R.; Hawi, A.A.; Digenis, G.A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA). College of Pharmacy)

    1989-04-01

    An efficient two-step synthesis of 8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-(3H)-S-triazolo-(4,3-a)(1,4)-benzodiazepine (alprazolam) and 8-chloro-6-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-(3H)-S-triazolo-(4,3-a)(1,4)-benzodiazepine (triazolam) labelled with carbon-13 or carbon-14 from their corresponding hydrazines is reported. The method involved acylation of the appropriate hydrazine using the mixed carbonic anhydride of sodium ({sup 13}C) or ({sup 14}C) acetate and isobutylchloroformate under mild conditions. Thermolysis of the resulting acetylhydrazides gave the target carbon-14 and carbon-13 labelled compounds in good yields. (author).

  12. A case of withdrawal from the GHB precursors gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneir, A B; Ly, B T; Clark, R F

    2001-07-01

    We describe a case of withdrawal from the gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) precursors gamma butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol. Symptoms included visual hallucinations, tachycardia, tremor, nystagmus, and diaphoresis. Administration of benzodiazepines and phenobarbital successfully treated the withdrawal symptoms. As predicted from the metabolism of gamma butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol to GHB, the symptoms were nearly identical to those reported from GHB withdrawal. Because GHB is now illegal in the United States, individuals have begun abusing the legal and easier to acquire GHB precursors. More frequent cases of both abuse and withdrawal from these GHB precursors can be expected.

  13. POISONING WITH GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE, GAMMA-BUTYROLACTONE AND 1.4-BUTANDIOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB is a popular recreational drug. GHB overdose typically presents with decreased level of consciousness, miosis, bradycardia, respiratory depression and death. Typically, combativeness, confusion and vomiting occur once the patient begins to recover. Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL and 1.4-butandiol (1.4-BD are the prodrugs of GHB and have similar clinical presentation. We present the case of GHB poisoning in Ljubljana.Conclusions. Physicians should suspect GHB poisoning in young ravers who present with CNS depression. Treatment is symptomatic. There is no specific antidote. Gastric lavage is not beneficial but activated charcoal is recommended.

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of substituted 4H-1, 4-benzothiazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Chaucer, Puneet; Kumar, Gulshan; Parihar, Leena

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of substituted benzothiazine was investigated. Antioxidant activity of 3,7-dimethyl-2-(4'-morpholinylcarbonyl)-4H-1,4-benzothiazine was tested by the use of 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical(DPPH). In addition 3,7-dimethyl-2-(4'-morpholinylcarbonyl)-4H-1,4-benzothiazine was examined for its antimicrobial activity against bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, B. flexus, B. alkalophilus, as well as their antifungal activity against Aspergillus nigrum, A. Flexus and show potential antimicrobial activities.

  15. 1-[(4-Chlorophenyl(phenyliminomethyl]-7-methoxy-2-naphthol–1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Yonezawa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title cocrystal, 2C24H18ClNO2·C6H12N2, the 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane molecule is located on a twofold rotation axis and linked to the two triarylimine molecules by O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming a 2:1 aggregate. C—H...Cl interactions are also observed. In the triarylimine molecule, the naphthalene ring system makes dihedral angles of 80.39 (6 and 82.35 (6°, respectively, with the phenyl and benzene rings. The dihedral angle between these two latter rings is 87.09 (7°.

  16. p21Cip1 plays a critical role in the physiological adaptation to fasting through activation of PPARα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Guadamillas, Elena; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Pantoja, Cristina; Muñoz-Martin, Maribel; Martínez, Dolores; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Valverde, Angela M.; Serrano, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Fasting is a physiological stress that elicits well-known metabolic adaptations, however, little is known about the role of stress-responsive tumor suppressors in fasting. Here, we have examined the expression of several tumor suppressors upon fasting in mice. Interestingly, p21 mRNA is uniquely induced in all the tissues tested, particularly in liver and muscle (>10 fold), and this upregulation is independent of p53. Remarkably, in contrast to wild-type mice, p21-null mice become severely morbid after prolonged fasting. The defective adaptation to fasting of p21-null mice is associated to elevated energy expenditure, accelerated depletion of fat stores, and premature activation of protein catabolism in the muscle. Analysis of the liver transcriptome and cell-based assays revealed that the absence of p21 partially impairs the transcriptional program of PPARα, a key regulator of fasting metabolism. Finally, treatment of p21-null mice with a PPARα agonist substantially protects them from their accelerated loss of fat upon fasting. We conclude that p21 plays a relevant role in fasting adaptation through the positive regulation of PPARα. PMID:27721423

  17. Modelling of Deflagration to Detonation Transition in Porous PETN of Density 1.4 g / cc with HERMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaugh, John; Curtis, John; Maheswaran, Mary-Ann

    2017-06-01

    The modelling of Deflagration to Detonation Transition in explosives is a severe challenge for reactive burn models because of the complexity of the physics; there is mechanical and thermal interaction of the gaseous burn products with the burning porous matrix, with resulting compaction, shock formation and subsequent detonation. Experiments on the explosive PETN show a strong dependence of run distance to detonation on porosity. The minimum run distance appears to occur when the density is approximately 1.4 g / cc. Recent research on the High Explosive Response to Mechanical Stimulation (HERMES) model for High Explosive Violent Reaction has included the development of a model for PETN at 1.4 g / cc., which allows the prediction of the run distance in the experiments for PETN at this density. Detonation and retonation waves as seen in the experiment are evident. The HERMES simulations are analysed to help illuminate the physics occurring in the experiments. JER's work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and partially funded by the Joint US DoD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program. LLNL-ABS-723537.

  18. Phenol oxidation through its adduct formation with chromium complex of 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Jayanthi; Guadalupe, Hernández J.; Thangarasu, Pandiyan

    2017-04-01

    Structural and electronic properties of [cis-[Cr(tmpcH)X2]n+ (n = 2 or 4; X = OH-, Cl-, Br- and H2O; tmpcH = 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane were analyzed by DFT and TD-DFT methods. The local reactivity active site of the ligand was determined by the condensed-to atom Fukui indexes (CAFI) f(r). In the study, the axial bond distance with metal ion undergoes a considerable change from shorter to longer as OH Cr(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn (II) with tmpcH, it was found that the bond distance decreases with increasing number of d-electrons in the 3d orbital, suggesting that the over-lapping of oribital (π) from Npy with the metal d-orbital is more effective than those from Ncyclam with metal d-orbital. Therefore, the change of different oxidation states for [cis-[Cr(tmpcH)X2]n+ influences significantly the geometrical and electronic parameters. For cis-[Cr(tmpcH)Cl2]2+ the calculated bands are red shifted except for the lower energy band (595 nm) which agrees qualitatively with the experimental one; in addition, the effect of solvent on the electronic transition was analyzed. Furthermore, we collected the electronic data for several chromium complexes from the literature, and compared with our results by plotting the data against number of chromium compounds. Finally, the phenol oxidation properties of the chromium complexes were studied, and phenol forms an adduct with [Cr(tmpcH)Cl]3+ to yield [Cr(tmpcH)Cl-OPh]2+ which could produce the phenol radical, which is enhanced by the presence of -OCH3 group at para- position in the phenolic ring.

  19. The ubiquitous DOTA and its derivatives: the impact of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid on biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, Graeme J; Long, Nicholas J

    2013-04-07

    Over the last twenty-five years 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) has made a significant impact on the field of diagnostic imaging. DOTA is not the only metal chelate in use in medical diagnostics, but it is the only one to significantly impact on all of the major imaging modalities Magnetic Resonance (MR), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), and Fluorescence imaging. This crossover of modalities has been possible due to the versatility of DOTA firstly, to complex a variety of metal ions and secondly, the ease with which it can be modified for different disease states. This has driven research over the last two decades into the chemistry of DOTA and the modification of the substituent pendant arms of this macrocycle to create functional, targeted and dual-modal imaging agents. The primary use of DOTA has been with the lanthanide series of metals, gadolinium for MRI, europium and terbium for fluorescence and neodymium for near infra-red imaging. There are now many research groups dedicated to the use of lanthanides with DOTA although other chelates such as DTPA and NOTA are being increasingly employed. The ease with which DOTA can be conjugated to peptides has given rise to targeted imaging agents seen in the PET, SPECT and radiotherapy fields. These modalities use a variety of radiometals that complex with DOTA, e.g.(64)Cu and (68)Ga which are used in clinical PET scans, (111)In, and (90)Y for SPECT and radiotherapy. In this article, we will demonstrate the remarkable versatility of DOTA, how it has crossed the imaging modality boundaries and how it has been successfully transferred into the clinic.

  20. N1-arylation of 1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones with diaryliodonium salts

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Raysa; Felix, Robert; Kemmitt, Paul D; Coles, Simon J; Tizzard, Graham J.; Spencer, John

    2017-01-01

    A library of N1-arylated 5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones has been synthesized starting with unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salts using aqueous ammonia as a base. This can also be applied to a similar 1,3,4-benzotriazepin-2-one derivative.

  1. A simple and efficient approach for synthesis of 1,4-dihydro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple highly versatile and efficient synthesis of various 1,4-dihydropyridines in the condensation of aromatic aldehydes with β-dicarbonyl compounds and ammonium acetate in the presence of nano-sulfated zirconia, nano-structured ZnO, nano-γ-alumina and nano-ZSM-5 zeolites, as catalyst in the ethanol at moderate ...

  2. Oxidative ring cleavage of 2,3-dihydrophthalazine-1,4-dione in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fungal,4 vasorelaxant,5 anti-HIV,6 anti-cancer activity,7. PDE3/PDE4 inhibitory agents,8 anti-asthamatic,9 leishmanicidal10 and anti-diabetic have made synthetic studies of the phthalazine ring system attractive over the years. The chemical oxidation of 2,3-dihydrophthalazine-. 1,4-dione and its derivatives has previously ...

  3. Facile route for the regioselective synthesis of 1, 4-disubstituted 1, 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Facile route for the regioselective synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole using copper nanoparticles supported on nanocellulose as recyclable heterogeneous catalyst. MITALI CHETIA ABDUL A ALI ANKUR BORDOLOI DIGANTA SARMA. RAPID COMMUNICATION Volume 129 Issue 8 August 2017 pp 1211-1217 ...

  4. The kinetics of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, R.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Wachem, Pauline B.; van Luyn, Marja J.A.; Hendriks, Marc; Cahalan, Patrick T.; Feijen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Dermal sheep collagen was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) or modified with glycidyl isopropyl ether (PGE). The reduction in amine groups as a function of time was followed to study the overall reaction kinetics of collagen with either BDDGE or PGE. Linearization of the

  5. The kinetics of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, R; Dijkstra, PJ; van Wachem, PB; van Luyn, MJA; Hendriks, M; Cahalan, PT; Feijen, J

    2000-01-01

    Dermal sheep collagen was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) or modified with glycidyl isopropyl ether (PGE). The reduction in amine groups as a function of time was followed to study the overall reaction kinetics of collagen with either BDDGE or PGE;. Linearization of the

  6. 3-Methyltrimethylammonium poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    877. 3-Methyltrimethylammonium poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) based anion exchange membrane for alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells. K HARI GOPI, S ... oxide) are fabricated for their application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs). .... ing, the mixture was precipitated using methanol, washed.

  7. 40 CFR 721.1920 - 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)butane. 721.1920 Section 721.1920 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1920 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane. (a) Chemical substance...-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane (PMN P-93-483) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  8. Poly[bis[μ-1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethylbenzene]dichloridocadmium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinliang Hu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [CdCl2(C14H14N42]n, has a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry, formed by four N atoms from 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethylbenzene ligands and two Cl atoms, giving a two-dimensional network. The Cd atom lies on a centre of inversion.

  9. Synthesis, antimicrobial and antifungal activities of novel 1H-1,4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    thesis of 1,5-benzodiazepines. 16 and phosphonates. 17. We are interested to synthesis pyrazolo [4,3-d] pyrimidine-7-one containing 1,4-diazepines due to pyrazolopyrimidinones are potent and selective inhibitors of type 5 cyclic gaunosine-3′,5′-mono- phosphate phosphodiesterase (CGMP) PDE-5. 18,19 which have ...

  10. Electronic states of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene. A synchrotron radiation linear dichroism investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2012-01-01

    The electronic transitions of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB) were investigated by UV synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy in the range 25,000 – 58,000 cm–1 (400 – 170 nm) on molecular samples aligned in stretched polyethylene. The investigation was supported by variabl...

  11. Click synthesis of 1, 4-disubstituted-1, 2, 3-triazoles catalysed by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A CuO-CeO2 nanocomposite in the presence of amberlite-supported azide has been used for the click synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles in good yields. This catalyst can be reused several times without any significant decrease in the catalytic activity.

  12. Boltorn-Modified Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4,phenylene oxide) Gas Separation Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterescu, D.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Mendes, Eduardo; Kruse, Jan; Rätzke, Klaus; Faupel, Franz; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation, characterization and the permeation properties of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) dense polymer films containing aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters, Boltorn (H20, H30, and H40). The Boltorn are dispersed in PPO at various concentrations. The gas

  13. Chemical consequences of long-range orbital interactions in Perhydronaphtalene-1,4-diol monosulfonate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orru, R.V.A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis the base-induced reactions of perhydronaphthalene-1,4-diol monosulfonate esters are described. These compounds undergo smoothly, typical carbocationic processes upon treatment with sodium tert -amylate in refluxing benzene. The product outcome, product

  14. Intramolecular excimer and exciplex emission of 1,4-dipyrenyl substituted cyclohexasilane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walree, C.A.; Kaats-Richters, V.E.M.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Williams, R.M.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Intramolecular excimer emission is observed for cis-1,4-di(1-pyrenyl)decamethylcyclohexasilane in nonpolar solvents. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and kinetic modelling indicate that the driving force of excimer formation is very small, and that the process is governed by the flexibility

  15. One-pot multi-component synthesis of 1, 4-dihydropyridine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 3. One-pot ... Keywords. Green chemistry; one-pot synthesis; 1,4-dihydropyridines; deep eutectic solvents; recyclability. ... Organic Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Ramnarain Ruia College, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India ...

  16. High molecular weight polyurethanes and a polyurethane urea based on 1,4-butanediisocyanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, CJ; de Groot, JH; Dekens, FG; Pennings, AJ

    New biomedical polyurethanes and a polyurethane urea based on epsilon-caprolactone and 1,4-butanediisocyanate have been developed. On degradation, only non-toxic products are produced. The polyurethane urea with poly(epsilon-caprolactone) soft segments and butanediisocyanate/butanediamine hard

  17. An asymmetric route to 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    An asymmetric route to 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives using ring closing metathesis (RCM). SOUMITRA MAITY and SUBRATA GHOSH*. Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science,. Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 e-mail: ocsg@iacs.res.in. MS received 16 August 2010; ...

  18. Purification and characterization of an endo-1,4-β- glucanase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    4], exo-1 ... Endo-β-1,4-glucanase activity was assayed by incubating 1 ml of the isolated enzyme (suitably diluted) with 1 ml of 1% ..... Extracellular enzyme synthesis in the genus bacillus. Bacteriol. Rev. 41: 711-753. Ryu DDY ...

  19. Teacher-Student Relationship and Peer Disliking and Liking across Grades 1-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung H.

    2016-01-01

    Between-child and within-child effects of teacher-student warmth and conflict on children's peer-nominated disliking and liking across Grades 1-4 (ages 6-10) were investigated in a sample of 746 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children in Texas. Multilevel modeling controlled for time-invariant between-child differences while modeling…

  20. One-pot tandem 1,4-1,2-addition of phosphites to quinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blieck, Ann; Masschelein, Kurt G R; Dhaene, Fréderic; Rozycka-Sokolowska, Ewa; Marciniak, Bernard; Drabowicz, Jozef; Stevens, Christian V

    2010-01-14

    Trialkyl and silylated dialkyl phosphites were evaluated as phosphorus nucleophiles for the addition to quinolines in a strong acidic medium allowing consecutive 1,4- and 1,2-addition breaking up the aromatic stabilisation, thereby leading to 2,4-diphosphono-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines in one single reaction step in moderate to good yields (2-84%).

  1. Borylation of Olefin C-H Bond via Aryl to Vinyl Palladium 1,4-Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian-Jiao; Zhang, Ge; Chen, Ya-Heng; Feng, Chen-Guo; Lin, Guo-Qiang

    2016-03-09

    The aryl to vinyl palladium 1,4-migration was realized for the first time. The generated alkenyl palladium species was trapped by diboron reagents under Miyaura borylation conditions, providing a new method to synthesize β,β-disubstituted vinylboronates. The excellent regioselectivity and broad substrate scope were observed for this novel transformation.

  2. Electrochemical stability and transformations of fluorinated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pud, A.A.; Rogalsky, S.P.; Ghapoval, G.S.; Kharitonov, A.P.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorination of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) leads to narrowing of its window of electrochemical stability in a cathodic range of potentials. It is found this is connected with appearance of both perfluorinated and incompletely fluorinated units in the polymer. The former units are

  3. High-affinity antibodies to the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, K.P.; Sharp, A.; Strom, M.; Kahl, S.D.

    1986-05-01

    Antibodies with high affinity and specificity for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers have been produced in rabbits by immunization with dihydropyridine-protein conjugates. Anti-dihydropyridine antibodies were found to specifically bind (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine, (/sup 3/H)-nimodipine, (/sup 3/H)nisoldipine, and (/sup 3/H)PN 200-110 (all 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers) with high affinity, while (/sup 3/H)verapamil, (/sup 3/H)diltiazem, and (/sup 3/H)trifluoperazine were not recognized. The average dissociation constant of the (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine-antibody complex was 0.06 (+/- 0.02) X 10(-9) M for an antiserum studied in detail and ranged from 0.01 to 0.24 X 10(-9) M for all antisera. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding was specific for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel modifiers and the concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition ranged between 0.25 and 0.90 nM. Structurally unrelated Ca2+-channel blockers, calmodulin antagonists, inactive metabolites of nitrendipine, and UV-inactivated nisoldipine did not modify (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding to the anti-dihydropyridine antibodies. Dihydropyridines without a bulky substituent in the 4-position of the heterocycle were able to displace (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding, but the concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition were greater than 800 nM. In summary, anti-dihydropyridine antibodies have been shown to have high affinity and specificity for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers and to exhibit dihydropyridine binding properties similar to the membrane receptor for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers.

  4. 1,4-Dioxane drinking water occurrence data from the third unregulated contaminant monitoring rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, David T; Piña, Elizabeth A; Cartwright, Abigail E; Rauch, Sharon R; Hunter Anderson, R; Mohr, Thomas; Connor, John A

    2017-10-15

    This study examined data collected from U.S. public drinking water supplies in support of the recently-completed third round of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) to better understand the nature and occurrence of 1,4-dioxane and the basis for establishing drinking water standards. The purpose was to evaluate whether the occurrence data for this emerging but federally-unregulated contaminant fit with common conceptual models, including its persistence and the importance of groundwater contamination for potential exposure. 1,4-Dioxane was detected in samples from 21% of 4864 PWSs, and was in exceedance of the health-based reference concentration (0.35μg/L) at 6.9% of these systems. In both measures, it ranked second among the 28 UCMR3 contaminants. Although much of the focus on 1,4-dioxane has been its role as a groundwater contaminant, the detection frequency for 1,4-dioxane in surface water was only marginally lower than in groundwater (by a factor of 1.25; psurface water (psurface water sources tend to be more dilute. Sampling from large systems increased the likelihood that 1,4-dioxane was detected by a factor of 2.18 times relative to small systems (pwater were highly associated with detections of other chlorinated compounds particularly 1,1-dichlorethane (odds ratio=47; pwater supplies may be decreasing. However, in the interim, some water supply systems may need to consider improving their treatment capabilities in response to further regulatory review of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Installation Restoration Program Stage 3. Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Volume 1. Sections 1-4, Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Black & Veatch 4-24 13833.130 // Begonia -N- Abandoned Dump 0-I Approximate Limits of Site Legend: 0 200 400ft Scale D3-0330 Monitoring Well Location...survey, visual observations were made in the field at all subsurface investigative sites. Black & Veatch 4-25 13833.130 // Begonia Street -N Abandoned...site. The metals detected included aluminum (9410 to 17700 mg/kg), iron (16700 to 33600 Black & Veatch 4-27 13833.130 / / Begonia Street Abandoned

  6. Sistema de información integrado basado en tecnología web para el colegio de ingenieros del Perú - Consejo departamental de Loreto (CIP-CDL) - 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Meléndez Gárate, Rónnier; Loayza Chávez, Ruth Medaly

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo de tesis, es un Sistema de Información Integrado basado en tecnología Web, exclusivamente para el Colegio de Ingenieros del Perú - Consejo Departamental de Loreto (CIP-CDL), con el objetivo de mejorar la gestión de información dela institución. El desarrollo de esta tesis comprende los siguientes capítulos bien definidos: En el Capítulo I, se hace referencia a la problemática encontrada respecto de los procesos observados, los antecedentes de sistemas similares y los están...

  7. [Characterization of β-1, 4-mannanase from Bacillus pumilus and heterologous expression in Lactobacillus casei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yexia; Lin, Jinzhong; Bu, Xuemei; Jiang, Lulu; Chen, Zhengjun; Ge, Xiangyang

    2015-12-04

    Lactobacillus casei is widely used in food production and feed industry. The aim of this study was to construct the recombinant expression mannanase Lb. casei. The mature peptide gene of β-1,4-mannanase from Bacillus pumilus was cloned into expression vectors pELX1 and pELSH, then electroporated into Lb. casei, establishing an intracellular and a secretion expression mannanase Lb. casei respectively. After incubation, the specific activity of β-1,4-mannanase was 23 U/mg whole cell protein for intracellular expression and 8.8 U/mL for secretion expression in supernatant. Mannanase gene expression in Lb. casei provides application prospect and deserves further study.

  8. SM-like Higgs decay into two muons at 1.4 TeV CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, G

    2014-01-01

    The potential for measuring the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson decay into two muons at a 1.4 TeV CLIC e+e− collider is addressed in this paper, that was presented at ICHEP2014. The study is performed in the full Geant4 detector simulations of CLIC_ILD, taking into consideration all the relevant physics and the beam-induced background processes, as well as the instrumentation of the very forward region to tag forward electrons. In this analysis we show that the branching ratio BR(H-->mu+mu-) times the Higgs production cross-section can be measured with 38% statistical accuracy at √s =1.4 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 1.5 ab-1. This study is part of an ongoing comprehensive Higgs physics benchmark study covering various Higgs production processes and decay modes, currently being carried out to estimate the full Higgs physics potential of CLIC.

  9. {sup 14}N NQR study of selected 1,4-benzoquinonedioximes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N., E-mail: nadiabeepath@hotmail.com; Stephenson, D., E-mail: david.stephenson@sta.uwi.edu [University of the West Indies, Chemistry Department (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-04-15

    The {sup 14}N NQR frequencies of selected 1,4-benzoquinonedioximes were measured using cross relaxation double resonance. As the number of substituents increase, a significant shift in the NQR values is observed. Comparison of unsubstituted and tri-substituted 1,4-benzoquinonedioximes shows that the quadrupole coupling constant ({chi}) increases by about 1000 kHz and the asymmetry parameter ({eta}) decreases from Almost-Equal-To 0.7 to 0.3 respectively. Ab-initio calculations show that for the unsubstituted compound hydrogen bonding between oxime groups and pi-ring stacking is possible which cannot be accommodated for in heavily methyl substituted dioximes and this results in distinct NQR parameters.

  10. Crystal structure of (E-1-(4-chlorophenylethanone O-dehydroabietyloxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiang Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C28H34ClNO2 {systematic name: (E-1-(4-chlorophenylethanone O-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carbonyl]oxime}, was synthesized from dehydroabietic acid. In the dehydroabietyl moiety, the central and terminal cyclohexane rings display chair and half-chair conformations, respectively, and a trans-ring junction. The C=N bond is in an E conformation and the C—O—N=C torsion angle is 148.1 (5°. No directional interactions except van der Waals contacts occur in the crystal structure.

  11. Study on the synthesis of dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate by catalytic hydrogenation of dimethyl terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yuanhua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of polymer industry,1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM occupies an important position especially for the synthesis of highly valued polyester products.In industry,CHDM is prepared from dimethyl terephthalate (DMT through a two-step hydrogenation process Palladium supported on magnesium oxide (Pd/MgO was prepared by animpregnation method and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD,transmission electron microscope (TEM and scan electron microscope (SEM.During the hydrogenation of DMT to synthesize dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate (DMCD,the as-prepared Pd/MgO was used as the catalyst with methyl acetate as the solvent.Under optimized reaction conditions (reaction temperature:180 ℃,reaction pressure:4.5 MPa,the conversion of DMT was 100% and the selectivity of DMCD was 99%.Such a catalyst shows a good potential in industrial applications.

  12. Cancer Cell Cytotoxicities of 1-(4-Substitutedbenzoyl-4-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Yarim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 1-(4-substitutedbenzoyl-4-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine derivatives 5ag was designed by a nucleophilic substitution reaction of 1-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine with various benzoyl chlorides and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was demonstrated on cancer cell lines from liver (HUH7, FOCUS, MAHLAVU, HEPG2, HEP3B, breast (MCF7, BT20, T47D, CAMA-1, colon (HCT-116, gastric (KATO-3 and endometrial (MFE-296 cancer cell lines. Time-dependent cytotoxicity analysis of compound 5a indicated the long-term in situ stability of this compound. All compounds showed significant cell growth inhibitory activity on the selected cancer cell lines.

  13. Synthesis of Chiral 1,4-Disubstituted-1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives from Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Grøtli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A versatile method for the synthesis of chiral 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole derivatives starting from easily accessible naturally occurring D-or L-amino acids as chiral synthons is described. The amino acids were converted into azido alcohols, followed by copper catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition reactions between the azido alcohols and methyl propiolate and subsequent ester aminolysis with primary and secondary amines furnished the target compounds, which were obtained in excellent yields with no racemization. Docking of selected target compounds shows that the chiral 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles derivatives has the potential of mimicking the binding mode of known purine analogues.

  14. Novel 1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives with antiproliferative properties on tumor cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Dourlat, Jennifer; Liu, Wang-Qing; Gresh, Nohad; Garbay, Christiane

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Novel 1,4-benzodiazepine compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. Some compounds revealed activities in the micromolar range and were more efficient than reference compound Ro 5-4864. Preliminary SAR helped to identify critical motifs for antiproliferative activity and led to the discovery of a compound selective for a melanoma cell line, known for its resistance to chemotherapy.

  15. 1,3-Di-4-pyridylpropane–2-hydroxybenzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ge Wang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H14N2·2C8H6O5, which crystallized in the monoclinic C2/c space group, the 1,3-bis(4-pyridylpropane molecules and 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid molecules are alternately linked by O—H...N and O—H...O hydrogen bonds into herringbone/zigzag chains.

  16. Operation of a high-purity silicon diode alpha particle detector at 1. 4 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martoff, C.J.; Kaczanowicz, E. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Neuhauser, B.J.; Lopez, E.; Zhang, Y. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (USA)); Ziemba, F.P. (Quantrad Corp. (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Detection of alpha particles at temperatures as low as 1.4 K was demonstrated using a specially fabricated Si diode. The diode was 475 mm{sup 2} by 0.280 mm thick, fabricated from high-purity silicon with degenerately doped contacts. This is an important step toward development of dual-mode (ionization plus phonon) silicon detectors for low energy radiation. (orig.).

  17. Synthesis, Anticonvulsant, Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities of Novel Annulated Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines

    OpenAIRE

    Sorra, Kumaraswamy; Chen, Chien-Shu; Chang, Chi-Fen; Pusuluri, Srinivas; Mukkanti, Khagga; Wu, Chi-Rei; Chuang, Ta-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Four new pentacyclic benzodiazepine derivatives (PBDTs 13–16) were synthesized by conventional thermal heating and microwave-assisted intramolecular cyclocondensation. Their anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic activities were evaluated by drug-induced convulsion models, a pentobarbital-induced hypnotic model and an elevated plus maze in mice. PBDT 13, a triazolopyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepin-8-one fused with a thiadiazolone ring, exhibited the best anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolyti...

  18. Pseudocapacitance and excellent cyclability of 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone on graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boota, Muhammad [A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Drexel University; Philadelphia; USA; Chen, Chi [A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Drexel University; Philadelphia; USA; School of Optical and Electronic Information; Bécuwe, Matthieu [Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides (LRCS); UMR CNRS 7314; Université de Picardie Jules Verne (UPJV); 80039 Amiens; France; Miao, Ling [School of Optical and Electronic Information; Huazhong University of Science and Technology; Wuhan; People' s Republic of China; Gogotsi, Yury [A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Drexel University; Philadelphia; USA

    2016-01-01

    Non-covalent functionalization of 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hydroquinone on reduced graphene oxide sheets led to the formation of a redox-active three-dimensional gel architectureviaa one-step hydrothermal method, where the former exhibited high gravimetric and volumetric capacitance and 99% capacitance retention after 25000 cycles at 50 mV s-1.

  19. Probing the Mechanism of 1,4-Conjugate Elimination Reactions Catalyzed by Terpene Synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Faraldos, Juan A.; Gonzalez, Veronica; Li, Amang; Yu, Fanglei; Köksal, Mustafa; Christianson, David W.; Allemann, Rudolf K.

    2012-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of (E)-β-farnesene synthase (EBFS) and isoprene synthase (ISPS), enzymes that catalyze a formal regioespecific 1,4-conjugate elimination of hydrogen-diphosphate from (E, E)-farnesyl and dimethylallyl diphosphate (FDP and DMADP) to generate the semiochemicals (E)-β-farnesene and isoprene, respectively, were probed with substrate analogs and kinetic measurements. The results support stepwise reaction mechanisms through analogous enzyme-bound allylic cationic intermediate...

  20. Synthesis, anticancer activity and QSAR study of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Pingaew, Ratchanok; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-09-12

    A series of 2-substituted amino-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (3-12) were synthesized as anticancer agents and tested against four cancer cell lines including HepG2, HuCCA-1, A549 and MOLT-3. The most potent cytotoxic activity against the HepG2, HuCCA-1 and A549 cell lines was found to be m-acetylphenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone (8) affording IC50 values of 4.758, 2.364 and 12.279 μM, respectively. On the other hand, p-acetylphenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone (9) exhibited the most potent cytotoxic activity against the MOLT-3 cell line with an IC50 of 2.118 μM. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) investigations provided good predictive performance as observed from cross-validated R of 0.9177-0.9753 and RMSE of 0.0614-0.1881. The effects of substituents at the 2-amino position on the naphthoquinone core structure and its corresponding influence on the cytotoxic activity were investigated by virtually constructing additional 1,4-naphthoquinone compounds (13-36) for which cytotoxic activities were predicted using equations obtained from the previously constructed QSAR models. Interpretation of informative descriptors from QSAR models revealed pertinent knowledge on physicochemical properties governing the cytotoxic activities of tested cancer cell lines. It is anticipated that the QSAR models developed herein could provide guidelines for further development of novel and potent anticancer agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. 1-Cyanomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridomanganate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, (C8H15N3[MnCl4], the Mn atom is coordinated by four chloride ligands in a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. Each [MnCl4]2− anion is connected to the 1-cyanomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dications by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming chains parallel to [001].

  2. 1-Bromomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridozincate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ping Shi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 1-bromomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide, zinc chloride and hydrochloric acid in water yields the title compound, (C7H15BrN2[ZnCl4]. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. The ZnII atom has an approximately tetrahedral coordination geometry.

  3. 1-Cyanomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridocadmate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Han Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, (C8H15N3[CdCl4], four Cl atoms coordinate the CdII atom in a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal, each [CdCl4]2− anion is connected to the 1-cyanomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dications by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming chains parallel to [001]. C—H...Cl interactions also occur.

  4. NuSTAR Observation of the Symbiotic System GX 1+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Enoto, Teruaki; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wood, Kent

    2017-08-01

    We report on a NuSTAR observation of the symbiotic binary system GX 1+4. GX 1+4 is one of a small number of systems with a red giant mass donor and a magnetic neutron star in orbit around each other. The accreting pulsar in GX 1+4 has a spin period of ~150 seconds with epochs of both spin-up and spin-down. The orbital period that has not been determined. Magnetic accretion theory in such systems suggests that the neutron star has a magnetic field in the range 1013-1014 Gauss although this is not settled because no cyclotron absorption feature has been observed in the X-ray spectrum. The NuSTAR spectrum shows broad Fe-line emission near ~6.5 keV and also shows a broad power law shape detected up to ~60 keV. We analyze and discuss the NuSTAR X-ray data with particular attention to the question of what can the spectrum tell us about the structure of the accretion flow onto the neutron star and the magnetic field strength.

  5. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2,5-Bis(alkylamino-1,4-benzoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Pessoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of twelve 2,5-bis(alkylamino-1,4-benzoquinones were prepared in yields ranging from 9–58% via the reaction between p-benzoquinone and various amines. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and MS analyses. The phytotoxicity of the 2,5-bis(alkylamino-1,4-benzoquinones was evaluated against two crop species, Cucumis sativus and Sorgum bicolor, at 1.0 × 10-3 mol/L. In general, the quinones displayed inhibitory effects on the dicotyledonous species C. sativus (7–74%. On the other hand stimulatory effects were observed on S. bicolor (monocotyledonous. Similar results were observed in the biological assays carried out with the weed species Ipomoea grandifolia (dicotyledonous and Brachiaria decumbens (monocotyledonous. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the 2,5-bis(alkylamino-1,4-benzoquinones was assayed against HL-60 (leukemia, MDA-MB-435 (melanoma, SF-295 (brain and HCT-8 (colon human cancer cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, as representatives of healthy cells, using a MTT and an Alamar Blue assay. Compound 12 was the most active, displaying cytotoxicity against all cancer cell lines tested.

  6. Thermal and structural study on the lattice compound 1,4-diammoniumbutane bis(theophyllinate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Margit; Madarasz, Janos; Bombicz, Petra; Pokol, Gyoergy; Gal, Sandor

    2004-10-01

    Crystalline title compound (1) prepared from aqueous solution of theophylline and 1,4-diaminobutane has been structurally and thermally characterized. Both the two-step TG decomposition curve and elemental analysis of the hexagonal crystals show that it consists of theophylline and 1,4-diaminobutane in 2:1 molar ratio. Actually, presence of one type of both theophyllinate anions and 1,4-diammoniumbutane dication have been indicated by FTIR spectroscopy. The molecular structure of lattice compound (1) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, where the hydrogen positions have been obtained from differential Fourier maps. It has confirmed that the crystal is really built up from these ionic constituents bound together with an extensive net of hydrogen bonds. The coupled TG-FTIR analysis of the evolved gases has revealed that the diamine is released as a whole molecule in the first decomposition step. Clathrate 1 and the proton migration in it might serve as a structural model of solid aminophylline whose crystal structure is still unknown.

  7. Molluscicidal activity of 2-hydroxy-[1,4]naphthoquinone and derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Camara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic profile of lawsone (2-hydroxy-[1,4]naphthoquinone and a series of [1,4]naphthoquinone derivatives was evaluated against the brine shrimp Artemia salina and against the mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata, the main transmitting vector of schistosomiasis in Brazil. Of the seventeen compounds tested nine fell below the threshold of 100 µg/mL set for potential molluscicidal activity by the World Health Organization. As a general rule derivatives with non-polar substituents presented the highest molluscicidal activities. These substances showed significant toxicity in A. salina lethality bioassay.A toxicidade da lausona (2-hidroxi-1,4-naftoquinona e de diversos derivados foi avaliada frente à Artemia salina e ao molusco Biomphalaria glabrata, o principal vetor de transmissão da esquistossomose no Brasil. Entre os dezessete compostos testados, nove apresentaram um perfil de toxicidade menor que 100 µg/mL, sendo potenciais agentes moluscicidas de acordo com as designações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. No presente estudo, os compostos contendo substituintes apolares exibiram as maiores atividades. Estes compostos também se mostraram significantemente tóxicos frente à A. salina.

  8. Identification of an endo-1,4-beta-xylanase of Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Elena; Wierckx, Nick; Zimmermann, Martin; Blank, Lars M

    2013-07-26

    The utilization of raw biomass components such as cellulose or hemicellulose for the production of valuable chemicals has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. One promising approach is the application of microorganisms that naturally convert biomass constituents into value added chemicals. One of these organisms--Ustilago maydis--can grow on xylan, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, while at the same time it produces chemicals of biotechnological interest. In this study, we present the identification of an endo-1,4-beta xylanase responsible for xylan degradation. Xylanase activity of U. maydis cells was indirectly detected by the quantification of released reducing sugars and could be confirmed by visualizing oligosaccharides as degradation products of xylan by thin layer chromatography. A putative endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, encoded by um06350.1, was identified in the supernatant of xylan-grown cells. To confirm the activity, we displayed the putative xylanase on the surface of the xylanase negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100. The presented enzyme converted xylan to xylotriose, similar to the source organism U. maydis. The xylan degradation ability together with its unicellular and yeast-like growth makes U. maydis MB215 a promising candidate for the production of valuable chemicals such as itaconic acid or glycolipids from lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, the characterization of the endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, encoded by um06350.1, is a further step towards the biotechnological application of U. maydis and its enzymes.

  9. Selective expression of aquaporin 1, 4 and 5 in the rat middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, S; Kobayashi, H; Yamashita, A; Yanagita, T; Uezono, Y; Yokoo, H; Shiraishi, S; Saitoh, T; Asada, Y; Komune, S; Wada, A

    2001-08-01

    The middle ear cavity is an air-filled space that must be maintained for effective sound transmission to the inner ear. To examine the mechanisms of water homeostasis in the middle ear, we investigated whether aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water-permeable channels, were expressed in the middle ear. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses revealed that mRNAs encoding AQP1, 4 and 5 (but not 2 or 3) subtypes were expressed in rat middle ear epithelium; AQP1, 4 and 5 were detected as 28-, 30- and 30-kDa proteins, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that AQP1 was localized at capillary endothelial cells and fibroblasts in lamina propria mucosae; AQP4 was present solely at the basolateral membrane of ciliated cells, whereas AQP5 was on the apical surface of ciliated cells as well as of flat and columnar epithelial cells. The characteristic different localizations of AQP1, 4 and 5 subtypes in the middle ear suggest that middle ear water homeostasis requires the coordinated operation of these AQPs.

  10. Spectroscopic investigations on the orientation of 1,4-dibromonaphthalene on silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, K; Umadevi, M; Sathe, G V; Erenler, R

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been prepared by solution combustion method with glycine as fuel. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The prepared silver nanoparticles exhibit cubic crystalline structure with grain size of 59 nm. HRTEM image shows that the silver nanoparticles have strain and four-fold symmetry formed by twinning in the crystal structure. The optical adsorption spectrum shows that the surface plasmon resonance peak of silver is observed at 380 nm. The orientation of 1,4-dibromonaphthlaene (1,4-DBrN) on silver nanoparticles has been inferred from nRs and SERS spectral features. The absence of a C-H stretching vibrations, the observed high intense C-H out-of-plane bending modes and high intense C-Br stretching vibration suggest that the 1,4-DBrN molecule may be adsorbed in a 'stand-on' orientation to the surface. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luqian; Huang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies were performed to assess the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. In the present study, the possible association was investigated by a meta-analysis. Eligible articles were identified for the period up to June 2013. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were appropriately derived from random-effects models or fixed-effects models. Fourteen case-control studies with a total of 2487 cases and 3538 controls were eligible. In recessive model, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was associated with T2DM risk (OR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.07-1.41; P = 0.004). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant association was found among Asians (OR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.08-1.51; P = 0.005). This meta-analysis suggested that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may be associated with T2DM development. PMID:24040470

  12. D 1.4.1. Review of Scientific Literature on Performance, Innovation and Management of Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van R.L.M.; Immink, V.M.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the Work package 1.4 INNOCHAIN (WP1.4) of ISAfruit is to develop a conceptual framework of the mechanisms underlying supply chain management, in particular chain innovativeness, of the European supply chains in such a way that performance can be maximized. The results of WP1.4 will

  13. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) Bill of Materials (BOM) for FEMIS version 1.4.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fangman, P.M.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Homer, B.J. [and others

    1998-06-05

    This document describes the hardware and software required for the Federal Emergency Management Information System version 1.4.5 (FEMIS v1.4.5). The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). A UNIX server provides a platform to support the Oracle relational database management system (RDBMS) distributed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), ARC/INFO geographic information system (GIS) capabilities (optional), basic file management services, the evacuation model (ESIM), the data exchange interface (DEI), and the notification service. FEMIS is a client/server system where much of the application software is located in the client PC. This client software includes the FEMIS application, government furnished dispersion and evacuation models, and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software applications, including the ArcView GIS and Microsoft Project (electronic planning). Several configurations are possible at a CSEPP site. In this document, a site is understood to include several installations of FEMIS, including the Depot, surrounding Immediate Response Zone (IRZ) and Protective Action Zone (PAZ) counties, and one or more state EOCs. In general, the main differences between possible configurations are the numbers of PC workstations at an installation, the location of the UNIX server(s), and the WAN links between installations.

  14. When rare is just a matter of sampling: unexpected dominance of clubtail dragonflies (Odonata, Gomphidae through different collecting methods at Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Oliveira de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When rare is just a matter of sampling: Unexpected dominance of clubtail dragonflies (Odonata, Gomphidae through different collecting methods at Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Capture of dragonfly adults during two short expeditions to Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, using three distinct collecting methodsaerial nets, Malaise and light sheet trapsis reported. The results are outstanding due the high number of species of Gomphidae (7 out of 26 Odonata species, including a new species of Cyanogomphus Selys, 1873, obtained by two non-traditional collecting methods. Because active collecting with aerial nets is the standard approach for dragonfly inventories, we discuss some aspects of the use of traps, comparing our results with those in the literature, suggesting they should be used as complementary methods in faunistic studies. Furthermore, Zonophora campanulata annulata Belle, 1983 is recorded for the first time from Minas Gerais State and taxonomic notes about Phyllogomphoides regularis (Selys, 1873 and Progomphus complicatus Selys, 1854 are also given.

  15. O ensino da Classificação Internacional de Patentes (CIP nos cursos de biblioteconomia brasileiros La enseñanza de la Clasificación Internacional de Patentes nos cursos de bibliotecologia do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Coeli Ribeiro Garcia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ao identificar em quais Cursos de Biblioteconomia a Classificação Internacional de Patentes (CIP é ensinada, pretende-se despertar nos profissionais da área a necessidade de conhecer ou de aprofundar tais conhecimentos. Os cursos, objeto do estudo, foram identificados por meio do site da Associação Brasileira de Educação em Ciência da Informação (ABECIN. A técnica utilizada é o survey, tendo o e-mail como instrumento de envio do questionário e recebimento das respostas que formam a amostra da pesquisa. O instrumento de pesquisa foi o questionário, formulado com perguntas abertas. Embora o documento de patente contenha informações relevantes para promoção do desenvolvimento tecnológico das nações, ainda não recebe um tratamento condizente das instituições brasileiras de ensino, ou seja, na maioria dos cursos em que se estudam formas de classificar o conhecimento, a CIP sequer é citada nas disciplinas.

  16. Silibinin prevents ultraviolet radiation-caused skin damages in SKH-1 hairless mice via a decrease in thymine dimer positive cells and an up-regulation of p53-p21/Cip1 in epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanalakshmi, Sivanandhan; Mallikarjuna, G U; Singh, Rana P; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2004-08-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) accounts for >1 million new cases each year in the US alone suggesting that more approaches are needed for its prevention and control. Earlier studies by us have shown that silymarin (a crude form of biologically active silibinin with some other isomers), isolated from milk thistle, affords strong protection against ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced NMSC in SKH-1 hairless mice; however, the molecular mechanisms of its efficacy are not known. Here, we assessed the effect of silibinin on UV-induced DNA damage and p53-p21/Cip1 accumulation, and their roles in UV-induced cell proliferation and apoptosis in SKH-1 hairless mouse epidermis. Topical application of silibinin prior to, or immediately after, UV irradiation resulted in a very strong protective effect against UV-induced thymine dimer positive cells in epidermis accounting for 76-85% (P formation (P thymine dimer positive cells and an up-regulation of p53-p21/Cip1 possibly leading to an inhibition in both cell proliferation and apoptosis. Comparable effects of silibinin following its pre- or post-UV application suggest that mechanisms other than sunscreen effect are operational in silibinin efficacy against UV-caused skin damages.

  17. Reactivities of carboxyalkyl-substituted 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimides in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Bindu; McMasters, Sun; Mullan, Mellisa A; Kelly, Lisa A

    2004-04-07

    A series of water-soluble 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide derivatives has been prepared and their redox and photophysical properties characterized. From laser flash photolysis studies, the triplet excited state of N,N'-bis[2-(N-pyridinium)ethyl]-1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide (NDI-pyr) was found to undergo oxidative quenching with the electron donors DABCO, tyrosine, and tryptophan as expected from thermodynamics. Interestingly, the reactivities of naphthalene diimides (NDI) possessing alpha- and beta-carboxylic acid substituents (R = -CH2COO-, -C(CH3)2COO-, and -CH2CH2COO-) were strikingly different. In these compounds, the transient produced upon 355 nm excitation did not react with the electron donors. Instead, this transient reacted rapidly (k > 10(8)-10(9) M-1 s-1) with known electron acceptors, benzyl viologen and ferricyanide. The transient spectrum of the carboxyalkyl-substituted naphthalimides observed immediately after the laser pulse was nearly identical to the one-electron-reduced form of 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide (produced independently using the bis-pyridinium-substituted naphthaldiimide). From our studies, we conclude that the transient produced upon nanosecond laser flash photolysis of NDI-(CH2)nCOO- is the species produced upon intramolecular electron transfer from the carboxylate moiety to the singlet excited state of NDI. In separate experiments, we verified that the singlet excited state of NDI-pyr does, indeed, react intermolecularly with acetate, alanine, and glycine. The process is further substantiated using thermodynamic driving force calculations. The results offer new prospects of the efficient photochemical production of reactive carbon-centered radicals.

  18. REACTIVITY INITIATED ACCIDENT TEST SERIES TEST RIA 1-4 EXPERIMENT PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, S. K.; Martinson, Z. R.

    1980-02-01

    The results of the pretest analyses for Test RIA 1-4 are presented. Test RIA 1-4 consists of a 3x3 array of previously irradiated MAP! fuel rods. The rods have 5.7% enriched UO{sub 2} fuel in zircaloy-4 cladding with an average burnup of 5300 MWd/t. The objective for Test RIA 1-4 is to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following RIA event for a radial-average peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g UO{sub 2}). Radial averaged peak fuel enthalpies of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g) 1077 J/g {257 cal/g), and 978 J/g (234 cal/g) for the corner, side, and center fuel rods, respectively, are planned to be achieved during a 2.7 ms reactor period power burst. The results of the FRAP-T5 analyses indicate that all nine rods will fail within 26 ms from the start of the power burst due to pellet-cladding mechanical interaction. All of the rods will undergo partial fuel melting. All rods will operate under extended film boiling (>30 sec) conditions and about 70% of the cladding length is expected to be molten. Approximately 15% of the cladding thickness will be oxided. Fuel swelling due to fission gas release and melting combined with fuel and cladding fragmentation, will probably produce a complete coolant flow blockage within the flow shroud.

  19. An acceptor analogue of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase: Substrate, inhibitor, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingqian; Wagner, Gerd K

    2017-10-10

    Many glycosyltransferase inhibitors in the literature are structurally derived from the donor or acceptor substrate of the respective enzyme. A representative example is 2-naphthyl β-d-GlcNAc, a synthetic GlcNAc glycoside that has been reported as a galactosyltransferase inhibitor. This GlcNAc derivative is attractive as a chemical tool compound for biological and biochemical studies because of its reported potency as an inhibitor, and its short and straightforward synthesis from readily available starting materials. We report that in our hands, 2-naphthyl β-d-GlcNAc behaved, unexpectedly, as an acceptor substrate of the inverting β-1,4-galactosyltransferase (β-1,4-GalT) from bovine milk. This substrate activity has not previously been described. We found that 2-naphthyl β-d-GlcNAc can be an acceptor substrate both for recombinantly expressed β-1,4-GalT, and for a commercial batch of the same enzyme, and both in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). As expected for a full acceptor substrate, this substrate activity was time- and concentration-dependent. Additional experiments show that the observed inhibitor/substrate switch is facilitated by a phosphatase that is an essential component of our enzyme-coupled glycosyltransferase assay. These findings suggest that the behaviour of 2-naphthyl β-d-GlcNAc and related acceptor-based glycosyltransferase inhibitors is strongly dependent on the individual assay conditions. Our results therefore have important implications for the use of 2-naphthyl β-d-GlcNAc and related glycosides as tool compounds in glycobiology and glycobiochemistry. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO 5-aminotetrazolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Schottenberger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of four salts of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO and 5-aminotetrazole are described. Anhydrous 1:1 (Pbca, Rgt = 0.041 and 1:2 (P, Rgt = 0.038 salts form hydrogen-bonded layers of anions and cations. The monohydrate of the 1:1 compound (P21/c, Rgt = 0.038 shows infinite chains of DABCO cations and an undulated layer of anions and water molecules. The octahydrate of the 3:2 compound (P21/c, Rgt = 0.042 features DABCO triples and clusters of four tetrazolate ions in a network of water molecules.

  1. Synthesis, Anticonvulsant, Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities of Novel Annulated Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaraswamy Sorra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Four new pentacyclic benzodiazepine derivatives (PBDTs 13–16 were synthesized by conventional thermal heating and microwave-assisted intramolecular cyclocondensation. Their anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic activities were evaluated by drug-induced convulsion models, a pentobarbital-induced hypnotic model and an elevated plus maze in mice. PBDT 13, a triazolopyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepin-8-one fused with a thiadiazolone ring, exhibited the best anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic effects in our tests. There was no significant difference in potency between PBDT 13 and diazepam, and we proposed that the action mechanism of PBDT 13 could be similar to that of diazepam via benzodiazepine receptors.

  2. Poly[1,4-bis(ammoniomethylcyclohexane [di-μ-iodido-diiodidoplumbate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kyle Rayner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, {(C8H20N2[PbI4]}n, is an inorganic–organic hybrid. The structure is composed of alternate layers of two-dimensional corner-sharing PbI6 octahedra (overline{1} symmetry and 1,4-bis(ammoniomethylcyclohexane cations (overline{1} symmetry extending parallel to the bc plane. The cations interact with the inorganic layer via N—H...I hydrogen bonding in the right-angled halogen sub-type of the terminal halide hydrogen-bonding motif.

  3. 1,4-Benzodiazepine N-Nitrosoamidines: Useful Intermediates in the Synthesis of Tricyclic Benzodiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos del Pozo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available 1,4-Benzodiazepine N-nitrosoamidines have been used as scaffolds for the preparation of different tricyclic derivatives. Replacement of the N-nitrosoamidine moiety through treatment with the nucleophiles acetylhydrazine, aminoacetaldehyde dimethylacetal and 1-amino-2-propanol, followed by an acid-catalyzed cyclization step, afforded triazolo and imidazobenzodiazepines 1, 6, and 7, respectively, in good yields. When acetylhydrazine is used as a nucleophile, the overall process provides an alternative route to alprazolam (1b and triazolam (1c, respectively.

  4. Discovery of a class of diheteroaromatic amines as orally bioavailable CDK1/4/6 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Tang, Shuai; Su, Yi; Lan, Xiaojing; Ye, Yan; Zha, Chuantao; Li, Lei; Cao, Jianhua; Chen, Yi; Jiang, Lei; Huang, Ying; Ding, Jian; Geng, Meiyu; Huang, Min; Wan, Huixin

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of a class of diheteroaromatic amines based on LY2835219 as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1/4/6) inhibitors was described. The series was found to have much more improved CDK1 inhibition and potent in vitro anti-proliferative effects against cancer cell lines. The synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of these compounds were reported. One promising compound was selected to evaluate as a novel lead compound after in vitro and in vivo profiling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Condensation Polymers of Terephthalic Acid and 1,4-Diaminobutane and Their Schiff Base Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino-terminated oligomeric poly(tetramethylene terephthalamide (PTTA was prepared by condensation of terephthalic acid and 1,4-diaminobutane using phosphorylation technique. Schiff base complexes of this polyamide were synthesized with salicylaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde complexes of Co(II, Ni(II, and Cu(II. The polyamide as well as Schiff base complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Thermal stabilities of ligand and its various complexes were compared by thermogravimetric analysis.

  6. (Z-2-Benzylidene-3-n-butoxy-2H-1,4-benzothiazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Kheira Sebbar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H19NOS, the thiazin-3-one ring of the 1,4-thiazin-3-one moiety adopts a screw-boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 31.0 (5°. An intramolecular C—H...S hydrogen bond forms an S(6 ring motif. In the crystal, C—H...π(ring contacts form inversion dimers and weak π–π stacking interactions, with a centroid-to-centroid distance of 3.8766 (2 Å, also occur.

  7. Supported Molybdenum Catalysts for the Deoxydehydration of 1,4-Anhydroerythritol into 2,5-Dihydrofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbrink, Lennart; Beckerle, Klaus; Meiners, Isabell; Liffmann, Rebecca; Rahimi, Khosrow; Okuda, Jun; Palkovits, Regina

    2017-04-10

    Efficient deoxygenation strategies are crucial for the valorization of renewable feedstocks. Deoxydehydration (DODH) enables the direct transformation of two adjacent hydroxyl groups into a double bond. Supported molybdenum-based catalysts were utilized for the first time in DODH. MoOx /TiO2 showed superior catalytic activity compared to common molybdenum salts. The catalyst efficiently converted 1,4-anhydroerythritol into 2,5-dihydrofuran in the presence of 3-octanol as reducing agent, showing high reproducibility and stability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Poly[[μ-1,4-anhydroerythritolato-di-μ-aqua-sodium(I] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Klüfers

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Na(C4H7O3(H2O2]·H2O}n, the sodium ion is octahedrally coordinated by two bridging 1,4-anhydroerythritolate ligands, unexpectedly coordinated by the ring oxygen and four water ligands. This bonding pattern leads to one-dimensional antitactical polymeric chains along [010]. One of the exocyclic O atoms of the anhydroerythritolate group is an acceptor in four hydrogen bonds, giving further evidence that it is deprotonated.

  9. Dynamics of bromate oscillators with 1,4-cyclohexanedione in a continuously fed stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keresztúri, Klára; Szalai, István

    2006-09-01

    The dynamics of the bromate-1,4-cyclohexanedione reaction and its ferroin catalyzed version in a continuously fed stirred tank reactor are reported. In the ([Br -] 0, [H 2SO 4] 0) and ([Br -] 0, [ferroin] 0) planes steady-state bistability and oscillations are observed. Close to the upper [Br -] 0 limit of the oscillatory domain the oscillations become aperiodic. By increasing the [ferroin] 0 the characteristic of the oscillations switches from 'uncatalyzed' to 'catalyzed'-type. Additionally, the effects of the bromide ions and ferroin on the batch dynamics are investigated.

  10. 1,4-Diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridocadmate(II monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Ben Rhaiem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound (C6H14N2[CdCl4]·H2O contained one 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dication, a tetrahedral CdCl42− anion and a lattice water molecule. In the crystal, the solvate water molecule interacts with the cationic and anionic species via N—H...O and O—H...Cl [O...Cl = 3.289 (7 Å] hydrogen-bond interactions, respectively, leading to a layered supramolecular structure extending parallel to (011.

  11. 1,2-Dimethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridocuprate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Rong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C8H18N2[CuCl4], torsion angles on the ethylene bridges of the 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane fragment are in the range 11.9 (5–15.0 (5° and the [CuCl4]2− anion has a strongly distorted tetrahedral geometry. The cation is connected to the anion via three-center N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  12. Kinetics of hydrolysis of 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative by carboxylesterases in mice organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya. Golovenko, V. B. Larionov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of the physiologically active substances and creation of prodrugs is one of the ways for pharmacotherapy optimization. The aim of the work was determination of the kinetic parameters of nonspecific esterases that catalyze hydrolysis of new hypnotic drug Levana (1,4-benzodiazepine derivative. The experiments were carried out using the 14C-labelled Levana and its active metabolite – 3-hydrixyphenazepam. In vitro it was shown that Levana undergoes spontaneous hydrolysis even in buffer solution (pH 7.4, though in plasma and homogenates of brain and liver this process is more intensive (conventional Vmax was 6.9 ± 0.5, 19 ± 4 and 12 ± 1 mM/(h∙mg of protein, correspondingly. The samples mentioned differ by activity of tissue estera­ses being most active in the liver (conventional Km 0.45 ± 0.04 mM for the liver and 47 ± 11 mM for the brain. In plasma carboxylesterase activity (for Leva­na is the lowest (conventional Km 129 ± 10 mM. In vivo it was shown that Levana more easily permeates brain-blood barrier (compared to 3-hydroxyphenaze­pam, that leads to higher concentrations (after hyd­rolysis of its metabolite in brain tissue. Also it is quantitatively estimated as the increase of concentration (brain/blood ratio ~1.4 times.

  13. Identification of an α-(1,4)-Glucan-Synthesizing Amylosucrase from Cellulomonas carboniz T26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongchun; Xu, Wei; Bai, Yuxiang; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2017-03-15

    Amylosucrase, catalyzing the synthesis of α-(1,4)-glucan from sucrose, has been widely studied and used in carbohydrate biotransformation because of its versatile activities. In this study, a novel amylosucrase was characterized from Cellulomonas carboniz T26. The recombinant enzyme was overexpressed in Escherchia coli and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. It was determined to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 72 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for transglucosylation were measured to be pH 7.0 and 40 °C. The transglucosylation activity was significantly higher than the hydrolytic activity. The main product generated from sucrose was structurally determined to be α-(1,4)-glucan. A small amount of glucose was produced by hydrolysis, and sucrose isomers including turanose and trehalulose were generated as minor products. The ratio of hydrolytic, polymerization, and isomerization reactions was calculated to be 5.8:84.0:10.2. The enzyme favored production of long-chain insoluble α-glucan at lower temperature.

  14. Chirality of the 1,4-phenylene-silica nanoribbons at the nano and angstrom levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Sibing; Xiao, Min; Wang, Mingliang; Huang, Zhibin; Li, Baozong; Yang, Yonggang

    2013-01-01

    We reported the preparation of chiral 1,4-phenylene-silicas, using a sol-gel transcription approach, by self-assembly using low-molecular-weight gelators as templates. The silicas exhibited chirality at both the nano and angstrom levels. However, the relation between the chirality at the nano level and that at the angstrom levels has not been well studied. In this study, chiral 1,4-phenylene-silica nanoribbons were prepared by the self-assemblies of three chiral cationic gelators derived from amino acids as templates. These samples were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and circular dichroism. The results indicated that the handedness of the nanoribbons and the stacking of the aromatic rings were controllable. Although the nanoribbons exhibited left-handedness at the nano level, the stacking of the aromatic rings could exhibit left- or right-handedness. The handedness of the nanoribbons at the nano level was controlled by the organic self-assembly of the gelator. However, the stacking of the aromatic rings seemed to be controlled by the gelator itself.

  15. Water quality criteria for colored smokes: 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.; Ross, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DDA), and anthraquinone dye used in violet-colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of human health and of aquatic life and its uses. DDA will readily oxidize to 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (DAA) in air or during combustion of the smoke grenade. The dye is insoluble in water; however, no information is available concerning its transformation or transport in soil, water, and sediments. No data are available concerning the toxic effects of DDA in aquatic organisms; therefore, a Criterion maximum Concentration and a Criterion Continuous Concentration cannot be determined. Toxicity studies following the USEPA guidelines are recommended. DDA is a weak mutagen in the Salmonella Reversin Assay, but the combustion or oxidation product, DAA is a strong mutagen in the same test. Violet smoke is noncarcinogenic in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Tumor Bioassay. 63 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Effect of Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions on Biofilm Formation by Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, R.; Gabriel, M.; Machado, J.; Tavares, L.; Bernardo, F.; Oliveira, M.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a major serovar responsible for human salmonellosis whose biofilm-forming ability, influenced by environmental conditions like those found in the gastrointestinal tract, is one of the main contributing factors to its ability to persist in the host and thus one of the main causes of chronic relapsing infections. Most studies to evaluate biofilm formation are performed in microtiter assays using standard media. However, no reports are available on the ability of this serovar to produce biofilm under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions which better correlate with the environment found in the gastrointestinal tract. To address this, a modified biofilm assay simulating intestinal fluid was conceived to assess the biofilm formation of 133 Salmonella Typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates with and without agitation and at three different time points (24 h, 48 h, and 72 h). The results were then compared to the existing microtiter method using conventional biofilm growth medium (Mueller Hinton Broth). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in the results obtained between the three protocols used. The simulated human intestinal environment impaired biofilm production demonstrating that conditions like pH, agitation or the presence of enzymes can influence biofilm production. Therefore, results from in vitro simulation of in vivo conditions may contribute to unravelling factors relating to biofilm formation and persistence in the context of the human host. PMID:25093197

  17. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  18. A major electronics upgrade for the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescopes 1-4

    CERN Document Server

    Giavitto, G; Balzer, A.; Berge, D.; Brun, F.; Chaminade, T.; Delagnes, E.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Gräber, T.; Hinton, J.A.; Jahnke, A.; Klepser, S.; Kossatz, M.; Kretzschmann, A.; Lefranc, V.; Leich, H.; Lüdecke, H.; Manigot, P.; Marandon, V.; Moulin, E.; de, M.; Nayman, P.; Penno, M.; Ross, D.; Salek, D.; Schade, M.; Schwab, T.; Simoni, R.; Stegmann, C.; Thornhill, J.; Toussenel, F.

    2015-01-01

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) located in the Khomas Highland in Namibia. It consists of four 12-m telescopes (CT1-4), which started operations in 2003, and a 28-m diameter one (CT5), which was brought online in 2012. It is the only IACT system featuring telescopes of different sizes, which provides sensitivity for gamma rays across a very wide energy range, from ~30 GeV up to ~100 TeV. Since the camera electronics of CT1-4 are much older than the one of CT5, an upgrade is being carried out; first deployment was in 2015, full operation is planned for 2016. The goals of this upgrade are threefold: reducing the dead time of the cameras, improving the overall performance of the array and reducing the system failure rate related to aging. Upon completion, the upgrade will assure the continuous operation of H.E.S.S. at its full sensitivity until and possibly beyond the advent of CTA. In the design of the new components, several CTA con...

  19. ADAMS/WT advanced development - version 1.4 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, A.S.; Depauw, T.R. [Mechanical Dynamics, Inc., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    ADAMS/WT is an wind-turbine-specific shell for the general-purpose mechanical system simulation package ADAMS5. It was developed under the guidance of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to give engineers and analysts in the wind turbine community access to the analytical power of ADAMS, without having to become expert in its particular technology. The 1.4 version of ADAMS/WT is the most recent upgrade to the package, incorporating the most up-to-date version of the AeroDyn aerodynamic forcing subroutines from the University of Utah. It is also the first version to be made available on the Windows/NT platform. In version 1.4, ADAMS/WT has been significantly improved throughout and runs much faster. Automatic generation of standardized output has been added. The documentation has been extensively augmented with more detailed descriptions, more figures and more examples. ADAMS/WT remains the most powerful analytical tool available for horizontal-axis wind turbine development. 10 figs.

  20. The clinical toxicology of γ-hydroxybutyrate, γ-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Knudsen, Kai; Slaughter, Robin J; Vale, J Allister; Mégarbane, Bruno

    2012-07-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), are drugs of abuse which act primarily as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. In recent years, the rising recreational use of these drugs has led to an increasing burden upon health care providers. Understanding their toxicity is therefore essential for the successful management of intoxicated patients. We review the epidemiology, mechanisms of toxicity, toxicokinetics, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of poisoning due to GHB and its analogs and discuss the features and management of GHB withdrawal. OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were searched using the terms "GHB," "gamma-hydroxybutyrate," "gamma-hydroxybutyric acid," "4-hydroxybutanoic acid," "sodium oxybate," "gamma-butyrolactone," "GBL," "1,4-butanediol," and "1,4-BD" alone and in combination with the keywords "pharmacokinetics," "kinetics," "poisoning," "poison," "toxicity," "ingestion," "adverse effects," "overdose," and "intoxication." In addition, bibliographies of identified articles were screened for additional relevant studies including nonindexed reports. Non-peer-reviewed sources were also included: books, relevant newspaper reports, and applicable Internet resources. These searches produced 2059 nonduplicate citations of which 219 were considered relevant. There is limited information regarding statistical trends on world-wide use of GHB and its analogs. European data suggests that the use of GHB is generally low; however, there is some evidence of higher use among some sub-populations, settings, and geographical areas. In the United States of America, poison control center data have shown that enquiries regarding GHB have decreased between 2002 and 2010 suggesting a decline in use over this timeframe. GHB is an endogenous neurotransmitter synthesized from glutamate with a high affinity for GHB-receptors, present on both on pre- and postsynaptic neurons, thereby

  1. Immunoexpression of tumor suppressor genes p53, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 in humam astrocystic tumors Imuno-expressão dos genes supressores tumorais p53, p21WAF1/CIP1 e p27KIP1 em tumores astrocíticos humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique Girão Faria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the tumor suppressor genes p53, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 expression in astrocytic tumors, correlating the findings with the histopathological grade (WHO. An immunohistochemical study of the p53, p21 and p27 proteins using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method was performed in fifty-five astrocytomas (13 grade I, 14 grade II, 7 grade III and 21 grade IV and five samples of non-tumor brain tissue (negative control. p53 positive indices (PI and labeling indices (LI showed tendency to increase according to malignant progression. The nuclear expression of p27 presented similar inclination, except for the PI reduction verified in grade IV tumors. Otherwise, the cytoplasmic p27 staining was more evident between high-grade tumors (III and IV. p53 and nuclear p27 expression was correlated with the histological classification (pO presente estudo objetivou avaliar a expressão dos supressores tumorais p53, p21WAF1/CIP1 e p27KIP1 em tumores astrocíticos humanos, correlacionando os achados com a graduação histopatológica (OMS. Procedeu-se o estudo imuno-histoquímico para as proteínas p53, p21 e p27 utilizando o método da estreptavidina-biotina-peroxidase em 55 astrocitomas (13 do grau I, 14 do grau II, 7 do grau III e 21 do grau IV e 5 amostras de tecido cerebral não-tumoral (controle negativo. Os índices de positividade (PI e de marcação (LI para p53 demonstraram tendência de aumento conforme a progressão maligna. A expressão nuclear do p27 apresentou semelhante inclinação, exceto pela redução do PI verificada nos tumores do grau IV. Já a marcação citoplasmática do p27 foi mais evidente entre tumores de alto grau (III e IV. As expressões de p53 e p27 nuclear demonstraram correlação com a classificação histológica (p<0,01; teste H. Por outro lado, os índices para p21 manifestaram propensão à redução conforme a evolução maligna dos tumores astrocíticos, salvo significante

  2. Pretest Round Robin Analysis of 1:4-Scale Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HESSHEIMER,MICHAEL F.; LUK,VINCENT K.; KLAMERUS,ERIC W.; SHIBATA,S.; MITSUGI,S.; COSTELLO,J.F.

    2000-12-18

    The purpose of the program is to investigate the response of representative scale models of nuclear containment to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. This objective is accomplished by conducting static, pneumatic overpressurization tests of scale models at ambient temperature. This research program consists of testing two scale models: a steel containment vessel (SCV) model (tested in 1996) and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model, which is the subject of this paper.

  3. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility: evidence from meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangqian; Cao, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Li, Bingjie; Tang, Min; Yuan, Wanqing; Fang, Jianzheng; Qian, Jian; Qin, Chao; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is expressed in many cancer cell types and allows the modulation of cancer growth, invasion and angiogenesis. To date, studies investigated the association between a functional polymorphism in PAI-1 (4G/5G) and risk of cancer have shown inclusive results. A meta-analysis based on 25 case-control studies was performed to address this issue. Odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with I(2) test. Overall, a significant increased risk of cancer was associated with the PAI-1 4G/4G polymorphism for the allele contrast (4G vs. 5G: OR = 1.10, CI = 1.03-1.18, I(2) = 49.5%), the additive genetic model (4G/4G vs. 5G/5G: OR = 1.21, CI = 1.06-1.39, I(2) = 51.9%), the recessive genetic model (4G/4G vs. 4G/5G+5G/5G: OR = 1.11, CI = 1.04-1.18, I(2) = 20.8%). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the results indicated that individuals with 4G/4G genotype had a significantly higher cancer risk among Caucasians (4G/4G vs. 5G/5G: OR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.09-1.59, I(2) = 59.6%; 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G: OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.04-1.21, I(2) = 3.6%; recessive model: OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.05-1.21, I(2) = 25.3%). The results of the present meta-analysis support an association between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and increasing cancer risk, especially among Caucasians, and those with 4G allele have a high risk to develop colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer.

  4. 1,4-Dihydropyridines: The Multiple Personalities of a Blockbuster Drug Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Mauro; Bruno, Fiorentina

    2012-01-01

    More than 40 years after their introduction in therapy, 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) are still amongst the most prescribed drugs in the world. Though they all share a similar mechanism of action blocking L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, DHPs differ in crucial pharmacological properties like tissue selectivity and cardiodepressant activity. This review examines how changes in the DHP structure can modify the pharmacological properties of these drugs and how some of these chemical manipulations have been exploited to obtain clinically more effective molecules. Special emphasis is given to the evidence that L-type Ca2+ channels are an heterogeneous family and that DHPs with different pharmacological properties differ in their affinity for the different isoforms of this class of channels. Data showing that DHP pharmacological heterogeneity could be in part dependent on the interaction of some of these molecules with ion channels different from the L-type Ca2+ channels is reviewed as well. PMID:23905059

  5. AdS{sub 3} holography for 1/4 and 1/8 BPS geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusto, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Moscato, Emanuele; Russo, Rodolfo [Centre for Research in String Theory,School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-04

    Recently a new class of 1/8-BPS regular geometries in type IIB string theory was constructed in arXiv:1503.01463. In this paper we provide a precise description of the semiclassical states dual, in the AdS/CFT sense, to these geometries. In explicit examples we show that the holographic 1-point functions and the Ryu-Takayanagi’s Entanglement Entropy for a single small interval match the corresponding CFT calculations performed by using the proposed dual states. We also discuss several new examples of such precision holography analysis in the 1/4-BPS sector and provide an explicit proof that the small interval derivation of the Entanglement Entropy used in arXiv:1405.6185 is fully covariant.

  6. Efficiency of multi-beam Fourier phase gratings at 1.4 THz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, B; Silva, J R G; Luo, Y C; Liu, X X; Wei, L; Hayton, D J; Gao, J R; Groppi, C

    2017-03-20

    We compare the results of simulated and measured power efficiency and far-field beam pattern, for two reflective Fourier phase gratings, designed to generate 2 × 2 and 2 × 4 beams respectively from a single-beam, coherent source at 1.4 THz. The designed surface structures were manufactured on aluminum plates by a computer numerical control (CNC) micro-milling machine. Despite small differences between the designed and fabricated gratings, we measured power efficiencies of both gratings to be around 70%, which is in a good agreement with the simulated values. We also find a good agreement between the simulated and measured diffracted beam size and spatial distribution. We demonstrate the application of both gratings as multiple beam local oscillators to simultaneously pump (or operate) a 4-pixel array of superconducting heterodyne mixers.

  7. Vapor pressure, density, viscosity and refractive index of dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA CIOCIRLAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental results of isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium data between 303.15 and 333.15 K, and densities, viscosities, refractive indices from 298.15 to 323.15 K of the dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system over the entire range of mixture composition. The obtained PTX data were correlated by the Wilson and NRTL models and estimated by the UNIFAC model. The excess Gibbs energy and activity coefficients were calculated and compared with others excess properties. Excess molar volumes, viscosity deviations and deviations in refractivity were calculated from the experimental data; all the computed quantities were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The resulting excess functions were interpreted in terms of structure and interactions.

  8. VIRULENT GROUP Ro1,4 POTATO GOLDEN CYST NEMATODES (Globodera rostochiensis WOLLENWEBER IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The potato golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis WOLLENWEBER is very important potato pest. According to EPPO it is on the quarantines A2 list. This species was detected on the territory of Belice in 2001. In 2002 soil samples were taken on two treatments, one with potato in monoculture and the other on the wheat where potato was previous crop. Cysts extraction was done in the laboratory of nematology at the Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek and Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Crop Science. Virulent group Ro1,4 was detected. More cysts were discovered in the monoculture potato soil (458/100 ccm of soil than in the soil under the wheat (368/100 ccm of soil. In 2004 vitality of the cysts were analysed. Cysts from potato monoculture had higher vitality (203 larvae/ cyst than cyst from the soil under wheat (38 larvae/cyst with potato as previous crop.

  9. Structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor at 1.4 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj, E-mail: kulahin@plab.ku.dk [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Biostructural Research, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); ENKAM Pharmaceuticals A/S, Fruebjergvej 3, Box 58, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kiselyov, Vladislav [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Kochoyan, Arthur [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); ENKAM Pharmaceuticals A/S, Fruebjergvej 3, Box 58, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kristensen, Ole; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm [Biostructural Research, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gajhede, Michael [Biostructural Research, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-02-01

    The structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor was determined and compared with those of human, bovine and newt origin. The rat and human structures were found to be very similar. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a family of 22 structurally related heparin-binding polypeptides that are involved in the regulation of cell growth, survival, differentiation and migration. Here, a 1.4 Å resolution X-ray structure of rat FGF1 is presented. Two molecules are present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal and they coordinate a total of five sulfate ions. The structures of human, bovine and newt FGF1 have been published previously. Human and rat FGF1 are found to have very similar structures.

  10. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release from platelet plasma membrane vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rengasamy, A.; Feinberg, H.

    1988-02-15

    A platelet membrane preparation, enriched in plasma membrane markers, took up /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ in exchange for intravesicular Na+ and released it after the addition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). The possibility that contaminating dense tubular membrane (DTS) vesicles contributed the Ca/sup 2 +/ released by IP3 was eliminated by the addition of vanadate to inhibit Ca/sup +/-ATPase-mediated DTS Ca/sup 2 +/ sequestration and by the finding that only plasma membrane vesicles exhibit Na/sup +/-dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake. Ca/sup 2 +/ released by IP3 was dependent on low extravesicular Ca/sup 2 +/ concentrations. IP3-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release was additive to that released by Na/sup +/ addition while GTP or polyethylene glycol (PEG) had no effect. These results strongly suggest that IP3 facilitates extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ influx in addition to release from DTS membranes.

  11. 2-[(1R*,4R*-1,4-Dihydroxycyclohexyl]acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arfan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C8H14O4, is an isolation product of the aerial parts of Senecio desfontanei. The acetic acid group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 48.03 (9° with respect to the basal plane of the cyclohexane-1,4-diol chair. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond generates an S(6 ring with an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in R33(20 ring motifs and C(2 O—H...O—H...O—H... chains. Overall, a three-dimensional polymeric network arises. A C—H...O contact is also present.

  12. A Simple and Advantageous Synthesis of the Privileged 1,4-Benzodiazepine Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel domino approach has been described for an easy access of the privileged nucleus of 5-carbomethoxy substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones 4(a–i from an in situ methanolic hydrolysis of an incipient species formed from the interaction of 1-chloroacetylisatin 2(a–i, hexamethyldisilazane, and n-butyl lithium. The reaction is believed to take place through a consecutive series of intramolecular reactions in a cascade to first generate a highly reactive carbene intermediate 3(a–i from 1-chloroacetylisatin and n-butyl lithium which is simultaneously trapped by hexamethyldisilazane before undergoing its in situ hydrolysis with methanol to initiate its concomitant cyclocondensation to produce 4(a–i in high yield and purity.

  13. Drie nuwe verklaringsopsies in die Jakobusbrief (Jak 2:1; 4:5; 5:6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A.C. Pretorius

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available New options in the understanding of the Epistle of James(Js 2:1; 4:5; 5:6 New methods of interpretation occasionally lead to new options in the understanding of texts. In the case of the Epistle of James, the interpretation has until recently stood under the spell of the 'comparative' method of Dibelius. Greater emphasis on internal cohesion in the text recently led to the proposal of the following translations: James 2:1: '... surely, you do not have the faith in our Lord ... on account of favouritism?' James 4:5: 'Do you think Scripture speaks in vain? Should the spirit which He made to dwell in us desire (the world with envy?' James 5:6 'You judge and murder the innocent. Will He (God, cf 4:6 not resist you?'

  14. Bis(1,4,7-trithiacyclononanenickel(II bis(tetrafluoridoborate nitromethane disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Noll

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The homoleptic thioether title complex, [Ni(C6H12S32](BF42·2CH3NO2, shows the expeced hexakis(thioether octahedral environment around the NiII atom. It crystallized as two crystallographically independent complex cations, [Ni(9S32]2+ (9S3 = 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane, within the unit cell where each NiII lies on an inversion center. In addition to the complex cations, there are two crystallographically independent BF4− anions present to balance the charge, and each shows disorder along a pseudo-C3 axis with ratios of 0.53 (2:0.47 (2 and 0.55 (2:0.45 (2. Two nitromethane solvent molecules per complex cation are also present in the unit cell.

  15. Green synthesis of 1,4-quinone derivatives and evaluation of their fluorescent and electrochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Ravichandiran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of some 1,4-quinone derivatives by conventional and solvent free microwave assisted methods has been reported. The microwave assisted method resulted in higher percentage yield at shorter time compared to the conventional one. In the conventional method environmentally friendly solvent was used and the results were compared with other solvents. When water was used as a solvent the reaction exhibited higher yield than other solvents like ethanol. The solvent free method under microwave irradiation method yielded the highest yield compared to the conventional methods. The resultant compounds were analyzed by UV–Vis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized quinone derivatives exhibited the fluorescent and electrochemical properties.

  16. New chalcone and dimeric chalcones with 1,4-p-benzoquinone residue from Combretum yunnanense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Mei; Wang, Li-Qin; Hua, Yan; Chen, Ye-Gao; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Xing-Yao; Li, Yan; Li, Ting; Yang, Xun-Yun; Tang, Zheng-Rong

    2011-03-01

    New chalcone and dimeric chalcones with 1,4- P-benzoquinone residue, combrequinone A (1), combrequinone B (2), and combrequinone C (3), along with three known compounds (4-6), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the stems and leaves of Combretum yunnanense, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines: HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were found to be most potent against HL-60 acute leukemia cells, with IC₅₀ values of 4.63, 4.07, and 1.26 µM, respectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Protective Coatings for Aluminum Alloy Based on Hyperbranched 1,4-Polytriazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armelin, Elaine; Whelan, Rory; Martínez-Triana, Yeimy Mabel; Alemán, Carlos; Finn, M G; Díaz, David Díaz

    2017-02-01

    Organic polymers are widely used as coatings and adhesives to metal surfaces, but aluminum is among the most difficult substrates because of rapid oxidative passivation of its surface. Poly(1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles) made by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition form strongly bonded interfaces with several metal substrates. In this work, a variety of alkyne and azide monomers were explored as precursors to anticorrosion coatings for a standard high-strength aluminum-copper alloy. Monomers of comparatively low valency (diazide and trialkyne) were found to act as superior barriers for electrolyte transfer to the aluminum surface. These materials showed excellent resistance to corrosive pitting due to the combination of three complementary properties: good formation of highly cross-linked films, as observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry; good adhesion to the aluminum alloy substrate, as shown by pull-off testing; and excellent impermeability, as demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  18. VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmark: Results of ORNL Calculations Using HELIOS-1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, RJ

    2001-02-02

    The Task Force on Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition, now an Expert Group, was set up through the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency to facilitate technical assessments of burning weapons-grade plutonium mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in U.S. pressurized-water reactors and Russian VVER nuclear reactors. More than ten countries participated to advance the work of the Task Force in a major initiative, which was a blind benchmark study to compare code benchmark calculations against experimental data for the VENUS-2 MOX core at SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the HELIOS-1.4 code was used to perform a comprehensive study of pin-cell and core calculations for the VENUS-2 benchmark.

  19. VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmark: Results of ORNL Calculations Using HELIOS-1.4 - Revised Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, RJ

    2001-06-01

    The Task Force on Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition (TFRPD) was formed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) to study reactor physics, fuel performance, and fuel cycle issues related to the disposition of weapons-grade (WG) plutonium as mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. To advance the goals of the TFRPD, 10 countries and 12 institutions participated in a major TFRPD activity: a blind benchmark study to compare code calculations to experimental data for the VENUS-2 MOX core at SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the HELIOS-1.4 code system was used to perform the comprehensive study of pin-cell and MOX core calculations for the VENUS-2 MOX core benchmark study.

  20. Probing the mechanism of 1,4-conjugate elimination reactions catalyzed by terpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraldos, Juan A; Gonzalez, Veronica; Li, Amang; Yu, Fanglei; Köksal, Mustafa; Christianson, David W; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2012-12-26

    The reaction mechanisms of (E)-β-farnesene synthase (EBFS) and isoprene synthase (ISPS), enzymes that catalyze a formal regiospecific 1,4-conjugate elimination of hydrogen diphosphate from (E,E)-farnesyl and dimethylallyl diphosphate (FDP and DMADP) to generate the semiochemicals (E)-β-farnesene and isoprene, respectively, were probed with substrate analogs and kinetic measurements. The results support stepwise reaction mechanisms through analogous enzyme-bound allylic cationic intermediates. For EBFS, we demonstrate that the elimination reaction can proceed via the enzyme-bound intermediate trans-nerolidyl diphosphate, while for ISPS the intermediacy of 2-methylbut-3-enyl 2-diphosphate can be inferred from the product outcome when deuterated DMADPs are used as substrates. Possible implications derived from the mechanistic details of the EBFS-catalyzed reaction for the evolution of sesquiterpene synthases are discussed.

  1. A New 1,4-Diazepine from South China Sea Marine Sponge Callyspongia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Hai Xu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new 1,4-diazepine, callysponine (1, was isolated from a South China Sea Callyspongia sp. marine sponge, together with four known proline-based diketopiperazines: cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Leu (2, cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Val (3, cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Ala (4, andcyclo-(S-Pro-R-Tyr (5. The new structure was determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis, and the absolute stereochemistry was defined by NOESY spectroscopy and optical rotation. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Callysponine (1 did not inhibit the growth of HepG2 (hepatoma carcinoma cell, A549 (lung carcinoma cell, and HeLa (cervical cancer cell cell lines.

  2. Synthesis of new 1H-1,2,3-triazole-1,4-naphthoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner O. Valença

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, were synthesized new 1H-1,2,3-triazole-1,4-naphthoquinones via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction using CuI/acetonitrile without addition of base or ligand. The compounds (3a-i were obtained in moderate-to-good yields 45-92%. To prepare (3d, we obtain a mixture of (3d and (4 in a ratio 3:1, that it was difficult to separate. The low yield for the compound (3f can be also justified based in the formation of aminonaphthoquinone (4. The acetylation of (3h and (3i afforded the compounds (5 and (6 in 77% and 35% of yields, respectively. The low yield of (6 was due to formation of 35 % of the elimination product (7.

  3. Dynamical (e,2e) studies of tetrahydropyran and 1,4-dioxane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Builth-Williams, J. D.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B., E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT 78600-000 (Brazil); Chaluvadi, Hari; Madison, D. H. [Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-06-07

    We present experimental and theoretical results for the electron-impact ionization of the highest occupied molecular orbitals of tetrahydropyran and 1,4-dioxane. Using an (e,2e) technique in asymmetric coplanar kinematics, angular distributions of the slow ejected electron, with an energy of 20 eV, are measured when incident electrons at 250 eV ionize the target and scatter through an angle of either −10° or −15°. The data are compared with calculations performed at the molecular 3-body distorted wave level. Fair agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental measurements was observed. The similar structures for these targets provide key insights for assessing the limitations of the theoretical calculations. This study in turn facilitates an improved understanding of the dynamics in the ionization process.

  4. Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme: Computer Security - Introduction to information and computer security (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Computer Security: Introduction to information and computer security (1/4), by Sebastian Lopienski (CERN).   Monday, 21 May, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 31-3-004 - IT Auditorium ) Sebastian Lopienski is CERN's Deputy Computer Security Officer. He works on security strategy and policies; offers internal consultancy and audit services; develops and maintains security tools for vulnerability assessment and intrusion detection; provides training and awareness raising; and does incident investigation and response. During his work at CERN since 2001, Sebastian has had various assignments, including designing and developing software to manage and support services hosted in the CERN Computer Centre; providing Central CVS Service for software projects at CERN; and development of applications for accelerator controls in Java. He graduated from the University of Warsaw (MSc in Computer Science) in 2002, and earned an MBA degree at the Enterprise Administration Institute in Ai...

  5. Synthesis and photodegradation studies of analogues of muscle relaxant 1,4-dihydropyridine compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gündüz Miyase Gözde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine compounds (DHPs endowed with good muscle relaxant activity and stability to light. Six new condensed DHPs were synthesized by the microwave irradiation method. A long-chain ester moiety [2-(methacryloyloxyethyl] and various substituents on the phenyl ring were demonstrated to affect the muscle relaxant activity occurring in isolated rabbit gastric fundus smooth muscle strips. Forced photodegradation conditions were applied to the molecules according to the ICH rules. The degradation profile of the drugs was monitored by spectrophotometry coupled with the multivariate curve resolution technique. Formation of the oxidized pyridine derivative was observed for all the studied DHPs, except for one compound, which showed very fast degradation and formation of a second photo-product. Pharmacological tests on the molecules showed a good muscle relaxing effect, with a mechanism similar to that of nifedipine, however, proving to be more stable to light.

  6. D 1.4.1. Review of Scientific Literature on Performance, Innovation and Management of Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Uffelen, van, JWM; Immink, V. M.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the Work package 1.4 INNOCHAIN (WP1.4) of ISAfruit is to develop a conceptual framework of the mechanisms underlying supply chain management, in particular chain innovativeness, of the European supply chains in such a way that performance can be maximized. The results of WP1.4 will contribute to the innovativeness of European fruit supply chains by providing an overview of successful supply chain management practices and by formulating recommendations and critical success factors f...

  7. Butane-1,4-diammonium bis(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatocuprate(II trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghadermazi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C4H14N2[Cu(C7H3NO42]·3H2O or (bdaH2[Cu(pydc2]·3H2O (where bda is butane-1,4-diamine and pydcH2 is pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, the CuII atom is coordinated by four O atoms [Cu—O = 2.0557 (16–2.3194 (16 Å] and two N atoms [Cu—N = 1.9185 (18 and 1.9638 (18 Å] from two chelating rings of the pydc2− anions, which act as tridentate ligands. The geometry of the resulting CuN2O4 coordination can be described as distorted octahedral. The the two pydc2− fragments are almost perpendicular to one another [77.51 (11°]. To balance the charges, two centrosymmetric protonated butane-1,4-diammonium, (bdaH22+ cations are present. In the crystal structure, extensive O—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds [D...A = 2.720 (2–3.446 (3 Å], ion pairing, C—O...π [O...π = 3.099 (2 Å] and π–π stacking interactions between the pydc2− rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5334 (15 Å] contribute to the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  8. Biodegradation of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene in the vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Zohre; Spain, Jim C

    2013-07-02

    Much of the microbial activity in nature takes place at interfaces, which are often associated with redox discontinuities. One example is the oxic/anoxic interface where polluted groundwater interacts with the overlying vadose zone. We tested whether microbes in the vadose zone can use synthetic chemicals as electron donors and thus protect the overlying air and buildings from groundwater pollutants. Samples from the vadose zone of a site contaminated with chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (12DCB), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene (14DCB) were packed in a multiport column to simulate the interface of the vadose zone with an underlying groundwater plume. A mixture of CB, 12DCB, and 14DCB in anoxic water was pumped continuously through the bottom of column to an outlet below the first sampling port to create an oxic/anoxic interface and a capillary fringe. Removal to below the detection limits by rapid biodegradation with rates of 21 ± 1 mg of CB • m(-2) • d(-1), 3.7 ± 0.5 mg of 12DCB • m(-2) • d(-1), and 7.4 ± 0.7 mg of 1.4 DCB • m(-2) • d(-1) indicated that natural attenuation in the capillary fringe can prevent the migration of CB, 12DCB, and 14DCB vapors. Enumeration of bacteria capable of degrading chlorobenzenes suggested that most of the biodegradation takes place within the first 10 cm above the saturated zone. Biodegradation also increased the upward flux of contaminants and thus enhanced their elimination from the underlying water. The results revealed a substantial biodegradation capacity for chlorinated aromatic compounds at the oxic/anoxic interface and illustrate the role of microbes in creating steep redox gradients.

  9. 2-Bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone: a potentially improved substitute of menadione in Apatone™ therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Graciani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Apatone™, a combination of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, VK3 and ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC is a new strategy for cancer treatment. Part of its effect on tumor cells is related to the cellular pro-oxidative imbalance provoked by the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 through naphthoquinone redox cycling. In this study, we attempted to find new naphthoquinone derivatives that would increase the efficiency of H2O2 production, thereby potentially increasing its efficacy for cancer treatment. The presence of an electron-withdrawing group in the naphthoquinone moiety had a direct effect on the efficiency of H2O2 production. The compound 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (BrQ, in which the bromine atom substituted the methyl group in VK3, was approximately 10- and 19-fold more efficient than VK3 in terms of oxygen consumption and H2O2 production, respectively. The ratio [H2O2]produced / [naphthoquinone]consumed was 68 ± 11 and 5.8 ± 0.2 (µM/µM for BrQ and VK3, respectively, indicating a higher efficacy of BrQ as a catalyst for the autoxidation of ascorbic acid. Both VK3 and BrQ reacted with glutathione (GSH, but BrQ was the more effective substrate. Part of GSH was incorporated into the naphthoquinone, producing a nucleophilic substitution product (Q-SG. The depletion of BrQ by GSH did not prevent its redox capacity since Q-SG was also able to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species. VK3/VC has already been submitted to clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer and has demonstrated promising results. However, replacement of VK3 with BrQ will open new lines of investigation regarding this approach to cancer treatment.

  10. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism in infertile women with and without endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Filho, Rubens P; Brandes, Ariel; Christofolini, Denise M; Lerner, Tatiana G; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio P

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate PAI-1 genotypes in a group of infertile women with or without endometriosis and control subjects. Case-control study. Human Reproduction Center of Medicina do ABC Faculty. One hundred and forty infertile women with endometriosis, 64 women with idiopathic infertility and 148 fertile women as control subjects. The PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. Genotype distribution and allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene. The frequencies of genotypes 4G/4G, 4G/5G and 5G/5G of the PAI-1 gene in the infertile women with endometriosis were 38.6, 37.1 and 24.3%, respectively, and in the control group 24.3, 33.8 and 41.9%, respectively (p=0.003). When the infertile women with endometriosis were divided according to their endometriosis stage, genotypes 4G/4G, 4G/5G and 5G/5G were identified, respectively, in 36.7, 32.9 and 30.4% of the patients with minimal/mild endometriosis (p=0.102) and in 41.0, 42.6 and 16.4% of the patients with moderate/severe endometriosis (p=0.001); in the women with idiopathic infertility, these genotypes were found at a frequency of 29.7, 34.3 and 36%, respectively (p=0.637). The data suggest that, in Brazilian women, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may be associated with a risk of endometriosis-associated infertility. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Laccase-catalyzed C-S and C-C coupling for a one-pot synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone sulfides and 1,4-naphthoquinone sulfide dimers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wellington, Kevin W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ChemCatChem June 2013/ Vol 5 Issue 6 Laccase-catalyzed C-S and C-C coupling for a one-pot synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone sulfides and 1,4-naphthoquinone sulfide dimers Dr. Kevin W. Wellington1,*, Dr. Gregory E. R. Gordon1, Lindelani A. Ndlovu1...

  12. Pectin Biosynthesis: GALS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana Is a β-1,4-Galactan β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase [C][W][OA]

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liwanag, April Jennifer Madrid; Ebert, Berit; Verhertbruggen, Yves

    2012-01-01

    , β-1,4-galactans, and arabinogalactans. Many enzymes are required to synthesize pectin, but few have been identified. Pectin is most abundant in primary walls of expanding cells, but β-1,4-galactan is relatively abundant in secondary walls, especially in tension wood that forms in response...

  13. Preparation of 14-C-labelled 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol: Cyanosilylation of Cyclic Imines using KCN in a One-Pot Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundt, Inge; Malle, Birgitte Mølholm; Foged, Christian

    1999-01-01

    A new method for C-C bond formation was developed based on in situ cyanosilylation of cyclic Schiff bases using KCN, TMSCl, KI and ZnI2. This method was used to prepare the potent -glucosidase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol 14-C labelled at C-5.Keywords: in situ cyanosilylation; 14-C...

  14. Oscillatory dynamics in systems containing bromate and 1,4-cyclohexanedione in acidic media. I. The effect of temperature; Dinamica oscilatoria em sistemas contendo bromato e 1,4-ciclo-hexanodiona em meio acido. I. Efeito da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hyrla C.L.; Oliveira, Tatiane B.; Varela, Hamilton, E-mail: varela@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    We present in this work the influence of temperature on the dynamics of homogeneous chemical systems containing bromate and 1,4-cyclohexanedione (1,4-CHD) in acidic media. In particular, the following systems were studied: bromate/1,4-CHD/acid, bromate/1,4-CHD/ferroin/acid and bromate/1,4-CHD/trisbipyridine ruthenium/acid. Investigations were carried out by means of an electrochemical probe, at five temperatures between 5 and 45 degree C. Activation energies (Ea) were estimated in different ways for the pre-oscillatory and oscillatory regimes. In any case, the Ea was found to depend on the catalyst, composition and initial concentrations. In addition, it was observed that ferroin and trisbipyridine ruthenium act as catalysts only during the transition between the induction period and oscillatory regime. (author)

  15. Potencial produtivo e de manejo de dois produtos florestais não madeireiros no contexto Amazônico - o cipó-titica (Heteropsis spp.) e o óleo de copaíba (Copaifera spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carine Klauberg Silva

    2014-01-01

    O óleo resina de copaíba (Copaifera spp.) e as fibras das raízes de cipó-titica (Heteropsis spp.) são produtos florestais não madeireiros, de grande importância social e econômica, principalmente para comunidades presentes na região Amazônica. Entretanto, faltam estudos que ajudem a definir e melhorar leis e práticas de manejo. O objetivo deste estudo foi preencher essa lacuna, avaliando os fatores bióticos e abióticos que afetam o desenvolvimento e a produtividade destas espécies. O primeiro...

  16. Porcine beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-I sequence and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, E A; Burkin, H R; Bleck, G T; Howell-Skalla, L; Miller, D J

    2009-04-01

    Beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-I (B4GALT1), one of seven beta1,4-galactosyltransferases, is an enzyme commonly found in the trans-Golgi complex that adds galactose to oligosaccharides. In the three mammals studied to date, the B4GALT1 gene directs production of B4GALT1 protein using either of two transcription start sites. The product of the smaller transcript serves the traditional biosynthetic role in the Golgi. This form also complexes with alpha-lactalbumin, a mammary-specific protein, to form lactose synthase. In addition to a biosynthetic role, the protein translated from the longer transcript appears on the plasma membranes of some cells where it serves as a signalling receptor in cell-matrix interactions such as sperm-egg binding. The objective of this study was to sequence the protein-coding region of porcine B4GALT1 and examine the sequence for relationships to the bovine, human, murine and chicken B4GALT1 genes. The sequence for the 1203 base pair protein-coding region of porcine B4GALT1 was obtained. Analysis of the deduced protein sequences revealed that the transmembrane region displayed the highest identity between the four mammals. The catalytic domain was 84-88% identical between the porcine sequence and those of the bovine, human and mouse. The porcine protein had the lowest overall homology to the chicken amino acid sequence, 58% identity. Conservation of both transcription start sites in the porcine gene supports the existence of two isoforms. When compared to the other mammalian B4GALT1 genes, the porcine coding sequence contained a single threonine codon inserted into the region encoding the cytoplasmic domain. Two putative phosphorylation sites in the mouse cytoplasmic domain were conserved in the porcine sequence. Northern blots revealed a widely expressed 4.4 kb transcript that was more abundant in the mammary gland during lactation. These results are important for studies of the function of this unusual and important glycosyltransferase

  17. Genome Editing in Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 with the CRISPR-Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohua; Dong, Sheng; Wang, Pixiang; Tao, Yong; Wang, Yi

    2017-05-15

    Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 is well known as a hyper-butanol-producing strain. However, the lack of genetic engineering tools hinders further elucidation of its solvent production mechanism and development of more robust strains. In this study, we set out to develop an efficient genome engineering system for this microorganism based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system. First, the functionality of the CRISPR-Cas9 system previously customized for Clostridium beijerinckii was evaluated in C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum by targeting pta and buk , two essential genes for acetate and butyrate production, respectively. pta and buk single and double deletion mutants were successfully obtained based on this system. However, the genome engineering efficiency was rather low (the mutation rate is CRISPR-Cas9 system is highly desirable for efficient genome editing in C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum Batch fermentation results revealed that both the acid and solvent production profiles were altered due to the disruption of acid production pathways; however, neither acetate nor butyrate production was eliminated with the deletion of the corresponding gene. The butanol production, yield, and selectivity were improved in mutants, depending on the fermentation medium. In the pta buk double deletion mutant, the butanol production in P2 medium reached 19.0 g/liter, which is one of the highest levels ever reported from batch fermentations. IMPORTANCE An efficient CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering system was developed for C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. This paves the way for elucidating the solvent production mechanism in this hyper-butanol-producing microorganism and developing strains with desirable butanol-producing features. This tool can be easily adapted for use in closely related microorganisms. As also reported by others, here we demonstrated with solid data that the highly efficient

  18. 2-Bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone: a potentially improved substitute of menadione in Apatone™ therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graciani, F.S.; Ximenes, V.F. [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru SP (Brazil); Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-18

    Apatone™, a combination of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, VK{sub 3}) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) is a new strategy for cancer treatment. Part of its effect on tumor cells is related to the cellular pro-oxidative imbalance provoked by the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) through naphthoquinone redox cycling. In this study, we attempted to find new naphthoquinone derivatives that would increase the efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production, thereby potentially increasing its efficacy for cancer treatment. The presence of an electron-withdrawing group in the naphthoquinone moiety had a direct effect on the efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. The compound 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (BrQ), in which the bromine atom substituted the methyl group in VK{sub 3}, was approximately 10- and 19-fold more efficient than VK{sub 3} in terms of oxygen consumption and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production, respectively. The ratio [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub produced} / [naphthoquinone]{sub consumed} was 68 ± 11 and 5.8 ± 0.2 (µM/µM) for BrQ and VK{sub 3}, respectively, indicating a higher efficacy of BrQ as a catalyst for the autoxidation of ascorbic acid. Both VK{sub 3} and BrQ reacted with glutathione (GSH), but BrQ was the more effective substrate. Part of GSH was incorporated into the naphthoquinone, producing a nucleophilic substitution product (Q-SG). The depletion of BrQ by GSH did not prevent its redox capacity since Q-SG was also able to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species. VK{sub 3}/VC has already been submitted to clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer and has demonstrated promising results. However, replacement of VK{sub 3} with BrQ will open new lines of investigation regarding this approach to cancer treatment.

  19. Gas phase UV and IR absorption spectra of CxF2x+1CHO (x=1-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Waterland, RL

    2004-01-01

    The UV and IR spectra of CxF2x+1 CHO (x = 1-4) were investigated using computational and experimental techniques. CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1-4) have broad UV absorption features centered at 300-310 nm. The maximum absorption cross-section increases significantly and shifts slightly to the red with increas...

  20. A facile and regioselective synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles using click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reaction of α-tosyloxy ketones, sodium azide and terminal alkynes in presence of copper(I) in aqueous polyethylene glycol afforded regioselectively 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in good yield at ambient temperature. The one-pot exclusive formation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2...

  1. Molecular characterization and expression studies during melon fruit development and ripening of L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pateraki, Irene; Sanmartin, Maite; Kalamaki, Mary S.

    2004-01-01

    The last step of ascorbic acid (AA) biosynthesis is catalysed by the enzyme L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH, EC 1.3.2.3), located on the inner mitochondrial membrane. The enzyme converts L-galactono-1,4-lactone to ascorbic acid (AA). In this work, the cloning and characterization...

  2. Synthetic, crystallographic, computational, and biological studies of 1,4-difluorobenzo[c]phenanthrene and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Suyeal; Mah, Heduck; Chaturvedi, Surendrakumar; Jeknic, Tamara Musafia; Baird, William M; Katz, Amy K; Carrell, H L; Glusker, Jenny P; Okazaki, Takao; Laali, Kenneth K; Zajc, Barbara; Lakshman, Mahesh K

    2007-09-28

    1,4-Difluorobenzo[c]phenanthrene (1,4-DFBcPh) and its putative metabolites, the dihydrodiol and diol epoxides, have been synthesized and structurally characterized, and the extent of DNA binding by the metabolites has been assessed. 1,4-DFBcPh and 1,4-difluoro-10-methoxybenzo[c]phenanthrene were prepared by photochemical cyclization of appropriate naphthylphenylethylenes. The dihydrodiol was synthesized from 1,4-difluoro-10-methoxybenzo[c]phenanthrene, and the diol epoxides were diastereoselectively synthesized from the dihydrodiol. Interesting differences were noted in 1H NMR spectra of the series 1 (syn) diol epoxides of benzo[c]phenanthrene (BcPh) and 1,4-DFBcPh; the BcPh diol epoxide displays a quasi-diequatorial orientation of the hydroxyl groups, but in the 1,4-DFBcPh case these are diaxially disposed. This difference probably stems from the presence of the fjord-region fluorine atom in 1,4-DFBcPh. A through-space, fjord-region H-F coupling has also been observed for 1,4-DFBcPh and its derivatives. Comparative X-ray crystallographic analyses of BcPh and 1,4-DFBcPh and their dihydrodiols show that introduction of fluorine increases the molecular distortion by about 6-7 degrees . As a guide to estimating the molecular distortion and its effects, and for comparison with the X-ray structures in known cases, optimized structures of BcPh, 1,4-DFBcPh, and 1,4-DMBcPh (the dimethyl analogue) as well as their dihydrodiols and diol epoxides were computed. Relative aromaticities of these compounds were assessed by nucleus-independent chemical shift calculations, and 13C NMR chemical shifts were computed by gauge-inducing atomic orbital calculations. 1,4-DFBcPh and its dihydrodiol were subjected to metabolism, and the amount of DNA binding in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells was assessed. The extent of DNA binding was then compared with that for BcPh and its dihydrodiol and the potent carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene. The 1,4-DFBcPh series 2 (anti) diol epoxide-derived DNA

  3. Photostabilization studies of antihypertensive 1,4-dihydropyridines using polymeric containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Michele; Ioele, Giuseppina; Spatari, Claudia; Ragno, Gaetano

    2016-05-30

    1,4-dihydropyridine antihypertensives (DHPs) are almost all dispensed in solid pharmaceutical formulations for their easy lability when exposed to light. This paper reports a study on the photoprotective effect of containers in different glassy or polymeric matrices with regard to four known DHPs when in solutions. The samples were subjected to forced degradation by means of a Xenon lamp, in accordance with the international rules on drug stability evaluation. The simultaneous determination of the drugs and their photoproducts was carried out by applying the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methodology to the spectral data recorded along the irradiation test. This technique was able to determine the kinetic parameters and resolve the spectra of the photoproducts. The time required to reduce by 10% the concentration of the drug (t0.1) was adopted as a criterion to compare the protective ability of the containers. A significant photoprotection for all drugs tested was obtained by the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers. The best result was achieved for the felodipine solution in blue PET transparent bottle of 0.6mm thickness, reaching an almost complete stabilization up to six hours under stressing irradiation. In contrast, the glass containers, whether or not coloured, did not provide a satisfactory photoprotection of the drugs, showing in any case t0.1 values under 24min. These results can be a good opportunity to design new photoprotective pharmaceutical packaging for DHPs in liquid dosage form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca2+ signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca2+-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca2+ channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies. PMID:27658230

  5. [1,4-Bis(diphenylphosphanylbutane-κ2P,P′]dibromidopalladium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Ha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [PdBr2(C28H28P2], the PdII ion has a distorted cis-Br2P2 square-planar coordination geometry defined by two P atoms from the chelating 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphanylbutane ligand and two Br− anions. The four phenyl rings are inclined to the least-squares plane of the PdBr2P2 unit [maximum deviation = 0.1294 (7 Å], making dihedral angles of 66.3 (2, 87.2 (2, 68.8 (2 and 86.8 (2°. The butylene chain is in a gauche conformation, with a C—C—C—C torsion angle of 57.0 (8°. Intermolecular C—H...Br hydrogen bonds link the complex molecules into supramolecular layers in the ab plane. Weak π–π interactions, both intra- and intermolecular [shortest inter-centroid distance = 4.598 (5 Å], are also noted in the three-dimensional architecture.

  6. The mechanism of 1,4 alkyl group migration in hypervalent halonium ylides: the stereochemical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Robert M; Tyagi, Sachin; Ivanov, Daniela; Constantinescu, Mircea

    2008-06-18

    Rhodium(II)-acetate-catalyzed decomposition of either 1,3-cyclohexanedione phenyliodonium ylide or 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione phenyliodonium ylide in the presence of alkyl halides yields the corresponding 3-alkoxy-2-halocyclohex-2-enones via a 1,4 alkyl group migration shown to be concerted and intramolecular. In the case of (S)-alpha-phenethyl chloride, the rearrangement proceeds with essentially 88.6% retention of configuration. Theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G level reveal an activation energy of 5.4 kcal/mol for the process. A Claisen-like rearrangement occurs in the case where allylic halides, such as dimethylallyl or methallyl chorides, are used. The mechanistic pathway proposed for these processes involves addition of the halogen atom of the alkyl or allyl halide to the rhodium carbenoid from the iodonium ylide to yield a halonium intermediate that undergoes halogen to oxygen group migration. Aryl halides, such as chloro-, bromo-, iodo-, and fluorobenzene, behave differently under the same reaction conditions, yielding the product of electrophilic aromatic substitution, namely, the 2-(4-halophenyl) 1,3-cyclohexanedione.

  7. Surface enhanced Raman spectral studies of 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, K.; Umadevi, M.; Sathe, G. V.; Vanelle, P.; Terme, T.; Khoumeri, O.

    2015-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple and inexpensive solution combustion method with urea as fuel. The structural and morphology of the silver nanoparticles were investigated through X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersion Spectra (EDS) techniques. Structural and morphological results confirmed the nanocrystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were also performed to study the ground and excited state behavior of 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-BrNQ) and 2-BrNQ on silver nanoparticles. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectra of 2-BrNQ adsorbed on silver nanoparticles were investigated. The Cdbnd O, Csbnd H in-plane bending and Csbnd Br stretching modes were enhanced in SERS spectrum with respect to normal Raman spectrum. The spectral analysis reveals that the 2-BrNQ adsorbed 'stand-on' orientation on the silver surface. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations are also performed to study the vibrational features of 2-BrNQ molecule and 2-BrNQ molecule on silver surface.

  8. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Guang; Yao Wang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan, E-mail: w-li@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-01-15

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm{sup 2} and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  9. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong Yi; Hwang, Chae Young; Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-09-21

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca(2+) signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca(2+)-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca(2+) channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca(2+) homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies.

  10. Hexaaquacopper(II bis(tetrafluoridoborate–pyrazine 1,4-dioxide (1/3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan L. Wikaira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, [Cu(H2O6](BF42·3C4H4N2O2, comprises discrete [Cu(H2O6]2+ cations and BF4− anions along with three equivalents of pyrazine 1,4-dioxide (pzdo. The hexaaquacopper(II ion and all three pzdo molecules lie about crystallographic inversion centers. The lattice is supported by an extensive hydrogen-bonding network. O—H...O hydrogen bonding between the [Cu(H2O6]2+ and pzdo units creates a pseudo-hexagonal lattice parallel to the bc plane. The BF4− anions lie in the voids of that lattice, held in place by O—H...F hydrogen bonds, and also generate BF4−–pzdo–BF4−–pzdo stacks via short F...N contacts [2.866 (3–3.283 (4 Å].

  11. Food intake and nutrition in children 1-4 years of age in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuanalo de la Cerda, Heriberto E; Ochoa Estrada, Ernesto; Tuz Poot, Felipe R; Datta Banik, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT in Spanish) reported high rates of under-nutrition in children of Yucatan. Is food intake the main cause of under-nutrition in children of the state of Yucatan, Mexico? Identify the primary causes of under-nutrition in pre-school children in Yucatan. A sample of 111 children (59 girls and 52 boys) aged 1-4 years representing Yucatan was taken from a database of ENSANUT 2006 and another national survey, a federal poverty mitigation programme for the state of Yucatan, Mexico entitled "Oportunidades". A human ecology approach together with life history theory was used to analyse anthropometric indices and food intake data from the ENSANUT 2006 and "Oportunidades". Height and weight were significantly correlated to age and total food intake. No correlations were found between age and anthropometric indices or food intake rates. The children in the sample had adequate protein intake but deficient energy intake. No correlation was identified between nutritional status and food intake rates. Pre-schoolers with higher weight-for-height values achieved greater height-for-age. These relationships can be explained by life history theory in that energy intake was used either for maintenance (combating and recovering from infections) or growth. The poor relationship between food intake rates and nutritional status is probably explained by the interaction between high disease incidence and insufficient energy intake. These conditions are endemic in Yucatan due to widespread poor housing, water and sanitation conditions.

  12. Ionothermal synthesis, structures, properties of cobalt-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zong-Hui; Xu, Ling; Jiao, Huan

    2016-06-01

    Eight kinds of 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium halide [RMI]X (R=ethyl (E), propyl (P), butyl (B) and amyl (A); MI = imidazolium; X= Cl-, I-) ionic liquids (ILs) were used as reaction media and obtained a series of 2D [RMI]2[Co3(BDC)3X2] frameworks through the ionothermal reactions of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) with Co(NO3)2·6H2O. The 2D [RMI]2[Co3(BDC)3X2] frameworks exhibit a same (3,6) topology network with [RMI]+ cations locating in the interlayer space. [RMI]+ cations play a template role in the structure constructions, whose influence combining with the effect of X- anions pass to the TG behaviors. The decomposition temperatures of the [RMI]2[Co3(BDC)3X2] frameworks decrease with the alkyl chains in [RMI]+ cations, and the compounds containing Cl- show higher thermal stabilities than those with I-. However, compounds 1-8 exhibit two similar broad emissions at ca. 380 and 390 nm, assigned to ILCT. The RMI+ templates and the X- anions do not exert their influence on the fluorescence.

  13. [Percentile curves on growth among breastfed 1-4 year olds in 8 urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, W W; Huang, X N; Wang, H S; Gong, L M; Xu, Y Q; Pan, X P; Jin, X

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To construct the growth percentile curves of weight-, length/height-, head circumference and BMI for 1 to 4 year-olds who had been breastfed in urban areas. Methods: Data was from the longitudinal study on 1 025 breastfed children aged 1 to 4 years, in 8 urban areas during 2008-2012. MLwiN2.25 was selected to construct the multi-level models of weight-for-age,length for-age, head circumference-for-age and BMI-for-age. The models included many growth relevant factors including gender, age, family and social demographic characteristics, perinatal factors, parent biological characteristics, dietary patterns and diseases of childen. Based on these models, predicted values (P(3), P(15), P(50), P(85), P(97)) were estimated to fit the percentiles reference curves. Results: The percentiles reference curves of weight-, length/height, head circumferenceand BMI-for-age for the 1-4 year-olds who had been breastfed in the urban areas were developed. Differences of all the indicators between boys and girls were statistically significant (Pgrowth, constructed by the longitudinal observational data and scientific method, were important in reflecting the development of breastfed children in urban areas.

  14. Trypanocidal Activity of Quinoxaline 1,4 Di-N-oxide Derivatives as Trypanothione Reductase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Fabiola Chacón-Vargas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is a worldwide public health problem. In this work, we evaluated 26 new propyl and isopropyl quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives as potential trypanocidal agents. Additionally, molecular docking and enzymatic assays on trypanothione reductase (TR were performed to provide a basis for their potential mechanism of action. Seven compounds showed better trypanocidal activity on epimastigotes than the reference drugs, and only four displayed activity on trypomastigotes; T-085 was the lead compound with an IC50 = 59.9 and 73.02 µM on NINOA and INC-5 strain, respectively. An in silico analysis proposed compound T-085 as a potential TR inhibitor with better affinity than the natural substrate. Enzymatic analysis revealed that T-085 inhibits parasite TR non-competitively. Compound T-085 carries a carbonyl, a CF3, and an isopropyl carboxylate group at 2-, 3- and 7-position, respectively. These results suggest the chemical structure of this compound as a good starting point for the design and synthesis of novel trypanocidal derivatives with higher TR inhibitory potency and lower toxicity.

  15. Adsorption and thermal stability of 1,4 benzenedimethanethiol on InP(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Leonardo Salazar; Cristina, Lucila J.; Jia, Juanjuan; Chen, Lin; Giglia, Angelo; Pasquali, Luca; Sánchez, Esteban A.; Esaulov, Vladimir A.; Grizzi, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    Self-assembly of dithiol molecules is of interest because these can be used as linkers between metallic or semiconductor entities and thus employed in molecular electronics and plasmonic applications, or for building complex heterostructures. Here we focus on dithiol self-assembly by evaporation in vacuum, a method that could circumvent the dithiol oxidation that can occur in solution. We present a high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and an ion scattering study of adsorption and desorption of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol on InP(110) as a function of exposure and sample temperature. Results for InP are compared to those on Au(111) and found to differ due to formation of a thick BDMT layer at room temperature, resulting from extra molecules sticking on top of the self-assembled monolayer. This may play an adverse effect in some afore-mentioned applications as in molecular electronics. We furthermore study the evolution of the dithiol film with sample temperature and the elements remaining at the surface after annealing and delineate initial coverage dependent effects.

  16. A planet in a polar orbit of 1.4 solar-mass star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although more than a thousand transiting extrasolar planets have been discovered, only very few of them orbit stars that are more massive than the Sun. The discovery of such planets is interesting, because they have formed in disks that are more massive but had a shorter life time than those of solar-like stars. Studies of planets more massive than the Sun thus tell us how the properties of the proto-planetary disks effect the formation of planets. Another aspect that makes these planets interesting is that they have kept their original orbital inclinations. By studying them we can thus find out whether the orbital axes planets are initially aligned to the stars rotational axes, or not. Here we report on the discovery of a planet of a 1.4 solar-mass star with a period of 5.6 days in a polar orbit made by CoRoT. This new planet thus is one of the few known close-in planets orbiting a star that is substantially more massive than the Sun.

  17. Discovery of radio emission from the symbiotic X-ray binary system GX 1+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnden, J.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Rupen, M. P.

    2018-02-01

    We report the discovery of radio emission from the accreting X-ray pulsar and symbiotic X-ray binary GX 1+4 with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. This is the first radio detection of such a system, wherein a strongly magnetized neutron star accretes from the stellar wind of an M-type giant companion. We measure a 9 GHz radio flux density of 105.3 ± 7.3 μJy, but cannot place meaningful constraints on the spectral index due to a limited frequency range. We consider several emission mechanisms that could be responsible for the observed radio source. We conclude that the observed properties are consistent with shocks in the interaction of the accretion flow with the magnetosphere, a synchrotron-emitting jet, or a propeller-driven outflow. The stellar wind from the companion is unlikely to be the origin of the radio emission. If the detected radio emission originates from a jet, it would show that strong magnetic fields (≥1012 G) do not necessarily suppress jet formation.

  18. Path Loss Channel Model for Inland River Radio Propagation at 1.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a propagation path loss model for inland river is proposed by three improvements compared with the Round Earth Loss (REL model for open-sea environment. Specifically, parameters optimization uses Okumura-Hata model in dB scale to replace the equation transformed from the free space loss in REL model; secondly, diffraction loss caused by the obstacles (e.g., large buildings, bridges, or some other facilities near the river bank is also taken into account; mixed-path methodology as another improvement is used for Inland River (IR model because the actual propagation environment between transmitter (TX antenna and receiver (RX antenna contains both land part and water part. The paper presents a set of 1.4 GHz measurements conducted along the Yangtze River in Wuhan. According to the comparison between path loss models and experimental results, IR model shows a good matching degree. After that, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Grey Relation Grade and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (GRG-MAPE, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (PCC-MAPE are employed to implement quantitative analysis. The results prove that IR model with consideration of mixed path and deterministic information is more accurate than other classic empirical propagation models for these scenarios.

  19. Structures and conformations of 1-aryl-1,4-dihydro-3(2 H)-isoquinolinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak-Wojciechowska, J.; Czylkowski, R.; Karczmarzyk, Z.; Paluchowska, M. H.; Rys, B.; Szneler, E.; Mokrosz, M. J.

    2002-06-01

    The X-ray crystal structures of series of 1-aryl-1,4-dihydro-3(2H)-isoquinolinones (1-7) have been determined. Lactame heterocyclic ring possesses more or less deformed boat conformation in all examined structures. The aryl substituent adopts the equatorial position in the structures 1-3 and the axial one in 5-7. In the structure of 4, due to extremely flattened heterocyclic ring, aryl substituent location can be named as bisectional. In all solved structures the molecules are joined into the dimers via two N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. At the same time, 1H NMR studies in DMSO-d6 solutions were accomplished and profound analysis of 2J, 3J, and 5J coupling constants have shown that in isoquinolinone system the heterocyclic ring adopts the boat conformation in all investigated compounds. The stereochemical orientations of the phenyl ring at C1 do not depend on the nature of the substituent but, exclusively, on the mode of substitution. However, three forms of undulated laktam heterocyclic ring conformation in respect of 1-aryl substituent positions were confirmed by calculation (conformational analysis).

  20. Formation of 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone from aromatic compounds after chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Koji; Nakai, Takahiko; Hishida, Yuta; Asami, Mari; Ohkubo, Keiko; Akiba, Michihiro

    2017-03-01

    Halobenzoquinones are a group of disinfection byproducts formed by chlorination of certain substances in water. However, to date, the identities of halobenzoquinone precursors remain unknown. In this study, the formation of 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), a typical halobenzoquinone, from 31 aromatic compounds was investigated after 60 min of chlorination. DCBQ was formed from 21 compounds at molar formation yields ranging from 0.0008% to 4.9%. Phenol and chlorinated phenols served as DCBQ precursors, as reported previously. Notably, DCBQ was also formed from para-substituted phenolic compounds. Compounds with alkyl and carboxyl groups as para-substituents led to relatively higher molar formation yields of DCBQ. Moreover, p-quinone-4-chloroimide, 2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide (2,6-DCQC), and para-substituted aromatic amines (e.g., aniline and N-methyl aniline) served as DCBQ precursors upon chlorination. It was deduced that DCBQ was formed from the para-substituted aromatic amines via 3,5-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide, a structural isomer of 2,6-DCQC. These results suggested that DCBQ was formed by chlorination of natural organic matter containing para-substituted phenolic species and para-substituted aromatic amines, despite the absence of phenol in water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergy between azoles and 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative as an option to control fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježíková, Zuzana; Pagáč, Tomáš; Pfeiferová, Barbora; Bujdáková, Helena; Dižová, Stanislava; Jančíková, Iva; Gášková, Dana; Olejníková, Petra

    2017-09-01

    With emerging fungal infections and developing resistance, there is a need for understanding the mechanisms of resistance as well as its clinical impact while planning the treatment strategies. Several approaches could be taken to overcome the problems arising from the management of fungal diseases. Besides the discovery of novel effective agents, one realistic alternative is to enhance the activity of existing agents. This strategy could be achieved by combining existing antifungal agents with other bioactive substances with known activity profiles (combination therapy). Azole antifungals are the most frequently used class of substances used to treat fungal infections. Fluconazole is often the first choice for antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to study potential synergy between azoles and 1,4-dihydropyridine-2,3,5-tricarboxylate (termed derivative H) in order to control fungal infections. This article points out the synergy between azoles and newly synthesized derivative H in order to fight fungal infections. Experiments confirmed the role of derivative H as substrate/inhibitor of fungal transporter Cdr1p relating to increased sensitivity to fluconazole. These findings, plus decreased expression of ERG11, are responsible for the synergistic effect.

  2. Volatility of the catalytic hydrogenation products of 1,4 bis(phenylethynyl)benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hom N.; Sangalang, Elizabeth A.; Saw, Cheng K.; Cairns, Gareth A.; McLean, William; Maxwell, Robert S.; Dinh, Long N.

    2017-11-01

    Measurements of equilibrium vapor pressures by effusion thermogravimetry and melting points by differential scanning calorimetry reveal that the melting temperature and equilibrium vapor pressures of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (DEB) do not vary monotonically with the hydrogenation extent. Contrary to intuition which suggests increasing volatility with hydrogenation, results indicate decreasing volatility for the first two hydrogenation steps before a non-monotonic upward trend, in which trans-isomers are less volatile. Insights on structural packing and functional groups were obtained from x-ray diffraction and infrared studies to shed light on the observed variation in the volatility of DEB with hydrogenation. Density functional theory calculations were performed to obtain molecular level information and to establish the thermodynamics of DEB hydrogenation reactions. A major factor influencing the observed melting points and volatility of the hydrogenated intermediate species is identified as the local attractive or repulsive carbon-hydrogen (CH) dipole interactions among the getter molecules in their respective crystal structures. Such collective CH dipole interactions can be used to predict the trends in the volatilities of catalytic hydrogenation processes.

  3. 2,2′-(Piperazine-1,4-diyldiethanaminium dibenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacy Cukrowski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt C8H22N42+·2C7H5O2−, comprises two independent pairs of half a 2,2′-(piperazine-1,4-diyldiethanaminium dication plus a benzoate anion. The dications are symmetrical and lie across crystallographic centres of inversion. The crystal structure was refined as a two-component pseudo-merohedral twin using the twin law 001 0-10 100 [he domain fractions are 0.8645 (8 and 0.1355 (8]. The anions and cations are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak N—H...O intermolecular interactions to form infinite two-dimensional networks parallel to [101]. The conformation adopted by the cation in the crystal structure is very similar to that adopted by the same cation in the structures of the 2-hydroxybenzoate [Cukrowski et al. (2012. Acta Cryst, E68, o2387], the nitrate and the tetrahydrogen pentaborate salts.

  4. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Physics Requirements and Experimental Conditions (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    How is the anticipated physics program of a future e+e- collider shaping the R&D for new detectors in collider particle physics ? This presentation will review the main physics requirements and experimental conditions comparing to LHC and LEP. In particular, I shall discuss how e+e- experimentation is expected to change moving from LEP-2 up to multi-TeV energies.

  5. myo-Inositol phosphorothioates, phosphatase-resistant analogues of myo-inositol phosphates. Synthesis of DL-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and DL-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphorothioate.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamblin, M R; Flora, J S; Potter, B V

    1987-01-01

    Syntheses of a metabolite of the second messenger myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, and an analogue, the 1,4-bisphosphorothioate, are reported, by using phosphite chemistry on (+/-)-1,2:4,5-di-isopropylidene-myo-inositol. The synthesis of (+/-)-1,2:4,5-di-isopropylidene 3,6-bis[di-(2-cyanoethyl)]phosphite provides an intermediate that can be oxidized to either the corresponding bisphosphate or bisphosphorothioate. myo-Inositol phosphorothioates are proposed as n...

  6. Activated Persulfate Treatment of 1,4-Dioxane in the Presence of Chlorinated Solvent Co-contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boving, T. T.; Eberle, D. E. H.; Ball, R.

    2014-12-01

    1,4-dioxane is an emerging groundwater contaminant and a likely human carcinogen. Due to its history as a stabilizer in chlorinated solvents, 1,4-dioxane is often found as a co-contaminant at solvent releases sites such as landfills, solvent recycling facilities, vapor decreasing operations, and fire-training areas. Historically, 1,4-dioxane was not routinely analyzed for at solvent release sites. The lack of analyses and the limitations of the analyses that were performed (i.e. high reporting limits) means that the scale of 1,4-dioxane subsurface contamination is still emerging. With the number of known 1,4-dioxane sites increasing, the need for cost effective 1,4-dioxane remediation technologies is rising as well. Remediation strategies that are capable of treating both 1,4-dioxane as well as chlorinated co-contaminants are of particular importance, especially when treating mixed-waste source zones. In the present study, we examined the fate of 1,4-dioxane during the targeted remediation of aqueous phase volatile organic compounds (VOC) using an activated persulfate based ISCO method (OxyZone®). Bench scale laboratory experiments are used to evaluate the treatability of 1,4-dioxane both as a single compound and in the presence of trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA). Possible dependencies on oxidant concentration and reaction kinetics were studied. Preliminary results are promising and show that OxyZone® is persistent and long lived, with oxidation of 1,4-dioxane continuing more than 12 days after initial dosage, even at dilute oxidant concentrations. The oxidative destruction of 1,4-dioxane, TCE and 1,1,1-TCA in single compound batch systems followed pseudo first order reaction kinetics. The rate of oxidation for each contaminant increased linearly with increasing persulfate concentration over the range of oxidant concentrations tested. The rate of oxidative destruction, from most easily degraded to least was: TCE > 1,4-Dioxane > 1

  7. Lineage-related cytotoxicity and clonogenic profile of 1,4-benzoquinone-exposed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Paik Wah [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey, E-mail: zyantey@ukm.edu.my [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chan, Kok Meng [Environmental Health and Industrial Safety Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan Hussain [Environmental Health and Industrial Safety Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Rajab, Nor Fadilah [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are sensitive targets for benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemogenesis. The impact of benzene exposure on the complex microenvironment of HSCs and HPCs remains elusive. This study aims to investigate the mechanism linking benzene exposure to targeting HSCs and HPCs using phenotypic and clonogenic analyses. Mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were exposed ex vivo to the benzene metabolite, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), for 24 h. Expression of cellular surface antigens for HSC (Sca-1), myeloid (Gr-1, CD11b), and lymphoid (CD45, CD3e) populations were confirmed by flow cytometry. The clonogenicity of cells was studied using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay for multilineage (CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM) and single-lineage (CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M) progenitors. 1,4-BQ demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in mouse BM cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased (p < 0.05) following 1,4-BQ exposure. Exposure to 1,4-BQ showed no significant effect on CD3e{sup +} cells but reduced the total counts of Sca-1{sup +}, CD11b{sup +}, Gr-1{sup +}, and CD45{sup +} cells at 7 and 12 μM (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the CFU assay showed reduced (p < 0.05) clonogenicity in 1,4-BQ-treated cells. 1,4-BQ induced CFU-dependent cytotoxicity by significantly inhibiting colony growth for CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M starting at a low concentration of exposure (5 μM); whereas for the CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM, the inhibition of colony growth was remarkable only at 7 and 12 μM of 1,4-BQ, respectively. Taken together, 1,4-BQ caused lineage-related cytotoxicity in mouse HPCs, demonstrating greater toxicity in single-lineage progenitors than in those of multi-lineage. - Highlights: • We examine 1,4-BQ toxicity targeting mouse hematopoietic cell lineages. • 1,4-BQ induces concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in bone marrow (BM) cells. • 1,4-BQ shows lineage-related toxicity on hematopoietic stem and

  8. Molecular Basis for Binding and Subtype Selectivity of 1,4-Benzodiazepine Antagonist Ligands of the Cholecystokinin Receptor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawston, Erin E.; Lam, Polo C. H.; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G.; Dong, Maoqing; Ball, Alicja M.; Augustine, Mary Lou; Akgün, Eyup; Portoghese, Philip S.; Orry, Andrew; Abagyan, Ruben; Sexton, Patrick M.; Miller, Laurence J.

    2012-01-01

    Allosteric binding pockets in peptide-binding G protein-coupled receptors create opportunities for the development of small molecule drugs with substantial benefits over orthosteric ligands. To gain insights into molecular determinants for this pocket within type 1 and 2 cholecystokinin receptors (CCK1R and CCK2R), we prepared a series of receptor constructs in which six distinct residues in TM2, -3, -6, and -7 were reversed. Two novel iodinated CCK1R- and CCK2R-selective 1,4-benzodiazepine antagonists, differing only in stereochemistry at C3, were used. When all six residues within CCK1R were mutated to corresponding CCK2R residues, benzodiazepine selectivity was reversed, yet peptide binding selectivity was unaffected. Detailed analysis, including observations of gain of function, demonstrated that residues 6.51, 6.52, and 7.39 were most important for binding the CCK1R-selective ligand, whereas residues 2.61 and 7.39 were most important for binding CCK2R-selective ligand, although the effect of substitution of residue 2.61 was likely indirect. Ligand-guided homology modeling was applied to wild type receptors and those reversing benzodiazepine binding selectivity. The models had high predictive power in enriching known receptor-selective ligands from related decoys, indicating a high degree of precision in pocket definition. The benzodiazepines docked in similar poses in both receptors, with C3 urea substituents pointing upward, whereas different stereochemistry at C3 directed the C5 phenyl rings and N1 methyl groups into opposite orientations. The geometry of the binding pockets and specific interactions predicted for ligand docking in these models provide a molecular framework for understanding ligand selectivity at these receptor subtypes. Furthermore, the strong predictive power of these models suggests their usefulness in the discovery of lead compounds and in drug development programs. PMID:22467877

  9. Material Property Correlations: Comparisons between FRAPCON-3.4, FRAPTRAN 1.4, and MATPRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Geelhood, Kenneth J.

    2010-08-01

    Sections 3 and 4, respectively. In addition to describing the material property correlations used in the subroutines of FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN, this report also provides a variety of comparisons between material property correlations and data. Although they are frequently identical, comparisons are made between the material property correlations used in the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN codes. Comparisons are also made between the material property correlations used in MATPRO, a compilation of fuel and cladding material property correlations with an extensive history of used with various fuel performance and severe accident codes. For a number of reasons, consistency between the material property correlations in FRAPCON-3, FRAPTRAN, and MATPRO has never been complete. However, the current versions of FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN use a relatively consistent set of correlations for the properties that are used by both codes. The material property correlations in the most recent version of MATPRO are documented in Volume 4 of NUREG/CR-6150. In addition to comparison of the various correlations, correlation-to-data comparisons are also made with FRAPCON-3, FRAPTRAN, and MATPRO. All comparisons made in this report are based on the material property correlations used in the most recent version of the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN codes, FRAPCON-3.4 and FRAPTRAN 1.4. The source code for each material property correlation discussed will be provided for FRAPCON-3.4 and FRAPTRAN 1.4 (see appendix) as well as a range of applicability and an estimate of uncertainty where possible.

  10. Assessment of the nutritional value daily food rations of children aged 1-4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Katarzyna; Wójciak, Rafał Wojciech; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    An adequately balanced daily food rations (DFR) providing the organism with a sufficient amount of energy and nutrients, including minerals, is particularly important in infanthood and early childhood due to the child's intensive physical, intellectual and motoric development. The aim of this study was to evaluation the supply of energy, nutrients and vitamins in daily food rations of children fed at home and in nursery schools. 75 children aged 1-4 years were the research subjects. They were divided into three age subgroups: 12-24-month-olds, 25-36-month-olds and 37-48-month-olds. The daily consumption of energy and vitamins was assessed by means of a 7-day 24-hour nutritional interview made with current note taking and by means of a computer database (Dietetyk 2). Significant differences in the content of energy, nutrients and vitamins in the DFR were investigated using the two-way analysis of variance (Statistica 10.0) at significance level p≤0.05. Neither the children's sex nor age had influence on the intake of energy and macronutrients. Apart from the amount of energy (68-101.8% RDA) and proteins (183-288% RDA) these values were generally normal, but they had influence on the content of vitamins in the DFR. The DFR was characterised by generally excessive content of vitamins A, B(2), B(6) and B(12). However, in comparison with the RDA the intake was significantly higher in the DFR of the youngest children (12-24 months old). In the group aged 37-48 months there were significantly higher values in the intake of vitamins B(2) (317% vs 137% RDA) and B6 (334% vs 147% RDA). On the other hand, in comparison with the RDA, the DFR provided too small amounts of vitamins D, E, folates and vitamin C. The DFR of the youngest children (12-24 months old) contained significantly greater amounts of vitamins: D (41.3% vs 16.2% RDA), E (83.6% vs 63.5% RDA) and C (102.0% vs 48.6% RDA), as compared with the children aged 37-48 months. Only the content of vitamins B(1) and PP

  11. In search of CS2(H2O)(n=1-4) clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Karl N; Hartt, Gregory M; Evans, Timothy M; Shields, George C

    2007-04-21

    Gaussian-3 and MP2/aug-cc-pVnZ methods have been used to calculate geometries and thermochemistry of CS(2)(H2O)n, where n=1-4. An extensive molecular dynamics search followed by optimization using these two methods located two dimers, six trimers, six tetramers, and two pentamers. The MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ structure matched best with the experimental result for the CS(2)(H2O) dimer, showing that diffuse functions are necessary to model the interactions found in this complex. For larger CS(2)(H2O)n clusters, the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ minima are significantly different from the MP2(full)6-31G* structures, revealing that the G3 model chemistry is not suitable for investigation of sulfur containing van der Waals complexes. Based on the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ free energies, the concentration of saturated water in the atmosphere and the average amount of CS(2) in the atmosphere, the concentrations of these clusters are predicted to be on the order of 10(5) CS(2)(H2O) clusters.cm(-3) and 10(2) CS(2)(H2O)(2) clusters.cm(-3) at 298.15 K. The MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ scaled harmonic and anharmonic frequencies of the most abundant dimer cluster at 298 K are presented, along with the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ scaled harmonic frequencies for the CS(2)(H(2)O)(n) structures predicted to be present in a low-temperature molecular beam experiment.

  12. Crystal Structure of the Catalytic Domain of Drosophila [beta]1,4-Galactosyltransferase-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Qasba, Pradman K. (NIH)

    2010-11-03

    The {beta}1,4-galactosyltransferase-7 ({beta}4Gal-T7) enzyme, one of seven members of the {beta}4Gal-T family, transfers in the presence of manganese Gal from UDP-Gal to an acceptor sugar (xylose) that is attached to a side chain hydroxyl group of Ser/Thr residues of proteoglycan proteins. It exhibits the least protein sequence similarity with the other family members, including the well studied family member {beta}4Gal-T1, which, in the presence of manganese, transfers Gal from UDP-Gal to GlcNAc. We report here the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of {beta}4Gal-T7 from Drosophila in the presence of manganese and UDP at 1.81 {angstrom} resolution. In the crystal structure, a new manganese ion-binding motif (HXH) has been observed. Superposition of the crystal structures of {beta}4Gal-T7 and {beta}4Gal-T1 shows that the catalytic pocket and the substrate-binding sites in these proteins are similar. Compared with GlcNAc, xylose has a hydroxyl group (instead of an N-acetyl group) at C2 and lacks the CH{sub 2}OH group at C5; thus, these protein structures show significant differences in their acceptor-binding site. Modeling of xylose in the acceptor-binding site of the {beta}4Gal-T7 crystal structure shows that the aromatic side chain of Tyr{sup 177} interacts strongly with the C5 atom of xylose, causing steric hindrance to any additional group at C5. Because Drosophila Cd7 has a 73% protein sequence similarity to human Cd7, the present crystal structure offers a structure-based explanation for the mutations in human Cd7 that have been linked to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

  13. 1:4 matched case-control study on influential factor of early onset neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Ye, G-Y

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria, funghi, viruses and protozoa can lead to neonatal sepsis. Neonatal sepsis is the leading cause of infectious disease onset and death in many neonates. To explore the major risk factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis and provide a scientific basis for strategies of early-onset neonatal sepsis prevention. A 1:4 matched case-control study was adopted and 147 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the univariate and multivariate data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Univariate analysis shows that the impact factors on the occurrence of early-onset neonatal sepsis include the following: Maternal age > 35, mother having fixed occupation, mother of urban residence, abnormal fetal position, fetal times, parity, caesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, amniotic fluid volume abnormalities, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abnormalities, fetal distress, newborn gender, low birth weight infants, neonatal Apgar scoring at one and five minutes, neonatal jaundice, wet lung, anemia, IVH, and premature infant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age > 35 (OR = 4.835, OR 95% CI = 1.170-19.981), cesarean section (OR = 0.103, OR 95% CI = 0.041-0.258), premature rupture of membranes (OR = 0.207, OR 95% CI = 0.078-0.547), premature infants (OR = 0.059, OR 95% CI = 0.010-0.329) and newborn jaundice (OR = 0.092, OR 95% CI = 0.021-0.404) were the factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Early-onset neonatal sepsis could be affected by multi-factors, and targeted prevention may reduce the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis rates.

  14. Ionothermal synthesis, structures, properties of cobalt-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate metal–organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zong-Hui [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, Shaanxi Province (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fsuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, Shaanxi Province (China); Jiao, Huan, E-mail: jiaohuan@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2016-06-15

    Eight kinds of 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium halide [RMI]X (R=ethyl (E), propyl (P), butyl (B) and amyl (A); MI = imidazolium; X= Cl{sup −}, I{sup −}) ionic liquids (ILs) were used as reaction media and obtained a series of 2D [RMI]{sub 2}[Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}X{sub 2}] frameworks through the ionothermal reactions of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}BDC) with Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O. The 2D [RMI]{sub 2}[Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}X{sub 2}] frameworks exhibit a same (3,6) topology network with [RMI]{sup +} cations locating in the interlayer space. [RMI]{sup +} cations play a template role in the structure constructions, whose influence combining with the effect of X{sup −} anions pass to the TG behaviors. The decomposition temperatures of the [RMI]{sub 2}[Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}X{sub 2}] frameworks decrease with the alkyl chains in [RMI]{sup +} cations, and the compounds containing Cl{sup −} show higher thermal stabilities than those with I{sup −}. However, compounds 1–8 exhibit two similar broad emissions at ca. 380 and 390 nm, assigned to ILCT. The RMI{sup +} templates and the X{sup −} anions do not exert their influence on the fluorescence. - Graphical abstract: Eight 2D [RMI]{sub 2}[Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}X{sub 2}] compounds were synthesized through ionothermal reactions. [RMI]{sup +} cations play a template role in the structure constructions, and tune the TG behaviors combining with the effect of X{sup −} anions. Display Omitted.

  15. Novel 1,4-naphthoquinone-based sulfonamides: Synthesis, QSAR, anticancer and antimalarial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingaew, Ratchanok; Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-10-20

    A novel series of 1,4-naphthoquinones (33-44) tethered by open and closed chain sulfonamide moieties were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic and antimalarial activities. All quinone-sulfonamide derivatives displayed a broad spectrum of cytotoxic activities against all of the tested cancer cell lines including HuCCA-1, HepG2, A549 and MOLT-3. Most quinones (33-36 and 38-43) exerted higher anticancer activity against HepG2 cell than that of the etoposide. The open chain analogs 36 and 42 were shown to be the most potent compounds. Notably, the restricted sulfonamide analog 38 with 6,7-dimethoxy groups exhibited the most potent antimalarial activity (IC₅₀ = 2.8 μM). Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study was performed to reveal important chemical features governing the biological activities. Five constructed QSAR models provided acceptable predictive performance (Rcv 0.5647-0.9317 and RMSEcv 0.1231-0.2825). Four additional sets of structurally modified compounds were generated in silico (34a-34d, 36a-36k, 40a-40d and 42a-42k) in which their activities were predicted using the constructed QSAR models. A comprehensive discussion of the structure-activity relationships was made and a set of promising compounds (i.e., 33, 36, 38, 42, 36d, 36f, 42e, 42g and 42f) was suggested for further development as anticancer and antimalarial agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and coronary artery disease risk: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongshu; Jiang, Weihong; Ouyang, Mao; Yang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G polymorphism and this association with coronary artery disease (CAD). But definite conclusions can not be drawn. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 10 August 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 53 studies including 20921 CAD cases and 18434 controls were included. Significantly elevated CAD risk was found in overall analysis (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05-1.21, P = 0.0009). In the subgroup analysis by races, significantly increased risk was found in Caucasians (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.20, P = 0.005) and Asians (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.42, P = 0.04). In the subgroup analysis by gender, significant association was found in males (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.25, P = 0.0008), but was not found in females (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92-1.20, P = 0.47). In the subgroup analysis by age, young populations showed increased CAD risk (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.37, P = 0.02), but old populations did not show this association (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.82-1.24, P = 0.93). This meta-analysis provides the evidence that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may contribute to the CAD development. PMID:25932140

  17. The levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in 1,4-dichlorobenzene mothballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui; Xing, Ying; Wang, Dongshen; Zhao, Xingru; Gao, Lirong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences

    2004-09-15

    The chemical 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), also called paramoth, is one of the chemicals commonly used to make mothballs. For the more than 20 years, p-DCB has been used principally (35-55% of all uses) as a space deodorant for toilets and refuse containers, and as a fumigant for control of moths, molds, and mildews. The process of production of p-DCB currently used by industry is direct chlorination of benzene or chlorobenzene in the presence of a Friedel-Crafts catalyst (typically FeCl{sub 3}), and the pure products of p-DCB are obtained by distillation and crystallization from the mixture of polychlorinated benzenes. This process is similar to that of production of PCBs which were manufactured commercially by the progressive chlorination of biphenyl in the presence of a suitable catalyst, e.g., iron chloride. However, few studies on the formation of PCBs from chlorobenzenes have been published. Buser reported significant quantities of PCDFs and a small amount of PCDDs, PCBs, and chlorophenols were formed in the pyrolysis of chlorobenzenes at 620 C. Peng-Yan Liu et al. revealed that lower chlorinated benzenes produce more PCBs than higher ones. Nevertheless, prior to this study, no reports on PCBs in p-DCB and the restriction of PCBs in p-DCB products have been found. In this paper, the occurrence and distribution of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs in some commercial p-DCB mothballs are investigated. Except of the toxic of p-DCB, the low concentration of PCBs in p-DCB mothballs should not be negligible.

  18. 1,4-Dioxane pollution at contaminated groundwater sites in western Germany and its distribution within a TCE plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karges, Ursula; Becker, Johannes; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2018-04-01

    An effective and sensitive method for the analysis of 1,4-dioxane in water has been available since 2008 (EPA 522). This method is increasingly being applied to investigate the distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment. However, there is a need for more information about the possible occurrence of 1,4-dioxane in groundwater in Europe in general, and in Germany in particular, where virtually no data have been collected so far. The possible contamination of groundwater with 1,4-dioxane is of relevance to Germany because up to 70% of Germany's drinking water is obtained from groundwater and about 17% from river bank filtrate, which contains variable proportions of groundwater. The aim of the present study is to investigate selected and representative groundwater sites in Germany that have suspected occurrences of 1,4-dioxane. Five of the sites are well known for their volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination, two sites have representative landfill leachate characteristics, and one site is negatively impacted by a detergent manufacturing plant. The presence of 1,4-dioxane was observed at each of these sites. Measured maximum concentration values ranged from 0.15μg/L to 152μg/L. An aquifer containing a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume with 1,4-dioxane as a co-contaminant was investigated in more detail. A perfect match was found between the concentrations of 1,4-dioxane and TCE in the vertical and horizontal distribution profiles. The results indicate the necessity for investigating groundwater contamination by 1,4-dioxane at sites with known 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and TCE contaminations, in landfill leachates, and at sites of detergent production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutral and Cationic Rare Earth Metal Alkyl and Benzyl Compounds with the 1,4,6-Trimethyl-6-pyrrolidin-1-yl-1,4-diazepane Ligand and Their Performance in the Catalytic Hydroamination/Cyclization of Aminoalkenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, Shaozhong; Meetsma, Auke; Hessen, Bart

    2008-01-01

    A new neutral tridentate 1,4,6-trimethyl-6-pyrrolidin-1-yl-1,4-diazepane (L) was prepared. Reacting L with trialkyls M(CH(2)SiMC(3))(3)(THF)(2) (M = Sc, Y) and tribenzyls M(CH(2)Ph)(3)(THF)(3) (M = Sc, La) yielded trialkyl complexes (L)M(CH(2)SiMe(3))(3) (M = Sc, 1; M = Y, 2) and tribenzyl complexes

  20. A case of pervasive developmental disorder with chromosomal translocation 1-4 Um caso de transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento com translocação cromossômica 1-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Tarelho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old girl is described as pervasive developmental disorder associated to chromosome 1-4 translocation, being such association not described till this moment in specialized literature.Descrevemos uma menina de 5 anos de idade portadora de transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento associado a translocação dos cromossomos 1-4, associação essa não descrita na literatura especializada até o presente momento.

  1. Short-chain grafting of tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-dioxane cycles on vinylchloride-maleic anhydride copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass increase of vinylchloride-maleic anhydride (VC-MA copolymer samples aged in tetrahydrofuran (THF or in 1,4-dioxane results from chemical interaction of VC-MA macromolecules with 1,4-dioxane or THF. Microstructure of the products of such modification was proved by infrared spectroscopy (IR- and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR and 1H NMR. Mechanism of modification has been proposed. The results of microstructure research of VC-MA samples aged in THF and in 1,4-dioxane coincide with already known data on the reactions of opening of these and other oxygen-containing cycles under mild conditions.

  2. NLO properties of 1, 4-naphthoquinone, Juglone and Lawsone by DFT and Z-scan technique - A detailed study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mande, Prashant; Mathew, Elizabeth; Chitrambalam, Subramaniyan; Joe, Isaac H.; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2017-10-01

    1, 4-Naphthoquinone, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (Lawsone) and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (Juglone) have been investigated for their nonlinear optical (NLO) properties using Z-scan technique and Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. The Z-scan results show that all the three compounds have appreciable NLO properties. Among the three molecules Juglone showed the highest static hyperpolarizability value. The functional CAM-B3LYP performed better than BHHLYP and B3LYP in computing NLO properties. Solvent environment plays a decisive role in NLO properties of naphthoquinone derivatives. Polar solvent environment enhanced the NLO characteristics.

  3. Dynamic quenching study of 2-amino-3-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone by titanium dioxide nano particles in solution (methanol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpam, S; Kottaisamy, M; Ramakrishnan, V

    2013-10-01

    The dependence of fluorescence emission of 2-amino-3-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone on titanium dioxide (TiO2) in methanol has been investigated. The increase in TiO2 concentration causes a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of 2-amino-3-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone. A linear Stern-Volmer plot in this study indicates the presence of dynamic quenching. The quenching and association constants have been calculated. The quenching process is due to the electron transfer from 2-amino-3-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone to TiO2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Crystal structure of a one-dimensional coordination polymer of tin(IV) bromide with 1,4-dithiane

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Reuter; Natalia Röwekamp-Krugley; Marius Imwalle; Simona Keil; Martin Reichelt

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [SnBr4(C4H8S2)] {systematic name: catena-poly[[tetrabromidotin(IV)]-μ-1,4-dithiane-κ2S:S′]}, represents the first 1,4-dithiane complex with tin as coordination centre. The asymmetric unit consist of half a formula unit with the tin(IV) atom at the centre of symmetry at 0,0,1/2 (Wyckoff symbol b) and a centrosymmetric 1,4-dithiane molecule with the centre of symmetry in 1/2,0,1 (Wyckoff symbol c). The tin(IV) atom is coordinated in a distorted octahedral manner by the four ...

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1.4GHz observations of Stripe 82 (Hodge+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H.; White, R. L.; Richards, G. T.; Zeimann, G. R.

    2015-07-01

    The data were collected over two VLA cycles (2007-2008 and 2008-2009). The majority of the observations were taken in the A-configuration, but we also obtained B-configuration coverage of the area to improve the sampling of the Fourier (U-V) plane and increase sensitivity to the extended structure. In the first cycle, we were awarded scheduled A-configuration time (Program ID AR646), and the B-configuration time (AR659) was all collected dynamically through the queue. In the second cycle, we were awarded both the A- and B-configuration time as dynamic time (AR685). (2 data files).

  6. Assess 1. 01a (5 1/4 inch diskette) (for microcomputers). Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    ASSESS is an interactive program designed to assist the user in statistically determining the quality of data from soil samples taken at a hazardous waste site. The user-friendly program was created to assess precision and bias in the sampling of soils. The total error in a sampling regimen is the sum of measurement variability and natural variability of the contamination. It is the field scientist's challenge to mitigate the measurement variability by careful sample-taking, thoughtful sampling design, and the use of recommended quality assessment samples. The greatest potential for error, both random and bias, is in the sampling step. Field conditions, tool contamination, operator differences, all can affect variability and bias in a sample before it gets to the analytical step. The value of ASSESS is its ability to detect and isolate error at critical steps in the sampling and measurement function. ASSESS plots graphics directly on the screen to give the user a quick look at data or results.

  7. Development of quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxides resistance in Escherichia coli and molecular change under resistance selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Guo

    Full Text Available Quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxides (QdNOs has been used in animals as antimicrobial agents and growth promoters for decades. However, the resistance to QdNOs in pathogenic bacteria raises worldwide concern but it is barely known. To explore the molecular mechanism involved in development of QdNOs resistance in Escherichia coli, 6 strains selected by QdNOs in vitro and 21 strains isolated from QdNOs-used swine farm were subjected to MIC determination and PCR amplification of oqxA gene. A conjugative transfer was carried out to evaluate the transfer risk of QdNOs resistant determinant. Furthermore, the transcriptional profile of a QdNOs-resistant E. coli (79O4-2 selected in vitro with its parent strain 79-161 was assayed with a prokaryotic suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH PCR cDNA subtraction. The result showed that more than 95% (20/21 clinical isolates were oqxA positive, while all the 6 induced QdNOs-resistant strains carried no oqxA gene and exhibited low frequency of conjugation. 44 fragments were identified by SSH PCR subtraction in the QdNOs-resistant strain 79O4-2. 18 cDNAs were involved in biosynthesis of Fe-S cluster (narH, protein (rpoA, trmD, truA, glyS, ileS, rplFCX, rpsH, fusA, lipoate (lipA, lipid A (lpxC, trehalose (otsA, CTP(pyrG and others molecular. The 11 cDNAs were related to metabolism or degradation of glycolysis (gpmA and pgi and proteins (clpX, clpA, pepN and fkpB. The atpADG and ubiB genes were associated with ATP biosynthesis and electron transport chain. The pathway of the functional genes revealed that E. coli may adapt the stress generated by QdNOs or develop specific QdNOs-resistance by activation of antioxidative agents biosynthesis (lipoate and trehalose, protein biosynthesis, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. This study initially reveals the possible molecular mechanism involved in the development of QdNOs-resistance in E. coli, providing with novel insights in prediction and assessment of the emergency

  8. Galaxy kinematics in the XMMU J2235-2557 cluster field at z 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, J. M.; Ziegler, B.; Verdugo, M.; Böhm, A.; Tanaka, M.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: The relationship between baryonic and dark components in galaxies varies with the environment and cosmic time. Galaxy scaling relations describe strong trends between important physical properties. A very important quantitative tool in case of spiral galaxies is the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR), which combines the luminosity of the stellar population with the characteristic rotational velocity (Vmax) taken as proxy for the total mass. In order to constrain galaxy evolution in clusters, we need measurements of the kinematic status of cluster galaxies at the starting point of the hierarchical assembly of clusters and the epoch when cosmic star formation peaks. Methods: We took spatially resolved slit FORS2 spectra of 19 cluster galaxies at z 1.4, and 8 additional field galaxies at 1 photometric campaigns as [OII] and Hα emitters. Our spectroscopy was complemented with HST/ACS imaging in the F775W and F850LP filters, which is mandatory to derive the galaxy structural parameters accurately. We analyzed the ionized gas kinematics by extracting rotation curves from the two-dimensional spectra. Taking into account all geometrical, observational, and instrumental effects, we used these rotation curves to derive the intrinsic maximum rotation velocity. Results: Vmax was robustly determined for six cluster galaxies and three field galaxies. Galaxies with sky contamination or insufficient spatial rotation curve extent were not included in our analysis. We compared our sample to the local B-band TFR and the local velocity-size relation (VSR), finding that cluster galaxies are on average 1.6 mag brighter and a factor 2-3 smaller. We tentatively divided our cluster galaxies by total mass (I.e., Vmax) to investigate a possible mass dependency in the environmental evolution of galaxies. The averaged deviation from the local TFR is ⟨ ΔMB ⟩ = -0.7 for the high-mass subsample (Vmax > 200 km s-1). This mild evolution may be driven by younger stellar populations (SP) of

  9. Sperm from beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I-null mice exhibit precocious capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheffer, Carey; Shur, Barry D

    2004-02-01

    Mammalian sperm must undergo a physiological maturation, termed capacitation, before they are able to fertilize eggs. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying capacitation are poorly understood. In this paper, we describe the capacitation phenotype of sperm lacking the long isoform of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I (GalT I), a sperm surface protein that functions as a receptor for the zona pellucida glycoprotein, ZP3, and as an inducer of the acrosome reaction following ZP3-dependent aggregation. As expected, wild-type sperm must undergo capacitation in order to bind the zona pellucida and undergo a Ca(2+) ionophore-induced acrosome reaction. By contrast, GalT I-null sperm behave as though they are precociously capacitated, in that they demonstrate maximal binding to the zona pellucida and greatly increased sensitivity to ionophore-induced acrosome reactions without undergoing capacitation in vitro. The loss of GalT I from sperm results in an inability to bind epididymal glycoconjugates that normally maintain sperm in an 'uncapacitated' state; removing these decapacitating factors from wild-type sperm phenocopies the capacitation behavior of GalT I-null sperm. Interestingly, capacitation of GalT I-null sperm is independent of the presence of albumin, Ca(2+) and HCO(3)(-); three co-factors normally required by wild-type sperm to achieve capacitation. This implies that intracellular targets of albumin, Ca(2+) and/or HCO(3)(-) may be constitutively active in GalT I-null sperm. Consistent with this, GalT I-null sperm have increased levels of cAMP that correlate closely with both the accelerated kinetics and co-factor-independence of GalT I-null sperm capacitation. By contrast, the kinetics of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and sperm motility are unaltered in mutant sperm relative to wild-type. These data suggest that GalT I may function as a negative regulator of capacitation in the sperm head by suppressing intracellular signaling pathways that

  10. Formation, Location, and Regulation of Endo-1,4-β-Glucanases and β-Glucosidases from Cellulomonas uda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppok, Waltraud; Rapp, Peter; Wagner, Fritz

    1982-01-01

    The formation and location of endo-1,4-β-glucanases and β-glucosidases were studied in cultures of Cellulomonas uda grown on microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, printed newspaper, and some mono- or disaccharides. Endo-1,4-Glucanases were found to be extracellular, but a very small amount of cell-bound endo-1,4-β-glucanase was considered to be the basal endoglucanase level of the cells. The formation of extracellular endo-1,4-β-glucanases was induced by cellobiose and repressed by glucose. Extracellular endoglucanase activity was inhibited by cellobiose but not by glucose. β-Glucosidases, on the other hand, were formed constitutively and found to be cell bound. β-Glucosidase activity was inhibited noncompetitively by glucose. Some characteristics such as the optimal pH for and the thermostability of the endoglucanases and β-glucosidases and the end products of cellulose degradation were determined. PMID:16346067

  11. Neutraalne kaasabi ja kaasaaitamise ebaõigussisu. Riigikohtu kriminaalkolleegiumi otsus 3-1-1-4-12 / Jaan Sootak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sootak, Jaan, 1948-

    2012-01-01

    Riigikohtu otsusest 3-1-1-4-12, mis selgitab, et mitte igasugune objektiivselt põhitegu soodustav ja subjektiivselt tahtlikult toime pandud tegu ei ole kaasaaitamine. Ründamise teooriast, riskiteooriast ning deliktilise olemusseose ja professionaalse adekvaatsuse teooriatest

  12. Rhodium(I-Complexes Catalyzed 1,4-Conjugate Addition of Arylzinc Chlorides to N-Boc-4-pyridone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghai Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhodium(I-complexes catalyzed the 1,4-conjugate addition of arylzinc chlorides to N-Boc-4-pyridone in the presence of chlorotrimethylsilane (TMSCl. A combination of [RhCl(C2H42]2 and BINAP was determined to be the most effective catalyst to promote the 1,4-conjugate addition reactions of arylzinc chlorides to N-Boc-4-pyridone. A broad scope of arylzinc reagents with both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents on the aromatic ring successfully underwent 1,4-conjugate addition to N-Boc-4-pyridone to afford versatile 1,4-adducts 2-substituted-2,3-dihydropyridones in good to excellent yields (up to 91% and excellent ee (up to 96% when (S-BINAP was used as chiral ligand.

  13. Synthesis of Substituted 1,4-Diazepines and 1,5-Benzodiazepines Using an Efficient Heteropolyacid-Catalyzed Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihame Benadji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and improved procedure for the synthesis of 1,4-diazepine and 1,5-benzodiazepine derivatives via the reaction of ketimine intermediates with aldehydes in the presence of Keggin-type heteropolyacids (HPAs was developed. High yields and short reaction times were obtained for both electron-releasing and electron-withdrawing substituted 1,4-diazepine  and 1,5-benzodiazepines derivatives.

  14. Synthesis of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and evaluation of cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Mauro G.; Camara, Celso A.; Silva, Tania M.S., E-mail: ccelso@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (LSCB/UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares. Lab. de Sintese de Compostos Bioativos; Feitosa, Anderson C.S.; Meira, Assuero S.; Pessoa, Claudia [Universidade Federal do Ceara (LOE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia. Lab. de Oncologia Experimental

    2013-09-15

    A series of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives was synthesized from 2,3-dibromo- 1,4-naphthoquinone and various functionalized terminal alkynes using palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The diynes were evaluated as potential cytotoxic agents against three tumor cell lines: human ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-8), human metastatic prostate cancer (PC-3M) and human bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma (NCI-H358M), presenting, in general, satisfactory results for inhibition of cell growth. (author)

  15. Combining CRISPR and CRISPRi Systems for Metabolic Engineering of E. coli and 1,4-BDO Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ying; Sung, Li-Yu; Li, Hung; Huang, Chun-Hung; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2017-12-15

    Biosynthesis of 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BDO) in E. coli requires an artificial pathway that involves six genes and time-consuming, iterative genome engineering. CRISPR is an effective gene editing tool, while CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) is repurposed for programmable gene suppression. This study aimed to combine both CRISPR and CRISPRi for metabolic engineering of E. coli and 1,4-BDO production. We first exploited CRISPR to perform point mutation of gltA, replacement of native lpdA with heterologous lpdA, knockout of sad and knock-in of two large (6.0 and 6.3 kb in length) gene cassettes encoding the six genes (cat1, sucD, 4hbd, cat2, bld, bdh) in the 1,4-BDO biosynthesis pathway. The successive E. coli engineering enabled production of 1,4-BDO to a titer of 0.9 g/L in 48 h. By combining the CRISPRi system to simultaneously suppress competing genes that divert the flux from the 1,4-BDO biosynthesis pathway (gabD, ybgC and tesB) for >85%, we further enhanced the 1,4-BDO titer for 100% to 1.8 g/L while reducing the titers of byproducts gamma-butyrolactone and succinate for 55% and 83%, respectively. These data demonstrate the potential of combining CRISPR and CRISPRi for genome engineering and metabolic flux regulation in microorganisms such as E. coli and production of chemicals (e.g., 1,4-BDO).

  16. Statistics for the LHC: Quantifying our Scientific Narrative (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Now that the LHC physics program is well under way and results have begun to pour out of the experiments, the statistical methodology used for these results is a hot topic. This is a challenge at the LHC, as we have sensitivity to discover new physics in a stage of the experiments where systematic uncertainties can still be quite large. The emphasis of these lectures is how we can translate the scientific narrative of why we think we know what we know into quantitative statistical statements about the presence or absence of new physics. Topics will include statistical modeling, incorporation of control samples to constrain systematics, and Bayesian and Frequentist statistical tests that are capable of answering these questions.

  17. Recognition of the Helical Structure of β-1,4-Galactan by a New Family of Carbohydrate-binding Modules*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Melissa; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg; Kaneko, Satoshi; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Willats, William G. T.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

    2010-01-01

    The microbial enzymes that depolymerize plant cell wall polysaccharides, ultimately promoting energy liberation and carbon recycling, are typically complex in their modularity and often contain carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Here, through analysis of an unknown module from a Thermotoga maritima endo-β-1,4-galactanase, we identify a new family of CBMs that are most frequently found appended to proteins with β-1,4-galactanase activity. Polysaccharide microarray screening, immunofluorescence microscopy, and biochemical analysis of the isolated module demonstrate the specificity of the module, here called TmCBM61, for β-1,4-linked galactose-containing ligands, making it the founding member of family CBM61. The ultra-high resolution x-ray crystal structures of TmCBM61 (0.95 and 1.4 Å resolution) in complex with β-1,4-galactotriose reveal the molecular basis of the specificity of the CBM for β-1,4-galactan. Analysis of these structures provides insight into the recognition of an unexpected helical galactan conformation through a mode of binding that resembles the recognition of starch. PMID:20826814

  18. Membrane pore architecture of the CslF6 protein controls (1-3,1-4)-β-glucan structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Stephen A

    2015-06-01

    The cereal cell wall polysaccharide (1-3,1-4)-β-glucan is a linear polymer of glucose containing both β1-3 and β1-4 bonds. The structure of (1-3,1-4)-β-glucan varies between different cereals and during plant growth and development, but little is known about how this is controlled. The cellulose synthase-like CslF6 protein is an integral membrane protein and a major component of the (1-3,1-4)-β-glucan synthase. I show that a single amino acid within the predicted transmembrane pore domain of CslF6 controls (1-3,1-4)-β-glucan structure. A new mechanism for the control of the polysaccharide structure is proposed where membrane pore architecture and the translocation of the growing polysaccharide across the membrane control how the acceptor glucan is coordinated at the active site and thus the proportion of β1-3 and β1-4 bonds within the polysaccharide.

  19. Regulation of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan synthesis in developing endosperm of barley lys mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism behind altered content of (1,3:1,4)-beta-D-glucan was investigated in developing endosperm of barley lys3 and lys5 mutants. Both types of mutants are primarily affected in starch biosynthesis, and hence effects on (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan are likely to be pleiotropic. The mutant...... alleles lys5f and lys5g exerted pronounced effects on the cell wall with increased level of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan content. The low-starch high-(1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan phenotype was most pronounced in lys5f. Among the Cellulose Synthase-Like (CSL) gene members belonging to the families CSLF and CSLH......, which all encode (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan synthase proteins, CSLF6 was by far the highest expressed in the wild type, whereas both lys5f and lys5g exhibited a decreased level of CSLF6 transcript. Thus, the lys5 mutants have increased (1,3:1,4)-beta-D-glucan level in spite of lower transcript levels...

  20. Isostatic compaction of beaker shaped bentonite blocks on the scale 1:4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Nord, Sven [Ifoe Ceramics AB, Bromoella (Sweden ); Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of the present work is to test, on a scale of 1:4, the feasibility of manufacturing bentonite blocks by isostatic compaction for application as a buffer material in a repository for spent nuclear fuel. In order for the tests to be sensitive to any weaknesses of the method, the blocks were shaped as beakers. The scope included the following: 1. Preparation of powder: a. mixing of the bentonite and addition of water in predetermined amounts, b. sieving to remove any lumps generated; 2. Isostatic compaction: a. establishment of a separate laboratory for the handling of bentonite powder (weighing, mixing, filling, sampling and machining), b. development and design of equipment and procedures for compaction of bentonite to beaker-shaped specimens, c. compaction process operation, d. visual inspection; 3. Sampling and characterisation: a. extraction of samples from the blocks made, b. determination of water content, c. determination of density, d. determination of strain at maximum stress by means of bending tests, e. determination of tensile strength by means of bending tests, f. determination of geometries of the blocks prepared; 4. Post-treatment by means of machining: a. machining of blocks made, b. visual inspection; 5. Evaluation. The work went very smoothly. No significant obstacles or unexpected events were encountered. The conclusions are as follows: The conclusions drawn in this report from work on the (linear)scale of one to four are very relevant to the full scale. Mixing of bentonite powder as well as moistening can be carried out on a pilot scale with a good homogeneity and with maintained good quality of the press powder. The compaction of bentonite can be carried out in a similar manner to the present operation at Ifoe Ceramics AB. This implies a very efficient handling as well as a very efficient use of the time in the press which may account for a large proportion of the total cost. The blocks could readily be produced to reproducible

  1. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) System Administration Guide for FEMIS Version 1.4.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, J.A.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J.; Downing, T.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Homer, B.J.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Johnson, S.M.; Loveall, R.M.; Martin, T.J.; Millard, W.D.; Schulze, S.A.; Stoops, L.R.; Tzemos, S.; Wood, B.M.

    1999-06-29

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are corrected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication data distribution and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment.

  2. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS), Installation Guide for FEMIS 1.4.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, J.A.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J.; Downing, T.R.; Dunkle, J.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Gackle, P.P.; Homer, B.J.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Johnson, S.M.; Loveall, R.M.; Stephan, A.J.; Millard, W.D.; Wood, B.M.

    1999-06-29

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are corrected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication data distribution and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment.

  3. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) Data Management Guide for FEMIS Version 1.4.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, L.K.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Hoza, M.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, S.M.; Loveall, R.M.; Millard, W.D.; Schulze, S.A.; Wood, B.M.

    1999-06-29

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are corrected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication data distribution and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment.

  4. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide. Version 1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, J.A.; Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R. [and others

    1997-11-21

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the US Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS software package. This document also contains information on the following: software installation for the FEMIS data servers, communication server, mail server, and the emergency management workstations; distribution media loading and FEMIS installation validation and troubleshooting; and system management of FEMIS users, login privileges, and usage. The system administration utilities (tools), available in the FEMIS client software, are described for user accounts and site profile. This document also describes the installation and use of system and database administration utilities that will assist in keeping the FEMIS system running in an operational environment. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via telecommunications links.

  5. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) data management guide, version 1.4.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R.; Gaustad, K.L. [and others

    1998-06-26

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) information resources are described in this FEMIS Data Management Guide. To comprehend what types of data are present, where the data is located, and how it is managed during the life span of the system, a basic understanding of the FEMIS architecture is necessary. The system is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). The capability to connect to remote CSEPP sites and share information will be present in a future release. Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide efficient EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via telecommunications links. FEMIS is a client/server system where much of the application software is located in the client PC. This client software integrates the FEMIS application, government furnished dispersion and evacuation models, and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software tools such as the ArcView geographic information system (GIS) and Microsoft Project (electron planning). A UNIX server provides data management services, ARC/INFO GIS capabilities, evacuation (Evac) modeling, electron main (E-mail), and meteorological (Met) input processing. A PC communication utility is available to interface with external subsystems. At this time, the weather collection system (Handar Met System) is the only external subsystem.

  6. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the equilibration reaction between the sulfur and carbon bonded forms of a cobalt(III) complex with the ligands 1,4,7-triazycyclononane and 1,4-diaza-7-thiacyclodecane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Y.S.; Becker, J.; Kofod, Pauli

    1996-01-01

    -sulfur complex to form the alkyl complex gave 100% loss of deuterium. It is concluded that the labile methylene proton is bound to the carbon atom which in the alkyl complex is bound to cobalt(III). From the kinetic data it is estd. that the carbanion reacts with water 270 times faster than it is captured......The new cyclic thioether 1,4-diaza-7-thiacyclodecane, dathicd, has been synthesized and used for the prepn. of the sulfur- and carbon-bonded cobalt(III) complexes: [Co(tacn)(S-dathicd)]Cl3.5H2O and [Co(tacn)(C-dathicd)](ClO4)2 (tacn, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane; C-dathicd, 1,4-diamino-7-thiacyclodecan...

  7. Estudo de p27, p21, p16 em epitélio escamoso normal, papiloma escamoso e carcinoma de células escamosas da cavidade oral Comparative analysis of the immunohistochemistry expression of p27, p21WAF/Cip1, and p16INK4a in oral normal epithelium, squamous papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Beatriz Piazza Queiroz; Gustavo Rubino de Azevedo Focchi; Thiago Simão Gomes; Cristine Dobo; Celina Tizuko Fujiyama Oshima

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: O tipo de câncer oral mais frequente é o carcinoma de células escamosas, que corresponde a 95% dos casos(9). O papiloma escamoso oral é uma neoplasia benigna normalmente associada à infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV)(21). A análise da literatura mostra alterações nos genes reguladores do ciclo celular p27, p21WAF/Cip1 e p16INK4a, porém sem uma definição de seus papéis na carcinogênese oral. O objetivo foi caracterizar imuno-histoquimicamente p27, p21WAF/Cip1 e p16...

  8. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide, version 1.4.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, J.A.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J. [and others

    1998-06-26

    The Federal Emergency Management Information Systems (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the US Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication, data distribution, and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment. The UNIX server provides an Oracle relational database management system (RDBMS) services, ARC/INFO GIS (optional) capabilities, and basic file management services. PNNL developed utilities that reside on the server include the Notification Service, the Command Service that executes the evacuation model, and AutoRecovery. To operate FEMIS, the Application Software must have access to a site specific FEMIS emergency management database. Data that pertains to an individual EOC`s jurisdiction is stored on the EOC`s local server. Information that needs to be accessible to all EOCs is automatically distributed by the FEMIS

  9. Expression of proteins FGFR3, PI3K, AKT, p21Waf1/Cip1 and cyclins D1 and D3 in patients with T1 bladder tumours: clinical implications and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca Pedregosa, A M; Sánchez-González, Á; Carrasco Valiente, J; Ruiz García, J M; Gómez Gómez, E; López Beltrán, A; Requena Tapia, M J

    2017-04-01

    To determine the differential protein expression of biomarkers FGFR3, PI3K (subunits PI3Kp110α, PI3KClassIII, PI3Kp85), AKT, p21Waf1/Cip1 and cyclins D1 and D3 in T1 bladder cancer versus healthy tissue and to study their potential role as early recurrence markers. This is a prospective study that employed a total of 67 tissue samples (55 cases of T1 bladder tumours that underwent transurethral resection and 12 cases of adjacent healthy mucosa). The protein expression levels were assessed using Western blot, and the means and percentages were compared using Student's t-test and the chi-squared test. The survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Greater protein expression was detected for FGFR3, PI3Kp110α, PI3KClassIII, cyclins D1 and D3 and p21Waf1/Cip1 in the tumour tissue than in the healthy mucosa. However, these differences were not significant for PI3Kp85 and AKT. We observed statistically significant correlations between early recurrence and PI3Kp110α, PI3KClassIII, PI3Kp85 and AKT (P=.003, P=.045, P=.050 and P=.028, respectively), between the tumour type (primary vs. recurrence) and cyclin D3 (P=.001), between the tumour size and FGFR3 (P=.035) and between multifocality and cyclin D1 (P=.039). The survival analysis selected FGFR3 (P=.024), PI3Kp110α (P=.014), PI3KClassIII (P=.042) and AKT (P=.008) as markers of early-recurrence-free survival. There is an increase in protein expression levels in bladder tumour tissue. The overexpression of FGFR3, PI3Kp110α, PI3KClassIII and AKT is associated with increased early-recurrence-free survival for patients with T1 bladder tumours. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and Characterization of Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- of Food Origin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Jiahui; Guo, Weipeng; Cai, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has recently been recognized as an emerging cause of infection worldwide. This bacterium has also ranked among the four most frequent serovars causing human salmonellosis in China. However, there are no reports on its contamination in Chinese food. Serotyping, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, virulotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assays were used to investigate the prevalence of this serological variant in food products in China, and to determine phenotypic and genotypic difference of monophasic isolates and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated over the same period. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- was prevalent in various food sources, including beef, pork, chicken, and pigeon. The study also confirmed the high prevalence (53.8%) of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which was higher than that in Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates in our study were different from Salmonella Typhimurium isolates by the absence of three plasmid-borne genes (spvC, pefA, and rck) and the presence of gipA in all isolates. All Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates demonstrated MLST pattern ST34. Genomic deletions within the fljBA operon and surrounding genes were only found in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates, with all isolates containing a deletion of fljB. However, hin and iroB were identified in all Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates. Three different deletion profiles were observed and two of them were different from the reported Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- clones from Spain, America, and Italy, which provided some new evidence on the independent evolution of the multiple successful monophasic clones from Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. This study is the first report of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- in food products from China. The data are more

  11. Prevalence and Characterization of Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- of Food Origin in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Yang

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has recently been recognized as an emerging cause of infection worldwide. This bacterium has also ranked among the four most frequent serovars causing human salmonellosis in China. However, there are no reports on its contamination in Chinese food. Serotyping, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, virulotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST assays were used to investigate the prevalence of this serological variant in food products in China, and to determine phenotypic and genotypic difference of monophasic isolates and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated over the same period. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- was prevalent in various food sources, including beef, pork, chicken, and pigeon. The study also confirmed the high prevalence (53.8% of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which was higher than that in Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates in our study were different from Salmonella Typhimurium isolates by the absence of three plasmid-borne genes (spvC, pefA, and rck and the presence of gipA in all isolates. All Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates demonstrated MLST pattern ST34. Genomic deletions within the fljBA operon and surrounding genes were only found in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates, with all isolates containing a deletion of fljB. However, hin and iroB were identified in all Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates. Three different deletion profiles were observed and two of them were different from the reported Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- clones from Spain, America, and Italy, which provided some new evidence on the independent evolution of the multiple successful monophasic clones from Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. This study is the first report of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- in food products from China. The data are

  12. Molecular interactions of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives with selected organic solvents: A volumetric, spectroscopic and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zega, Anamarija; Srčič, Stane; Mavri, Janez; Bešter-Rogač, Marija

    2008-03-01

    Using a combination of volumetric measurements and FTIR spectroscopy, solute-solvent interactions have been investigated for 1,4-DHPs in selected organic solvents that mimic the environments of drug production, delivery and the environment from which they reach the site of its activity. Vibrational analysis of 1,4-DHPs and 1,4-DHPs complexes with the solvents has been performed on a medium-high quantum chemical level. Uncharged 1,4-DHPs act in a protic solvent as hydrogen bond acceptors, mainly via the carbonyl group, and, in all other investigated solvents, as a hydrogen bond donor via the hydrogen on the nitrogen. The behaviour of amlodipine besilate differs significantly from that of other compounds. Volumetric measurements proved an effective method for investigating the interactions of uncharged and charged 1,4-DHPs with solvents, and correlated well with FTIR spectroscopy results. This approach can be extended to consider several solvent molecules, perform thermal averaging and to calculate the vibrational spectrum beyond the harmonic approximation. Atomic simulation of antagonistic activity of this class of compounds, by considering the receptor site and the ionic channel, remains a challenge for future decades.

  13. Meta-analysis of the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejiao; Liu, Yukun; Zhang, Rui; Tan, Jianping; Chen, Libin; Liu, Yinglin

    2015-04-11

    The association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) risk is still contradictory. We thus performed a meta-analysis. Relevant studies were searched for in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library. An odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and RPL risk. A total of 22 studies with 4306 cases and 3076 controls were included in this meta-analysis. We found that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased RPL risk (OR=1.89; 95% CI 1.34-2.67; P=0.0003). In the subgroup analysis by race, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased RPL risk in Caucasians (OR=2.23; 95% CI 1.44-3.46; P=0.0003). However, no significant association was observed in Asians (OR=1.47; 95% CI 0.84-2.59; P=0.18). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism might be associated with RPL development in Caucasians.

  14. Effect of human papillomavirus on cell cycle-related proteins p16INK4A, p21waf1/cip1, p53 and cyclin D1 in sinonasal inverted papilloma and laryngeal carcinoma. An in situ hybridization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Danilewicz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is implicated as an important risk factor in the development of head and neck cancers. Many studies focusing on the relationships between HPV infection and cell cycle proteins immunoexpression in laryngeal lesions have provided contradictory results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between HPV DNA presence and p16INK4a, p21waf1/cip1, p53 and cyclin D1 immunoexpression in heterogenous HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups of laryngeal cancers and inverted papillomas. The HPV DNA expression was detected using an in situ hybridization method and immunoexpression of p16INK4a, p21waf1/cip1, p53 and cyclin D1 using immunohistochemistry. The immunoexpression of p21waf1/ /cip1 and p53 proteins was lower in the HPV-positive group compared to the HPV-negative group, although only the difference of p53 staining was statistically significant. The immunoexpression of p16INK4a and cyclin D1 was significantly increased in the HPV-positive group compared to the HPV-negative group. The increased immunoexpression of p16INK4a and cyclin D1, and the lower immunoexpression of p21waf1/cip1 and p53 in the HPV-positive group compared to the HPV-negative group, supports the hypothesis that HPV may play an important role in cell cycle dysregulation. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 34–40

  15. Substituent effect on the electron acceptor property of 1,4-benzoquinone towards the formation of molecular complex with sulfamethoxazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, K.; Satheshkumar, A.; Balraj, C.; Elango, K. P.

    2013-04-01

    UV-Vis, 1H NMR, FT-IR, LC-MS and fluorescence spectral techniques were employed to investigate the mechanism of interaction of sulfamethoxazole with varying number of methoxy/chloro substituted 1,4-benzoquinones (MQ1-4) and to characterize the reaction products. The interactions of MQ1-4 with sulfamethoxazole (SULF) were found to proceed through the formation of a donor-acceptor complex, containing radical anion and its conversion to the product. Fluorescence quenching studies showed that the interaction between the donor and the acceptors are spontaneous. The results indicated that the progressive replacement of chlorine atom (-I effect) by methoxy group (+M effect) in the quinone decreased the electron acceptor property of the quinone. The results of the correlation of experimentally measured binding constants with electrochemical data and ab initio DFT calculations supported these observations.

  16. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with coronary artery disease risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huifeng; Dong, Pingshuan; Yang, Xuming; Liu, Zhenghao

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk using a meta-analysis. All eligible studies were identified through a search of PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Database of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals, and China Biology Medical literature database (CBM) before June 2014. The association between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and CAD risk was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 72 studies including 23557 cases and 21526 controls were eventually collected. The PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was significant associated with CAD risk in overall population (OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.28, P 5G polymorphism was a risk factor for CAD.

  17. Silibinin activates p53-caspase 2 pathway and causes caspase-mediated cleavage of Cip1/p21 in apoptosis induction in bladder transitional-cell papilloma RT4 cells: evidence for a regulatory loop between p53 and caspase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Alpna; Singh, Rana P; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2006-11-01

    Silibinin, a natural flavonolignan, induces apoptosis in human bladder transitional-cell papilloma RT4 cells both in vitro and in vivo; however, mechanisms of such efficacy are not completely identified. Here, we studied the mechanisms involved in silibinin-induced apoptosis of RT4 cells having intact p53. Silibinin increased p53 protein level together with its increased phosphorylation at serine 15, activated caspase cascade and caused Bid cleavage for apoptosis. Silibinin-caused p53 activation was mediated via ATM-Chk2 pathway, which in turn induced caspase 2-mediated apoptosis. Pifithrin-alpha, a p53 inhibitor, reversed silibinin-induced caspase activation including caspase 2; however, caspase 2 inhibitor also reversed p53 phosphorylation suggesting a bidirectional regulation between them. Further, silibinin caused a rapid translocation of p53 and Bid into mitochondria leading to increased permeabilization of mitochondrial membrane and cytochrome c release into the cytosol. JNK1/2 activation was observed as a connecting link for p53-mediated caspase 2 activation. Interestingly, silibinin-induced apoptosis was mediated, in part, via Cip1/p21 cleavage by caspase, which was reversed by Cip1/p21 siRNA. Together, these results suggested the novel mechanisms for apoptosis induction by silibinin involving p53-caspase 2 activation and caspase-mediated cleavage of Cip1/p21.

  18. Infrared fluorescent protein 1.4 genetic labeling tracks engrafted cardiac progenitor cells in mouse ischemic hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijuan; Phillips, M Ian; Miao, Hui-Lai; Zeng, Rong; Qin, Gangjian; Kim, Il-man; Weintraub, Neal L; Tang, Yaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has a potential for regenerating damaged myocardium. However, a key obstacle to cell therapy's success is the loss of engrafted cells due to apoptosis or necrosis in the ischemic myocardium. While many strategies have been developed to improve engrafted cell survival, tools to evaluate cell efficacy within the body are limited. Traditional genetic labeling tools, such as GFP-like fluorescent proteins (eGFP, DsRed, mCherry), have limited penetration depths in vivo due to tissue scattering and absorption. To circumvent these limitations, a near-infrared fluorescent mutant of the DrBphP bacteriophytochrome from Deinococcus radiodurans, IFP1.4, was developed for in vivo imaging, but it has yet to be used for in vivo stem/progenitor cell tracking. In this study, we incorporated IFP1.4 into mouse cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) by a lentiviral vector. Live IFP1.4-labeled CPCs were imaged by their near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) using an Odyssey scanner following overnight incubation with biliverdin. A significant linear correlation was observed between the amount of cells and NIRF signal intensity in in vitro studies. Lentiviral mediated IFP1.4 gene labeling is stable, and does not impact the apoptosis and cardiac differentiation of CPC. To assess efficacy of our model for engrafted cells in vivo, IFP1.4-labeled CPCs were intramyocardially injected into infarcted hearts. NIRF signals were collected at 1-day, 7-days, and 14-days post-injection using the Kodak in vivo multispectral imaging system. Strong NIRF signals from engrafted cells were imaged 1 day after injection. At 1 week after injection, 70% of the NIRF signal was lost when compared to the intensity of the day 1 signal. The data collected 2 weeks following transplantation showed an 88% decrease when compared to day 1. Our studies have shown that IFP1.4 gene labeling can be used to track the viability of transplanted cells in vivo.

  19. Synthesis, radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of 1, 4-dihydroquinoline derivatives as new carriers for specific brain delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucout, L.; Bohn, P.; Dupas, G.; Marsais, F.; Levacher, V. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Fine et Heterocyclique, UMR 6014, IRCOF, CNRS, Universite et INSA de Rouen, B.P. 08 F-76131, Mont- Saint-Aignan Cedex (France); Gourand, F.; Dhilly, M.; Barre, L. [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, CEA/DSV/I2BM/CI-NAPS UMR6232, Universite de Caen Basse Normandie, Caen (France); Bohn, P.; Costentin, J. [Laboratoire de Neuropharmacologie Experimentale associe au CNRS, FRE-2735, Faculte de Medecine et de pharmacie, Universite de Rouen, F-76000 (France); Abbas, A. [Inserm-EPHE-Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Unite U923, GIP Cyceron, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France)

    2009-07-01

    In spite of numerous reports dealing with the use of 1, 4-dihydro-pyridines as carriers to deliver biological active compounds to the brain, this chemical delivery system (CDS) suffers from poor stability of the 1, 4-dihydropyridine derivatives towards oxidation and hydration reactions seriously limiting further investigations in vivo. In an attempt to overcome these limitations, we report herein the first biological evaluation of more stable annellated NADH models in the quinoline series as relevant neuro-active drug-carrier candidates. The radiolabeled 1, 4-dihydroquinoline [{sup 11}C]1a was prepared to be subsequently peripherally injected in rats. The injected animals were sacrificed and brains were collected. The radioactivity measured in rat brain indicated a rapid penetration of the carrier [{sup 11}C]1a into the CNS. HPLC analysis of brain homogenates showed that oxidation of [{sup 11}C]1a into the corresponding quinolinium salt [{sup 11}C]4a was completed in less than 5 min. An in vivo evaluation in mice is also reported to illustrate the potential of such 1, 4-dihydroquinoline derivatives to transport a neuro-active drug in the CNS. For this purpose, g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), well known to poorly cross the brain blood barrier (BBB) was connected to this 1, 4-dihydroquinoline-type carrier. After i.p. injection of 1, 4-dihydroquinoline-GABA derivative 1b in mice, a significant alteration of locomotor activity (LMA) was observed presumably resulting from an enhancement of central GABAergic activity. These encouraging results give strong evidence for the capacity of carrier-GABA derivative 1b to cross the BBB and exert a pharmacological effect on the CNS. This study paves the way for further progress in designing new redox chemical delivery systems. (authors)

  20. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  1. Poly[di-μ4-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato-μ6-succinato-diholmium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ho2(C4H4O4(C8H4O42]n, was synthesized hydrothermally. The Ho atom is coordinated by four O atoms from four benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate (BDC anions and four O atoms from three succinate anions, in a distorted square-antiprismatic coordination geometry. The antiprisms are bridged by the benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate and succinate anions, into a three-dimensional coordination network. The succinate anions are located on centres of inversion.

  2. 6-Methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine butane-1,4-diol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni M. Bhardwaj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title co-crystal, C4H7N5·C4H10O2, crystallizes with one molecule of 6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (DMT and one molecule of butane-1,4-diol in the asymmetric unit. The DMT molecules form ribbons involving centrosymmetric R22(8 dimer motifs between DMT molecules along the c-axis direction. These ribbons are further hydrogen bonded to each other through butane-1,4-diol, forming sheets parallel to (121.

  3. Effect of mutations on the thermostability of Aspergillus aculeatus β-1,4-galactanase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torpenholt, Søs Katja; De Maria, Leonardo; Olsson, Mats Henrik Mikael

    2015-01-01

    New variants of β-1,4-galactanase from the mesophilic organism Aspergillus aculeatus were designed using the structure of β-1,4-galactanase from the thermophile organism Myceliophthora thermophila as a template. Some of the variants were generated using PROPKA 3.0, a validated pKa prediction tool......R. The Tm changes were in the range predicted by PROPKA. Given the experimental errors, only the D58N and G306A show significant increase in thermodynamic stability. Given the practical importance of kinetic stability, the kinetics of the irreversible enzyme inactivation process were also...

  4. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New 1, 4-Benzothiazine Containing Thiosemicarbazides and 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhikan J Khairnar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 3- methyl-7-substituted-4H,4-benzothiazine-2-carbohydrazide (3a-e and corresponding thiosemicarbazides (4-a-q; 2-[3-methyl-7-substituted- 4H -1, 4-benzothiazine-2-yl]-N-(aryl hydrazine carbothiamide have been synthesized. The thiosemicarbazide when cyclized with iodine via intramolecular cyclisation gave benzothiazonyl oxadiazoles (5-a-q; 5-(3-methyl -7-substitued-4H- 1,4-benzothiazin-2-yl- N —aryl- 1,3,4- oxadiazol -2-amine and the compounds were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities against different microorganisms.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of the formation constants of Calcium(II complexes with 1,2-ethylenediamine, 1,3-propanediamine and 1,4-butanediamine in acetonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline González González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, with the purpose to explore the coordination chemistry of calcium complexes which could work as a partial model of manganese–calcium cluster, a spectrophotometric study to evaluate the stability of the complexes: Calcium(II-1,2-ethylendiamine, Calcium(II-1,3-propanediamine and Calcium(II-1,4-butanediamine in acetonitrile, were carried on. By processing the spectrophotometric data with the HypSpec program allows the determination of the formation constants. The logarithmic values of the formation constants obtained for Calcium(II-1,2-ethylendiamine, Calcium(II-1,3-propanediamine and Calcium(II-1,4-butanediamine were log β110 = 4.69, log β110 = 5.25 and log β110 = 4.072, respectively. Keywords: Calcium(II complexes, Solution equilibria, Artificial photosynthesis, Absorbance molar, Speciation

  6. DNA binding, oxidative DNA cleavage, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis-inducing activity of copper(II) complexes with 1,4-tpbd (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-yridylmethyl)benzene-1,4-diamine) ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Dong; Tian, Jin-Lei; Gu, Wen; Liu, Xin; Zeng, Hui-Hui; Yan, Shi-Ping

    2011-06-01

    Three new binuclear copper(II) complexes have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography, [Cu(2)(1,4-tpbd)(dafo)(2)(MeOH)(2)](ClO(4))(4)·2.5H(2)O (1), [Cu(2)(1,4-tpbd) (DMSO)(2)(ClO(4))(2)](OH)(2)·6H(2)O (2) and [Cu(2)(1,4-tpbd)(OAC)(2)(ClO(4))(2)]·5H(2)O (3) (1,4-tpbd=N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)benzene-1,4-diamine). Complex 1 to 3 shows similar binuclear structure and each Cu atom adopts five-coordinated square-pyramidal geometry. The interactions of the three complexes with CT-DNA (Calf-thymus DNA) have been investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and viscosity. Furthermore, the three complexes display oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA in the presence of external agents. Complex 3 shows higher DNA affinity and nuclease activity may be attributed to its cis structural configuration and labile acetate and perchlorate anions. The cleavage mechanisms between the complexes and plasmid DNA are likely to involve singlet oxygen or singlet oxygen-like entity as reactive oxygen species. In addition, in vitro cytotoxicity studies on the Hela cell line show that the IC(50) values of complexes 1-3 are 14.75, 13.67 and 16.58 μM, respectively. The apoptosis-inducing activity was also assessed by AO/EB (Acridine Orange/Ethidium bromide) staining assay, indicating they have the potential to act as effective metal-based anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Resveratrol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with docetaxel in prostate cancer cells via a p53/ p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Banerjee, Saswati; Acosta, Edward P; Lillard, James W; Singh, Rajesh

    2017-03-07

    Resveratrol (RES) is the most effective natural products used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. In this study, we tested the effect of RES in enhancing the efficacy of docetaxel (DTX) treatment in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. The C4-2B and DU-145 cell lines were treated with RES, DTX and combination followed by evaluating the apoptosis and cell cycle progression. The combined drug treatment up-regulates the pro-apoptotic genes (BAX, BID, and BAK), cleaved PARP and down regulates the anti-apoptotic genes (MCL-1, BCL-2, BCL-XL) promoting apoptosis. In C4-2B cells the combination up regulated the expression of p53, and cell cycle inhibitors (p21WAF1/CIP1, p27KIP), which, in turn, inhibited the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin E1 and induced hypo-phosphorylation of Rb thus blocking the transition of cells in the G0/G1 to S phase. In contrast, the synergistic effect was not profound in DU145 due to its lesser sensitivity to DTX. The suppression of cyclin B1 and CDK1 expression in both cell lines inhibits the further progression of cells in G2/M phase. The current study demonstrates that combination treatment blocks the cell cycle arrest by modulation of key regulators and promotes apoptosis via p53 dependent and independent mechanism in PCa.

  8. Estudo comparativo da eficácia de sanitizantes por meio da técnica de ATP - bioluminescência em sistemas de higienização do tipo clean-in-place (CIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adbeel de Lima Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se o método de ATP-bioluminescência para avaliação de procedimentos de higienização CIP, com diferentes sanitizantes, de um homogeneizador em uma indústria de laticínios de Juiz de Fora - MG. A eficácia do processo foi comparada com base na utilização de dióxido de cloro estabilizado em solução aquosa, hipoclorito de sódio, ácido peracético e iodóforo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o dióxido de cloro e o ácido peracético possuem a mesma eficácia. O mesmo ocorre com o hipoclorito de sódio e o iodóforo, porém, estes últimos não foram eficazes nas condições analisadas.

  9. A new species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae from Serra do Cipó, Espinhaço Range, Southeastern Brazil, with proposition of a new species group to the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Passos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Atractus from Serra do Cipó, at the southeastern versant of Serra do Espinhaço, an inland mountain range nearly parallel to the Brazilian Atlantic coast. The new species is morphologically similar to A. paraguayensis and A. potschi with which it shares: 15 dorsal scale rows; white occipital region in juvenile specimens; dorsal ground color reddish pink to red (in life with alternate black transversal spots, blotches or transversal bands; seven upper and lower labial scales; ventrals and subcaudals creamish white; hemipenis slightly bilobed, semicapitate and semicalyculate. The new species differs from both taxa mainly on the basis of exclusive coloration characters (number and shape of transversal bands and hemipenial morphology (median face of the lobes without ornamentation, besides punctual meristic (number of ventral scales and maxillary teeth and morphometric (adult snout-vent length differences. Finally, we provide a discussion regarding the potential affinities of the new species and we redefine some Atractus species groups in order to better accommodate species sharing unique combinations of morphological characters.

  10. The Molecular Structure and Vibrational Spectrum of 6-bromo-8-thia-1,4-epoxybicyclo[4.3.0]non-2-ene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Demircan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Geometric parameters and FT-IR spectrum of 6-bromo-8-thia-1,4-epoxybicyclo[4.3.0]non-2-ene were computed by the HF, B3LYP, B3PW91 andmPW1PW91 methods in conjunction with the 6-31G(d,p basis set. The calculated IRspectra are in a good agreement with the observed FT-IR spectrum. A general betterperformance of B3LYP, B3PW91 and mPW1PW91 versus HF was quantitativelycharacterized by using PAVF 1.0 program. Optimal uniform scaling factors calculated forthe title compound are 0.8952, 0.9552, 0.9520 and 0.9456 for HF, B3LYP, B3PW91 andMPW1PW91 methods, respectively.

  11. Lipid Synthetic Transcription Factor SREBP-1a Activates p21WAF1/CIP1, a Universal Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Noriyuki; Shimano, Hitoshi; Nakakuki, Masanori; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Sato, Ryuichiro; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Sone, Hirohito; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Toyoshima, Hideo; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are membrane-bound transcription factors that regulate lipid synthetic genes. In contrast to SREBP-2, which regulates cellular cholesterol level in normal cells, SREBP-1a is highly expressed in actively growing cells and activates entire programs of genes involved in lipid synthesis such as cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Previously, the physiological relevance of this potent activity of SREBP-1a has been thought ...

  12. STABILITY OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ALBUMIN ADDUCTS OF NAPHTHALENE OXIDE, 1,2-NAPHTHOQUINONE, AND 1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphthalene is an important industrial chemical, which has recently been shown to cause tumors of the respiratory tract in rodents. It is thought that one or more reactive metabolites of naphthalene, namely, naphthalene-1,2-oxide (NPO), 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NPQ), and 1,4-na...

  13. Kreatives Schreiben -- aesthetische Kommunikation in der Grundschule (Creative Writing - Aesthetic Communication in the Primary Grades [1-4])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrelmann, Bettina

    1977-01-01

    Asserts that creative writing can be taught in grades 1-4. After a full discussion of the subject, teaching procedures are described. A list is presented of imaginative topics for pupils, such as "conversation between pigeons on the railroad station square" and "advertisement for a dangerous product." (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  14. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 4. alternating polyesteramides based on glycols (4NT glycol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Serrano, P.J.M.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Polyetheresteramides (PEEAs) have been synthesised in the melt from 1,4-butylene terephthalamide and ethylene or propylene glycols. The ethylene glycols were ethylenediol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol. The propylene glycols were 1,3-propanediol and the mixtures of

  15. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 2. alternating polyesteramides based on a single, linear diol (4NTm)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Serrano, P.J.M.; Thuss, E.H.L.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Strictly alternating polyesteramides consisting of 1,4-butylene terephthalamide and aliphatic diols have been synthesized in the melt in the presence of a titanium catalyst. The influence of diol length on the thermal and mechanical properties was studied. Depending on its structure, the diol took

  16. Measurement of sigma(ee->Hnunu)xBR(H->tautau) at CLIC @ 1.4 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Münnich, A.

    2013-01-01

    This detector benchmark study evaluates the statistical precision with which the H -> tautau branching ratio times cross section can be measured at CLIC running at rout(s)= 1.4 TeV. Only the hadronic decays of taus are considered.

  17. APPLICATION OF FUNCTIONAL OLIGODIENES FOR MODIFICATION OF COMPOSITIONS BASED ON 1,4-CIS-ISOPRENE RUBBER SKI-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shabunina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Application liquid oligodienes as a part of polymeric compositions on the basis of 1,4-cispolyisoprene SKI-5 rubber is investigated. Extent of influence of quantity of an entered oligomer and his functionality on rheological and elastic and strength properties of elastomeric compositions is established. Nature of dispersing action functional and nonfunctional oligodienes is defined.

  18. Rational engineering of mannosyl binding in the distal glycone subsites of Cellulomonas fimi endo-β-1,4-mannanase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hekmat, Omid; Lo Leggio, Leila; Rosengren, Anna

    2010-01-01

    To date, rational redesign of glycosidase active-site clefts has been mainly limited to the removal of essential functionalities rather than their introduction. The glycoside hydrolase family 26 endo-beta-1,4-mannanase from the soil bacterium Cellulomonas fimi depolymerizes various abundant plant...

  19. Enantioselective lipase-catalysed kinetic resolution of acyloxymethyl and ethoxycarbonylmethyl esters of 1,4-dihydroisonicotinic acid derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobolev, A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Poikans, J.; Duburs, G.; Groot, de Æ.

    2002-01-01

    The lipase-catalysed kinetic resolution of four derivatives of 4-[(acyloxy)methyl] and 4-ethoxycarbonylmethyl 3-methyl 5-propyl 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydro-3,4,5-pyridinetricarboxylates has been investigated. Whereas the enantioselectivity of lipases towards the acyloxymethyl derivatives was rather

  20. The first hyperpolarizability of p-nitroaniline in 1,4-dioxane : A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, L; van Duijnen, PT

    2005-01-01

    In this work we have investigated the first hyperpolarizability of pNA in 1,4-dioxane solution using a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) model. The particular model adopted is the recently developed discrete solvent reaction field (DRF) model. The DRF model is a polarizable QM/MM model