WorldWideScience

Sample records for program 1-4 cip

  1. Polymer Science. Program CIP: 15.0607

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Curriculum Unit, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  2. Efficacy of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) Primary Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Bellinger, Jillian; Cheng, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    A multisite cluster randomized trial was conducted to examine the effects of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007) on students' classroom social behavior. The final sample included 432 students across 38 second grade classrooms. Social skills and problem behaviors were measured…

  3. Social Validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E.; DiPerna, James C.; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings…

  4. Social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the primary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings indicated that teachers generally perceived the SSIS-CIP as a socially valid and feasible intervention for primary grades; however, teachers' ratings regarding ease of implementation and relevance and sequence demonstrated differences across grade levels in the second year of implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Developing a Comprehensive and Integrated Vulnerability Assessment Methodology for the Defense Department's Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Program. A Report Supporting CIP Program Outread and Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ...) strategy for Outreach, Education, and Training. It seeks to help those interested in understanding the Defense Department's current concepts and plans for developing CIP-specific vulnerability assessments...

  6. Welding Technology. Program CIP: 48.0508 - WELDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  7. Management. Program CIP: Business Management: 52.0204

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Ashleigh Barbee, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary career-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  8. Culinary Arts. Program CIP: 12.0500-Culinary Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Ashleigh, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  9. Installation and Service: HVAC. Program CIP: 47.0201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Curriculum Unit, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  10. Automotive Service Technician. Program CIP: 47.0604 - Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Kelly, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  11. A Cluster Randomized Trial of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Cheng, Weiyi; Hart, Susan Crandall; Bellinger, Jillian

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal social skills program, the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007), for students in first grade. Classrooms from 6 elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment or business-as-usual control conditions.…

  12. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Drafting and Design Technology (Program CIP: 48.0102--Architectural Drafting Technology) (Program CIP: 48.0101--General Drafting). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the two course sequences of the state's postsecondary-level drafting and design technology program: architectural drafting technology and drafting and design technology. Presented first are a program description and…

  13. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Welding (Program CIP: 48.0508--Welder/Welding Technologist). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for welding I and II. Presented first are a program description and course…

  14. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for General Drafting (Program CIP: 48.0101--Drafting, General). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for two secondary-level courses in drafting: drafting I and II. Presented…

  15. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Dental Hygiene Technology (Program CIP: 51.0602--Dental Hygienist). Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the dental hygiene technology program. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies. Section II…

  16. CIPS Validation Data Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam Dinh

    2012-03-01

    This report documents analysis, findings and recommendations resulted from a task 'CIPS Validation Data Plan (VDP)' formulated as an POR4 activity in the CASL VUQ Focus Area (FA), to develop a Validation Data Plan (VDP) for Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) challenge problem, and provide guidance for the CIPS VDP implementation. The main reason and motivation for this task to be carried at this time in the VUQ FA is to bring together (i) knowledge of modern view and capability in VUQ, (ii) knowledge of physical processes that govern the CIPS, and (iii) knowledge of codes, models, and data available, used, potentially accessible, and/or being developed in CASL for CIPS prediction, to devise a practical VDP that effectively supports the CASL's mission in CIPS applications.

  17. CIPS Validation Data Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Nam

    2012-01-01

    This report documents analysis, findings and recommendations resulted from a task 'CIPS Validation Data Plan (VDP)' formulated as an POR4 activity in the CASL VUQ Focus Area (FA), to develop a Validation Data Plan (VDP) for Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) challenge problem, and provide guidance for the CIPS VDP implementation. The main reason and motivation for this task to be carried at this time in the VUQ FA is to bring together (i) knowledge of modern view and capability in VUQ, (ii) knowledge of physical processes that govern the CIPS, and (iii) knowledge of codes, models, and data available, used, potentially accessible, and/or being developed in CASL for CIPS prediction, to devise a practical VDP that effectively supports the CASL's mission in CIPS applications.

  18. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Welding and Cutting Programs (Program CIP: 48.0508--Welder/Welding Technologist). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the welding and cutting programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies, and…

  19. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Banking & Finance Technology (Program CIP: 52.0803--Banking and Related Financial Programs, Other). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the banking and finance technology program. Presented in the introduction are a program description and suggested course sequence. Section I is a curriculum guide consisting of outlines for…

  20. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Computer Graphics. (Program CIP: 50.0402 - Commercial and Advertising Art)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Jo Anne; Denson, Cornelius; New, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  1. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Automotive Mechanics (Program CIP: 47.0604--Auto/Automotive Mechanic/Tech). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for automotive mechanics I and II. Presented first are a program description…

  2. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Fashion Marketing Technology (Program CIP: 08.0101--Apparel and Accessories Mkt. Op., Gen.). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the fashion marketing technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies,…

  3. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Veterinary Technology (Program CIP: 51.0808--Veterinarian Asst./Animal Health). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the veterinary technology program. Presented in the introductory section are a of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies, and section II consists of…

  4. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Diesel Equipment Repair & Service (Program CIP: 47.0605--Diesel Engine Mechanic & Repairer). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for diesel engine mechanics I and II. Presented first are a program…

  5. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Marketing and Fashion Merchandising (Program CIP: 08.0705--General Retailing Operations). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for marketing I-II and fashion merchandising. Presented first are a program…

  6. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Computer Information Systems Technology. Computer Information Systems Technology (Program CIP: 52.1201--Management Information Systems & Business Data). Computer Programming (Program CIP: 52.1201). Network Support (Program CIP: 52.1290--Computer Network Support Technology). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for two programs in the state's postsecondary-level computer information systems technology cluster: computer programming and network support. Presented in the introduction are program descriptions and suggested course…

  7. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Medical Radiologic Technology (Radiography) (CIP: 51.0907--Medical Radiologic Technology). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the radiologic technology program. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies for the program,…

  8. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Diesel Equipment Technology (CIP: 47.0605--Diesel Engine Mechanic & Repairer). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the diesel equipment technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies,…

  9. 2005 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Horticulture. (Program CIP: 01.0601 - Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Operations, General)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Curriculum Unit, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  10. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Design Technology for Fashion and Interiors. (Program CIP: 19.0901 - Apparel and Textiles, General)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Carol; Lawrence, Angie; Pou, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  11. 2006 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Culinary and Related Foods Technology. (Program CIP: 20.0401 - Institutional Food Workers & Admin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Linda; Early, Lanell; Wood, Becky Jolly

    2006-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  12. 2005 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management. (Program CIP: 52.0901--Hospitality Administration/Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Lady Anne; Chandler, Mark; Nichols, Raynette; Nevill, Becky

    2005-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  13. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification Version 1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros III, James H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeBonis, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grant, Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelly, Suzanne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Levenhagen, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olivier, Stephen Lecler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pedretti, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  14. A monte carlo program for X-rays detection up to 1.4 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredotti, C.; Nastasi, U.

    1983-01-01

    A monte carlo program has been developed to simulate X-ray spectral response in semiconductor detectors. Photons in the range from 5 KeV to 1.4 MeV are considered as emitted from a source of zero thickness aligned to the crystal axis and followed untill their complete energy loss or their escape from the crystal. The program allows the optimization of important parameters in a semiconductor detector, the study of influence on the spectra obtained and the determination of the energy behavior of efficiency and energy resolution. Some obtained results have been compared with experimental data

  15. CIP1 polypeptides and their uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela [Los Altos, CA; Van Solingen, Pieter [Naaldwijk, NL; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2011-04-12

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  16. Spent nuclear fuels project: FY 1995 multi-year program plan, WBS {number_sign}1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denning, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) program is to safely, reliably, and efficiently manage, condition, transport, and store Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF, so that it meets acceptance criteria for disposal in a permanent repository. The Hanford Site Spent Nuclear Fuel strategic plan for accomplishing the project mission is: Establish near-term safe storage in the 105-K Basins; Complete national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to obtain a decision on how and where spent nuclear fuel will be managed on the site; Define and establish alternative interim storage on site or transport off site to support implementation of the NEPA decision; and Define and establish a waste package qualified for final disposition. This report contains descriptions of the following: Work Breakdown Structure; WBS Dictionary; Responsibility Assignment Matrix; Program Logic Diagrams; Program Master Baseline Schedule; Program Performance Baseline Schedule; Milestone List; Milestone Description Sheets; Cost Baseline Summary by Year; Basis of Estimate; Waste Type Data; Planned Staffing; and Fiscal Year Work Plan.

  17. Spent nuclear fuels project: FY 1995 multi-year program plan, WBS number-sign 1.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) program is to safely, reliably, and efficiently manage, condition, transport, and store Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF, so that it meets acceptance criteria for disposal in a permanent repository. The Hanford Site Spent Nuclear Fuel strategic plan for accomplishing the project mission is: Establish near-term safe storage in the 105-K Basins; Complete national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to obtain a decision on how and where spent nuclear fuel will be managed on the site; Define and establish alternative interim storage on site or transport off site to support implementation of the NEPA decision; and Define and establish a waste package qualified for final disposition. This report contains descriptions of the following: Work Breakdown Structure; WBS Dictionary; Responsibility Assignment Matrix; Program Logic Diagrams; Program Master Baseline Schedule; Program Performance Baseline Schedule; Milestone List; Milestone Description Sheets; Cost Baseline Summary by Year; Basis of Estimate; Waste Type Data; Planned Staffing; and Fiscal Year Work Plan

  18. 2005 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Technician. (Program CIP: 47.0699 - Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Technology, Other)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackeen, Scott; Freeman, Roscoe; Tiblier, Chris; Batton, James; Ealy, Houston; Simmons, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  19. Capital Improvement Program (CIP) Project Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes pertinent information relating to a capital project’s status administered by the Department of Transportation and the Department of General...

  20. Neutronic design of the RSG-GAS compact core without CIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilo, Jati; Kuntoro, Iman

    2002-01-01

    Improvement of the efficiency of reactor operation can be chivvied by some ways, such as, the uranium density of the fuel, loading pattern and configuration of core elements. The paper deals with determination of optimal configuration of the compact core with out CIP. Calculations were carried out by means of SRAC-PIJ module for cross section generation and SRAC-ASMBURN for core calculations. The optimal compact core obtained, showed that no-CIP compact core increase highest reactivity value about 0,84 % Δk/k and longest time operation about 1,19 time in the safety criteria that is power peaking factor less then 1,4 and margin control element worth less then volume in the first design that -2,2% Δk/k

  1. Neutronic design of the RSG-GAS compact core without CIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jati-Susilo; Iman-Kuntoro

    2003-01-01

    Improvement of the efficiency of reactor operation can be achieved by some ways, such as, the uranium density of the fuel, loading pattern and configuration of core elements. The paper deals with determination of optimal configuration of the compact core with out CIP. Calculations were carried out by means of SRAC-PIJ module for cross section generation and SRAC-ASMBURN for core calculations. The optimal compact core obtained, showed that no-CIP compact core increase highest reactivity value about 1.06 % Δk/k and longest time operation about 1.19 time in the safety criteria that is power peaking factor less then 1.4 and margin control element worth less then value in the first design that -2.2% Δk/k

  2. Neutronic Analysis of the RSG-GAS Compact Core without CIP Silicide 3.55 g U/cc and 4.8 g U/cc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jati S; Lily S; Tukiran S

    2004-01-01

    Fuel conversion from U 3 O 8 -Al to U 3 Si 2 -Al 2.96 g U/cc density in the RSG-GAS core had done successfully step by step since 36 th core until 44 th core. So that, since the 45 th core until now (48 th core) had been using full of silicide 2.96 g U/cc. Even though utilization program of silicide fuel with high density (3.55 g U/cc and 4.8 g U/cc) and optimize operation of RSG-GAS core under research. Optimalitation of core with increasing operation cycle have been analyzing about compact core. The mean of compact core is the RSG-GAS core with decrease number of IP or CIP position irradiation. In this research, the neutronic calculation to cover RSG-GAS core and RSG-GAS core without CIP that are using U 3 Si 2 -Al 2.96 g U/cc, 3.55 g U/cc and 4.8 g U/cc had done. Two core calculation done at 15 MW power using SRAC-ASMBURN code. The calculation result show that fuel conversion from 2.96 g U/cc density to 3.55 g U/cc and 4.8 g U/cc will increasing cycle length for both RSG-GAS core and RSG-GAS compact core without CIP. However, increasing of excess reactivity exceeded from nominal value of first design that 9.2%. Change of power peaking factor is not show significant value and still less than 1.4. Core fuelled with U 3 Si 2 -Al 4.8 g U/cc density have maximum discharge burn-up which exceeded from licensing value (70%). RSG-GAS compact core without CIP fuelled U 3 Si 2 -Al 2.96 g U/cc have longer cycle operation then RSG-GAS core and fulfil limitation neutronic parameter at the first design value. (author)

  3. Study of thermal-hydraulic analyses with CIP method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshihiro

    1996-09-01

    New type of numerical scheme CIP has been proposed for solving hyperbolic type equations and the CIP is focused on as a less numerical diffusive scheme. C-CUP method with the CIP scheme is adopted to numerical simulations that treat compressible and incompressible fluids, phase change phenomena and Mixture fluids. To evaluate applicabilities of the CIP scheme and C-CUP method for thermal hydraulic analyses related to Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs), the scheme and the method were reviewed. Feature of the CIP scheme and procedure of the C-CUP method were presented. The CIP scheme is used to solve linear hyperbolic type equations for advection term in basic equations of fluids. Key issues of the scheme is that profile between grid points is described to solve the equation by cubic polynomial and spatial derivatives of the polynomial. The scheme can capture steep change of solution and suppress numerical error. In the C-CUP method, the basic equations of fluids are divided into advection terms and the other terms. The advection terms is solved with CIP scheme and the other terms is solved with difference method. The C-CUP method is robust for numerical instability, but mass of fluid will be in unfair preservation with nonconservative equations for fluids. Numerical analyses with the CIP scheme and the C-CUP method has been performed for phase change, mixture and moving object. These analyses are depend on characteristics of that the scheme and the method are robust for steep change of density and useful for interface tracking. (author)

  4. Kentucky Preschool Evaluation Project: Differential Effects, Program Characteristics and Child Outcomes, and Longitudinal and Cumulative Findings. Reports 1-4, 1998-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Townley, Kim; Wilson, Stephen; Epstein, Ann; Hines, Huyi

    This document is comprised of four reports related to the evaluation of the Kentucky Preschool Program (KPP), serving 4-year-olds who qualify for the free lunch program and 3- and 4-year-olds with disabilities. Report 1 focuses on the differential effects of the preschool program related to race and to gender. Three key findings are reported: (1)…

  5. cipC is important for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Heliara Maria Spina; Takami, Luciano Akira; da Silva Ferreira, Márcia Eliana

    2017-02-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main causative agent of invasive aspergillosis, a disease that affects immunocompromised patients and has a high mortality rate. We previously observed that the transcription of a cipC-like gene was increased when A. fumigatus encountered an increased CO 2 concentration, as occurs during the infection process. CipC is a protein of unknown function that might be associated with fungal pathogenicity. In this study, the cipC gene was disrupted in A. fumigatus to evaluate its importance for fungal pathogenicity. The gene was replaced, and the germination, growth phenotype, stress responses, and virulence of the resultant mutant were assessed. Although cipC was not essential, its deletion attenuated A. fumigatus virulence in a low-dose murine infection model, suggesting the involvement of the cipC gene in the virulence of this fungus. This study is the first to disrupt the cipC gene in A. fumigatus. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Recommended Guidelines for NERC CIP Compliance for Synchrophasor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mix, Scott R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Silverstein, Alison [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-11-14

    Compliance with the NERC requirements for Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) for synchrophasor systems in the Version 5 paradigm seems to be a matter of some uncertainty for those in the synchrophasor user community. This report aims to provide clarification and guidance in the form of case studies based on methods seen in the industry

  7. Cloning of the rat Waf1/Cip1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Middleton, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    The progression of eukaryotic cells through the cell cycle involves the sequential expression of specific genes. This process is regulated by both external and internal stimuli that prevent the cell from prematurely entering the next phase before all macromolecular events have been completed. The activation and subsequent inactivation of cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks) represent one internal stimuli required to regulate the transit of cells from one stage of the cell cycle to the next. Another member of this regulatory cascade is the p53 tumor suppressor gene, which controls a G 1 checkpoint at which the cell cycle can be arrested prior to the initiation of DNA synthesis. Following DNA damage, p53 protein levels rise, and entry into S phase is delayed, presumably to allow time for repair of the lesions. When p53 function is lost, cells containing damaged DNA template enter S phase leading to fixation and propagation of genetic alterations. Recently, evidence linking the growth-suppressing activity of p53 and inactivation of Cdks has been provided by the cloning of the Waf1/Cip1 gene. Waf1/Cip1 encodes a protein of M r 21,000 (p21), which inhibits Cdks in vitro. The overexpression of Waf1/Cip1 in cells inhibits cell growth, suggesting that p21 is a downstream mediator of p53 function. Loss of Waf1/Cip1 gene function could lead to deregulation of the cell cycle and contribute to the development of the neoplastic phenotype in tumors that do not contain mutations in the p53 gene. The purpose of the present investigation was to clone the rat Waf1/Cip1 gene,then determine the frequency for alteration of this gene in lung tumors induced by X-rays

  8. Development of mice without Cip/Kip CDK inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Yuki; Matsumoto, Akinobu; Kanie, Tomoharu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Hara, Eiji [Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Nakayama, Keiko [Department of Developmental Genetics, Center for Translational and Advanced Animal Research, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Nakayama, Keiichi I., E-mail: nakayak1@bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mice lacking Cip/Kip CKIs (p21, p27, and p57) survive until embryonic day 13.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation of MEFs lacking all three Cip/Kip CKIs appears unexpectedly normal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDK2 kinase activity of the triple mutant MEFs is increased in G0 phase. -- Abstract: Timely exit of cells from the cell cycle is essential for proper cell differentiation during embryogenesis. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) of the Cip/Kip family (p21, p27, and p57) are negative regulators of cell cycle progression and are thought to be essential for development. However, the extent of functional redundancy among Cip/Kip family members has remained largely unknown. We have now generated mice that lack all three Cip/Kip CKIs (TKO mice) and compared them with those lacking each possible pair of these proteins (DKO mice). We found that the TKO embryos develop normally until midgestation but die around embryonic day (E) 13.5, slightly earlier than p27/p57 DKO embryos. The TKO embryos manifested morphological abnormalities as well as increased rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the placenta and lens that were essentially indistinguishable from those of p27/p57 DKO mice. Unexpectedly, the proliferation rate and cell cycle profile of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking all three Cip/Kip CKIs did not differ substantially from those of control MEFs. The abundance and kinase activity of CDK2 were markedly increased, whereas CDK4 activity and cyclin D1 abundance were decreased, in both p27/p57 DKO and TKO MEFs during progression from G{sub 0} to S phase compared with those in control MEFs. The extents of the increase in CDK2 activity and the decrease in CDK4 activity and cyclin D1 abundance were greater in TKO MEFs than in p27/p57 DKO MEFs. These results suggest that p27 and p57 play an essential role in mouse development after midgestation, and that p21 plays only an auxiliary role in

  9. Potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campidoglio, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy. This would both reduce the supply shortage and the prices on the eligible market, increase competition on the contract-for-difference market, indicate a clear price to which regulated energy charges could be indexed, thus extending the auction benefits to the franchise market to avoid the reintroduction of cross-subsidies [it

  10. Overexpression and small molecule-triggered downregulation of CIP2A in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ma

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with a five-year overall survival rate of only 15%. Cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A is a human oncoprotein inhibiting PP2A in many human malignancies. However, whether CIP2A can be a new drug target for lung cancer is largely unclear.Normal and malignant lung tissues were derived from 60 lung cancer patients from southern China. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of CIP2A. We found that among the 60 patients, CIP2A was undetectable or very low in paratumor normal tissues, but was dramatically elevated in tumor samples in 38 (63.3% patients. CIP2A overexpression was associated with cigarette smoking. Silencing CIP2A by siRNA inhibited the proliferation and clonogenic activity of lung cancer cells. Intriguingly, we found a natural compound, rabdocoetsin B which is extracted from a Traditional Chinese Medicinal herb Rabdosia coetsa, could induce down-regulation of CIP2A and inactivation of Akt pathway, and inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in a variety of lung cancer cells.Our findings strongly indicate that CIP2A could be an effective target for lung cancer drug development, and the therapeutic potentials of CIP2A-targeting agents warrant further investigation.

  11. Airborne Geophysical/Geological Mineral Inventory CIP Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne-Geophysical/Geological Mineral Inventory project is a special multi-year investment to expand the knowledge base of Alaska's mineral resources and catalyze private-sector mineral development...

  12. Renewable resource power production: Italian decree CIP No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Macco, C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an overall energy conservation campaign, a concrete step, in the form of a more favourable electricity rate structure for auto-producers, is being taken by the Italian Government to encourage medium sized industries to adopt cogeneration systems to meet their heat and power requirements. Within this context, this paper gives a look at the incentives for renewable energy source use which are incorporated in the CIP (Italian Inter-ministerial Commission on Prices) Provision No. 34/90, regulating industrial plant cogeneration systems, and which governs ENEL's (Italian National Electricity Board) rate structure in the case of independent on-site producers ceding power to the national utility's grid

  13. SUMO regulates p21Cip1 intracellular distribution and with p21Cip1 facilitates multiprotein complex formation in the nucleolus upon DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Sonia; Abella, Neus; Berciano, Maria T; Tapia, Olga; Jaumot, Montserrat; Freire, Raimundo; Lafarga, Miguel; Agell, Neus

    2017-01-01

    We previously showed that p21Cip1 transits through the nucleolus on its way from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and that DNA damage inhibits this transit and induces the formation of p21Cip1-containing intranucleolar bodies (INoBs). Here, we demonstrate that these INoBs also contain SUMO-1 and UBC9, the E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme. Furthermore, whereas wild type SUMO-1 localized in INoBs, a SUMO-1 mutant, which is unable to conjugate with proteins, does not, suggesting the presence of SUMOylated proteins at INoBs. Moreover, depletion of the SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9 or the sumo hydrolase SENP2 changed p21Cip1 intracellular distribution. In addition to SUMO-1 and p21Cip1, cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins, including Cdk2, Cyclin E, PCNA, p53 and Mdm2, and PML were also detected in INoBs. Importantly, depletion of UBC9 or p21Cip1 impacted INoB biogenesis and the nucleolar accumulation of the cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins following DNA damage. The impact of p21Cip1 and SUMO-1 on the accumulation of proteins in INoBs extends also to CRM1, a nuclear exportin that is also important for protein translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleolus. Thus, SUMO and p21Cip1 regulate the transit of proteins through the nucleolus, and that disruption of nucleolar export by DNA damage induces SUMO and p21Cip1 to act as hub proteins to form a multiprotein complex in the nucleolus.

  14. Aves do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó: o Vale do Rio Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brasil The birds of "Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó": the Rio Cipó valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um levantamento de espécies de aves do Vale do alto Rio Cipó durante o período de maio de 1998 a novembro de 2002. A região está totalmente inserida em uma das unidades de conservação mais importantes do sudeste do Brasil, o Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, em Minas Gerais. O método utilizado foi o de observação direta ao longo de 'transectos', captura com redes e identificação a partir do uso de vocalizações. A riqueza de espécies foi estimada usando-se o método de 'jackknife'. Foram registradas 226 espécies de aves pertencentes a 43 famílias. Isso corresponde cerca de 27% das 837 espécies já registradas para o bioma do Cerrado. Foram capturados 2.249 indivíduos num total de 4.486,82 horas-rede, onde foram amostradas 119 espécies pertencentes a 23 famílias. A riqueza foi estimada em 239 ± 5 espécies. Constam nesta lista seis espécies endêmicas do Cerrado: Augastes scutatus (Temminck, 1824 (Trochilidae, Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied-NeuWied, 1821 (Furnariidae, Antilophia galeata (Lichtenstein, 1832 (Pipridae, Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823 (Corvidae, Charitospiza eucosma (Oberholser, 1905, Saltator atricollis (Vieillot, 1817, e Porphyrospiza caerulescens (Wied-Neuwied, 1830 (Emberizidae. Ocorrem também três espécies quase-ameaçadas de extinção: Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758 (Cathartidae, Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 e Charitospiza eucosma (Emberizidae. O Vale do Rio Cipó abriga uma porção significativa da avifauna do Cerrado. Alguns dos habitat encontrados no Vale estão se tornando cada vez mais raros na região do Cerrado de todo o Brasil, como as matas ciliares e o sistema de lagoas temporárias ao longo dos rios. Mesmo as cachoeiras, habitat importante para várias espécies, vêm desaparecendo em outras regiões do Brasil. Nesse sentido, a região do Vale do Rio Cipó dentro Parque consolida um dos seus objetivos que é a conservação da biodiversidade.It is

  15. 76 FR 59863 - Application and Approval Process for New Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... jobs or occupations stemming from the program. We invite comments on the proposed wage analysis... description of the CIP to Sec. 600.2, Definitions. Under this section, the CIP would be defined as ``a taxonomy of instructional program classifications and descriptions developed by the U.S. Department of...

  16. CIP2A protein expression in high-grade, high-stage bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lisa P; Savoly, Diana; Sidi, Abraham A; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli; Trama, Jason P

    2012-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Numerous markers have been evaluated for suitability of bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, few of them are acceptable as a routine tool. Therefore, there exists a continuing need for an assay that detects the presence of bladder cancer in humans. It would be advantageous to develop an assay with a protein that is associated with the development of bladder cancer. We have identified the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein as a novel bladder cancer biomarker. In this study, Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression level of CIP2A protein in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer patient tissues (n = 43). Our studies indicated CIP2A protein was abundantly expressed in bladder cancer cell lines but not in nontumor epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, CIP2A was specifically expressed in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tumor tissues but not in adjacent nontumor bladder tissue. Our data showed that CIP2A protein detection in high-grade TCC tissues had a sensitivity of 65%, which is 3.4-fold higher than that seen in low-grade TCC tissues (19%). The level of CIP2A protein expression increased with the stage of disease (12%, 27%, 67%, and 100% for pTa, pT1, pT2, and pT3 tumor, respectively). In conclusion, our studies suggest that CIP2A protein is specifically expressed in human bladder tumors. CIP2A is preferentially expressed in high-grade and high-stage TCC tumors, which are high-risk and invasive tumors. Our studies reported here support the role of CIP2A in bladder cancer progression and its usefulness for the surveillance of recurrence or progression of human bladder cancer

  17. Solutions of hyperbolic equations with the CIP-BS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Takayuki; Koga, James; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Yabe, Takashi; Aoki, Takayuki

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a new numerical method, the Constrained Interpolation Profile - Basis Set (CIP-BS) method, can solve general hyperbolic equations efficiently. This method uses a simple polynomial basis set that is easily extendable to any desired higher-order accuracy. The interpolating profile is chosen so that the subgrid scale solution approaches the local real solution owing to the constraints from the spatial derivatives of the master equations. Then, introducing scalar products, the linear and nonlinear partial differential equations are uniquely reduced to the ordinary differential equations for values and spatial derivatives at the grid points. The method gives stable, less diffusive, and accurate results. It is successfully applied to the continuity equation, the Burgers equation, the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and one-dimensional shock tube problems. (author)

  18. Analisis Strategi Mitigasi Resiko Pada Supply Chain CV Surya Cip Dengan House of Risk Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pertiwi, Yoana Ellen; Susanty, Aries

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of Risk Mitigation Strategies on CV Surya CIP's Supply Chain Using House of Risk Model. In the supply chain activities always has the potential of risk, therefore risk management is necessary for handling the risks. At the company that produces plastic molding machine such as CV Surya CIP, in its supply chain activities have a chance to arise risks. The purpose of this study is to identify the various risks that occur in the CV Surya CIP and its causes, severity and determine the ...

  19. An XRF method for the determination of gold and silver in carbon samples from CIP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, F.C.; Jackson, B.E.; Van Zyl, C.

    1985-01-01

    The improvement in the recovery of gold, utilizing the carbon-in-pulp (CIP) and carbon-in-leach (CIL) processes, are major developments which have taken place in the South African gold Mining industry in recent years. In addition to gold, many other elements are either adsorbed onto or physically trapped by the carbon granules during the CIP and CIL processes. X-ray fluorescence, a technique which offers the possibility of a minimum of sample preparation, is used to determine gold and silver in carbon samples from CIP plants

  20. Effect of material selection and background impurity on interface property and resulted CIP-GMR performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xilin; Morrone, Augusto; Nikolaev, Konstantin; Kief, Mark; Ostrowski, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effect of background base pressure, wafer-transferring time between process modules, and stack layer material selection on the current-in-plane giant magneto-resistive (CIP-GMR) interface properties and the resulted CIP-GMR performance. Experimental results showed that seed layer/AFM interface, AFM/pinned layer (PL) interface, pinned layer/Ru interface, and reference layer (RL)/Cu spacer interface are among the most critical ones for a CIP-GMR device. By reducing the background impurity level (water moisture and oxygen), optimizing the wafer process flow sequence, and careful stack-layer material selection, such critical interfaces in a CIP-GMR device can be preserved. Consequently, a much robust GMR performance control can be achieved.

  1. Potential impacts of NOx and SO2 constraints on CIPS operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasque, J.; Montgomery, D.; Le, K.; Boyle, R.; Nguyen, M.; Orndoff, D.

    1994-01-01

    To meet the Clean Air Act requirements, CIPS will need to spend around $30 million to curtail its SO 2 and NO x emissions by 40 percent. A key challenge facing CIPS management is to determine an emission compliance strategy that minimizes the total system production costs while maintaining a reasonable safety margin and back-up plan. CIPS is currently testing tools to perform emission-constrained unit commitment and economic dispatch. This ''soft'' option provides a back-up measure, should unforeseen occurrences take place or newly installed NO x reduction equipment fail to perform as expected. Algorithm development, software modification, procedural changes, and data collection required to implement emission-constrained dispatch will need to be in place by January, 1995. By taking advantage of ''soft'' methods, such as emission-constrained dispatch, emission trading, and operator training, CIPS hopes to reduce its emission-related capital expenditures by 5--20 percent

  2. Study of the Career Intern Program. Final Technical Report--Task C: Program Dynamics: Structure, Function, and Interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    A study identified causal linkages and basic interrelationships among components of the Career Intern Program (CIP) and observed outcomes. (The CIP is an alternative high school designed to enable disadvantaged and alienated dropouts or potential dropouts to earn regular high school diplomas, to prepare them for meaningful employment or…

  3. Second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors prevent disease progression in high-risk (high CIP2A) chronic myeloid leukaemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C M; Harris, R J; Holcroft, A K; Scott, L J; Carmell, N; McDonald, E; Polydoros, F; Clark, R E

    2015-07-01

    High cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein levels at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) are predictive of disease progression in imatinib-treated patients. It is not known whether this is true in patients treated with second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2G TKI) from diagnosis, and whether 2G TKIs modulate the CIP2A pathway. Here, we show that patients with high diagnostic CIP2A levels who receive a 2G TKI do not progress, unlike those treated with imatinib (P=<0.0001). 2G TKIs induce more potent suppression of CIP2A and c-Myc than imatinib. The transcription factor E2F1 is elevated in high CIP2A patients and following 1 month of in vivo treatment 2G TKIs suppress E2F1 and reduce CIP2A; these effects are not seen with imatinib. Silencing of CIP2A, c-Myc or E2F1 in K562 cells or CML CD34+ cells reactivates PP2A leading to BCR-ABL suppression. CIP2A increases proliferation and this is only reduced by 2G TKIs. Patients with high CIP2A levels should be offered 2G TKI treatment in preference to imatinib. 2G TKIs disrupt the CIP2A/c-Myc/E2F1 positive feedback loop, leading to lower disease progression risk. The data supports the view that CIP2A inhibits PP2Ac, stabilising E2F1, creating a CIP2A/c-Myc/E2F1 positive feedback loop, which imatinib cannot overcome.

  4. 76 FR 17139 - Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Noncompetitive... Improvement Project (CIP) from Saint Vincent's Catholic Medical Centers (SVCMC) of New York, current grantee...

  5. 76 FR 1441 - Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Noncompetitive... for Services (IDS) and a portion of the Capital Improvement Project (CIP) from Saint Vincent's...

  6. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination...

  7. p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression and the p53/MDM2 feedback loop in gastric carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Blok, P.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Meijer, G. A.; Dekker, W.; Kuipers, E. J.; Meuwissen, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    Data are non-existent regarding coincidental alterations in the expression of p53 and its downstream target genes MDM2 and p21(Waf1/Cip1) in gastric carcinogenesis. An immunohistochemical study was therefore performed to examine the interrelationships of p53, MDM2, and p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression in a

  8. [The mechanisms of p21WAF1/Cip-1 expression in MOLT-4 cell line induced by TSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Liu, Mei-Ju; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Qian, Jun-Jie; Dong, Yan; Liu, Hua; Sun, Guo-Jing; Mei, Zhu-Zhong; Liu, Bin; Tian, Bao-Lei; Sun, Zhi-Xian

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the function and molecular mechanism of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) expression in MOLT-4 cells induced by HDAC inhibitor TSA, the expression pattern of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) and the distribution of cell cycle in TSA treated cells were analyzed. The results showed that TSA could effectively induce G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis of MOLT-4 cells. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that p21(WAF1/Cip-1) were upregulated quickly before cell arrested in G(2)/M and began decreasing at the early stage of apoptosis. Meanwhile, the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 could inhibit the decrease of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) at the early stage of apoptosis, which showed that proteasome pathway involved in p21(WAF1/Cip-1) degradation during the TSA induced G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis responses. This study also identified that the protein level of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) was highly associated with the cell cycle change induced by TSA. Compared to cells treated by TSA only, exposure MOLT-4 cells to TSA meanwhile treatment with MG-132 increased the protein level of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) and increased the numbers of cell in G(2)/M-phase, whereas the cell apoptosis were delayed. It is concluded that p21(WAF1/Cip-1) plays a significant role in G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis signaling induced by TSA in MOLT-4 cells.

  9. Potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy; Effetti della vendita tramite asta dell'energia CIP 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campidoglio, C. [Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale, Milan (Italy). Osservatorio Energia

    2000-12-01

    This paper analyses the potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy. This would both reduce the supply shortage and the prices on the eligible market, increase competition on the contract-for-difference market, indicate a clear price to which regulated energy charges could be indexed, thus extending the auction benefits to the franchise market to avoid the reintroduction of cross-subsidies. [Italian] L'articolo analizza i possibili benefici della vendita tramita asta dell'energia CIP 6. In particolare, l'asta ridurrebbe la scarsita' d'offerta e quindi i pressi sul mercato libero, aumenterebbe la concorrenza nel mercato dei contratti per differenza, fornirebbe un prezzo chiaro a cui indicizzare il prezzo dell'energia in tariffa, estendendo i benefici dell'asta sul mercato vincolato ed evitando la reintroduzione di sussidi incrociati.

  10. Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    widely used as solvents, pesticides , gasoline additives, and a host of other applications. Most recently, the solvent stabilizer 1,4-dioxane has...the Stringfellow FBRs were sent to us to attempt to enrich native 1,4-dioxane degrading microorganisms . For the initial enrichment of bacterial...63:4216-4222. Steffan, R. J., Y. Farhan, C. W. Condee, and S. Drew. 2003. Bioremediation at a New Jersey Site Using Propane-Oxidizing Bacteria

  11. CipA of Acinetobacter baumannii Is a Novel Plasminogen Binding and Complement Inhibitory Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Arno; Stahl, Julia; Averhoff, Beate; Göttig, Stephan; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Wallich, Reinhard; Zipfel, Peter F; Kraiczy, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen, responsible for up to 10% of gram-negative, nosocomial infections. The global increase of multidrug-resistant and pan-resistant Acinetobacter isolates presents clinicians with formidable challenges. To establish a persistent infection,A. baumannii must overcome the detrimental effects of complement as the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. However, the immune evasion principles underlying serum resistance inA. baumannii remain elusive. Here, we identified a novel plasminogen-binding protein, termed CipA. Bound plasminogen, upon conversion to active plasmin, degraded fibrinogen and complement C3b and contributed to serum resistance. Furthermore, CipA directly inhibited the alternative pathway of complement in vitro, irrespective of its ability to bind plasminogen. A CipA-deficient mutant was efficiently killed by human serum and showed a defect in the penetration of endothelial monolayers, demonstrating that CipA is a novel multifunctional protein that contributes to the pathogenesis ofA. baumannii. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. CIP - a new numerical solver for general nonlinear hyperbolic equations in multi-dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, Takashi; Takewaki, Hideaki.

    1986-12-01

    A new method CIP (Cubic-Interpolated Pseudo-particle) to solve hyperbolic equations is proposed. The method gives a stable and less diffusive result for square wave propagation compared with FCT (Flux-Corrected Transport) and a better result for propagation of a sine wave with a discontinuity. The scheme is extended to nonlinear and multi-dimensional problems. (orig.) [de

  13. Louisiana Airport System Plan Five-Year Capital Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The Louisiana Airport System Plan (LASP) Five-Year-Capital Improvement Program (CIP) is a development plan for all commercial service, reliever, and general aviation airports in Louisiana. It is a detailed listing of potential projects based on the a...

  14. Making limb and nadir measurements comparable: A common volume study of PMC brightness observed by Odin OSIRIS and AIM CIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benze, Susanne; Gumbel, Jörg; Randall, Cora E.; Karlsson, Bodil; Hultgren, Kristoffer; Lumpe, Jerry D.; Baumgarten, Gerd

    2018-01-01

    Combining limb and nadir satellite observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) has long been recognized as problematic due to differences in observation geometry, scattering conditions, and retrieval approaches. This study offers a method of comparing PMC brightness observations from the nadir-viewing Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument and the limb-viewing Odin Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). OSIRIS and CIPS measurements are made comparable by defining a common volume for overlapping OSIRIS and CIPS observations for two northern hemisphere (NH) PMC seasons: NH08 and NH09. We define a scattering intensity quantity that is suitable for either nadir or limb observations and for different scattering conditions. A known CIPS bias is applied, differences in instrument sensitivity are analyzed and taken into account, and effects of cloud inhomogeneity and common volume definition on the comparison are discussed. Not accounting for instrument sensitivity differences or inhomogeneities in the PMC field, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness (CIPS - OSIRIS) is -102 ± 55%. The differences are largest for coincidences with very inhomogeneous clouds that are dominated by pixels that CIPS reports as non-cloud points. Removing these coincidences, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness reduces to -6 ± 14%. The correlation coefficient between the CIPS and OSIRIS measurements of PMC brightness variations in space and time is remarkably high, at 0.94. Overall, the comparison shows excellent agreement despite different retrieval approaches and observation geometries.

  15. 1/4-pinched contact sphere theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Jian; Huang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Given a closed contact 3-manifold with a compatible Riemannian metric, we show that if the sectional curvature is 1/4-pinched, then the contact structure is universally tight. This result improves the Contact Sphere Theorem in [EKM12], where a 4/9-pinching constant was imposed. Some tightness...

  16. 1-[1-(4-Nitrophenylethylidene]thiosemicarbazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Ding

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C9H10N4O2S, was prepared by the reaction of 1-(4-nitrophenylethanone and thiosemicarbazide in ethanol at 367 K. There are weak intermolecular N—H...S and N—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions in the crystal structure involving the amine and nitrile groups, respectively, as donors.

  17. Pesticidrester 1.-4. kvartal 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg

    Resultaterne af den danske pesticidkontrol fra Fødevarestyrelsen og DTU Fødevareinstituttet fra 1.-4. kvartal 2014 viser, at ingen af de påviste sprøjterester udgør en sundhedsmæssig risiko, bortset fra to udenlandske prøver, som er blevet tilbagekaldt fra markedet.......Resultaterne af den danske pesticidkontrol fra Fødevarestyrelsen og DTU Fødevareinstituttet fra 1.-4. kvartal 2014 viser, at ingen af de påviste sprøjterester udgør en sundhedsmæssig risiko, bortset fra to udenlandske prøver, som er blevet tilbagekaldt fra markedet....

  18. Trichloro(1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane)chromium(III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnaes; Schau-Magnussen, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    The 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tmtacn) ligand has become one of the classic ligands in coordination chemistry (Wieghardt et al., 1982 [Wieghardt, K., Chaudhuri, P., Nuber, B. & Weiss, J. (1982). Inorg. Chem. 21, 3086-3090.] ). In recent years, tmtacn-metal complexes ...

  19. Celastrol inhibits chondrosarcoma proliferation, migration and invasion through suppression CIP2A/c-MYC signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcomas (CS is the second most frequent tumors of cartilage origin. A small compound extracted from Thunder God Vine (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. called celastrol can directly bound CIP2A protein and effectively inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, little knowledge is concern about the important role of CIP2A in CS patients and the therapeutic value of celastrol on CS. Our results showed that CIP2A and c-MYC were verified to be oncoproteins by detecting their mRNA and protein expression in 10 human CS tissues by qRT-PCR and Western blots. After treatment of celastrol, the proliferation, migration and invasion were significantly inhibited; whereas the apoptosis was largely induced in human CS cell lines. In addition, celastrol inhibited the expression of CIP2A, c-MYC, and suppressed apoptotic proteins BAX and caspase-8 in human CS cells, on the other hand, it induced the expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Finally, knockdown of CIP2A also inhibited the migration and invasion and induced apoptosis of human CS cells. To sum up, we found that celastrol had effects on inhibiting proliferation, migration, invasion and inducing apoptosis through suppression CIP2A/c-MYC signaling pathway in vitro, which may provide a new therapeutic regimen for CS.

  20. Arctigenin inhibits triple-negative breast cancers by targeting CIP2A to reactivate protein phosphatase 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuyue; Qin, Shanshan; Yuan, Xiaoning; Zhang, Liang; Ji, Juanli; Liu, Xuewen; Ma, Wenjing; Zhang, Yunfei; Liu, Pengfei; Sun, Zhiting; Zhang, Jingxuan; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    We have shown that a novel STAT3 inhibitor arctigenin (Atn) induces significant cytotoxicity in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. This study further delineated molecular mechanisms where by Atn triggered cytotoxicity in TNBC cells. We found Atn can also inhibit metastasis in TNBC cells through cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) pathway. CIP2A is an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which can increase the migration and invasion of various cancer cells. PP2A is a tumor suppressor, which is functionally defective in various cancers. Atn-induced metastasis inhibition was associated with reactivation of PP2A, downregulation of CIP2A and Akt phosphorylation. Silencing CIP2A enhanced Atn-induced metastasis inhibition and apoptosis in TNBCs. Furthermore, ectopic expression of CIP2A or inhibition of PP2A in TNBC cells abolished the effects of Atn. In conclusion, we found that enhancement of PP2A activity by inhibition of CIP2A, at least in part, promotes the anti-metastasis effect induced by Atn. Our findings disclose the novel therapeutic mechanism of this targeted agent, and suggest the therapeutic potential and feasibility of developing PP2A enhancers as a novel anticancer strategy.

  1. CIP's Eighth Annual Educational Software Contest: The Winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Denis

    1997-01-01

    Announces the winners of an annual software contest for innovative software in physics education. Winning entries include an application to help students visualize the origin of energy bands in a solid, a package on the radioastronomy of pulsars, and a school-level science simulation program. Also includes student winners, honorable mentions,…

  2. Enlarged test catalysts during the hydrogenation of 1,4-butynediol to 1,4-butanediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The highly effective catalyzer for butynediol-1;4 hydrogenation was designed and synthesized. Enlarged tests showed that the selectivity on butanediol-1.4 at the hydrogenation of butynediol-1.4 on the alloyed catalyst SKN-39H during 320 h was 84.6 %; that on 18 % higher than for  industrial MNH. The yield of product on the catalyst SKN-39 increases slowly from 3.1 to 7.3 % when on a catalyst MNH – 7.1 to 11.7 % from the initial content of butynediol-1;4. At the hydrogenation of  butynediol on catalyst SKN-39H process efficiency increases in 1.5-2 times and product purity on 2-3 % is higher in comparing with the industrial catalyst MNH. 

  3. Interactions of ciprofloxacin (CIP), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles and natural organic matter (NOM) in aqueous suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Elke, E-mail: elke.fries@bgr.de [Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), Orléans (France); Crouzet, Catherine; Michel, Caroline; Togola, Anne [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), Orléans (France)

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate interactions of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NP) and natural organic matter (NOM) in aqueous suspensions. The mean hydrodynamic diameter of particles of TiO{sub 2} NP and NOM in the suspensions ranged from 113 to 255 nm. During batch experiments the radioactivity resulting from {sup 14}CIP was determined in the filtrate (filter pore size 100 nm) by scintillation measurements. Up to 72 h, no significant sorption of NOM to TiO{sub 2} NP was observed at a TiO{sub 2} NP concentration of 5 mg/L. When the concentration of TiO{sub 2} NP was increased to 500 mg/L, a small amount of NOM of 9.5% ± 0.6% was sorbed at 72 h. The low sorption affinity of NOM on TiO{sub 2} NP surfaces could be explained by the negative charge of both components in alkaline media or by the low hydrophobicity of the NOM contents. At a TiO{sub 2} NP concentration of 5 mg L{sup −1}, the sorption of CIP on TiO{sub 2} NP was insignificant (TiO{sub 2} NP/CIP ratio: 10). When the TiO{sub 2} NP/CIP ratio was increased to 1000, a significant amount of 53.6% ± 7.2% of CIP was sorbed on TiO{sub 2} NP under equilibrium conditions at 64 h. In alkaline media, CIP is present mainly as zwitterions which have an affinity to sorb on negatively charged TiO{sub 2} NP surfaces. The sorption of CIP on TiO{sub 2} NP in the range of TiO{sub 2} NP concentrations currently estimated for municipal wastewater treatment plants is estimated to be rather low. The Freundlich sorption coefficients (K{sub F}) in the presence of NOM of 2167 L{sup n} mg mg{sup −n} kg{sup −1} was about 10 times lower than in the absence of NOM. This is an indication that the particle fraction of NOM < 100 nm could play a role as a carrier for ionic organic micro-pollutants as CIP. - Highlights: • Ciprofloxacine (CIP) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NP) interact. • Organic carbon (OC) could influence such interactions. • Batch

  4. 45 CFR 1216.1-4 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... existing paid staff, and the activity, service or duty is otherwise appropriate for the assignment of a volunteer and no actual displacement of paid staff will occur as a result of the assignment. (b) For the... unavailable for the employment of sufficient staff to accomplish a program authorized or of a character...

  5. 1-Methylpiperazine-1,4-diium dipicrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 1-methylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenolate], C5H14N22+·2C6H2N3O7−, the ionic components are connected by relatively strong N—H...O hydrogen bonds into centrosymmetric six-membered conglomerates, which comprise two dications and four anions. Besides Coulombic interactions, only weak C—H...O interactions and some stacking between picrates (separation between the planes of ca. 3.4 Å but only a small overlapping can be identified between these `building blocks' of the crystal structure. The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation with the methyl substituent in the equatorial position. In the picrate anions, the twist angles of the nitro groups depend on their positions relative to the phenolate O atom: it is much smaller for the NO2 groups para to the C—O− group [15.23 (9and 3.92 (14°] than for the groups in the ortho positions [28.76 (13–39.84 (11°].

  6. The crystal structure of the core domain of a cellulose induced protein (Cip1 from Hypocrea jecorina, at 1.5 Å resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Jacobson

    Full Text Available In an effort to characterise the whole transcriptome of the fungus Hypocrea jecorina, cDNA clones of this fungus were identified that encode for previously unknown proteins that are likely to function in biomass degradation. One of these newly identified proteins, found to be co-regulated with the major H. jecorina cellulases, is a protein that was denoted Cellulose induced protein 1 (Cip1. This protein consists of a glycoside hydrolase family 1 carbohydrate binding module connected via a linker region to a domain with yet unknown function. After cloning and expression of Cip1 in H. jecorina, the protein was purified and biochemically characterised with the aim of determining a potential enzymatic activity for the novel protein. No hydrolytic activity against any of the tested plant cell wall components was found. The proteolytic core domain of Cip1 was then crystallised, and the three-dimensional structure of this was determined to 1.5 Å resolution utilising sulphur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing (sulphor-SAD. A calcium ion binding site was identified in a sequence conserved region of Cip1 and is also seen in other proteins with the same general fold as Cip1, such as many carbohydrate binding modules. The presence of this ion was found to have a structural role. The Cip1 structure was analysed and a structural homology search was performed to identify structurally related proteins. The two published structures with highest overall structural similarity to Cip1 found were two poly-lyases: CsGL, a glucuronan lyase from H. jecorina and vAL-1, an alginate lyase from the Chlorella virus. This indicates that Cip1 may be a lyase. However, initial trials did not detect significant lyase activity for Cip1. Cip1 is the first structure to be solved of the 23 currently known Cip1 sequential homologs (with a sequence identity cut-off of 25%, including both bacterial and fungal members.

  7. The maternal genes Ci-p53/p73-a and Ci-p53/p73-b regulate zygotic ZicL expression and notochord differentiation in Ciona intestinalis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    I isolated a Ciona intestinalis homolog of p53, Ci-p53/p73-a, in a microarray screen of rapidly degraded maternal mRNA by comparing the transcriptomes of unfertilized eggs and 32-cell stage embryos. Higher expression of the gene in eggs and lower expression in later embryonic stages were confirmed by whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR); expression was ubiquitous in eggs and early embryos. Knockdown of Ci-p53/p73-a by injection of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) severely perturbed gastrulation cell movements and expression of notochord marker genes. A key regulator of notochord differentiation in Ciona embryos is Brachyury (Ci-Bra), which is directly activated by a zic-like gene (Ci-ZicL). The expression of Ci-ZicL and Ci-Bra in A-line notochord precursors was downregulated in Ci-p53/p73-a knockdown embryos. Maternal expression of Ci-p53/p73-b, a homolog of Ci-p53/p73-a, was also detected. In Ci-p53/p73-b knockdown embryos, gastrulation cell movements, expression of Ci-ZicL and Ci-Bra in A-line notochord precursors, and expression of notochord marker gene at later stages were perturbed. The upstream region of Ci-ZicL contains putative p53-binding sites. Cis-regulatory analysis of Ci-ZicL showed that these sites are involved in expression of Ci-ZicL in A-line notochord precursors at the 32-cell and early gastrula stages. These results suggest that p53 genes are maternal factors that play a crucial role in A-line notochord differentiation in C. intestinalis embryos by regulating Ci-ZicL expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cables1 controls p21/Cip1 protein stability by antagonizing proteasome subunit alpha type 3

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zhi; Li, Zenggang; Li, Zijian; Cheng, Kejun; Du, Yuhong; Fu, Haian; Khuri, Fadlo R.

    2014-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), p21/Cip1, is a vital cell cycle regulator, dysregulation of which has been associated with a large number of human malignancies. One critical mechanism that controls p21 function is through its degradation, which allows the activation of its associated cell cycle promoting kinases, CDK2 and CDK4. Thus, delineating how p21 is stabilized and degraded will enhance our understanding of cell growth control and offer a basis for potential therapeut...

  9. ENEL and application of Italian November 14, 1990 Decree CIP 34/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazio, A.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an overall energy conservation campaign, a concrete step, in the form of a more favourable electricity rate structure for auto-producers, is being taken by the Italian Government to encourage medium sized industries to adopt cogeneration systems to meet their heat and power requirements. Within this context, this paper gives an idea of how ENEL, the Italian National Electricity Board, administers contracts involving the ceding of on-site generated power to the national utility's grid. Reference is made to the specific provisions incorporated in the CIP (Italian Inter-ministerial Commission on Prices) Provision No. 34, dated November 14, 1990

  10. Tracking sharp interface of two fluids by the CIP (cubic-interpolated propagation) scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, T.; Xiao, F.

    1993-01-01

    A method to treat a sharp discontinuity by the density function is proposed. The surface of the density function is described by one grid throughout the calculation even when the surface is largely distorted. This description is made possible by the CIP method combined with variable transformation. This scheme is applied to the linear wave propagation in one- and two-dimensions. In the nonlinear case, the injection of heavier fluid into lighter fluid his calculated and the winding of mushroom structure is successfully treated by the density function. (author)

  11. Association of increased radiocurability of murine carcinomas with low constitutive expression of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Seong, Jinsil; Hunter, Nancy R; Buchmiller, Lara; Mason, Kathy; Milas, Luka

    1999-05-01

    Purpose: The study investigated whether basal, constitutive levels of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} protein in murine carcinomas are related to in vivo tumor radioresponse. The study is based on recent observations demonstrating that in vitro cancer cell lines are resistant to cytotoxic drugs when they express high basal levels of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} protein, and that the loss of the p21 gene in the HCT116 human colorectal cancer cell line results in increased radioresponse of xenografts derived from that cell line. Methods and Materials: Protein levels of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}, p53, bax, and bcl-2 were determined in 8 carcinomas (3 mammary carcinomas designated MCa-4, MCa-29, and MCa-35, 2 squamous cell carcinomas designated SCC-IV and SCC-VII, ovarian adenocarcinoma OCa-I, hepatocarcinoma HCa-I, and adenosquamous carcinoma ACa-SG) syngeneic to C3Hf/Kam mice using Western blot analysis. The tumors, growing in the right hind legs of mice, were 8 mm in diameter at the time of analysis. These tumors greatly differ in their radioresponse, assessed by TCD50 assay, and in their susceptibility to radiation-induced apoptosis. Results: Protein levels of these oncogenes varied among tumors, with p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} showing the greatest variation: its mean densitometric value ranged from 1 to 19. Bcl-2 levels also showed broad variation in densitometric values, from 1 to 10. In comparison, bax and p53 (7 of 8 tumors contained wild-type p53) varied much less among different tumor types; their variation was within a 5-fold range, and the level of p53 was similar in 6 of 8 tumors. Tumor radioresponse correlated significantly (R = 0.77, p = 0.02) only with the magnitude of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}expression: tumors with high levels of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}were less radiocurable than those with lower levels. Tumor radiocurability showed a significant positive correlation (p = 0.02) with the extent of radiation-induced apoptosis, indicating that tumors that responded to radiation with higher percentages

  12. Effect of the bio-absorbent on the microwave absorption property of the flaky CIPs/rubber absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yang; Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-09-01

    Microwave absorbing composites filled with flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and the bio-absorbent were prepared by using a two-roll mixer and a vulcanizing machine. The electromagnetic (EM) parameters were measured by a vector network analyzer and the reflection loss (RL) was measured by the arch method in the frequency range of 1–4 GHz. The uniform dispersion of the absorbents was verified by comparing the calculated RL with the measured one. The results confirm that as the bio-absorbent was added, the permittivity was increased due to the volume content of absorbents, and the permeability was enlarged owing to the volume content of CIPs and interactions between the two absorbents. The composite filled with bio-absorbents achieved an excellent absorption property at a thickness of 1 mm (minimum RL reaches −7.8 dB), and as the RL was less than −10 dB the absorption band was widest (2.1–3.8 GHz) at a thickness of 2 mm. Therefore, the bio-absorbent is a promising additive candidate on fabricating microwave absorbing composites with a thinner thickness and wider absorption band. - Graphical abstract: Morphology of composites filled with flaky CIPs and the bio-absorbent. The enhancement of bio-absorbent on the electromagnetic absorption property of composites filled with flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) is attributed to the interaction of the two absorbents. The volume content of the FCMPs with the larger shape CIPs play an important role in this effects, the composites filled with irons and bio-absorbents can achieve wider-band and thinner-thickness absorbing materials. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with bio-absorbents and CIPs was fabricated. • Bio-absorbents enhanced the permittivity and permeability of the composites. • The absorbent interactions play a key role in the enhancement mechanism. • Bio-absorbents enhanced the composite RL in 1–4 GHz.

  13. Antihelminthic drug niclosamide inhibits CIP2A and reactivates tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Ok; Choe, Min Ho; Yoon, Yi Na; Ahn, Jiyeon; Yoo, Minjin; Jung, Kwan-Young; An, Sungkwan; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2017-11-15

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a critical tumor suppressor complex responsible for the inactivation of various oncogenes. Recently, PP2A reactivation has emerged asan anticancer strategy. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), an endogenous inhibitor of PP2A, is upregulated in many cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We demonstrated that the antihelminthic drug niclosamide inhibited the expression of CIP2A and reactivated the tumor suppressor PP2A in NSCLC cells. We performed a drug-repurposing screen and identified niclosamide asa CIP2A suppressor in NSCLC cells. Niclosamide inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumor sphere formation, and induced mitochondrial dysfunction through increased mitochondrial ROS production in NSCLC cells; however, these effects were rescued by CIP2A overexpression, which indicated that the antitumor activity of niclosamide was dependent on CIP2A. We found that niclosamide increased PP2A activity through CIP2A inhibition, which reduced the phosphorylation of several oncogenic proteins. Moreover, we found that a niclosamide analog inhibited CIP2A expression and increased PP2A activity in several types of NSCLC cells. Finally, we showed that other well-known PP2A activators, including forskolin and FTY720, did not inhibit CIP2A and that their activities were not dependent on CIP2A. Collectively, our data suggested that niclosamide effectively suppressed CIP2A expression and subsequently activated PP2A in NSCLC cells. This provided strong evidence for the potential use of niclosamide asa PP2A-activating drug in the clinical treatment of NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ETS1 mediates MEK1/2-dependent overexpression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchit Khanna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available EGFR-MEK-ERK signaling pathway has an established role in promoting malignant growth and disease progression in human cancers. Therefore identification of transcriptional targets mediating the oncogenic effects of the EGFR-MEK-ERK pathway would be highly relevant. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A is a recently characterized human oncoprotein. CIP2A promotes malignant cell growth and is over expressed at high frequency (40-80% in most of the human cancer types. However, the mechanisms inducing its expression in cancer still remain largely unexplored. Here we present systematic analysis of contribution of potential gene regulatory mechanisms for high CIP2A expression in cancer. Our data shows that evolutionary conserved CpG islands at the proximal CIP2A promoter are not methylated both in normal and cancer cells. Furthermore, sequencing of the active CIP2A promoter region from altogether seven normal and malignant cell types did not reveal any sequence alterations that would increase CIP2A expression specifically in cancer cells. However, treatment of cancer cells with various signaling pathway inhibitors revealed that CIP2A mRNA expression was sensitive to inhibition of EGFR activity as well as inhibition or activation of MEK-ERK pathway. Moreover, MEK1/2-specific siRNAs decreased CIP2A protein expression. Series of CIP2A promoter-luciferase constructs were created to identify proximal -27 to -107 promoter region responsible for MEK-dependent stimulation of CIP2A expression. Additional mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed ETS1 as the transcription factor mediating stimulation of CIP2A expression through EGFR-MEK pathway. Thus, ETS1 is probably mediating high CIP2A expression in human cancers with increased EGFR-MEK1/2-ERK pathway activity. These results also suggest that in addition to its established role in invasion and angiogenesis, ETS1 may support malignant cellular growth via regulation of

  15. Inline UV-Vis spectroscopy to monitor and optimize cleaning-in-place (CIP) of whey filtration plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thilo Heinz Alexander; Ottosen, Niels; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J.

    2017-01-01

    used for every day. We investigated the capability of inline UV-Vis spectroscopy to elucidate the dynamics of CIP of membrane filtration plants as a gateway to control and optimize the process. For this investigation aged membranes that had been used for industrial ultrafiltration of whey were...

  16. IL-6 modulates hepatocyte proliferation via induction of HGF/p21cip1: Regulation by SOCS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Rui; Jaruga, Barbara; Kulkarni, Shailin; Sun Haoyu; Gao Bin

    2005-01-01

    The precise role of IL-6 in liver regeneration and hepatocyte proliferation is controversial and the role of SOCS3 in liver regeneration remains unknown. Here we show that in vitro treatment with IL-6 inhibited primary mouse hepatocyte proliferation. IL-6 induced p21 cip1 protein expression in primary mouse hepatocytes. Disruption of the p21 cip1 gene abolished the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on cell proliferation. Co-culture with nonparenchymal liver cells diminished IL-6 inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation, which was likely due to IL-6 stimulation of nonparenchymal cells to produce HGF. Finally, IL-6 induced higher levels of p21 cip1 protein expression and a slightly stronger inhibition of cell proliferation in SOCS3 +/- mouse hepatocytes compared to wild-type hepatocytes, while liver regeneration was enhanced and prolonged in SOCS3 +/- mice. Our findings suggest that IL-6 directly inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via a p21 cip1 -dependent mechanism and indirectly enhances hepatocyte proliferation via stimulating nonparenchymal cells to produce HGF. SOCS3 negatively regulates liver regeneration

  17. Serine 62-Phosphorylated MYC Associates with Nuclear Lamins and Its Regulation by CIP2A Is Essential for Regenerative Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Myant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the mechanisms determining MYC’s transcriptional and proliferation-promoting activities in vivo could facilitate approaches for MYC targeting. However, post-translational mechanisms that control MYC function in vivo are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that MYC phosphorylation at serine 62 enhances MYC accumulation on Lamin A/C-associated nuclear structures and that the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A inhibitor protein CIP2A is required for this process. CIP2A is also critical for serum-induced MYC phosphorylation and for MYC-elicited proliferation induction in vitro. Complementary transgenic approaches and an intestinal regeneration model further demonstrated the in vivo importance of CIP2A and serine 62 phosphorylation for MYC activity upon DNA damage. However, targeting of CIP2A did not influence the normal function of intestinal crypt cells. These data underline the importance of nuclear organization in the regulation of MYC phosphorylation, leading to an in vivo demonstration of a strategy for inhibiting MYC activity without detrimental physiological effects.

  18. 2011 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Occupational Therapy Assistant. (Program CIP: 51.0803 - Occupational Therapist Assistant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Sherry; Pulver, Tim; Chittom, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  19. 2009 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Cardiovascular Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0901 - Cardiovascular Technology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford-Means, Cynthia; Stevens, Richard

    2009-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  20. 2006 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Surgical Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0909 - Surgical Technology/Technologist)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Tonya; Elliott, Jessica; Gandy, Zielda; Wilkerson, Tammy

    2006-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  1. 2011 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Dental Hygiene Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0602 - Dental Hygienist)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nick; Dunn, Catherine; Hill, Stanley; Lindsay, William

    2011-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  2. 2009 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Medical Assisting Technology. (Program CIP-51.0801 - Medical /Clinical Assisting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Kaye; King, Christine

    2009-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  3. 2011 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Paramedic. (Program CIP: 51.0904 - Emergency Medical Technology/Technician)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Lisa; Bryant, Katrina; Deschamp, Clyde; Galtelli, Mark; Glasson, Kristi; Hall, David; Hood, Brenda; Mahaffey, Libby; McBryde, John; Read, John; Shirley, Gary

    2011-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  4. 2009 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Occupational Safety and Health Technology. Program CIP: 15.0701

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  5. Role of the CipA Scaffoldin Protein in Cellulose Solubilization, as Determined by Targeted Gene Deletion and Complementation in Clostridium thermocellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel G.; Giannone, Richard J.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The CipA scaffoldin protein plays a key role in the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome. Previous studies have revealed that mutants deficient in binding or solubilizing cellulose also exhibit reduced expression of CipA. To confirm that CipA is, in fact, necessary for rapid solubilization of crystalline cellulose, the gene was deleted from the chromosome using targeted gene deletion technologies. The CipA deletion mutant exhibited a 100-fold reduction in cellulose solubilization rate, although it was eventually able to solubilize 80% of the 5 g/liter cellulose initially present. The deletion mutant was complemented by a copy of cipA expressed from a replicating plasmid. In this strain, Avicelase activity was restored, although the rate was 2-fold lower than that in the wild type and the duration of the lag phase was increased. The cipA coding sequence is located at the beginning of a gene cluster containing several other genes thought to be responsible for the structural organization of the cellulosome, including olpB, orf2p, and olpA. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed a 10-fold reduction in the expression of olpB, which may explain the lower growth rate. This deletion experiment adds further evidence that CipA plays a key role in cellulose solubilization by C. thermocellum, and it raises interesting questions about the differential roles of the anchor scaffoldin proteins OlpB, Orf2p, and SdbA. PMID:23204466

  6. Magnetomechanical properties of composites and fibers made from thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) and carbonyl iron powder (CIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrödner, Mario; Pflug, Günther

    2018-05-01

    Magnetoactive elastomers (MAE) made from composites of five thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) of different stiffness with carbonyl iron powder (CIP) as magnetic component were investigated. The composites were produced by melt blending of the magnetic particles with the TPEs in a twin-screw extruder. The resulting materials were characterized by ac permeability testing, stress-strain measurements with and without external magnetic field and magnetically controlled bending of long cylindrical rods in a homogenous magnetic field. The magnetic field necessary for deflection of the rods decreases with decreasing modulus and increasing iron particle content. This effect can be used e.g. for magnetically controlled actuation. Some highly filled MAE show a magnetic field induced increase of Young's modulus. Filaments could be spun from some of the composites.

  7. TGFbeta induces apoptosis and EMT in primary mouse hepatocytes independently of p53, p21Cip1 or Rb status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheahan, Sharon; Bellamy, Christopher O; Harland, Stephen N; Harrison, David J; Prost, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    TGFβ has pleiotropic effects that range from regulation of proliferation and apoptosis to morphological changes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Some evidence suggests that these effects may be interconnected. We have recently reported that P53, P21 Cip1 and pRB, three critical regulators of the G1/S transition are variably involved in TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes. As these proteins are also involved in the regulation of apoptosis in many circumstances, we investigated their contribution to other relevant TGFβ-induced effects, namely apoptosis and EMT, and examined how the various processes were interrelated. Primary mouse hepatocytes deficient in p53, p21 and/or Rb, singly or in combination were treated with TGFβ for 24 to 96 hours. Apoptosis was quantified according to morphology and by immunostaining for cleaved-capsase 3. Epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was studied using immunocytochemistry and real time PCR. We found that TGFβ similarly induced morphological changes regardless of genotype and independently of proliferation index or sensitivity to inhibition of proliferation by TGFβ. Morphological changes were accompanied by decrease in E-cadherin and increased Snail expression but the mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, SMAα and Vimentin) studied remained unchanged. TGFβ induced high levels of apoptosis in p53-/-, Rb-/-, p21 cip1 -/- and control hepatocytes although with slight differences in kinetics. This was unrelated to proliferation or changes in morphology and loss of cell-cell adhesion. However, hepatocytes deficient in both p53 and p21 cip1 were less sensitive to TGFβ-induced apoptosis. Although p53, p21 Cip1 and pRb are well known regulators of both proliferation and apoptosis in response to a multitude of stresses, we conclude that they are critical for TGFβ-driven inhibition of hepatocytes proliferation, but only slightly modulate TGFβ-induced apoptosis. This effect may depend on other parameters

  8. New Developments in 1,4 Dioxane Site Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    developed biomarkers to assess aerobic 1,4-dioxane degradation because it may be an important contributor to site-specific natural attenuation capacity...survey corroborate the results of the lab-based research showing that 1,4-dioxane degradation is favored under aerobic conditions but is inhibited by...oxidative attack. In situ oxidation technologies (e.g., chemical oxidation, enhanced aerobic biodegradation) should degrade 1,4-dioxane but each has

  9. Search for unobserved transitions in "1"4"2Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Sajad; Rajbanshi, S.; Bisoi, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the excitation mechanisms responsible for the generation of high spin states in this mass region we have studied "1"4"2Eu nucleus. The high spin states of the "1"4"2Eu was reported earlier by M. Piiparinen et al. Based on this experimental data, they have proposed a level scheme of "1"4"2Eu. The motivation of current work is to remove the remaining incompleteness of the previously reported level scheme of "1"4"2Eu

  10. A multi-physics code system based on ANC9, VIPRE-W and BOA for CIPS evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.; Sung, Y.; Secker, J.; Beard, C.; Hilton, P.; Wang, G.; Oelrich, R.; Karoutas, Z.; Sung, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a multi-physics code system for evaluation of Crud Induced Power Shift (CIPS) phenomenon experienced in some Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). CIPS is an unexpected change in reactor core axial power distribution, caused by boron compounds in crud deposited in the high power fuel assemblies undergoing subcooled boiling. As part of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), this paper describes the initial linkage and application of a multi-physics code system ANC9/VIPRE-W/BOA for evaluating changes in core power distributions due to boron deposited in crud. The initial linkage of the code system along with the application results will be the base for the future CASL development. (author)

  11. A multi-physics code system based on ANC9, VIPRE-W and BOA for CIPS evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Sung, Y.; Secker, J.; Beard, C.; Hilton, P.; Wang, G.; Oelrich, R.; Karoutas, Z.; Sung, Y. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a multi-physics code system for evaluation of Crud Induced Power Shift (CIPS) phenomenon experienced in some Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). CIPS is an unexpected change in reactor core axial power distribution, caused by boron compounds in crud deposited in the high power fuel assemblies undergoing subcooled boiling. As part of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), this paper describes the initial linkage and application of a multi-physics code system ANC9/VIPRE-W/BOA for evaluating changes in core power distributions due to boron deposited in crud. The initial linkage of the code system along with the application results will be the base for the future CASL development. (author)

  12. Mayfly diversity in the brazilian tropical headwaters of Serra do Cipó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Goulart

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate spatial and seasonal distribution, assemblage structure and substrate associations of mayfly nymphs in five lotic ecosystems in the headwaters of the Doce River and São Francisco River watersheds, Brazil. Samples were taken in 24 sampling stations during rainy and dry seasons in 1998. In total, 7,066 organisms were collected, belonging to 27 genera and 6 families of Ephemeroptera. The dominant taxa were Americabaetis, Paracloeodes, Leptohyphes and Hagenulus. During the rainy period, the São Francisco River watershed showed higher taxonomic richness, diversity and evenness, while in the dry period, the taxonomic richness was higher in Doce River watershed. No significant differences were found in the taxonomic richness, diversity, evenness and density of mayfly assemblages between the two studied sampling periods. The results suggested that the diversity of the mayfly assemblages in tropical headwaters of Serra do Cipó would be probably due to ecosystem and watershed characteristics.Os objetivos foram avaliar a distribuição espaço-temporal, estrutura de assembléias e associações de ninfas de Ephemeroptera com substratos em 5 ecossistemas lóticos nas nascentes das bacias dos rios Doce e São Francisco, Brasil. As amostragens foram realizadas em 24 estações, nos períodos de chuvas e seca de 1998. No total, 7,066 organismos foram coletados, pertencentes a 27 gêneros e 6 famílias. Os taxa dominantes foram Americabaetis, Paracloeodes, Leptohyphes e Hagenulus. No período de chuvas foram observados maiores valores dos indices de riqueza taxonômica, diversidade e equitabilidade na bacia do rio São Francisco, enquanto que no período de seca, a riqueza taxonômica foi maior na bacia do rio Doce. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas dos valores dos indices de riqueza, equitabilidade, diversidade e densidade de ninfas de Ephemeroptera entre os dois períodos estudados. Os

  13. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number is assigned for each balance sheet and profit and loss account. Each balance sheet account is numbered...

  14. 1,3- and 1,4-Substituted tetrazolium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Gaponik, Pavel N; Ivashkevich, Oleg A

    2002-01-01

    The published data on the synthesis, physicochemical properties, structures and reactions of 1,3-(1,3,5)- and 1,4-(1,4,5)-substituted tetrazolium salts are systematised and generalised. Their applications as starting compounds in the preparative chemistry of heterocyclic derivatives and some other branches of science and technology are reviewed. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  15. The 1.4 GHZ light curve of GRB 970508

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, TJ; Wijers, RAMJ; Groot, PJ; Strom, RG; De Bruyn, AG; Kouveliotou, C; Robinson, CR; van Paradus, J

    1998-01-01

    We report on Westerbork 1.4 GHz radio observations of the radio counterpart to gamma-ray burst GRB 970508, between 0.80 and 138 days after this event. The 1.4 GHz light curve shows a transition from optically thick to thin emission between 39 and 54 days after the event. We derive the slope p of the

  16. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for the Binary Mixtures 1,4-Xylene + Ethylbenzene and 1,4-Xylene + Toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyghe, Raphaël; Rasmussen, Peter; Thomsen, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K.......Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K....

  17. pH induced polychromatic UV treatment for the removal of a mixture of SMX, OTC and CIP from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avisar, D.; Lester, Y.; Mamane, H.

    2010-01-01

    Water and wastewater effluents contain a vast range of chemicals in mixtures that have different chemical structures and characteristics. This study presents a treatment technology for the removal of mixtures of antibiotic residues (sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxtetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) from contaminated water. The treatment combines pH modification of the water to an optimal value, followed by a photolytic treatment using direct polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by medium pressure UV lamp. The pH adjustment of the treated water leads to structural modifications of the pollutant's molecule thus may enhance direct photolysis by UV light. Results showed that an increase of water pH from 5 to 7 leads to a decrease in degradation rate of SMX and an increase in degradation rate of OTC and CIP, when studied separately and not in a mixture. Thus, the optimal pH values for UV photodegradation in a mixture, involve initial photolysis at pH 5 and then gradually changing the pH from 5 to 7 during the UV exposure. For example, this resulted in 99% degradation of SMX at pH 5 and enhanced degradation of OTC and CIP from 54% and 26% to 91% and 96% respectively when pH was increased from 5 to 7. Thus the pH induced photolytic treatment has a potential in improving treatment of antibiotics in mixtures.

  18. pH induced polychromatic UV treatment for the removal of a mixture of SMX, OTC and CIP from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avisar, D., E-mail: droravi@post.tau.ac.il [Hydro-chemistry Laboratory, Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lester, Y. [Hydro-chemistry Laboratory, Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Mamane, H. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2010-03-15

    Water and wastewater effluents contain a vast range of chemicals in mixtures that have different chemical structures and characteristics. This study presents a treatment technology for the removal of mixtures of antibiotic residues (sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxtetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) from contaminated water. The treatment combines pH modification of the water to an optimal value, followed by a photolytic treatment using direct polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by medium pressure UV lamp. The pH adjustment of the treated water leads to structural modifications of the pollutant's molecule thus may enhance direct photolysis by UV light. Results showed that an increase of water pH from 5 to 7 leads to a decrease in degradation rate of SMX and an increase in degradation rate of OTC and CIP, when studied separately and not in a mixture. Thus, the optimal pH values for UV photodegradation in a mixture, involve initial photolysis at pH 5 and then gradually changing the pH from 5 to 7 during the UV exposure. For example, this resulted in 99% degradation of SMX at pH 5 and enhanced degradation of OTC and CIP from 54% and 26% to 91% and 96% respectively when pH was increased from 5 to 7. Thus the pH induced photolytic treatment has a potential in improving treatment of antibiotics in mixtures.

  19. Levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 do not affect radiation-induced cell death in human breast epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Harold E.; Han, Sue J.; Waid, David; Lee, Yong J.; Kim, Hyeong-Reh Choi

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Loss of the wild-type p53 activity and/or overexpression of the proto-oncogene bcl-2 are frequently detected in breast cancer and suggested to be related to resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The long-term goals of this study are to identify the downstream signaling molecules for anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities of p53 and to investigate the interaction of bcl-2 with p53 in human breast epithelial cells. We previously showed that overexpression of bcl-2 downregulates radiation-induced expression of p21 WAF1/CIP1 , a p53 downstream molecule that functions to inhibit cyclin dependent kinases, and suppresses radiation-induced apoptosis in human breast epithelial cell line (MCF10A). In this study, we investigated the role of p21 WAF1/CIP1 in radiation-induced cell death in MCF10A cells. Materials and Methods: To determine whether downregulation of p21 WAF1/CIP1 is required for anti-apoptotic activity of bcl-2, and to investigate the roles of p21 WAF1/CIP1 in cell death following irradiation, we transfected p21 WAF1/CIP1 expression vector into bcl-2 overexpressing MCF10A cells. The effects of p21 WAF1/CIP1 overexpression on cell growth, radiation-induced apoptosis and clonogenic cell survival were analyzed. Results: Overexpression of p21 WAF1/CIP1 resulted in marked growth inhibition, but no effect on dose-dependent radiation-induced cell lethality as determined by clonogenic survival assay. Radiation-induced apoptosis was not detected in bcl-2 overexpressing MCF10A cells independent of levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 expression. Conclusion: This study suggests that bcl-2 downregulation of p21 WAF1/CIP1 is independent of anti-apoptotic activity of bcl-2 and that levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 do not affect radiation-induced cell death in human breast epithelial cells

  20. Enzymatic biosensors based on ingá-cipó peroxidase immobilised on sepiolite for TBHQ quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina de Oliveira, Tássia; Grawe, Gregory Ferreira; Moccelini, Sally Katiuce; Terezo, Ailton J; Castilho, Marilza

    2014-05-07

    Sepiolite clay mineral was used as a support for the immobilisation of the peroxidase enzyme from ingá-cipó (Inga edulis Mart.) and was used with graphite powder, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), mineral oil, and nafion 0.5% (v/v) in the development of a new biosensor for the determination of the antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) by square-wave voltammetry (SWV). For the optimisation and application of the biosensor, several parameters were investigated to determine the optimum experimental conditions using SWV. The best performance was obtained using a 0.1 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0), 4.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) hydrogen peroxide, a frequency of 50 Hz, a pulse amplitude of 60 mV, and a scan increment of 6 mV. The biosensor showed good repeatability and reproducibility and remained stable for a period of 20 weeks. The analytical curve revealed a linear response range of 1.65 to 9.82 mg L(-1) (r = 0.994) with detection and quantification limits of 0.41 and 1.25 mg L(-1). A recovery study of TBHQ in salad dressing samples yielded values from 99.6-104.8%. The proposed biosensor was successfully used for the determination of TBHQ in commercial salad dressing samples, giving a relative error of 5.4% in relation to the comparative method (chromatographic).

  1. Reviews on 1,4-naphthoquinones from Diospyros L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Alireza; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Wiart, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The genus Diospyros is one of the most important sources of bioactive compounds, exclusively 1,4-naphthoquinones. The following information is an attempt to cover the developments in the biology and phytochemistry of 1,4-naphthoquinones isolated from this genus, as well as the studies done and the suggested mechanisms regarding their activities. During the past 60 years, many of these agents have been isolated from Diospyros L. Twelve considerable bioactive structures are reported in this review. The basic 1,4-naphthoquinone skeletons, on which a large number of studies have been done, are plumbagin and diospyrin. Today, the potential for development of leads from 1,4-naphthoquinones obtained from Diospyros L. is growing dramatically, mainly in the area of anticancer and antibacterial investigations. The data prepared and described here are intended to be served as a reference tool to the natural products and chemistry specialists in order to expand the rational drug design.

  2. Regioselectivity of conjugate additions to monoalkyl-1,4-benzoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNEZANA TRIFUNOVIC

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The regioselectivity of the reaction of conjugate addition of thiols, amines, methanol and hydrogen chloride with the monoalkyl-1,4-benzoquinones avarone and 2-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone was investigated. It was shown that the regioselectivity of the reaction is influenced by the electrophilicity of position 5 in unprotonated 2-alkylquinones, the increased electrophilicity of position 6 in acidic medium, and by the acidity of the intermediate hydroquinones.

  3. ER-1422: Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    widely used as solvents, pesticides , gasoline additives, and a host of other applications. Most recently, the solvent stabilizer 1,4-dioxane has...the Stringfellow FBRs were sent to us to attempt to enrich native 1,4-dioxane degrading microorganisms . For the initial enrichment of bacterial...63:4216-4222. Steffan, R. J., Y. Farhan, C. W. Condee, and S. Drew. 2003. Bioremediation at a New Jersey Site Using Propane-Oxidizing Bacteria

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (with Inhalation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,4-Dioxane (with inhalation update) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. 1,4-Dioxane is commonly used as a solvent, cleaning agent, chemical stabilizer, surface coating, adhesive agent, and an ingredient in chemical manufacture.

  5. Selective Synthesis of Z-1,4-Disilyl-2-butenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šabata, Stanislav; Blechta, Vratislav; Karban, Jindřich; Pleska, A.; Včelák, Jaroslav; Hetflejš, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 11 (2009), s. 1953-1958 ISSN 0137- 5083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0617; GA ČR GA203/03/1566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : Z-1,4-disilyl-2-butenes * 1,4-dilithio-2-butene * trialkylchlorosilanes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.523, year: 2009

  6. Synthesis of 1,4-anhydro-D-fructose and 1,4-anhydro-D-tagatose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekany, Gyula; Lundt, Inge; Steiner, Andreas J.

    2006-01-01

    1,4-Anhydro-D-fructose and 1,4-anhydro-D-tagatose were prepared from 1,2-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose via the common intermediate 3,5,6-tri-O-benzyl-D-glucitol. The title compounds may be interesting anti-oxidants and feature activities akin to their natural pyranoid counterpart, 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose....

  7. Synthesis of 1,4-anhydro-D-fructose and 1,4-anhydro-D-tagatose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekany, Gyula; Lundt, Inge; Steiner, Andreas J; Stütz, Arnold E

    2006-07-24

    1,4-Anhydro-D-fructose and 1,4-anhydro-D-tagatose were prepared from 1,2-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose via the common intermediate 3,5,6-tri-O-benzyl-D-glucitol. The title compounds may be interesting anti-oxidants and feature activities akin to their natural pyranoid counterpart, 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose.

  8. Antisense imaging of epidermal growth factor-induced p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene expression in MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Judy; Chen, Paul; Mrkobrada, Marko [Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 19 Russell Street, M5S 2S2, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hu, Meiduo [Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 19 Russell Street, M5S 2S2, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Vallis, Katherine A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M. [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    Molecular imaging of the expression of key genes which determine the response to DNA damage following cancer treatment may predict the effectiveness of a particular treatment strategy. A prominent early response gene for DNA damage is the gene encoding p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1}, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates progression through the cell cycle. In this study, we explored the feasibility of imaging p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene expression at the mRNA level using an 18-mer phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) labeled with {sup 111}In. The known induction of the p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene in MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells following exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF) was used as an experimental tool. Treatment of MDA-MB-468 cells in vitro with EGF (20 nM) increased the ratio of p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} mRNA/{beta}-actin mRNA threefold within 2 h as measured by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A concentration-dependent inhibition of EGF-induced p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} protein expression was achieved in MDA-MB-468 cells by treatment with antisense ODNs with up to a tenfold decrease observed at 1 {mu}M. There was a fourfold lower inhibition of p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} protein expression by control sense or random sequence ODNs. Intratumoral injections of EGF (15 {mu}g/day x 3 days) were employed to induce p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene expression in MDA-MB-468 xenografts implanted subcutaneously into athymic mice. RT-PCR of explanted tumors showed a threefold increased level of p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} mRNA compared with normal saline-treated tumors. Successful imaging of EGF-induced p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene expression in MDA-MB-468 xenografts was achieved at 48 h post injection of {sup 111}In-labeled antisense ODNs (3.7 MBq; 2 {mu}g). Tumors displaying basal levels of p21{sup WAF-1/CIP-1} gene expression in the absence of EGF treatment could not be visualized. Biodistribution studies showed a significantly higher tumor

  9. p21WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1 knockout mice respond to doxorubicin with reduced cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrand, Jerome; Xu, Beibei; Morrissy, Steve; Dinh, Thai Nho; Williams, Stuart; Chen, Qin M.

    2011-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antineoplastic agent that can cause cardiomyopathy in humans and experimental animals. As an inducer of reactive oxygen species and a DNA damaging agent, Dox causes elevated expression of p21 WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1 (p21) gene. Elevated levels of p21 mRNA and p21 protein have been detected in the myocardium of mice following Dox treatment. With chronic treatment of Dox, wild type (WT) animals develop cardiomyopathy evidenced by elongated nuclei, mitochondrial swelling, myofilamental disarray, reduced cardiac output, reduced ejection fraction, reduced left ventricular contractility, and elevated expression of ANF gene. In contrast, p21 knockout (p21KO) mice did not show significant changes in the same parameters in response to Dox treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy, we measured levels of antioxidant enzymes and found that p21KO mice did not contain elevated basal or inducible levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements of 6 circulating cytokines indicated elevation of IL-6, IL-12, IFNγ and TNFα in Dox treated WT mice but not p21KO mice. Dox induced elevation of IL-6 mRNA was detected in the myocardium of WT mice but not p21KO mice. While the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy remains unclear, lack of inflammatory response may contribute to the observed cardiac protection in p21KO mice. -- Highlights: ► Doxorubicin induces p21 elevation in the myocardium. ► Doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in wild type mice. ► p21 Knockout mice are resistant against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy. ► Lack of inflammatory response correlates with the resistance in p21 knockout mice.

  10. Cables1 controls p21/Cip1 protein stability by antagonizing proteasome subunit alpha type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z; Li, Z; Li, Z J; Cheng, K; Du, Y; Fu, H; Khuri, F R

    2015-05-07

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor 1A, p21/Cip1, is a vital cell cycle regulator, dysregulation of which has been associated with a large number of human malignancies. One critical mechanism that controls p21 function is through its degradation, which allows the activation of its associated cell cycle-promoting kinases, CDK2 and CDK4. Thus delineating how p21 is stabilized and degraded will enhance our understanding of cell growth control and offer a basis for potential therapeutic interventions. Here we report a novel regulatory mechanism that controls the dynamic status of p21 through its interaction with Cdk5 and Abl enzyme substrate 1 (Cables1). Cables1 has a proposed role as a tumor suppressor. We found that upregulation of Cables1 protein was correlated with increased half-life of p21 protein, which was attributed to Cables1/p21 complex formation and supported by their co-localization in the nucleus. Mechanistically, Cables1 interferes with the proteasome (Prosome, Macropain) subunit alpha type 3 (PSMA3) binding to p21 and protects p21 from PSMA3-mediated proteasomal degradation. Moreover, silencing of p21 partially reverses the ability of Cables1 to induce cell death and inhibit cell proliferation. In further support of a potential pathophysiological role of Cables1, the expression level of Cables1 is tightly associated with p21 in both cancer cell lines and human lung cancer patient tumor samples. Together, these results suggest Cables1 as a novel p21 regulator through maintaining p21 stability and support the model that the tumor-suppressive function of Cables1 occurs at least in part through enhancing the tumor-suppressive activity of p21.

  11. Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Pingping; Yue, Jia; Russell, James M., III; Siskind, David E.; Randall, Cora E.

    2018-01-01

    We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of ˜ 20-60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave) power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent = -3.2) and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of -2.9 and -2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.

  12. Histone deacetylase 3 represses p15INK4b and p21WAF1/cip1 transcription by interacting with Sp1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Weifeng; Tan Dapeng; Wang Xiuli; Han Songyan; Tan Jiang; Zhao Yanmei; Lu Jun; Huang Baiqu

    2006-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been implicated to play roles in governing cell proliferation. Here we demonstrated that the overexpression of HDAC3 repressed transcription of p15 INK4b and p21 WAF1/cip1 genes in 293T cells, and that the recruitment of HDAC3 to the promoter regions of these genes was critical to this repression. We also showed that HDAC3 repressed GAL4-Sp1 transcriptional activity, and that Sp1 was co-immunoprecipitated with FLAG-tagged HDAC3. We conclude that HDAC3 can repress p15 INK4b and p21 WAF1/cip1 transcription by interacting with Sp1. Furthermore, knockdown of HDAC3 by RNAi up-regulated the transcriptional expression of p15 INK4b , but not that of p21 WAF1/cip1 , implicating the different roles of HDAC3 in repression of p15 INK4b and p21 WAF1/cip1 transcription. Data from this study indicate that the inhibition of p15 INK4b and p21 WAF1/cip1 may be one of the mechanisms by which HDAC3 participates in cell cycle regulation and oncogenesis

  13. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Ballistic Limit Velocity of Ti-6A1-4V ELI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkins, M

    1997-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the RMI Titanium Company (RMI) performed a joint research program to evaluate the effect of annealing temperature on Ti-6A1-4V alloy, extra-low interstitial (ELI...

  14. 1,4-Disilacyclohexa-2,5-diene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibbelin, Julius; Wallner, Andreas; Emanuelsson, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    2,3,5,6-Tetraethyl-1,4-disilacyclohexa-2,5-dienes with either four chloro (1a), methyl (1b), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) (1c) substituents at the two silicon atoms were examined in an effort to design rigid compounds with strong neutral cross-hyperconjugation between π- and σ-bonded molecular segments......). Furthermore, 1,4-disilacyclohexadiene 1c absorbs strongly at 273 nm (4.55 eV), whereas 1a and 1b have no symmetry allowed excitations above 215 nm (below 5.77 eV). Thus, suitably substituted 1,4-disilacyclohexa-2,5-dienes could represent novel building blocks for the design of larger cross...

  15. Experiment prediction for Loft Nonnuclear Experiment L1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.; Berta, V.T.; Holmstrom, H.L.O.

    1977-04-01

    A computer analysis, using the WHAM and RELAP4 computer codes, was performed to predict the LOFT system thermal-hydraulic response for Experiment L1-4 of the nonnuclear (isothermal) test series. Experiment L1-4 will simulate a 200 percent double-ended offset shear in the cold leg of a four-loop large pressurized water reactor. A core simulator will be used to provide a reactor vessel pressure drop representative of the LOFT nuclear core. Experiment L1-4 will be initiated with a nominal isothermal primary coolant temperature of 282.2 0 C, a pressurizer pressure of 15.51 MPa, and a primary coolant flow of 270.9 kg/s. In general, the predictions of saturated blowdown for Experiment Ll-4 are consistent with the expected system behavior, and predicted trends agree with results from Semiscale Test S-01-4A, which simulated the Ll-4 experiment conditions

  16. Improved features of MARS 1.4 and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Don; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    MARS 1.4 code has been developed as a basic code frame for multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis of light water reactor transients. This report describes the newly improved features of MARS 1.4 and their verification results. The new features of MARS 1.4 include the implementation of point kinetics model in the 3D module, the coupled heat structure model, the extension of control functions and input check functions in the 3D module, the implementation of new features of RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 -version, the addition of automatic initialization function for fuel 3-D analysis and the unification of material properties and forcing functions, etc. These features have been implemented in the code in order to extend the code modeling capability and to enhance the user friendliness. Among these features, this report describes the implementation of new features of RELAP5/MOD3.3.3-version such as reflood model and critical heat flux models, etc., the automatic initialization function, the unification of material properties and forcing functions and the other code improvements and error corrections, which were not reported in the previous report. Through the verification calculations, the new features of MARS 1.4 have been verified well implemented in the code. In conclusion, MARS 1.4 code has been developed and verified as implemented in the code. In conclusion, MARS 1.4 code has been developed and verified as a multi-dimensional system thermal-hydraulic analysis tool. And, it can play its role as a basic code frame for the future development of a multi-purpose consolidated code, MARS 2.x, for coupled analysis of multi-dimensional system thermal hydraulics, 3D core kinetics, core CHF and containment as well as for further improvement of thermal-hydraulic and numerical models. 4 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  17. Canonical representations of the Lie superalgebra osp(1,4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, J.; Havlicek, M.; Lassner, W.; Bednar, M.

    1981-06-01

    The method for constructing infinite dimensional representations of Lie superalgebras proposed by the authors recently is applied to the superalgebra osp(1,4). Explicit formulae for its generators in terms of two or three pairs of operators fulfilling the canonical commutation relations, at most one pair of operators fulfilling the canonical anticommutation relations and at most one real parameter are obtained. The generators of the Lie subalgebra sp(4,IR) contains osp(1,4) are represented skew-symmetrically and both Casimir operators are equal to multiples of the unity operator. (author)

  18. Diastereoselective and enantioselective reduction of tetralin-1,4-dione

    OpenAIRE

    Kündig, E Peter; Enriquez-Garcia, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background The chemistry of tetralin-1,4-dione, the stable tautomer of 1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene, has not been explored previously. It is readily accessible and offers interesting opportunities for synthesis. Results The title reactions were explored. L-Selectride reduced the diketone to give preferentially the cis-diol (d.r. 84 : 16). Red-Al gave preferentially the trans-diol (d.r. 13 : 87). NaBH4, LiAlH4, and BH3 gave lower diastereoselectivities (yields: 76–98%). Fractional crystall...

  19. Studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and molecular docking analysis of 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, D. M.; Amalanathan, M.; Hubert Joe, I.; Bena Jothy, V.; Diao, Yun-Peng

    2014-09-01

    The molecular structure, vibrational analysis and molecular docking analysis of the 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate (MDDNAB) molecule have been carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques and DFT method. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational wave numbers, various bonding features have been computed using density functional method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out by using VEDA program. The hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The simulated FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental spectra. The PES and charge analysis have been made. The molecular docking was done to identify the binding energy and the Hydrogen bonding with the cancer protein molecule.

  20. Electronic states of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2012-01-01

    The electronic transitions of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB) were investigated by UV synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy in the range 25,000 – 58,000 cm–1 (400 – 170 nm) on molecular samples aligned in stretched polyethylene. The investigation was supported by variable...

  1. Epoxidation and oxidation reactions using 1,4-butanediol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and aryl halides to hydroxy compounds through a .... Epoxidation of olefins using 1,4-BDDMA-crosslinked polystyrene supported t- butyl hydroperoxide. Reaction. Isolated. Olefina timeb (h). Productc yield (%). Cinnamic acid. 39 ... aCinnamic acid; bcyclohexene; csubstrate to resin 1 : 2; solvent, dioxan, temperature, 70°C.

  2. Diastereoselective and enantioselective reduction of tetralin-1,4-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe chemistry of tetralin-1,4-dione, the stable tautomer of 1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene, has not been explored previously. It is readily accessible and offers interesting opportunities for synthesis.ResultsThe title reactions were explored. L-Selectride reduced the diketone to give preferentially the cis-diol (d.r. 84 : 16. Red-Al gave preferentially the trans-diol (d.r. 13 : 87. NaBH4, LiAlH4, and BH3 gave lower diastereoselectivities (yields: 76–98%. Fractional crystallization allowed isolation of the cis-diol and the trans-diol (55% and 66% yield, respectively. Borane was used to cleanly give the mono-reduction product. Highly enantioselective CBS reductions afforded the trans-diol (72% yield, 99% ee and the mono-reduction product (81%, 95% ee.ConclusionDiastereoselective and enantioselective reductions of the unexplored tetralin-1,4-dione provides a very convenient entry into a number of synthetically highly attractive 1,4-tetralindiols and 4-hydroxy-1-tetralone.

  3. Diastereoselective and enantioselective reduction of tetralin-1,4-dione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kündig, E Peter; Enriquez-Garcia, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    The chemistry of tetralin-1,4-dione, the stable tautomer of 1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene, has not been explored previously. It is readily accessible and offers interesting opportunities for synthesis. The title reactions were explored. L-Selectride reduced the diketone to give preferentially the cis-diol (d.r. 84 : 16). Red-Al gave preferentially the trans-diol (d.r. 13 : 87). NaBH(4), LiAlH(4), and BH(3) gave lower diastereoselectivities (yields: 76-98%). Fractional crystallization allowed isolation of the cis-diol and the trans-diol (55% and 66% yield, respectively). Borane was used to cleanly give the mono-reduction product. Highly enantioselective CBS reductions afforded the trans-diol (72% yield, 99% ee) and the mono-reduction product (81%, 95% ee). Diastereoselective and enantioselective reductions of the unexplored tetralin-1,4-dione provides a very convenient entry into a number of synthetically highly attractive 1,4-tetralindiols and 4-hydroxy-1-tetralone.

  4. Systemic fungicidal activity of 1,4-oxathiin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, B V; Kulka, M

    1966-04-29

    Treatment of pinto bean and barley seed with 1,4-oxathiin derivatives gave disease control by systemic fungicidal action of such pathogenic fungi as Uromyces phaseoli and Ustilago nuda. The two chemicals, D735 and F461, were highly specific and selective against the pathogens without injury of the hosts.

  5. N,N′-Bis(2-thienylmethylenebenzene-1,4-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Wei Dong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Schiff base, C16H12N2S2, has been synthesized by refluxing an ethanolic solution of thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and benzene-1,4-diamine. The center of the benzene ring is located on a crystallographic center of inversion. The dihedral angle between the benzene and thiophene rings is 63.6 (1°.

  6. Synthesis of 3-Substituted 1,4-Benzodiazepin-2-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungjin Kim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepines by benzodiazepine enolate alkylation has been explored. Employing this approach, multigram quantities of benzodiazepine 1 have been prepared for animal studies to evaluate a new approach for the treatment of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.

  7. p53 functional impairment and high p21waf1/cip1 expression in human T-cell lymphotropic/leukemia virus type I-transformed T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereseto, A; Diella, F; Mulloy, J C; Cara, A; Michieli, P; Grassmann, R; Franchini, G; Klotman, M E

    1996-09-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic/leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with T-cell transformation both in vivo and in vitro. Although some of the mechanisms responsible for transformation remain unknown, increasing evidence supports a direct role of viral as well as dysregulated cellular proteins in transformation. We investigated the potential role of the tumor suppressor gene p53 and of the p53-regulated gene, p21waf1/cip1 (wild-type p53 activated fragment 1/cycling dependent kinases [cdks] interacting protein 1), in HTLV-I-infected T cells. We have found that the majority of HTLV-I-infected T cells have the wild-type p53 gene. However, its function in HTLV-I-transformed cells appears to be impaired, as shown by the lack of appropriate p53-mediated responses to ionizing radiation (IR). Interestingly, the expression of the p53 inducible gene, p21waf1/cip1, is elevated at the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels in all HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines examined as well as in Taxl-1, a human T-cell line stably expressing Tax. Additionally, Tax induces upregulation of a p21waf1/cip1 promoter-driven luciferase gene in p53 null cells, and increases p21waf1/cip1 expression in Jurkat T cells. These findings suggest that the Tax protein is at least partially responsible for the p53-independent expression of p21waf1/cip1 in HTLV-I-infected cells. Dysregulation of p53 and p21waf1/cip1 proteins regulating cell-cycle progression, may represent an important step in HTLV-I-induced T-cell transformation.

  8. Deficiency of G1 regulators P53, P21Cip1 and/or pRb decreases hepatocyte sensitivity to TGFβ cell cycle arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison David J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGFβ is critical to control hepatocyte proliferation by inducing G1-growth arrest through multiple pathways leading to inhibition of E2F transcription activity. The retinoblastoma protein pRb is a key controller of E2F activity and G1/S transition which can be inhibited in viral hepatitis. It is not known whether the impairment of pRb would alter the growth inhibitory potential of TGFβ in disease. We asked how Rb-deficiency would affect responses to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest. Results Primary hepatocytes isolated from Rb-floxed mice were infected with an adenovirus expressing CRE-recombinase to delete the Rb gene. In control cells treatment with TGFβ prevented cells to enter S phase via decreased cMYC activity, activation of P16INK4A and P21Cip and reduction of E2F activity. In Rb-null hepatocytes, cMYC activity decreased slightly but P16INK4A was not activated and the great majority of cells continued cycling. Rb is therefore central to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes. However some Rb-null hepatocytes remained sensitive to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest. As these hepatocytes expressed very high levels of P21Cip1 and P53 we investigated whether these proteins regulate pRb-independent signaling to cell cycle arrest by evaluating the consequences of disruption of p53 and p21Cip1. Hepatocytes deficient in p53 or p21Cip1 showed diminished growth inhibition by TGFβ. Double deficiency had a similar impact showing that in cells containing functional pRb; P21Cip and P53 work through the same pathway to regulate G1/S in response to TGFβ. In Rb-deficient cells however, p53 but not p21Cip deficiency had an additive effect highlighting a pRb-independent-P53-dependent effector pathway of inhibition of E2F activity. Conclusion The present results show that otherwise genetically normal hepatocytes with disabled p53, p21Cip1 or Rb genes respond less well to the antiproliferative effects of TGFβ. As the function of

  9. Transport characteristic in current-in-plane (CIP) geometry of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/Co heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, K.X.; Zhao, S.G.; Chen, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The thousand-fold change in the resistance with increase in temperature has been observed in the current-in-plane (CIP) geometry of the La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3 /Co heterostructure prepared using a sol-gel method. The CIP geometry below 300 K exhibits the variable-range hopping (VRH) mechanism. The current-voltage characteristic is nonlinear and the fitting shows that the exponent n decreases with increasing the temperature, which is attributed to the lattice mismatch between the LSMO film and the Co substrate.

  10. Parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana Lúcia Costa; Magalhães, Noele Borges; Dos Santos, Hudson Andrade; Ribeiro, Raul Rio; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. This study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous) in the Serra do Cipó National Park (43-44º W and 19-20º S) and endo and ectoparasites of domestic dogs in the Morro da Pedreira Environmental Protection Area (an area surrounding the National Park). The Serra do Cipó is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp., Spirocerca sp., Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Cestoda, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothriidae, Hymenolepidae, Anoplocephalidae, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Isospora sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests. Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. felis felis.

  11. 1-Cyclohexyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,4-dihydronaphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yuan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H24O2, was isolated from the leaves extract of Ficus carica L. The cyclohexane ring displays a chair conformation whereas the cyclohexa-1,4-diene ring adopts a flattened boat conformation with methyl C atoms at the prow and stern. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds into supramolecular chains propagated along the b-axis direction.

  12. 2,3-Bis(2-chlorobenzylnaphthalene-1,4-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seik Weng Ng

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The title disubstituted naphthalene-1,4-dione, C24H16Cl2O2, has the two chlorobenzyl substituents related by a non-crystallographic twofold rotation axis, generating a chiral conformation; both enantiomers are present. The two chlorobenzene rings are nearly perpendicular to the fused ring system, making angles of 88.8 (1 and 77.5 (1° with it.

  13. Studies on Metabolism of 1,4-Dioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    likely products of dioxane metabolism-2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEM or 13- hydroxyethoxyacetic acid ) and 1 ,4-dioxan-2-one (or dioxanone...Mar 10 (2) Hoch-Ligeti and coworkers (Hoch-Ligeti et al. 1974) originally proposed that dioxane was metabolized to oxalic acid by way of diglycolic... acid . This proposal was based upon chemical oxidation experiments on dioxane using nitric acid originally conducted by Fairley and coworkers (Fairley

  14. Thermophysical study of 1,4-dioxane with cycloalkane mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, C.; Giner, B.; Haro, M.; Artigas, H.; Lafuente, C.

    2006-01-01

    Densities, refractive indices, and surface tension for the binary mixtures 1,4-dioxane with cyclopentane or cylohexane have been determined at ambient pressure and at T = (283.15, 298.15, and 313.15) K. Excess volumes and refractive index and surface tension deviations have been calculated from the experimental data. Several relations between the thermophysical properties studied here have been tested using our experimental results

  15. Characterisation of the artificial neural network CiPS for cirrus cloud remote sensing with MSG/SEVIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Strandgren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds remain one of the key uncertainties in atmospheric research. To better understand the properties and physical processes of cirrus clouds, accurate large-scale observations from satellites are required. Artificial neural networks (ANNs have proved to be a useful tool for cirrus cloud remote sensing. Since physics is not modelled explicitly in ANNs, a thorough characterisation of the networks is necessary. In this paper the CiPS (Cirrus Properties from SEVIRI algorithm is characterised using the space-borne lidar CALIOP. CiPS is composed of a set of ANNs for the cirrus cloud detection, opacity identification and the corresponding cloud top height, ice optical thickness and ice water path retrieval from the imager SEVIRI aboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellites. First, the retrieval accuracy is characterised with respect to different land surface types. The retrieval works best over water and vegetated surfaces, whereas a surface covered by permanent snow and ice or barren reduces the cirrus detection ability and increases the retrieval errors for the ice optical thickness and ice water path if the cirrus cloud is thin (optical thickness less than approx. 0.3. Second, the retrieval accuracy is characterised with respect to the vertical arrangement of liquid, ice clouds and aerosol layers as derived from CALIOP lidar data. The CiPS retrievals show little interference from liquid water clouds and aerosol layers below an observed cirrus cloud. A liquid water cloud vertically close or adjacent to the cirrus clearly increases the average retrieval errors for the optical thickness and ice water path, respectively, only for thin cirrus clouds with an optical thickness below 0.3 or ice water path below 5.0 g m−2. For the cloud top height retrieval, only aerosol layers affect the retrieval error, with an increased positive bias when the cirrus is at low altitudes. Third, the CiPS retrieval error is

  16. Direct Aminolysis of Ethoxycarbonylmethyl 1,4-Dihydropyridine-3-carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Vigante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ethoxycarbonylmethyl esters of 1,4-dihydropyridines were directly converted into carbamoylmethyl esters in the presence of 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD in good to excellent yields under mild conditions. The use of TBD is crucial for the successful aminolysis of ethoxycarbonylmethyl ester of 1,4-dihydropyridines with secondary amines as without it the reaction does not proceed at all. The aminolysis reaction proceeded regioselectively, as the alkyl ester conjugated with the 1,4-dihydropyridine cycle was not involved in the reaction. Screening of other N-containing bases, such as triethylamine (TEA, pyridine, 4-(N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP, 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU, 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN, imidazole, tetramethyl guanidine (TMG and 7-methyl-1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (MTBD as catalysts revealed no activity in the studied reaction.

  17. S.P.S.S. User's Manual #1-#4. Basic Program Construction in S.P.S.S.; S.P.S.S. Non-Procedural Statements and Procedural Commands; System Control Language and S.P.S.S.; Quick File Equate Statement Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Lorna L.

    This series of manuals describing and illustrating the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was planned as a self-teaching instrument, beginning with the basics and progressing to an advanced level. Information on what the searcher must know to define the data and write a program for preliminary analysis is contained in manual 1,…

  18. Parâmetros fitossociológicos de um cerrado no Parque Nacional Da Serra Do Cipó, MG Phytosociological parameters of a cerrado in "Serra Do Cipó" national park, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Augusto Alves Meira Neto

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza de espécies e os fatores determinantes da ocorrência da vegetação de cerrado há muito têm despertado o interesse de pesquisadores. Muitos cerrados protegidos em unidades de conservação ainda não foram investigados florística e estruturalmente. Neste trabalho foi realizado um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (19º22'01''S e 43º37'10''W. Foram instaladas 12 parcelas de 150 m² e foram amostrados todos os indíviduos lenhosos com circunferência do caule à altura do solo maior ou igual a 10 cm. Foram relacionadas 44 espécies de 37 gêneros e 30 famílias. Entre estas, Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae Mimosoideae e Guttiferae, com três espécies cada, foram as mais ricas. As espécies mais importantes (VI foram Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Allagoptera campestris, Diospyros hispida, Rapanea guianensis e Piptocarpha rotundifolia.The diversity of species and the factors determining the occurrence of cerrado vegetation have long called the attention of researchers. Many protected cerrados in Conservation Units have not been floristically and structurally studied. This work conducted a floristic and phytosociological survey of the Parque Nacional da "Serra do Cipó" ("Serra do Cipó" National Park (19º22'01''S and 43º37'10''W. Twelve quadrats of 150 m² were established and all individuals with a stem circumference at ground level larger than or equal to 10 cm were sampled. A total of 44 species of 37 genera and 30 families were found. The richest families were Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae Mimosoideae and Guttiferae, with three species each. The most important species (VI were Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Allagoptera campestris, Diospyros hispida, Rapanea guianensis and Piptocarpha rotundifolia.

  19. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...... acids. Upon acidic release, the aldehyde instantaneously formed the cyclic N-carbamyliminium ion, which rearranged to the corresponding imidazolone. Under strongly acidic conditions the imidazolones acted as nuclophiles in the Pictet-Spengler reaction....

  20. Effects of sodium phenylbutyrate on differentiation and induction of the P21WAF1/CIP1 anti-oncogene in human liver carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Mei; Jiang, Jun Mei; Liu, Hui; In, Cheng Yong; Zhu, Ju Ren

    2005-01-01

    To explore the effects of sodium phenylbutyrate on the proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle arrest and induction of the P(21WAF1/CIP1) anti-oncogene in human liver carcinoma cell lines Bel-7402 and HepG2. Bel-7402 and HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells were treated with sodium phenylbutyrate at different concentrations. Light microscopy was used to observe morphological changes in the carcinoma cells. Effects on the cell cycle were detected by using flow cytometry. P(21WAF1/CIP1) expression was determined by both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Statistical analysis was performed by using one-way anova and Student's t-test. Sodium phenylbutyrate treatment caused time- and dose-dependent growth inhibition of Bel-7402 and HepG2 cells. This treatment also caused a decline in the proportion of S-phase cells and an increase in the proportion of G(0)/G(1) cells. Sodium phenylbutyrate increased the expression of P(21WAF1/CIP1). Sodium phenylbutyrate inhibits the proliferation of human liver carcinoma cells Bel-7402 and HepG2, induces partial differentiation, and increases the expression of P(21WAF1/CIP1).

  1. Oxidative stress biomarkers in different tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to Disinfectant-CIP formulated with peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Halyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine the effects of exposure to the product DEZYNFEKTANT-CIP (Eng. - Disinfectant-CIP, which is formulated with peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, on oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation (LPO levels and the carbonyl content of oxidatively modified proteins and antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total antioxidant capacity in muscle, gill, hepatic, and cardiac tissues of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum. LPO and carbonyl contents changed with tissue type. Exposure to Disinfectant-CIP led to a significant decrease in LPO in muscle tissues and carbonyl content in muscle and gill tissues. The inhibition of SOD and CAT activity in muscle, hepatic, and cardiac tissues was observed probably because of increased oxidative stress during disinfection; however, hepatic and cardiac GPx activity increased in an attempt to counteract oxidative stress. We suggest that oxidative stress during the oxidation of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide could be counteracted by the antioxidant system in trout tissues. Correlative analysis between oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant defense confirms the pivotal role of SOD and CAT against CIP-induced oxidative stress

  2. Addressing the human and technical dimensions of potato IPM using farmer field schools (FFS): CIP and partners' experience on late blight management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting in the 1990’s, the International Potato Center (CIP)’s integrated pest management team for potato late blight (IPM-LB) realized the importance of addressing the management of this complex potato disease by combining crop protection and management sciences, with social and behavioral science...

  3. Snail regulates p21WAF/CIP1 expression in cooperation with E2 A and Twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Eishi; Funato, Noriko; Higashihori, Norihisa; Hata, Yuiro; Gridley, Thomas; Nakamura, Masataka

    2004-01-01

    Snail, a zinc-finger transcriptional repressor, is essential for mesoderm and neural crest cell formation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors E2A and Twist have been linked with Snail during embryonic development. In this study, we examined the role of Snail in cellular differentiation through regulation of p21 WAF/CIP1 expression. A reporter assay with the p21 promoter demonstrated that Snail inhibited expression of p21 induced by E2A. Co-expression of Snail with Twist showed additive inhibitory effects. Deletion mutants of the p21 promoter revealed that sequences between -270 and -264, which formed a complex with unidentified nuclear factor(s), were critical for E2A and Snail function. The E2A-dependent expression of the endogenous p21 gene was also inhibited by Snail

  4. Covenant model of corporate compliance. "Corporate integrity" program meets mission, not just legal, requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohey, J F

    1998-01-01

    Catholic healthcare should establish comprehensive compliance strategies, beyond following Medicare reimbursement laws, that reflect mission and ethics. A covenant model of business ethics--rather than a self-interest emphasis on contracts--can help organizations develop a creed to focus on obligations and trust in their relationships. The corporate integrity program (CIP) of Mercy Health System Oklahoma promotes its mission and interests, educates and motivates its employees, provides assurance of systemwide commitment, and enforces CIP policies and procedures. Mercy's creed, based on its mission statement and core values, articulates responsibilities regarding patients and providers, business partners, society and the environment, and internal relationships. The CIP is carried out through an integrated network of committees, advocacy teams, and an expanded institutional review board. Two documents set standards for how Mercy conducts external affairs and clarify employee codes of conduct.

  5. 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne as a potential tritium getter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.H.; Bissell, E.E.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Souers, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    Research on the acetylene compound 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne is an effort to develop an air-operative tritium gas scavenger. T 2 adds to the acetylene bond of the organic in the presence of a metal catalyst. The catalyst also stimulates the oxidation reaction as well. The butadiyne compound has shown good reaction efficiency at 300 ppM T 2 in static dry air. At this concentration 75% of the scavenged tritium was in the organic. This work has expanded to the investigation of liquid acetylenes, metal acetylene complexes, organometallics and acetylene based alcohols. The best of these compounds has gettered 100% of 10 to 500 ppM T 2 for both static and dynamic air flow conditions

  6. 5,5-Dihydroxybarbituric acid 1,4-dioxane hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gelbrich

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound,, C4H4N2O5·0.5C4H8O2, contains one molecule of 5,5-dihydroxybarbituric acid with a nearly planar barbiturate ring and half a molecule of 1,4-dioxane. The geometry of the centrosymmetric dioxane molecule is close to an ideal chair conformation. The crystal structure exhibits a complex three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network. Barbiturate molecules are connected to one another via N—H...O=C, O—H...O=C and N—H...O(hydroxy interactions, while the barbituric acid molecule is linked to dioxane by an O—H...O contact.

  7. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally...... well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes...... reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment....

  8. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.; Cillan, T.

    1993-09-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.4 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement. Those interested in using the SWPM database should refer to the SWPM Database User's Guide. This document is available from the PNL Task M Project Manager (D. L. Stiles, 509-372-4358), the PNL Task L Project Manager (L. L. Armacost, 509-372-4304), the WHC Restoration Projects Section Manager (509-372-1443), or the WHC Waste Characterization Manager (509-372-1193)

  9. SM-like Higgs decay into two muons at 1.4 TeV CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, Gordana

    2016-06-02

    The branching fraction measurement of the SM-like Higgs boson decay into two muons at 1.4 TeV CLIC will be described in this paper contributed to the LCWS13. The study is performed in the fully simulated ILD detector concept for CLIC, taking into consideration all the relevant physics and the beam-induced backgrounds, as well as the instrumentation of the very forward region to tag the high-energy electrons. Higgs couplings are known to be sensitive to BSM physics and we prove that BR times the Higgs production cross section can be measured with approximately 35.5% statistical accuracy in four years of the CLIC operation at 1.4 TeV centre-of-mass energy with unpolarised beams. The result is preliminary as the equivalent photon approximation is not considered in the cross-section calculations. This study complements the Higgs physics program foreseen at CLIC.

  10. A numerical study of tsunami wave impact and run-up on coastal cliffs using a CIP-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xizeng; Chen, Yong; Huang, Zhenhua; Hu, Zijun; Gao, Yangyang

    2017-05-01

    There is a general lack of understanding of tsunami wave interaction with complex geographies, especially the process of inundation. Numerical simulations are performed to understand the effects of several factors on tsunami wave impact and run-up in the presence of gentle submarine slopes and coastal cliffs, using an in-house code, a constrained interpolation profile (CIP)-based model. The model employs a high-order finite difference method, the CIP method, as the flow solver; utilizes a VOF-type method, the tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing/slope weighting (THINC/SW) scheme, to capture the free surface; and treats the solid boundary by an immersed boundary method. A series of incident waves are arranged to interact with varying coastal geographies. Numerical results are compared with experimental data and good agreement is obtained. The influences of gentle submarine slope, coastal cliff and incident wave height are discussed. It is found that the tsunami amplification factor varying with incident wave is affected by gradient of cliff slope, and the critical value is about 45°. The run-up on a toe-erosion cliff is smaller than that on a normal cliff. The run-up is also related to the length of a gentle submarine slope with a critical value of about 2.292 m in the present model for most cases. The impact pressure on the cliff is extremely large and concentrated, and the backflow effect is non-negligible. Results of our work are highly precise and helpful in inverting tsunami source and forecasting disaster.

  11. MBA acceptance test procedures, software Version 1.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullaney, J.E.; Russell, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Mass Balance Program (MBA) is an adjunct to the Materials Accounting database system, Version 3.4. MBA was written to equip the personnel performing K-Basin encapsulation tasks with a conservative estimate of accumulated sludge during the processing of canisters into and out of the chute. The K Basins Materials Balance programs had some minor improvements made to it to feedback the chute processing status to the operator better. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness

  12. Crystal structure of 1,4-bis(3-ammoniopropylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis[dichromate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vetrivel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the organic–inorganic title salt, (C10H28N4[Cr2O7]2, comprises one half of an 1,4-bis(3-ammoniopropylpiperazinediium cation (the other half being generated by the application of inversion symmetry and a dichromate anion. The piperazine ring of the cation adopts a chair conformation, and the two CrO4 tetrahedra of the anion are in an almost eclipsed conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions form a layered arrangement parallel to (001. N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions and additional C—H...O interactions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure.

  13. Prediction of LOFT L1-4 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Kunihisa; Sasaki, Shinobu; Akimoto, Masayuki; Koizumi, Yasuo; Araya, Fumimasa

    1977-10-01

    LOFT L1-4 experimental results were predicted by LOFT Analysis Group and Code Development Group using RELAP-4J and ALARM-P1 respectively. The input data prepared by the former group were used in both the analyses. Thus any differences in the results should stem from the differences in code performance characteristics of the two codes. (1) The coolant behaviors predicted by RELAP-4J and ALARM-P1 are in good agreement although some differences do exist between these two calculation models. (2) Large difference is seen in coolant flow rate across the pump. The coast down and the flow rate by ALARM-P1 are larger and smaller respectively than by RELAP-4J. (3) An explicit method of the ALARM-P1 leads to unstable calculation at a T shaped junction when one of the two volumes connected by the junction is filled with subcooled water. (4) Coolant flow in the downcomer, heat transfer to and from the steam generator secondary and suppression tank behavior must be modified to better predict the experimental results. (5) Additional instrumentation in reflood assist and ECC injection lines are necessary to better nderstand the coolant behavior. (auth.)

  14. Phytoremediation of 1,4-dioxane-containing recovered groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Ari M; Kennedy, Jean; LaRue, James C

    2013-01-01

    The results of a pilot-scale phytoremediation study are reported in this paper. Small plots of trees established on a closed municipal waste landfill site were irrigated with recovered groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The plots were managed to minimize the leaching of irrigation water, and leaching was quantified by the use of bromide tracer. Results indicated that the dioxane (2.5 microg/L) was effectively removed, probably via phytovolatilization, and that a full-scale phytoremediation system could be used. A system is now in place at the site in which the recovered groundwater can be treated using two different approaches. A physical treatment system (PTS) will be used during the winter months, and a 12 ha phytoremediation system (stands of coniferous trees) will be used during the growing season. The PTS removes VOCs using an air-stripper, and destroys dioxane using a photo-catalytic oxidation process. Treated water will be routed to the local sewer system. The phytoremediation system, located on the landfill, will be irrigated with effluent from the PTS air-stripper containing dioxane. Seasonal use of the phytoremediation system will reduce reliance on the photo-catalytic oxidation process that is extremely energy consumptive and expensive to operate.

  15. The effects of two polymorphisms on p21cip1 function and their association with Alzheimer's disease in a population of European descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon C Yates

    Full Text Available With the exception of ApoE4, genome-wide association studies have failed to identify strong genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, despite strong evidence of heritability, suggesting that many low penetrance genes may be involved. Additionally, the nature of the identified genetic risk factors and their relation to disease pathology is also largely obscure. Previous studies have found that a cancer-associated variant of the cell cycle inhibitor gene p21cip1 is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to confirm this association and to elucidate the effects of the variant on protein function and Alzheimer-type pathology. We examined the association of the p21cip1 variant with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease with dementia. The genotyping studies were performed on 719 participants of the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing, 225 participants of a Parkinson's disease DNA bank, and 477 participants of the Human Random Control collection available from the European Collection of Cell Cultures. The post mortem studies were carried out on 190 participants. In the in-vitro study, human embryonic kidney cells were transfected with either the common or rare p21cip1 variant; and cytometry was used to assess cell cycle kinetics, p21cip1 protein expression and sub-cellular localisation. The variant was associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease with dementia, relative to age matched controls. Furthermore, the variant was associated with an earlier age of onset of Alzheimer's disease, and a more severe phenotype, with a primary influence on the accumulation of tangle pathology. In the in-vitro study, we found that the SNPs reduced the cell cycle inhibitory and anti-apoptotic activity of p21cip1. The results suggest that the cancer-associated variant of p21cip1 may contribute to the loss of cell cycle control in neurons that may lead to

  16. 2010 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Banking and Finance Technology. (Program CIP: 52.0803 - Banking and Financial Support Services)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Janet; Dinkins, Shivochie

    2010-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  17. 2005 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Banking and Finance Technology. (Program CIP: 52.0803 - Banking and Financial Support Services)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Janet; Thigpen, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  18. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Agricultural Mechanics Technology. (Program CIP: 01.0201 - Agricultural Mechanics and Equipment/Machine Technology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jeremy; Louwerens, Shane; Galey, Joe

    2007-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  19. 2011 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Agricultural Technician Technology. (Program CIP: 01.0201 - Agricultural Mechanics and Equipment/Machine Technology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jeremy; Louwerens, Shane; Galey, Joe

    2011-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  20. 2009 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Health Information Technology. (Program CIP-51.0707-Medical Records Technology/Technician)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Casey; Jones, Robin; McGuffee, Michelle; Scott, Nena

    2009-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  1. 2008 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Food Production and Management Technology. (Program CIP: 12.0508 - Institutional Food Workers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Matthew; Hoff, Jody; Little, Lisa; Samuel, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  2. 2010 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Meat Merchandising Technology. (Program CIP: 12.0506 - Meat Cutting/Meat Cutter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger; Currie, Lamar; Clayton, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  3. 2008 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Massage Therapy. (Program CIP: 51.3501 - Massage Therapy/Therapeutic Massage)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Teresa; Russell, Cydnee

    2008-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  4. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Meat Merchandising Technology (Program CIP: 12.0506 - Meat Cutting/Meat Cutter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger; Currie, Lamar; Clayton, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  5. 2010 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Emergency Medical Technician. (Program CIP: 51.0904 - Emergency Medical Technology/Technician)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Lisa; Bryant, Katrina; Galtelli, Mark; Glasson, Kristi; Hall, David; Hood, Brenda; Mahaffey, Libby; McBryde, John; Read, John; Shirley, Gary; Wright, Al

    2010-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  6. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene... Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers. Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene... purposes of this section, ethylene-1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers (1,4-benzene...

  7. Crystal structure of (μ-1,4-dicarboxybutane-1,4-dicarboxylatobis[bis(triphenylphosphanesilver(I] dichloromethane trisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frenzel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure of the tetrakis(triphenylphosphanyldisilver salt of butane-1,1,4,4-tetracarboxylic acid, [Ag2(C8H8O8(C18H15P4]·3CH2Cl2, crystallizes with one and a half molecules of dichloromethane in the asymmetric unit. The coordination complex exhibits an inversion centre through the central CH2—CH2 bond. The AgI atom has a distorted trigonal–planar P2O coordination environment. The packing is characterized by intermolecular T-shaped π–π interactions between the phenyl rings of the PPh3 substituents in neighbouring molecules, forming a ladder-type superstructure parallel to [010]. These ladders are arranged in layers parallel to (101. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds between the OH group and one O atom of the Ag-bonded carboxylate group results in an asymmetric bidendate coordination of the carboxylate moiety to the AgI ion.

  8. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L41 mediates serum starvation-induced cell-cycle arrest through an increase of p21WAF1/CIP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Jin; Yoo, Young A.; Kim, Hyung Jung; Kang, Seongman; Kim, Yong Geon; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoo, Young Do

    2005-01-01

    Ribosomal proteins not only act as components of the translation apparatus but also regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. A previous study reported that MRPL41 plays an important role in p53-dependent apoptosis. It also showed that MRPL41 arrests the cell cycle by stabilizing p27 Kip1 in the absence of p53. This study found that MRPL41 mediates the p21 WAF1/CIP1 -mediated G1 arrest in response to serum starvation. The cells were released from serum starvation-induced G1 arrest via the siRNA-mediated blocking of MRPL41 expression. Overall, these results suggest that MRPL41 arrests the cell cycle by increasing the p21 WAF1/CIP1 and p27 Kip1 levels under the growth inhibitory conditions

  9. Individual variation in p53 and Cip1 expression profiles in normal human fibroblast strains following exposure to high-let radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, T.R.; Johnson, N.F.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to α-particles emitted by radon progeny appears to be the second-leading cause of lung cancer mortality. However, individual susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of α-particles remains poorly characterized. Variation in susceptibility to cancer produced by certian classes of DNA-damaging chemicals is suspected to involve differences in metabolic activation and detoxication. Susceptibility to α-particle-induced cancer may involve variations in capacity or opportunity to repair DNA damage. Subtle variations in DNA repair capacity would more likely explain radon-related lung cancer susceptibility. The p53 tumor suppressor protein accumulates as a cellular response to DNA damage from ionizing radiation and regulates arrest in the G 1 portion of the cell cycle. Arrest in G 1 portion of the cell cycle. While upstream regulation of p53 protein stability is poorly understood, variations in the ability to accumulate p53 following DNA damage represent potential variations in lung cancer susceptibility related to radon progeny. Further, transcription of the cell-cycle regulatory gene Cip1 is regulated by p53 and increases following ionizing radiation. Therefore, variations in the expression of Cip1 following α-particle exposure may also be a susceptibility factor in radon-related lung cancers. The purpose of the present investigation was to measure p53 and Cip1 protein induction following α-particle exposure of fibroblast lines from nine individuals to determine if there were significant variations. The expression of Cip1 protein indicates the differences in response are biologically relevant

  10. Individual variation in p53 and Cip1 expression profiles in normal human fibroblast strains following exposure to high-let radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, T.R.; Johnson, N.F.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Exposure to {alpha}-particles emitted by radon progeny appears to be the second-leading cause of lung cancer mortality. However, individual susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of {alpha}-particles remains poorly characterized. Variation in susceptibility to cancer produced by certian classes of DNA-damaging chemicals is suspected to involve differences in metabolic activation and detoxication. Susceptibility to {alpha}-particle-induced cancer may involve variations in capacity or opportunity to repair DNA damage. Subtle variations in DNA repair capacity would more likely explain radon-related lung cancer susceptibility. The p53 tumor suppressor protein accumulates as a cellular response to DNA damage from ionizing radiation and regulates arrest in the G{sub 1} portion of the cell cycle. Arrest in G{sub 1} portion of the cell cycle. While upstream regulation of p53 protein stability is poorly understood, variations in the ability to accumulate p53 following DNA damage represent potential variations in lung cancer susceptibility related to radon progeny. Further, transcription of the cell-cycle regulatory gene Cip1 is regulated by p53 and increases following ionizing radiation. Therefore, variations in the expression of Cip1 following {alpha}-particle exposure may also be a susceptibility factor in radon-related lung cancers. The purpose of the present investigation was to measure p53 and Cip1 protein induction following {alpha}-particle exposure of fibroblast lines from nine individuals to determine if there were significant variations. The expression of Cip1 protein indicates the differences in response are biologically relevant.

  11. Multivariate statistical monitoring as applied to clean-in-place (CIP) and steam-in-place (SIP) operations in biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin; Undey, Cenk; Mistretta, Thomas; Naugle, Gregory; Sodhi, Manbir

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate statistical process monitoring (MSPM) is becoming increasingly utilized to further enhance process monitoring in the biopharmaceutical industry. MSPM can play a critical role when there are many measurements and these measurements are highly correlated, as is typical for many biopharmaceutical operations. Specifically, for processes such as cleaning-in-place (CIP) and steaming-in-place (SIP, also known as sterilization-in-place), control systems typically oversee the execution of the cycles, and verification of the outcome is based on offline assays. These offline assays add to delays and corrective actions may require additional setup times. Moreover, this conventional approach does not take interactive effects of process variables into account and cycle optimization opportunities as well as salient trends in the process may be missed. Therefore, more proactive and holistic online continued verification approaches are desirable. This article demonstrates the application of real-time MSPM to processes such as CIP and SIP with industrial examples. The proposed approach has significant potential for facilitating enhanced continuous verification, improved process understanding, abnormal situation detection, and predictive monitoring, as applied to CIP and SIP operations. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. CASL L1 Milestone report: CASL.P4.01, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yixing; Adams, Brian M.; Secker, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to 'conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabilities (ANC/VIPRE-W/BOA).' The VUQ focus area led this effort, in partnership with AMA, and with support from VRI. DAKOTA was coupled to existing VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulics and BOA crud/boron deposit simulations representing a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that previously experienced crud-induced power shift (CIPS). This work supports understanding of CIPS by exploring the sensitivity and uncertainty in BOA outputs with respect to uncertain operating and model parameters. This report summarizes work coupling the software tools, characterizing uncertainties, and analyzing the results of iterative sensitivity and uncertainty studies. These studies focused on sensitivity and uncertainty of CIPS indicators calculated by the current version of the BOA code used in the industry. Challenges with this kind of analysis are identified to inform follow-on research goals and VERA development targeting crud-related challenge problems.

  13. CASL L1 Milestone report : CASL.P4.01, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yixing (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA); Adams, Brian M.; Secker, Jeffrey R. (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA)

    2011-12-01

    The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to 'conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabilities (ANC/VIPRE-W/BOA).' The VUQ focus area led this effort, in partnership with AMA, and with support from VRI. DAKOTA was coupled to existing VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulics and BOA crud/boron deposit simulations representing a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that previously experienced crud-induced power shift (CIPS). This work supports understanding of CIPS by exploring the sensitivity and uncertainty in BOA outputs with respect to uncertain operating and model parameters. This report summarizes work coupling the software tools, characterizing uncertainties, and analyzing the results of iterative sensitivity and uncertainty studies. These studies focused on sensitivity and uncertainty of CIPS indicators calculated by the current version of the BOA code used in the industry. Challenges with this kind of analysis are identified to inform follow-on research goals and VERA development targeting crud-related challenge problems.

  14. Deficiency of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 accelerates atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuerek, Levent M.; Boehm, Manfred; Olive, Michelle; Zhou, Alex-Xianghua; San, Hong; Nabel, Elizabeth G.

    2010-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 Cip1 and p27 Kip1 , are upregulated during vascular cell proliferation and negatively regulate growth of vascular cells. We hypothesized that absence of either p21 Cip1 or p27 Kip1 in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficiency may increase atherosclerotic plaque formation. Compared to apoE -/- aortae, both apoE -/- /p21 -/- and apoE -/- /p27 -/- aortae exhibited significantly more atherosclerotic plaque following a high-cholesterol regimen. This increase was particularly observed in the abdominal aortic regions. Deficiency of p27 Kip1 accelerated plaque formation significantly more than p21 -/- in apoE -/- mice. This increased plaque formation was in parallel with increased intima/media area ratios. Deficiency of p21 Cip1 and p27 Kip1 accelerates atherogenesis in apoE -/- mice. These findings have significant implications for our understanding of the molecular basis of atherosclerosis associated with excessive proliferation of vascular cells.

  15. Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP inhibits Cdk5/p25 activity induced by high glucose in pancreatic beta cells and recovers insulin secretion from p25 damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Zheng

    Full Text Available Cdk5/p25 hyperactivity has been demonstrated to lead to neuron apoptosis and degenerations. Chronic exposure to high glucose (HG results in hyperactivity of Cdk5 and reduced insulin secretion. Here, we set out to determine whether abnormal upregulation of Cdk5/p25 activity may be induced in a pancreatic beta cell line, Min6 cells. We first confirmed that p25 were induced in overexpressed p35 cells treated with HG and increased time course dependence. Next, we showed that no p25 was detected under short time HG stimulation (4-12 hrs, however was detectable in the long exposure in HG cells (24 hrs and 48 hrs. Cdk5 activity in the above cells was much higher than low glucose treated cells and resulted in more than 50% inhibition of insulin secretion. We confirmed these results by overexpression of p25 in Min6 cells. As in cortical neurons, CIP, a small peptide, inhibited Cdk5/p25 activity and restored insulin secretion. The same results were detected in co-infection of dominant negative Cdk5 (DNCdk5 with p25. CIP also reduced beta cells apoptosis induced by Cdk5/p25. These studies indicate that Cdk5/p25 hyperactivation deregulates insulin secretion and induces cell death in pancreatic beta cells and suggests that CIP may serve as a therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes.

  16. Involvement of p27CIP/KIP in HSP25 or HSP70 Mediated Adaptive Response by Low Dose Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hang Rhan; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Su Jae; Bae, Sang woo; Lee, Yun Sil

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive responses that reduce the harmful effects of subsequent exposure to high-dose radiation have demonstrated in chromosome aberration, cell survival, sister chromatid exchanges, micronucleus induction, mutation and neoplastic transformation. The mechanisms and conditions for the adaptive response to radiation have not been clarified, although the continuous production of free radicals from radiation and other sources has stimulated cells to evolve a repair system for chromosome breaks. An alteration of the DNA molecule triggers the repair system, and frequent activation may increase the general repair capacity, irrespective of the cause of the damage. Besides, cell cycle regulation systems, antioxidant defense systems, molecular chaperone or stress-response systems. Our previous data showed that when cells were preirradiated with 1cGy, they showed the adaptive response. A reduction of apoptosis by low-dose preirradiation is another potential mechanism for this effect. We previously demonstrated that mouse RIF cells, which did not induce HSP25 and HSP70 did not exhibit a adaptive response after 1cGy preirradiation. whereas the thermoresistant TR cells, which expressed inducible HSP25 and HSP70 showed a response. Moreover, when HSP70 and HSP25 were transfected to RIF cells, the cells acquired adaptive response. In this study, to elucidate the mechanisms in induction of adaptiveresponse, we compared cell cycle distribution by low dose radiation after HSP25 or HSP70 transfected cells and p27CIP/KIP is responsible for the different induction of adaptive response

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of "1"4C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and "1"4C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the "1"4C concentration in "1"4C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) – AMS system. The calibration curves of "1"4C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a "1"4C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. "1"4C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean "1"4C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of "1"4C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, "1"4C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. "1"4C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; "1"4C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  18. DFT calculations on 1,4-dithiine and S-oxygenated derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vessally

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structures of 1,4-dithiine and S-oxygenated derivatives are studied using B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. These compounds have 8π-electrons in the ring. This led to stabilization of non-planar conformation. DFT calculations show that 1,4-dithiine, C4H4SS, 1,4-dithiine-1-oxide, C4H4SOS, 1,4-dithiine-1,4-dioxide, C4H4SOSO and 1,4-dithiine-1,1,4-trioxide, C4H4SO2SO; have boat conformation. 1,4-dithiine-1,1-dioxide, C4H4SO2S, have a shadow boat conformation. 1,4-dithiine-1,1,4,4-tetraoxide, C4H4SO2SO2, have a planar conformation.

  19. Experiment data report for LOFT nonnuclear Test L1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batt, D.L.

    1977-07-01

    Test L1-4 was the fourth in a series of five nonnuclear isothermal blowdown tests conducted by the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Test L1-4 was the first Nuclear Regulatory Commission standard problem (International Problem No. 5 and U.S. Problem No. 7) experiment conducted at LOFT. Data from this test will be compared with predictions generated by the standard problem participants. For this test the LOFT Facility was configured to simulate a loss-of-coolant accident in a large pressurized water reactor resulting from a 200% double-ended offset shear break in a cold leg of the primary coolant system. A hydraulic core simulator assembly was installed in place of the nuclear core. The initial conditions in the primary coolant system intact loop were temperature at 279 0 C, gauge pressure at 15.65 MPa, and intact loop flow at 268.4 kg/s. During system depressurization into a simulated containment, emergency core cooling water was injected into the primary coolant system cold leg to provide data on the effects of emergency core cooling on system thermalhydraulic response

  20. Estruturas secretoras em cipó-d'alho (Mansoa standleyi (Steyerm. A. H. Gentry, Bignoniaceae: ocorrência e morfologia Secretory structures in cipó-d'alho (Mansoa standleyi (Steyerm. A. H. Gentry, Bignoniaceae: occurrence and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Conceição Vilhena-Potiguara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de Mansoa são denominadas de "cipó-d'alho", por exalarem odor de alho das partes vegetativas e reprodutivas. Contudo, dados sobre morfologia e distribuição das estruturas secretoras presentes em Mansoa são escassos e ausentes para M. standleyi. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar a ocorrência e morfologia das estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo de M. standleyi. Para tanto, amostras da lâmina foliolar e de regiões nodais foram fixadas e submetidas às técnicas histológicas e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Testes histoquímicos, com os respectivos controles foram aplicados nas estruturas secretoras em fase secretora. Indivíduos de formigas e moscas, que visitavam a espécie foram amostrados, preservados e identificados por entomólogo. As estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo de M. standleyi estão representadas por tricomas glandulares dos tipos pateliformes e peltados. Todos com desenvolvimento assincrônico e presentes nas regiões nodais e lâmina foliolar, principalmente nas partes mais jovens. Nas regiões nodais, os tricomas formam um complexo secretor e, na lâmina foliolar, estão dispersos. As análises histoquímicas revelaram que os tricomas pateliformes são de fato nectários extraflorais e que os tricomas peltados, apresentam uma fração de alcaloides. Os visitantes das glândulas nodais correspondem a formigas Crematogaster (Formicidae e Ectatomma brunea (Vespoidea, Formicidae e moscas Oxysarcodexia (Sarcophagidae, subfamília Utitidae (Ulidiidae. Mansoa standleyi possui as estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo semelhantes às citadas pela literatura para Bignoniaceae, sendo esta a primeira vez, que um nectário extrafloral é descrito para a espécie.Species of Mansoa are called "cipó-d'alho" because of the smell of garlic that wafts from their vegetative and reproductive parts. Since data on the morphology and occurrence of their secretory structures are

  1. Preliminary analysis of a 1:4 scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.; Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a research program to investigate the integrity of nuclear containment structures. As part of the program Sandia will construct an instrumented 1:4 scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) for pressurized water reactors (PWR), which will be pressure tested up to its ultimate capacity. One of the key program objectives is to develop validated methods to predict the structural performance of containment vessels when subjected to beyond design basis loadings. Analytical prediction of structural performance requires a stepwise, systematic approach that addresses all potential failure modes. The analysis effort includes two and three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses of the PCCV test model to evaluate its structural performance under very high internal pressurization. Such analyses have been performed using the nonlinear concrete constitutive model, ANACAP-U, in conjunction with the ABAQUS general purpose finite element code. The analysis effort is carried out in three phases: preliminary analysis; pretest prediction; and post-test data interpretation and analysis evaluation. The preliminary analysis phase serves to provide instrumentation support and identify candidate failure modes. The associated tasks include the preliminary prediction of failure pressure and probable failure locations and the development of models to be used in the detailed failure analyses. This paper describes the modeling approaches and some of the results obtained in the first phase of the analysis effort

  2. Interaction of 2'-deoxyguanosine with cis-2-butene-1,4-dial: Computational approach to analysis of multistep chemical reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviatenko L. K.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available cis-2-Butene-1,4-dial represents a microsomal metabolite of furan, an industrially important chemical found in cigarette smoke, air pollution, and also in canned or jarred food. It is expected to be a human carcinogen. Aim. Investigation an effect of cis-2-butene-1,4-dial on the 2'-deoxyguanine which is a model of DNA site. Methods. Optimization of reaction species molecular structures, spectral parameters and Gibbs free energy calculations were performed using Gaussian09 program. Systems of differential equations for kinetics generation were solved using Mathcad15 program. Results. The predicted mechanism of the reaction of cis-2-butene-1,4-dial with 2'-deoxyguanine consists of four-step process formation of four diastereomeric primary adducts and further base-mediated five-step transformation of the primary adducts to the secondary one. The reaction kinetics, which allows defining theconcentration change of any reaction species was calculated. Conclusions. Under physiological conditions the interaction between cis-2-butene-1,4-dial and 2'-deoxyguanine leads to the formation of a stable adduct which could be responsible for the furan genotoxicity.

  3. p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} knockout mice respond to doxorubicin with reduced cardiotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrand, Jerome; Xu, Beibei; Morrissy, Steve; Dinh, Thai Nho [Department of Pharmacology,College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Williams, Stuart [Biomedical Engineering Program, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Qin M., E-mail: qchen@email.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology,College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antineoplastic agent that can cause cardiomyopathy in humans and experimental animals. As an inducer of reactive oxygen species and a DNA damaging agent, Dox causes elevated expression of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} (p21) gene. Elevated levels of p21 mRNA and p21 protein have been detected in the myocardium of mice following Dox treatment. With chronic treatment of Dox, wild type (WT) animals develop cardiomyopathy evidenced by elongated nuclei, mitochondrial swelling, myofilamental disarray, reduced cardiac output, reduced ejection fraction, reduced left ventricular contractility, and elevated expression of ANF gene. In contrast, p21 knockout (p21KO) mice did not show significant changes in the same parameters in response to Dox treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy, we measured levels of antioxidant enzymes and found that p21KO mice did not contain elevated basal or inducible levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements of 6 circulating cytokines indicated elevation of IL-6, IL-12, IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in Dox treated WT mice but not p21KO mice. Dox induced elevation of IL-6 mRNA was detected in the myocardium of WT mice but not p21KO mice. While the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy remains unclear, lack of inflammatory response may contribute to the observed cardiac protection in p21KO mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin induces p21 elevation in the myocardium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in wild type mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 Knockout mice are resistant against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lack of inflammatory response correlates with the resistance in p21 knockout mice.

  4. Homologous regions of Fen1 and p21Cip1 compete for binding to the same site on PCNA: a potential mechanism to co-ordinate DNA replication and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warbrick, E; Lane, D P; Glover, D M; Cox, L S

    1997-05-15

    Following genomic damage, the cessation of DNA replication is co-ordinated with onset of DNA repair; this co-ordination is essential to avoid mutation and genomic instability. To investigate these phenomena, we have analysed proteins that interact with PCNA, which is required for both DNA replication and repair. One such protein is p21Cip1, which inhibits DNA replication through its interaction with PCNA, while allowing repair to continue. We have identified an interaction between PCNA and the structure specific nuclease, Fen1, which is involved in DNA replication. Deletion analysis suggests that p21Cip1 and Fen1 bind to the same region of PCNA. Within Fen1 and its homologues a small region (10 amino acids) is sufficient for PCNA binding, which contains an 8 amino acid conserved PCNA-binding motif. This motif shares critical residues with the PCNA-binding region of p21Cip1. A PCNA binding peptide from p21Cip1 competes with Fen1 peptides for binding to PCNA, disrupts the Fen1-PCNA complex in replicating cell extracts, and concomitantly inhibits DNA synthesis. Competition between homologous regions of Fen1 and p21Cip1 for binding to the same site on PCNA may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the functions of PCNA in DNA replication and repair.

  5. Arbejdspladsvurdering i små virksomheder med 1-4 ansatte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Esben, Dalskinn

    En analyse af mulighederne for at gennemføre arbejdspladsvurdering i mikrovirksomheder med 1-4 ansatte.......En analyse af mulighederne for at gennemføre arbejdspladsvurdering i mikrovirksomheder med 1-4 ansatte....

  6. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis of [diene-"1"4C] curcumin at high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filer, Crist N.; Lacy, James M.; Wright, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An efficient method is described to label curcumin with "1"4C at high specific activity. - Highlights: • This paper describes the synthesis of ["1"4C] Curcumin at the highest specific activity and total activity amount yet reported. • The "1"4C label was installed in the diene framework of Curcumin. • This paper also describes the characterization of ["1"4C] Curcumin by HPLC and mass spectrometry.

  8. Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  9. Chemoselective reduction of 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one and 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione by various hydride reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjeong; Ma, Eunsook

    2007-04-01

    The chemoselectivity of rigid cyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group on the reducing agents was influenced by the ring size and steric factor. Cholesterol (cholest-5-en-3beta-ol) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were oxidized with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone to form 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one and 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione. They were reduced with NaBH(4), lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride (l-Selectride), LiAlH(4), 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN), lithium triethylborohydride (Super-hydride), and BH(3) x (CH(3))(2)S in various conditions, respectively. Reduction of 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one and 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione by NaBH(4) (4 equiv.) produced 4,6-cholestadien-3beta-ol and 4,6-androstadiene-3beta,17beta-diol, respectively. Reduction by l-Selectride (12 equiv.) afforded 4,6-cholestadien-3alpha-ol and 4,6-androstadiene-3alpha,17beta-diol, chemoselectively. Reaction with Super-hydride (12 equiv.) produced 4,6-cholestadien-3-one and 3-oxo-4,6-androstadien-17beta-ol. Reduction of 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one by 9-BBN (14 equiv.) produced 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3alpha-ol, but 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione was not reacted with 9-BBN in the reaction conditions. Reaction of LiAlH(4) (6 equiv.) formed 4,6-cholestadien-3beta-ol and 3-oxo-1,4,6-androstatrien-17beta-ol. Reduction of 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one by BH(3) x (CH(3))(2)S (11 equiv.) gave cholestane as major compound and unlike reactivity of cholesterol, 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione by 8 equiv. of BH(3) x (CH(3))(2)S formed 3-oxo-1,4,6-androstatrien-17beta-ol. LiAlH(4) and BH(3) x (CH(3))(2)S showed relatively low chemoselectivity.

  10. One-pot multi-component synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1,4-Dihydropyridines (1,4-DHPs) are an important class of bioactive molecules, well-known for their role as calcium channel modulators and used extensively for the treatment of hypertension.1–3 The derivatives of. 1,4-DHP have shown a variety of biological activities such as vasodilator, bronchodilator, antitumour, hepato-.

  11. 37 CFR 1.4 - Nature of correspondence and signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... signature requirements. 1.4 Section 1.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... General Information and Correspondence § 1.4 Nature of correspondence and signature requirements. (a...) Handwritten signature. Each piece of correspondence, except as provided in paragraphs (d)(2), (d)(3), (e) and...

  12. Tetranectin Binds to the Kringle 1-4 Form of Angiostatin and Modifies Its Functional Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogues, Tirsit; Etzerodt, Michael; Hall, Crystal

    2004-01-01

    influence cancer progression is by altering activities of plasminogen or the plasminogen fragment, angiostatin. Tetranectin was found to bind to the kringle 1-4 form of angiostatin (AST $;{\\text{K1-4}}$ ). In addition, tetranectin inhibited binding of plasminogen or AST $;{\\text{K1-4}}$ to extracellular...... matrix (ECM) deposited by endothelial cells. Finally, tetranectin partially counteracted the ability of AST $;{\\text{K1-4}}$ to inhibit proliferation of endothelial cells. This latter effect of tetranectin was specific for AST $;{\\text{K1-4}}$ since it did not counteract the antiproliferative activities...

  13. Synthesis and solubility measurement in supercritical carbon dioxide of two solid derivatives of 2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione (menadione): 2-(Benzylamino)-3-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione and 3-(phenethylamino)-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacconi, Flavia C.; Nuñez, Olga N.; Cabrera, Adolfo L.; Valenzuela, Loreto M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two menadione derivatives were synthesized, purified and characterized. • Solubility of menadione derivatives in SC-CO 2 was measured at T < 333 K, p < 28 MPa. • Thermodynamic consistency of solubility data measured was evaluated. • Solubility data was correlated in terms of temperature and CO 2 density. - Abstract: Synthesis of two solid derivatives of vitamin K 3 (2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione or menadione), 2-(benzylamino)-3-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione and 3-(phenethylamino)-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione was completed using a 1,4 Michael addition reaction at 323 K in an inert atmosphere, with reaction yields of 62% mol·mol −1 and 71% mol·mol −1 , respectively, and a purity grade of 98% mol·mol −1 for each component. Isothermal solubility (mole fraction) of each solid derivative in supercritical carbon dioxide was performed using an analytic-recirculation methodology, with direct determination of the molar composition of the carbon dioxide-rich phase by using high performance liquid chromatography, at temperatures of (313, 323 and 333) K and pressures from (8–28) MPa. Results indicated that the range of measured solubilities were from (59 × 10 −6 to 368 × 10 −6 ) mol·mol −1 for solid 2-(benzylamino)-3-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione and from (40 × 10 −6 to 205 × 10 −6 ) mol·mol −1 for solid 3-(phenethylamino)-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione. The experimental solubility was validated using three approaches, estimating the combined expanded uncertainty of measurement for each solubility data point, evaluating the thermodynamic consistency of the data utilizing a test based on the Gibbs–Duhem equation, and verifying the self-consistency by correlating the experimental solubility values with a semi-empirical model as a function of temperature, pressure and pure carbon dioxide density.

  14. A synthesis of 1,4-thiazine carboxanilide: neighboring group participation in pummerer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Hoh Gyu; Nam, Kee Dal; Mah, He Duck

    2002-01-01

    For the purpose of development of new agrochemical fungicide of α,β-unsaturated carboxanilide series a synthesis of 4-acetyl-3-methyl-N-phenyl-1,4-thiazine-2-carboxamide (6) is described. Pummerer reaction of sulfoxide 7 obtained by sulfoxidation of dihydro-1,4-thiazine methyl ester 11 gave α-acetoxy dihydro-1,4-thiazine 10a. Under the same reaction conditions, dihydro-1,4-thiazine carboxanilide sulfoxide 14 was converted to acetoxymethyl dihydro-1,4-thiazine 18 through vinylogous Pummerer reaction involving carboxanilide of sulfonium ion through intermediate 15. 1,4-Thiazine carboxanilide 6 was synthesized from the treatment of α-acetoxy dihydro-1,4-thiazine 10a with acid catalyst followed by hydrolysis and then the reaction with aniline

  15. Posttest analysis of a 1:4-scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.; Hessheimer, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, co-sponsored a Cooperative Containment Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. As part of the program, a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model was subjected to a series of overpressurization tests at SNL beginning in July 2000 and culminating in a functional failure mode or Limit State Test (LST) in September 2000 and a Structural Failure Mode Test (SFMT) in November 2001. The PCCV model, uniformly scaled at 1:4, is representative of the containment structure of an actual Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant (OHI-3) in Japan. The objectives of the pressurization tests were to obtain measurement of the structural response to pressure loading beyond design basis accident in order to validate analytical modeling, to find pressure capacity of the model, and to observe its failure mechanisms. This paper compares results of pretest analytical studies of the PCCV model to the PCCV high pressure test measurements and describes results of post-test analytical studies. These analyses have been performed by ANATECH Corp. under contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The post-test analysis represents the third phase of a comprehensive PCCV analysis effort. The first phase consisted of preliminary analyses to determine what finite element models would be necessary for the pretest prediction analyses, and the second phase consisted of the pretest prediction analyses. The principal objectives of the post-test analyses were: (1) to provide insights to improve the analytical methods for predicting the structural response and failure modes of a prestressed concrete containment, and (2) to evaluate by analysis any phenomena or failure mode observed during the test that had not been explicitly predicted by analysis. In addition to summarizing comparisons between measured

  16. Zac1, an Sp1-like protein, regulates human p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene expression in HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei-Yao [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Shu-Ting; Chang, Yung-Lung [Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Shiang [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Wei-Ming, E-mail: ades0431@ms38.hinet.net [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Dermatology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shih-Ming, E-mail: shihming@ndmctsgh.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-12-10

    Zac1 functions as both a transcription factor and a transcriptional cofactor for p53, nuclear receptors (NRs) and NR coactivators. Zac1 might also act as a transcriptional repressor via the recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). The ability of Zac1 to interact directly with GC-specific elements indicates that Zac1 possibly binds to Sp1-responsive elements. In the present study, our data show that Zac1 is able to interact directly with the Sp1-responsive element in the p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene promoter and enhance the transactivation activity of Sp1 through direct physical interaction. Our data further demonstrate that Zac1 might enhance Sp1-specific promoter activity by interacting with the Sp1-responsive element, affecting the transactivation activity of Sp1 via a protein-protein interaction, or competing the HDAC1 protein away from the pre-existing Sp1/HDAC1 complex. Finally, the synergistic regulation of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene expression by Zac1 and Sp1 is mediated by endogenous p53 protein and p53-responsive elements in HeLa cells. Our work suggests that Zac1 might serve as an Sp1-like protein that directly interacts with the Sp1-responsive element to oligomerize with and/or to coactivate Sp1.

  17. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Silva Lana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas, in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park.

  18. Zac1, an Sp1-like protein, regulates human p21WAF1/Cip1 gene expression in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Pei-Yao; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Ting; Chang, Yung-Lung; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Wang, Wei-Ming; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Zac1 functions as both a transcription factor and a transcriptional cofactor for p53, nuclear receptors (NRs) and NR coactivators. Zac1 might also act as a transcriptional repressor via the recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). The ability of Zac1 to interact directly with GC-specific elements indicates that Zac1 possibly binds to Sp1-responsive elements. In the present study, our data show that Zac1 is able to interact directly with the Sp1-responsive element in the p21 WAF1/Cip1 gene promoter and enhance the transactivation activity of Sp1 through direct physical interaction. Our data further demonstrate that Zac1 might enhance Sp1-specific promoter activity by interacting with the Sp1-responsive element, affecting the transactivation activity of Sp1 via a protein–protein interaction, or competing the HDAC1 protein away from the pre-existing Sp1/HDAC1 complex. Finally, the synergistic regulation of p21 WAF1/Cip1 gene expression by Zac1 and Sp1 is mediated by endogenous p53 protein and p53-responsive elements in HeLa cells. Our work suggests that Zac1 might serve as an Sp1-like protein that directly interacts with the Sp1-responsive element to oligomerize with and/or to coactivate Sp1.

  19. The Forkhead Transcription Factor FOXP2 Is Required for Regulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 in 143B Osteosarcoma Cell Growth Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoyne, Duncan M; Spearman, Hayley; Lyne, Linden; Puliyadi, Rathi; Perez-Alcantara, Marta; Coulton, Les; Fisher, Simon E; Croucher, Peter I; Banham, Alison H

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the forkhead transcription factor FOXP2 gene have been implicated in inherited speech-and-language disorders, and specific Foxp2 expression patterns in neuronal populations and neuronal phenotypes arising from Foxp2 disruption have been described. However, molecular functions of FOXP2 are not completely understood. Here we report a requirement for FOXP2 in growth arrest of the osteosarcoma cell line 143B. We observed endogenous expression of this transcription factor both transiently in normally developing murine osteoblasts and constitutively in human SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells blocked in early osteoblast development. Critically, we demonstrate that in 143B osteosarcoma cells with minimal endogenous expression, FOXP2 induced by growth arrest is required for up-regulation of p21WAF1/CIP1. Upon growth factor withdrawal, FOXP2 induction occurs rapidly and precedes p21WAF1/CIP1 activation. Additionally, FOXP2 expression could be induced by MAPK pathway inhibition in growth-arrested 143B cells, but not in traditional cell line models of osteoblast differentiation (MG-63, C2C12, MC3T3-E1). Our data are consistent with a model in which transient upregulation of Foxp2 in pre-osteoblast mesenchymal cells regulates a p21-dependent growth arrest checkpoint, which may have implications for normal mesenchymal and osteosarcoma biology.

  20. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Rosana Silva; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Moreira de Avelar, Daniel; Martins, Juliana Cristina Dias; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas), in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park. PMID:25793193

  1. The transient outward current in mice lacking the potassium channel gene Kv1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Barry; Wang, Dao W; Hill, Joseph A; Bennett, Paul B

    1998-01-01

    The transient outward current (Ito) plays a prominent role in the repolarization phase of the cardiac action potential. Several K+ channel genes, including Kv1.4, are expressed in the heart, produce rapidly inactivating currents when heterologously expressed, and may be the molecular basis of Ito.We engineered mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of the K+ channel gene Kv1.4 and compared Ito in wild-type (Kv1.4+/+), heterozygous (Kv1.4+/-) and homozygous ‘knockout’ (Kv1.4−/−) mice. Kv1.4 RNA was truncated in Kv1.4−/− mice and protein expression was absent.Adult myocytes isolated from Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− mice had large rapidly inactivating outward currents. The peak current densities at 60 mV (normalized by cellular capacitance, in pA pF−1; means ± s.e.m.) were 53.8 ± 5.3, 45.3 ± 2.2 and 44.4 ± 2.8 in cells from Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− mice, respectively (P mice.The voltage dependence and time course of inactivation were not changed by targeted disruption of Kv1.4. The mean best-fitting V½ (membrane potential at 50 % inactivation) values for myocytes from Kv1.4 +/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− mice were -53.5 ± 3.7, -51.1 ± 2.6 and -54.2 ± 2.4 mV, respectively. The slope factors (k) were -10.1 ± 1.4, -8.8 ± 1.4 and -9.5 ± 1.2 mV, respectively. The fast time constants for development of inactivation at -30 mV were 27.8 ± 2.2, 26.2 ± 5.1 and 19.6 ± 2.1 ms in Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− myocytes, respectively. At +30 mV, they were 35.5 ± 2.6, 30.0 ± 2.1 and 28.7 ± 1.6 ms, respectively. The time constants for the rapid phase of recovery from inactivation at -80 mV were 32.5 ± 8.2, 23.3 ± 1.8 and 39.0 ± 3.7 ms, respectively.Nearly the entire inactivating component as well as more than 60 % of the steady-state outward current was eliminated by 1 mm 4-aminopyridine in Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− myocytes.Western blot analysis of heart membrane extracts showed no significant

  2. Exploração e manejo do cipó-titica (Heteropsis spp. / Exploitation and management of the vine Heteropsis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos César Durigan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAs espécies hemiepífitas do gênero Heteropsis produzem raízes aéreas que são conhecidas na Amazônia brasileira como cipó-titica e titicão ou cipó timbó-açu, sendo fonte produtora de fibra de alto valor comercial, principalmente na fabricação de artesanatos e móveis. Essa matéria-prima é intensamente explorada de forma insustentável, tendo grande redução da disponibilidade desse recurso florestal, devido à diminuição ou extinção regional das plantas de cipó provocadas pelo inadequado manejo exploratório. Assim, alguns governos estaduais regulamentaram a conduta de manejo e exploração de cipós produtores de fibra, visando a sua manutenção e regeneração de suas raízes aéreas. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho buscou, na literatura geral e científica, as informações sobre o marco legal da exploração e o plano de manejo, a ecologia das espécies, as etapas ligadas ao manejo florestal, inventário, intensidade e ciclo de corte bem como os procedimentos de coleta e beneficiamento dessas plantas, que são conhecimentos atualmente consolidados com normatização em poucos estados da Amazônia. Apesar disso, as áreas que foram intensamente exploradas se fazem necessário o desenvolvimento da produção sustentável com novos estudos, visando recuperação dessas populações por meio de técnicas de multiplicação vegetativa, plantio e nutrição vegetal, agregando-os ao manejo ecológico dos indivíduos remanescentes na floresta.AbstractThe hemiepiphytes species of the genus Heteropsis produces aerial roots that are known in the Brazilian Amazon as “cipó-titica and titicão or timbó-açu, and are a source of fiber of considerable commercial value used primarily to manufacture handicrafts and furniture. This raw material has been heavily exploited and mismanaged. As the consequent depletion and regional extinction of the plant vines has greatly reduced its availability likely a forest resource. This

  3. Kozloduy nuclear power plant. Units 1-4. Status of safety improvements. Rev. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    operation of the units. The plant current safety level analysis has been performed using IAEA analytical methodology according to 50-SG-O12 standard 'Periodic safety review of operational nuclear power plants'. The approach and criteria for acceptable safety level definition, developed by IAEA and presented in INSAG-8 ' was used for analysis performance. Based on this analysis a set of activities was developed, to ensures further plant operation with the necessary safety level. The measures were combined in a program called Complex program for modernization of units 1-4. The implementation of the program is foreseen for a period of four next fuel cycles and started at the beginning of 1998. In respond to the requirements for the content of this paper a detailed description of the current status of resolving of the safety issues, classified by IAEA in TECDOC 640 is presented. The whole process of safety evaluation, short and long term safety improvements presents in a systematical manner the efforts of the Government of Bulgaria, NEK Ltd and KNPP to operate these units with due respect of their nuclear safety responsibility according to Nuclear Safety Convention signed at Vienna in 1994 and ratified by Bulgarian Parliament in 1995

  4. Study on "1"4C content in post-irradiation graphite spheres of HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shouang; Pi Yue; Xie Feng; Li Hong; Cao Jianzhu

    2014-01-01

    Since the production mechanism of the "1"4C in spherical fuel elements was similar to that of fuel-free graphite spheres, in order to obtain the amount of "1"4C in fuel elements and graphite spheres of HTR-10, the production mechanism of the "1"4C in graphite spheres was studied. The production sources of the "1"4C in graphite spheres and fuel elements were summarized, the amount of "1"4C in the post-irradiation graphite spheres was calculated, the decomposition techniques of graphite spheres were compared, and experimental methods for decomposing the graphite spheres and preparing the "1"4C sample were proposed. The results can lay the foundation for further experimental research and provide theoretical calculations for comparison. (authors)

  5. Occurrence of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetic raw materials and finished cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R E; Hurley, F J; Havery, D C

    2001-01-01

    Surveys of cosmetic raw materials and finished products for the presence of the carcinogen 1,4-dioxane have been conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration since 1979. Analytical methods are described for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in ethoxylated cosmetic raw materials and cosmetic finished products. 1,4-Dioxane was isolated by azeotropic atmospheric distillation and determined by gas chromatography using n-butanol as an internal standard. A solid-phase extraction procedure based on a previously published method for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetic finished products was also used. 1,4-Dioxane was found in ethoxylated raw materials at levels up to 1410 ppm, and at levels up to 279 ppm in cosmetic finished products. Levels of 1,4-dioxane in excess of 85 ppm in children's shampoos indicate that continued monitoring of raw materials and finished products is warranted.

  6. System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) v. 2.1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, O.; Bechtel, B.; Bock, M.; Dietrich, H.; Fischer, E.; Gerlitz, L.; Wehberg, J.; Wichmann, V.; Böhner, J.

    2015-07-01

    The System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) is an open source geographic information system (GIS), mainly licensed under the GNU General Public License. Since its first release in 2004, SAGA has rapidly developed from a specialized tool for digital terrain analysis to a comprehensive and globally established GIS platform for scientific analysis and modeling. SAGA is coded in C++ in an object oriented design and runs under several operating systems including Windows and Linux. Key functional features of the modular software architecture comprise an application programming interface for the development and implementation of new geoscientific methods, a user friendly graphical user interface with many visualization options, a command line interpreter, and interfaces to interpreted languages like R and Python. The current version 2.1.4 offers more than 600 tools, which are implemented in dynamically loadable libraries or shared objects and represent the broad scopes of SAGA in numerous fields of geoscientific endeavor and beyond. In this paper, we inform about the system's architecture, functionality, and its current state of development and implementation. Furthermore, we highlight the wide spectrum of scientific applications of SAGA in a review of published studies, with special emphasis on the core application areas digital terrain analysis, geomorphology, soil science, climatology and meteorology, as well as remote sensing.

  7. Rest lifetime evaluation and ageing management in NPP 'Kozloduy' unit 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erve, M.; Heck, R.; Schmidt, J.; Daum, G.; Bataklieva, L.; Stoev, M.

    1999-01-01

    In 1992 as a result of an IAEA SRM review the 'WANO 6-month program' has been issued to improve operation, maintenance nad safety culture for the four WWER 440/230 units at the NPP 'Kozloduy' Siemens has awarded 3 contracts related to RTL evaluation of the main equipment, integrity of reactor pressure vessel and to the leak-before-break behaviour of the main piping od unit 2. It is pursuit an overall strategy that allows to: implement on the basis of RTL evaluation a long term ageing management program (AMAP) for Kozloduy's units 1-4 to assure their operation until the end of their design life; identify those components and equipment for which from the safety point of view urgent and immediate actions have to be performed; increase step by step the safety and reliability according to the Western standards and to internationally accepted safety culture; keep open the possibility of life extension as far as this would be technically feasible and acceptable and economically reasonable. Under the technical leadership of Siemens studies have been performed related to the subject of integrity and RTL, such as: reirradiation of RPV samples from Unit 1 and 2; evaluation of PV embrittlement of Unit 1; transfer of the results of LBB assessment of Unit 2 to Units 1, 3 and 4; transfer of results of RTL evaluation of Unit 2 to Units 1, 3 and 4; PTS analysis of RPV of Unit 1, 2,3 and 4. The main remarkable results are: no life-limiting mechanisms detected, requiring immediate actions, except for RPVs; residual lifetime determined for RPVs on reliable basis of advanced modern PTS analysis and sample testing; necessary activities in monitoring of ageing and in-service inspection clearly identified successful proof of lBB for main primary piping after slight modification of supports; international experts agreement reached (e.g. Risk Audit, successful IAEA experts meetings and OSART missions)

  8. Evaluation of ferritic alloy Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo after neutron irradiation: Microstructural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1986-10-01

    As part of a program to provide a data base on the bainitic alloy Fe-2-1/4-1Mo for fusion energy applications, microstructural examinations are reported for nine specimen conditions for 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel which had been irradiated by fast neutrons over the temperature range 390 to 510 0 C. Void swelling is found following irradiation at 400 0 C to 480 0 C. Concurrently dislocation structure and precipitation developed. Peak void swelling, void density, dislocation density and precipitate number density formed at the lowest temperature, approximately 400 0 C, whereas mean void size, and mean precipitate size increased with increasing irradiation temperature. The examination results are used to provide interpretation of in-reactor creep, density change and post irradiation tensile behavior

  9. Electrochemical selenium- and iodonium-initiated cyclisation of hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Röse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt(I-catalysed 1,4-hydrovinylation reaction of allyloxytrimethylsilane and allyl alcohol with substituted 1,3-dienes leads to hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes in excellent regio- and diastereoselective fashion. Those 1,4-dienols can be converted into tetrahydrofuran and pyran derivatives under indirect electrochemical conditions generating selenium or iodonium cations. The reactions proceed in good yields and regioselectivities for the formation of single diastereomers.

  10. Determination of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate levels in Dictyostelium by isotope dilution assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haastert, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    A commercial isotope dilution assay was used for the determination of Ins(1,4,5)P3 levels in the microorganism Dictyostelium discoideum. Cross-reactivity in the assay was detected with extracts from cells and the medium. The compound which induced this cross-reactivity was tentatively identified as Ins(1,4,5)P3 by (i) codegradation with authentic [ 32 P]Ins(1,4,5)P3 by three specific Ins(1,4,5)P3 phosphatases, and (ii) co-chromatography with authentic [ 32 P]Ins(1,4,5)P3 on HPLC columns. The cellular concentration was estimated as 165 +/- 42 pmol/10(8) cells, yielding a mean intracellular Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration of 3.3 microM. Dictyostelium cells secrete large amounts of Ins(1,4,5)P3 at a rate of about 10% of the cellular content per minute, yielding about 0.13 microM extracellular Ins(1,4,5)P3 after 15 min in a suspension of 10(8) cells/ml. The chemoattractant cAMP induced a transient increase of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration; the data suggest an intracacellular rise from 3.3 to 5.5 microM with a maximum at 6 s after stimulation

  11. Crystal structure of 2-amino-4-(4-chlorophenyl-1-(4-methylphenyl-5-oxo-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline-3-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban K. Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C23H20ClN3O, each of the cyclohexene and 1,4-dihydropyridine rings of the 1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline ring system adopts a twisted-boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 11.52 (7°. In the crystal, molecules are linked through a pair of amino–nitrile N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. These assemble into a three-dimensional network via C—H...O and C—H...π interactions.

  12. Comparative analyses of two thermophilic enzymes exhibiting both beta-1,4 mannosidic and beta-1,4 glucosidic cleavage activities from Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yejun; Dodd, Dylan; Hespen, Charles W; Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Schroeder, Charles M; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2010-08-01

    The hydrolysis of polysaccharides containing mannan requires endo-1,4-beta-mannanase and 1,4-beta-mannosidase activities. In the current report, the biochemical properties of two endo-beta-1,4-mannanases (Man5A and Man5B) from Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus were studied. Man5A is composed of an N-terminal signal peptide (SP), a catalytic domain, two carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), and three surface layer homology (SLH) repeats, whereas Man5B lacks the SP, CBMs, and SLH repeats. To gain insights into how the two glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) enzymes may aid the bacterium in energy acquisition and also the potential application of the two enzymes in the biofuel industry, two derivatives of Man5A (Man5A-TM1 [TM1 stands for truncational mutant 1], which lacks the SP and SLH repeats, and Man5A-TM2, which lacks the SP, CBMs, and SLH repeats) and the wild-type Man5B were biochemically analyzed. The Man5A derivatives displayed endo-1,4-beta-mannanase and endo-1,4-beta-glucanase activities and hydrolyzed oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 4 or higher. Man5B exhibited endo-1,4-beta-mannanase activity and little endo-1,4-beta-glucanase activity; however, this enzyme also exhibited 1,4-beta-mannosidase and cellodextrinase activities. Man5A-TM1, compared to either Man5A-TM2 or Man5B, had higher catalytic activity with soluble and insoluble polysaccharides, indicating that the CBMs enhance catalysis of Man5A. Furthermore, Man5A-TM1 acted synergistically with Man5B in the hydrolysis of beta-mannan and carboxymethyl cellulose. The versatility of the two enzymes, therefore, makes them a resource for depolymerization of mannan-containing polysaccharides in the biofuel industry. Furthermore, on the basis of the biochemical and genomic data, a molecular mechanism for utilization of mannan-containing nutrients by C. polysaccharolyticus is proposed.

  13. Construction on the solution of osp(1/4) Toda model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhanying; Zhen Yi

    2000-01-01

    The Leznov-Saveliev algebraic analysis method and Drinfeld-Sokolov construction are applied to the supersymmetric case. In this approach, the authors obtained the solution of the osp(1/4) Toda model on the base of the Lie super algebra osp(1/4) and its highest weight by introducing chiral vectors. Therefore, the authors generalized this method to two rank case

  14. Efficient and Simple Synthesis of 6-Aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rault

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic method for the preparation of 6-aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles involving a palladium catalyzed coupling reaction of 1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazole-6-boronic acids and (heteroaryl halides is described.

  15. 1,4-Di(2-butoxycarbonyl-trans-vinyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Molano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound 1,4-di(2-butoxycarbonyl-trans-vinyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene was synthesized in 94% yield through the Heck reaction between 2,5-diiodo-1,4-dimethoxybenzene and n-butyl acrylate, using bis(dibenzylideneacetone palladium(0 as homogeneous catalyst.

  16. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations ...

  17. Specific receptor for inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate in permeabilized rabbit neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, P.G.; Spat, A.; Rubin, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation are resultant, in part, from the mobilization of intracellular calcium by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate [(1,4,5)IP 3 ], one of the products of chemoattractant-stimulated phospholipase C activity. High specific activity (ca. 40 Ci/mmol) [ 32 P](1,4,5)IP 3 was prepared from [γ- 32 P]ATP-labeled human erythrocyte ghosts and was used in binding assays with saponin-permeabilized rabbit peritoneal neutrophils. At 4 0 C and in the presence of inhibitors of the IP 3 5-phosphomonoesterase, [ 32 P](1,4,5)IP 3 rapidly associated with a specific binding component which saturated within 60s. Nonspecific binding, taken as the residual binding in the presence of 10 μM (1,4,5)IP 3 , was 15% of the total. No specific binding was detected using intact cells. The specific binding to permeable cells was reversible (t/sup 1/2/ ∼ 60s) and could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by (1,4,5)IP 3 (EC 50 = 30 nM) and by other calcium mobilizing inositol phosphates [(2,4,5)IP 3 ] but not by inactive analogs [(1,4)IP 2 , (4,5)IP 2 , (1)IP]. The dose-responses of (1,4,5)IP 3 and (2,4,5)IP 3 in inhibiting [ 32 P](1,4,5)IP 3 specific binding correlated well with their abilities to release Ca 2+ from nonmitochondrial vesicular stores in the same preparation of cells, suggesting that the authors have identified the physiological receptor for (1,4,5)IP 3

  18. Kozloduy nuclear power plant. Units 1-4. Status of safety assessment activities. Rev. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the status of safety assessment activities carried out by the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) in order to evaluate the current status of the safety of its reactor units 1-4. The steam supply system of this units is based of the reactor WWER-440/ B-230, which is a PWR of Russian design developed according to the safety standards in force in USSR in late 60-s. Now a days 10 reactor units of this type are in operation in four NPPs. Despite of efforts of the different plants to implement safety improvements measures during first 10-15 years of operation of this type of reactor its major safety problems were not eliminated and were a subject of international concern. The systematic evaluation of the deficiencies of the original design of this type of reactors have been initiated by IAEA in the beginning of 1990 and brought to developing a comprehensive list of safety problems which required urgent implementation of safety measures in all plants. To solve this problems in 1991 KNPP initiated implementation of so called 'short term' safety improvement program, developed with the help of WANO under agreement with Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Authority (BNSA) and consortium RISKAUDIT. The program was based on a stage approach and was foreseen to be implemented by tree stages in very tight time schedule in order to achieve significant and rapid improvements of the level of safety in operation of the units. The Short Tenn Program was implemented between the years 1991 and 1997 thanks of the strong safety commitment of NEK and KNPP staff and the broad international cooperation and financial support. Important part of resources were supplied under PHARE program of CEC, EBRD grant agreement and EDF support. The plant current safety level analysis has been performed using IAEA analytical methodology according to 50-SG-O12 standard 'Periodic safety review of operational nuclear power plants'. The approach and criteria for acceptable safety level

  19. Antimicrobial activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones by metal complexation Atividade antimicrobiana de 1,4-naftoquinonas por complexação com metais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Brandelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of metal complexation on the antimicrobial activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones was investigated. Nickel-, chromium-, iron-, copper-, and cobalt-containing metal chelates of 5-amino-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphtoquinone (2 and its acyl-derivatives (3-8 were synthesized and characterized, and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated. Data from infrared spectroscopy indicate that naphthoquinones coordinate through oxygen and nitrogen atoms for 2, and through oxygen atoms when ligands were acyl derivatives 3-8. Susceptibility tests for antimicrobial activity showed that 2 and its acyl derivatives were effective on inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Bacillus cereus, but not Gram-negative bacteria. The metal complexation often caused decrease of biological activity. Nickel complex of 2 was the most effective against Gram-positive bacteria, showing MIC values ranging from 375 to 1400 mg/ml. Metal chelates may be useful tools for the understanding of the antimicrobial mechanism of 1,4-naphthoquinones on these bacteria.O efeito da complexação com metais sobre a atividade antimicrobiana de 1,4-naftoquinonas foi investigado. Complexos contendo níquel, cromo, ferro, cobre e cobalto da 5-amino-8-hidroxi-1,4-naftoquinona (2 e seus acil-derivados (3-8 foram sintetizados e caracterizados e sua atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada. Dados de espectroscopia de infravermelho indicaram que as naftoquinonas coordenam os metais através dos átomos de oxigênio e nitrogênio para 2 e através de átomos de oxigênio, quando os ligantes são os acil-derivados 3-8. Testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana demonstraram que 2 e seus derivados foram efetivos na inibição do crescimento de bactérias patogênicas como Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis e Bacillus cereus, mas não apresentaram efeito contra bactérias Gram-negativas. A complexação de metais geralmente causou diminuição da

  20. Fate of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment: from sewage to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Daria K; Diehl, Peter; Helm, Johanna; Thoms, Alina; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Potential health effects of 1,4-dioxane and the limited data on its occurrence in the water cycle command for more research. In the current study, mobility and persistence of 1,4-dioxane in the sewage-, surface-, and drinking water was investigated. The occurrence of 1,4-dioxane was determined in wastewater samples from four domestic sewage treatment plants (STP). The influent and effluent samples were collected during weekly campaigns. The average influent concentrations in all four plants ranged from 262 ± 32 ng L(-1) to 834 ± 480 ng L(-1), whereas the average effluent concentrations were between 267 ± 35 ng L(-1) and 62,260 ± 36,000 ng L(-1). No removal of 1,4-dioxane during water treatment was observed. Owing to its strong internal chemical bonding, 1,4-dioxane is considered non-biodegradable under conventional bio-treatment technologies. The source of increased 1,4-dioxane concentrations in the effluents was identified to originate from impurities in the methanol used in the postanoxic denitrification process in one of the STPs. In view of poor biodegradation in STPs, surface water samples were collected to establish an extent of 1,4-dioxane pollution. Spatial and temporal distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the Rivers Main, Rhine, and Oder was examined. Concentrations reaching 2200 ng L(-1) in the Oder River, and 860 ng L(-1) in both Main and Rhine River were detected. The average monthly load of 1,4-dioxane in the Rhine River was calculated to equal to 172 kg d(-1). In all rivers, concentration of 1,4-dioxane increased with distance from the spring and was found to negatively correlate with the discharge of the river. Additionally, bank filtration and drinking water samples from two drinking water facilities were analyzed for the presence of 1,4-dioxane. The raw water contained 650 ng L(-1)-670 ng L(-1) of 1,4-dioxane, whereas the concentration in the drinking water fell only to 600 ng L(-1) and 490 ng L(-1), respectively. Neither of the purification

  1. Isothermal flow measurement using planar PIV in the 1/4 scaled model of CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Sung, Hyung Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Tae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The local temperature of the moderator is a key parameter in determining the available subcooling. To predict the flow field and local temperature distribution in the calandria, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a national R and D research programs from 2012. This research program includes the construction of the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant CFD tools, and development of optical measurement system using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. Small-scale 1/40 and 1/8 small-scale model tests were performed prior to installation of the main MCT facility to identify the potential problems of the flow visualization and measurement expected in the 1/4 scale MCT facility. In the 1/40 scale test, a flow field was measured with a PIV measurement technique under an iso-thermal state, and the temperature field was visualized using a LIF technique. In this experiment, the key point was to illuminate the region of interest as uniformly as possible since the velocity and temperature fields in the shadow regions were distorted and unphysical. In the 1/8 scale test, the flow patterns from the inlet nozzles to the top region of the tank were investigated using PIV measurement at two different positions of the inlet nozzle. For each position of laser beam exposure the measurement sections were divided to 7 groups to overcome the limitation of the laser power to cover the relatively large test section. The MCT facility is the large-scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. It is reduced in a 1/4 scale and a moderator test vessel is built to the specifications of the CANDU6 reactor design, where a working fluid is sub-cooled water with atmospheric pressure. Previous studies were

  2. Isothermal flow measurement using planar PIV in the 1/4 scaled model of CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Sung, Hyung Jin; Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol; Kim, Hyoung Tae

    2015-01-01

    The local temperature of the moderator is a key parameter in determining the available subcooling. To predict the flow field and local temperature distribution in the calandria, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a national R and D research programs from 2012. This research program includes the construction of the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant CFD tools, and development of optical measurement system using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. Small-scale 1/40 and 1/8 small-scale model tests were performed prior to installation of the main MCT facility to identify the potential problems of the flow visualization and measurement expected in the 1/4 scale MCT facility. In the 1/40 scale test, a flow field was measured with a PIV measurement technique under an iso-thermal state, and the temperature field was visualized using a LIF technique. In this experiment, the key point was to illuminate the region of interest as uniformly as possible since the velocity and temperature fields in the shadow regions were distorted and unphysical. In the 1/8 scale test, the flow patterns from the inlet nozzles to the top region of the tank were investigated using PIV measurement at two different positions of the inlet nozzle. For each position of laser beam exposure the measurement sections were divided to 7 groups to overcome the limitation of the laser power to cover the relatively large test section. The MCT facility is the large-scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. It is reduced in a 1/4 scale and a moderator test vessel is built to the specifications of the CANDU6 reactor design, where a working fluid is sub-cooled water with atmospheric pressure. Previous studies were

  3. The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in Serbian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 has a major role in inhibition of firinolysis and normal haemostasis. The presence of the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype leads to increased expression of PAI-1. High blood level of PAI-1 is associated with many diseases such as thrombosis, cerebral insult, myocardial infarction, pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and asthma. In this study, the prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant was determined in healthy subjects from Serbian population. Methods: The study was carried out in a group of 210 healthy subjects (105 women and 105 men. The presence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant was detected by PCR-RFLP analysis. Results: The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/4G genotype was 34.76% and it was increased compared to PAI-1 5G/5G genotype (19.05%. The most frequent was PAI-1 4G/5G genotype (46.19%. Allelic frequency for 4G allele was higher (0.58 compared to 5G allele (0.42. Conclusions: The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in Serbian population is similar to the neighboring populations. Results of this study represent the first data for Serbian population. This study could be useful for further research where the role of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant will be assessed in the pathogenesis of many diseases.

  4. 1H NMR spectra of N-methyl-4-tolyl-1-(4-bromonaphthylamine and N-phenyl-1-(4-bromonaphthylamine: a combined experimental and theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy I. Okovytyy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical investigations of the conformational properties and 1H NMR chemical shifts for N-methyl-4-tolyl-1-(4-bromonaphthylamine and N-phenyl-1-(4-bromonaphthylamine are reported. The calculations were performed at the DFT level (PBE1PBE functional using magnetically consistent 6-31G## and STO##-3Gmag basis sets. Conformational properties of the amines were studied using potential energy surface scanning. Chemical shifts were calculated using the GIAO and CSGT methods and averaged in proportion to the population of the corresponding conformations. Solvent effects (CDCl3 were accounted via PCM method. The obtained results allowed to assign the 1H NMR signals for the naphthalene moiety, which could not be done based on the experimental data alone.

  5. "1"4CO_2 processing using an improved and robust molecular sieve cartridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotte, Anja; Wordell-Dietrich, Patrick; Wacker, Lukas; Don, Axel; Rethemeyer, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Radiocarbon ("1"4C) analysis on CO_2 can provide valuable information on the carbon cycle as different carbon pools differ in their "1"4C signature. While fresh, biogenic carbon shows atmospheric "1"4C concentrations, fossil carbon is "1"4C free. As shown in previous studies, CO_2 can be collected for "1"4C analysis using molecular sieve cartridges (MSC). These devices have previously been made of plastic and glass, which can easily be damaged during transport. We thus constructed a robust MSC suitable for field application under tough conditions or in remote areas, which is entirely made of stainless steel. The new MSC should also be tight over several months to allow long sampling campaigns and transport times, which was proven by a one year storage test. The reliability of the "1"4CO_2 results obtained with the MSC was evaluated by detailed tests of different procedures to clean the molecular sieve (zeolite type 13X) and for the adsorption and desorption of CO_2 from the zeolite using a vacuum rig. We show that the "1"4CO_2 results are not affected by any contamination of modern or fossil origin, cross contamination from previous samples, and by carbon isotopic fractionation. In addition, we evaluated the direct CO_2 transfer from the MSC into the automatic graphitization equipment AGE with the subsequent "1"4C AMS analysis as graphite. This semi-automatic approach can be fully automated in the future, which would allow a high sample throughput. We obtained very promising, low blank values between 0.0018 and 0.0028 F"1"4C (equivalent to 50,800 and 47,200 yrs BP), which are within the analytical background and lower than results obtained in previous studies.

  6. Synthesis and crystallographic analysis of meso-2,3-difluoro-1,4-butanediol and meso-1,4-dibenzyloxy-2,3-difluorobutane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Linclau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale synthesis of meso-2,3-difluoro-1,4-butanediol in 5 steps from (Z-but-2-enediol is described. Crystallographic analysis of the diol and the corresponding benzyl ether reveals an anti conformation of the vicinal difluoride moiety. Monosilylation of the diol is high-yielding but all attempts to achieve chain extension through addition of alkyl Grignard and acetylide nucleophiles failed.

  7. Compatibility study of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Qilong; Li Xiaojiang; Zhang Laying; Li Jizhen; Li Hongli; Liu Ziru

    2008-01-01

    The compatibility of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials of solid propellants was studied by using the pressure DSC method where, cyclotetramethylenetetranitroamine (HMX), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), 1,4-dinitropiperazine (DNP), 1.25/1-NC/NG mixture, lead 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-onate (NTO-Pb), aluminum powder (Al, particle size = 13.6 μm) and N-nitrodihydroxyethylaminedinitrate (DINA) were used as energetic components and polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyoxytetramethylene-co-oxyethylene (PET), addition product of hexamethylene diisocyanate and water (N-100), 2-nitrodianiline (2-NDPA), 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diphenyl urea (C 2 ), carbon black (C.B.), aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), cupric 2,4-dihydroxy-benzoate (β-Cu), cupric adipate (AD-Cu) and lead phthalate (φ-Pb) were used as inert materials. It was concluded that the binary systems of TNAD with NTO-Pb, RDX, PET and Al powder are compatible, and systems of TNAD with DINA and HMX are slightly sensitive, and with 2-NDPA, φ-Pb, β-Cu, AD-Cu and Al 2 O 3 are sensitive, and with PEG, N-100, C 2 and C.B. are incompatible. The impact and friction sensitivity data of the TNAD and TNAD in combination with the other energetic materials under present study was also obtained, and there was no consequential affiliation between sensitivity and compatibility

  8. Regulation of Kv1.4 potassium channels by PKC and AMPK kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Saljic, Arnela

    2018-01-01

    around the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. In the present study we examined whether Kv1.4, constituting the cardiac Ito,s current, is subject to similar regulation. In the epithelial Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line, which constitutes a highly reproducible model system for addressing membrane...... targeting, we find, by confocal microscopy, that Kv1.4 cell surface expression is downregulated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, manipulating the activities of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and serum and glucocorticoid......-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) were without effect on channel localization. The PKC and AMPK-mediated downregulation of Kv1.4 membrane surface localization was confirmed by two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus laevis oocytes, where pharmacological activation of PKC and AMPK reduced Kv1.4 current levels. We further...

  9. "1"4C ages and calendar years of Japanese swords measured with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Kazuhiro; Matsubara, Akihiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Nakamura, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Steel of Japanese swords has been produced with Tatara process from iron sand and charcoal. Carbon dissolved in steel was absorbed from wooden charcoal fuel during the production of the steel. From the decay of "1"4C activity in the steel, the "1"4C age of Japanese sword can be determined. The "1"4C ages of 4 Japanese swords were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry and calibrated to calendar years. Each "1"4C age provided plural calendar year periods with definite probabilities, and one of the periods agreed with the production year of each sword that was determined from the sword master's name cut in the grip of his sword after taking the age range of charcoal used for steel production and usage for several generations of the same names of sword masters into account. (author)

  10. Implications of matrix diffusion on 1,4-dioxane persistence at contaminated groundwater sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, David T; de Blanc, Phillip C; Farhat, Shahla K; Newell, Charles J

    2016-08-15

    Management of groundwater sites impacted by 1,4-dioxane can be challenging due to its migration potential and perceived recalcitrance. This study examined the extent to which 1,4-dioxane's persistence was subject to diffusion of mass into and out of lower-permeability zones relative to co-released chlorinated solvents. Two different release scenarios were evaluated within a two-layer aquifer system using an analytical modeling approach. The first scenario simulated a 1,4-dioxane and 1,1,1-TCA source zone where spent solvent was released. The period when 1,4-dioxane was actively loading the low-permeability layer within the source zone was estimated to be high effective solubility. While this was approximately an order-of-magnitude shorter than the loading period for 1,1,1-TCA, the mass of 1,4-dioxane stored within the low-permeability zone at the end of the simulation period (26kg) was larger than that predicted for 1,1,1-TCA (17kg). Even 80years after release, the aqueous 1,4-dioxane concentration was still several orders-of-magnitude higher than potentially-applicable criteria. Within the downgradient plume, diffusion contributed to higher concentrations and enhanced penetration of 1,4-dioxane into the low-permeability zones relative to 1,1,1-TCA. In the second scenario, elevated 1,4-dioxane concentrations were predicted at a site impacted by migration of a weak source from an upgradient site. Plume cutoff was beneficial because it could be implemented in time to prevent further loading of the low-permeability zone at the downgradient site. Overall, this study documented that 1,4-dioxane within transmissive portions of the source zone is quickly depleted due to characteristics that favor both diffusion-based storage and groundwater transport, leaving little mass to treat using conventional means. Furthermore, the results highlight the differences between 1,4-dioxane and chlorinated solvent source zones, suggesting that back diffusion of 1,4-dioxane mass may be

  11. Production and identification of wheat - Agropyron cristatum (1.4P) alien translocation lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luan, Yang; Wang, Jing-Chang; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Jun-Ji; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Yang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Ai-Nong; Li, Li-Hui

    2010-06-01

    The P genome of Agropyron Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, contains an abundance of desirable genes that can be utilized as genetic resources to improve wheat. In this study, wheat - Aegilops cylindrica Host gametocidal chromosome 2C addition lines were crossed with wheat - Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. disomic addition line accession II-21 with alien recombinant chromosome (1.4)P. We successfully induced wheat - A. cristatum alien chromosomal translocations for the first time. The frequency of translocation in the progeny was 3.75%, which was detected by molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The translocation chromosomes were identified by dual-color GISH /fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The P genomic DNA was used as probe to detect the (1.4)P chromosome fragment, and pHvG39, pAs1, or pSc119.2 repeated sequences were used as probes to identify wheat translocated chromosomes. The results showed that six types of translocations were identified in the three wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines, including the whole arm or terminal portion of a (1.4)P chromosome. The (1.4)P chromosome fragments were translocated to wheat chromosomes 1B, 2B, 5B, and 3D. The breakpoints were located at the centromeres of 1B and 2B, the pericentric locations of 5BS, and the terminals of 5BL and 3DS. In addition, we obtained 12 addition-deletion lines that contained alien A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P in wheat background. All of these wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines and addition-deletion lines would be valuable for identifying A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P-related genes and providing genetic resources and new germplasm accessions for the genetic improvement of wheat. The specific molecular markers of A. cristatum (1.4)P chromosome have been developed and used to track the (1.4)P chromatin.

  12. Effective mass of the four-flux composite fermion at {nu}=1/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, W. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Stormer, H. L. [Lucent Technologies, Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States); Department of Physics and Department of Applied Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Tsui, D. C. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Pfeiffer, L. N. [Lucent Technologies, Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States); Baldwin, K. W. [Lucent Technologies, Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States); West, K. W. [Lucent Technologies, Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)

    2000-02-15

    We have measured the effective mass (m{sup *}) of the four flux composite fermion at Landau-level filling factor {nu}=1/4 ({sup 4}CF), using the activation energy gaps at the fractional quantum Hall effect states {nu}=2/7, 3/11, and 4/15 and the temperature dependence of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations around {nu}=1/4. We find that the energy gaps show a linear dependence on the effective magnetic field B{sub eff} ({identical_to}B-B{sub {nu}}{sub =1/4}), and from this linear dependence we obtain m{sup *}=1.0m{sub e} and a disorder broadening {gamma}{approx}1 K for a sample of density n=0.87x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. The m{sup *} deduced from the temperature dependence of the SdH effect shows large differences for {nu}>1/4 and {nu}<1/4. For {nu}>1/4, m{sup *}{approx}1.0m{sub e}. It scales as {radical}(B{sub {nu}}) with the mass derived from the data around {nu}=1/2 and shows an increase in m{sup *} as {nu}{yields}1/4, resembling the findings around {nu}=1/2. For {nu}<1/4, m{sup *} increases rapidly with increasing B{sub eff} and can be described by m{sup *}/m{sub e}=-3.3+5.7B{sub eff}. This anomalous dependence on B{sub eff} is precursory to the formation of the insulating phase at still lower filling. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  13. Physiological and pathophysiological insights of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildas eLoussouarn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits have been associated with muscular and cardiac channelopathies, respectively. Despite intense research on the structure and function of these channels, a lot of information is still missing to delineate the various physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying their activity at the molecular level. Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 sequences are similar, suggesting structural and functional homologies between the two orthologous channels. This also suggests that any characteristics described for one channel subunit may shed light on the properties of the counterpart channel subunit. In this review article, after a brief clinical description of the muscular and cardiac channelopathies related to Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 mutations, respectively, we compare the knowledge accumulated in different aspects of the expression and function of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits: the regulation of the two encoding genes (SCN4A and SCN5A, the associated/regulatory proteins and at last, the functional effect of the same missense mutations detected in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5. First, it appears that more is known on Nav1.5 expression and accessory proteins. Because of the high homologies of Nav1.5 binding sites and equivalent Nav1.4 sites, Nav1.5-related results may guide future investigations on Nav1.4. Second, the analysis of the same missense mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 revealed intriguing similarities regarding their effects on membrane excitability and alteration in channel biophysics. We believe that such comparison may bring new cues to the physiopathology of cardiac and muscular diseases.

  14. An Update on the Synthesis of Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Varvounis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines are tricyclic compounds that are considered “privileged structures” since they possess a wide range of biological activities. The first encounter with these molecules was the isolation of anthramycin from cultures of Streptomyces, followed by determination of the X-ray crystal structure of the molecule and a study of its interaction with DNA. This opened up an intensive synthetic and biological study of the pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines that has culminated in the development of the dimer SJG-136, at present in Phase II clinical trials. The synthetic efforts have brought to light some new synthetic methodology, while the contemporary work is focused on building trimeric pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines linked together by various heterocyclic and aliphatic chains. It is the broad spectrum of biological activities of pyrrolo[1,2-a][1,4]benzodiazepines that has maintained the interest of researchers to date whereas several derivatives of the even less studied pyrrolo[1,2-d][1,4]benzodiazepines were found to be potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The present review is an update on the synthesis of pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines since the last major review of 2011, while the overview of the synthesis of the other two tricyclic isomers is comprehensive.

  15. Effective mass of the four-flux composite fermion at ν=1/4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Stormer, H. L.; Tsui, D. C.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the effective mass (m * ) of the four flux composite fermion at Landau-level filling factor ν=1/4 ( 4 CF), using the activation energy gaps at the fractional quantum Hall effect states ν=2/7, 3/11, and 4/15 and the temperature dependence of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations around ν=1/4. We find that the energy gaps show a linear dependence on the effective magnetic field B eff (≡B-B ν=1/4 ), and from this linear dependence we obtain m * =1.0m e and a disorder broadening Γ∼1 K for a sample of density n=0.87x10 11 cm -2 . The m * deduced from the temperature dependence of the SdH effect shows large differences for ν>1/4 and ν 1/4, m * ∼1.0m e . It scales as √(B ν ) with the mass derived from the data around ν=1/2 and shows an increase in m * as ν→1/4, resembling the findings around ν=1/2. For ν * increases rapidly with increasing B eff and can be described by m * /m e =-3.3+5.7B eff . This anomalous dependence on B eff is precursory to the formation of the insulating phase at still lower filling. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  16. Decomposition of 1,4-dioxane by advanced oxidation and biochemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Gyun; Seo, Hyung-Joon; Lee, Byung-Ryul

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the optimal decomposition conditions when 1,4-dioxane was degraded using either the AOPs (Advanced Oxidation Processes) or the BAC-TERRA microbial complex. The advanced oxidation was operated with H2O2, in the range 4.7 to 51 mM, under 254 nm (25 W lamp) illumination, while varying the reaction parameters, such as the air flow rate and reaction time. The greatest oxidation rate (96%) of 1,4-dioxane was achieved with H2O2 concentration of 17 mM after a 2-hr reaction. As a result of this reaction, organic acid intermediates were formed, such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids. Furthermore, the study revealed that suspended particles, i.e., bio-flocs, kaolin and pozzolan, in the reaction were able to have an impact on the extent of 1,4-dioxane decomposition. The decomposition of 1,4-dioxane in the presence of bio-flocs was significantly declined due to hindered UV penetration through the solution as a result of the consistent dispersion of bio-particles. In contrast, dosing with pozzolan decomposed up to 98.8% of the 1,4-dioxane after 2 hr of reaction. Two actual wastewaters, from polyester manufacturing, containing 1,4-dioxane in the range 370 to 450 mg/L were able to be oxidized by as high as 100% within 15 min with the introduction of 100:200 (mg/L) Fe(II):H202 under UV illumination. Aerobic biological decomposition, employing BAC-TERRA, was able to remove up to 90% of 1,4-dioxane after 15 days of incubation. In the meantime, the by-products (i.e., acetic, propionic and valeric acid) generated were similar to those formed during the AOPs investigation. According to kinetic studies, both photo-decomposition and biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetics, with k = 5 x 10(-4) s(-1) and 2.38 x 10(-6) s(-1), respectively. It was concluded that 1,4-dioxane could be readily degraded by both AOPs and BAC-TERRA, and that the actual polyester wastewater containing 1,4-dioxane could be successfully

  17. Potential effects of Cramoll 1,4 lectin on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos de; de Lima, Amanda Lucena Rosendo; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Cavalcanti, Carmelita C Bezerra; de Melo-Júnior, Mário Ribeiro; Montenegro, Silvia Maria L; Coelho, Luana Cassandra B Barroso; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria dos Anjos

    2011-05-01

    Cratylia mollis is a natural forage plant from the Northeast of Brazil. C. mollis seed lectin (Cramoll) containing molecular forms 1 and 4 (Cramoll 1,4) has shown anti-inflammatory and wound-healing activities. This work analyzed the effect of Cramoll 1,4 on experimental schistosomiasis in mice. Experimental groups (n=15/group) were composed of female albino Swiss mice, which were subcutaneously and caudally infected with Schistosoma mansoni (BH strain, 100 cercariae/mouse) and were treated with an intraperitoneal dose after infection as follows: (1) Cramoll 1,4 (50 mg kg(-1) single dose - after 40 days of infection), (2) Cramoll 1,4 (7 mg kg(-1) daily dose - for 7 days after infection) and control (untreated mice). Mice were sacrificed 8 weeks after infection and adult worms were recovered from the portal-hepatic system. Livers were fixed in 10% (v/v) formaldehyde/0.15M NaCl and tissue sections were processed for haematoxilin and Masson's trichrome stainings. Mice infected subcutaneously harboured no or very few worms and hence the effect of Cramoll 1,4 could not be assessed. Results (P≤0.05) were obtained with Cramoll 1,4 using the two treatments, with reduction of: egg excretion (79 and 80%), adult worm recovery (71 and 79%) and liver granulomas (40 and 73.5%) in relation to control. This study showed the potential anti-helminthic activity of Cramoll 1,4 when tested against Schistosomiasis mansoni infection in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Low level estimation of 1,4-dioxane in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, G.G.; Sahu, S.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-05-01

    The chemical, 1,4-dioxane does have much relevance with respect to Indian Nuclear Power Programme for counting of Tritium, which is mainly generated during the operation of nuclear research reactors and power reactors which use heavy water. Tritium analysis is routinely carried out at BARC. The scintillation solutions which are used for tritium counting, consist of mainly 1,4 dioxane and naphthalene along with minor concentration of PPO/POPOP. Each sample analysis generates about 10 ml of tritium contaminated spent scintillation liquid waste. Total generation rate of the waste in a typical PHWR reactor is about 2-3 m 3 /year. Controlled incineration of scintillation liquids has been opted at BARC for the treatment of radioactive organic waste. Now that 1,4-dioxane has shown threat to human health and environment, it is important and necessary to know its levels (concentrations) in different environmental compartments to evaluate the risks associated with it. Standard methods are available for the measurement of 1,4-dioxane in air. Higher concentration can be estimated by direct analysis but estimation at lower levels (parts per billion-ppb) requires pre concentration prior to its analysis. Here an improved method that offers increased sensitivity has been used for determining lower levels of 1,4-dioxane. This report presents (1) the development of the methodology for the estimation of 1,4-dioxane at ppb levels using cryogenic pre-concentration and subsequent analysis by Gas Chromatograph with Electron Capture detector (GC-ECD) (2) techniques to check the incineration efficiency and release of 1,4-dioxane to the environment. The data generated by this study could be further used in the evaluation of risk. (author)

  19. Uranyl-organic assemblies with the macrocyclic ligand 1, 4, 8, 11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetradecane-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraacetate (TETA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuery, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Three uranyl ion complexes obtained from the reaction of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate and 1, 4, 8, 11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetradecane-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraacetic acid (H 4 TETA) were characterized by their crystal structure. The centrosymmetric macrocycle, in the [3434] conformation with either carbon or nitrogen atoms as corners, is zwitterionic, with four carboxylate groups and two or four protonated nitrogen atoms. The complexes [(UO 2 ) 2 (H 2 TETA)(C 2 O 4 )(H 2 O) 2 ] (1) and [UO 2 (H 4 TETA)(H 2 O)].NO 3 .Cl (2) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and 1 includes additional oxalate ligands generated in situ. Both compounds are two-dimensional polymers in which the four-fold monodentate macrocyclic ligand unites either four uranyl oxalate dinuclear species (1) or isolated uranyl ions (2). Complex 3, [UO 2 (H 2 TETA)(H 2 O)].6H 2 O, was obtained at room temperature and, although it displays the same stoichiometry as 2, it differs from it by being a three-dimensional framework. Both 2 and 3 present channels containing either counter-ions or water molecules. As often observed, the water content of the low-temperature species, 3, is higher than that of the high-temperature one, 2. (author)

  20. Enthalpies of combustion and formation of {alpha}-D-glucoheptono-1,4-lactone and {alpha},{beta}-glucooctanoic-1,4-lactone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, Patricia [Facultad de Ciencias Qui' micas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y Av. San Claudio, Col. Manuel, C.P. 72570 Puebla Pue (Mexico)], E-mail: cs000721@siu.buap.mx; Mata, Marian Y.; Flores, Henoc [Facultad de Ciencias Qui' micas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y Av. San Claudio, Col. Manuel, C.P. 72570 Puebla Pue (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    The standard molar energies of combustion, {delta}{sub c}U{sub m}{sup 0}(cr,298.15K), of {alpha}-D-glucoheptono-1,4-lactone (GH) and {alpha},{beta}-glucooctanoic-1,4-lactone (GO) were obtained by micro-combustion calorimetry. The obtained values are -(2924.6 {+-} 2.3) kJ . mol{sup -1} and -(3459.5 {+-} 2.5) kJ . mol{sup -1}, respectively. From combustion energies, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in crystalline phase, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(cr,298.15K), for GH and GO were determined as -(1546.2 {+-} 2.5) kJ . mol{sup -1} and -(1690.6 {+-} 2.7) kJ . mol{sup -1}, respectively. Also it was found that when the hydroxyl group number increases in the aldonolactones their standard molar enthalpies of formation increase too.

  1. Mechanism and energetics for complexation of 90Y with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), a model for cancer radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Y.H.; Blanco, M.; Dasgupta, S.; Keire, D.A.; Shively, J.E.; Goddard, W.A. III

    1999-01-01

    A promising cancer therapy involves the use of the macrocyclic polyaminoacetate DOTA (1,4,6,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) attached to a tumor-targeting antibody complexed with the β emitter 90 Y 3+ . However, incorporation of the 90 Y into the DOTA conjugate is too slow. To identify the origins of this problem, ab initio quantum chemistry methods (B3LYP/:ACVP* and HF/LACVP*) were used to predict structures and energetics. The authors find that the initial complex YH 2 (DOTA) + is 4-coordinate (the four equivalent carboxylate oxygens), which transforms to YH(DOTA) (5-coordinate with one ring N and four carboxylate oxygens), and finally to Y(DOTA) - , which is 8-coordinate (four oxygens and four nitrogens). The rate-determining step is the conversion of YH(DOTA) to Y(DOTA) - , which was calculated to have an activation free energy (aqueous phase) of 8.4 kcal/mol, in agreement with experimental results (8.1--9.3 kcal/mol) for various metals to DOTA [Kumar, K.; Tweedle, M.F. Inorg. Chem. 1993, 32, 4193--4199; Wu, S.L.; Horrocks, W.D., Jr., Inorg. Chem. 1995, 34, 3724--2732]. On the basis of this mechanism the authors propose a modified chelate, DO3AlPr, which has calculated at a much faster rate of incorporation

  2. Experimental and computational thermochemistry of 1,4-benzodioxan and its 2-R derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, M. Agostinha R.; Sousa, Clara C.S.; Morais, Victor M.F.

    2008-01-01

    The standard molar energies of combustion, at T = 298.15 K, of crystalline 1,4-benzodioxan-2-carboxylic acid and 1,4-benzodioxan-2-hydroxymethyl were measured by static bomb calorimetry in an oxygen atmosphere. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were obtained by Calvet microcalorimetry. These values were used to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds in the gas phase at T = 298.15 K: 1,4-benzodioxan-2-carboxylic acid -(547.7 ± 3.0) kJ . mol -1 and 1,4-benzodioxan-2-hydroxymethyl -(374.2 ± 2.3) kJ . mol -1 . In addition, density functional theory calculations using the B3LYP hybrid exchange-correlation energy functional with extended basis sets, 6-311G** and cc-pVTZ, have been performed for the compounds studied. We have also tested two more accurate computational procedures involving multiple levels of electron structure theory in order to get reliable estimates of the thermochemical parameters of the compounds studied. The agreement between experiment and theory gives confidence to estimate the enthalpies of formation of other 2-R derivatives of 1,4-benzodioxan (R = -CH 2 COOH, -OH, -COCH 3 , -CHO, -CH 3 , -CN, and -NO 2 )

  3. Residual stresses in 2 1/4Cr1Mo welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidler, R.; Jerram, K.

    1978-01-01

    Two separate investigations, initiated in an attempt to explain the large amount of residual stress scatter previously observed in the weld metal of eighteen nominally identical thick-section 2 1/4Cr1Mo butt welds, are described in this paper. The first examined the detailed surface residual stress distributions in 2 1/4Cr1Mo manual arc circumferential butt welds in 80mm and 100mm thick 1/2Cr1/2Mo1/4V steam pipe. High residual stresses were found in the regions of overlap between adjacent weld beads, with low values in virgin weld metal. The second utilised single pass manual metal arc bead-in-groove welds to investigate the effects of preheat and weld metal composition on weld metal residual stresses. In four weld metals, mild steel, 1/2Cr1/2Mo1/4V, 1Cr1/2Mo, and 2 1/4Cr1Mo, the residual stresses were very similar, becoming less tensile (or more compressive) with increase of preheat, while the residual stresses in the fifth weld metal (12Cr) were significantly different, being compressive and less affected by preheat. In both investigations the effects have been described in terms of the basic metallurgical phenomena occurring in the weld metal. (author)

  4. Recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Theobroma cacao impairs Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Dahyana Santos; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Dos Santos, Tassiara Pereira; Pungartnik, Cristina; Cascardo, Júlio Cezar M; Micheli, Fabienne; Gesteira, Abelmon S

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we identified a gene from Theobroma cacao L. genome and cDNA libraries, named TcGlu2, that encodes a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The TcGlu2 ORF was 720 bp in length and encoded a polypeptide of 239 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.58 kDa. TcGlu2 contains a conserved domain characteristic of β-1,3-1,4-glucanases and presented high protein identity with β-1,3-1,4-glucanases from other plant species. Molecular modeling of TcGlu2 showed an active site of 13 amino acids typical of glucanase with β-1,3 and 1,4 action mode. The recombinant cDNA TcGlu2 obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and whose sequence was confirmed by mass spectrometry, has a molecular mass of about 22 kDa (with His-Tag) and showed antifungal activity against the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the witches' broom disease in cacao. The integrity of the hyphae membranes of M. perniciosa, incubated with protein TcGlu2, was analyzed with propidium iodide. After 1 h of incubation, a strong fluorescence emitted by the hyphae indicating the hydrolysis of the membrane by TcGlu2, was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a cacao β-1,3-1,4-glucanase expression in heterologous system and the first analysis showing the antifungal activity of a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase, in particular against M. perniciosa.

  5. 1,4-Dioxane drinking water occurrence data from the third unregulated contaminant monitoring rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, David T; Piña, Elizabeth A; Cartwright, Abigail E; Rauch, Sharon R; Hunter Anderson, R; Mohr, Thomas; Connor, John A

    2017-10-15

    This study examined data collected from U.S. public drinking water supplies in support of the recently-completed third round of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) to better understand the nature and occurrence of 1,4-dioxane and the basis for establishing drinking water standards. The purpose was to evaluate whether the occurrence data for this emerging but federally-unregulated contaminant fit with common conceptual models, including its persistence and the importance of groundwater contamination for potential exposure. 1,4-Dioxane was detected in samples from 21% of 4864 PWSs, and was in exceedance of the health-based reference concentration (0.35μg/L) at 6.9% of these systems. In both measures, it ranked second among the 28 UCMR3 contaminants. Although much of the focus on 1,4-dioxane has been its role as a groundwater contaminant, the detection frequency for 1,4-dioxane in surface water was only marginally lower than in groundwater (by a factor of 1.25; pwater (pwater sources tend to be more dilute. Sampling from large systems increased the likelihood that 1,4-dioxane was detected by a factor of 2.18 times relative to small systems (pwater were highly associated with detections of other chlorinated compounds particularly 1,1-dichlorethane (odds ratio=47; pchlorinated solvent stabilizer. Based on aggregated nationwide data, 1,4-dioxane showed evidence of a decreasing trend in concentration and detection frequency over time. These data suggest that the loading to drinking water supplies may be decreasing. However, in the interim, some water supply systems may need to consider improving their treatment capabilities in response to further regulatory review of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the complexation of oxacillin in 1-(4-Carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon Stefan; Ficker, Mario; Petersen, Johannes Fabritius

    2013-01-01

    The complexation of oxacillin to three generations of 1-(4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers was studied with NMR in CD3OD and CDCl3. The stochiometries, which were determined from Job plots, were found to be both solvent- and generation-dependent. The dissociation constants (Kd......) and Gibbs energies for complexation of oxacillin into the 1-(4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimer hosts were determined by (1)H NMR titrations and showed weaker binding of oxacillin upon increasing the size (generation) of the dendrimer....

  7. Simple synthesis, structure and ab initio study of 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-diones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi, Khosrow; Aryan, Reza; Mehrdad, Morteza; Lügger, Thomas; Ekkehardt Hahn, F.; Ng, Seik Weng

    2004-04-01

    A simple procedure for the synthesis of pyrido[2,1-c][1,4] benzodiazepine-6,12-dione ( 1) and 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-diones ( 2a- 2d), using microwave irradiation and/or conventional heating is reported. The configuration of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. A detailed ab initio B3LYP/6-31G* calculation of structural parameters and substituent effects on ring inversion barriers (Δ G#) and also free energy differences (Δ G0) for benzodiazepines are reported.

  8. Synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Silva do Nascimento

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones are known according to their important bio-activities, such as their antitumoral and topoisomerase inhibition properties. From 2-azido (3 or 2,3-diacetylene-1,4-naphthoquinone (4 it was possible to obtain triazole derivatives (naphthoquinonic. This work describes the synthesis of two novel molecules, with triazole groups linked to 1,4-naphthoquinone using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions. The synthetic strategy followed two routes (Scheme 1. First, we synthesized the 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (2, yield 98% by using Br2 and CH3CO2H, and then used it to obtain 2-azido-1,4-naphthoquinone (3, yield 62% from compound 1, along with ethanolic solution (reflux and NaN3. Finally, we prepared 1,2,3-triazole compounds (4a, b by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, involving compound (3 and terminal acetylenes (phenylacetylene, a and glycoside (b using Cu(OAc2 and ascorbate, under argon atmosphere. During the second step, 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone was prepared using Br2/CH2Cl2 at room temperature. From compound (5 it was possible to synthesize (6, catalyzed by Pd(PPh32Cl2/CuI/Et3N, under argon atmosphere, in 40% yield. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions involving 2-azido-1,4-naphthoquinone (3 and alkynes (a, yield 23% and b, yield 30% were conducted using the solvent system, (1:1 terc-BuOH/H2O/r.t/ 20 mol% of Cu(OAc2 and sodium ascorbate, under stirring during 24 hours. The reaction involving 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (5, yield 65% and phenylacetylene was prepared using the solvent mixture (2:1 DMSO/CHCl3 and catalytic amount of CuI/Pd(PPh32Cl2. The final products were characterized by elemental analysis and spectrometric techniques (IR, NMR 1H and 13C. Two novel triazole compounds were synthesized from naphthoquinones by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition from suitable 1,4-naphthoquinones obtained by Sonogashira couplings.

  9. POISONING WITH GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE, GAMMA-BUTYROLACTONE AND 1.4-BUTANDIOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB is a popular recreational drug. GHB overdose typically presents with decreased level of consciousness, miosis, bradycardia, respiratory depression and death. Typically, combativeness, confusion and vomiting occur once the patient begins to recover. Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL and 1.4-butandiol (1.4-BD are the prodrugs of GHB and have similar clinical presentation. We present the case of GHB poisoning in Ljubljana.Conclusions. Physicians should suspect GHB poisoning in young ravers who present with CNS depression. Treatment is symptomatic. There is no specific antidote. Gastric lavage is not beneficial but activated charcoal is recommended.

  10. Anaerobic transformation of 1,4-Tyrosol to 4-Hydoxyphenylacetate by Desulfovibrio Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamkh, F.; El Bakouchi, I.; Ouazzani, N.; Said Eddarir, S.; Bennisse, R.; Qatibi, A. I.

    2009-01-01

    1,4 Tyrosol (4-hydroxyphenylethanol) is a phenolic compound that is typically found in olive oil, olive brine, and olive oil mill wastewaters. Its anaerobic transformation was investigated in Desulfovibrio strain EMSSDQT (chamkh et al., 2008) and Desulgovibrio alcoholivorans (Qatibi et al., 1991) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 3C-NMR) as analysis technic. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the transformation of 1,4-tyrosol to 4-hydroxyphenylacetate (PHPA) by Desulfovibrio sp in anoxic conditions. (Author)

  11. Production, biodistribution, and dosimetry of 47Sc-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethylene phosphonic acid as a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (DOTMP was used as the polyaminophosphonic acid carrier ligand and the therapeutic potential of the bone seeking radiopharmaceutical 47Sc-DOTMP was assessed by measuring its dosage–dependent skeletal uptake and then the absorbed radiation dose of human organs was estimated. Because of limited availability of 47Sc we performed some preliminary studies using 46Sc. 46Sc was produced with a specific activity of 116.58 MBq/mg (3.15 mCi/mg and radionuclide purity of 98%. 46Sc-DOTMP was prepared and an activity of 1.258 MBq (34 μCi at a chelant-to-metal ratio of 60:1 was administered to five groups of mice with each group containing 3 mice that were euthanized at 4, 24, 48, 96 and 192 h post administration. The heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestine, skin, muscle, and a femur were excised, weighed, and counted. The data were analyzed to determine skeletal uptake and source organ residence times and cumulated activities for 47Sc-DOTMP. 46Sc-DOTMP complex was prepared in radiochemical purity about 93%. In vitro stability of complex was evaluated at room temperature for 48 h. Biodistribution studies of complex in mice were studied for 7 days. The data were analyzed to estimate skeletal uptake and absorbed radiation dose of human organs using biodistribution data from mice. By considering the results, 47Sc-DOTMP is a possible therapeutic agent for using in palliation of bone pain due to metastatic skeletal lesions from several types of primary cancers in prostate, breast, etc.

  12. Inhibitory properties of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) derivatives acting on glycogen metabolising enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Concia, Alda Lisa; Gómez, Livia; Clapés, Pere; Fita, Ignacio; Guinovart, Joan J; Ferrer, Joan C

    2016-09-26

    Glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) are the key enzymes that control, respectively, the synthesis and degradation of glycogen, a multi-branched glucose polymer that serves as a form of energy storage in bacteria, fungi and animals. An abnormal glycogen metabolism is associated with several human diseases. Thus, GS and GP constitute adequate pharmacological targets to modulate cellular glycogen levels by means of their selective inhibition. The compound 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) is a known potent inhibitor of GP. We studied the inhibitory effect of DAB, its enantiomer LAB, and 29 DAB derivatives on the activity of rat muscle glycogen phosphorylase (RMGP) and E. coli glycogen synthase (EcGS). The isoform 4 of sucrose synthase (SuSy4) from Solanum tuberosum L. was also included in the study for comparative purposes. Although these three enzymes possess highly conserved catalytic site architectures, the DAB derivatives analysed showed extremely diverse inhibitory potential. Subtle changes in the positions of crucial residues in their active sites are sufficient to discriminate among the structural differences of the tested inhibitors. For the two Leloir-type enzymes, EcGS and SuSy4, which use sugar nucleotides as donors, the inhibitory potency of the compounds analysed was synergistically enhanced by more than three orders of magnitude in the presence of ADP and UDP, respectively. Our results are consistent with a model in which these compounds bind to the subsite in the active centre of the enzymes that is normally occupied by the glucosyl residue which is transferred between donor and acceptor substrates. The ability to selectively inhibit the catalytic activity of the key enzymes of the glycogen metabolism may represent a new approach for the treatment of disorders of the glycogen metabolism.

  13. The ubiquitous DOTA and its derivatives: the impact of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid on biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, Graeme J; Long, Nicholas J

    2013-04-07

    Over the last twenty-five years 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) has made a significant impact on the field of diagnostic imaging. DOTA is not the only metal chelate in use in medical diagnostics, but it is the only one to significantly impact on all of the major imaging modalities Magnetic Resonance (MR), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), and Fluorescence imaging. This crossover of modalities has been possible due to the versatility of DOTA firstly, to complex a variety of metal ions and secondly, the ease with which it can be modified for different disease states. This has driven research over the last two decades into the chemistry of DOTA and the modification of the substituent pendant arms of this macrocycle to create functional, targeted and dual-modal imaging agents. The primary use of DOTA has been with the lanthanide series of metals, gadolinium for MRI, europium and terbium for fluorescence and neodymium for near infra-red imaging. There are now many research groups dedicated to the use of lanthanides with DOTA although other chelates such as DTPA and NOTA are being increasingly employed. The ease with which DOTA can be conjugated to peptides has given rise to targeted imaging agents seen in the PET, SPECT and radiotherapy fields. These modalities use a variety of radiometals that complex with DOTA, e.g.(64)Cu and (68)Ga which are used in clinical PET scans, (111)In, and (90)Y for SPECT and radiotherapy. In this article, we will demonstrate the remarkable versatility of DOTA, how it has crossed the imaging modality boundaries and how it has been successfully transferred into the clinic.

  14. Derivative Quotient Spectrophotometry and an Eco-Friendly Micellar Chromatographic Approach with Time-Programmed UV-Detection for the Separation of Two Fluoroquinolones and Phenazopyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Manar M.; Salim, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two analytical approaches were exploited for the resolution of binary mixtures of ciprofloxacin HCl (CIP) or norfloxacin (NOR) and phenazopyridine HCl (PHZ). In the first approach, the amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra were measured at 267 or 287 nm for CIP and at 268 or 291 nm for NOR. PHZ could be directly determined in the presence of CIP or NOR at 405 nm. The calibration graphs were rectilinear over the ranges of 1.0–16.0 µg/mL for CIP or NOR and 1.0–10.0 µg/mL for PHZ. In the second approach, an accurate, reliable and environmentally nontoxic micellar liquid chromatographic (MLC) method was developed. A good chromatographic separation was achieved using a 150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size Spherisorb ODS-2 column. Eco-friendly mobile phase containing 0.12 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 0.3% triethylamine and 6% n-butanol in 0.02 M orthophosphoric acid of pH 3.0 was pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Time programmed UV-detection was applied to allow sensitive determination of the studied drugs. The analytes were eluted without interferences in <10 min. Methocarbamol was used as an internal standard. The MLC method was found to be rectilinear over the concentration range of 0.5–20.0 μg/mL for CIP, NOR or PHZ. These optimized and validated methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of the studied drugs in their synthetic mixtures and co-formulated tablets. Moreover, the second method was further extended to the determination of these drugs in human urine with direct injection and without any pretreatment. PMID:26867555

  15. 1,5-Bis (2-Hydroxyphenyl)Pent-1,4-Diene-3-One: A Lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    occurring chalcone nucleus to design effective antibacterial agents. The present investigation established 1,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1,4-diene-3-one (1c) as a lead compound with potential against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains, ...

  16. Orient Journal of Medicine - Vol 21, No 1-4 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refractive Error among Strabismic Children in Ilorin, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Azonobi, F Olatunji, J Adido. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ojm.v21i1-4.54474 ...

  17. Structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor at 1.4 A resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kiselyov, Vladislav; Kochoyan, Artur

    2007-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a family of 22 structurally related heparin-binding polypeptides that are involved in the regulation of cell growth, survival, differentiation and migration. Here, a 1.4 A resolution X-ray structure of rat FGF1 is presented. Two molecules are present...

  18. High molecular weight polyurethanes and a polyurethane urea based on 1,4-butanediisocyanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, CJ; de Groot, JH; Dekens, FG; Pennings, AJ

    New biomedical polyurethanes and a polyurethane urea based on epsilon-caprolactone and 1,4-butanediisocyanate have been developed. On degradation, only non-toxic products are produced. The polyurethane urea with poly(epsilon-caprolactone) soft segments and butanediisocyanate/butanediamine hard

  19. Identification of over producer strain of endo-ß-1,4-glucanase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes capable of degrading cellulose to smaller sugar components like glucose units. These enzymes are produced by fungi and bacteria. The aim of this research was to identify a Aspergillus species with over production of endo-β-1,4-glucanase. Properties of endo-β-1 ...

  20. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects in the 1,4-dimethylenecyclohexane boat cope rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, J.J.; Jimenez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    In order to examine the extent of bond making in the boat-like 3,3-sigmatropic shift transition states, trans-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-dimethylenecyclohexane (T) and its exomethylene tetradeuteria derivative (TXD) were prepared. The 3,3-shift of TXD at 305 0 C results in interconversion of starting material, 5,5,6,6-tetradeuterio-trans-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-dimethylene-cyclohexane (TND), and 2,2,3,3-tetradeuterio-anti-1,4-diethylidenecyclohexane (AD). A kinetic analysis of the first-order rate equations for the three-component system in both protio and deuterio species by numerical integration of the data and simplex minimization of the rate constants with symmetry and the assumption of no equilibrium or kinetic isotope effect on the TND-AD reaction gives a bond making kinetic isotope effect of 1/1.04 (0.04). The equilibrium isotope effects observed are 1/1.16 (0.04) so that the extent of bond formation in this boat-like bicyclo[2.2.2]octyl transition state is roughly 25%, a value to be compared with ca. 67% in chair-like acyclic 3,3-shift transition states. This rules out significant intervention of a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diyl intermediate or transition state. 30 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  1. Equilibrium studies on butane-1,4-diamine extraction with 4-nonylphenol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzaniak, Agnieszka; Tansaz, Ashkan; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, André B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extraction of butane-1,4-diamine (BDA) from aqueous solutions with undiluted 4-nonylphenol (4NP) has been studied at three temperatures (298 K, 310 K and 323 K) in a batch system. A reactive extraction model based on mass action law was applied to describe the experimental data.

  2. Operation of a high-purity silicon diode alpha particle detector at 1.4 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoff, C.J.; Kaczanowicz, E.; Neuhauser, B.J.; Lopez, E.; Zhang, Y.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    Detection of alpha particles at temperatures as low as 1.4 K was demonstrated using a specially fabricated Si diode. The diode was 475 mm 2 by 0.280 mm thick, fabricated from high-purity silicon with degenerately doped contacts. This is an important step toward development of dual-mode (ionization plus phonon) silicon detectors for low energy radiation. (orig.)

  3. Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of glucose transporters GLUT1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Linfeng; Zeng, Xin; Yan, Chuangye; Sun, Xiuyun; Gong, Xinqi; Rao, Yu; Yan, Nieng

    2012-10-18

    Glucose transporters are essential for metabolism of glucose in cells of diverse organisms from microbes to humans, exemplified by the disease-related human proteins GLUT1, 2, 3 and 4. Despite rigorous efforts, the structural information for GLUT1-4 or their homologues remains largely unknown. Here we report three related crystal structures of XylE, an Escherichia coli homologue of GLUT1-4, in complex with d-xylose, d-glucose and 6-bromo-6-deoxy-D-glucose, at resolutions of 2.8, 2.9 and 2.6 Å, respectively. The structure consists of a typical major facilitator superfamily fold of 12 transmembrane segments and a unique intracellular four-helix domain. XylE was captured in an outward-facing, partly occluded conformation. Most of the important amino acids responsible for recognition of D-xylose or d-glucose are invariant in GLUT1-4, suggesting functional and mechanistic conservations. Structure-based modelling of GLUT1-4 allows mapping and interpretation of disease-related mutations. The structural and biochemical information reported here constitutes an important framework for mechanistic understanding of glucose transporters and sugar porters in general.

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-2 - Site nomination for characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-2 Site nomination for... site, including lithologic logging and hydrologic and geophysical testing of such boreholes, laboratory testing of core samples for the evaluation of geochemical and engineering rock properties, and chemical...

  5. A NEW CELL CLONE DERIVED FROM TRICHOPLUSIA NI TN5B1-4 CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-xiaoTian; Chang-youLi; Gui-lingZheng; Guo-xunLi; PingWang; Granados

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of a cultured cell line do not always remain stable and may change upon continuous passage. Most continuous cell lines, even after cloning, possess several genotypes that are constantly changing. There are numerous selective and adaptive culture processes, in addition to genetic instability, that may improve phenotypic change in cell growth, virus susceptibility, gene expression, and production of virus. Similar detrimental effects of long term passaging of insect cells have also been reported for continuous cell lines, for example, Tn5B 1-4 cells, which are the most widely used for the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), provide superior production of recombinant proteins,however, this high productivity may be more evident in low passage cells. In this paper, we describe the isolation of a cell clone, Tn5B-40, from low passage Tn5B 1-4 cells. The growth characteristics,productions of virus, and high level of recombinant protein productions were determined. The results showed the susceptibility of both clone and Tn5B 1-4 cells to wild-type AcNPV was approximately the same rate with over 95% of infection; when the cloned cells were infected with recombinant baculoviruses expressing β-galactosidase and secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), expression of the recombinant proteins from the cloned cells exceeded that from the parental Tn5B 1-4 cells.

  6. Electrochemical stability and transformations of fluorinated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pud, A.A.; Rogalsky, S.P.; Ghapoval, G.S.; Kharitonov, A.P.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorination of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) leads to narrowing of its window of electrochemical stability in a cathodic range of potentials. It is found this is connected with appearance of both perfluorinated and incompletely fluorinated units in the polymer. The former units are

  7. 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) - Bond transactions on national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond transactions on national....11a1-4(T) Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. A transaction in a bond, note, debenture, or other form of indebtedness effected on a national securities exchange by a member for its own...

  8. Heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes based on sulfonated poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Kůdela, Vlastimil; Richau, K.; Mohr, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 198, 1-3 (2006), s. 256-264 ISSN 0011-9164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) sulfonated * ion-exchange membrane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2006

  9. NMR study of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives endowed with long alkyl and functionalized chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Margarita; Salfran, Esperanza; Rodriguez, Hortensia; Coro, Julieta, E-mail: msuarez@fq.uh.c [Universidad de La Habana (Cuba). Facultad de Quimica. Lab. de Sintesis Organica; Molero, Dolores; Saez, Elena [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). CAI-RMN; Martinez-Alvarez, Roberto; Martin, Nazario [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica I

    2011-07-01

    The {sup 1}H , {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N NMR spectroscopic data for 1,4-dihydropyridine endowed with long alkyl and functionalized chain on C-3 and C-5, have been fully assigned by combination of one- and two dimensional experiments (DEPT, HMBC, HMQC, COSY, nOe). (author)

  10. Multicomponent Reaction in Ionic Liquid: A Novel and Green Synthesis of 1, 4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Ying ZHANG; Yan Zhen LI; Xue Sen FAN; Gui Rong QU; Xue Yuan HU; Jian Ji WANG

    2006-01-01

    An efficient and green method for the synthesis of 1, 4-dihydropyridine derivatives mediated in an ionic liquid, [bmim][BF4], through a four-component condensation process of aldehydes, 1, 3-dione, Meldrum's acid and ammonium acetate is disclosed in this paper.

  11. Comparison of low-cycle fatigue data of 2 1/4%CrMo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, S.J.; Petrequin, P.; Nieuwland, H.C.D.

    Data files have been produced on international strain-controlled fatigue information available for 2 1/4%CrMo steels; data assessment from these files is treated in three categories viz: annealed and isothermally annealed 2 1/4%Cr1%Mo steel; normalised and tempered and quenched and tempered 2 1/4%Cr1%Mo steel; and 2 1/4%CrMo variants. The available data have been considered generally in terms of total strain range vs. cycles to failure (Nsub(f)), tensile stress at Nsub(f)/2 vs. cycles to failure and time to failure vs. cycles to failure. Where possible the continuous cycling data have been statistically analysed in terms of the elastic and plastic strain components and cycles to failure to yield best-fit equations over defined temperature (T) regimes viz: T <= 427 deg. C, 427 deg. C < T <= 550 deg. C. and 550 deg. C < T <= 600 deg. C. The behaviour of the steels within the various classifications is discussed. (author)

  12. 49 CFR 174.115 - Loading Division 1.4 (explosive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....4 (explosive) materials may be loaded into any closed car in good condition, or into any container car in good condition. Car certificates are not required. Packages of Division 1.4 (explosive... automatic heating or refrigerating machinery with which the truck body, trailer, or container is equipped is...

  13. More efficient redox biocatalysis by utilising 1,4-butanediol as a ‘smart cosubstrate’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kara, S.; Spickermann, D.; Schrittwieser, J.H.; Leggewie, C.; Van Berkel, W.J.H.; Arendsa, I.W.C.E.; Hollmann, F.

    2012-01-01

    1,4-Butanediol is shown to be an efficient cosubstrate to promote NAD(P)H-dependent redox biocatalysis. The thermodynamically and kinetically inert lactone coproduct makes the regeneration reaction irreversible. Thereby not only the molar surplus of cosubstrate is dramatically reduced but also

  14. More efficient redox biocatalysis by utilizing 1,4-butanediol as a ‘smart cosubstrate'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kara, S.; Spickermann, D.; Schrittwieser, J.H.; Leggewie, C.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Arends, I.W.C.E.; Hollmann, F.

    2013-01-01

    1,4-Butanediol is shown to be an efficient cosubstrate to promote NAD(P)H-dependent redox biocatalysis. The thermodynamically and kinetically inert lactone coproduct makes the regeneration reaction irreversible. Thereby not only the molar surplus of cosubstrate is dramatically reduced but also

  15. Intramolecular excimer and exciplex emission of 1,4-dipyrenyl substituted cyclohexasilane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walree, C.A.; Kaats-Richters, V.E.M.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Williams, R.M.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Intramolecular excimer emission is observed for cis-1,4-di(1-pyrenyl)decamethylcyclohexasilane in nonpolar solvents. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and kinetic modelling indicate that the driving force of excimer formation is very small, and that the process is governed by the flexibility

  16. IN SITU OXIDATION FIELD PILOT OF 1,4-DIOXANE AT THE COOPER DRUM SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    1,4-Dioxane, a solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics, deodorants, cleaning and detergent preparations fluids, has attracted a lot of notice recently because its chemical analytical detection limit has recently been lowered from 50 µg/L to 1 µg/L. It is now commonly de...

  17. Convenient large-scale synthesis of D-glucaro-1,4:6,3-dilactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehret, Troy C; Frobese, A Stephen; Zerbe, James S; Chenault, H Keith

    2009-11-06

    Calcium D-glucarate was converted into D-glucaro-1,4:6,3-dilactone on 32-g, 1-kg, and 22-kg scale, using azeotropic distillation with methyl isobutyl ketone to drive the dehydration. The crystalline product was > or = 99.5% pure by GC and NMR, and overall yield was as high as 72%.

  18. Boltorn-Modified Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4,phenylene oxide) Gas Separation Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterescu, D.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Mendes, Eduardo; Kruse, Jan; Rätzke, Klaus; Faupel, Franz; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation, characterization and the permeation properties of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) dense polymer films containing aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters, Boltorn (H20, H30, and H40). The Boltorn are dispersed in PPO at various concentrations. The gas

  19. Drie nuwe verklaringsopsies in die Jakobusbrief (Jak 2:1; 4:5; 5:6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New options in the understanding of the Epistle of James (Js 2:1; 4:5; 5:6) New methods of interpretation occasionally lead to new options in the understanding of texts. In the case of the Epistle of James, the interpretation has until recently stood under the spell of the 'comparative' method of Dibelius. Greater emphasis on ...

  20. 1,4-Addition of tetraethyl fluoromethylenebisphosphonate to alpha, beta-unsaturated compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opekar, Stanislav; Beier, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 5 (2011), s. 363-366 ISSN 0022-1139 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/08/P310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : 1,4-addition * phosphonates * fluorine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2011

  1. Parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil Parasitos de canídeos domésticos e silvestres na região do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lúcia Costa Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. This study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous in the Serra do Cipó National Park (43-44º W and 19-20º S and endo and ectoparasites of domestic dogs in the Morro da Pedreira Environmental Protection Area (an area surrounding the National Park. The Serra do Cipó is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp., Spirocerca sp., Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Cestoda, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothriidae, Hymenolepidae, Anoplocephalidae, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Isospora sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests. Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. felis felis.Nas últimas décadas, as doenças têm sido apontadas como importantes causas de extinção de espécies silvestres. Maior ênfase tem sido dada às doenças transmitidas por animais domésticos que crescem em número, bem como as populações humanas, em áreas naturais. O presente estudo objetivou verificar a presença de helmintos intestinais de canídeos silvestres (lobo-guará - Chrysocyon brachyurus e cachorro-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (43-44º W e 19-20º S e endo e ectoparasitos de cães domésticos da Área de Proteção Ambiental Morro da Pedreira (entorno do

  2. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors (8) numerical simulation using SOROBAN-grid CIP method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutaka Sakurai; Takashi Yabe; Tomomasa Ohkubo; Yoichi Ogata; Michitsugu Mori

    2005-01-01

    Generally, there are two coordinate systems in computation of fluid dynamics: curvilinear coordinate or Cartesian coordinate. The former is suitable for describing complex figure, but it cannot get high accuracy. On the other hand, the latter can easily increase the accuracy, but it needs a large number of grids to describe complex figure. In this paper, we propose a new grid generating method, the Soroban grid, which has large capability for treating complex figure and does not lose the accuracy. Coupling this grid generating method and the CIP method, we can get flexibility to describe complex figure without loosing (3rd order) accuracy. Since the Soroban grid is unstructured grid, we can not use the staggered grid and had better use the co-location grid. Although the fluid computation in the co-location grid is usually unstable, we succeeded in calculating the multi-phase flow that has large density difference applying the C-CUP method to this grid system. In this paper, we shall introduce this grid generating method and apply these methods to simulate the steam injector of power plant. (authors)

  3. Translational Upregulation of an Individual p21Cip1 Transcript Variant by GCN2 Regulates Cell Proliferation and Survival under Nutrient Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L Lehman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple transcripts encode for the cell cycle inhibitor p21(Cip1. These transcripts produce identical proteins but differ in their 5' untranslated regions (UTRs. Although several stresses that induce p21 have been characterized, the mechanisms regulating the individual transcript variants and their functional significance are unknown. Here we demonstrate through (35S labeling, luciferase reporter assays, and polysome transcript profiling that activation of the Integrated Stress Response (ISR kinase GCN2 selectively upregulates the translation of a p21 transcript variant containing 5' upstream open reading frames (uORFs through phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2α. Mutational analysis reveals that the uORFs suppress translation under basal conditions, but promote translation under stress. Functionally, ablation of p21 ameliorates G1/S arrest and reduces cell survival in response to GCN2 activation. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of p21 post-transcriptional regulation, offer functional significance for the existence of multiple p21 transcripts, and support a key role for GCN2 in regulating the cell cycle under stress.

  4. Effect of Exogenous Hormones (NAA, BA, GA3, and Ethephon, Chemical Inhibitors (MH and CIP and Low Temperature on Sprouting of Onion Bulbs, AIIium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benkeblia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exogenous hormones (ABA, NAA, BA, GA; and ethephon and chemical inhibitors (MH and CW, associated with cooling, on sprouting of dormant (freshly harvested and non dormant (kept six months at 5-6 °C onion bulbs were investigated. Effects of NM and BA on the sprouting of the bulbs were similar, particularly when associated with cooling. Cooled + NAA and BA treated dormant bulbs, both sprouted after lo weeks, while non-cooled bulbs sprouted after 10 and 12 weeks, respectively. Non-dormant bulbs sprouted after 3 and 4 weeks, respectively. No significant effect of MH, ClP and STS on sprouting of non dormant bulbs was observed. Gibberellin and ethylene were less effective on sprouting of dormant onion bulbs. Nevertheless significant differences were observed between GA; or ethylene treated and cooled bulbs, and others treated bulbs. For non dormant bulbs, significant differences were noted among GA3,-ethephon-control, and MH-CIP treated bulbs. Sprouting of bulbs was also affected by ABA treatment, while cooling slowed down significantly this inhibitory effect of ABA.

  5. Quantitative determination of residual 1,4-dioxane in three-dimensional printed bone scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background/Objective: A novel porous scaffold poly (lactide-co-glycolide and tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/TCP was developed by three-dimensional printing technology for bone defect repair. As a Class 2 solvent with less severe toxicity, content of residual 1,4-dioxane in this newly developed scaffold should be rigorously controlled when it is translated to clinical use. In this study, a headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (HS-GC-MS method and related testing protocol were developed for quantitative determination of 1,4-dioxane in the PLGA/TCP composite scaffolds. Methods: Matrix effect analysis was used to optimise the pretreatment method of the scaffolds. Then, the procedure for testing 1,4-dioxane using HS-GC-MS was set up. The accuracy, precision, and robustness of this newly developed quantitative method were also validated before quantification of 1,4-dioxane in the scaffolds with different drying procedures. Results: Dimethyl formamide (DMF was the optimal solvent for dissolving scaffolds for GC-MS with proper sensitivity and without matrix effect. Then, the optimised procedure was determined as: the scaffolds were dissolved in DMF and kept at 90°C for 40 minutes, separated on a HP-5MS column, and detected by mass spectroscopy. Recovery experiments gave 97.9–100.7% recovery for 1,4-dioxane. The linear range for 1,4-dioxane was determined as 1–40 ppm with linear correlation coefficient ≥ 0.9999. Intraday and interday precision was determined as being within relative standard deviation of below 0.68%. The passable drying procedure was related to lyophilising (−50°C, 50 Pa the scaffolds for 2 days and drying in vacuum (50 Pa for 7 days. Conclusion: This is the first quantitative method established to test 1,4-dixoane in a novel scaffold. This method was validated with good accuracy and reproducibility, and met the methodological requirements of the Guideline 9101 documented in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan WBS No. 1.4.1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document describes the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project portion of the Hanford Strategic Plan for the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The SNF Project was established to evaluate and integrate the urgent risks associated with N-reactor fuel currently stored at the Hanford site in the K Basins, and to manage the transfer and disposition of other spent nuclear fuels currently stored on the Hanford site. An evaluation of alternatives for the expedited removal of spent fuels from the K Basin area was performed. Based on this study, a Recommended Path Forward for the K Basins was developed and proposed to the U.S. DOE

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan WBS No. 1.4.1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document describes the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project portion of the Hanford Strategic Plan for the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The SNF Project was established to evaluate and integrate the urgent risks associated with N-reactor fuel currently stored at the Hanford site in the K Basins, and to manage the transfer and disposition of other spent nuclear fuels currently stored on the Hanford site. An evaluation of alternatives for the expedited removal of spent fuels from the K Basin area was performed. Based on this study, a Recommended Path Forward for the K Basins was developed and proposed to the U.S. DOE.

  8. 2006 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Veterinary Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0808 - Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Bobby

    2006-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  9. 2011 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Diagnostic Medical Sonography Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0910 - Diagnostic Medical Sonography/Sonographer and Ultrasound)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Wanda; Wilson, Lesa

    2011-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  10. 2010 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Veterinary Technology. (Program CIP: 51.0808 - Veterinary/Animal Health Technology/Technician and Veterinary Assistant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Bobby; Sills, Kirby

    2010-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  11. Final Environmental Assessment for 2012-14 Capital Improvements Program (CIP) for Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (AFB), Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    but most of the andesite and basaltic flows were fo1med in the last 50 million years. The oldest rocks in the Tucson Basin ru·e the metavolcanic...Pinal Schist, fo1med approximately 1.7 billion years ago (U.S. Geological Smvey 2003). Some basaltic flows occmTed as early as 4 million years ago and...pe1mits. ACMs are a pruticulru· concem for demolition projects because of potential exposme of workers to hazardous fibers released into the air

  12. A curious case of the accretion-powered X-ray pulsar GX 1+4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Naik, Sachindra; Gupta, Shivangi

    2018-01-01

    We present detailed spectral and timing studies using a NuSTAR observation of GX 1+4 in 2015 October during an intermediate-intensity state. The measured spin period of 176.778 s is found to be one of the highest values since its discovery. In contrast to a broad sinusoidal-like pulse profile......, a peculiar sharp peak is observed in profiles below ∼25 keV. The profiles at higher energies are found to be significantly phase shifted compared to the soft X-ray profiles. Broad-band energy spectra of GX 1+4, obtained from NuSTAR and Swift observations, are described with various continuum models. Among...

  13. Study on the synthesis of dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate by catalytic hydrogenation of dimethyl terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yuanhua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of polymer industry,1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM occupies an important position especially for the synthesis of highly valued polyester products.In industry,CHDM is prepared from dimethyl terephthalate (DMT through a two-step hydrogenation process Palladium supported on magnesium oxide (Pd/MgO was prepared by animpregnation method and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD,transmission electron microscope (TEM and scan electron microscope (SEM.During the hydrogenation of DMT to synthesize dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate (DMCD,the as-prepared Pd/MgO was used as the catalyst with methyl acetate as the solvent.Under optimized reaction conditions (reaction temperature:180 ℃,reaction pressure:4.5 MPa,the conversion of DMT was 100% and the selectivity of DMCD was 99%.Such a catalyst shows a good potential in industrial applications.

  14. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of novel 1,4-benzothiazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay V. Dabholkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 2H,4H-2-[3,5-dimethyl-4-(substituted phenyl azo pyrazol-1-yl] carbonyl methyl-3-oxo-1,4-benzothiazine derivatives have been synthesized by the reaction of 2H,4H-2-hydrazino carbonyl methyl-3-oxo-1,4-benzothiazine with acetyl acetone derivatives using ultrasound in lesser time with higher yields. All the synthesized compounds were investigated for their antibacterial activities. The result indicated that the compounds show convincing activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus lactis when compared with standard drug (ampicillin trihydrate. These compounds were also synthesized by conventional method and their structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectral analyses and chemical reactions.

  15. One-electron reduction of 2- and 6-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone bioreductive alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, I.; Wardman, P.; Lin, T.S.; Sartorelli, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The semiquinones, Q.-, of derivatives of 2- and 6-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinones, some incorporating leaving groups with substituents such as CH 2 Br or CH 2 OCONHCH 3 , have been produced by radiolytic reduction of Q by (CH 3 )2COH radicals. The absorption spectra and decay kinetics of Q.- were all closely similar to that produced from 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, with no evidence for unimolecular elimination of a leaving group in the semiquinone form, but immediate loss of leaving group upon two-electron reduction of Q to the hydroquinone. The redox equilibria between Q/Q.- and O2/O2.- were characterized, and reduction potentials of the couples Q/Q.- in water at pH 7.6 were calculated. The implications of these observations for the use of these compounds as bioreductive alkylating agents or as radiosensitizers with potential selective activity toward hypoxic cells are discussed

  16. SM-like Higgs decay into two muons at 1.4 TeV CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, G

    2014-01-01

    The potential for measuring the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson decay into two muons at a 1.4 TeV CLIC e+e− collider is addressed in this paper, that was presented at ICHEP2014. The study is performed in the full Geant4 detector simulations of CLIC_ILD, taking into consideration all the relevant physics and the beam-induced background processes, as well as the instrumentation of the very forward region to tag forward electrons. In this analysis we show that the branching ratio BR(H-->mu+mu-) times the Higgs production cross-section can be measured with 38% statistical accuracy at √s =1.4 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 1.5 ab-1. This study is part of an ongoing comprehensive Higgs physics benchmark study covering various Higgs production processes and decay modes, currently being carried out to estimate the full Higgs physics potential of CLIC.

  17. Cancer Cell Cytotoxicities of 1-(4-Substitutedbenzoyl-4-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Yarim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 1-(4-substitutedbenzoyl-4-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine derivatives 5ag was designed by a nucleophilic substitution reaction of 1-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine with various benzoyl chlorides and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was demonstrated on cancer cell lines from liver (HUH7, FOCUS, MAHLAVU, HEPG2, HEP3B, breast (MCF7, BT20, T47D, CAMA-1, colon (HCT-116, gastric (KATO-3 and endometrial (MFE-296 cancer cell lines. Time-dependent cytotoxicity analysis of compound 5a indicated the long-term in situ stability of this compound. All compounds showed significant cell growth inhibitory activity on the selected cancer cell lines.

  18. Operation of a high-purity silicon diode alpha particle detector at 1. 4 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martoff, C.J.; Kaczanowicz, E. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Neuhauser, B.J.; Lopez, E.; Zhang, Y. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (USA)); Ziemba, F.P. (Quantrad Corp. (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Detection of alpha particles at temperatures as low as 1.4 K was demonstrated using a specially fabricated Si diode. The diode was 475 mm{sup 2} by 0.280 mm thick, fabricated from high-purity silicon with degenerately doped contacts. This is an important step toward development of dual-mode (ionization plus phonon) silicon detectors for low energy radiation. (orig.).

  19. Sigma-1 receptor agonists directly inhibit Nav1.2/1.4 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei Gao

    Full Text Available (+-SKF 10047 (N-allyl-normetazocine is a prototypic and specific sigma-1 receptor agonist that has been used extensively to study the function of sigma-1 receptors. (+-SKF 10047 inhibits K(+, Na(+ and Ca2+ channels via sigma-1 receptor activation. We found that (+-SKF 10047 inhibited Na(V1.2 and Na(V1.4 channels independently of sigma-1 receptor activation. (+-SKF 10047 equally inhibited Na(V1.2/1.4 channel currents in HEK293T cells with abundant sigma-1 receptor expression and in COS-7 cells, which barely express sigma-1 receptors. The sigma-1 receptor antagonists BD 1063,BD 1047 and NE-100 did not block the inhibitory effects of (+-SKF-10047. Blocking of the PKA, PKC and G-protein pathways did not affect (+-SKF 10047 inhibition of Na(V1.2 channel currents. The sigma-1 receptor agonists Dextromethorphan (DM and 1,3-di-o-tolyl-guanidine (DTG also inhibited Na(V1.2 currents through a sigma-1 receptor-independent pathway. The (+-SKF 10047 inhibition of Na(V1.2 currents was use- and frequency-dependent. Point mutations demonstrated the importance of Phe(1764 and Tyr(1771 in the IV-segment 6 domain of the Na(V1.2 channel and Phe(1579 in the Na(V1.4 channel for (+-SKF 10047 inhibition. In conclusion, our results suggest that sigma-1 receptor agonists directly inhibit Na(V1.2/1.4 channels and that these interactions should be given special attention for future sigma-1 receptor function studies.

  20. Electron-beam buncher to operate over the frequency range 1-4 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Arthur, A.A.; Flood, W.S.; Voelker, F.

    1983-03-01

    We present a description of an electron buncher to be installed in the terminal of a Van de Graaff, which is to produce a modulated beam over the frequency range 1-4 GHz. The modulator geometry has been optimized so that the modulation amplitude should be nearly constant over the frequency ranges 1-2 GHz and 2-4 GHz. Preliminary results indicate the device works as predicted

  1. The study of variations and environmental applications "1"4C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of the presented thesis is to explain experimentally observed "1"4C variations in the outer atmosphere. Physical models have been developed to quantify directly immeasurable phenomena relevant in the field of radiocarbon dynamics. Namely atmospheric stability, "1"4C transport from the stratosphere to the lower troposphere and fossil carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Finally these models have been used as the pillars of the united theory of Δ"1"4C dynamics. Besides the presented main theoretical outputs, this thesis also provides couple of potentially implementable by-products. First of them is a method to evaluate so called 'equivalent mixing height' and turbulent diffusion coefficient using temporal changes of "2"2"2Rn concentration in the boundary layer of the atmosphere. The elaborated mathematical apparatus for the evaluation of aerosol scavenging by raindrops can be utilized in the models of pollutant dispersion. Information on turbulent diffusion coefficient at higher atmospheric levels is important for the models of stratospheric and ozonospheric dynamics. Nowadays, when one can measure and even feel the greenhouse effect consequences, the importance of an independent method for carbon dioxide fossil emissions assessment is obvious. Besides theoretical outcome, the thesis also presents experimental results. A network of CO_2 sampling sites has been established in Bratislava and the outskirts in the vicinity of the town. Together with mountain site Chopok the network brought a unique information on "1"4C distribution. Atmospheric measurements of "7Be and "2"2"2Rn activity are also presented here. Finally the PC codes have been developed to bridge a gap between experimental and theoretical results. (author)

  2. Electron transfer in DNA duplexes containing 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, François; Houde, Daniel; Hunting, Darel J.; Wagner, J. Richard

    2004-01-01

    2-Methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione, MQ) was linked to synthetic oligonucleotides and exposed to near-UV light to generate base radical cations in DNA. This model system of electron transfer induced alkali-labile breaks at GG doublets, similar to anthraquinone and metallointercalators systems. In sharp contrast to other systems, the photolysis of MQ–DNA duplexes gave interstrand cross-links and alkali-labile breaks at bases on the complementary strand opposite the MQ moiety. For sequences ...

  3. The Phraseocheme "Was Für + Sub1-4!" in the System of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia D. Melnik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the description of the phraseological syntax of the modern German language «Was für + Sub1-4!». The relevance of the study is due to the insufficient study of this subject, but also to its high relevance for the practice of communication. The following methods were used in the research: descriptive, method of component analysis of the semantic structure of the sentence, syntactic modeling, phraseological analysis, transformation method, and also the method of etymological, contextual and discursive analysis. The phrase «Was für + Sub1-4!» is described in the structural, semantic, etymological, paradigmatic, syntagmatic, stylistic, phraseological and functional aspects. The article substantiates the phraseological status of the given phrase-scheme and its belonging to the phraseological subsystem of the language. It is established that the phraseological scheme has two obligatory components (unchangeable and variable, characterized by signs of reproducibility, structural and semantic stability and integrity, idiomatic and expressive, possesses an unchangeable structure serving as a model for constructing similar propositions. In general, the phraseology «Was für + Sub1-4!» is quite frequent in the practice of communication, which is due to its systemic and functional characteristics. Its use in colloquial speech increases the effectiveness of the communication process, gives it a relaxed character.

  4. ZINClick: a database of 16 million novel, patentable, and readily synthesizable 1,4-disubstituted triazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarotti, Alberto; Brunco, Angelo; Sorba, Giovanni; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2014-02-24

    Since Professors Sharpless, Finn, and Kolb first introduced the concept of "click reactions" in 2001 as powerful tools in drug discovery, 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles have become important in medicinal chemistry due to the simultaneous discovery by Sharpless, Fokin, and Meldal of a perfect click 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between azides and alkynes catalyzed by copper salts. Because of their chemical features, these triazoles are proposed to be aggressive pharmacophores that participate in drug-receptor interactions while maintaining an excellent chemical and metabolic profile. Surprisingly, no virtual libraries of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles have been generated for the systematic investigation of the click-chemical space. In this manuscript, a database of triazoles called ZINClick is generated from literature-reported alkynes and azides that can be synthesized within three steps from commercially available products. This combinatorial database contains over 16 million 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles that are easily synthesizable, new, and patentable! The structural diversity of ZINClick ( http://www.symech.it/ZINClick ) will be explored. ZINClick will also be compared to other available databases, and its application during the design of novel bioactive molecules containing triazole nuclei will be discussed.

  5. Electronic structure and UV spectra of N-arylthio-1,4-benzoquinone imines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirozhenko, V.V.; Boldeskul, I.E.; Kolesnikov, V.T.; Vid, L.V.; Kuz'menko, L.O.

    1986-01-01

    The electronic structure of N-arylthio-1,4-benzoquinone imines (II) was studied by quantum-chemical methods (CNDO/2). It was shown that the special characteristics of the reactivity of the compounds in reaction with chlorine compared with sulfenylketimines R 2 C=N-S-Ar not containing a quinonoid ring may be due to the different nature of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO). The UV spectra of compounds (II) were investigated. In the visible region the spectra of all the compounds contain strong absorption (R 1 = R 2 = R 3 = R 4 = R 5 = H, λ/sub m/ = 433 nm, epsilon/sub m/ = 2.12 x 10 4 liters/mole x cm), due to intramolecular charge transfer from the sulfur atom to the quinonoid fragment of the molecule. It was established that there is a linear relation between the energy of the transition and the σ + constants of the substituents in the aryl fragment. The assignment of the transitions was confirmed by calculations of the UV spectra of N-arylthio-1,4-benzoquinone imines by the PPP method. Comparison of the UV spectra of these compounds with the UV spectra of N-arylsulfonyl-1,4-benzoquinone imines makes it possible to conclude that the sulfur atom of the SO 2 group, unlike the divalent sulfur atom, is not capable of transmitting the electronic effects of the substituents from one part of the molecule to the other

  6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luqian; Huang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies were performed to assess the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. In the present study, the possible association was investigated by a meta-analysis. Eligible articles were identified for the period up to June 2013. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were appropriately derived from random-effects models or fixed-effects models. Fourteen case-control studies with a total of 2487 cases and 3538 controls were eligible. In recessive model, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was associated with T2DM risk (OR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.07-1.41; P = 0.004). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant association was found among Asians (OR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.08-1.51; P = 0.005). This meta-analysis suggested that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may be associated with T2DM development. PMID:24040470

  7. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Activity of Esters of Quinoxaline 1,4-Di-N-Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Palos

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to be a public health problem in the world, and drug resistance has been a major obstacle in its treatment. Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide has been proposed as a scaffold to design new drugs to combat this disease. To examine the efficacy of this compound, this study evaluates methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and n-propyl esters of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (pansusceptible and monoresistant strains. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of esters of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide on M. tuberculosis gyrase supercoiling was examined, and a stability analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was also carried out. Results showed that eight compounds (T-007, T-018, T-011, T-069, T-070, T-072, T-085 and T-088 had an activity similar to that of the reference drug isoniazid (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 0.12 µg/mL with an effect on nonreplicative cells and drug monoresistant strains. Structural activity relationship analysis showed that the steric effect of an ester group at 7-position is key to enhancing its biological effects. Additionally, T-069 showed a high stability after 24 h in human plasma at 37 °C.

  8. Hydrate phase equilibria of furan, acetone, 1,4-dioxane, TBAC and TBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran-Pirzaman, Arash; Pahlavanzadeh, Hassan; Mohammadi, Amir H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental hydrate dissociation conditions are reported for CO 2 /methane + some water soluble/insoluble hydrate formers. • An isochoric pressure-search method was used to generate the experimental data. • The data are compared with the corresponding literature data in the presence of pure water. • The hydrate promotion effects of acetone, 1,4-dioxane, furan, TBAC and TBAF are discussed. -- Abstract: In this communication, we first report experimental hydrate dissociation pressures for the methane/carbon dioxide + furan/acetone/1,4-dioxane + water and the methane + tetra n-butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) + water as well as the carbon dioxide + tetra n-butyl ammonium floride (TBAF) + water systems in the temperature ranges of (269.9 to 303.3) K. An isochoric pressure-search method was used to generate the experimental data. The hydrate dissociation data are compared with the corresponding literature data, if exists, and the literature data in the presence of pure water and acceptable agreement is observed. A discussion is made on hydrate promotion effects of acetone, 1,4-dioxane, furan, TBAC and TBAF

  9. NuSTAR Observation of the Symbiotic System GX 1+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Enoto, Teruaki; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wood, Kent

    2017-08-01

    We report on a NuSTAR observation of the symbiotic binary system GX 1+4. GX 1+4 is one of a small number of systems with a red giant mass donor and a magnetic neutron star in orbit around each other. The accreting pulsar in GX 1+4 has a spin period of ~150 seconds with epochs of both spin-up and spin-down. The orbital period that has not been determined. Magnetic accretion theory in such systems suggests that the neutron star has a magnetic field in the range 1013-1014 Gauss although this is not settled because no cyclotron absorption feature has been observed in the X-ray spectrum. The NuSTAR spectrum shows broad Fe-line emission near ~6.5 keV and also shows a broad power law shape detected up to ~60 keV. We analyze and discuss the NuSTAR X-ray data with particular attention to the question of what can the spectrum tell us about the structure of the accretion flow onto the neutron star and the magnetic field strength.

  10. D 1.4.1. Review of Scientific Literature on Performance, Innovation and Management of Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van R.L.M.; Immink, V.M.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the Work package 1.4 INNOCHAIN (WP1.4) of ISAfruit is to develop a conceptual framework of the mechanisms underlying supply chain management, in particular chain innovativeness, of the European supply chains in such a way that performance can be maximized. The results of WP1.4 will

  11. Nonlinear FE Analysis for PCCV 1/4 Model using NUCAS Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hong-Pyo; Song, Young-Chul; Choun, Young Sun

    2007-01-01

    During the several years, ultimate pressure analysis as well as failure mode evaluations of containment building in nuclear power plant have been carried out in KAERI. In this point of view, the program NUCAS (NUclear Containment Analysis System) code, which is FE (Finite Element) program with the sole purpose of evaluating ultimate pressure capacity of PSC containment building, was developed to predict nonlinear behavior. The main objective of this paper is to verify the performance of the program's solid element

  12. Characterization of newly isolated Pseudonocardia sp. N23 with high 1,4-dioxane-degrading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Norifumi; Saito, Yuji; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Ike, Michihiko

    2018-01-02

    This study was conducted to elucidate the 1,4-dioxane degradation characteristics of a newly isolated 1,4-dioxane-degrading bacterial strain and evaluate the applicability of the strain to biological 1,4-dioxane removal from wastewater. A bacterial strain (designated strain N23) capable of degrading 1,4-dioxane as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from an enrichment culture prepared from 1,4-dioxane-contaminated groundwater. Strain N23 was phylogenetically identified as belonging to the genus Pseudonocardia, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. 1,4-Dioxane degradation experiments revealed that strain N23 is capable of constitutive 1,4-dioxane degradation. Further, this strain exhibited the highest specific 1,4-dioxane degradation rate of 0.230 mg-1,4-dioxane (mg-protein) -1  h -1 among 1,4-dioxane-degrading bacteria with constitutively expressed degrading enzymes reported to date. In addition, strain N23 was shown to degrade up to 1100 mg L -1 of 1,4-dioxane without significant inhibition, and to maintain a high level of 1,4-dioxane degradation activity under a wide pH (pH 3.8-8.2) and temperature (20-35 °C) range. In particular, the specific 1,4-dioxane degradation rate, even at pH 3.8, was 83% of the highest rate at pH 7.0. In addition, strain N23 was capable of utilizing ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol, which are both considered to be present in 1,4-dioxane-containing industrial wastewater, as the sole carbon source. The present results indicate that strain N23 exhibits the potential for 1,4-dioxane removal from industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelaje Molecular de E-1-[4’-(3-(sustituido) acriloil) fenil]-3-tosilureas

    OpenAIRE

    León, Caritza; Colman, Trina; Domínguez, José

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan resultados del estudio de modelado molecular de una serie de compuestos del tipo E-1-[4’-(3-(sustituido) acriloil)fenil]-3- tosilureas, para las cuales se ha reportado actividad antimalárica como inhibidores del desarrollo in vitro de cepas de P. falciparum resistentes a la Cloroquina. El estudio revela que los compuestos más activos biológicamente muestran una clara superposición en el fragmento comprendido entre el carbono carbonilo del sistema α,β-insaturado y el átomo de azuf...

  14. Synthesis and Anticancer Activities of Novel 1,4-Disubstituted Phthalazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Gong

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 1-anilino-4-(arylsulfanylmethylphthalazines were designed and synthesized. The structures of all the compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, elemental analysis and MS. The analogues 1-(3-chloro-4-fluoroanilino-4-(3,4- difluorophenylthio-methylphthalazine (12 and 1-(4-fluoro-3-trifluoromethylanilino-4- (3,4-difluorophenyl-thiomethylphthalazine (13 showed higher activity than a cisplatin control when tested in vitro against two different cancer cell lines using the microculture tetrazolium method (MTT method.

  15. Indomethacin solubility estimation in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures by the extended hildebrand solubility approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller A Ruidiaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA was successfully applied to evaluate the solubility of Indomethacin in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures at 298.15 K. An acceptable correlation-performance of EHSA was found by using a regular polynomial model in order four of the W interaction parameter vs. solubility parameter of the mixtures (overall deviation was 8.9%. Although the mean deviation obtained was similar to that obtained directly by means of an empiric regression of the experimental solubility vs. mixtures solubility parameters, the advantages of EHSA are evident because it requires physicochemical properties easily available for drugs.

  16. Tests and analyses of 1/4-scale upgraded nine-bay reinforced concrete basement models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodson, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Two nine-bay prototype structures, a flat plate and two-way slab with beams, were designed in accordance with the 1977 ACI code. A 1/4-scale model of each prototype was constructed, upgraded with timber posts, and statically tested. The development of the timber posts placement scheme was based upon yield-line analyses, punching shear evaluation, and moment-thrust interaction diagrams of the concrete slab sections. The flat plate model and the slab with beams model withstood approximate overpressures of 80 and 40 psi, respectively, indicating that required hardness may be achieved through simple upgrading techniques

  17. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ACETYLCYSTEINE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS USING 2,3-DICHLORO-1,4-NAPTHOQUINONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Donchenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was the development and validation ofspectrophotometric method foracetylcysteine assay in pharmaceutical formulations.Тhe proposed method is based on the reaction with 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone and the formation of colored products that exhibit absorption maxima at 425 nm. Introduction Many analytical methods have been published for acetylcysteine assay in pharmaceutical formulations as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, fluorimetry and chemiluminescence. Some of these methods are time consuming or require expensive equipment. Other published methods suffer from lack of selectivity and sensitivity. Spectrophotometry is the most widely used technique in pharmaceutical analysis because it is simple, economic, and easily available to most quality control laboratories. In the present work, we propose a simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for acetylcysteine assay in pharmaceutical formulations. Materials and Methods Reagents: Reference standard acetylcysteinesubstance; 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone. All chemicals and solvents were of analytical grade. DMFA was used as a solvent. Pharmaceutical preparations:powder for oral solution «ACC 200» 200 mgseries number50026151 (Salutas Pharma CmbH, Germany; effervescent tablets «Fluimucil» 600 mg (Zambon S.P.A., Italy and «ACC LONG» 600 mg (Salutas Pharma CmbH, Germany series numbers 321284 and DH2740; solution for injections «Fluimucil» 100 mg/ml (Zambon S.P.A., Italyseries number28002492. Solutions: Acetylcysteine stock solution (0,16%; DMFAsolution of 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (4%. Equipment Analytical balance (ABT-120-5DM; UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Specord 200; water bath (MemmertWNB 7-45;quartz cells. Results Acetylcysteine was determined using a spectrophotometric method based on the reaction with 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone to form yellow colored reaction products with absorption maxima at 425 nm. The effect of reaction time and

  18. Synthesis, Anticonvulsant, Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities of Novel Annulated Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaraswamy Sorra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Four new pentacyclic benzodiazepine derivatives (PBDTs 13–16 were synthesized by conventional thermal heating and microwave-assisted intramolecular cyclocondensation. Their anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic activities were evaluated by drug-induced convulsion models, a pentobarbital-induced hypnotic model and an elevated plus maze in mice. PBDT 13, a triazolopyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepin-8-one fused with a thiadiazolone ring, exhibited the best anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic effects in our tests. There was no significant difference in potency between PBDT 13 and diazepam, and we proposed that the action mechanism of PBDT 13 could be similar to that of diazepam via benzodiazepine receptors.

  19. 1,4-Benzodiazepine N-Nitrosoamidines: Useful Intermediates in the Synthesis of Tricyclic Benzodiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos del Pozo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available 1,4-Benzodiazepine N-nitrosoamidines have been used as scaffolds for the preparation of different tricyclic derivatives. Replacement of the N-nitrosoamidine moiety through treatment with the nucleophiles acetylhydrazine, aminoacetaldehyde dimethylacetal and 1-amino-2-propanol, followed by an acid-catalyzed cyclization step, afforded triazolo and imidazobenzodiazepines 1, 6, and 7, respectively, in good yields. When acetylhydrazine is used as a nucleophile, the overall process provides an alternative route to alprazolam (1b and triazolam (1c, respectively.

  20. Crystal structure of 2-bromo-1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Furukawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to brominate 1,4-dipropoxy-9,10-anthraquinone, a mixture of products, including the title compound, C14H7BrO4, was obtained. The molecule is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.029 Å and two intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds occur. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, Br...O contacts [3.240 (5 Å], and π–π stacking interactions [shortest centroid–centroid separation = 3.562 (4 Å], generating a three-dimensional network.

  1. MELCOR modeling of the PBF [Power Burst Facility] Severe Fuel Damage Test 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a MELCOR Version 1.8 simulation of the Power Burst Facility (PBF) Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) Test 1--4. The input data for the analysis were obtained from the Test Results Report and from SCDAP/RELAP5 input. Results are presented for the transient liquid level in the test bundle, clad temperatures, shroud temperatures, clad oxidation and hydrogen generation, bundle geometry changes, fission product release, and heat transfer to the bypass flow. Comparisons are made with experimental data and with SCDAP/RELAP5 calculations. 10 refs., 7 figs

  2. S-phase Specific Downregulation of Human O6-Methylguanine DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT and its Serendipitous Interactions with PCNA and p21cip1 Proteins in Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGM Mostofa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether the antimutagenic DNA repair protein MGMT works solo in human cells and if it has other cellular functions is not known. Here, we show that human MGMT associates with PCNA and in turn, with the cell cycle inhibitor, p21cip1 in glioblastoma and other cancer cell lines. MGMT protein was shown to harbor a nearly perfect PCNA-Interacting Protein (PIP box motif. Isogenic p53-null H1299 cells were engineered to express the p21 protein by two different procedures. Reciprocal immunoprecipitation/western blotting, Far-western blotting, and confocal microscopy confirmed the specific association of MGMT with PCNA and the ability of p21 to strongly disrupt the MGMT-PCNA complexes in tumor cells. Alkylation DNA damage resulted in a greater colocalization of MGMT and PCNA proteins, particularly in HCT116 cells deficient in p21 expression. p21 expression in isogenic cell lines directly correlated with markedly higher levels of MGMT mRNA, protein, activity and greater resistance to alkylating agents. In other experiments, four glioblastoma cell lines synchronized at the G1/S phase using either double thymidine or thymidine-mimosine blocks and subsequent cycling consistently showed a loss of MGMT protein at mid- to late S-phase, irrespective of the cell line, suggesting such a downregulation is fundamental to cell cycle control. MGMT protein was also specifically degraded in extracts from S-phase cells and evidence strongly suggested the involvement of PCNA-dependent CRL4Cdt2 ubiquitin-ligase in the reaction. Overall, these data provide the first evidence for non-repair functions of MGMT in cell cycle and highlight the involvement of PCNA in MGMT downregulation, with p21 attenuating the process.

  3. Fragmentation, labeling and biodistribution studies of KS1/4, a monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, an IgG2a (KS1/4), a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specific against a human lung adenocarcinoma (UCLA P-3) was successfully fragmented enzymatically to yield F(ab') 2 and Fab by using pepsin and papain, respectively. The kinetic of fragmentation of the MoAb was compared to that of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). A similar pattern of fragmentation was observed with both antibodies with a higher percentage yield of the F(ab') 2 and Fab obtained upon the fragmentation of the IgG by the enzymes. The KS1/4 and the two fragments were labeled with three different radionuclides, namely iodine-131, indium-111 and selenium-75. The radioiodination of the MoAb and the fragments was carried out by using a modified chloramine-T method. Radiometal labeling of the MoAb and the fragments with indium-111 was performed by using DTPA as a bifunctional chelating agent, while intrinsic labeling of the MoAb was done by culturing the hybridoma in the presence of 75 Se-methionine. The biodistribution of the radiolabeled MoAb, F(ab') 2 and Fab fragments were performed by injecting the preparations intravenously into nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma

  4. A major electronics upgrade for the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescopes 1-4

    CERN Document Server

    Giavitto, G; Balzer, A.; Berge, D.; Brun, F.; Chaminade, T.; Delagnes, E.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Gräber, T.; Hinton, J.A.; Jahnke, A.; Klepser, S.; Kossatz, M.; Kretzschmann, A.; Lefranc, V.; Leich, H.; Lüdecke, H.; Manigot, P.; Marandon, V.; Moulin, E.; de, M.; Nayman, P.; Penno, M.; Ross, D.; Salek, D.; Schade, M.; Schwab, T.; Simoni, R.; Stegmann, C.; Thornhill, J.; Toussenel, F.

    2015-01-01

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) located in the Khomas Highland in Namibia. It consists of four 12-m telescopes (CT1-4), which started operations in 2003, and a 28-m diameter one (CT5), which was brought online in 2012. It is the only IACT system featuring telescopes of different sizes, which provides sensitivity for gamma rays across a very wide energy range, from ~30 GeV up to ~100 TeV. Since the camera electronics of CT1-4 are much older than the one of CT5, an upgrade is being carried out; first deployment was in 2015, full operation is planned for 2016. The goals of this upgrade are threefold: reducing the dead time of the cameras, improving the overall performance of the array and reducing the system failure rate related to aging. Upon completion, the upgrade will assure the continuous operation of H.E.S.S. at its full sensitivity until and possibly beyond the advent of CTA. In the design of the new components, several CTA con...

  5. Rotational excitation of N2 by electron impact: 1-4 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.F.; Dube, L.

    1978-01-01

    Rotational and rotational-vibrational (v = 0 → 1) excitation in N 2 have been studied with a crossed-beam electron-impact apparatus. In the energy range 1-4 eV, the elastic and vibrational energy-loss peaks show large rotational broadening compared with the apparatus profile (full width at half-maximum, 18 meV). The branching ratios for rotational transitions with Δj = 0, +- 2, +- 4 are obtained with a line-shape analysis applied to the energy-loss profiles. The results for rotational-vibrational excitation at 2.27 eV and scattering angles 30-90 0 are in good agreement with the calculations using the resonant dπ waves and the rotational impulse approximation. The corresponding results for pure rotational excitation show that the branches with Δj = +- 2 and +- 4 are predominantly excited via resonances, while the branch with Δj = 0 contains a large contribution from direct scattering. The absolute rotational cross sections for Δj = +- 4 are measured; they exhibit a large magnitude (10 -16 cm 2 ) and peak and valley structures in the 1-4 eV range, reminiscent of well-known resonant vibrational excitation. The energy dependence and the absolute magnitude of the rotational cross sections for Δj = +- 4 can be understood in terms of a ''boomerang'' calculation. A comparison of the experiment with the relevant theoretical calculations is made

  6. Field note: irrigation of tree stands with groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Ari M; Tammi, Carl E

    2009-07-01

    Coniferous and deciduous tree stands totaling 14 ha were recently planted on a closed landfill, and when mature, the stands are expected to be part of a natural treatment system for recovered groundwater. The trees would be irrigated at the rate of 189 L/min year-round with water containing 1,4-dioxane (trees. The water is moderately saline and contains elevated levels of manganese. This paper describes a concurrent series of preliminary studies, performed prior to the full-scale planting, to assess the feasibility of the phytoremediation system. Greenhouse experiments were carried out to identify tree species that can take up 1,4-dioxane and are tolerant of the water. Estimates were made of the area of the tree stand necessary to transpire the irrigation water plus precipitation. The landfill matrix was characterized in terms of its percolation rate and water holding capacity and based on those results salinity-modeling studies were carried out to estimate the fate and leaching potential of the various inorganic species that would accumulate in the root-zone of the trees. A pilot study, currently in progress on the landfill, suggested that the landfill cap is a suitable matrix for the establishment of large trees, and that the stands could be irrigated without the production of excess drainage.

  7. Degradation of 1,4-dioxane by biochar supported nano magnetite particles activating persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Da; Yan, Jingchun; Qian, Linbo; Chen, Yun; Han, Lu; Su, Anqi; Zhang, Wenying; Ni, Hao; Chen, Mengfang

    2017-10-01

    Nano magnetite biochar composite (nFe 3 O 4 /biochar) was synthesized and used to activate persulfate for the degradation of 1,4-dioxane. Analytical techniques using X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that nFe 3 O 4 was spherical and successfully loaded onto the surface of biochar. The results of batch-scale experiments illustrated that the 1,4-dioxane degradation efficiency in aqueous phase was 98.0% after 120 min reaction with the composite mass ratio of 1:1 between nFe 3 O 4 and the pine needle biochar pyrolyzed at 400 °C (P400) under the initial neutral pH. An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study, free radical quenching experiment and XPS analysis were undertaken to illustrate the mechanism of persulfate activation by nFe 3 O 4 /biochar. Under acidic and neutral conditions, the predominant free radical was SO 4 - whereas OH and SO 4 - predominated when the initial pH was 9.0. The XPS analysis indicated that Fe(II) and oxygenated functional groups activated persulfate. In addition, carbon-carbon double bonds would be transformed into ketone and quinone which could activate persulfate during the reaction. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  9. Structure of the Nav1.4-β1 Complex from Electric Eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen; Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Lin; Wu, Jianping; Zhao, Yanyu; Huang, Gaoxingyu; Peng, Wei; Shen, Huaizong; Lei, Jianlin; Yan, Nieng

    2017-07-27

    Voltage-gated sodium (Na v ) channels initiate and propagate action potentials. Here, we present the cryo-EM structure of EeNa v 1.4, the Na v channel from electric eel, in complex with the β1 subunit at 4.0 Å resolution. The immunoglobulin domain of β1 docks onto the extracellular L5 I and L6 IV loops of EeNa v 1.4 via extensive polar interactions, and the single transmembrane helix interacts with the third voltage-sensing domain (VSD III ). The VSDs exhibit "up" conformations, while the intracellular gate of the pore domain is kept open by a digitonin-like molecule. Structural comparison with closed Na v PaS shows that the outward transfer of gating charges is coupled to the iris-like pore domain dilation through intricate force transmissions involving multiple channel segments. The IFM fast inactivation motif on the III-IV linker is plugged into the corner enclosed by the outer S4-S5 and inner S6 segments in repeats III and IV, suggesting a potential allosteric blocking mechanism for fast inactivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. GOOSE Version 1.4: A powerful object-oriented simulation environment for developing reactor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nypaver, D.J.; March-Leuba, C.; Abdalla, M.A.; Guimaraes, L.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype software package for a fully interactive Generalized Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (GOOSE) is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dynamic models are easily constructed and tested; fully interactive capabilities allow the user to alter model parameters and complexity without recompilation. This environment provides assess to powerful tools such as numerical integration packages, graphical displays, and online help. In GOOSE, portability has been achieved by creating the environment in Objective-C 1 , which is supported by a variety of platforms including UNIX and DOS. GOOSE Version 1.4 introduces new enhancements like the capability of creating ''initial,'' ''dynamic,'' and ''digital'' methods. The object-oriented approach to simulation used in GOOSE combines the concept of modularity with the additional features of allowing precompilation, optimization, testing, and validation of individual modules. Once a library of classes has been defined and compiled, models can be built and modified without recompilation. GOOSE Version 1.4 is primarily command-line driven

  11. ADAMS/WT advanced development - version 1.4 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, A.S.; Depauw, T.R. [Mechanical Dynamics, Inc., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    ADAMS/WT is an wind-turbine-specific shell for the general-purpose mechanical system simulation package ADAMS5. It was developed under the guidance of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to give engineers and analysts in the wind turbine community access to the analytical power of ADAMS, without having to become expert in its particular technology. The 1.4 version of ADAMS/WT is the most recent upgrade to the package, incorporating the most up-to-date version of the AeroDyn aerodynamic forcing subroutines from the University of Utah. It is also the first version to be made available on the Windows/NT platform. In version 1.4, ADAMS/WT has been significantly improved throughout and runs much faster. Automatic generation of standardized output has been added. The documentation has been extensively augmented with more detailed descriptions, more figures and more examples. ADAMS/WT remains the most powerful analytical tool available for horizontal-axis wind turbine development. 10 figs.

  12. Reactivity initiated accident test series Test RIA 1-4 fuel behavior report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.A.; Martinson, Z.R.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents and discusses results from the final test in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series, Test RIA 1-4, conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Nine preirradiated fuel rods in a 3 x 3 bundle configuration were subjected to a power burst while at boiling water reactor hot-startup system conditions. The test resulted in estimated axial peak, radial average fuel enthalpies of 234 cal/g UO 2 on the center rod, 255 cal/g UO 2 on the side rods, and 277 cal/g UO 2 on the corner rods. Test RIA 1-4 was conducted to investigate fuel coolability and channel blockage within a bundle of preirradiated rods near the present enthalpy limit of 280 cal/g UO 2 established by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The test design and conduct are described, and the bundle and individual rod thermal and mechanical responses are evaluated. Conclusions from this final test and the entire PBF RIA Test Series are presented

  13. Effect of mutations on the thermostability of Aspergillus aculeatus β-1, 4-galactanase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terpenholt, Søs; De Maria, Leonardo; Olsson, Mats H.M.

    2015-01-01

    New variants of β-1,4-galactanase from the mesophilic organism Aspergillus aculeatus were designed using the structure of β-1,4-galactanase from the thermophile organism Myceliophthora thermophila as a template. Some of the variants were generated using PROPKA 3.0, a validated pKa prediction tool......, to test its usefulness as an enzyme design tool. The PROPKA designed variants were D182N and S185D/Q188T, G104D/A156R. Variants Y295F and G306A were designed by a consensus approach, as a complementary and validated design method. D58N was a stabilizing mutation predicted by both methods. The predictions......R. The Tm changes were in the range predicted by PROPKA. Given the experimental errors, only the D58N and G306A show significant increase in thermodynamic stability. Given the practical importance of kinetic stability, the kinetics of the irreversible enzyme inactivation process were also...

  14. Radio variability in the Phoenix Deep Survey at 1.4 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P. J.; Drury, J. A.; Bell, M. E.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use archival data from the Phoenix Deep Survey to investigate the variable radio source population above 1 mJy beam-1 at 1.4 GHz. Given the similarity of this survey to other such surveys we take the opportunity to investigate the conflicting results which have appeared in the literature. Two previous surveys for variability conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) achieved a sensitivity of 1 mJy beam-1. However, one survey found an areal density of radio variables on time-scales of decades that is a factor of ˜4 times greater than a second survey which was conducted on time-scales of less than a few years. In the Phoenix deep field we measure the density of variable radio sources to be ρ = 0.98 deg-2 on time-scales of 6 months to 8 yr. We make use of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared cross-ids, and identify all variable sources as an active galactic nucleus of some description. We suggest that the discrepancy between previous VLA results is due to the different time-scales probed by each of the surveys, and that radio variability at 1.4 GHz is greatest on time-scales of 2-5 yr.

  15. A curious case of the accretion-powered X-ray pulsar GX 1+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Naik, Sachindra; Gupta, Shivangi; Chenevez, Jérôme; Epili, Prahlad

    2018-04-01

    We present detailed spectral and timing studies using a NuSTAR observation of GX 1+4 in October 2015 during an intermediate intensity state. The measured spin period of 176.778 s is found to be one of the highest values since its discovery. In contrast to a broad sinusoidal-like pulse profile, a peculiar sharp peak is observed in profiles below ˜25 keV. The profiles at higher energies are found to be significantly phase-shifted compared to the soft X-ray profiles. Broadband energy spectra of GX 1+4, obtained from NuSTAR and Swift observations, are described with various continuum models. Among these, a two component model consisting of a bremsstrahlung and a blackbody component is found to best-fit the phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra. Physical models are also used to investigate the emission mechanism in the pulsar, which allows us to estimate the magnetic field strength to be in ˜(5-10)× 1012 G range. Phase-resolved spectroscopy of NuSTAR observation shows a strong blackbody emission component in a narrow pulse phase range. This component is interpreted as the origin of the peculiar peak in the pulse profiles below ≤25 keV. The size of emitting region is calculated to be ˜400 m. The bremsstrahlung component is found to dominate in hard X-rays and explains the nature of simple profiles at high energies.

  16. 1.4D quasistatic profile model of transport in a field-reversed configuration (FRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    Global confinement models are useful for determining how a given transport mechanism (dependent on local parameters) translates into global confinement times. Such models are also useful for inferring the overall magnitudes of transport rates, and limited information about their spatial profiles. They are especially important in a field reversed configuration (FRC) where the equilibrium and transport rates are so intimately coupled, and where the flux loss time is such an important factor. An earlier global FRC confinement model, sometimes called QUASI, was based on the assumption of a quasi-steady equilibrium. The equilibrium was assumed to have square-ends with some features of 2D equilibria: (1) equal pressure on inner and outer branches of the flux lines; and (2) average-beta relation. Models of this type have been called 1-1/4D transport models. The same general approach has now been applied in a straightforward way to an equilibrium with realistic axial structure. This might be called a 1.4D quasisteady transport model. The assumed axial structure can be that of an analytic equilibrium, or a more complicated computed equilibrium as desired. The example used here is an elongated Hill's vortex equilibrium. As will be shown later, the equilibrium is reflected by two integral quantities that appear in the quasistatic diffusion equation

  17. The clinical toxicology of γ-hydroxybutyrate, γ-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Knudsen, Kai; Slaughter, Robin J; Vale, J Allister; Mégarbane, Bruno

    2012-07-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), are drugs of abuse which act primarily as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. In recent years, the rising recreational use of these drugs has led to an increasing burden upon health care providers. Understanding their toxicity is therefore essential for the successful management of intoxicated patients. We review the epidemiology, mechanisms of toxicity, toxicokinetics, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of poisoning due to GHB and its analogs and discuss the features and management of GHB withdrawal. OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were searched using the terms "GHB," "gamma-hydroxybutyrate," "gamma-hydroxybutyric acid," "4-hydroxybutanoic acid," "sodium oxybate," "gamma-butyrolactone," "GBL," "1,4-butanediol," and "1,4-BD" alone and in combination with the keywords "pharmacokinetics," "kinetics," "poisoning," "poison," "toxicity," "ingestion," "adverse effects," "overdose," and "intoxication." In addition, bibliographies of identified articles were screened for additional relevant studies including nonindexed reports. Non-peer-reviewed sources were also included: books, relevant newspaper reports, and applicable Internet resources. These searches produced 2059 nonduplicate citations of which 219 were considered relevant. There is limited information regarding statistical trends on world-wide use of GHB and its analogs. European data suggests that the use of GHB is generally low; however, there is some evidence of higher use among some sub-populations, settings, and geographical areas. In the United States of America, poison control center data have shown that enquiries regarding GHB have decreased between 2002 and 2010 suggesting a decline in use over this timeframe. GHB is an endogenous neurotransmitter synthesized from glutamate with a high affinity for GHB-receptors, present on both on pre- and postsynaptic neurons, thereby

  18. 1,4,7,10-tetra(dihydroxy phosphoryl methyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraaza cyclododecane as a complexone for binding of copper(2), cobalt(2), cadmium(2) and lanthanum(3) cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabachnik, M.I.; Medved', T.Ya.; Pisareva, S.A.; Bel'skij, F.I.

    1984-01-01

    The 1, 4, 7, 10 - tetra(dihydroxyohosphoryl methyl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraaza cyclododecane complexone more efficient in binding Cd(2), La(3), Cu(2), Co(2), Pb(2) cations than all the known complexones, is suggested. The complexone is prepared by 1, 4, 7, 10-teraaza cyclododecane chlorhydrate interaction with phormaline and phosphorous acid in the acidic medium with the yield of 60%

  19. 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE). Screening-Level Feasibility Assessment and Design Tool in Support of 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) ESTCP Project ER 201326

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    USER GUIDE 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) Screening-Level Feasibility Assessment and Design Tool in...Support of 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) ESTCP Project ER-201326 OCTOBER 2017 Rob Hinchee Integrated Science...Technology, Inc. 1509 Coastal Highway Panacea, FL 32346 8/8/2013 - 8/8/2018 10-2017 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) Screening

  20. Metabolism of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate by a soluble enzyme fraction from pea (Pisum sativum) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobak, B.K.; Watkins, P.A.C.; Roberts, K.; Chattaway, J.A.; Dawson, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Metabolism of the putative messenger molecule D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P 3 ] in plant cells has been studied using a soluble fraction from pea (pisum sativum) roots as enzyme source and [5- 32 P]Ins(1,4,5)P 3 and [2- 3 H]Ins(1,4,5)P 3 as tracers. Ins(1,4,5)P 3 was rapidly converted into both lower and higher inositol phosphates. The major dephosphorylation product was inositol (4,5) bisphosphate [Ins(4,5)P 2 ] whereas inositol(1,4)bisphosphate [Ins(1,4)P 2 ] was only present in very small quantities throughout a 15 minute incubation period. In addition to these compounds, small amounts of nine other metabolites were produced including inositol and inositol(1,4,5,X)P 4 . Dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 to Ins(4,5)P 2 was dependent on Ins(1,4,5)P 3 concentration and was partially inhibited by the phosphohydrolase inhibitors 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glucose 6-phosphate, and p-nitrophenylphosphate. Conversion of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 to Ins(4,5)P 2 and Ins(1,4,5,X)P 4 was inhibited by 55 micromolar Ca 2+ . This study demonstrates that enzymes are present in plant tissues which are capable of rapidly converting Ins(1,4,5)P 3 and that pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism exist which may prove to be unique to the plant kingdom

  1. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos e do escapo floral de Leiothrix crassifolia (Bong. Ruhl., Eriocaulaceae, da Serra do Cipó-MG Vegetative anatomy and floral scape of Leiothrix crassiflora (Bong. Ruhl., Eriocaulaceae, from Serra do Cipó-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Scatena

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available L. crassifolia (Eriocaulaceae é uma planta perene, que cresce nos solos pedregosos e arenosos dos campos rupestres da Serra do Cipó - MG - Cadeia do Espinhaço. Essa planta está exposta a períodos secos e chuvosos, ventos constantes, alta luminosidade e mudanças bruscas de temperatura, características climáticas peculiares dos campos rupestres. Sua caracterização anatômica tem aplicação taxonômica para o grupo e suas estruturas são adaptadas aos fatores ambientais. A raiz apresenta parênquima cortical formado por dois tipos de células, que formam o aerênquima lisígeno, facilitando sua sobrevivência nos solos alagados durante a estação chuvosa. A endoderme é formada for uma única camada de células de paredes espessas. As estrias de Caspary são detectadas somente nos estágios precoces do desenvolvimento da raiz. Chama-se a atenção para a ocorrência de câmaras subestomáticas especiais nas folhas, que podem estar relacionadas com a melhor eficiência das trocas gasosas e constitui uma característica importante para as Eriocaulaceae.The anatomical characteristics of vegetative organs and floral scape of Leiothrix crassiflora (Eriocaulaceae were investigated due to their ecological and taxonomic implications for the species. L. crassiflora grows in recently decomposed stony, sandy soils of the Serra do Cipó area of the Espinhaço mountains range, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is found both on wet and dry soils, exposed to constant winds, high light intensities and daily extreme fluctuations of temperature. The root presents a cortical parenchyma with two types of cells that form a lisigenous air parenchyma allowing the plant to survive in wet soils. The endodermis cells present thickened walls. The Casparian strips are shown only by very young roots. Details are given to special leaf substomatal chambers. They are an efficient protection for the gaseous exchange and considered as an important character of the

  2. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility: evidence from meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangqian; Cao, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Li, Bingjie; Tang, Min; Yuan, Wanqing; Fang, Jianzheng; Qian, Jian; Qin, Chao; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is expressed in many cancer cell types and allows the modulation of cancer growth, invasion and angiogenesis. To date, studies investigated the association between a functional polymorphism in PAI-1 (4G/5G) and risk of cancer have shown inclusive results. A meta-analysis based on 25 case-control studies was performed to address this issue. Odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with I(2) test. Overall, a significant increased risk of cancer was associated with the PAI-1 4G/4G polymorphism for the allele contrast (4G vs. 5G: OR = 1.10, CI = 1.03-1.18, I(2) = 49.5%), the additive genetic model (4G/4G vs. 5G/5G: OR = 1.21, CI = 1.06-1.39, I(2) = 51.9%), the recessive genetic model (4G/4G vs. 4G/5G+5G/5G: OR = 1.11, CI = 1.04-1.18, I(2) = 20.8%). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the results indicated that individuals with 4G/4G genotype had a significantly higher cancer risk among Caucasians (4G/4G vs. 5G/5G: OR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.09-1.59, I(2) = 59.6%; 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G: OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.04-1.21, I(2) = 3.6%; recessive model: OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.05-1.21, I(2) = 25.3%). The results of the present meta-analysis support an association between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and increasing cancer risk, especially among Caucasians, and those with 4G allele have a high risk to develop colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer.

  3. Prototipo de un sistema experto para el diagnóstico de enfermedades infecciosas en crías de alpacas de la raza hucaya y suri del cip - la raya de la U.N.A. - Puno

    OpenAIRE

    Ibañez Quispe, Vladimiro

    2001-01-01

    El presente trabajo de tesis titulado «PROTOTIPO DE UN SISTEMA EXPERTO PARA EL DIAGNÓSTICO DE ENFERMEDADES INFECCIOSAS EN CRÍAS DE ALPACAS DE LA RAZA HUACAYA Y SURI DEL CIP-LA RAYA DE LA U.N.A.-PUNO», se ha ejecutado en la Provincia de Puno, usando los recursos computacionales existentes, las bondades de la ingeniería del software y la inteligencia artificial, que fue orientado al campo de la ganadería, específicamente en alpacas, cuyo objetivo principal fue de analizar, diseñar e implementar...

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and density functional theory study of 1,4-benzenedithiol and its silver complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yangfan; Li, Chongyang; Feng, Yuanming; Lin, Wang

    2013-12-01

    This paper experimentally and theoretically investigated Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 1,4-benzenedithiol (1,4-BDT). Density functional theory methods were used to study Raman scattering spectra of isolated 1,4-BDT and 1,4-BDT-Agn (n=2,4,6) complexes with B3LYP/6-311+g(d)(C,H,S)/Lanl2dz(Ag) basis set. A full assignment of the Raman spectrum of 1,4-BDT has been made based on the DFT analysis. The calculated data showed good agreement with experimental observations. The adsorption sites, metal cluster size, and HOMO-LUMO energies are discussed to give insight in the SERS mechanisms for 1,4-BDT molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 2-[(1R*,4R*-1,4-Dihydroxycyclohexyl]acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arfan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C8H14O4, is an isolation product of the aerial parts of Senecio desfontanei. The acetic acid group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 48.03 (9° with respect to the basal plane of the cyclohexane-1,4-diol chair. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond generates an S(6 ring with an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in R33(20 ring motifs and C(2 O—H...O—H...O—H... chains. Overall, a three-dimensional polymeric network arises. A C—H...O contact is also present.

  6. Gold-Catalyzed Formal [4+1]/[4+3] Cycloadditions of Diazo Esters with Triazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao; Xu, Guangyang; Sun, Jiangtao

    2016-09-19

    Reported herein is the unprecedented gold-catalyzed formal [4+1]/[4+3] cycloadditions of diazo esters with hexahydro-1,3,4-triazines, thus providing five- and seven-membered heterocycles in moderate to high yields under mild reaction conditions. These reactions feature the use of a gold complex to accomplish the diverse annulations and the first example of the involvement of a gold metallo-enolcarbene in a cycloaddition. It is also the first utilization of stable triazines as formal dipolar adducts in the carbene-involved cycloadditions. Mechanistic investigations reveal that the triazines reacted directly, rather than as formaldimine precursors, in the reaction process. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Spin(7) compactifications and 1/4-BPS vacua in heterotic supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, Stephen [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science (IBS),Daejeon, 34051 Republic of (Korea, Republic of); Matti, Cyril [Department of Mathematics, City University, Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, andSchool of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand,Johannesburg, WITS 2050 South Africa (South Africa); Svanes, Eirik E. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE,Paris, F-75005 (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE,Paris, F-75005 (France); Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris,98 bis Bd Arago, Paris, 75014 (France)

    2016-03-25

    We continue the investigation into non-maximally symmetric compactifications of the heterotic string. In particular, we consider compactifications where the internal space is allowed to depend on two or more external directions. For preservation of supersymmetry, this implies that the internal space must in general be that of a Spin(7) manifold, which leads to a 1/4-BPS four-dimensional supersymmetric perturbative vacuum breaking all but one supercharge. We find that these solutions allow for internal geometries previously excluded by the domain-wall-type solutions, and hence the resulting four-dimensional superpotential is more generic. In particular, we find an interesting resemblance to the superpotentials that appear in non-geometric flux compactifications of type II string theory. If the vacua are to be used for phenomenological applications, they must be lifted to maximal symmetry by some non-perturbative or higher-order effect.

  8. Infrared (1.4-4.1μm) spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    The spectra of a variety of Wolf-Rayet stars have been observed with approximately 1% spectral resolution in the 1.4-4.1μm region using UKIRT. Strong lines due to ions of helium and carbon are observed and their relative strengths discussed. The He I singlet at 2.058μm is anomalously strong relative to other He I lines in WC stars and is responsible for the difference in the (H-K) colours of WN and WC stars. Emission line corrections to H, K and L magnitudes of different types are discussed. The Sanduleak O VI star ST 3 shows very strong C IV lines like the WC5 stars but not the strong He I. (Auth.)

  9. Polarimetry of 600 pulsars from observations at 1.4 GHz with the Parkes radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Simon; Kerr, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Over the past 13 yr, the Parkes radio telescope has observed a large number of pulsars using digital filter bank backends with high time and frequency resolution and the capability for Stokes recording. Here, we use archival data to present polarimetry data at an observing frequency of 1.4 GHz for 600 pulsars with spin-periods ranging from 0.036 to 8.5 s. We comment briefly on some of the statistical implications from the data and highlight the differences between pulsars with high and low spin-down energy. The data set, images and table of properties for all 600 pulsars are made available in a public data archive maintained by the CSIRO.

  10. Vapor pressure, density, viscosity and refractive index of dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA CIOCIRLAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental results of isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium data between 303.15 and 333.15 K, and densities, viscosities, refractive indices from 298.15 to 323.15 K of the dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system over the entire range of mixture composition. The obtained PTX data were correlated by the Wilson and NRTL models and estimated by the UNIFAC model. The excess Gibbs energy and activity coefficients were calculated and compared with others excess properties. Excess molar volumes, viscosity deviations and deviations in refractivity were calculated from the experimental data; all the computed quantities were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The resulting excess functions were interpreted in terms of structure and interactions.

  11. 1/4-BPS M-theory bubbles with SO(3) x SO(4) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Kyung Kiu; Kim, Nakwoo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the work of Lin, Lunin and Maldacena on the classification of 1/2-BPS M-theory solutions to a specific class of 1/4-BPS configurations. We are interested in the solutions of 11 dimensional supergravity with SO(3) x SO(4) symmetry, and it is shown that such solutions are constructed over a one-parameter familiy of 4 dimensional almost Calabi-Yau spaces. Through analytic continuations we can obtain M-theory solutions having AdS 2 x S 3 or AdS 3 x S 2 factors. It is shown that our result is equivalent to the AdS solutions which have been recently reported as the near-horizon geometry of M2 or M5-branes wrapped on 2 or 4-cycles in Calabi-Yau threefolds. We also discuss the hierarchy of M-theory bubbles with different number of supersymmetries

  12. AdS{sub 3} holography for 1/4 and 1/8 BPS geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusto, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Moscato, Emanuele; Russo, Rodolfo [Centre for Research in String Theory,School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-04

    Recently a new class of 1/8-BPS regular geometries in type IIB string theory was constructed in arXiv:1503.01463. In this paper we provide a precise description of the semiclassical states dual, in the AdS/CFT sense, to these geometries. In explicit examples we show that the holographic 1-point functions and the Ryu-Takayanagi’s Entanglement Entropy for a single small interval match the corresponding CFT calculations performed by using the proposed dual states. We also discuss several new examples of such precision holography analysis in the 1/4-BPS sector and provide an explicit proof that the small interval derivation of the Entanglement Entropy used in arXiv:1405.6185 is fully covariant.

  13. The 1.4-2.7 micron spectrum of the point source at the galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffers, R. R.; Fink, U.; Larson, H. P.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1976-01-01

    The spectrum of the 2-micron point source at the galactic center is presented over the range from 1.4 to 2.7 microns. The two-level-transition CO band heads are seen near 2.3 microns, confirming that the radiation from this source is due to a cool supergiant star. The heliocentric radial velocity is found to be - 173 (+ or -90) km/s and is consistent with the star being in orbit about a dense galactic nucleus. No evidence is found for Brackett-gamma emission, and no interstellar absorption features are seen. Upper limits for the column densities of interstellar H2, CH4, CO, and NH3 are derived.

  14. VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmark: Results of ORNL Calculations Using HELIOS-1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, RJ

    2001-02-02

    The Task Force on Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition, now an Expert Group, was set up through the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency to facilitate technical assessments of burning weapons-grade plutonium mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in U.S. pressurized-water reactors and Russian VVER nuclear reactors. More than ten countries participated to advance the work of the Task Force in a major initiative, which was a blind benchmark study to compare code benchmark calculations against experimental data for the VENUS-2 MOX core at SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the HELIOS-1.4 code was used to perform a comprehensive study of pin-cell and core calculations for the VENUS-2 benchmark.

  15. VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmark: Results of ORNL Calculations Using HELIOS-1.4 - Revised Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, RJ

    2001-06-01

    The Task Force on Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition (TFRPD) was formed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) to study reactor physics, fuel performance, and fuel cycle issues related to the disposition of weapons-grade (WG) plutonium as mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. To advance the goals of the TFRPD, 10 countries and 12 institutions participated in a major TFRPD activity: a blind benchmark study to compare code calculations to experimental data for the VENUS-2 MOX core at SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the HELIOS-1.4 code system was used to perform the comprehensive study of pin-cell and MOX core calculations for the VENUS-2 MOX core benchmark study.

  16. Synthesis and photodegradation studies of analogues of muscle relaxant 1,4-dihydropyridine compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gündüz Miyase Gözde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine compounds (DHPs endowed with good muscle relaxant activity and stability to light. Six new condensed DHPs were synthesized by the microwave irradiation method. A long-chain ester moiety [2-(methacryloyloxyethyl] and various substituents on the phenyl ring were demonstrated to affect the muscle relaxant activity occurring in isolated rabbit gastric fundus smooth muscle strips. Forced photodegradation conditions were applied to the molecules according to the ICH rules. The degradation profile of the drugs was monitored by spectrophotometry coupled with the multivariate curve resolution technique. Formation of the oxidized pyridine derivative was observed for all the studied DHPs, except for one compound, which showed very fast degradation and formation of a second photo-product. Pharmacological tests on the molecules showed a good muscle relaxing effect, with a mechanism similar to that of nifedipine, however, proving to be more stable to light.

  17. Reliability research based experience with systems and events at the Kozloduy NPP units 1-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, R; Kaltchev, B; Dimitrov, B [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria); Nedyalkova, D; Sonev, A [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    An overview of equipment reliability based on operational data of selected safety systems at the Kozloduy NPP is presented. Conclusions are drawn on reliability of the service water system, feed water system, emergency power supply - category 2, emergency high pressure ejection system and spray system. For the units 1-4 all recorded accident protocols in the period 1974-1993 have been processed and the main initiators identified. A list with 39 most frequent initiators of accidents/incidents is compiled. The human-caused errors account for 27% of all events. The reliability characteristics and frequencies have been calculated for all initiating events. It is concluded that there have not been any accidents with consequences for fuel integrity or radioactive release. 14 refs.

  18. VIRULENT GROUP Ro1,4 POTATO GOLDEN CYST NEMATODES (Globodera rostochiensis WOLLENWEBER IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The potato golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis WOLLENWEBER is very important potato pest. According to EPPO it is on the quarantines A2 list. This species was detected on the territory of Belice in 2001. In 2002 soil samples were taken on two treatments, one with potato in monoculture and the other on the wheat where potato was previous crop. Cysts extraction was done in the laboratory of nematology at the Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek and Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Crop Science. Virulent group Ro1,4 was detected. More cysts were discovered in the monoculture potato soil (458/100 ccm of soil than in the soil under the wheat (368/100 ccm of soil. In 2004 vitality of the cysts were analysed. Cysts from potato monoculture had higher vitality (203 larvae/ cyst than cyst from the soil under wheat (38 larvae/cyst with potato as previous crop.

  19. High strain rate tensile properties of annealed 2 1/4 Cr--1 Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Oakes, R.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The high strain rate tensile properties of annealed 2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel were determined and the tensile behavior from 25 to 566 0 C and strain rates of 2.67 x 10 -6 to 144/s were described. Above 0.1/s at 25 0 C, both the yield stress and the ultimate tensile strength increased rapidly with increasing strain rate. As the temperature was increased, a dynamic strain aging peak appeared in the ultimate tensile strength-temperature curves. The peak height was a maximum at about 350 0 C and 2.67 x 10 -6 /s. With increasing strain rate, a peak of decreased height occurred at progressively higher temperatures. The major effect of strain rate on ductility occurred at elevated temperatures, where a decrease in strain rate caused an increase in total elongation and reduction in area

  20. A power law of order 1/4 for critical mean field Swendsen-Wang dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Yun; Ning, Weiyang; Peres, Yuval

    2014-01-01

    The Swendsen-Wang dynamics is a Markov chain widely used by physicists to sample from the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution of the Ising model. Cooper, Dyer, Frieze and Rue proved that on the complete graph K_n the mixing time of the chain is at most O(\\sqrt{n}) for all non-critical temperatures. In this paper the authors show that the mixing time is \\Theta(1) in high temperatures, \\Theta(\\log n) in low temperatures and \\Theta(n^{1/4}) at criticality. They also provide an upper bound of O(\\log n) for Swendsen-Wang dynamics for the q-state ferromagnetic Potts model on any tree of n vertices.

  1. Dynamical (e,2e) studies of tetrahydropyran and 1,4-dioxane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Builth-Williams, J. D.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B., E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT 78600-000 (Brazil); Chaluvadi, Hari; Madison, D. H. [Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-06-07

    We present experimental and theoretical results for the electron-impact ionization of the highest occupied molecular orbitals of tetrahydropyran and 1,4-dioxane. Using an (e,2e) technique in asymmetric coplanar kinematics, angular distributions of the slow ejected electron, with an energy of 20 eV, are measured when incident electrons at 250 eV ionize the target and scatter through an angle of either −10° or −15°. The data are compared with calculations performed at the molecular 3-body distorted wave level. Fair agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental measurements was observed. The similar structures for these targets provide key insights for assessing the limitations of the theoretical calculations. This study in turn facilitates an improved understanding of the dynamics in the ionization process.

  2. Structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor at 1.4 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kiselyov, Vladislav; Kochoyan, Arthur; Kristensen, Ole; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Gajhede, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor was determined and compared with those of human, bovine and newt origin. The rat and human structures were found to be very similar. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a family of 22 structurally related heparin-binding polypeptides that are involved in the regulation of cell growth, survival, differentiation and migration. Here, a 1.4 Å resolution X-ray structure of rat FGF1 is presented. Two molecules are present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal and they coordinate a total of five sulfate ions. The structures of human, bovine and newt FGF1 have been published previously. Human and rat FGF1 are found to have very similar structures

  3. 1/4 BPS States and Non-Perturbative Couplings in N=4 String Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lerche, W.

    1999-01-01

    We compute certain 2K+4-point one-loop couplings in the type IIA string compactified on K3 x T^2, which are related a topological index on this manifold. Their special feature is that they are sensitive to only short and intermediate BPS multiplets. The couplings derive from underlying prepotentials of the form G(T,U)=d^{2K}V ln[chi10(T,U,V)], where chi10(T,U,V) is the helicity partition function of 1/4 BPS states. In the dual heterotic string on T^6, the amplitudes describe non-perturbative gravitational corrections due to bound states of fivebrane instantons with heterotic world-sheet instantons. We argue, as a consequence, that our results give information about instanton configurations in six dimensional Sp(2k) gauge theories on T^6.

  4. System design specification for the 1/4-scale tank and ancillary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Waters, E.D.; Heimberger, D.T.

    1993-09-01

    The Fluid Dynamic Test Facility (FDTF) is located in the 336 Building at the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The FDTF will contain tanks that model the average internal diameter and height of a 3875 m 3 (1-million-gal) double-shell tank at both 1/12- and 1/4-scale, as well as ancillary equipment required to store, mix, and transport waste simulants. Experiments to be conducted in this facility will include investigations of sludge mobilization, slurry uniformity, aerosol generation, sludge washing, and instrumentation development to support start-up of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project. This facility will also be used to model concepts and mitigating strategies to be used in the resolution of tank safety issues and the retrieval of waste from watch-list tanks

  5. Chemical reduction of rust on 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel surface in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, N.; Shimoyashiki, S.

    1986-01-01

    Low-alloy Fe-2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo ferritic steel has been favored for the tube material of steam generators in fast breeder reactors (FBRs). However, this material rusts easily due to moisture condensation on its surface when left in air. Therefore, measures to prevent tube materials from rusting have been taken during manufacturing of the steam generators. When rust is present on tube surfaces, its oxygen and iron dissolve into liquid sodium. When the concentration of these impurities in the sodium increases rapidly, the cold traps can become choked locally and lose their removal ability. This work has been done, therefore, to clarify reduction processes of rust in sodium and to select optimum operating temperatures of steam generators in the initial operation

  6. Synthesis of new 1H-1,2,3-triazole-1,4-naphthoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner O. Valença

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, were synthesized new 1H-1,2,3-triazole-1,4-naphthoquinones via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction using CuI/acetonitrile without addition of base or ligand. The compounds (3a-i were obtained in moderate-to-good yields 45-92%. To prepare (3d, we obtain a mixture of (3d and (4 in a ratio 3:1, that it was difficult to separate. The low yield for the compound (3f can be also justified based in the formation of aminonaphthoquinone (4. The acetylation of (3h and (3i afforded the compounds (5 and (6 in 77% and 35% of yields, respectively. The low yield of (6 was due to formation of 35 % of the elimination product (7.

  7. Reliability research based experience with systems and events at the Kozloduy NPP units 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristova, R.; Kaltchev, B.; Dimitrov, B.; Nedyalkova, D.; Sonev, A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of equipment reliability based on operational data of selected safety systems at the Kozloduy NPP is presented. Conclusions are drawn on reliability of the service water system, feed water system, emergency power supply - category 2, emergency high pressure ejection system and spray system. For the units 1-4 all recorded accident protocols in the period 1974-1993 have been processed and the main initiators identified. A list with 39 most frequent initiators of accidents/incidents is compiled. The human-caused errors account for 27% of all events. The reliability characteristics and frequencies have been calculated for all initiating events. It is concluded that there have not been any accidents with consequences for fuel integrity or radioactive release. 14 refs

  8. Comparison of low-cycle fatigue data of 2 1/4 % CrMo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, S.J.; Petrequin, P.; Nieuwland, H.C.D.; Breuer, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Data files have been produced on international strain-controlled fatigue information available for 2 1/4 %CrMo steels. The available data have been considered generally in terms of total strain range vs. cycles to failure (Nsub(f)), tensile stress at Nsub(f)/2 vs. cycles to failure and time to failure vs. cycles to failure. Where possible the continuous cycling data been statistically analysed in terms of the elastic and plastic strain components and cycles to failure to yield best-fit equations over defined temperature (T) regime viz: T 0 C, 427 0 C 0 C and 550 0 C 0 C. Increasing test temperatures result in a progressive decrease in continuous cycling fatigue endurance and sustainable stress range

  9. Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme: Computer Security - Introduction to information and computer security (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Computer Security: Introduction to information and computer security (1/4), by Sebastian Lopienski (CERN).   Monday, 21 May, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 31-3-004 - IT Auditorium ) Sebastian Lopienski is CERN's Deputy Computer Security Officer. He works on security strategy and policies; offers internal consultancy and audit services; develops and maintains security tools for vulnerability assessment and intrusion detection; provides training and awareness raising; and does incident investigation and response. During his work at CERN since 2001, Sebastian has had various assignments, including designing and developing software to manage and support services hosted in the CERN Computer Centre; providing Central CVS Service for software projects at CERN; and development of applications for accelerator controls in Java. He graduated from the University of Warsaw (MSc in Computer Science) in 2002, and earned an MBA degree at the Enterprise Administration Institute in Ai...

  10. Internal-bore-welding of 2 1/4 Cr--1 Mo steel tube-to-tubesheet joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, A.J.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    In order to avoid the disadvantages of the conventional face-side tube-to-tubesheet weld, the steam generators for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (a power-producing demonstration LMFBR) will be built using a relatively new technique known as internal-bore-welding (IBW). In IBW the tube does not pass through the tubesheet but rather is welded to a short stub machined on the tube side of the tubesheet. This joint has the important advantages of being inspectable by radiography and eliminating the crevice; however, it is much more difficult to weld than is the face-side design. Because of the close proximity of the tubes, there is not room for an orbiting-arc welding head on the outside of the tube. Consequently, this weld must be made by welding from the inside- or bore-side of the tube. The results are presented of the initial phases of a program undertaken at ORNL to develop improved bore-side welding equipment, to gain further understanding of this technique, and to develop mechanical property data for autogeneous welds in 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel tube and tubesheet materials

  11. Development of the technology of tablets on the basis of ademetionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Burdak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During medicinal product development a lot of key points should be taken into consideration. The purpose of pharmaceutical development is not only the creation of effective and safe preparation but also the organization of appropriate conditions for the process of production that could provide its recovery rate. The choice of optimized composition for medicinal product and the development of technology help to define the interval of allowed parameters’ values of the process and subcomponents of the recipe, following of which guarantees correspondence of the final product to the specification limit [7]. Objective. To develop technology for the production of film-coated tablets based on 1,4-ademetionine butanedisulfonate, which corresponds to the given specification. Materials and methods. Wet and dry granulation structure was used in the development of methods. Bulk density, flow ability and the angle of deflection were determined in the prepared mixtures. Formulation was analyzed in all parameters according to the specifications, including the examination of options such as decay, dissolution, abrasion and crush resistance. Results. The technology and definitive conditions for preparation on the basis of the ademetionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate substance were created and selected. Next criteria of optimization have been defined: flow ability, bulk density for performing and also crush resistance, friability and disintegration of ready pills. Critical value is humidity of the substance that influences the quality of the production and requires appropriate production conditions. Conclusions. On the basis of studying of the influence of relative degree of humidity and pressing efforts on the factors that were mentioned above it was established that the most rational method of getting the pills is performing with previous granulation of a mass. By means of physical-chemical (flow ability, bulk density, angle of deviation and technological

  12. 1.4 GHz on the Fundamental Plane of black hole activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Payaswini; Körding, Elmar; Dibi, Salome

    2018-06-01

    The Fundamental Plane (FP) of black hole activity is an empirical relationship between the O III/X-ray luminosity depicting the accretion power, the radio luminosity as a probe of the instantaneous jet power and the mass of the black hole. For the first time, we use the 1.4 GHz FIRST radio luminosities on the optical FP, to investigate whether or not Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimetres (FIRST) fluxes can trace nuclear activity. We use an SDSS-FIRST cross-correlated sample of 10 149 active galaxies and analyse their positioning on the optical FP. We focus on various reasons that can cause the discrepancy between the observed FIRST radio fluxes and the theoretically expected core radio fluxes, and show that FIRST fluxes are heavily contaminated by non-nuclear, extended components and other environmental factors. We show that the subsample of `compact sources', which should have negligible lobe contribution, statistically follow the FP when corrected for relativistic beaming, while all the other sources lie above the plane. The sample of low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), which should have negligible lobe and beaming contribution, also follow the FP. A combined fit of the low-luminosity AGN and the X-ray binaries, with the LINERs, results in the relation log LR = 0.77 log L_{O III} + 0.69 log M. Assuming that the original FP relation is correct, we conclude that 1.4 GHz FIRST fluxes do not trace the pure `core' jet and instantaneous nuclear activity in the AGN, and one needs to be careful while using it on the FP of black hole activity.

  13. (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria of tetraphenyl piperazine-1, 4-diyldiphosphonate in pure solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ying; Tang, Weiwei; Huang, Yanyan; Xiong, Yao; Chen, Ligong; Liu, Yunlong; Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The simulated infinite dilute solutions of TPPDP in acetic acid (a), acetone (b), 1-butanol (c), and 2-propanol (d) and their interactions (H-bond). - Highlights: • The solubilities of tetraphenyl piperazine-1, 4-diyldiphosphonate in eight organic solvents were studied. • Molecular dynamic simulation was performed to understand solubility behavior. • Solubility prediction using NRTL-SAC agreed well with experimental data. • The thermodynamic functions relative to dissolution process were predicted. - Abstract: Tetraphenyl piperazine-1, 4-diyldiphosphonate (TPPDP), a phosphorus–nitrogen containing flame retardant, was synthesized successfully, and its structure was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR, 31 P NMR). The melting temperature and fusion enthalpy of TPPDP were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The solubility of TPPDP in dichloromethane, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, acetone, n-hexane, 1-butanol, 2-propanol and isopropyl ether have been determined at temperatures from (283.15 to 323.15) K using a static analytic method. Molecular modeling and the Scatchard–Hildebrand model were employed to discuss the results obtained and to reveal the relationship of solubility and structures of the solvents. The modified Apelblat equation, Wilson model and NRTL model were used to correlate the solubility results, in which the Wilson model provides the best fitting results. Furthermore, the non-random two liquid segment activity coefficient model (NRTL-SAC) with four types of conceptual segments was used for solubility prediction and exhibited a good agreement with experimental values except for the acetic acid system. Finally, the molar Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution were predicted based on the modified Apelblat equation

  14. Knowledge deficit of patients with stage 1-4 CKD: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vargas, Pamela A; Tong, Allison; Phoon, Richard K S; Chadban, Steven J; Shen, Yvonne; Craig, Jonathan C

    2014-04-01

    Patients with early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) must make lifestyle modifications and adhere to treatment regimens to prevent their progression to end-stage kidney disease. The aim of this study was to elicit the perspectives of patients with stage 1-4 CKD about their disease, with a specific focus on their information needs in managing and living with CKD and its sequelae. Patients with CKD stages 1-4 were purposively sampled from three major hospitals in Sydney, Australia to participate in focus groups. Transcripts were thematically analysed. From nine focus groups including 38 participants, six major themes were identified: medical attentiveness (shared decision-making, rapport, indifference and insensitivity); learning self-management (diet and nutrition, barriers to physical activity, medication safety); contextualizing comorbidities (prominence of CKD, contradictory treatment); prognostic uncertainty (hopelessness, fear of disease progression, disbelief regarding diagnosis); motivation and coping mechanisms (engage in research, pro-active management, optimism, feeling normal); and knowledge gaps (practical advice, access to information, comprehension of pathology results and CKD diagnosis, education for general practitioners). Patients capacity to slow the progression of CKD may be limited by their lack of knowledge about the disease, its comorbidities, psychosocial influences and their ability to interact and communicate effectively with their health-care provider. Support from a multidisciplinary care team, combined with provision of comprehensive, accessible and practical educational resources may enhance patients' ability and motivation to access and adhere to therapeutic and lifestyle interventions to retard progression of CKD. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  15. Butane-1,4-diammonium bis(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatocuprate(II trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghadermazi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C4H14N2[Cu(C7H3NO42]·3H2O or (bdaH2[Cu(pydc2]·3H2O (where bda is butane-1,4-diamine and pydcH2 is pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, the CuII atom is coordinated by four O atoms [Cu—O = 2.0557 (16–2.3194 (16 Å] and two N atoms [Cu—N = 1.9185 (18 and 1.9638 (18 Å] from two chelating rings of the pydc2− anions, which act as tridentate ligands. The geometry of the resulting CuN2O4 coordination can be described as distorted octahedral. The the two pydc2− fragments are almost perpendicular to one another [77.51 (11°]. To balance the charges, two centrosymmetric protonated butane-1,4-diammonium, (bdaH22+ cations are present. In the crystal structure, extensive O—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds [D...A = 2.720 (2–3.446 (3 Å], ion pairing, C—O...π [O...π = 3.099 (2 Å] and π–π stacking interactions between the pydc2− rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5334 (15 Å] contribute to the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  16. 2-Bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone: a potentially improved substitute of menadione in Apatone™ therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Graciani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Apatone™, a combination of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, VK3 and ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC is a new strategy for cancer treatment. Part of its effect on tumor cells is related to the cellular pro-oxidative imbalance provoked by the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 through naphthoquinone redox cycling. In this study, we attempted to find new naphthoquinone derivatives that would increase the efficiency of H2O2 production, thereby potentially increasing its efficacy for cancer treatment. The presence of an electron-withdrawing group in the naphthoquinone moiety had a direct effect on the efficiency of H2O2 production. The compound 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (BrQ, in which the bromine atom substituted the methyl group in VK3, was approximately 10- and 19-fold more efficient than VK3 in terms of oxygen consumption and H2O2 production, respectively. The ratio [H2O2]produced / [naphthoquinone]consumed was 68 ± 11 and 5.8 ± 0.2 (µM/µM for BrQ and VK3, respectively, indicating a higher efficacy of BrQ as a catalyst for the autoxidation of ascorbic acid. Both VK3 and BrQ reacted with glutathione (GSH, but BrQ was the more effective substrate. Part of GSH was incorporated into the naphthoquinone, producing a nucleophilic substitution product (Q-SG. The depletion of BrQ by GSH did not prevent its redox capacity since Q-SG was also able to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species. VK3/VC has already been submitted to clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer and has demonstrated promising results. However, replacement of VK3 with BrQ will open new lines of investigation regarding this approach to cancer treatment.

  17. 2-Bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone: a potentially improved substitute of menadione in Apatone™ therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graciani, F.S.; Ximenes, V.F.

    2012-01-01

    Apatone™, a combination of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, VK 3 ) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) is a new strategy for cancer treatment. Part of its effect on tumor cells is related to the cellular pro-oxidative imbalance provoked by the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) through naphthoquinone redox cycling. In this study, we attempted to find new naphthoquinone derivatives that would increase the efficiency of H 2 O 2 production, thereby potentially increasing its efficacy for cancer treatment. The presence of an electron-withdrawing group in the naphthoquinone moiety had a direct effect on the efficiency of H 2 O 2 production. The compound 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (BrQ), in which the bromine atom substituted the methyl group in VK 3 , was approximately 10- and 19-fold more efficient than VK 3 in terms of oxygen consumption and H 2 O 2 production, respectively. The ratio [H 2 O 2 ] produced / [naphthoquinone] consumed was 68 ± 11 and 5.8 ± 0.2 (µM/µM) for BrQ and VK 3 , respectively, indicating a higher efficacy of BrQ as a catalyst for the autoxidation of ascorbic acid. Both VK 3 and BrQ reacted with glutathione (GSH), but BrQ was the more effective substrate. Part of GSH was incorporated into the naphthoquinone, producing a nucleophilic substitution product (Q-SG). The depletion of BrQ by GSH did not prevent its redox capacity since Q-SG was also able to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species. VK 3 /VC has already been submitted to clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer and has demonstrated promising results. However, replacement of VK 3 with BrQ will open new lines of investigation regarding this approach to cancer treatment

  18. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism in infertile women with and without endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Filho, Rubens P; Brandes, Ariel; Christofolini, Denise M; Lerner, Tatiana G; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio P

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate PAI-1 genotypes in a group of infertile women with or without endometriosis and control subjects. Case-control study. Human Reproduction Center of Medicina do ABC Faculty. One hundred and forty infertile women with endometriosis, 64 women with idiopathic infertility and 148 fertile women as control subjects. The PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. Genotype distribution and allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene. The frequencies of genotypes 4G/4G, 4G/5G and 5G/5G of the PAI-1 gene in the infertile women with endometriosis were 38.6, 37.1 and 24.3%, respectively, and in the control group 24.3, 33.8 and 41.9%, respectively (p=0.003). When the infertile women with endometriosis were divided according to their endometriosis stage, genotypes 4G/4G, 4G/5G and 5G/5G were identified, respectively, in 36.7, 32.9 and 30.4% of the patients with minimal/mild endometriosis (p=0.102) and in 41.0, 42.6 and 16.4% of the patients with moderate/severe endometriosis (p=0.001); in the women with idiopathic infertility, these genotypes were found at a frequency of 29.7, 34.3 and 36%, respectively (p=0.637). The data suggest that, in Brazilian women, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may be associated with a risk of endometriosis-associated infertility. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Monocarboxylate transporters 1-4 in NSCLC: MCT1 is an independent prognostic marker for survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Eilertsen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs 1-4 are lactate transporters crucial for cancers cells adaption to upregulated glycolysis. Herein, we aimed to explore their prognostic impact on disease-specific survival (DSS in both cancer and tumor stromal cells in NSCLC. METHODS: Tissue micro arrays (TMAs were constructed, representing both cancer and stromal tumor tissue from 335 unselected patients diagnosed with stage I-IIIA NSCLC. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of MCT1-4. RESULTS: In univariate analyses; ↓ MCT1 (P = 0.021 and ↑ MCT4 (P = 0.027 expression in cancer cells, and ↑ MCT1 (P = 0.003, ↓ MCT2 (P = 0.006, ↓ MCT3 (P = 0.020 expression in stromal cells correlated significantly with a poor DSS. In multivariate analyses; ↓ MCT1 expression in cancer cells (HR: 1.9, CI 95%: 1.3-2.8, P = 0.001, ↓ MCT2 (HR: 2.4, CI 95%: 1.5-3.9, P<0.001, ↓ MCT3 (HR: 1.9, CI 95%: 1.1-3.5, P = 0.031 and ↑ MCT1 expression in stromal cells (HR: 1.7, CI 95%: 1.1-2.7, P = 0.016 were significant independent poor prognostic markers for DSS. CONCLUSIONS: We provide novel information of MCT1 as a candidate marker for prognostic stratification in NSCLC. Interestingly, MCT1 shows diverging, independent prognostic impact in the cancer cell and stromal cell compartments.

  20. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9662 Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical...-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI) (PMN P-95-1825; CAS No. 126213-50-1) is subject to reporting under...

  1. Preparation of 14-C-labelled 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol: Cyanosilylation of Cyclic Imines using KCN in a One-Pot Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundt, Inge; Malle, Birgitte Mølholm; Foged, Christian

    1999-01-01

    A new method for C-C bond formation was developed based on in situ cyanosilylation of cyclic Schiff bases using KCN, TMSCl, KI and ZnI2. This method was used to prepare the potent -glucosidase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol 14-C labelled at C-5.Keywords: in situ cyanosilylation; 14-C...

  2. 2-Bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone: a potentially improved substitute of menadione in Apatone™ therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graciani, F.S.; Ximenes, V.F. [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru SP (Brazil); Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-18

    Apatone™, a combination of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, VK{sub 3}) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) is a new strategy for cancer treatment. Part of its effect on tumor cells is related to the cellular pro-oxidative imbalance provoked by the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) through naphthoquinone redox cycling. In this study, we attempted to find new naphthoquinone derivatives that would increase the efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production, thereby potentially increasing its efficacy for cancer treatment. The presence of an electron-withdrawing group in the naphthoquinone moiety had a direct effect on the efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. The compound 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (BrQ), in which the bromine atom substituted the methyl group in VK{sub 3}, was approximately 10- and 19-fold more efficient than VK{sub 3} in terms of oxygen consumption and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production, respectively. The ratio [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub produced} / [naphthoquinone]{sub consumed} was 68 ± 11 and 5.8 ± 0.2 (µM/µM) for BrQ and VK{sub 3}, respectively, indicating a higher efficacy of BrQ as a catalyst for the autoxidation of ascorbic acid. Both VK{sub 3} and BrQ reacted with glutathione (GSH), but BrQ was the more effective substrate. Part of GSH was incorporated into the naphthoquinone, producing a nucleophilic substitution product (Q-SG). The depletion of BrQ by GSH did not prevent its redox capacity since Q-SG was also able to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species. VK{sub 3}/VC has already been submitted to clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer and has demonstrated promising results. However, replacement of VK{sub 3} with BrQ will open new lines of investigation regarding this approach to cancer treatment.

  3. Carbonates in leaching reactions in context of "1"4C dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalska, Danuta; Czernik, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Lime mortars as a mixture of binder and aggregate may contain carbon of various origins. If the mortars are made of totally burnt lime, radiocarbon dating of binder yields the real age of building construction. The presence of carbonaceous aggregate has a significant influence on the "1"4C measurements results and depending on the type of aggregate and fraction they may cause overaging. Another problem, especially in case of hydraulic mortars that continue to be chemically active for a very long time, is the recrystallization usually connected with rejuvenation of the results but also, depending on local geological structures, with so called reservoir effect yielding apparent ages. An attempt in separating the binder from other carbonaceous components successfully was made for samples from Israel by Nawrocka-Michalska et al. (2007). The same preparation procedure, after taking into account the petrographic composition, was used for samples coming from Poland, Nawrocka et al. (2009). To verify the procedure used previously for non-hydraulic samples determination an experimental tests on carbonaceous mortars with crushed bricks from Novae in Bulgaria were made. Additionally, to identify different carbonaceous structures and their morphology, a cathodoluminescence and scanning electron microscope with electron dispersive spectrometer were applied. The crushed bricks and brick dust used in mortars production process have been interpreted as an alternative use to other pozzolanic materials. The reaction between lime and pozzolanic additives take place easily and affects the rate and course of carbonates decomposition in orthophosphric acid, during the samples pretreatment for dating. The composition of the Bulgarian samples together with influence of climate conditions on mortar carbonates do not allow for making straightforward conclusions in chronology context, but gives some new guidelines in terms of hydraulic mortars application for dating. This work has mainly

  4. Extremely Red Objects in Two Quasar Fields at z ~ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Alan; McGrath, Elizabeth; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2006-10-01

    We present an investigation of the properties and environments of bright extremely red objects (EROs) found in the fields of the quasars TXS 0145+386 and 4C 15.55, both at z~1.4. There is marginal evidence from Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) imaging for hot cluster gas with a luminosity of a few 1044 ergs s-1 in the field of 4C 15.55. The TXS 0145+386 field has an upper limit at a similar value, but it also clearly shows an overdensity of faint galaxies. None of the EROs are detected as X-ray sources. For two of the EROs that have spectral energy distributions and rest-frame near-UV spectra that show that they are strongly dominated by old stellar populations, we determine radial surface brightness profiles from adaptive optics images. Both of these galaxies are best fit by profiles close to exponentials, plus a compact nucleus comprising ~30% of the total light in one case and 8% in the other. Neither is well fit by an r1/4-law profile. This apparent evidence for the formation of massive ~2×1011 disks of old stars in the early universe indicates that at least some galaxies formed essentially monolithically, with high star formation rates sustained over a few 108 yr and without the aid of major mergers. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; on data obtained with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which is operated for NASA by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; on data obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii; and on data obtained at the the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, which is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the UK. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M

  5. IHY - An International Cooperative Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Davila, J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Thompson, B.

    2007-05-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) in 2007/2008 involves thousands of scientists representing over 70 nations. It consists of four distinct elements that will be described here. Taking advantage of the large amount of heliophysical data acquired routinely by a vast number of sophisticated instruments aboard space missions and at ground-based observatories, IHY aims to develop the basic science of heliophysics through cross-disciplinary studies of universal processes by means of Coordinated Investigation Programs (CIPs). The second component is in collaboration with the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) and consists of the deployment of arrays of small, inexpensive instruments such as magnetometers, radio antennas, GPS receivers, etc. around the world to provide global measurements. An important aspect of this partnership is to foster the participation of developing nations in heliophysics research. IHY coincides with the commemoration of 50 years of the space age that started with launch of Sputnik on October 4, 1957 and it is on the brink of a new age of space exploration where the Moon, Mars and the outer planets will be the focus of the space programs in the next years. As a result, it presents an excellent opportunity to create interest for science among young people with the excitement of discovery of space. The education and outreach program forms another cornerstone of IHY. Last but not least, an important part of the IHY activities, its forth component, is to preserve the history and memory of IGY 1957.

  6. TENCompetence Learning Design Toolkit, Runtime component, ccsi_v3_2_10c_v1_4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharples, Paul; Popat, Kris; Llobet, Lau; Santos, Patricia; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Miao, Yongwu; Griffiths, David; Beauvoir, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Sharples, P., Popat, K., Llobet, L., Santos, P., Hernandez-Leo, D., Miao, Y., Griffiths, D. & Beauvoir, P. (2009) TENCompetence Learning Design Toolkit, Runtime component, ccsi_v3_2_10c_v1_4 This release is composed of three files corresponding to CopperCore Service Integration (CCSI) v3.2-10cv1.4,

  7. Dephosphorylation Pathway of D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas eugametos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, Hans; Himbergen, John A.J. van; Musgrave, Alan; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Ende, Herman van den

    In vitro dephosphorylation of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(l,4,5)P-3] by vegetative cells, gametes and zygotes of the green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos was studied using a soluble cell fraction as enzyme source and labelled Ins(1,4,5)P-3 as substrate. This compound was dephosphorylated

  8. Crystal Structure of α-1,4-Glucan Lyase, a Unique Glycoside Hydrolase Family Member with a Novel Catalytic Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozeboom, Henriëtte J.; Yu, Shukun; Madrid, Susan; Kalk, Kor H.; Zhang, Ran; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2013-01-01

    α-1,4-Glucan lyase (EC 4.2.2.13) from the red seaweed Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis cleaves α-1,4-glucosidic linkages in glycogen, starch, and malto-oligosaccharides, yielding the keto-monosaccharide 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose. The enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31) but degrades

  9. A facile and regioselective synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles using click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reaction of α-tosyloxy ketones, sodium azide and terminal alkynes in presence of copper(I) in aqueous polyethylene glycol afforded regioselectively 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in good yield at ambient temperature. The one-pot exclusive formation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2...

  10. Gas phase UV and IR absorption spectra of CxF2x+1CHO (x=1-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Waterland, RL

    2004-01-01

    The UV and IR spectra of CxF2x+1 CHO (x = 1-4) were investigated using computational and experimental techniques. CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1-4) have broad UV absorption features centered at 300-310 nm. The maximum absorption cross-section increases significantly and shifts slightly to the red with increased...

  11. 21 CFR 73.3106 - 1,4-Bis[4-(2-methacryloxyethyl) phenylamino]anthraquinone copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...]anthraquinone copolymers. 73.3106 Section 73.3106 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 73.3106 1,4-Bis[4-(2-methacryloxyethyl) phenylamino]anthraquinone copolymers. (a) Identity. The color additive is 1,4-bis[4-(2-methacryloxyethyl) phenylamino]anthraquinone (CAS Reg. No. 121888-69-5...

  12. When rare is just a matter of sampling: unexpected dominance of clubtail dragonflies (Odonata, Gomphidae through different collecting methods at Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Oliveira de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When rare is just a matter of sampling: Unexpected dominance of clubtail dragonflies (Odonata, Gomphidae through different collecting methods at Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Capture of dragonfly adults during two short expeditions to Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, using three distinct collecting methodsaerial nets, Malaise and light sheet trapsis reported. The results are outstanding due the high number of species of Gomphidae (7 out of 26 Odonata species, including a new species of Cyanogomphus Selys, 1873, obtained by two non-traditional collecting methods. Because active collecting with aerial nets is the standard approach for dragonfly inventories, we discuss some aspects of the use of traps, comparing our results with those in the literature, suggesting they should be used as complementary methods in faunistic studies. Furthermore, Zonophora campanulata annulata Belle, 1983 is recorded for the first time from Minas Gerais State and taxonomic notes about Phyllogomphoides regularis (Selys, 1873 and Progomphus complicatus Selys, 1854 are also given.

  13. Limazepines A-F, pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepine Antibiotics from an Indonesian Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Serge; Zabriskie, T Mark; Proteau, Philip J; Flatt, Patricia M; Santosa, Dwi Andreas; Mahmud, Taifo

    2009-04-01

    In our screening of Indonesian microorganisms for novel bioactive natural products we have isolated seven new compounds, designated as limazepines A, B1 and B2 (isolated as an isomeric mixture), C, D, E, and F, from the culture broth of Micrococcus sp. strain ICBB 8177. In addition, the known natural products prothracarcin and 7-O-succinylmacrolactin A, as well as two previously reported synthetic compounds, 2-amino-3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester and 4-ethylpyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, were obtained from the extract. Chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and by comparison with the NMR data of structurally related compounds. The limazepines belong to the growing group of the pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepine antitumor antibiotics isolated from various soil bacteria. Limazepines B1/B2 mixture, C, and E were active against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Limazepine D was also active against S. aureus, but was not active against E. coli. Interestingly, only the limazepines B1/B2 mixture and D were active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  14. General patterns in the photochemistry of pregna-1,4-dien-3,20-diones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Andrea; Fasani, Elisa; Mella, Mariella; Albini, Angelo

    2003-05-30

    The photochemistry of six pregna-1,4-dien-3,20-diones has been compared and found to involve both the cyclohexadienone moiety in ring A and the isolated ketone at C-20. The two reactions take place proportionally to the fraction of light absorbed by each chromophore. The cross-conjugated ketone absorbs predominantly or exclusively at both 254 and 366 nm and undergoes the "lumi" rearrangement to bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-en-2-one. The quantum yield of the reaction diminished somewhat with increasing lambda(exc), e.g., for prednisolone Phi(254) (nm) = 0.42, Phi(366) (nm) = 0.3. A much stronger lowering is caused by halogen substitution in position 9 (by a factor of 3 for F, >50 for Cl), apparently due to a shortened triplet lifetime caused by heavy atom effect. At 310 nm, both chromophores absorb to a comparable degree and both may react. The reaction at C(20) ketone involves either quite efficient alpha-cleavage (C(17)-C(20)) for compounds bearing an acetal or hydroxyl function at C(17) or less effective (by a factor of ca. 10) hydrogen abstraction from the 18-methyl group in the other cases (finally resulting in Norrish II fragmentation or Yang cyclization). The results allow generalizing how the substitution pattern surrounding each chromophore affects the photoreactivity at that site and the competition between the two modes, allowing predicting the photochemistry of this family of antiinflammatory drugs.

  15. [1,4-Bis(diphenylphosphanylbutane-κ2P,P′]dibromidopalladium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Ha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [PdBr2(C28H28P2], the PdII ion has a distorted cis-Br2P2 square-planar coordination geometry defined by two P atoms from the chelating 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphanylbutane ligand and two Br− anions. The four phenyl rings are inclined to the least-squares plane of the PdBr2P2 unit [maximum deviation = 0.1294 (7 Å], making dihedral angles of 66.3 (2, 87.2 (2, 68.8 (2 and 86.8 (2°. The butylene chain is in a gauche conformation, with a C—C—C—C torsion angle of 57.0 (8°. Intermolecular C—H...Br hydrogen bonds link the complex molecules into supramolecular layers in the ab plane. Weak π–π interactions, both intra- and intermolecular [shortest inter-centroid distance = 4.598 (5 Å], are also noted in the three-dimensional architecture.

  16. Trypanocidal Activity of Quinoxaline 1,4 Di-N-oxide Derivatives as Trypanothione Reductase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Fabiola Chacón-Vargas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is a worldwide public health problem. In this work, we evaluated 26 new propyl and isopropyl quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives as potential trypanocidal agents. Additionally, molecular docking and enzymatic assays on trypanothione reductase (TR were performed to provide a basis for their potential mechanism of action. Seven compounds showed better trypanocidal activity on epimastigotes than the reference drugs, and only four displayed activity on trypomastigotes; T-085 was the lead compound with an IC50 = 59.9 and 73.02 µM on NINOA and INC-5 strain, respectively. An in silico analysis proposed compound T-085 as a potential TR inhibitor with better affinity than the natural substrate. Enzymatic analysis revealed that T-085 inhibits parasite TR non-competitively. Compound T-085 carries a carbonyl, a CF3, and an isopropyl carboxylate group at 2-, 3- and 7-position, respectively. These results suggest the chemical structure of this compound as a good starting point for the design and synthesis of novel trypanocidal derivatives with higher TR inhibitory potency and lower toxicity.

  17. Induction of inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor genes by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.

    1996-01-01

    We used differential display, a method designed to amplify partial cDNA sequences from subsets of mRNAs, to identify mRNAs induced by ionizing radiation in human Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cells. Increased expression of a cDNA corresponding to the inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor (InsP 3 R) type 1 was observed after exposure of cells to 3Gy γ-rays. This was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. The increase in mRNA for InsP 3 R type 1 was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the level of InsP 3 R type 1 protein as determined by Western blotting. Exposure of cells from patients with the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), characterized by hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, failed to change the levels of InsP 3 R type 1 mRNA and, as expected, there was no increase in InsP 3 R type 1 protein in A-T cells in response to radiation exposure. Protein levels for two other InsP 3 Rs, types 2 and 3, were observed to increase in control and A-T cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. The induction of the InsP 3 R type 1, which is primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum, may play an important role in radiation signal transduction. (Author)

  18. Mice lacking inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors exhibit dry eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Inaba

    Full Text Available Tear secretion is important as it supplies water to the ocular surface and keeps eyes moist. Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways contribute to tear secretion. Although intracellular Ca2+ elevation in the acinar cells of lacrimal glands is a crucial event for tear secretion in both the pathways, the Ca2+ channel, which is responsible for the Ca2+ elevation in the sympathetic pathway, has not been sufficiently analyzed. In this study, we examined tear secretion in mice lacking the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R types 2 and 3 (Itpr2-/-;Itpr3-/-double-knockout mice. We found that tear secretion in both the parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways was abolished in Itpr2-/-;Itpr3-/- mice. Intracellular Ca2+ elevation in lacrimal acinar cells after acetylcholine and epinephrine stimulation was abolished in Itpr2-/-;Itpr3-/- mice. Consequently, Itpr2-/-;Itpr3-/- mice exhibited keratoconjunctival alteration and corneal epithelial barrier disruption. Inflammatory cell infiltration into the lacrimal glands and elevation of serum autoantibodies, a representative marker for Sjögren's syndrome (SS in humans, were also detected in older Itpr2-/-;Itpr3-/- mice. These results suggested that IP3Rs are essential for tear secretion in both parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways and that Itpr2-/-;Itpr3-/- mice could be a new dry eye mouse model with symptoms that mimic those of SS.

  19. Relationship between post-SARS osteonecrosis and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Zirong; Shi, Zhengcai; Wang, Bailiang; Gao, Fuqiang; Yang, Yurun; Guo, Wanshou

    2014-05-01

    To explore the correlation between post-severe acute respiratory symptom (SARS) patients with osteonecrosis, investigate the etiology of post-SARS osteonecrosis and select the sensitive molecular symbols for early diagnosis and distinguish the high-risk population. The studied subjects were divided into two groups. Sixty-two post-SARS patients with osteonecrosis were one group, and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy people were as normal controlled group. Empty stomach blood samples from cubital veins were collected from both groups. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction and solid phase oligonucleotide assay. The blood agents of post-SARS patients changed obviously with 15.64 ± 13.85 U/ml while the control group 7.96 ± 4.27 U/ml; 4G/4G genotype for the PAI-1 polymorphism detected in post-SARS group was more than that of the control group, but had no statistical significance. The plasma PAI activity was related to homozygote 4G/4G genotype. This reveals that homozygote 4G/4G genotype may be a susceptible gene mark to Chinese osteonecrosis patients. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is sensitive blood symbol for screening high-risk susceptible population; 4G/4G PAI-1 genotype may be an etiological factor in osteonecrosis.

  20. Photostabilization studies of antihypertensive 1,4-dihydropyridines using polymeric containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Michele; Ioele, Giuseppina; Spatari, Claudia; Ragno, Gaetano

    2016-05-30

    1,4-dihydropyridine antihypertensives (DHPs) are almost all dispensed in solid pharmaceutical formulations for their easy lability when exposed to light. This paper reports a study on the photoprotective effect of containers in different glassy or polymeric matrices with regard to four known DHPs when in solutions. The samples were subjected to forced degradation by means of a Xenon lamp, in accordance with the international rules on drug stability evaluation. The simultaneous determination of the drugs and their photoproducts was carried out by applying the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methodology to the spectral data recorded along the irradiation test. This technique was able to determine the kinetic parameters and resolve the spectra of the photoproducts. The time required to reduce by 10% the concentration of the drug (t0.1) was adopted as a criterion to compare the protective ability of the containers. A significant photoprotection for all drugs tested was obtained by the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers. The best result was achieved for the felodipine solution in blue PET transparent bottle of 0.6mm thickness, reaching an almost complete stabilization up to six hours under stressing irradiation. In contrast, the glass containers, whether or not coloured, did not provide a satisfactory photoprotection of the drugs, showing in any case t0.1 values under 24min. These results can be a good opportunity to design new photoprotective pharmaceutical packaging for DHPs in liquid dosage form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and biological assessment of novel acylhydrazone derivatives of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Bouhadir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones are medicinally important molecules with a diverse array of biological properties such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-artherosclerotic and anticarcinogenic activities. In this study, we report the simple and direct preparation of a new group of novel menadione-hydrazone conjugates by reaction of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinones with several aliphatic, aromatic and nucleobase hydrazides. The menadione-hydrazone conjugates were produced in excellent yields and characterized by IR, NMR and HRMS. The menadione derivatives were tested for their anticancer effects against human colon cancer HCT116 and human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. Interestingly, the molecules displayed disparate activities against both cell lines; the menadione hydrazones derived from the lipophilic myristic hydrazide and stearic hydrazide exhibited the most potent activity against HCT116 cell lines with IC50 of 89 and 64 μM. The most effective compounds against MCF-7 cells were the lauric hydrazide and benzoic hydrazide-derived menadione hydrazones with IC50 of 56 µM.

  2. Crystal engineering of novel cocrystals of a triazole drug with 1,4-dicarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenar, Julius F; Morissette, Sherry L; Peterson, Matthew L; Moulton, Brian; MacPhee, J Michael; Guzmán, Héctor R; Almarsson, Orn

    2003-07-16

    Cocrystals of the poorly soluble antifungal drug cis-itraconazole (1) with 1,4-dicarboxylic acids have been prepared. The crystal structure of the succinic acid cocrystal with 1 was determined to be a trimer by single-crystal X-ray. The trimer is comprised of two molecules of 1 oriented in antiparallel fashion to form a pocket with a triazole at either end. The extended succinic acid molecule fills the pocket, bridging the triazole groups through hydrogen-bonding interactions rather than interacting with the more basic piperazine nitrogens. The solubility and dissolution rate of some of the cocrystals are approximately the same as those of the amorphous drug in the commercial formulation and are much higher than those for the crystalline free base. The results suggest that cocrystals of drug molecules have the possibility of achieving the higher oral bioavailability common for amorphous forms of water-insoluble drugs while maintaining the long-term chemical and physical stability that crystal forms provide.

  3. Hexaaquacopper(II bis(tetrafluoridoborate–pyrazine 1,4-dioxide (1/3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan L. Wikaira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, [Cu(H2O6](BF42·3C4H4N2O2, comprises discrete [Cu(H2O6]2+ cations and BF4− anions along with three equivalents of pyrazine 1,4-dioxide (pzdo. The hexaaquacopper(II ion and all three pzdo molecules lie about crystallographic inversion centers. The lattice is supported by an extensive hydrogen-bonding network. O—H...O hydrogen bonding between the [Cu(H2O6]2+ and pzdo units creates a pseudo-hexagonal lattice parallel to the bc plane. The BF4− anions lie in the voids of that lattice, held in place by O—H...F hydrogen bonds, and also generate BF4−–pzdo–BF4−–pzdo stacks via short F...N contacts [2.866 (3–3.283 (4 Å].

  4. Food intake and nutrition in children 1-4 years of age in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuanalo de la Cerda, Heriberto E; Ochoa Estrada, Ernesto; Tuz Poot, Felipe R; Datta Banik, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT in Spanish) reported high rates of under-nutrition in children of Yucatan. Is food intake the main cause of under-nutrition in children of the state of Yucatan, Mexico? Identify the primary causes of under-nutrition in pre-school children in Yucatan. A sample of 111 children (59 girls and 52 boys) aged 1-4 years representing Yucatan was taken from a database of ENSANUT 2006 and another national survey, a federal poverty mitigation programme for the state of Yucatan, Mexico entitled "Oportunidades". A human ecology approach together with life history theory was used to analyse anthropometric indices and food intake data from the ENSANUT 2006 and "Oportunidades". Height and weight were significantly correlated to age and total food intake. No correlations were found between age and anthropometric indices or food intake rates. The children in the sample had adequate protein intake but deficient energy intake. No correlation was identified between nutritional status and food intake rates. Pre-schoolers with higher weight-for-height values achieved greater height-for-age. These relationships can be explained by life history theory in that energy intake was used either for maintenance (combating and recovering from infections) or growth. The poor relationship between food intake rates and nutritional status is probably explained by the interaction between high disease incidence and insufficient energy intake. These conditions are endemic in Yucatan due to widespread poor housing, water and sanitation conditions.

  5. Investigations of 1-(4-propylamino-3-ethyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid capturing CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-(4-propylamino-3-ethyl imidazolium ([Paeim]+ Tetrafluoroborate([BF4]- Ionic liquid (IL, capturing CO2, was explored systematically at B3LYP/6-311++G** and mp2/6-311++G** level. The stable geometries of ILs and capture products were optimized, the energies of these geometries were obtained and corrected by Zero-point-vibration-energy and basis set superposition error correction. The results show that the interactions between [Paeim]+and [BF4]-are mainly displayed as hydrogen bonds, but the interaction energies exceeds -328 kJ/mol. Further analysis found that the interactions are reinforced by charge dispersion and charge redistribution of ion-pair, and that electrostatic attraction contributes much to the interaction energies. This IL system capturing CO2belongs to the class of physical sorption with 1:1 molar absorption ratio, the absorption energy is nearly -18kJ/moland thus this IL may have low energy consumption when regenerated from IL-CO2.

  6. Region-specific proteolysis differentially regulates type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Wagner, Larry E; Alzayady, Kamil J; Yule, David I

    2017-07-14

    The inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor (IP 3 R) is an intracellular Ca 2+ release channel expressed predominately on the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. IP 3 R1 can be cleaved by caspase or calpain into at least two receptor fragments. However, the functional consequences of receptor fragmentation are poorly understood. Our previous work has demonstrated that IP 3 R1 channels, formed following either enzymatic fragmentation or expression of the corresponding complementary polypeptide chains, retain tetrameric architecture and are still activated by IP 3 binding despite the loss of peptide continuity. In this study, we demonstrate that region-specific receptor fragmentation modifies channel regulation. Specifically, the agonist-evoked temporal Ca 2+ release profile and protein kinase A modulation of Ca 2+ release are markedly altered. Moreover, we also demonstrate that activation of fragmented IP 3 R1 can result in a distinct functional outcome. Our work suggests that proteolysis of IP 3 R1 may represent a novel form of modulation of IP 3 R1 channel function and increases the repertoire of Ca 2+ signals achievable through this channel. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of tert-butylbenzene and 1,4-di-tert-butylbenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirico, Robert D.; Steele, William V.

    2009-01-01

    Heat capacities, enthalpies of phase transitions, and derived thermodynamic properties over the temperature range 5 < (T/K) < 442 were determined with adiabatic calorimetry for tert-butylbenzene (TBB) {Chemical Abstracts Service registry number (CASRN) [98-06-6]} and 1,4-di-tert-butylbenzene (DTBB) {CASRN [1012-72-2]}. A crystal to plastic crystal transition very near the triple-point temperature of DTBB was observed. New vapor pressures near the triple-point temperature are also reported for DTBB for the liquid and crystal states. These new measurements, when combined with published results, allow calculation of the thermodynamic properties for the ideal gas state for both compounds. The contribution of the tert-butyl group to the entropy of the ideal gas is determined quantitatively here for the first time based on the calorimetric results over the temperature range 298.15 < (T/K) < 600. Comparisons with literature values are shown for all measured and derived properties, including entropies for the ideal gas derived from quantum chemical calculations

  8. Distribution of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors in Rat Osteoclasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Kazumasa; Goto, Tetsuya; Tanimura, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Maki, Kenshi

    2008-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) receptors (IP 3 Rs) are Ca 2+ channels that localize to intracellular Ca 2+ stores such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recently, IP 3 Rs were found to participate in the formation of the cytoskeleton and cellular adhesions. In this study, we examined the cellular localization of type I, II, and III IP 3 Rs to assess their role in cellular adhesion in rat osteoclasts. Rat bone marrow cells were cultured in α-MEM with 10% fetal bovine serum, M-CSF, RANKL, and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 for 1 week to promote osteoclast formation. Type I, II, and III IP 3 R expression in the osteoclasts was then examined by RT-PCR. Double-staining was performed using antibodies against type I, II, and III IP 3 Rs and DiOC 6 , an ER marker, or TRITC-phalloidin, an actin filament marker. Expression of all three IP 3 Rs was detected in the newly formed osteoclasts; however, the localization of the type I and II IP 3 Rs was predominantly close to nuclear, and possibly colocalized with the ER, while the type III IP 3 Rs were localized to the ER and podosomes, actin-rich adhesion structures in osteoclasts. These findings suggest that type III IP 3 Rs are associated with osteoclast adhesion

  9. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guang; Yao Wang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan

    2009-01-01

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm 2 and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  10. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Guang; Yao Wang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan, E-mail: w-li@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-01-15

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm{sup 2} and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  11. Over expression of beta-1, 4-xylanase by auto-induction in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.I.K.; Sajjad, M.; Akhtar, W.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic domain of β-1, 4-xylanase gene, (xynZ.CD) of Clostridium thermocellum was cloned in pET28a expression vector and over-expressed in Escherichia colt BL21 CodonPlus (RIL). The production of XynZ.CD in E. colt was optimized using different concentrations of lactose and induction of the enzyme at different stages of growth. The maximum growth of the cells and the enzyme activity were observed when the cells were induced with 10mM lactose after 8 hours of incubation. The enzyme was found to constitute >40% of the total cell proteins in the supernatant of the lysed cells transformed with recombinant pET28a/xynZ.CD. It was purified by heating the cell lysate at 65 degree C for 30 m followed by fractionation through FPLC. Molecular weight of XynZ.CD was found to be approximately 38,524 D by MALDI-TOF analysis. The enzyme variant was quite stable within broad pH range of 5.5 - 8.0 and it retained >85% of xylanase activity after 2 h incubation at 70 degre C. (author)

  12. Design data for the 1/4-in. thick alloy 718 in-pile tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, W.G.

    1977-05-01

    Design data applicable to the proposed 0.64-cm (1/4-in.) thick inpile tube (IPT) used in the experimental test loop of the Power Burst Facility (PBF) are reported, together with fracture toughness results which were also desired to complement the design data. These data were required for temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 811 K (1000 0 F). Tests were conducted on transverse-oriented specimens for base metal and longitudinal- and transverse-oriented weld metal specimens. Tensile test results from base metal (Heats 3 and 6) and weld metal (Heat C), for test temperatures ranging from RT to 811 K (1000 0 F), were used to develop curves for ultimate and yield tensile strength. The design fatigue curves for transverse-oriented base metal and longitudinal- and transverse-oriented weld metal specimens were developed using the tensile test results plus an analytical approach. Experimental fatigue data were generated to augment the analytically determined values. The design curves for cycles to failure ranging from 10 1 to 10 6 and for temperatures for RT to 811 K (1000 0 F) are contained in this report. Instrumented precracked-Charpy specimens were tested over a range of temperatures to provide some estimate of the dynamic fracture toughness (K/sub Id/). On the basis of these tests, K/sub Id/ values for the base metal and weldments are quite satisfactory

  13. Quinoxaline 1, 4-di-N-oxides: Biological activities and mechanisms of actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyue eCheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxaline 1, 4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs have manifold biological properties, including antimicrobial, antitumoral, antitrypanosomal and antiinflammatory/antioxidant activities. These diverse activities endow them broad applications and prospects in human and veterinary medicines. As QdNOs arouse widespread interest, the evaluation of their medicinal chemistry is still in progress. In the meantime, adverse effects have been reported in some of the QdNO derivatives. For example, genotoxicity and bacterial resistance have been found in QdNO antibacterial growth promoters, conferring urgent need for discovery of new QdNO drugs. However, the modes of actions of QdNOs are not fully understood, hindering the development and innovation of these promising compounds. Here, QdNOs are categorized based on the activities and usages, among which the antimicrobial activities are consist of antibacterial, antimycobacterial and anticandida activities, and the antiprotozoal activities include antitrypanosomal, antimalarial, antitrichomonas and antiamoebic activities. The structure-activity relationship and the mode of actions of each type of activity of QdNOs are summarized, and the toxicity and the underlying mechanisms are also discussed, providing insight for the future research and development of these fascinating compounds.

  14. Rescue and Calibration of NIMBUS 1-4 IR Film Products, 1964 TO 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T.; Campbell, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    Digital data exists from the high resolution infrared instruments on Nimbus 1 to 4 for about 1/4 of the possible orbits for parts of 1964, 1966, 1969 and 1970. We are now digitizing and navigating 35 mm film products from those instruments into digital files. Some of those orbits overlap with the digital data so we can "calibrate" the gray scale pictures into temperatures by comparison. Then that calibration can be extended to orbits with no digital data. This greatly improves the coverage of the night time IR view of the earth. Ultimately these data will be inserted into the NASA archive for general use. We will review our progress on this project and discuss an error estimate for the calibration of the HRIR (High Resolution Infrared Radiometer) data from Nimbus 1, 2 and 3 as well as the THIR (Thermal Infrared Radiometer) data on Nimbus 4. These more complete Infrared views of the Earth provide the opportunity to better understand the weather in this period. Comparisons will be made with pre-satellite era reanalysis products.

  15. Synthesis and biological activity of fused tetracyclic Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel K. Annor-Gyamfi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains the second major cause of death in the world. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify potential synthetic route for the development of novel anticancer agents which will serve as lead compounds to effectively combat this life-threatening epidemic. Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs have sparked a great interest as lead compounds because of their cancerostatic and anti-infective properties. The twisted molecular structure of PBD analogs provides both helical and chiral elements. In an effort to expand novel PBDs that interact with the key exocyclic amino group of the DNA-guanine base, we hypothesized that construction of a fused cyclic active system, would likely serve as an electrophilic site when compared to traditional electrophilic C11-N10 imine group. To examine our theory, we report herein the synthesis and cell viability/cytotoxicity of a series of PBD analogs using NCI-60 cell lines screening. Thus, compounds 1–13 were synthesized and fully characterized. The selected PBDs were found to have marginal inhibition of growth, up to 30%, for certain cell lines.

  16. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Human Parainfluenza Viruses 1-4 in Children from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linster, Martin; Do, Lien Anh Ha; Minh, Ngo Ngoc Quang; Chen, Yihui; Zhe, Zhu; Tuan, Tran Anh; Tuan, Ha Manh; Su, Yvonne C F; van Doorn, H Rogier; Moorthy, Mahesh; Smith, Gavin J D

    2018-05-01

    HPIVs are serologically and genetically grouped into four species that account for up to 10% of all hospitalizations due to acute respiratory infection in children under the age of five. Genetic and epidemiological data for the four HPIVs derived from two pediatric cohorts in Viet Nam are presented. Respiratory samples were screened for HPIV1-4 by real-time PCR. Demographic and clinical data of patients infected with different HPIV were compared. We used a hemi-nested PCR approach to generate viral genome sequences from HPIV-positive samples and conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. In total, 170 samples tested positive for HPIV. HPIV3 was most commonly detected in our cohort and 80 co-detections of HPIV with other respiratory viruses were found. Phylogenetic analyses suggest local endemic circulation as well as punctuated introductions of new HPIV lineages. Viral gene flow analysis revealed that Viet Nam is a net importer of viral genetic diversity. Epidemiological analyses imply similar disease severity for all HPIV species. HPIV sequences from Viet Nam formed local clusters and were interspersed with sequences from diverse geographic regions. Combined, this new knowledge will help to investigate global HPIV circulation patterns in more detail and ultimately define more suitable vaccine strains.

  17. Synthesis and physical-chemical properties of 8-benzylidenhydrazino-1-(4-fluorobenzyltheobromine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Ivanchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is thesynthesis and research of physical and chemical properties of earlier undescribed 1,8-disubstituted of theobromine, which are potential biologically active compounds. Materials and Methods of Research The melting point has been determined with the help of an open capillary method with TAP device (M. Elemental analysis has been performed with the help of the instrument ElementarVario L cube, NMR-spectra have been taken on a spectrometer Bruker SF-400 (operating frequency of 400 MHz, solvent DMSO-d6, internal standard – TMS. IR-spectra have been taken on Bruker Alpha Device Company in the 4000-400 cm-1area using console ATR (direct input material.These data correspond to thecalculated elemental analysis. Results and their discussion To achieve our goal, 8-bromotheobromine (1, obtained by the established method [9] of oxidizing theobrominebromination, has been selected as initial compound.8-Bromo-1-(4-fluorobenzyltheobromine (2has been synthesized with high entrance by bromotheobromine(1 and p-fluorobenzylchlorideboiling in dimethylformamide, in the presence of anequimolaramount of potassium caronate. Through the interaction of bromoxanthine (2 with the excess of hydrazine hydrate in the aqueous dioxanean 8-hydrazine-1(4-fluorobenzyltheobromine (3has been obtained, which under short-time heating up with aldehydes, isatin or 5-bromoisatin in aqueous dioxane, also presented with equimolaramount of НClconcentr.form respective ylidenhydrazine derivatives of 1-(4-fluorobenzyltheobromine(4-13,which represent coloured crystalline compounds, insoluble in water, diethyl ether and lower alcohols, whilesoluble in hot dioxane, dimethylformamide and dimethylsulphoxide. To prove the structure of synthesized compounds, their NMR spectrahave beenrecorded and interpreted. In bromoxanthine spectrum (2 the presence of p-fluorobenzyl group in position 1 is clearly demonstrated by2 triplets of aromatic protons at 7.34 ppm and 7.09ppm with

  18. The synthesis and properties of 1-(4-iodo-5nitroimidazolyl)-2-hydroxy-3 methoxypropane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L.I.; Jette, D.C.; Mercer, J.R.; Samuel, B.; Flanagan, R.J.; Lee, J.; Meeker, B.E.; Chapman, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    1-(4-iodo-5- nitroimdazolyl) 2-hidroxy-3-methoxypropane (NHMP) has been synthesized and radiolabelled with 131 I for use as an in vivo marker of tumor hypoxia.4-I-5-NHMP was found to be a potent radiosensitizer of hypoxic EMT-6 cells in culture, being 5-10 times more potent than misonidazole (MISO). The oxygen enhancement ratio (O.E.R.) for these cells t 10% survival was 2,85. Cytotoxicity studies with cultured EMT-6 cells produced 50 % growth inhibition at 0.07 mM, a toxicity about 50 greater than MISO toxicity under identical conditions. However, studies of the uptake of 131 I-labelled 4-I-5-NHMP in both aerobic and hypoxic EMT-6 cells showed no metabolic dependent or hypoxia-specific uptake of the radiolabel. High pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) examination of the cultured medium indicated that rapid metabolic deiodination took place in both oxygenated and hypoxic cell cultures, and that nitro-reduction occurred under hypoxic conditions. These data suggested that a deiodinated metabolite of 4-I-5-NHMP, rather than the parent compound, is the radiosensitizing species. In scintigraphic studies, uptake of radioiodide by the thyroid was consistent with rapid in vivo deiodination after i.v. injection of 4- 131 I-5-NHMP into a normal Sprague-Dawley rat or into mice bearing sub-cutaneous implanted Lewis lung carcinomas. (Author) [es

  19. Discovery of radio emission from the symbiotic X-ray binary system GX 1+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnden, J.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Rupen, M. P.

    2018-02-01

    We report the discovery of radio emission from the accreting X-ray pulsar and symbiotic X-ray binary GX 1+4 with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. This is the first radio detection of such a system, wherein a strongly magnetized neutron star accretes from the stellar wind of an M-type giant companion. We measure a 9 GHz radio flux density of 105.3 ± 7.3 μJy, but cannot place meaningful constraints on the spectral index due to a limited frequency range. We consider several emission mechanisms that could be responsible for the observed radio source. We conclude that the observed properties are consistent with shocks in the interaction of the accretion flow with the magnetosphere, a synchrotron-emitting jet, or a propeller-driven outflow. The stellar wind from the companion is unlikely to be the origin of the radio emission. If the detected radio emission originates from a jet, it would show that strong magnetic fields (≥1012 G) do not necessarily suppress jet formation.

  20. A planet in a polar orbit of 1.4 solar-mass star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although more than a thousand transiting extrasolar planets have been discovered, only very few of them orbit stars that are more massive than the Sun. The discovery of such planets is interesting, because they have formed in disks that are more massive but had a shorter life time than those of solar-like stars. Studies of planets more massive than the Sun thus tell us how the properties of the proto-planetary disks effect the formation of planets. Another aspect that makes these planets interesting is that they have kept their original orbital inclinations. By studying them we can thus find out whether the orbital axes planets are initially aligned to the stars rotational axes, or not. Here we report on the discovery of a planet of a 1.4 solar-mass star with a period of 5.6 days in a polar orbit made by CoRoT. This new planet thus is one of the few known close-in planets orbiting a star that is substantially more massive than the Sun.

  1. Galaxy kinematics in the XMMU J2235-2557 cluster field at z 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, J. M.; Ziegler, B.; Verdugo, M.; Böhm, A.; Tanaka, M.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: The relationship between baryonic and dark components in galaxies varies with the environment and cosmic time. Galaxy scaling relations describe strong trends between important physical properties. A very important quantitative tool in case of spiral galaxies is the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR), which combines the luminosity of the stellar population with the characteristic rotational velocity (Vmax) taken as proxy for the total mass. In order to constrain galaxy evolution in clusters, we need measurements of the kinematic status of cluster galaxies at the starting point of the hierarchical assembly of clusters and the epoch when cosmic star formation peaks. Methods: We took spatially resolved slit FORS2 spectra of 19 cluster galaxies at z 1.4, and 8 additional field galaxies at 1 200 km s-1). This mild evolution may be driven by younger stellar populations (SP) of distant galaxies with respect to their local counterparts, and thus, an increasing luminosity is expected toward higher redshifts. However, the low-mass subsample (Vmax medium. Based on observations with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (ESO-VLT), observing run ID 091.B-0778(B).

  2. Charge transport through conducting organic poly(2-methoxy-5- (2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Misra, Aparna; Kamalasanan, M N; Jain, S C; Kumar, Vikram

    2007-01-01

    Current-voltage (J-V) characteristics of poly(2-methoxy-5- (2-ethyhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene)(MEH-PPV) have been studied in the hole-only devices ITO/PEDOT : PSS/MEH-PPV/Au, as a function of temperature from 300 to 98 K. Hole conduction in MEH-PPV has been well explained by an exponential trap-controlled drift model. In a considerable range of applied voltages, current obeys the power law J ∼ V l+1 , where l = T c /T and T c is the characteristic temperature of the exponential trap distribution. Assuming the effective density of states N ν = 2.7 x 10 18 cm -3 , the holes trap density (H b ) and characteristic temperature (T c ) have been calculated to be 1 x 10 18 cm -3 and 550 K, respectively. As the voltage further increases current deviates and becomes smaller than J ∼ V l+1 . At low temperatures and sufficiently high-applied voltages, current follows the V 2 law. At higher temperatures slopes less than 2 of the log J-log V plots have been observed. The possible reasons for this behaviour are mentioned

  3. Climate applications for NOAA 1/4° Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, T.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Saha, K.; Wilson, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Few sea surface temperature (SST) datasets from satellites have the long temporal span needed for climate studies. The NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (DOISST) on a 1/4° grid, produced at National Centers for Environmental Information, is based primarily on SSTs from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), available from 1981 to the present. AVHRR data can contain biases, particularly when aerosols are present. Over the three decade span, the largest departure of AVHRR SSTs from buoy temperatures occurred during the Mt Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions. Therefore, in DOISST, AVHRR SSTs are bias-adjusted to match in situ SSTs prior to interpolation. This produces a consistent time series of complete SST fields that is suitable for modelling and investigating local climate phenomena like El Nino or the Pacific warm blob in a long term context. Because many biological processes and animal distributions are temperature dependent, there are also many ecological uses of DOISST (e.g., coral bleaching thermal stress, fish and marine mammal distributions), thereby providing insights into resource management in a changing ocean. The advantages and limitations of using DOISST for different applications will be discussed.

  4. Potential for cometabolic biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane in aquifers with methane or ethane as primary substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, Paul B; Banerjee, Rahul; Rezes, Rachael; Streger, Sheryl H; McClay, Kevin; Schaefer, Charles E

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential for two gases, methane and ethane, to stimulate the biological degradation of 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) in groundwater aquifers via aerobic cometabolism. Experiments with aquifer microcosms, enrichment cultures from aquifers, mesophilic pure cultures, and purified enzyme (soluble methane monooxygenase; sMMO) were conducted. During an aquifer microcosm study, ethane was observed to stimulate the aerobic biodegradation of 1,4-D. An ethane-oxidizing enrichment culture from these samples, and a pure culture capable of growing on ethane (Mycobacterium sphagni ENV482) that was isolated from a different aquifer also biodegraded 1,4-D. Unlike ethane, methane was not observed to appreciably stimulate the biodegradation of 1,4-D in aquifer microcosms or in methane-oxidizing mixed cultures enriched from two different aquifers. Three different pure cultures of mesophilic methanotrophs also did not degrade 1,4-D, although each rapidly oxidized 1,1,2-trichloroethene (TCE). Subsequent studies showed that 1,4-D is not a substrate for purified sMMO enzyme from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, at least not at the concentrations evaluated, which significantly exceeded those typically observed at contaminated sites. Thus, our data indicate that ethane, which is a common daughter product of the biotic or abiotic reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethanes and ethenes, may serve as a substrate to enhance 1,4-D degradation in aquifers, particularly in zones where these products mix with aerobic groundwater. It may also be possible to stimulate 1,4-D biodegradation in an aerobic aquifer through addition of ethane gas. Conversely, our results suggest that methane may have limited importance in natural attenuation or for enhancing biodegradation of 1,4-D in groundwater environments.

  5. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Physics Requirements and Experimental Conditions (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    How is the anticipated physics program of a future e+e- collider shaping the R&D for new detectors in collider particle physics ? This presentation will review the main physics requirements and experimental conditions comparing to LHC and LEP. In particular, I shall discuss how e+e- experimentation is expected to change moving from LEP-2 up to multi-TeV energies.

  6. Activated Persulfate Treatment of 1,4-Dioxane in the Presence of Chlorinated Solvent Co-contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boving, T. T.; Eberle, D. E. H.; Ball, R.

    2014-12-01

    1,4-dioxane is an emerging groundwater contaminant and a likely human carcinogen. Due to its history as a stabilizer in chlorinated solvents, 1,4-dioxane is often found as a co-contaminant at solvent releases sites such as landfills, solvent recycling facilities, vapor decreasing operations, and fire-training areas. Historically, 1,4-dioxane was not routinely analyzed for at solvent release sites. The lack of analyses and the limitations of the analyses that were performed (i.e. high reporting limits) means that the scale of 1,4-dioxane subsurface contamination is still emerging. With the number of known 1,4-dioxane sites increasing, the need for cost effective 1,4-dioxane remediation technologies is rising as well. Remediation strategies that are capable of treating both 1,4-dioxane as well as chlorinated co-contaminants are of particular importance, especially when treating mixed-waste source zones. In the present study, we examined the fate of 1,4-dioxane during the targeted remediation of aqueous phase volatile organic compounds (VOC) using an activated persulfate based ISCO method (OxyZone®). Bench scale laboratory experiments are used to evaluate the treatability of 1,4-dioxane both as a single compound and in the presence of trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA). Possible dependencies on oxidant concentration and reaction kinetics were studied. Preliminary results are promising and show that OxyZone® is persistent and long lived, with oxidation of 1,4-dioxane continuing more than 12 days after initial dosage, even at dilute oxidant concentrations. The oxidative destruction of 1,4-dioxane, TCE and 1,1,1-TCA in single compound batch systems followed pseudo first order reaction kinetics. The rate of oxidation for each contaminant increased linearly with increasing persulfate concentration over the range of oxidant concentrations tested. The rate of oxidative destruction, from most easily degraded to least was: TCE > 1,4-Dioxane > 1

  7. Lineage-related cytotoxicity and clonogenic profile of 1,4-benzoquinone-exposed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Paik Wah [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey, E-mail: zyantey@ukm.edu.my [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chan, Kok Meng [Environmental Health and Industrial Safety Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan Hussain [Environmental Health and Industrial Safety Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Rajab, Nor Fadilah [Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Abdul Muda Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are sensitive targets for benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemogenesis. The impact of benzene exposure on the complex microenvironment of HSCs and HPCs remains elusive. This study aims to investigate the mechanism linking benzene exposure to targeting HSCs and HPCs using phenotypic and clonogenic analyses. Mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were exposed ex vivo to the benzene metabolite, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), for 24 h. Expression of cellular surface antigens for HSC (Sca-1), myeloid (Gr-1, CD11b), and lymphoid (CD45, CD3e) populations were confirmed by flow cytometry. The clonogenicity of cells was studied using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay for multilineage (CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM) and single-lineage (CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M) progenitors. 1,4-BQ demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in mouse BM cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased (p < 0.05) following 1,4-BQ exposure. Exposure to 1,4-BQ showed no significant effect on CD3e{sup +} cells but reduced the total counts of Sca-1{sup +}, CD11b{sup +}, Gr-1{sup +}, and CD45{sup +} cells at 7 and 12 μM (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the CFU assay showed reduced (p < 0.05) clonogenicity in 1,4-BQ-treated cells. 1,4-BQ induced CFU-dependent cytotoxicity by significantly inhibiting colony growth for CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M starting at a low concentration of exposure (5 μM); whereas for the CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM, the inhibition of colony growth was remarkable only at 7 and 12 μM of 1,4-BQ, respectively. Taken together, 1,4-BQ caused lineage-related cytotoxicity in mouse HPCs, demonstrating greater toxicity in single-lineage progenitors than in those of multi-lineage. - Highlights: • We examine 1,4-BQ toxicity targeting mouse hematopoietic cell lineages. • 1,4-BQ induces concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in bone marrow (BM) cells. • 1,4-BQ shows lineage-related toxicity on hematopoietic stem and

  8. Lineage-related cytotoxicity and clonogenic profile of 1,4-benzoquinone-exposed hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Paik Wah; Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey; Chan, Kok Meng; Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan Hussain; Rajab, Nor Fadilah

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are sensitive targets for benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemogenesis. The impact of benzene exposure on the complex microenvironment of HSCs and HPCs remains elusive. This study aims to investigate the mechanism linking benzene exposure to targeting HSCs and HPCs using phenotypic and clonogenic analyses. Mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were exposed ex vivo to the benzene metabolite, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), for 24 h. Expression of cellular surface antigens for HSC (Sca-1), myeloid (Gr-1, CD11b), and lymphoid (CD45, CD3e) populations were confirmed by flow cytometry. The clonogenicity of cells was studied using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay for multilineage (CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM) and single-lineage (CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M) progenitors. 1,4-BQ demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in mouse BM cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased (p < 0.05) following 1,4-BQ exposure. Exposure to 1,4-BQ showed no significant effect on CD3e + cells but reduced the total counts of Sca-1 + , CD11b + , Gr-1 + , and CD45 + cells at 7 and 12 μM (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the CFU assay showed reduced (p < 0.05) clonogenicity in 1,4-BQ-treated cells. 1,4-BQ induced CFU-dependent cytotoxicity by significantly inhibiting colony growth for CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M starting at a low concentration of exposure (5 μM); whereas for the CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM, the inhibition of colony growth was remarkable only at 7 and 12 μM of 1,4-BQ, respectively. Taken together, 1,4-BQ caused lineage-related cytotoxicity in mouse HPCs, demonstrating greater toxicity in single-lineage progenitors than in those of multi-lineage. - Highlights: • We examine 1,4-BQ toxicity targeting mouse hematopoietic cell lineages. • 1,4-BQ induces concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in bone marrow (BM) cells. • 1,4-BQ shows lineage-related toxicity on hematopoietic stem and progenitors. • 1,4-BQ

  9. Abiotic and bioaugmented granular activated carbon for the treatment of 1,4-dioxane-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Michelle A; Johnson, Nicholas W; Marin, Erick Zerecero; Pornwongthong, Peerapong; Liu, Yun; Gedalanga, Phillip B; Mahendra, Shaily

    2018-06-04

    1,4-Dioxane is a probable human carcinogen and an emerging contaminant that has been detected in surface water and groundwater resources. Many conventional water treatment technologies are not effective for the removal of 1,4-dioxane due to its high water solubility and chemical stability. Biological degradation is a potentially low-cost, energy-efficient approach to treat 1,4-dioxane-contaminated waters. Two bacterial strains, Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 (CB1190) and Mycobacterium austroafricanum JOB5 (JOB5), have been previously demonstrated to break down 1,4-dioxane through metabolic and co-metabolic pathways, respectively. However, both CB1190 and JOB5 have been primarily studied in laboratory planktonic cultures, while most environmental microbes grow in biofilms on surfaces. Another treatment technology, adsorption, has not historically been considered an effective means of removing 1,4-dioxane due to the contaminant's low K oc and K ow values. We report that the granular activated carbon (GAC), Norit 1240, is an adsorbent with high affinity for 1,4-dioxane as well as physical dimensions conducive to attached bacterial growth. In abiotic batch reactor studies, 1,4-dioxane adsorption was reversible to a large extent. By bioaugmenting GAC with 1,4-dioxane-degrading microbes, the adsorption reversibility was minimized while achieving greater 1,4-dioxane removal when compared with abiotic GAC (95-98% reduction of initial 1,4-dioxane as compared to an 85-89% reduction of initial 1,4-dioxane, respectively). Bacterial attachment and viability was visualized using fluorescence microscopy and confirmed by amplification of taxonomic genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and an ATP assay. Filtered samples of industrial wastewater and contaminated groundwater were also tested in the bioaugmented GAC reactors. Both CB1190 and JOB5 demonstrated 1,4-dioxane removal greater than that of the abiotic adsorbent controls. This study suggests that

  10. Material Property Correlations: Comparisons between FRAPCON-3.4, FRAPTRAN 1.4, and MATPRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Geelhood, Kenneth J.

    2010-08-01

    Sections 3 and 4, respectively. In addition to describing the material property correlations used in the subroutines of FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN, this report also provides a variety of comparisons between material property correlations and data. Although they are frequently identical, comparisons are made between the material property correlations used in the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN codes. Comparisons are also made between the material property correlations used in MATPRO, a compilation of fuel and cladding material property correlations with an extensive history of used with various fuel performance and severe accident codes. For a number of reasons, consistency between the material property correlations in FRAPCON-3, FRAPTRAN, and MATPRO has never been complete. However, the current versions of FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN use a relatively consistent set of correlations for the properties that are used by both codes. The material property correlations in the most recent version of MATPRO are documented in Volume 4 of NUREG/CR-6150. In addition to comparison of the various correlations, correlation-to-data comparisons are also made with FRAPCON-3, FRAPTRAN, and MATPRO. All comparisons made in this report are based on the material property correlations used in the most recent version of the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN codes, FRAPCON-3.4 and FRAPTRAN 1.4. The source code for each material property correlation discussed will be provided for FRAPCON-3.4 and FRAPTRAN 1.4 (see appendix) as well as a range of applicability and an estimate of uncertainty where possible.

  11. Sorption, mobility, and fate of 1,4,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.; Hakk, H. [USDA ARS Biosciences Research Lab., Fargo (United States); Fan, Z.; Casey, F. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Most dioxins are released into the environment through low temperature combustion processes, which include waste incineration and metal refining. Incineration of medical and municipal wastes in the early 1990s was estimated to generate 0.7g -5 kg dioxin Toxic Equivalents (TEQ)/yr and 2-3 kg TEQ/yr of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) emissions, respectively. Governmental regulatory controls on waste incinerators have resulted in an annual decrease of dioxins/furans emissions from 13.5 kg TEQ/yr to 2.8 kg TEQ/yr from 1987 to 1995. Recently backyard burning of household waste has been shown to produce more PCDDs/PCDFs per mass burned than a typical modern municipal waste incinerator and has been estimated to account for 22% of the dioxin emissions in North America from 1996-1997. These combustion processes result in direct deposition of dioxins on soil. While degradation studies of PCDDs/PCDFs have been conducted on contaminated soils, little is known about the sorption, transport, and fate of dioxins in various soil types. 1,4,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1478-TCDD) was also found to be a significant congener of the dioxins in ball clay.7 Ball clay had been used as an anti-caking agent in soybean meal of animal feed but its use has subsequently been discontinued. The main goal of this study was to identify the fate and transport of 1478-TCDD in various soils and sand through the use of laboratory batch and soil column experiments.

  12. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and coronary artery disease risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongshu; Jiang, Weihong; Ouyang, Mao; Yang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G polymorphism and this association with coronary artery disease (CAD). But definite conclusions can not be drawn. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 10 August 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 53 studies including 20921 CAD cases and 18434 controls were included. Significantly elevated CAD risk was found in overall analysis (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05-1.21, P = 0.0009). In the subgroup analysis by races, significantly increased risk was found in Caucasians (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.20, P = 0.005) and Asians (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.42, P = 0.04). In the subgroup analysis by gender, significant association was found in males (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.25, P = 0.0008), but was not found in females (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92-1.20, P = 0.47). In the subgroup analysis by age, young populations showed increased CAD risk (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.37, P = 0.02), but old populations did not show this association (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.82-1.24, P = 0.93). This meta-analysis provides the evidence that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may contribute to the CAD development.

  13. Cell proliferation studies in rodent hepatocytes during 1,4-dichlorobenzene administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, S.R.; Tilbury, L.F.; Randall, H.; Goldsworthy, T.L.; Butterworth, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    In the NTP bioassay, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB) induced hepatocellular carcinomas in mice, but not in rats. Because DCB is not DNA reactive, a cell proliferation study under conditions of the bioassay was undertaken to determine whether increased cell proliferation might play a role in DCB-induced hepatocarcinogenicity. DCB was administered in corn oil by gavage at the highest bioassay dose to male B6C3F1 mice (600 mg/kg) and male F344 rats (300 mg/kg) for five consecutive days. Cell proliferation was detected by labeling hepatocytes with either 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BRDU) or 3 H-thymidine delivered during the entire treatment period by subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps. An increase in liver weight as a percentage of body weight was observed in treated mice (6.7±0.6 vs. 5.9±0.2) and rats (4.7±0.1 vs. 4.0±0.2) compared to controls. No significant elevations in plasma enzymes were found in either treated species, indicating a lack of overt hepatotoxicity. Histopathological evaluation revealed no evidence of hepatotoxicity in either species. The percentage of hepatocytes in S-phase was increased approximately 10-fold in both treated mice and rats compared to the respective control animals. Mice exhibited a centrilobular pattern of labeled hepatocytes, whereas rat hepatocytes were labeled hepatocytes, whereas rat hepatocytes were labeled throughout the lobules. These data demonstrate the hepatic mitogenic activity of DCB in mice and rats. However, this response dose not correlate with DCB-induced hepatocarcinogenicity. Further studies are required to examine the extent, duration and nature of the proliferative response in order to understand the species-specific effects of DCB

  14. Ionothermal synthesis, structures, properties of cobalt-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate metal–organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zong-Hui [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, Shaanxi Province (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fsuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, Shaanxi Province (China); Jiao, Huan, E-mail: jiaohuan@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2016-06-15

    Eight kinds of 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium halide [RMI]X (R=ethyl (E), propyl (P), butyl (B) and amyl (A); MI = imidazolium; X= Cl{sup −}, I{sup −}) ionic liquids (ILs) were used as reaction media and obtained a series of 2D [RMI]{sub 2}[Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}X{sub 2}] frameworks through the ionothermal reactions of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}BDC) with Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O. The 2D [RMI]{sub 2}[Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}X{sub 2}] frameworks exhibit a same (3,6) topology network with [RMI]{sup +} cations locating in the interlayer space. [RMI]{sup +} cations play a template role in the structure constructions, whose influence combining with the effect of X{sup −} anions pass to the TG behaviors. The decomposition temperatures of the [RMI]{sub 2}[Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}X{sub 2}] frameworks decrease with the alkyl chains in [RMI]{sup +} cations, and the compounds containing Cl{sup −} show higher thermal stabilities than those with I{sup −}. However, compounds 1–8 exhibit two similar broad emissions at ca. 380 and 390 nm, assigned to ILCT. The RMI{sup +} templates and the X{sup −} anions do not exert their influence on the fluorescence. - Graphical abstract: Eight 2D [RMI]{sub 2}[Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}X{sub 2}] compounds were synthesized through ionothermal reactions. [RMI]{sup +} cations play a template role in the structure constructions, and tune the TG behaviors combining with the effect of X{sup −} anions. Display Omitted.

  15. Proteolytic fragmentation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors: a novel mechanism regulating channel activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Alzayady, Kamil J; Yule, David I

    2016-06-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 Rs) are a family of ubiquitously expressed intracellular Ca(2+) release channels. Regulation of channel activity by Ca(2+) , nucleotides, phosphorylation, protein binding partners and other cellular factors is thought to play a major role in defining the specific spatiotemporal characteristics of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. These properties are, in turn, believed pivotal for the selective and specific physiological activation of Ca(2+) -dependent effectors. IP3 Rs are also substrates for the intracellular cysteine proteases, calpain and caspase. Cleavage of the IP3 R has been proposed to play a role in apoptotic cell death by uncoupling regions important for IP3 binding from the channel domain, leaving an unregulated leaky Ca(2+) pore. Contrary to this hypothesis, we demonstrate following proteolysis that N- and C-termini of IP3 R1 remain associated, presumably through non-covalent interactions. Further, we show that complementary fragments of IP3 R1 assemble into tetrameric structures and retain their ability to be regulated robustly by IP3 . While peptide continuity is clearly not necessary for IP3 -gating of the channel, we propose that cleavage of the IP3 R peptide chain may alter other important regulatory events to modulate channel activity. In this scenario, stimulation of the cleaved IP3 R may support distinct spatiotemporal Ca(2+) signals and activation of specific effectors. Notably, in many adaptive physiological events, the non-apoptotic activities of caspase and calpain are demonstrated to be important, but the substrates of the proteases are poorly defined. We speculate that proteolytic fragmentation may represent a novel form of IP3 R regulation, which plays a role in varied adaptive physiological processes. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  16. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and coronary artery disease risk: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongshu; Jiang, Weihong; Ouyang, Mao; Yang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G polymorphism and this association with coronary artery disease (CAD). But definite conclusions can not be drawn. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) till 10 August 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 53 studies including 20921 CAD cases and 18434 controls were included. Significantly elevated CAD risk was found in overall analysis (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05-1.21, P = 0.0009). In the subgroup analysis by races, significantly increased risk was found in Caucasians (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.20, P = 0.005) and Asians (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.42, P = 0.04). In the subgroup analysis by gender, significant association was found in males (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.25, P = 0.0008), but was not found in females (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92-1.20, P = 0.47). In the subgroup analysis by age, young populations showed increased CAD risk (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.37, P = 0.02), but old populations did not show this association (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.82-1.24, P = 0.93). This meta-analysis provides the evidence that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may contribute to the CAD development. PMID:25932140

  17. Crystal Structure of Hyperthermophilic Endo-β-1,4-glucanase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baisong; Yang, Wen; Zhao, Xinyu; Wang, Yuguo; Lou, Zhiyong; Rao, Zihe; Feng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Endo-β-1,4-glucanase from thermophilic Fervidobacterium nodosum Rt17-B1 (FnCel5A), a new member of glycosyl hydrolase family 5, is highly thermostable and exhibits the highest activity on carboxymethylcellulose among the reported homologues. To understand the structural basis for the thermostability and catalytic mechanism, we report here the crystal structures of FnCel5A and the complex with glucose at atomic resolution. FnCel5A exhibited a (β/α)8-barrel structure typical of clan GH-A of the glycoside hydrolase families with a large and deep catalytic pocket located in the C-terminal end of the β-strands that may permit substrate access. A comparison of the structure of FnCel5A with related structures from thermopile Clostridium thermocellum, mesophile Clostridium cellulolyticum, and psychrophile Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis showed significant differences in intramolecular interactions (salt bridges and hydrogen bonds) that may account for the difference in their thermostabilities. The substrate complex structure in combination with a mutagenesis analysis of the catalytic residues implicates a distinctive catalytic module Glu167-His226-Glu283, which suggests that the histidine may function as an intermediate for the electron transfer network between the typical Glu-Glu catalytic module. Further investigation suggested that the aromatic residues Trp61, Trp204, Phe231, and Trp240 as well as polar residues Asn51, His127, Tyr228, and His235 in the active site not only participated in substrate binding but also provided a unique microenvironment suitable for catalysis. These results provide substantial insight into the unique characteristics of FnCel5A for catalysis and adaptation to extreme temperature. PMID:22128157

  18. Novel 1,4-naphthoquinone-based sulfonamides: Synthesis, QSAR, anticancer and antimalarial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingaew, Ratchanok; Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-10-20

    A novel series of 1,4-naphthoquinones (33-44) tethered by open and closed chain sulfonamide moieties were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic and antimalarial activities. All quinone-sulfonamide derivatives displayed a broad spectrum of cytotoxic activities against all of the tested cancer cell lines including HuCCA-1, HepG2, A549 and MOLT-3. Most quinones (33-36 and 38-43) exerted higher anticancer activity against HepG2 cell than that of the etoposide. The open chain analogs 36 and 42 were shown to be the most potent compounds. Notably, the restricted sulfonamide analog 38 with 6,7-dimethoxy groups exhibited the most potent antimalarial activity (IC₅₀ = 2.8 μM). Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study was performed to reveal important chemical features governing the biological activities. Five constructed QSAR models provided acceptable predictive performance (Rcv 0.5647-0.9317 and RMSEcv 0.1231-0.2825). Four additional sets of structurally modified compounds were generated in silico (34a-34d, 36a-36k, 40a-40d and 42a-42k) in which their activities were predicted using the constructed QSAR models. A comprehensive discussion of the structure-activity relationships was made and a set of promising compounds (i.e., 33, 36, 38, 42, 36d, 36f, 42e, 42g and 42f) was suggested for further development as anticancer and antimalarial agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in 1,4-dichlorobenzene mothballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui; Xing, Ying; Wang, Dongshen; Zhao, Xingru; Gao, Lirong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences

    2004-09-15

    The chemical 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), also called paramoth, is one of the chemicals commonly used to make mothballs. For the more than 20 years, p-DCB has been used principally (35-55% of all uses) as a space deodorant for toilets and refuse containers, and as a fumigant for control of moths, molds, and mildews. The process of production of p-DCB currently used by industry is direct chlorination of benzene or chlorobenzene in the presence of a Friedel-Crafts catalyst (typically FeCl{sub 3}), and the pure products of p-DCB are obtained by distillation and crystallization from the mixture of polychlorinated benzenes. This process is similar to that of production of PCBs which were manufactured commercially by the progressive chlorination of biphenyl in the presence of a suitable catalyst, e.g., iron chloride. However, few studies on the formation of PCBs from chlorobenzenes have been published. Buser reported significant quantities of PCDFs and a small amount of PCDDs, PCBs, and chlorophenols were formed in the pyrolysis of chlorobenzenes at 620 C. Peng-Yan Liu et al. revealed that lower chlorinated benzenes produce more PCBs than higher ones. Nevertheless, prior to this study, no reports on PCBs in p-DCB and the restriction of PCBs in p-DCB products have been found. In this paper, the occurrence and distribution of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs in some commercial p-DCB mothballs are investigated. Except of the toxic of p-DCB, the low concentration of PCBs in p-DCB mothballs should not be negligible.

  20. Crystal structure of the alkaline proteinase Savinase from Bacillus lentus at 1.4 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzel, C; Klupsch, S; Papendorf, G; Hastrup, S; Branner, S; Wilson, K S

    1992-01-20

    Savinase (EC3.4.21.14) is secreted by the alkalophilic bacterium Bacillus lentus and is a representative of that subgroup of subtilisin enzymes with maximum stability in the pH range 7 to 10 and high activity in the range 8 to 12. It is therefore of major industrial importance for use in detergents. The crystal structure of the native form of Savinase has been refined using X-ray diffraction data to 1.4 A resolution. The starting model was that of subtilisin Carlsberg. A comparison to the structures of the closely related subtilisins Carlsberg and BPN' and to the more distant thermitase and proteinase K is presented. The structure of Savinase is very similar to those of homologous Bacillus subtilisins. There are two calcium ions in the structure, equivalent to the strong and the weak calcium-binding sites in subtilisin Carlsberg and subtilisin BPN', well known for their stabilizing effect on the subtilisins. The structure of Savinase shows novel features that can be related to its stability and activity. The relatively high number of salt bridges in Savinase is likely to contribute to its high thermal stability. The non-conservative substitutions and deletions in the hydrophobic binding pocket S1 result in the most significant structural differences from the other subtilisins. The different composition of the S1 binding loop as well as the more hydrophobic character of the substrate-binding region probably contribute to the alkaline activity profile of the enzyme. The model of Savinase contains 1880 protein atoms, 159 water molecules and two calcium ions. The crystallographic R-factor [formula; see text].

  1. Provenance and paleoweathering reconstruction of the Mesoproterozoic Hongshuizhuang Formation (1.4 Ga), northern North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingyong; Zhong, Ningning; Wang, Yannian; Ma, Ling; Li, Min

    2015-10-01

    This is the first study presenting major and trace elemental data from the Mesoproterozoic Hongshuizhuang Formation shales in Yanshan basin, North China, in order to reconstruct its provenance and chemical weathering history. The shales are strongly depleted in Na2O and Sr and enriched in Y and transition metal elements relative to upper continental crust. Low Zr concentrations and various discriminant plots (e.g., Th/Sc-Zr/Sc and Al2O3-TiO2-Zr) indicate insignificant mineral sorting or recycling of these shales. The rocks show light rare earth element (REE) enrichment (La/YbCN = 3.99-6.92), flat heavy REE, and significantly negative Eu anomalies (Euan = 0.57-0.68) in chondrite-normalized REE patterns, similar to post-Archean Australian average shales. The fairly uniform REE patterns and trace element ratios indicate that the Hongshuizhuang Formation shales were derived from a felsic source area with granodiorite as the dominant contributor. Mixing calculations suggest a mixture of 30 % granite porphyry, 5 % basalt, and 65 % granodiorite as the possible source of the shales, also supporting that granodiorite was the predominant source. Intense chemical weathering of the source terrain is indicated by high values of the premetasomatized chemical index of alteration, plagioclase index of alteration, Rb/Sr, a strong positive correlation between TiO2 and Al2O3, depletion of CaO, Na2O, and Sr, and mineral compositions. Such strong chemical weathering suggests a warm and wet paleoclimate, perhaps due to high atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and a near-equatorial location of the North China Craton in the Columbia supercontinent at 1.4 Ga.

  2. Downregulation of β1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 inhibits CDK11p58-mediated apoptosis induced by cycloheximide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zejuan; Wang Hanzhou; Zong Hongliang; Sun Qing; Kong Xiangfei; Jiang Jianhai; Gu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 11 (CDK11; also named PITSLRE) is part of the large family of p34 cdc2 -related kinases whose functions appear to be linked with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, and apoptotic signaling. The mechanism that CDK11 p58 induces apoptosis is not clear. Some evidences suggested β1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (β1,4-GT 1) might participate in apoptosis induced by CDK11 p58 . In this study, we demonstrated that ectopically expressed β1,4-GT 1 increased CDK11 p58 -mediated apoptosis induced by cycloheximide (CHX). In contrast, RNAi-mediated knockdown of β1,4-GT 1 effectively inhibited apoptosis induced by CHX in CDK11 p58 -overexpressing cells. For example, the cell morphological and nuclear changes were reduced; the loss of cell viability was prevented and the number of cells in sub-G1 phase was decreased. Knock down of β1,4-GT 1 also inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and caspase-3 processing. Therefore, the cleavage of CDK11 p58 by caspase-3 was reduced. We proposed that β1,4-GT 1 might contribute to the pro-apoptotic effect of CDK11 p58 . This may represent a new mechanism of β1,4-GT 1 in CHX-induced apoptosis of CDK11 p58 -overexpressing cells

  3. RCAN1.4 regulates VEGFR-2 internalisation, cell polarity and migration in human microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghanem, Ahmad F; Wilkinson, Emma L; Emmett, Maxine S; Aljasir, Mohammad A; Holmes, Katherine; Rothermel, Beverley A; Simms, Victoria A; Heath, Victoria L; Cross, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is an endogenous inhibitor of the calcineurin pathway in cells. It is expressed as two isoforms in vertebrates: RCAN1.1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues, whereas transcription of RCAN1.4 is induced by several stimuli that activate the calcineurin-NFAT pathway. RCAN1.4 is highly upregulated in response to VEGF in human endothelial cells in contrast to RCAN1.1 and is essential for efficient endothelial cell migration and tubular morphogenesis. Here, we show that RCAN1.4 has a role in the regulation of agonist-stimulated VEGFR-2 internalisation and establishment of endothelial cell polarity. siRNA-mediated gene silencing revealed that RCAN1 plays a vital role in regulating VEGF-mediated cytoskeletal reorganisation and directed cell migration and sprouting angiogenesis. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of RCAN1.4 resulted in increased endothelial cell migration. Antisense-mediated morpholino silencing of the zebrafish RCAN1.4 orthologue revealed a disrupted vascular development further confirming a role for the RCAN1.4 isoform in regulating vascular endothelial cell physiology. Our data suggest that RCAN1.4 plays a novel role in regulating endothelial cell migration by establishing endothelial cell polarity in response to VEGF.

  4. 1,4,8,11-Tetra[2-aryl-1-diazenyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanes - synthesis, characterization, and x-ray crystallography of the first tetrakistriazenes to be reported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, J.D.; Vaughan, K. [Dept. of Chemistry, Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)], E-mail: keith.vaughan@smu.ca; Bertolasi, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica and Centro di Strutturistica Diffrattometrica, Universita' di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    The reactions of a series of arene diazonium salts with 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam) afford the novel compounds, the 1,4,8,11-tetra[2-aryl-1-diazenyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanes (1a-1f), which are the first examples of tetrakistriazenes to be reported. The tetrakistriazenes were characterized by IR spectroscopy, proton and carbon NMR, elemental analysis, high resolution electrospray mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. The analogous reaction of a diazonium salt with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane or 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane yields the tristriazenes 2, 3a, and 3b. The structures of compounds 1c and 1e were solved by X-ray crystallography at low temperature (150 K). Both molecules display a conformation where the four phenyltriazenyl groups point alternately upwards and downwards with respect to the mean macrocyclic plane. (author)

  5. 1,4,8,11-Tetra[2-aryl-1-diazenyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanes - synthesis, characterization, and x-ray crystallography of the first tetrakistriazenes to be reported

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.D.; Vaughan, K.; Bertolasi, V.

    2006-01-01

    The reactions of a series of arene diazonium salts with 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam) afford the novel compounds, the 1,4,8,11-tetra[2-aryl-1-diazenyl]-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanes (1a-1f), which are the first examples of tetrakistriazenes to be reported. The tetrakistriazenes were characterized by IR spectroscopy, proton and carbon NMR, elemental analysis, high resolution electrospray mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. The analogous reaction of a diazonium salt with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane or 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane yields the tristriazenes 2, 3a, and 3b. The structures of compounds 1c and 1e were solved by X-ray crystallography at low temperature (150 K). Both molecules display a conformation where the four phenyltriazenyl groups point alternately upwards and downwards with respect to the mean macrocyclic plane. (author)

  6. Wear behavior of 2-1/4 Cr-1Mo tubing against alloy 718 tube-support material in sodium-cooled steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.L.

    1983-05-01

    A series of prototypic steam generator 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo tube/alloy 718 tube support plate wear tests were conducted in direct support of the Westinghouse Nuclear Components Division -- Breeder Reactor Components Project Large Scale steam Generator design. The initial objective was to verify the acceptable wear behavior of softer, ''over-aged'' alloy 718 support plate material. For all interfaces under all test conditions, resultant wear damage was adhesive in nature with varying amounts of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo tube material being adhesively transferred to the alloy 718 tube supports. Maximum tube wear depths exceeded the initially established design allowable limit of 127 μm (.005 in.) at 17 of the 18 interfaces tested. A decrease in contact stresses produced acceptable tube wear depths below a readjusted maximum design allowable value of 381 μm (.015 in.). Additional conservatisms associated with the simulation of a 40-year lifetime of rubbing in a one-week laboratory test provided further confidence that the 381 μm maximum tube wear allowance would not be exceeded in service. Softer, ''over-aged'' alloy 718 material was found to produce slightly less wear damage on 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo tubing than fully age hardened material. Also, air formed oxide films on the alloy 718 reduced initial tube wear and delayed the onset of adhesive surface damage. However, at high surface stress levels, these films were not sufficiently stable to provide adequate long term protection from adhesive wear. The results of the present work and those of previous test programs suggest that the successful in-sodium tribological performance of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo/alloy 718 rubbing couples is dependent upon the presence of lubricative surface films, such as oxides and/or surface reaction or deposition products. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Synthesis and photophysical and electroluminescent properties of poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s with various dissymmetric substitution of alkoxy side chains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouguerra, N.; Růžička, Aleš; Ulbricht, C.; Enengl, C.; Enengl, S.; Pokorná, Veronika; Výprachtický, Drahomír; Tordin, E.; Aitout, R.; Cimrová, Věra; Egbe, D. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2016), s. 455-464 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0827 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(1,4-phenylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene)s * dissymmetric side chains * synthesis Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.835, year: 2016

  8. Synthesis of Substituted 1,4-Dioxenes through O-H Insertion and Cyclization Using Keto-Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Owen A; Croft, Rosemary A; Bull, James A

    2016-11-18

    1,4-Dioxenes present interesting potential as synthetic intermediates and as unusual motifs for incorporation into biologically active compounds. Here, an efficient synthesis of functionalized 1,4-dioxenes is achieved in two steps. Using keto-diazo compounds, a ruthenium catalyzed O-H insertion with β-halohydrins followed by treatment with base results in cyclization with excellent selectivity, through O-alkylation of the keto-enolate. A variety of halohydrins and anion-stabilizing groups in the diazo-component are tolerated, affording novel functionalized dioxenes. Enantioenriched β-bromohydrins provide enantioenriched 1,4-dioxenes.

  9. Short-chain grafting of tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-dioxane cycles on vinylchloride-maleic anhydride copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass increase of vinylchloride-maleic anhydride (VC-MA copolymer samples aged in tetrahydrofuran (THF or in 1,4-dioxane results from chemical interaction of VC-MA macromolecules with 1,4-dioxane or THF. Microstructure of the products of such modification was proved by infrared spectroscopy (IR- and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR and 1H NMR. Mechanism of modification has been proposed. The results of microstructure research of VC-MA samples aged in THF and in 1,4-dioxane coincide with already known data on the reactions of opening of these and other oxygen-containing cycles under mild conditions.

  10. Drosophila egghead encodes a beta 1,4-mannosyltransferase predicted to form the immediate precursor glycosphingolipid substrate for brainiac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall, Hans H; Pedersen, Johannes W; Park, Chaeho

    2002-01-01

    -N-acetylglucosamine:beta Man beta 1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (beta 3GlcNAc-transferase) tentatively assigned a key role in biosynthesis of arthroseries glycosphingolipids and forming the trihexosylceramide, GlcNAc beta 1-3Man beta 1-4Glc beta 1-1Cer. In the present study we demonstrate that egghead encodes a Golgi......-located GDP-mannose:beta Glc beta 1,4-mannosyltransferase tentatively assigned a biosynthetic role to form the precursor arthroseries glycosphingolipid substrate for Brainiac, Man beta 1-4Glc beta 1-1Cer. Egghead is unique among eukaryotic glycosyltransferase genes in that homologous genes are limited...

  11. Synthesis of 1, 4-Dioxan-2-one from 1, 3-Dioxolane and Carbon Monoxide over Cation-exchange Resin Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Takagi, Hiroyuki; Oumi, Yasunori; Uozumi, Toshiya; Masuda, Takashi; Sano, Tsuneji

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of the synthesis of 1, 4-dioxan-2-one (p-dioxanon) by carbonylation of 1, 3-dioxolane (cyclic ether) over Nafion® NR-50 cation-exchange resin catalyst was investigated. 1, 4-Dioxan-2-one, one of the cyclic esterethers used as a monomer of polyester, was obtained by depolymerization of polyester oligomers. The maximum yield (40%) of 1, 4-dioxan-2-one was achieved under reaction conditions of 25MPa initial PCO, 120°C reaction temperature and 4h reaction time.

  12. Involvement of reversible binding to alpha 2u-globulin in 1,4-dichlorobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, M; Strasser, J; Lock, E A; Turner, M J; Swenberg, J A

    1989-06-01

    Similarly to unleaded gasoline, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) administered for 2 years caused a dose-related increase in the incidence of renal tumors in male but not in female rats or in either sex of mice. Unleaded gasoline and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP), a component of unleaded gasoline, increased protein droplet formation and cell proliferation in male but not in female rat kidneys. These protein droplets contained, alpha 2u-globulin, a male rat-specific low-molecular-weight protein and 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentanol, a metabolite of TMP that was reversibly bound to this protein. Studies were undertaken to determine if 1,4-DCB produced similar effects; 1,2-DCB was used for comparison since it did not produce renal carcinogenesis in male rats. Gel filtration chromatography of a 116,000g supernatant prepared from kidneys of 1,4-[14C]DCB-treated rats showed that radiolabel coeluted with alpha 2u-globulin as one sharp peak as opposed to a multipeak pattern observed for 1,2-[14C]DCB; the maximal quantity of radiolabel for 1,4-DCB was twice that for 1,2-DCB. Equilibrium dialysis of kidney cytosol in the presence or absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate demonstrated that the radiolabel was reversibly bound to alpha 2u-globulin; the amount for 1,4-[14C]DCB-treated rats was almost twice as much as that for 1,2-[14C]DCB-treated rats. 1,2-DCB was also shown to be covalently bound to renal alpha 2u-globulin, and covalently bound to liver and plasma high-molecular-weight proteins. 1,4-DCB and, to a minor extent, 2,5-dichlorophenol, the major metabolite of 1,4-DCB, were reversibly bound to renal alpha 2u-globulin from 1,4-DCB-treated rats. 1,4-DCB increased protein droplet formation in male but not in female rat kidneys, whereas equimolar doses of 1,2-DCB showed no effect in either sex. Renal cell proliferation, measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation into renal DNA, was increased after 1,4-DCB but not after 1,2-DCB treatment. Nephrotoxicity and biochemical alterations induced by

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of auto- and copper-catalyzed oxidation of 1,4-naphthohydroquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiu; Miller, Christopher J; Pham, A Ninh; Waite, T David

    2014-06-01

    Although quinones represent a class of organic compounds that may exert toxic effects both in vitro and in vivo, the molecular mechanisms involved in quinone species toxicity are still largely unknown, especially in the presence of transition metals, which may both induce the transformation of the various quinone species and result in generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. In this study, the oxidation of 1,4-naphthohydroquinone (NH2Q) in the absence and presence of nanomolar concentrations of Cu(II) in 10 mM NaCl solution over a pH range of 6.5-7.5 has been investigated, with detailed kinetic models developed to describe the predominant mechanisms operative in these systems. In the absence of copper, the apparent oxidation rate of NH2Q increased with increasing pH and initial NH2Q concentration, with concomitant oxygen consumption and peroxide generation. The doubly dissociated species, NQ(2-), has been shown to be the reactive species with regard to the one-electron oxidation by O2 and comproportionation with the quinone species, both generating the semiquinone radical (NSQ(·-)). The oxidation of NSQ(·-) by O2 is shown to be the most important pathway for superoxide (O2(·-)) generation with a high intrinsic rate constant of 1.0×10(8)M(-1)s(-1). Both NSQ(·-) and O2(·-) served as chain-propagating species in the autoxidation of NH2Q. Cu(II) is capable of catalyzing the oxidation of NH2Q in the presence of O2 with the oxidation also accelerated by increasing the pH. Both the uncharged (NH2Q(0)) and the mono-anionic (NHQ(-)) species were found to be the kinetically active forms, reducing Cu(II) with an intrinsic rate constant of 4.0×10(4) and 1.2×10(7)M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The presence of O2 facilitated the catalytic role of Cu(II) by rapidly regenerating Cu(II) via continuous oxidation of Cu(I) and also by efficient removal of NSQ(·-) resulting in the generation of O2(·-). The half-cell reduction potentials of various redox couples at neutral p

  14. "Yin and Yang" tuned fluorescence sensing behavior of branched 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaohuan; Qi, Yanyu; Liu, Huijing; Peng, Junxia; Liu, Kaiqiang; Fang, Yu

    2014-11-26

    Achieving high sensing performance and good photostability of fluorescent films based on adlayer construction represents a significant challenge in the area of functional fluorescent film research. A solution may be offered by "Yin and Yang", a balance idea from Chinese philosophy, for the design of a fluorophore and the relevant assembly. Accordingly, a 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB) derivative (C2) with two cholesteryl residues in the side chains and two glucono units in the head and tail positions was designed and synthesized. As a control, compound C1 was also prepared. The only difference between C1 and C2 is that the hydroxyl groups in the glucono residues of C1 are fully acetylated. Studies of the fluorescence behaviors of the two compounds in solution revealed that both the profile and the intensity of the fluorescence emission of the compounds, in particular C2, are dependent on their concentration and on the nature of solvents employed. Presence of HCl also alters the emission of the compounds in solution. On the basis of the studies, three fluorescent films were prepared, and their sensing performances to HCl in vapor state were studied. Specifically, Film 1 and Film 3 were fabricated via physical coating, separately, of C2 and C1 on glass plate surfaces. As another comparison, Film 2 was also fabricated with C2 as a fluorophore but at a much lower concentration if compared to that for the preparation of Film 1. As revealed by SEM and fluorescent microscopy studies, Film 1 and Film 2 exhibit well-defined microstructures, which are spherical particles and spherical pores, respectively, while Film 3 is characterized by irregular aggregates of C1. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that Film 1 and Film 3 both display an aggregation emission, of which the emission from Film 1 is supersensitive to the presence of HCl vapor (detection limit: 0.4 ppb, a lowest value reported in the literatures). For Film 3, however, its emission is insensitive to the

  15. Photoreduction of Azoalkanes by Direct Hydrogen Abstraction from 1,4-Cyclohexadiene, Alcohols, Stannanes, and Silanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Waldemar; Moorthy, Jarugu N.; Nau, Werner M.; Scaiano, J. C.

    1997-11-14

    A mechanistic investigation of the photoreduction of the n,pi triplet-excited azo chromophore has been carried out on azoalkanes 1, which exhibit efficient intersystem-crossing quantum yields (ca. 0.5). The azoalkanes 1a and 1b undergo facile photoreduction to the corresponding hydrazines in the presence of a variety of hydrogen donors, which include 2-propanol, benzhydrol, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, tributylstannane, and tris(trimethylsilyl)silane. In contrast, the hydrazine yields derived for the azoalkanes 1c and 1d are significantly lower even at high hydrogen donor concentrations due to their lower triplet yields and shorter triplet lifetimes. A clear dependence of the hydrazine yields on the bond dissociation energies of the hydrogen donors has been observed, which is reflected in the quenching rate constants obtained from time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The absolute rate constants for interaction of the triplet azoalkane 1a with hydrogen donors are generally lower (ca. 10-100-fold) than for benzophenone, in line with the less favorable reaction thermodynamics. The comparison of the rate constants for quenching of the triplet-excited azoalkane 1a and of the singlet-excited state of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) reveals a similar reactivity of excited azoalkanes toward hydrogen donors; differences can be accounted for in terms of variations in the energies of the excited states. The interactions of the excited azoalkanes with tributylstannane and benzhydrol produce the radicals characteristic for hydrogen abstraction from these substrates, namely tributylstannyl and hydroxydiphenylmethyl radicals, which were detected through their transient absorptions at 390 and 550 nm, respectively. Interestingly, compared to the photoreduction of benzophenone with benzhydrol, for which the quantum yield for conversion to radicals is unity, between the azoalkane 1a and benzhydrol this efficiency is only ca. 12%. An associative effect through N.H-O bonding

  16. Neutraalne kaasabi ja kaasaaitamise ebaõigussisu. Riigikohtu kriminaalkolleegiumi otsus 3-1-1-4-12 / Jaan Sootak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sootak, Jaan, 1948-

    2012-01-01

    Riigikohtu otsusest 3-1-1-4-12, mis selgitab, et mitte igasugune objektiivselt põhitegu soodustav ja subjektiivselt tahtlikult toime pandud tegu ei ole kaasaaitamine. Ründamise teooriast, riskiteooriast ning deliktilise olemusseose ja professionaalse adekvaatsuse teooriatest

  17. Rhodium(I)-Complexes Catalyzed 1,4-Conjugate Addition of Arylzinc Chlorides to N-Boc-4-pyridone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenghai; McGilvary, Matthew A; Jeffries, Malcolm C; Graves, Briana N; Graham, Shekinah A; Wu, Yuelin

    2017-05-01

    Rhodium(I)-complexes catalyzed the 1,4-conjugate addition of arylzinc chlorides to N -Boc-4-pyridone in the presence of chlorotrimethylsilane (TMSCl). A combination of [RhCl(C₂H₄)₂]₂ and BINAP was determined to be the most effective catalyst to promote the 1,4-conjugate addition reactions of arylzinc chlorides to N -Boc-4-pyridone. A broad scope of arylzinc reagents with both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents on the aromatic ring successfully underwent 1,4-conjugate addition to N -Boc-4-pyridone to afford versatile 1,4-adducts 2-substituted-2,3-dihydropyridones in good to excellent yields (up to 91%) and excellent ee (up to 96%) when ( S )-BINAP was used as chiral ligand.

  18. Influence of O_2 exposure on the interaction between CH_4 and amorphous AlYB_1_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunold, Oliver; Wiesing, Martin; Arcos, Teresa de los; Music, Denis; Grundmeier, Guido; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of O_2 exposure on the surface chemistry of a-AlYB_1_4 on the interaction with CH_4 and PE studied by ab initio and UHV-AFM. • Predicted stronger interaction is consistent with experimentally observed trends. • Upon O_2 exposure surface bonding becomes more semiconducting causing a charge redistribution within the adsorbed CH_4 molecule. • The data serve as proof of concept for exploring polymer − hard coating interactions in varying atmospheres. - Abstract: The influence of surface oxidation on the interaction between CH_4 and amorphous AlYB_1_4 (a-AlYB_1_4) has been studied theoretically by using density functional theory and experimentally by ultra-high vacuum atomic force microscopy (UHV-AFM). CH_4 mimics the –CH_3 termination and aliphatic subunits of a polymer chain. Low-energy ion scattering measurements of magnetron sputtered thin films suggest that the bonding at the surfaces of pristine a-AlYB_1_4 and O_2 exposed a-AlYB_1_4 (O_2//a-AlYB_1_4) is metal-boron and metal-oxygen dominated, respectively. Based on the ab initio calculations the adsorption energies of CH_4 on a-AlYB_1_4 and O_2//a-AlYB_1_4 decreases from −0.07 to −0.30 eV, respectively. This trend is consistent with experimental data obtained by colloidal probe UHV-AFM studies with a polyethylene sphere, where larger adhesion forces for the O_2 exposed surface as compared to the pristine a-AlYB_1_4 surface were measured. No charge transfer takes place between CH_4 and the pristine as well as the O_2 exposed a-AlYB_1_4. Oxygen chemisorption induces changes in surface bonding. States at the Fermi level are depleted upon oxidation, hence the surface bonding becomes more semiconducting causing a charge redistribution within the adsorbed CH_4 molecule. Hence, these data serve as proof of concept for exploring the effect of O_2 exposure on the interaction between aliphatic polymers and a-AlYB_1_4 using a correlative experimental and theoretical research approach.

  19. [Synthesis and biological activity of 1,4-benzoquinone-guanylhydrazone-thiosemicarbazone analogs. 1. Substitution at the S atom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, W; Gutsche, W; Wohlrabe, K; Fleck, W; Tresselt, D

    1985-08-01

    The synthesis of S-substituted derivatives of 1,4-benzoquinone-guanylhydrazone-thiosemicarbazone is described. The obtained 1,4-benzoquinone-guanylhydrazone-S-alkyl (resp. aralkyl)-isothiosemicarbazones, in comparison with the unsubstituted standard compound, showed a significantly decreased biological activity against the murine leukemias L 1210 and P 388 as well as against the growth of several kinds of bacteria. Therefore the S-substitution seems not to be useful for reaching a maximum activity.

  20. Synthesis of 1,5-Diaryl-1,4-pentadien-3-one Amidinohydrazone Hydrochloride Under Ultrasound Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Du

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of 1,5-diaryl-1,4-pentadien-3-one amidinohydrazone hydrochloride via the condensation of 1,5-diaryl-1,4-pentadien-3-one and aminoguanidine hydrochloride catalyzed by hydrochloric acid was carried out in 80-94% yield at 35-37°C within 1.5 h under ultrasound irradiation. Compared to the classical method, the advantages of this method are milder conditions, shorter reaction time and higher yield.

  1. Synthesis of substituted 1,4-diazepines and 1,5-benzodiazepines using an efficient heteropolyacid-catalyzed procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaoua, Rachedine; Bennamane, Norah; Bakhta, Saliha; Benadji, Sihame; Rabia, Cherifa; Nedjar-Kolli, Bellara

    2010-12-28

    An efficient and improved procedure for the synthesis of 1,4-diazepine and 1,5-benzodiazepine derivatives via the reaction of ketimine intermediates with aldehydes in the presence of Keggin-type heteropolyacids (HPAs) was developed. High yields and short reaction times were obtained for both electron-releasing and electron-withdrawing substituted 1,4-diazepine  and 1,5-benzodiazepines derivatives.

  2. Synthesis of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and evaluation of cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mauro G.; Camara, Celso A.; Silva, Tania M.S.; Feitosa, Anderson C.S.; Meira, Assuero S.; Pessoa, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    A series of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives was synthesized from 2,3-dibromo- 1,4-naphthoquinone and various functionalized terminal alkynes using palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The diynes were evaluated as potential cytotoxic agents against three tumor cell lines: human ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-8), human metastatic prostate cancer (PC-3M) and human bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma (NCI-H358M), presenting, in general, satisfactory results for inhibition of cell growth. (author)

  3. beta. -1,4-glucan occurring in homogenate of Phaseolus aureus seedlings. Possible nascent stage of cellulose biosynthesis in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, S; Matsuda, K; Tamari, K

    1976-12-01

    A small amount of cytoplasmic ..beta..-1,4-glucan, which might be involved in the synthesis of cellulose in the cell wall, was found in the homogenate prepared from the hypocotyls of seedlings of Phaseolus aureus. Upon hydrolysis by cellulase of the 20,000xg pellet from the cytoplasmic fraction of segments incubated in a (/sup 14/C)-glucose solution, (/sup 14/C)-cellobiose was produced, with specific radioactivities 3 to 10 times greater than those of the cellobiose from cellulose in the cell wall at various incubation periods. The incoporation of radioactivity from (/sup 14/C)-glucose into this cytoplasmic ..beta..-1,4-glucan was therefore faster than that into cellulose constituting the cell wall. Hence, it seemed that the former ..beta..-1,4-glucan could be turned over. To examine whether the cytoplasmic ..beta..-1,4-glucan is carried by some subcellular components, cytoplasmic ..beta..-1,4-glucan in the cell was fractionated by differential centrifugation, two enzyme activities being measured as the markers of subcellular components. The distribution of ..beta..-1,4-glucan was similar to that of UDPG-glucosyl-transferase activity but not to that of IDP-ase activity. The result suggests that the cytoplasmic ..beta..-1,4-glucan has some relation to plasma membranes. Coumarin, known as a specific inhibitor for the biosynthesis of cellulose in plant cells, was shown to inhibit the incorporation of radio-carbon from (/sup 14/C)-glucose into cytoplasmic ..beta..-1,4-glucan to the same extent as that into cellulose in the cell wall of the hypocotyls.

  4. Genome Sequence of the 1,4-Dioxane-Degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivoransStrain CB1190▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Christopher M.; Mahendra, Shaily; Grostern, Ariel; Parales, Rebecca E.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Woyke, Tanja; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Chertkov, Olga; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Sczyrba, Alexander; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Pseudonocardia dioxanivoransCB1190 is the first bacterium reported to be capable of growth on the environmental contaminant 1,4-dioxane and the first member of the genus Pseudonocardiafor which there is an annotated genome sequence. Preliminary analysis of the genome (chromosome and three plasmids) indicates that strain CB1190 possesses several multicomponent monooxygenases that could be involved in the aerobic degradation of 1,4-dioxane and other environmental contaminants. PMID:21725009

  5. Synthesis of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and evaluation of cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Mauro G.; Camara, Celso A.; Silva, Tania M.S., E-mail: ccelso@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (LSCB/UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares. Lab. de Sintese de Compostos Bioativos; Feitosa, Anderson C.S.; Meira, Assuero S.; Pessoa, Claudia [Universidade Federal do Ceara (LOE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia. Lab. de Oncologia Experimental

    2013-09-15

    A series of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives was synthesized from 2,3-dibromo- 1,4-naphthoquinone and various functionalized terminal alkynes using palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The diynes were evaluated as potential cytotoxic agents against three tumor cell lines: human ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-8), human metastatic prostate cancer (PC-3M) and human bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma (NCI-H358M), presenting, in general, satisfactory results for inhibition of cell growth. (author)

  6. Synthesis of Substituted 1,4-Diazepines and 1,5-Benzodiazepines Using an Efficient Heteropolyacid-Catalyzed Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihame Benadji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and improved procedure for the synthesis of 1,4-diazepine and 1,5-benzodiazepine derivatives via the reaction of ketimine intermediates with aldehydes in the presence of Keggin-type heteropolyacids (HPAs was developed. High yields and short reaction times were obtained for both electron-releasing and electron-withdrawing substituted 1,4-diazepine  and 1,5-benzodiazepines derivatives.

  7. Combining CRISPR and CRISPRi Systems for Metabolic Engineering of E. coli and 1,4-BDO Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ying; Sung, Li-Yu; Li, Hung; Huang, Chun-Hung; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2017-12-15

    Biosynthesis of 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BDO) in E. coli requires an artificial pathway that involves six genes and time-consuming, iterative genome engineering. CRISPR is an effective gene editing tool, while CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) is repurposed for programmable gene suppression. This study aimed to combine both CRISPR and CRISPRi for metabolic engineering of E. coli and 1,4-BDO production. We first exploited CRISPR to perform point mutation of gltA, replacement of native lpdA with heterologous lpdA, knockout of sad and knock-in of two large (6.0 and 6.3 kb in length) gene cassettes encoding the six genes (cat1, sucD, 4hbd, cat2, bld, bdh) in the 1,4-BDO biosynthesis pathway. The successive E. coli engineering enabled production of 1,4-BDO to a titer of 0.9 g/L in 48 h. By combining the CRISPRi system to simultaneously suppress competing genes that divert the flux from the 1,4-BDO biosynthesis pathway (gabD, ybgC and tesB) for >85%, we further enhanced the 1,4-BDO titer for 100% to 1.8 g/L while reducing the titers of byproducts gamma-butyrolactone and succinate for 55% and 83%, respectively. These data demonstrate the potential of combining CRISPR and CRISPRi for genome engineering and metabolic flux regulation in microorganisms such as E. coli and production of chemicals (e.g., 1,4-BDO).

  8. In Situ Bioremediation of 1,4-Dioxane by Methane Oxidizing Bacteria in Coupled Anaerobic-Aerobic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    FINAL REPORT In Situ Bioremediation of 1,4-Dioxane by Methane Oxidizing Bacteria in Coupled Anaerobic-Aerobic Zones SERDP Project ER-2306...volatile organic compound (CVOCs), ethene and ethane in groundwater at Raritan Arsenal Area 18C after in situ bioremediation . 4 List of...aquifers, the bioremediation approach most commonly used for chlorinated solvents. The ability of methanotrophs to biodegrade 1,4-dioxane was

  9. Statistics for the LHC: Quantifying our Scientific Narrative (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Now that the LHC physics program is well under way and results have begun to pour out of the experiments, the statistical methodology used for these results is a hot topic. This is a challenge at the LHC, as we have sensitivity to discover new physics in a stage of the experiments where systematic uncertainties can still be quite large. The emphasis of these lectures is how we can translate the scientific narrative of why we think we know what we know into quantitative statistical statements about the presence or absence of new physics. Topics will include statistical modeling, incorporation of control samples to constrain systematics, and Bayesian and Frequentist statistical tests that are capable of answering these questions.

  10. Investigation and Sensory Characterization of 1,4-Cineole: A Potential Aromatic Marker of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalick, Guillaume; Tempère, Sophie; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Deloire, Alain; de Revel, Gilles; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-10-21

    This work reports the quantitation and sensory characterization of 1,4-cineole in red wine for the first time. A headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method was developed to quantitate 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole in 104 commercial Australian red wines. 1,4-Cineole was detected in all of the wines analyzed, with concentrations ranging from 0.023 to 1.6 μg/L. An important varietal effect was observed, with concentrations of 1,4-cineole in Cabernet Sauvignon wines (mean of 0.6 ± 0.3 μg/L) significantly higher than in Shiraz (0.07 ± 0.04 μg/L) and Pinot Noir (0.2 ± 0.2 μg/L) wines. Regional variations of both cineole isomer concentrations have been measured between wines originating from different Australian regions. Sensory studies demonstrated that the addition of 0.54 μg/L 1,4-cineole in a Cabernet Sauvignon wine, to produce a final concentration of 0.63 μg/L, was perceived significantly by a sensory panel (p < 0.05). Descriptive analyses revealed that 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole may contribute to the hay, dried herbs, and blackcurrant aromas reported in Australian Cabernet Sauvignon wines and may be potential markers of regional typicality of these wines.

  11. Selective isolation of gonyautoxins 1,4 from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum based on molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ziru; Wang, Jiangtao

    2017-09-15

    Gonyautoxins 1,4 (GTX1,4) from Alexandrium minutum samples were isolated selectively and recognized specifically by an innovative and effective extraction procedure based on molecular imprinting technology. Novel molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres (MIPMs) were prepared by double-templated imprinting strategy using caffeine and pentoxifylline as dummy templates. The synthesized polymers displayed good affinity to GTX1,4 and were applied as sorbents. Further, an off-line molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) protocol was optimized and an effective approach based on the MISPE coupled with HPLC-FLD was developed for selective isolation of GTX1,4 from the cultured A. minutum samples. The separation method showed good extraction efficiency (73.2-81.5%) for GTX1,4 and efficient removal of interferences matrices was also achieved after the MISPE process for the microalgal samples. The outcome demonstrated the superiority and great potential of the MISPE procedure for direct separation of GTX1,4 from marine microalgal extracts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. GATA4-mediated cardiac hypertrophy induced by D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiming; Zhu Shanjun; Liu Daoyan; Yu Zengping; Yang Yongjian; Giet, Markus van der; Tepel, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate on cardiac hypertrophy. D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate augmented cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by its effects on DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and expression of immediate-early genes c-myc and c-fos, β-myosin heavy chain, and α-actin. The administration of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate increased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and cardiac-restricted zinc finger transcription factor (GATA4). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced GATA4 mRNA was significantly enhanced even in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine A. The effect of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate was blocked after inhibition of inositol-trisphosphate receptors but not after inhibition of c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. The study shows that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by GATA4 but independent from the calcineurin pathway

  13. Characterizing the intrinsic bioremediation potential of 1,4-dioxane and trichloroethene using innovative environmental diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Mora, Rebecca; Diguiseppi, William H; Davis, Greg; Sublette, Kerry; Gedalanga, Phillip; Mahendra, Shaily

    2012-09-01

    An intrinsic biodegradation study involving the design and implementation of innovative environmental diagnostic tools was conducted to evaluate whether monitored natural attenuation (MNA) could be considered as part of the remedial strategy to treat an aerobic aquifer contaminated with 1,4-dioxane and trichloroethene (TCE). In this study, advanced molecular biological and stable isotopic tools were applied to confirm in situ intrinsic biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane and TCE. Analyses of Bio-Trap® samplers and groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells verified the abundance of bacteria and enzymes capable of aerobically degrading TCE and 1,4-dioxane. Furthermore, phospholipid fatty acid analysis with stable isotope probes (PLFA-SIP) of the microbial community validated the ability for microbial degradation of TCE and 1,4-dioxane. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of groundwater samples for TCE resulted in δ(13)C values that indicated likely biodegradation of TCE in three of the four monitoring wells sampled. Results of the MNA evaluation showed that enzymes capable of aerobically degrading TCE and 1,4-dioxane were present, abundant, and active in the aquifer. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence of the occurrence of TCE and 1,4-dioxane biodegradation at the study site, supporting the selection of MNA as part of the final remedy at some point in the future.

  14. Isostatic compaction of beaker shaped bentonite blocks on the scale 1:4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Nord, Sven [Ifoe Ceramics AB, Bromoella (Sweden ); Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of the present work is to test, on a scale of 1:4, the feasibility of manufacturing bentonite blocks by isostatic compaction for application as a buffer material in a repository for spent nuclear fuel. In order for the tests to be sensitive to any weaknesses of the method, the blocks were shaped as beakers. The scope included the following: 1. Preparation of powder: a. mixing of the bentonite and addition of water in predetermined amounts, b. sieving to remove any lumps generated; 2. Isostatic compaction: a. establishment of a separate laboratory for the handling of bentonite powder (weighing, mixing, filling, sampling and machining), b. development and design of equipment and procedures for compaction of bentonite to beaker-shaped specimens, c. compaction process operation, d. visual inspection; 3. Sampling and characterisation: a. extraction of samples from the blocks made, b. determination of water content, c. determination of density, d. determination of strain at maximum stress by means of bending tests, e. determination of tensile strength by means of bending tests, f. determination of geometries of the blocks prepared; 4. Post-treatment by means of machining: a. machining of blocks made, b. visual inspection; 5. Evaluation. The work went very smoothly. No significant obstacles or unexpected events were encountered. The conclusions are as follows: The conclusions drawn in this report from work on the (linear)scale of one to four are very relevant to the full scale. Mixing of bentonite powder as well as moistening can be carried out on a pilot scale with a good homogeneity and with maintained good quality of the press powder. The compaction of bentonite can be carried out in a similar manner to the present operation at Ifoe Ceramics AB. This implies a very efficient handling as well as a very efficient use of the time in the press which may account for a large proportion of the total cost. The blocks could readily be produced to reproducible

  15. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) System Administration Guide for FEMIS Version 1.4.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, J.A.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J.; Downing, T.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Homer, B.J.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Johnson, S.M.; Loveall, R.M.; Martin, T.J.; Millard, W.D.; Schulze, S.A.; Stoops, L.R.; Tzemos, S.; Wood, B.M.

    1999-06-29

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are corrected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication data distribution and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment.

  16. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) data management guide, version 1.4.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R.; Gaustad, K.L. [and others

    1998-06-26

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) information resources are described in this FEMIS Data Management Guide. To comprehend what types of data are present, where the data is located, and how it is managed during the life span of the system, a basic understanding of the FEMIS architecture is necessary. The system is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). The capability to connect to remote CSEPP sites and share information will be present in a future release. Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide efficient EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via telecommunications links. FEMIS is a client/server system where much of the application software is located in the client PC. This client software integrates the FEMIS application, government furnished dispersion and evacuation models, and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software tools such as the ArcView geographic information system (GIS) and Microsoft Project (electron planning). A UNIX server provides data management services, ARC/INFO GIS capabilities, evacuation (Evac) modeling, electron main (E-mail), and meteorological (Met) input processing. A PC communication utility is available to interface with external subsystems. At this time, the weather collection system (Handar Met System) is the only external subsystem.

  17. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) Data Management Guide for FEMIS Version 1.4.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, L.K.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Hoza, M.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, S.M.; Loveall, R.M.; Millard, W.D.; Schulze, S.A.; Wood, B.M.

    1999-06-29

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are corrected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication data distribution and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment.

  18. Stereospecific recognition sites for [3H]inositol(1,4,5)-triphosphate in particulate preparations of rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willcocks, A.L.; Cooke, A.M.; Potter, B.V.; Nahorski, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    A very high density of stereospecific binding sites for inositol-(1,4,5)P3 have been identified in rat cerebellar membranes using [ 3 H]inositol-(1,4,5)P3 and a rapid centrifugation step to separate free and bound ligand. Binding was shown to be rapid and reversible and of relatively high affinity (KD 23 nM). Incubations were carried out at 4 degrees and under these conditions HPLC analysis demonstrated that there was no significant metabolism of [ 3 H]-(1,4,5)P3 in the presence or absence of ATP over 15 min. The specificity of the site has been carefully evaluated using both natural and novel synthetic inositol phosphates. The stereospecificity is very marked with the D-, DL- and L-isomers of Ins(1,4,5)P3 showing a 1:4:2000 ratio of affinity for the binding site. D-Ins(2,4,5)P3 was the only other phosphate to show relatively high affinity (KD 1500 nM). HPLC-pure Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 were substantially weaker and Ins(1,4)P2, Ins-2-P1, Ins-1-P1, Ins(1,2)-cyclic P1 and inositol were totally inactive at concentrations less than 50 microM. These data are discussed in relation to a putative receptor on the endoplasmic reticulum by which Ins(1,4,5)P3 can initiate the release of bound Ca 2+

  19. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the equilibration reaction between the sulfur and carbon bonded forms of a cobalt(III) complex with the ligands 1,4,7-triazycyclononane and 1,4-diaza-7-thiacyclodecane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Y.S.; Becker, J.; Kofod, Pauli

    1996-01-01

    The new cyclic thioether 1,4-diaza-7-thiacyclodecane, dathicd, has been synthesized and used for the prepn. of the sulfur- and carbon-bonded cobalt(III) complexes: [Co(tacn)(S-dathicd)]Cl3.5H2O and [Co(tacn)(C-dathicd)](ClO4)2 (tacn, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane; C-dathicd, 1,4-diamino-7-thiacyclodecan......-sulfur complex to form the alkyl complex gave 100% loss of deuterium. It is concluded that the labile methylene proton is bound to the carbon atom which in the alkyl complex is bound to cobalt(III). From the kinetic data it is estd. that the carbanion reacts with water 270 times faster than it is captured...

  20. Synthesis of the hexaamine ligand 1,4,7-tris(3-aminopropyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane: Reactivity and x-ray crystal structures of the nickel(II) and cobalt(III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, G.W.; Fortier, D.G.; McAuley, A.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis of the ligand 1,4,7-tris(3-aminopropyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane(tapacn) can be achieved by the reaction of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane with an excess of acetonitrile, followed by reduction of the nitrile with sodium metal in toluene. Halide salts of the cobalt(III)(complex A) and nickel(II)(complex B) ions have been prepared and examined by using x-ray crystallography. The crystal structures are reported. The 13 C NMR spectrum of the dismagnetic d 6 Co(III) complex ion is reported. A discussion of the two ligand structures deals with the ligand opening and with trigonal twist angle as related to metal ion size and mechanism for redox processes of the complex. 45 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs