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Sample records for prognostically low-risk ucc

  1. Usefulness and prognostic impact on survival of WHO reclassification in FAB low risk myelodyplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breccia, Massimo; Carmosino, Ida; Biondo, Francesca; Mancini, Marco; Russo, Eleonora; Latagliata, Roberto; Alimena, Giuliana

    2006-02-01

    In 1999, WHO proposed a revised classification for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). According to this system, FAB low risk MDS (RA and RARS) were defined as such when the presence of dysplastic features was only restricted to the erythroid lineage, and new categories, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) and refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and ringed sideroblasts (RCMD-RS), were added. In a retrospective analysis of 240 consecutive patients diagnosed at our institution as having FAB RA and RARS, we reclassified the disease following the WHO criteria and we found that 179/214 patients (84%) still remained in the RA category, while 35/214 (16%) moved to RCMD. Moreover, 17/26 patients (65%) maintained the RARS diagnosis, whereas 9/26 (35%) were re-classified as RCMD-RS. We detected differences among the WHO subgroups as to age and sex distribution as well as to median survival observed by stratifying patients according to different prognostic scoring systems. Furthermore we confirmed the usefulness of WHO segregation with regard to its predictive value for evolution into acute leukaemia. Our study provides evidence that WHO classification may have prognostic impact on MDS subgroups which are usually categorized by FAB as having a favourable outcome.

  2. A clinical prognostic model for the identification of low-risk patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism and active cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Exter, Paul L; Gómez, Vicente; Jiménez, David; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Muriel, Alfonso; Huisman, Menno V; Monreal, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Physicians need a specific risk-stratification tool to facilitate safe and cost-effective approaches to the management of patients with cancer and acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The objective of this study was to develop a simple risk score for predicting 30-day mortality in patients with PE and cancer by using measures readily obtained at the time of PE diagnosis. Investigators randomly allocated 1,556 consecutive patients with cancer and acute PE from the international multicenter Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica to derivation (67%) and internal validation (33%) samples. The external validation cohort for this study consisted of 261 patients with cancer and acute PE. Investigators compared 30-day all-cause mortality and nonfatal adverse medical outcomes across the derivation and two validation samples. In the derivation sample, multivariable analyses produced the risk score, which contained six variables: age > 80 years, heart rate ≥ 110/min, systolic BP < 100 mm Hg, body weight < 60 kg, recent immobility, and presence of metastases. In the internal validation cohort (n = 508), the 22.2% of patients (113 of 508) classified as low risk by the prognostic model had a 30-day mortality of 4.4% (95% CI, 0.6%-8.2%) compared with 29.9% (95% CI, 25.4%-34.4%) in the high-risk group. In the external validation cohort, the 18% of patients (47 of 261) classified as low risk by the prognostic model had a 30-day mortality of 0%, compared with 19.6% (95% CI, 14.3%-25.0%) in the high-risk group. The developed clinical prediction rule accurately identifies low-risk patients with cancer and acute PE.

  3. New Prospective for the Management of Low-Risk Pulmonary Embolism: Prognostic Assessment, Early Discharge, and Single-Drug Therapy with New Oral Anticoagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) can be stratified into two different prognostic categories, based on the presence or absence of shock or sustained arterial hypotension. Some patients with normotensive PE have a low risk of early mortality, defined as <1% at 30 days or during hospital stay. In this paper, we will discuss the new prospective for the optimal management of low-risk PE: prognostic assessment, early discharge, and single-drug therapy with new oral anticoagulants. Several parameters have been proposed and investigated to identify low-risk PE: clinical prediction rules, imaging tests, and laboratory markers of right ventricular dysfunction or injury. Moreover, outpatient management has been suggested for low-risk PE: it may lead to a decrease in unnecessary hospitalizations, acquired infections, death, and costs and to an improvement in health-related quality of life. Finally, the main characteristics of new oral anticoagulant drugs and the most recent published data on phase III trials on PE suggest that the single-drug therapy is a possible suitable option. Oral administration, predictable anticoagulant responses, and few drug-drug interactions of direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors may further simplify PE home therapy avoiding administration of low-molecular-weight heparin. PMID:24278706

  4. Cellodextrin utilization by bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokusaeva, K.; Motherway, M.O.; Zomer, A.L.; Macsharry, J.; Fitzgerald, G.F.; Sinderen, D. van

    2011-01-01

    Cellodextrins, the incomplete hydrolysis products from insoluble cellulose, are accessible as a carbon source to certain members of the human gut microbiota, such as Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. Transcription of the cldEFGC gene cluster of B. breve UCC2003 was shown to be induced upon growth on

  5. Results of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the Spanish MDS registry: prognostic factors for low risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez Campelo, M; Sánchez-Barba, M; de Soria, V Gómez-García; Martino, R; Sanz, G; Insunza, A; Bernal, T; Duarte, R; Amigo, M L; Xicoy, B; Tormo, M; Iniesta, F; Bailén, A; Benlloch, L; Córdoba, I; López-Villar, O; Del Cañizo, M C

    2014-10-01

    Although new agents have been approved for the treatment of MDS, the only curative approach is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and thus, in particular circumstances this procedure has been proposed as a treatment option for low risk patients. We have retrospectively analyzed the results of HSCT in 291 patients from the Spanish MDS registry with special attention to low risk MDS (LR-MDS) in order to define the variables that could impact their clinical evolution after transplantation. At 2 years OS was 51% and EFS was 50% (95% CI 0.7-4.5 years for OS and 95% CI 0.1-3.9 years for EFS). Among 43 LR-MDS, transplant-related mortality was 28%. At 3 years, OS was 67% (95% CI 264.7-8927.2 days for OS) and EFS was 64% (95% CI 0-9697.2 days for EFS). In the multivariate analysis only cytogenetics retained statistical significant effect on both OS (p=.047) and EFS (p=.046). Conditioning regimen could improve outcome among this subset of patients (OS 86% and RFS 100% for patients receiving RIC regimen). The present study confirms that specific disease characteristic as well as transplant characteristics have a significant impact on transplant outcome. Regarding low risk patients a non-myeloablative conditioning would be preferable especially in cases without high-risk cytogenetics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. LH/hCG-Receptor Expression May Have a Negative Prognostic Value in Low-Risk Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noci, Ivo; Sorbi, Flavia; Mannini, Luca; Projetto, Elisabetta; Pillozzi, Serena; Ghizzoni, Viola; Lottini, Tiziano; Moncini, Daniela; Baroni, Gianna; Mungai, Francesco; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Fambrini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    A 51 year-old woman was diagnosed with endometrial cancer (EC) and underwent surgical staging. Pathological evaluation showed a 2 cm × 1 cm G2 endometrioid EC with a 30% myometrial deep invasion (FIGO Stage 1A). The patient was classified as low risk of recurrence, and no adjuvant treatment was offered. Six months after surgery, the patient developed an early vescico-vaginal recurrence, and chemotherapy treatment was started. Few months later, a subsequent involvement of vaginal wall, ileum, and omentum was detected, and the patient underwent second surgery. LH/hCG-receptor (LH/hCG-R) expression has been previously reported to be associated with an invasive phenotype in EC cells. Moreover, in a preclinical mouse model of EC behaves as a prometastatic molecular device. We analyzed the expression level of LH/hCG-R in cancer specimens collected during surgeries. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses showed a strong expression of both mRNA and protein for LH/hCG-R in all specimens. LH/hCG-R expression may be assessed together with other clinicopathological parameters in order to better predict the risk of recurrence in low-risk EC patients. Further clinical trials are warranted in order to validate LH/hCG-R as biomarker in EC.

  7. Prognostic Value of Stress Echocardiography in Patients With Low-Intermediate or High Short-Term (10 Years) Versus Low (Risk of Cardiovascular Disease According to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2013 Cardiovascular Risk Calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Siu-Sun; Supariwala, Azhar; Yao, Amanda; Dukkipati, Sai Sreenija; Wyne, Jamshad; Chaudhry, Farooq A

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates the prognostic value of stress echocardiography (Secho) in short-term (10 years) and lifetime atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk-defined groups according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2013 cardiovascular risk calculator. The ideal risk assessment and management of patients with low-to-intermediate or high short-term versus low (risk is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of Secho in short-term and lifetime CV risk-defined groups. We evaluated 4,566 patients (60 ± 13 years; 46% men) who underwent Secho (41% treadmill and 59% dobutamine) with low-intermediate short-term (risk divided into low (risk and third group with high short-term risk (≥20%, n = 3,537). Follow-up (3.2 ± 1.5 years) for nonfatal myocardial infarction (n = 102) and cardiac death (n = 140) were obtained. By univariate analysis, age (p risk and also in those with high short-term CV risk group (3.5% vs 1.0% per year, p risk assessment in patients with low-intermediate or high short-term versus low or high lifetime cardiovascular risk. Event rate with normal Secho is low (≤1% per year) but higher in patients with high short-term CV risk by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2013 cardiovascular risk calculator. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics has received considerable attention recently as an emerging sub-discipline within SHM. Prognosis is here strictly defined as “predicting the time at...

  9. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    . Empirically, we find that option-implied ex-ante skewness is strongly related to ex-post residual coskewness and alphas. Beta- and volatility-based low risk anomalies are largely driven by a single principal component, which is in turn largely explained by skewness. Controlling for skewness renders the alphas...

  10. Ribose utilization by the human commensal Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokusaeva, Karina; Neves, Ana Rute; Zomer, Aldert; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; MacSharry, John; Curley, Peter; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2010-05-01

    Growth of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 on ribose leads to the transcriptional induction of the rbsACBDK gene cluster. Generation and phenotypic analysis of an rbsA insertion mutant established that the rbs gene cluster is essential for ribose utilization, and that its transcription is likely regulated by a LacI-type regulator encoded by rbsR, located immediately upstream of rbsA. Gel mobility shift assays using purified RbsR(His) indicate that the promoter upstream of rbsABCDK is negatively controlled by RbsR(His) binding to an 18 bp inverted repeat and that RbsR(His) binding activity is modulated by D-ribose. The rbsK gene of the rbs operon of B. breve UCC2003 was shown to specify a ribokinase (EC 2.7.1.15), which specifically directs its phosphorylating activity towards D-ribose, converting this pentose sugar to ribose-5-phosphate. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. 7 CFR 1962.14 - Account and security information in UCC cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Account and security information in UCC cases. 1962.14... Security § 1962.14 Account and security information in UCC cases. Within 2 weeks after receipt of a written request from the borrower, the Agency must inform the borrower of the security and the total unpaid...

  12. Urban freight concepts and practice: would a traditional UCC scheme work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom ZUNDER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to show that planner-led UCC solutions are untenable in the modern liberal economy. Our analysis suggests that the top down imposition of a Urban Consolidation Centre (UCC works only in clearly controlled domains. We have studied urban freight concepts and practice and it is our contention that most UCC initiatives fail in a liberal economy where free choice and market economics apply. In underpinning this contention we have compiled, analysed and categorised a set of the UCC schemes known to have operated, left evidence of their existence, and been captured by the research community. In this paper we present two case study examples that show that within the construction sector UCCs can be utilised successfully to create efficient and forward-thinking logistics operations. Whilst it might be true for the construction sector, we have not found evidence that it might be true for other sectors.

  13. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    This paper shows theoretically and empirically that beta- and volatility-based low risk anomalies are driven by return skewness. The empirical patterns concisely match the predictions of our model that endogenizes the role of skewness for stock returns through default risk. With increasing downside...... risk, the standard capital asset pricing model (CAPM) increasingly overestimates expected equity returns relative to firms' true (skew-adjusted) market risk. Empirically, the profitability of betting against beta/volatility increases with firms' downside risk, and the risk-adjusted return differential...... of betting against beta/volatility among low skew firms compared to high skew firms is economically large. Our results suggest that the returns to betting against beta or volatility do not necessarily pose asset pricing puzzles but rather that such strategies collect premia that compensate for skew risk...

  14. Competing risks in low-risk breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Goss, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    In recent years a growing amount of data on prognostic features of breast cancer has allowed for identification of tumors with a very low risk of recurrence. Markers used to predict the risk of distant spread include classic clinicopathologic features as well as newer tumor gene signatures, which have been validated and are being used in cohorts of patients with breast cancer patients who have low-risk disease. However, the definition of "low-risk" breast cancer requires consideration of patient-related factors such as comorbidities and age in addition to tumor characteristics, as high competing risks for mortality might be more important than cancer recurrence from a patient's point of view. In addition, identification of low-risk breast cancer cohorts is only valuable if treatment decisions are based on this information. Therefore, the magnitude of any treatment benefit in low-risk disease needs to be quantified in a comprehensible way. However, treatment benefit in low-risk situations is hard to quantify, may vary over time, and needs to be compared to individual risks for side effects. Decision models considering tumor and patient characteristics as well as predictive markers for treatment efficacy and toxicity will be needed. Tools such as Adjuvant! Online ultimately need to include information from gene signatures in order to reliably recommend specific treatment options for patients with breast cancer patients who have low-risk disease.

  15. 9 CFR 205.211 - Applicability of court decisions under the UCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of court decisions under the UCC. 205.211 Section 205.211 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... a person engaged in farming operations takes free of a security interest created by his seller even...

  16. Discovering novel bile protection systems in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 through functional genomics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, L.; Zomer, A.L.; O'Connell-Motherway, M.; Sinderen, D. van; Margolles, A.

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance of gut commensals to bile salt exposure is an important feature for their survival in and colonization of the intestinal environment. A transcriptomic approach was employed to study the response of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 to bile, allowing the identification of a number of

  17. Improving gastric transit, gastrointestinal persistence and therapeutic efficacy of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Vivien M; Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin; Fitzgerald, Gerald F

    2007-10-01

    Given the increasing commercial and clinical relevance of probiotic cultures, improving their stress tolerance profile and ability to overcome the physiological defences of the host is an important biological goal. In order to reach the gastrointestinal tract in sufficient numbers to exert a therapeutic effect, probiotic bacteria must resist the deleterious actions of low pH, elevated osmolarity and bile salts. Cloning the listerial betaine uptake system, BetL, into the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 significantly improved probiotic tolerance to gastric juice and conditions of elevated osmolarity mimicking the gut environment. Furthermore, whilst stable colonization of the murine intestine was achieved by oral administration of B. breve UCC2003, strains harbouring BetL were recovered at significantly higher levels in the faeces, intestines and caecum of inoculated animals. Finally, in addition to improved gastric transit and intestinal persistence, this approach improved the clinical efficacy of the probiotic culture: mice fed B. breve UCC2003-BetL(+) exhibited significantly lower levels of systemic infection compared to the control strain following oral inoculation with Listeria monocytogenes.

  18. Structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobley, Carina M C; Aller, Pierre; Douangamath, Alice; Reddivari, Yamini; Bumann, Mario; Bird, Louise E; Nettleship, Joanne E; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Owens, Raymond J; O'Toole, Paul W; Walsh, Martin A

    2012-12-01

    The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC188 has been determined at 1.72 Å resolution. The structure was solved by molecular replacement, which identified the functional homodimer in the asymmetric unit. Despite only showing 57% sequence identity to its closest homologue, the structure adopted the typical α and β D-ribose 5-phosphate isomerase fold. Comparison to other related structures revealed high homology in the active site, allowing a model of the substrate-bound protein to be proposed. The determination of the structure was expedited by the use of in situ crystallization-plate screening on beamline I04-1 at Diamond Light Source to identify well diffracting protein crystals prior to routine cryocrystallography.

  19. Optimal management of low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S; Horowitz, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    Low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is a highly curable form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that arises largely from molar pregnancy and, on rare occasions, from other types of gestations. Risk is defined as the risk of developing drug resistance as determined by the WHO Prognostic Scoring System. All patients with non-metastatic disease and patients with risk scores disease. The sequential use of methotrexate and actinomycin D is associated with a complete remission rate of 80%. The most commonly utilized regimen for the treatment of patients resistant to single-agent chemotherapy is a multiagent regimen consisting of etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, vincristine and cyclophosphamide. The measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin provides an accurate and reliable tumor marker for diagnosis, monitoring the effects of chemotherapy and follow-up to determine recurrence. Pregnancy is allowed after 12 months of normal serum tumor marker. Pregnancy outcomes are similar to those of normal population.

  20. Tracing the secular evolution of the UCC using the iron isotope composition of ancient glacial diamictites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. M.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Rudnick, R. L.; Hazen, R. M.; Shahar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the continental crust and influences global climate and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean1. Continental inputs, including river waters, sediments and atmospheric dust are dominant sources (>95%) of iron into the ocean2. Therefore, understanding how continental inputs may have changed through time is important in understanding the secular evolution of the marine Fe cycle. We analysed the Fe isotopic composition of twenty-four glacial diamictite composites, upper continental crust (UCC) proxies, with ages ranging from the Mesoarchean to the Paleozoic eras to characterize the secular evolution of the UCC. The diamictites all have elevated chemical index of alteration (CIA) and other characteristics of weathered regolith (e.g., strong depletion in soluble elements such as Sr), which they inherited from their upper crustal source region3. δ56Fe in the diamictite composites range from -0.59 to +0.23‰, however, most diamictites cluster with an average δ56Fe of 0.11± 0.20 (2s), overlapping juvenile continental material such as island arc basalts (IABs), which show a narrow range in δ56Fe from -0.04 to +0.14 ‰4. There is no obvious correlation between δ56Fe of the glacial diamictites and the CIA, except that the diamictite with the lowest δ56Fe at -0.59 ‰ also has the highest CIA = 89 (the Paleoproterozoic Makganyene Fm.). The data suggest that the Fe isotope compositions in the upper continental crust did not vary throughout Earth history. Interestingly, chemical weathering and sedimentary transport likely play only a minor role in producing Fe isotope variations in the upper continental crust. Anoxic weathering pre-GOE (Great Oxidation Event) does not seem to generate different Fe isotopic signatures from the post-GOE oxidative weathering environment in the upper continental crust. Therefore, large Fe isotopic fractionations observed in various marine sedimentary records are likely due to other processes occurring

  1. Universal Cloud Controller (UCC), a Cloud-centred system using personal mobile devices to control public devices

    OpenAIRE

    Thanh Tam, Tran

    2016-01-01

    We engage different working environments on a daily basis, including private and public environments. When we move from one to another constantly, the data also need to be transferred, and while the private environment is convenient, working with public devices creates the irritation of authentication. This dissertation proposes Universal Cloud Controller (UCC), a multi-components system that improves user’s experience when exchange data from personal to public device. The main functions of t...

  2. Low-Risk Investing without Industry Bets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    The strategy of buying safe low-beta stocks while shorting (or underweighting) riskier high-beta stocks (“betting against beta”) has been shown to deliver significant risk-adjusted returns. Some have suggested, however, that such “low-risk investing” delivers high returns primarily because...... of industry bets that favor a slowly changing set of stodgy, stable industries. The authors refute this notion by showing that a strategy of betting against beta has delivered positive returns both as an industry-neutral bet within each industry and as a pure bet across industries....

  3. The prognostic value of oncogenic antigen 519 (OA-519) expression and proliferative activity detected by antibody MIB-1 in node-negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V; Ladekarl, M; Holm-Nielsen, P

    1995-01-01

    The prognostic value of oncogenic antigen 519 (OA-519) expression and tumour proliferative activity was evaluated in a retrospective series of 118 patients with low-risk breast cancer. Low risk was defined as negative axillary nodes, tumour diameter

  4. Autoinducer-2 plays a crucial role in gut colonization and probiotic functionality of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E A Christiaen

    Full Text Available In the present study we show that luxS of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 is involved in the production of the interspecies signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2, and that this gene is essential for gastrointestinal colonization of a murine host, while it is also involved in providing protection against Salmonella infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate that a B. breve luxS-insertion mutant is significantly more susceptible to iron chelators than the WT strain and that this sensitivity can be partially reverted in the presence of the AI-2 precursor DPD. Furthermore, we show that several genes of an iron starvation-induced gene cluster, which are downregulated in the luxS-insertion mutant and which encodes a presumed iron-uptake system, are transcriptionally upregulated under in vivo conditions. Mutation of two genes of this cluster in B. breve UCC2003 renders the derived mutant strains sensitive to iron chelators while deficient in their ability to confer gut pathogen protection to Salmonella-infected nematodes. Since a functional luxS gene is present in all tested members of the genus Bifidobacterium, we conclude that bifidobacteria operate a LuxS-mediated system for gut colonization and pathogen protection that is correlated with iron acquisition.

  5. Best Clinical Practice: Current Controversies in Evaluation of Low-Risk Chest Pain-Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Brit; Koyfman, Alex

    2016-12-01

    Chest pain is a common presentation to the emergency department (ED), though the majority of patients are not diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Many patients are admitted to the hospital due to fear of ACS. Our aim was to investigate controversies in low-risk chest pain evaluation, including risk of missed ACS, stress test, and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Chest pain accounts for 10 million ED visits in the United States annually. Many patients are at low risk for a major cardiac adverse event (MACE). With negative troponin and nonischemic electrocardiogram (ECG), the risk of MACE and myocardial infarction (MI) is evaluation in low- to intermediate-risk patients within 72 h. These modalities add little to further risk stratification. These evaluations do not appropriately risk stratify patients who are already at low risk, nor do they diagnose acute MI. CCTA is an anatomic evaluation of the coronary vasculature with literature support to decrease ED length of stay, though it is associated with downstream testing. Literature is controversial concerning further risk stratification in already low-risk patients. With nonischemic ECG and negative cardiac biomarker, the risk of ACS approaches chest pain patients is controversial. These tests may allow prognostication but do not predict ACS risk beyond ECG and troponin. CCTA may be useful for intermediate-risk patients, though further studies are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Glycoside hydrolase family 13 α-glucosidases encoded by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003; A comparative analysis of function, structure and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Emer D; Bottacini, Francesca; O'Callaghan, John; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; O'Connell, Kerry Joan; Stanton, Catherine; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2016-05-02

    Bifidobacterium breve is a noted inhabitant and one of the first colonizers of the human gastro intestinal tract (GIT). The ability of this bacterium to persist in the GIT is reflected by the abundance of carbohydrate-active enzymes that are encoded by its genome. One such family of enzymes is represented by the α-glucosidases, of which three, Agl1, Agl2 and MelD, have previously been identified and characterized in the prototype B. breve strain UCC2003. In this report, we describe an additional B. breve UCC2003-encoded α-glucosidase, along with a B. breve UCC2003-encoded α-glucosidase-like protein, designated here as Agl3 and Agl4, respectively, which together with the three previously described enzymes belong to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 13. Agl3 was shown to exhibit hydrolytic specificity towards the α-(1→6) linkage present in palatinose; the α-(1→3) linkage present in turanose; the α-(1→4) linkages found in maltotriose and maltose; and to a lesser degree, the α-(1→2) linkage found in sucrose and kojibiose; and the α-(1→5) linkage found in leucrose. Surprisingly, based on the substrates analyzed, Agl4 did not exhibit biologically relevant α-glucosidic activity. With the presence of four functionally active GH13 α-glucosidases, B. breve UCC2003 is capable of hydrolyzing all α-glucosidic linkages that can be expected in glycan substrates in the lower GIT. This abundance of α-glucosidases provides B. breve UCC2003 with an adaptive ability and metabolic versatility befitting the transient nature of growth substrates in the GIT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a luciferase-based reporter system to monitor Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 persistence in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Colin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics such as bifidobacteria have been shown to maintain a healthy intestinal microbial balance and help protect against infections. However, despite these benefits, bifidobacteria still remain poorly understood at the biochemical, physiological and especially the genetic level. Herein we describe, for the first time, the development of a non-invasive luciferase-based reporter system for real-time tracking of Bifidobacterium species in vivo. Results The reporter vector pLuxMC1 is based on the recently described theta-type plasmid pBC1 from B. catenatulatum 1 and the luxABCDE operon from pPL2lux 2. Derivatives of pLuxMC1, harbouring a bifidobacterial promoter (pLuxMC2 as well as a synthetically derived promoter (pLuxMC3 3 placed upstream of luxABCDE, were constructed and found to stably replicate in B. breve UCC2003. The subsequent analysis of these strains allowed us to assess the functionality of pLuxMC1 both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the potential of pLuxMC1 as a real-time, non-invasive reporter system for Bifidobacterium. It has also allowed us, for the first time, to track the colonisation potential and persistence of this probiotic species in real time. An interesting and significant outcome of the study is the identification of the caecum as a niche environment for B. breve UCC2003 within the mouse gastrointestinal tract (GI tract.

  8. Cytogenetic Prognostication Within Medulloblastoma Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, David J.H.; Northcott, Paul A.; Remke, Marc; Korshunov, Andrey; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Kool, Marcel; Luu, Betty; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M.; Garzia, Livia; Peacock, John; Mack, Stephen C.; Wu, Xiaochong; Rolider, Adi; Morrissy, A. Sorana; Cavalli, Florence M.G.; Jones, David T.W.; Zitterbart, Karel; Faria, Claudia C.; Schüller, Ulrich; Kren, Leos; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Shin Ra, Young; Garami, Miklós; Hauser, Peter; Chan, Jennifer A.; Robinson, Shenandoah; Bognár, László; Klekner, Almos; Saad, Ali G.; Liau, Linda M.; Albrecht, Steffen; Fontebasso, Adam; Cinalli, Giuseppe; De Antonellis, Pasqualino; Zollo, Massimo; Cooper, Michael K.; Thompson, Reid C.; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C.; Di Rocco, Concezio; Massimi, Luca; Michiels, Erna M.C.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Gupta, Nalin; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M.; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Eberhart, Charles G.; Fouladi, Maryam; Lach, Boleslaw; Jung, Shin; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Jouvet, Anne; Jabado, Nada; Pollack, Ian F.; Weiss, William A.; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Leonard, Jeffrey R.; Rubin, Joshua B.; de Torres, Carmen; Lavarino, Cinzia; Mora, Jaume; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tabori, Uri; Olson, James M.; Gajjar, Amar; Packer, Roger J.; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pomeroy, Scott L.; French, Pim J.; Kloosterhof, Nanne K.; Kros, Johan M.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Clifford, Steven C.; Bourdeaut, Franck; Delattre, Olivier; Doz, François F.; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Malkin, David; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A.; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Taylor, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Current medulloblastoma protocols stratify patients based on clinical features: patient age, metastatic stage, extent of resection, and histologic variant. Stark prognostic and genetic differences among the four subgroups suggest that subgroup-specific molecular biomarkers could improve patient prognostication. Patients and Methods Molecular biomarkers were identified from a discovery set of 673 medulloblastomas from 43 cities around the world. Combined risk stratification models were designed based on clinical and cytogenetic biomarkers identified by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. Identified biomarkers were tested using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a nonoverlapping medulloblastoma tissue microarray (n = 453), with subsequent validation of the risk stratification models. Results Subgroup information improves the predictive accuracy of a multivariable survival model compared with clinical biomarkers alone. Most previously published cytogenetic biomarkers are only prognostic within a single medulloblastoma subgroup. Profiling six FISH biomarkers (GLI2, MYC, chromosome 11 [chr11], chr14, 17p, and 17q) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, we can reliably and reproducibly identify very low-risk and very high-risk patients within SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas. Conclusion Combining subgroup and cytogenetic biomarkers with established clinical biomarkers substantially improves patient prognostication, even in the context of heterogeneous clinical therapies. The prognostic significance of most molecular biomarkers is restricted to a specific subgroup. We have identified a small panel of cytogenetic biomarkers that reliably identifies very high-risk and very low-risk groups of patients, making it an excellent tool for selecting patients for therapy intensification and therapy de-escalation in future clinical trials. PMID

  9. The management of low-risk acute upper gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Patients with low risk AUGIH can be safely managed in the community. Reduction of admissions for such patients allows more appropriate use of in-patient resources with consequent financial savings. Patients with low risk AUGIH should however undergo endoscopy because it often reveals SEF. KEYWORDS ...

  10. The management of low-risk acute upper gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed Gado

    2012-12-04

    Dec 4, 2012 ... The management of low-risk acute upper gastrointestinal ... Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the safety of managing patients with low risk AUGIH ..... assessment after acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Gut 1996;38:316–21. 3. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, SIGN. Management.

  11. TP53 mutations in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes with del(5q) predict disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jädersten, Martin; Saft, Leonie; Smith, Alexander; Kulasekararaj, Austin; Pomplun, Sabine; Göhring, Gudrun; Hedlund, Anette; Hast, Robert; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Porwit, Anna; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Mufti, Ghulam J

    2011-05-20

    To determine the frequency of TP53 mutations and the level of p53 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with del(5q) and to assess their impact on disease progression. Pre- and postprogression bone marrow (BM) samples from 55 consecutive patients with International Prognostic Scoring System low risk (n = 32) or intermediate-1 risk (n = 23) were studied by next-generation sequencing of TP53. IHC for p53 was performed on 148 sequential BM samples. TP53 mutations with a median clone size of 11% (range, 1% to 54%) were detected in 10 patients (18%) already at an early phase of the disease. Mutations were equally common in low-risk and intermediate-1-risk patients and were associated with evolution to acute myeloid leukemia (5 of 10 v 7 of 45; P = .045). Nine of 10 patients carrying mutations showed more than 2% BM progenitors with strong p53 staining. The probability of a complete cytogenetic response to lenalidomide was lower in mutated patients (0 of 7 v 12 of 24; P = .024). By using sensitive deep-sequencing technology, we demonstrated that TP53 mutated populations may occur at an early disease stage in almost a fifth of low-risk MDS patients with del(5q). Importantly, mutations were present years before disease progression and were associated with an increased risk of leukemic evolution. TP53 mutations could not be predicted by common clinical features but were associated with p53 overexpression. Our findings indicate a previously unrecognized heterogeneity of the disease which may significantly affect clinical decision making.

  12. Cross-feeding by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 during co-cultivation with Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 in a mucin-based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Muireann; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Kane, Marian; Joshi, Lokesh; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-11-25

    Bifidobacteria constitute a specific group of commensal bacteria that commonly inhabit the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 was previously shown to utilize a variety of plant/diet/host-derived carbohydrates, including cellodextrin, starch and galactan, as well as the mucin and HMO-derived monosaccharide, sialic acid. In the current study, we investigated the ability of this strain to utilize parts of a host-derived source of carbohydrate, namely the mucin glycoprotein, when grown in co-culture with the mucin-degrading Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010. B. breve UCC2003 was shown to exhibit growth properties in a mucin-based medium, but only when grown in the presence of B. bifidum PRL2010, which is known to metabolize mucin. A combination of HPAEC-PAD and transcriptome analyses identified some of the possible monosaccharides and oligosaccharides which support this enhanced co-cultivation growth/viability phenotype. This study describes the potential existence of a gut commensal relationship between two bifidobacterial species. We demonstrate the in vitro ability of B. breve UCC2003 to cross-feed on sugars released by the mucin-degrading activity of B. bifidum PRL2010, thus advancing our knowledge on the metabolic adaptability which allows the former strain to colonize the (infant) gut by its extensive metabolic abilities to (co-)utilize available carbohydrate sources.

  13. Improvement of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA and contrast sensitivity (UCCS with perceptual learning and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS in individuals with mild myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eCamilleri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual learning has been shown to produce an improvement of visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS both in subjects with amblyopia and refractive defects such as myopia or presbyopia. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS has proven to be efficacious in accelerating neural plasticity and boosting perceptual learning in healthy participants. In this study we investigated whether a short behavioural training regime using a contrast detection task combined with online tRNS was as effective in improving visual functions in participants with mild myopia compared to a two-month behavioural training regime without tRNS (Camilleri et al., 2014. After two weeks of perceptual training in combination with tRNS, participants showed an improvement of 0.15 LogMAR in uncorrected VA (UCVA that was comparable with that obtained after eight weeks of training with no tRNS, and an improvement in uncorrected CS (UCCS at various spatial frequencies (whereas no UCCS improvement was seen after eight weeks of training with no tRNS. On the other hand, a control group that trained for two weeks without stimulation did not show any significant UCVA or UCCS improvement. These results suggest that the combination of behavioural and neuromodulatory techniques can be fast and efficacious in improving sight in individuals with mild myopia.

  14. 'Observation' Best Option for Most Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html 'Observation' Best Option for Most Low-Risk Prostate Cancer 20-year study found little difference in death ... 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Men with early stage prostate cancer who have surgery to remove their tumor do ...

  15. Aircraft Anomaly Prognostics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop Group will leverage its proven Electromechanical Actuator (EMA) prognostics methodology to develop an advanced model-based actuator prognostic reasoner...

  16. Emergency caesarean section in low risk nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Hegaard, H K; Kjaergaard, H

    2012-01-01

    and identifies maternal and fetal risk factors associated with ECS. We included 2,748 low-risk women and 8.7% had ECS. Failure-to-progress (FTP) accounted for 68.3% of the ECS and 30.4% were performed due to suspected fetal distress (SFD). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to estimate...

  17. Determinants of low risk of asthma exacerbation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of asthma control every 4-6 weeks during pregnancy is recommended to reduce risk of exacerbation, and by that improve outcome. OBJECTIVE: To identify determinants of pregnancies with low risk of asthma exacerbation. METHODS: All pregnant women enrolled into the Management o...... is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  18. Low risk and high risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low risk and high risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and cervical cancer in Zimbabwe: epidemiological evidence. M Chirara, G A Stanczuk, S A Tswana, L Nystrom, S Bergstrom, S R Moyo, M J Nzara. Abstract. No Abstract. Central African Journal of Medicine Vol. 47 (2) 2001: pp. 32-34.

  19. Predicting low-risk prostate cancer from transperineal saturation biopsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van Leeuwen (Pim); Siriwardana, A. (Amila); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); Ting, F. (Francis); D. Nieboer (Daan); Thompson, J. (James); W.J. Delprado (Warick); Haynes, A.-M. (Anne-Marie); Brenner, P. (Phillip); Stricker, P. (Phillip)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. To assess the performance of five previously described clinicopathological definitions of low-risk prostate cancer (PC). Materials and Methods. Men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinical stage ≤T2, PSA <10 ng/mL, Gleason score <8 PC, diagnosed by

  20. Characterization of the genetic locus responsible for the production of ABP-118, a novel bacteriocin produced by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC118.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Sarah; van Sinderen, Douwe; Thornton, Gerardine M; Holo, Helge; Nes, Ingolf F; Collins, J Kevin

    2002-04-01

    ABP-118, a small heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC118, a strain isolated from the ileal-caecal region of the human gastrointestinal tract, was purified to homogeneity. Using reverse genetics, a DNA fragment specifying part of ABP-118 was identified on a 10769 bp chromosomal region. Analysis of this region revealed that ABP-118 was a Class IIb two-peptide bacteriocin composed of Abp118alpha, which exhibited the antimicrobial activity, and Abp118beta, which enhanced the antimicrobial activity. The gene conferring strain UCC118 immunity to the action of ABP-118, abpIM, was identified downstream of the abp118beta gene. Located further downstream of abp118beta, several ORFs were identified whose deduced proteins resembled those of proteins involved in bacteriocin regulation and secretion. Heterologous expression of ABP-118 was achieved in Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis and Bacillus cereus. In addition, the abp118 locus encoded an inducing peptide, AbpIP, which was shown to play a role in the regulation of ABP-118 production. This novel bacteriocin is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be isolated from a known human probiotic bacterium and to be characterized at the genetic level.

  1. Videndeling, læringskultur og digitale læringsressourcer på Absalons Skole “Projekt VILD” Af Mette Hannibal & Britta Vejen, Professionshøjskolen UCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Mette; Vejen, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Denne rapport er resultat af et udviklingsprojekt gennemført på Absalons Skole i et samarbejde mellem skolen og de eksterne konsulenter Mette Hannibal og Britta Vejen fra Professionshøjskolen UCC i København. Projektet er støttet af folke- og skolebibliotekspuljen ved Kulturstyrelsen, nu Udviklin......Denne rapport er resultat af et udviklingsprojekt gennemført på Absalons Skole i et samarbejde mellem skolen og de eksterne konsulenter Mette Hannibal og Britta Vejen fra Professionshøjskolen UCC i København. Projektet er støttet af folke- og skolebibliotekspuljen ved Kulturstyrelsen, nu...

  2. Predictors for lymph nodes involvement in low risk endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, Yfat; Calvino, Abdul Saied; Katz, Andrew; Katz, Steven; Moore, Richard G

    2017-05-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and BMI were examined as pre-operative predictors for lymph node metastases in patients with low-risk endometrial cancer. The study was a retrospective analysis of 534 endometrial cancer patients that underwent hysterectomy and lymph node dissection. Included subjects had a preoperative diagnosis of a grade 1 or 2 endometrioid carcinoma and no macroscopic extrauterine disease. We compared node-negative to node-positive patients to identify correlates of node-positive disease. The node-positive group presented with lower BMI than the node-negative group, 31.5 and 34.4, respectively (p = .03). The mean NLR was higher in the node-positive group 3.4 vs 2.9 (p = .08), showing a trend towards significance on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, lower BMI was found to be an independent predictor for nodal metastasis. Our data suggest that lower BMI is a risk factor for lymph nodes involvement in low-risk endometrial cancer. Impact statement Most endometrial cancer patients have low-risk disease with low risk for lymph nodes metastasis. In order to reduce the number of patients that will undergo unnecessary lymph node dissection, different types of preoperative predictors for lymph node involvement were studied. CA 125 and different imaging modalities were found as useful predictors for more advanced disease. Less studied predictors are the systemic inflammatory response markers and patient's BMI. This study suggests that lower BMI is a risk factor for lymph node involvement in low-risk endometrial cancer. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was close to significance as a predictor for lymph node involvement. In practice, physicians might favour comprehensive lymph node dissection when there is a doubt regarding the procedure but the patient is lean. The study's conclusion can be utilised for triaging patients to general gynaecologist vs gynaecologic oncologist. Further research should focus on combining predictors such as

  3. Clinical gestalt versus prognostic scores for prognostication of patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Carlos Andrés; Zamarro, Celia; Gómez, Vicente; Guerassimova, Ina; Nieto, Rosa; Barbero, Esther; Chiluiza, Diana; Barrios, Deisy; Morillo, Raquel; Jiménez, David

    2017-12-21

    To determine the accuracy of clinical gestalt to identify patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) at low-risk for short-term complications. This study included a total of 154 consecutive patients diagnosed with acute symptomatic PE in a tertiary university hospital. We compared the prognostic accuracy of the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI), the simplified PESI (sPESI), and clinical gestalt of 1) 2senior physicians (one with and one without experience in the management of patients with PE), 2) a fourth-year resident of Pneumology, 3) a third-year resident of Pneumology, and 4) a second-year resident of Pneumology. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality during the first month after the diagnosis of PE. Thirty-day all-cause mortality was 8.4% (13/154; 8.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1-12.8%). The PESI and clinical gestalt classified more patients as low-risk, compared to the sPESI (36.4%, 31.3% y 28.6%, respectively). There were no deaths in the sPESI low-risk category (negative predictive value 100%). Prognostic accuracy increased with increasing experience (84.6 vs. 92.3%; P=.049). The sPESI showed the best accuracy at correctly identifying low-risk patients with acute symptomatic PE. Clinical gestalt is not inferior to standardized clinical prediction rules to prognosticate patients with acute PE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Second Curettage for Low-Risk Nonmetastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Raymond J; Filiaci, Virginia L; Schink, Julian C; Mannel, Robert S; Behbakht, Kian; Hoffman, James S; Spirtos, Nick M; Chan, John K; Tidy, John A; Miller, David S

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of second uterine curettage in lieu of chemotherapy for patients with low-risk, nonmetastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) and to evaluate whether response to second curettage is independent of patient age, World Health Organization (WHO) risk score, registration human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level, lesion size, and depth of myometrial invasion measured on ultrasound examination. This was a cooperative group multicenter prospective phase II study. Prestudy testing included quantitative hCG level, pelvic ultrasonography, and chest radiography. Patients were categorized according to WHO risk scoring criteria (low risk with a score of 0-6). Sixty-four women with newly diagnosed low-risk, nonmetastatic GTN were enrolled. Four patients were excluded. Twenty-four patients (40%) (lower 95% confidence limit 27.6%) were cured after second curettage. An additional two patients (3%) achieved a complete response but did not complete follow-up. Overall, 26 of 60 patients were able to avoid chemotherapy. Surgical failure was observed in 34 women (59%) and was more common in women 19 years old or younger or 40 years old or older. One case of grade 1 uterine perforation was successfully managed by observation. Four grade 1 and one grade 3 uterine hemorrhages were reported. New metastatic disease (lung) was identified in one of these women after second curettage. In three patients (surgical failures), the second curettage pathology was placental site trophoblastic tumor, and it was placental nodule in one additional patient. Second uterine curettage as initial treatment for low-risk, nonmetastatic GTN cures 40% of patients without significant morbidity. ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT00521118.

  5. Preoperative testing before low-risk surgical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Kyle R.; Wijeysundera, Duminda N.; Pendrith, Ciara; Ng, Ryan; Tu, Jack V.; Laupacis, Andreas; Schull, Michael J.; Levinson, Wendy; Bhatia, R. Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is concern about increasing utilization of low-value health care services, including preoperative testing for low-risk surgical procedures. We investigated temporal trends, explanatory factors, and institutional and regional variation in the utilization of testing before low-risk procedures. Methods: For this retrospective cohort study, we accessed linked population-based administrative databases from Ontario, Canada. A cohort of 1 546 223 patients 18 years or older underwent a total of 2 224 070 low-risk procedures, including endoscopy and ophthalmologic surgery, from Apr. 1, 2008, to Mar. 31, 2013, at 137 institutions in 14 health regions. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to assess patient- and institution-level factors associated with electrocardiography (ECG), transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac stress test or chest radiography within 60 days before the procedure. Results: Endoscopy, ophthalmologic surgery and other low-risk procedures accounted for 40.1%, 34.2% and 25.7% of procedures, respectively. ECG and chest radiography were conducted before 31.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.9%–31.1%) and 10.8% (95% CI 10.8%–10.8%) of procedures, respectively, whereas the rates of preoperative echocardiography and stress testing were 2.9% (95% CI 2.9%–2.9%) and 2.1% (95% CI 2.1%–2.1%), respectively. Significant variation was present across institutions, with the frequency of preoperative ECG ranging from 3.4% to 88.8%. Receipt of preoperative ECG and radiography were associated with older age (among patients 66–75 years of age, for ECG, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 18.3, 95% CI 17.6–19.0; for radiography, adjusted OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.8–3.0), preoperative anesthesia consultation (for ECG, adjusted OR 8.7, 95% CI 8.5–8.8; for radiography, adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 2.1–2.2) and preoperative medical consultation (for ECG, adjusted OR 6.8, 95% CI 6.7–6.9; for radiography, adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 3.5–3.6). The median ORs

  6. [Prognostic factors of early breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Elena; González, Cynthia S; Espinosa, Enrique

    2016-02-19

    Decision about the administration of adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer depends on the evaluation of prognostic factors. Lymph node status, tumor size and grade of differentiation are classical variables in this regard, and can be complemented by hormonal receptor status and HER2 expression. These factors can be combined into prognostic indexes to better estimate the risk of relapse or death. Other factors are less important. Gene profiles have emerged in recent years to identify low-risk patients who can forgo adjuvant chemotherapy. A number of profiles are available and can be used in selected cases. In the future, gene profiling will be used to select patients for treatment with new targeted therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants for hospitalization in " low-risk" community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Muktar H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variable decision in managing community acquired pneumonia (CAP is the initial site of care; in-patient versus outpatient. These variations persist despite comprehensive practice guidelines. Patients with a Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI score lower than seventy have low risk for complications and outpatient antibiotic management is recommended in this group. These patients are generally below the age of fifty years, non-nursing home residents, HIV negative and have no major cardiac, hepatic, renal or malignant diseases. Methods A retrospective analysis of 296 low-risk CAP patients evaluated within a year one period at St. Agnes Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland was undertaken. All patients were assigned a PSI score. 208 (70% were evaluated and discharged from the emergency department (E.D. to complete outpatient antibiotic therapy, while 88 (30% were hospitalized. Patients were sub-stratified into classes I-V according to PSI. A comparison of demographic, clinical, social and financial parameters was made between the E.D. discharged and hospitalized groups. Results Statistically significant differences in favor of the hospitalized group were noted for female gender (CI: 1.46-5.89, p= 0.0018, African Americans (CI: 0.31-0.73, p= 0.004, insurance coverage (CI: 0.19-0.63, p= 0.0034, temperature (CI: 0.04-0.09, p= 0.0001 and pulse rate (CI: 0.03-0.14, p= 0.0001. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups for altered mental status, hypotension, tachypnea, laboratory/radiological parameters and social indicators (p>0.05. The average length of stay for in-patients was 3.5 days at about eight time's higher cost than outpatient management. There was no difference in mortality or treatment failures between the two groups. The documentation rate and justifications for hospitalizing low risk CAP patients by admitting physicians was less than optimal. Conclusions High fever, tachycardia, female gender

  8. Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær

    Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group and offe......Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group...... and offered systemic adjuvant therapy, and 50% of these patients receive chemotherapy. However, approximately 25-30% of the lymph node negative and 50% of the lymph node positive high risk patients would experience recurrence if left untreated with systemic adjuvant therapy. Consequently, considerable......, hormone receptor status, histological grade, age of patient at diagnosis, and year of surgery. All patients included in the study had not received any kind of systemic adjuvant therapy; hence, the study results were not influenced by treatment response. We compared lncRNA expression in metastatic and non...

  9. Prognostic Performance Metrics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter presents several performance metrics for offline evaluation of prognostics algorithms. A brief overview of different methods employed for performance...

  10. Prognostics for Microgrid Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Abhinav

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics is the science of predicting future performance and potential failures based on targeted condition monitoring. Moving away from the traditional reliability centric view, prognostics aims at detecting and quantifying the time to impending failures. This advance warning provides the opportunity to take actions that can preserve uptime, reduce cost of damage, or extend the life of the component. The talk will focus on the concepts and basics of prognostics from the viewpoint of condition-based systems health management. Differences with other techniques used in systems health management and philosophies of prognostics used in other domains will be shown. Examples relevant to micro grid systems and subsystems will be used to illustrate various types of prediction scenarios and the resources it take to set up a desired prognostic system. Specifically, the implementation results for power storage and power semiconductor components will demonstrate specific solution approaches of prognostics. The role of constituent elements of prognostics, such as model, prediction algorithms, failure threshold, run-to-failure data, requirements and specifications, and post-prognostic reasoning will be explained. A discussion on performance evaluation and performance metrics will conclude the technical discussion followed by general comments on open research problems and challenges in prognostics.

  11. Impact of age, intrinsic subtype and local treatment on long-term local-regional recurrence and breast cancer mortality among low-risk breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Tinne; Alsner, Jan; Tramm, Trine

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term prognostic impact of age, local treatment and intrinsic subtypes on the risk of local-regional recurrence (LRR) and breast cancer mortality among low-risk patients.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cohort study with prospectively collected data, balanced five-year age groups...... no prognostic impact on the 20-year LRR risk, regardless of age. A distinct 20-year mortality pattern was observed among the younger patients: 11% of patients with LumB tumor died of breast cancer within the first five years after primary surgery, 23% of patients with Lum-HER2+ tumor died within a 5-10-year......, including 514 Danish lymph node negative breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1989 and 1998, treated with mastectomy (N = 320) or breast-conserving therapy (BCT) (N = 194) and without systemic treatment. Intrinsic subtype approximation was performed by combining information on estrogen-, progesterone...

  12. GPU Accelerated Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, George E., Jr.; Daigle, Matthew J.; Sankararaman, Shankar; Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Ng, Eley

    2017-01-01

    Prognostic methods enable operators and maintainers to predict the future performance for critical systems. However, these methods can be computationally expensive and may need to be performed each time new information about the system becomes available. In light of these computational requirements, we have investigated the application of graphics processing units (GPUs) as a computational platform for real-time prognostics. Recent advances in GPU technology have reduced cost and increased the computational capability of these highly parallel processing units, making them more attractive for the deployment of prognostic software. We present a survey of model-based prognostic algorithms with considerations for leveraging the parallel architecture of the GPU and a case study of GPU-accelerated battery prognostics with computational performance results.

  13. Clinical decision aids for chest pain in the emergency department: identifying low-risk patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William; Mahler, Simon A

    2015-01-01

    Chest pain is one of the most common presenting complaints in the emergency department, though only a small minority of patients are subsequently diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, missing the diagnosis has potential for significant morbidity and mortality. ACS presentations can be atypical, and their workups are often prolonged and costly. In order to risk-stratify patients and better direct the workup and care given, many decision aids have been developed. While each may have merit in certain clinical settings, the most useful aid in the emergency department is one that finds all cases of ACS while also identifying a substantial subset of patients at low risk who can be discharged without stress testing or coronary angiography. This review describes several of the chest pain decision aids developed and studied through the recent past, starting with the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) scores, which were developed as prognostic aids for patients already diagnosed with ACS, then subsequently validated in the undifferentiated chest pain population. Asia-Pacific Evaluation of Chest Pain Trial (ASPECT); Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol to Assess Patients With Chest Pain Symptoms Using Contemporary Troponins (ADAPT); North American Chest Pain Rule (NACPR); and History, Electrocardiogram, Age, Risk factors, Troponin (HEART) score have been developed exclusively for use in the undifferentiated chest pain population as well, with improved performance compared to their predecessors. This review describes the relative merits and limitations of these decision aids so that providers can determine which tool fits the needs of their clinical practice setting. PMID:27147894

  14. Clinical decision aids for chest pain in the emergency department: identifying low-risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alley W

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available William Alley, Simon A Mahler Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Chest pain is one of the most common presenting complaints in the emergency department, though only a small minority of patients are subsequently diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. However, missing the diagnosis has potential for significant morbidity and mortality. ACS presentations can be atypical, and their workups are often prolonged and costly. In order to risk-stratify patients and better direct the workup and care given, many decision aids have been developed. While each may have merit in certain clinical settings, the most useful aid in the emergency department is one that finds all cases of ACS while also identifying a substantial subset of patients at low risk who can be discharged without stress testing or coronary angiography. This review describes several of the chest pain decision aids developed and studied through the recent past, starting with the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI risk score and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE scores, which were developed as prognostic aids for patients already diagnosed with ACS, then subsequently validated in the undifferentiated chest pain population. Asia-Pacific Evaluation of Chest Pain Trial (ASPECT; Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol to Assess Patients With Chest Pain Symptoms Using Contemporary Troponins (ADAPT; North American Chest Pain Rule (NACPR; and History, Electrocardiogram, Age, Risk factors, Troponin (HEART score have been developed exclusively for use in the undifferentiated chest pain population as well, with improved performance compared to their predecessors. This review describes the relative merits and limitations of these decision aids so that providers can determine which tool fits the needs of their clinical practice setting. Keywords: chest pain, decision aid, risk score, acute coronary syndrome

  15. A prognostic model for lung adenocarcinoma patient survival with a focus on four miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianqiu; An, Zhaoling; Li, Peihui; Liu, Haihua

    2017-09-01

    There is currently no effective biomarker for determining the survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. The purpose of the present study was to construct a prognostic survival model using microRNA (miRNA) expression data from patients with lung adenocarcinoma. miRNA data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas, and patients with lung adenocarcinoma were divided into either the training or validation set based on the random allocation principle. The prognostic model focusing on miRNA was constructed, and patients were divided into high-risk or low-risk groups as per the scores, to assess their survival time. The 5-year survival rate from the subgroups within the high- and low-risk groups was assessed. P-values of the prognostic model in the total population, the training set and validation set were 0.0017, 0.01986 and 0.02773, respectively, indicating that the survival time of the lung adenocarcinoma high-risk group was less than that of the low-risk group. Thus, the model had a good assessment effectiveness for the untreated group (P=0.00088) and the Caucasian patient group (P=0.00043). In addition, the model had the best prediction effect for the 5-year survival rate of the Caucasian patient group (AUC=0.629). In conclusion, the prognostic model developed in the present study can be used as an independent prognostic model for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

  16. Prognostics of Power MOSFET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper demonstrates how to apply prognostics to power MOSFETs (metal oxide field effect transistor). The methodology uses thermal cycling to age devices and...

  17. Palliative medicine review: prognostication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glare, Paul A; Sinclair, Christian T

    2008-01-01

    Prognostication, along with diagnosis and treatment, is a traditional core clinical skill of the physician. Many patients and families receiving palliative care want information about life expectancy to help plan realistically for their futures. Although underappreciated, prognosis is, or at least should be, part of every clinical decision. Despite this crucial role, expertise in the art and science of prognostication diminished during the twentieth century, due largely to the ascendancy of accurate diagnostic tests and effective therapies. Consequently, "Doctor, how long do I have?" is a question most physicians find unprepared to answer effectively. As we focus on palliative care in the twenty-first century, prognostication will need to be restored as a core clinical proficiency. The discipline of palliative medicine can provide leadership in this direction. This paper begins by discussing a framework for understanding prognosis and how its different domains might be applied to all patients with life limiting illness, although the main focus of the paper is predicting survival in patients with cancer. Examples of prognostic tools are provided, although the subjective assessment of prognosis remains important in the terminally ill. Other issues addressed include: the importance of prognostication in terms of clinical decision-making, discharge planning, and care planning; the impact of prognosis on hospice referrals and patient/family satisfaction; and physicians' willingness to prognosticate.

  18. Evaluation of the International Prognostic Score (IPS-7) and a Simpler Prognostic Score (IPS-3) for advanced Hodgkin lymphoma in the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Catherine S; Li, Hailun; Hong, Fangxin; Gordon, Leo I; Fisher, Richard I; Bartlett, Nancy L; Crump, Michael; Gascoyne, Randy D; Wagner, Henry; Stiff, Patrick J; Cheson, Bruce D; Stewart, Douglas A; Kahl, Brad S; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Blum, Kristie A; Habermann, Thomas M; Tuscano, Joseph M; Hoppe, Richard T; Horning, Sandra J; Advani, Ranjana H

    2015-11-01

    The International Prognostic Score (IPS-7) is the most commonly used risk stratification tool for advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), however recent studies suggest the IPS-7 is less discriminating due to improved outcomes with contemporary therapy. We evaluated the seven variables for IPS-7 recorded at study entry for 854 patients enrolled on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 2496 trial. Univariate and multivariate Cox models were used to assess their prognostic ability for freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). The IPS-7 remained prognostic however its prognostic range has narrowed. On multivariate analysis, two factors (age, stage) remained significant for FFP and three factors (age, stage, haemoglobin level) for OS. An alternative prognostic index, the IPS-3, was constructed using age, stage and haemoglobin level, which provided four distinct risk groups [FFP (P = 0·0001) and OS (P IPS-3 outperformed the IPS-7 on risk prediction for both FFP and OS by model fit and discrimination criteria. Using reclassification calibration, 18% of IPS-7 low risk patients were re-classified as intermediate risk and 13% of IPS-7 intermediate risk patients as low risk. For patients with advanced HL, the IPS-3 may provide a simpler and more accurate framework for risk assessment in the modern era. Validation of these findings in other large data sets is planned. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The WHO score predicts treatment outcome in low risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia patients treated with weekly intramuscular methotrexate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra M Gilani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN includes a spectrum of disease ranging from hydatidifrom mole to choriocarcinoma. Low risk GTN is defined as persistent molar pregnancy with a WHO score lower than seven. The optimal chemotherapeutic regimen still remains controversial. Aim: The objectives of this study was to determine efficacy and safety of weekly intramuscular methotrexte in the treatment of low risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.(LRGTN and also identify prognostic factors associated with treatment failure, necessitating second line chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-six women with LRGTN from 2001 to 2009 were treated with weekly intramuscular methotrexate at 40mg/m 2 as first line therapy.Monitoring of treatment was done with weekly checking of βhCG level. Three consecutive negative βhCG measurements showed complete response. After first negative βhCG measurement, one additional dose was administered for consolidation. Results: Of 66 patients, who started the treatment five continued their treatment in other medical centres and were excluded from final analysis for treatment evaluation, and seven discontinued first line therapy because of hepatotoxicity. Of the remaining 54, complete remission occurred in 43 (79.6% and eleven were resistant to first line therapy. Mean WHO score prior to starting chemotherapy was significantly different between two groups of response and resistance according to our data. Change of treatment to second line Actinomycin-D was necessary in eigtheen cases because of resistance to first line in eleven and liver enzyme elevation in seven patients. Sixteen of these 18 responded to Actinomycin-D as second line and one needed hysterectomy for complete response. One patient received multiagent chemotherapy for complete remission. Conclusion: We recommend this effective and safe method of chemotherapy for women with LRGTN. According to our data, lower mean WHO score predicts a better

  20. Milk intake is not associated with low risk of diabetes or overweight-obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle K M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High dairy/milk intake has been associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes observationally, but whether this represents a causal association is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high milk intake is associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes and of overweight-obes...

  1. [Nucleotide sequence and organization of tRNA-Gly (UCC), tRNA-Arg (UCU), and alpha-subunits of CF1ATPase in chloroplast DNA of Allium porrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabidze, V D; Kartvelishvili, M G; Dzhincharadze, A G; Beridze, T G

    1994-03-01

    The nucleotide sequence of 1029 bp BamHI-fragment of leek chloroplast DNA (Allium porrum, fam. Liliaceae) has been determined. The fragment contains the 3'-terminal part of the tRNA-Gly (UCC) gene, the tRNA-Arg (UCU) gene and the 3'-terminal domain of the CF1ATPase alpha-subunit gene. The gene arrangement and the nucleotide sequence of this fragment are similar to those of the tobacco chloroplast DNA but differ significantly from that of other monocots in which the region containing these genes underwent extensive recombination.

  2. The Practicability of a Novel Prognostic Index (PI) Model and Comparison with Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) in Stage I-III Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiahuai; Ye, Feng; Li, Shuaijie; Huang, Xiaojia; Yang, Lu; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated the prognostic value of various laboratory parameters in cancer patients. This study was to establish a prognostic index (PI) model for breast cancer patients based on the potential prognostic factors. A retrospective study of 1661 breast cancer patients who underwent surgical treatment between January 2002 and December 2008 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center was conducted. Multivariate analysis (Cox regression model) was performed to determine the independent prognostic factors and a prognostic index (PI) model was devised based on these factors. Survival analyses were used to estimate the prognostic value of PI, and the discriminatory ability of PI was compared with Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) by evaluating the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC). The mean survival time of all participants was 123.6 months. The preoperative globulin >30.0g/L, triglyceride >1.10mmol/L and fibrinogen >2.83g/L were identified as risk factors for shorter cancer-specific survival. The novel prognostic index model was established and enrolled patients were classified as low- (1168 patients, 70.3%), moderate- (410 patients, 24.7%) and high-risk groups (83 patients, 5.0%), respectively. Compared with the low-risk group, higher risks of poor clinical outcome were indicated in the moderate-risk group [Hazard ratio (HR): 1.513, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.169-1.959, p = 0.002] and high-risk group (HR: 2.481, 95%CI: 1.653-3.724, p< 0.001). The prognostic index based on three laboratory parameters was a novel and practicable prognostic tool. It may serve as complement to help predict postoperative survival in breast cancer patients.

  3. Prognostics of Power MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Jose Ramon; Saxena, Abhinav; Vashchenko, Vladislay; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how to apply prognostics to power MOSFETs (metal oxide field effect transistor). The methodology uses thermal cycling to age devices and Gaussian process regression to perform prognostics. The approach is validated with experiments on 100V power MOSFETs. The failure mechanism for the stress conditions is determined to be die-attachment degradation. Change in ON-state resistance is used as a precursor of failure due to its dependence on junction temperature. The experimental data is augmented with a finite element analysis simulation that is based on a two-transistor model. The simulation assists in the interpretation of the degradation phenomena and SOA (safe operation area) change.

  4. [Focal therapies: An alternative option for low-risk prostate cancer management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebdai, Souhil; Lunelli, Luca; Bigot, Pierre; Cussenot, Olivier; Azzouzi, Abdel-Rahmene

    2017-10-11

    Recommended options for low-risk prostate cancer treatment are active surveillance, radical treatments or watchful waiting. Focal therapies are currently assessed for low risk prostate cancer treatment. Focal therapies can be performed in research protocols. Oncologic results of these focal treatments are encouraging and show excellent tolerance with few complications. Radical treatments are still possible after focal therapies failure. Focal therapies are a possible solution to over-treatment issue of low risk prostate cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic factors in oligodendrogliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, L; Gjerris, F; Klinken, L

    1997-01-01

    An outcome analysis was performed on 96 patients with pure cerebral oligodendrogliomas operated in the 30-year period 1962 to 1991. The most important predictive prognostic factors were youth and no neurological deficit, demonstrated as a median survival for the group younger than 20 years of 17...

  6. Distinguishing Low-Risk Luminal A Breast Cancer Subtypes with Ki-67 and p53 Is More Predictive of Long-Term Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Kyung Lee

    Full Text Available Overexpression of p53 is the most frequent genetic alteration in breast cancer. Recently, many studies have shown that the expression of mutant p53 differs for each subtype of breast cancer and is associated with different prognoses. In this study, we aimed to determine the suitable cut-off value to predict the clinical outcome of p53 overexpression and its usefulness as a prognostic factor in each subtype of breast cancer, especially in luminal A breast cancer. Approval was granted by the Institutional Review Board of Samsung Medical Center. We analyzed a total of 7,739 patients who were surgically treated for invasive breast cancer at Samsung Medical Center between Dec 1995 and Apr 2013. Luminal A subtype was defined as ER&PR + and HER2- and was further subclassified according to Ki-67 and p53 expression as follows: luminal A (Ki-67-,p53-, luminal A (Ki-67+, p53-, luminal A (Ki-67 -, p53+ and luminal A (Ki-67+, p53+. Low-risk luminal A subtype was defined as negative for both Ki-67 and p53 (luminal A [ki-67-, p53-], and others subtypes were considered to be high-risk luminal A breast cancer. A cut-off value of 10% for p53 was a good predictor of clinical outcome in all patients and luminal A breast cancer patients. The prognostic role of p53 overexpression for OS and DFS was only significant in luminal A subtype. The combination of p53 and Ki-67 has been shown to have the best predictive power as calculated by the area under curve (AUC, especially for long-term overall survival. In this study, we have shown that overexpression of p53 and Ki-67 could be used to discriminate low-risk luminal A subtype in breast cancer. Therefore, using the combination of p53 and Ki-67 expression in discriminating low-risk luminal A breast cancer may improve the prognostic power and provide the greatest clinical utility.

  7. Report: EPA's Fiscal Year 2015 Purchase Card and Convenience Check Program Assessed as Low Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0124, March 29, 2016. We determined the EPA's purchase card and convenience check program for FY 2015 to be at a low risk for illegal, improper or erroneous purchases and payments due to strengthened internal controls.

  8. Prognostic factors in de novo myelodysplastic syndrome in young and middle-aged people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Николаевна Климкович

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We spent multivariate analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters for the prediction of de-novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS patients aged 18-60 years. The results of clinical application of prognostic systems in MDS show that there is a large variability within individual risk groups, especially at low-risk MDS. So now hematologists conduct research aimed at identifying additional adverse risk MDS. This is done so that patients with low-risk MDS embodiments and unfavorable prognosis could benefit from early therapeutic intervention, and not only be clinician monitored until disease progression. We found that additional adverse risk factors for the development of MDS are the expression of CD95 in bone marrow ≤40 % and FLT3≥60 %. The expression level of CD95 in bone marrow cells≤40 % and FLT3≥60 % can be considered as a prognostic marker progression of MDS and time start specific therapy

  9. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  10. Impact of age, intrinsic subtype and local treatment on long-term local-regional recurrence and breast cancer mortality among low-risk breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, Tinne; Alsner, Jan; Tramm, Trine; Jensen, Vibeke; Lyngholm, Christina D; Christiansen, Peer M; Overgaard, Jens

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term prognostic impact of age, local treatment and intrinsic subtypes on the risk of local-regional recurrence (LRR) and breast cancer mortality among low-risk patients. Cohort study with prospectively collected data, balanced five-year age groups, including 514 Danish lymph node negative breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1989 and 1998, treated with mastectomy (N = 320) or breast-conserving therapy (BCT) (N = 194) and without systemic treatment. Intrinsic subtype approximation was performed by combining information on estrogen-, progesterone-, HER2 receptor and Ki67. The majority of the tumors had a luminal subtype: 70% Luminal-A (LumA), 16% Luminal-B (LumB), and 10% Luminal-HER2 + (Lum-HER2+). The distribution of intrinsic subtypes between younger (≤45 years) and older (>45 years) patients was similar. Intrinsic subtypes had no prognostic impact on the 20-year LRR risk, regardless of age. A distinct 20-year mortality pattern was observed among the younger patients: 11% of patients with LumB tumor died of breast cancer within the first five years after primary surgery, 23% of patients with Lum-HER2+ tumor died within a 5-10-year period, whereas patients with LumA tumor died with a constant low rate throughout the 20-year period. After 20 years of follow-up, patients with LumA tumor had breast cancer mortality comparable to that of patients with LumB tumor (20%) and lower than Lum-HER2+ tumor (39%). Among the older patients, no distinct mortality pattern was observed, and the 20-year breast cancer mortality was not associated with intrinsic subtypes. Among low-risk patients, 96% of the tumors were Luminal and the distribution of intrinsic subtypes between younger (≤45 years) and older (>45 years) patients was similar. The observed higher frequency of LRR among younger low-risk BCT patients was not associated intrinsic subtype. The 20-year breast cancer mortality was non-significant for LumA tumors among the older patients

  11. Hepatic splenosis diagnosed after inappropriate metastatic evaluation in patient with low-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanhan; Snow-Lisy, Devon; Klein, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    A man interested in active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer sought a second opinion after having undergone an inappropriate metastatic evaluation that demonstrated multiple enhancing liver masses. Because of his history of splenectomy for trauma, hepatic splenosis was suspected. Despite reassurance, the patient desired biopsy of the masses to confirm splenosis. The imaging features and pathophysiology of hepatic splenosis are presented. Owing to the low rates of metastatic disease, the current guidelines do not recommend diagnostic imaging for low-risk prostate cancer. The present case illustrates the dangers of the current widespread practice of inappropriate diagnostic imaging of patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic factors in oligodendrogliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, L; Gjerris, F; Klinken, L

    1997-01-01

    .5 years and for the group older than 60 years of 13 months. The group without neurological deficits had a 5-years survival of 43 per cent while the group with deficits had a 5-years survival of 5 per cent. The 5-years survival for oligodendroglioma of grade II was 46 per cent and for grade III 10 per cent......An outcome analysis was performed on 96 patients with pure cerebral oligodendrogliomas operated in the 30-year period 1962 to 1991. The most important predictive prognostic factors were youth and no neurological deficit, demonstrated as a median survival for the group younger than 20 years of 17...

  13. Identification of Extremely Premature Infants at Low Risk for Early-Onset Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Karen M; Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Hansen, Nellie I; Cotten, C Michael; Stoll, Barbara J; Sanchez, Pablo J; Bell, Edward F; Das, Abhik; Hensman, Angelita M; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Wyckoff, Myra H

    2017-10-05

    Premature infants are at high risk of early-onset sepsis (EOS) relative to term infants, and most are administered empirical antibiotics after birth. We aimed to determine if factors evident at birth could be used to identify premature infants at lower risk of EOS. Study infants were born at 22 to 28 weeks' gestation in Neonatal Research Network centers from 2006 to 2014. EOS was defined by isolation of pathogenic species from blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture at ≤72 hours age. Infants were hypothesized as "low risk" for EOS when delivered via cesarean delivery, with membrane rupture at delivery, and absence of clinical chorioamnionitis. Frequency of prolonged antibiotics (≥5 days) was compared between low-risk infants and all others. Risks of mortality, EOS, and other morbidities were assessed by using regression models adjusted for center, race, antenatal steroid use, multiple birth, sex, gestation, and birth weight. Of 15 433 infants, 5759 (37%) met low-risk criteria. EOS incidence among infants surviving >12 hours was 29 out of 5640 (0.5%) in the low-risk group versus 209 out of 8422 (2.5%) in the comparison group (adjusted relative risk = 0.24 [95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.36]). Low-risk infants also had significantly lower combined risk of EOS or death ≤12 hours. Prolonged antibiotics were administered to 34% of low-risk infants versus 47% of comparison infants without EOS. Delivery characteristics of extremely preterm infants can be used to identify those with significantly lower incidence of EOS. Recognition of differential risk may help guide decisions to limit early antibiotic use among approximately one-third of these infants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Prognostic factors in lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Starklint, Henrik; Halberg, Poul

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical and renal biopsy findings in an unselected cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and nephritis.......To evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical and renal biopsy findings in an unselected cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and nephritis....

  15. Requirements Specifications for Prognostics: An Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With recent advancements in prognostics methodologies there has been a significant interest in maturing Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) to increase its...

  16. On Applying the Prognostic Performance Metrics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. *As prognostics technology matures and more sophisticated methods for...

  17. Metrics for Offline Evaluation of Prognostic Performance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostic performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years.*Currently, prognostics concepts lack standard definitions and suffer from...

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Vocabulary Size and Composition in Low Risk Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pereira, Miguel; Cruz, Raquel

    2018-01-01

    The vocabulary size and composition of one group of full-term and three groups of low risk preterm children with different gestational ages (GA) were longitudinally compared at 10, 22 and 30 months of age. Expressive vocabulary development was assessed through the CDI. Cognitive development was also assessed at 22 months (Batelle Developmental…

  19. Psychologic impact of follow-up after low-risk gestational trophoblastic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, C.A.; Donker, M.; Calff, M.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Ansink, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychological consequences of hCG measurements during follow-up in patients with low-risk gestational trophoblastic disease. The length of follow-up of patients with molar pregnancy and spontaneous normalization of the hCG level is currently discussed, in consideration

  20. Psychologic impact of follow-up after low-risk gestational trophoblastic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Christine A. R.; Donker, Mariëlle; Calff, Mart M.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Ansink, Anca C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the psychological consequences of hCG measurements during follow-up in patients with low-risk gestational trophoblastic disease. The length of follow-up of patients with molar pregnancy and spontaneous normalization of the hCG level is currently discussed, in consideration of the low

  1. 29 CFR 99.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 99.530 Section 99.530 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS... for each of the preceding two years (or, in the case of biennial audits, preceding two audit periods...

  2. The value of routine mid-trimester ultrasound in low-risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of routine second-trimester ultrasound scanning on obstetric management and pregnancy outcomes. This was an open cluster, randomised, controlled trial. Clusters of women with low-risk pregnancies presenting in the second trimester were randomised to receive an ultrasound scan ...

  3. 75 FR 66298 - Prompt Corrective Action; Amended Definition of Low-Risk Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... soundness concerns when assessed as part of the credit union's overall business strategy and balance sheet... risk-weighting tier to the standard risk-based net worth component for member business loans. 68 FR... estate loans,'' ``Member Business Loans (``MBL'') outstanding,'' ``Investments,'' ``Low-risk assets...

  4. 76 FR 16234 - Prompt Corrective Action; Amended Definition of Low-Risk Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... permanently adopting the expanded definition of ``low risk assets'' without alteration. DATES: This rule is... reason to revise the amendatory language. Accordingly, the NCUA Board adopts in final the language of the Interim Final Rule without alteration. Regulatory Procedures Regulatory Flexibility Act The Regulatory...

  5. Spontaneous preterm delivery among primiparous women at low risk in Denmark: a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Jacobsson, Bo

    2006-01-01

    can be compared internationally. DESIGN: Population based study. PARTICIPANTS: 99.8% of all deliveries in Denmark, 1995-2004. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of babies born at less than 37 weeks' completed gestation for each year in the overall population and in a standard population at low risk...

  6. Identifying low-risk patients for bacterial meningitis in adult patients with acute meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Koizumi, Masahiro; Stein, Gerald H; Birrer, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    To derive and validate a clinical prediction model with high sensitivity for differentiating aseptic meningitis (AM) patients from bacterial meningitis (BM) patients. We developed the model using the derivation cohort in a community rural hospital in Okinawa and assessed its performance using the validation cohort in a metropolitan urban hospital in Tokyo. There were 66 (39.5%) and 5 (17.9%) adult patients with BM among the derivation (n=167) and the validation cohort (n=28), respectively. Recursive partitioning analysis was used to determine the important classification variables and to develop a sensitive model to safely exclude BM. The model produced high- and low-risk groups based on the following: 1) Gram stain, 2) CSF neutrophil percent < or =15%, 3) CSF neutrophil count < or =150 cells/mm(3), and, 4) mental status change. Among the derivation cohort, there were 65 patients with BM in the high-risk group (n=76), while only one patient with BM was noted (sensitivity, 99%) in the low-risk group (n=91). Among the validation cohort, there were 5 patients with BM in the high-risk group (n=7), while no patient was classified with BM (sensitivity, 100%) in the low-risk group (n=21). This simple and sensitive model might be useful to safely identify low-risk patients for BM who would not require antibiotic treatment.

  7. Bad experience, good birthing: Dutch low-risk pregnant women with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, Leonie A. M.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Eskes, Martine; Birnie, Erwin; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Bleker, Otto P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The long-term effects on women in childbirth with a history of sexual abuse have only been studied to a limited degree. We estimated the prevalence of lifetime experience among low-risk pregnant women (non-clinical) in The Netherlands as well as the association with (1) psycho-social

  8. Association between percentage of tumor involvement and Gleason score upgrading in low-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Moul, Judd W; Bañez, Lionel L; Sun, Leon; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Xie, Dongha; Polascik, Thomas J

    2012-12-01

    To find the predictors of Gleason score upgrading in a cohort of low-risk prostate cancer patients, data were analyzed comprising 1,632 consecutive men with low-risk prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy between 1993 and 2009. Assessment focused on preoperative parameters including patient age, race, diagnostic prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, clinical stage and biopsy Gleason score, along with pathological parameters including percentage of tumor involvement (PTI), tumor laterality, pathological stage, extra-capsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and surgical margins. These parameters were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. Kaplan-Meier curves compared differences in biochemical disease-free survival in men having cancers with and without Gleason score upgrading. Cases involving pathological Gleason score upgrading were identified in 723 (44.3 %) of 1,632 patients. Kaplan-Meier PSA recurrence-free survival curves showed a difference in outcome between men with and without Gleason score upgrading (p Gleason score upgraded patients, 35 (4.8 %) men had PTI of Gleason score, pathologic stage, and surgical margin status were independent predictors of pathological Gleason score upgrading on multivariate logistic regression. PTI correlates closely with Gleason score upgrading in a low-risk prostate cancer cohort. Low-risk prostate cancer patients with clinical findings suggestive of high PTI or large volume cancers should not benefit from active surveillance strategies.

  9. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel, R.; Sargent, J.D.; Hunt, K.; Sweeting, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Mathis, F.; Florek, E.; Morgenstern, M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12

  10. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W.; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, Francois; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the

  11. Contemporary use of initial active surveillance among men in Michigan with low-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Paul R; Montie, James E; Ye, Zaojun; Linsell, Susan M; Lane, Brian R; Miller, David C

    2015-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) has been proposed as an effective strategy to reduce overtreatment among men with lower risk prostate cancers. However, historical rates of initial surveillance are low (4-20%), and little is known about its application among community-based urology practices. To describe contemporary utilization of AS among a population-based sample of men with low-risk prostate cancer. We performed a prospective cohort study of men with low-risk prostate cancer managed by urologists participating in the Michigan Urological Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MUSIC). The principal outcome was receipt of AS as initial management for low-risk prostate cancer including the frequency of follow-up prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, prostate biopsy, and local therapy. We examined variation in the use of surveillance according to patient characteristics and across MUSIC practices. Finally, we used claims data to validate treatment classification in the MUSIC registry. We identified 682 low-risk patients from 17 MUSIC practices. Overall, 49% of men underwent initial AS. Use of initial surveillance varied widely across practices (27-80%; p=0.005), even after accounting for differences in patient characteristics. Among men undergoing initial surveillance with at least 12 mo of follow-up, PSA testing was common (85%), whereas repeat biopsy was performed in only one-third of patients. There was excellent agreement between treatment assignments in the MUSIC registry and claims data (κ=0.93). Limitations include unknown treatment for 8% of men with low-risk cancer. Half of men in Michigan with low-risk prostate cancer receive initial AS. Because this proportion is much higher than reported previously, our findings suggest growing acceptance of this strategy for reducing overtreatment. We examined the use of initial active surveillance for the management of men with low-risk prostate cancer across the state of Michigan. We found that initial surveillance is used

  12. Changing practice and improving care using a low-risk tracheotomy clinical pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristine A; Matthews, T Wayne; Dubé, Mirette; Spence, Gerald; Dort, Joseph C

    2014-07-01

    Tracheotomy is a common procedure. Postoperative care is usually managed by nonexpert clinicians. Prolonged decannulation is associated with a high incidence of complications. At present, no clinical protocol exists to guide clinicians through decannulation. To address this deficiency, we developed a low-risk tracheotomy clinical pathway. To determine the effect of our low-risk tracheotomy clinical pathway on the time to decannulation and to determine its safety and sustainability by assessing the incidence of adverse events. Our study combined retrospective and prospective cohorts from July 1, 2008, through January 31, 2012. Low-risk adult patients undergoing tracheotomy at a tertiary care hospital constituted the study population. A baseline cohort of 26 patients underwent retrospective assessment. After development of the pathway, a pilot group of 34 consecutive patients underwent evaluation; of these, 13 were ineligible because of high-risk factors, which included potential upper airway obstruction, unfavorable neck anatomy, or medical factors such as coagulopathy. To assess the sustainability of the pathway, a follow-up cohort underwent assessment. Of 107 consecutive patients, 39 met the low-risk criteria. Length of follow-up was 30 days after decannulation. The low-risk tracheotomy clinical pathway, which provides a stepwise approach to decannulation. Total time to decannulation (in days). We hypothesized that the pathway would reduce the total time to decannulation. The secondary outcome constituted adverse events. All hypotheses were formulated before data collection. Mean (SD) total time to decannulation in the baseline cohort was 15.50 (12.08) days. After implementation of the pathway in the pilot cohort, mean (SD) total time to decannulation decreased to 5.74 (2.79) days (P tracheotomy clinical pathway is associated with a sustainable decrease in total time to decannulation without any associated increase in adverse events. We therefore believe that this

  13. National Trends and Predictors of Androgen Deprivation Therapy Use in Low-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, David D; Muralidhar, Vinayak; Mahal, Brandon A; Labe, Shelby A; Nezolosky, Michelle D; Vastola, Marie E; King, Martin T; Martin, Neil E; Orio, Peter F; Choueiri, Toni K; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Spratt, Daniel E; Hoffman, Karen E; Feng, Felix Y; Nguyen, Paul L

    2017-06-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is not recommended for low-risk prostate cancer because of its lack of benefit and potential for harm. We evaluated the incidence and predictors of ADT use in low-risk disease. Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 197,957 patients with low-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score of 3 + 3 = 6, prostate-specific antigen level used multiple logistic regression to evaluate predictors of ADT use and Cox regression to examine its association with all-cause mortality. Overall ADT use decreased from 17.6% in 2004 to 3.5% in 2012. In 2012, 11.5% of low-risk brachytherapy patients and 7.6% of external beam radiation therapy patients received ADT. Among 82,352 irradiation-managed patients, predictors of ADT use included treatment in a community versus academic cancer program (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-1.71; Puse versus external beam radiation therapy (AOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.27-1.37; Puse included a Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score of ≥2 versus 0 (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.06-1.91; P=.018); treatment in a community versus academic cancer program (AOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.37-1.90; Puse was associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients who did not receive local therapy (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14-1.43; Puse in low-risk prostate cancer has declined nationally but may remain an issue of concern in certain populations and regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards Prognostics for Electronics Components

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electronics components have an increasingly critical role in avionics systems and in the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is...

  15. Standardizing Research Methods for Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics and health management (PHM) is a maturing system engineering discipline. As with most maturing disciplines, PHM does not yet have a universally accepted...

  16. Postmolar choriocarcinoma: An independent risk factor for chemotherapy resistance in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Anna E; Lurain, John R

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of a clinicopathologic diagnosis of choriocarcinoma (CCA) on clinical characteristics, extent of disease, and response to chemotherapy in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). We reviewed the records of 678 patients with low-risk GTN (FIGO stage I and stages IIIII, scoredisease characteristics, treatment course, as well as clinical response and survival were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with a clinicopathologic diagnosis of CCA were compared to those with a clinical diagnosis of postmolar GTN. Of 678 women with low-risk GTN, 129 (19.0%) had a clinicopathologic diagnosis of CCA. Patients with CCA had higher parity (median 1 vs. 0, p=0.003), more pretreatment human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels at >100,000mIU/mL (12.7% vs. 5.9%, p=0.009), longer duration of disease (19.6 vs. 9.9weeks, pdisease (stage I, 83.1% vs 88.2%, p=0.126). Although there was no difference in survival between groups, increased resistance to first-line methotrexate chemotherapy was significantly associated with a diagnosis of postmolar CCA (OR 2.67, p=0.007)), pretreatment hCG level at >10,000mIU/mL (OR 2.62, p=0.002), and higher FIGO score (3-4: OR 2.02, p=0.027; 5-6: OR 5.56, p<0.001) on multivariate analysis. Clinicopathologic diagnosis of postmolar CCA in patients with low-risk GTN is associated with higher pretreatment hCG levels, higher FIGO scores, and increased resistance to first-line single-agent methotrexate chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost Analysis of Following Up Incomplete Low-Risk Fetal Anatomy Ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Karen; Shainker, Scott A; Modest, Anna M; Spiel, Melissa H; Resetkova, Nina; Shah, Neel; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-03-01

    To examine the clinical utility and cost of follow-up ultrasounds performed as a result of suboptimal views at the time of initial second-trimester ultrasound in a cohort of low-risk pregnant women. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women at low risk for fetal structural anomalies who had second-trimester ultrasounds at 16 to less than 24 weeks of gestation from 2011 to 2013. We determined the probability of women having follow-up ultrasounds as a result of suboptimal views at the time of the initial second-trimester ultrasound, and calculated the probability of detecting an anomaly on follow-up ultrasound. These probabilities were used to estimate the national cost of our current ultrasound practice, and the cost to identify one fetal anomaly on follow-up ultrasound. During the study period, 1,752 women met inclusion criteria. Four fetuses (0.23% [95% CI 0.06-0.58]) were found to have anomalies at the initial ultrasound. Because of suboptimal views, 205 women (11.7%) returned for a follow-up ultrasound, and one (0.49% [95% CI 0.01-2.7]) anomaly was detected. Two women (0.11%) still had suboptimal views and returned for an additional follow-up ultrasound, with no anomalies detected. When the incidence of incomplete ultrasounds was applied to a similar low-risk national cohort, the annual cost of these follow-up scans was estimated at $85,457,160. In our cohort, the cost to detect an anomaly on follow-up ultrasound was approximately $55,000. The clinical yield of performing follow-up ultrasounds because of suboptimal views on low-risk second-trimester ultrasounds is low. Since so few fetal abnormalities were identified on follow-up scans, this added cost and patient burden may not be warranted. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Examining the predictive validity of low-risk gambling limits with longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Shawn R; Hodgins, David C; Casey, David M; el-Guebaly, Nady; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Schopflocher, Don P; Wood, Robert T

    2012-02-01

    To assess the impact of gambling above the low-risk gambling limits developed by Currie et al. (2006) on future harm. To identify demographic, behavioural, clinical and environmental factors that predict the shift from low- to high-risk gambling habits over time. Longitudinal cohort study of gambling habits in community-dwelling adults. Alberta, Canada. A total of 809 adult gamblers who completed the time 1 and time 2 assessments separated by a 14-month interval. Low-risk gambling limits were defined as gambling no more than three times per month, spending no more than CAN$1000 per year on gambling and spending less than 1% of gross income on gambling. Gambling habits, harm from gambling and gambler characteristics were assessed by the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Ancillary measures of substance abuse, gambling environment, major depression, impulsivity and personality traits assessed the influence of other risk factors on the escalation of gambling intensity. Gamblers classified as low risk at time 1 and shifted into high-risk gambling by time 2 were two to three times more likely to experience harm compared to gamblers who remained low risk at both assessments. Factors associated with the shift from low- to high-risk gambling behaviour from time 1 to time 2 included male gender, tobacco use, older age, having less education, having friends who gamble and playing electronic gaming machines. An increase in the intensity of gambling behaviour is associated with greater likelihood of future gambling related harm in adults. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. First-line chemotherapy in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alazzam, Mo'iad

    2012-01-01

    This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in Issue 1, 2009. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare but curable disease arising in the fetal chorion during pregnancy. Most women with low-risk GTN will be cured by evacuation of the uterus with or without single-agent chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy regimens vary between treatment centres worldwide and the comparable benefits and risks of these different regimens are unclear.

  20. Allergy Testing in Children With Low-Risk Penicillin Allergy Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyles, David; Adams, Juan; Chiu, Asriani; Simpson, Pippa; Nimmer, Mark; Brousseau, David C

    2017-08-01

    Penicillin allergy is commonly reported in the pediatric emergency department (ED). True penicillin allergy is rare, yet the diagnosis results from the denial of first-line antibiotics. We hypothesize that all children presenting to the pediatric ED with symptoms deemed to be low-risk for immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity will return negative results for true penicillin allergy. Parents of children aged 4 to 18 years old presenting to the pediatric ED with a history of parent-reported penicillin allergy completed an allergy questionnaire. A prespecified 100 children categorized as low-risk on the basis of reported symptoms completed penicillin allergy testing by using a standard 3-tier testing process. The percent of children with negative allergy testing results was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. Five hundred ninety-seven parents completed the questionnaire describing their child's reported allergy symptoms. Three hundred two (51%) children had low-risk symptoms and were eligible for testing. Of those, 100 children were tested for penicillin allergy. The median (interquartile range) age at testing was 9 years (5-12). The median (interquartile range) age at allergy diagnosis was 1 year (9 months-3 years). Rash (97 [97%]) and itching (63 [63%]) were the most commonly reported allergy symptoms. Overall, 100 children (100%; 95% confidence interval 96.4%-100%) were found to have negative results for penicillin allergy and had their labeled penicillin allergy removed from their medical record. All children categorized as low-risk by our penicillin allergy questionnaire were found to have negative results for true penicillin allergy. The utilization of this questionnaire in the pediatric ED may facilitate increased use of first-line penicillin antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Low risk of recurrence in elderly patients treated with breast conserving therapy in a single institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, Femke; van Werkhoven, Erik; Bosma, Sophie; Linn, Sabine C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166275549; Rutgers, Emiel J.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Bartelink, Harry; Elkhuizen, Paula H M; Scholten, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To guide decision making in preventing over- or under-treatment in older breast cancer patients who have undergone breast conserving surgery, we analyzed prognostic factors and risk of recurrence in a consecutive series of patients ≥ 65 years old with breast cancer and identified

  2. [Postoperative radioiodine ablation in patients with low risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Grande, Enrique; Iglesias, Pedro

    2015-01-06

    Most patients with newly diagnosed differentiated thyroid carcinoma have tumors with low risk of mortality and recurrence. Standard therapy has been total or near total thyroidectomy followed by postoperative radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA). Although RRA provides benefits, current clinical guidelines do not recommend it universally, since an increase in disease-free survival or a decrease in mortality in low risk patients has not been demonstrated so far. Advancements in our understanding of the biological behavior of thyroid cancer have been translated into the clinic in a personalized approach to the patients based on their individual risk of recurrence and mortality. Current evidence suggests that RRA is not indicated in most low-risk patients, especially those with papillary carcinomas smaller than 1cm, without extrathyroidal extension, unfavorable histology, lymph node involvement or distant metastases. Follow-up of these patients with serial measurements of serum thyroglobulin and neck ultrasound is adequate. Careful evaluation of all risk factors of clinical relevance will allow a more realistic assessment of each individual patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Clinical guideline for management of patients with low risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan José; Oleaga, Amelia; Álvarez-Escolá, Cristina; Martín, Tomás; Galofré, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in Spain and worldwide. Overall thyroid cancer survival is very high, and stratification systems to reliably identify patients with worse prognosis have been developed. However, marked differences exist between the different specialists in clinical management of low-risk patients with thyroid carcinoma. Almost half of all papillary thyroid carcinomas are microcarcinomas, and 90% are tumors < 2 cm that have a particularly good prognosis. However, they are usually treated more aggressively than needed, despite the lack of adequate scientific support. Surgery remains the gold standard treatment for these tumors. However, lobectomy may be adequate in most patients, without the need for total thyroidectomy. Similarly, prophylactic lymph node dissection of the central compartment is not required in most cases. This more conservative approach prevents postoperative complications such as hypoparathyroidism or recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Postoperative radioiodine remnant ablation and strict suppression of serum thyrotropin, although effective for the more aggressive forms of thyroid cancer, have not been shown to be beneficial for the treatment of low risk patients, and may impair their quality of life. This guideline provides recommendations from the task force on thyroid cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition for adequate management of patients with low-risk thyroid cancer. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Governmental standard drink definitions and low-risk alcohol consumption guidelines in 37 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Humphreys, Keith

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges of international alcohol research and policy is the variability in and lack of knowledge of how governments in different nations define a standard drink and low-risk drinking. This study gathered such information from governmental agencies in 37 countries. A pool of 75 countries that might have definitions was created using World Health Organization (WHO) information and the authors' own judgement. Structured internet searches of relevant terms for each country were supplemented by efforts to contact government agencies directly and to consult with alcohol experts in the country. Most of the 75 national governments examined were not identified as having adopted a standard drink definition. Among the 37 that were so identified, the modal standard drink size was 10 g pure ethanol, but variation was wide (8-20 g). Significant variability was also evident for low-risk drinking guidelines, ranging from 10-42 g per day for women and 10-56 g per day for men to 98-140 g per week for women and 150-280 g per week for men. Researchers working and communicating across national boundaries should be sensitive to the substantial variability in 'standard' drink definitions and low-risk drinking guidelines. The potential impact of guidelines, both in general and in specific national cases, remains an important question for public health research. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Immediate renal transplantation after radical prostatectomy for low-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreydin, Evgeniy I; Ko, Dicken S C

    2013-01-01

    For most cancers, a two- to five-yr period with no evidence of disease must be demonstrated before organ transplantation. The natural history of prostate cancer is unique both because of extensive pre-treatment screening and the ease of post-treatment monitoring for recurrence. Using available predictive models for prostate cancer recurrence, we examine whether current evidence supports a prolonged waiting period after radical prostatectomy and before renal transplantation. A MedLine search was conducted to identify five series (published between 2000 and 2011), which examined biochemical recurrence (BCR) after prostatectomy for low-risk prostate cancer. The likelihood of BCR at one, two, and five yr after radical prostatectomy was identified for each series. Each of the analyzed series demonstrated that the likelihood of BCR after radical prostatectomy for low-risk prostate cancer was identical at one, two, and five yr and did not exceed 5%. The likelihood of BCR does not increase during the first five yr after radical prostatectomy for low-risk prostate cancer. Additionally, the risk of recurrence approaches zero during this period. Therefore, current evidence does not support the mandated waiting period of five yr before organ transplantation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Uptake of Active Surveillance for Very-Low-Risk Prostate Cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Curnyn, Caitlin; Robinson, David; Bratt, Ola; Stattin, Pär

    2017-10-01

    Active surveillance is an important option to reduce prostate cancer overtreatment, but it remains underutilized in many countries. Models from the United States show that greater use of active surveillance is important for prostate cancer screening to be cost-effective. To perform an up-to-date, nationwide, population-based study on use of active surveillance for localized prostate cancer in Sweden. Cross-sectional study in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden from 2009 through 2014. The NPCR has data on 98% of prostate cancers diagnosed in Sweden and has comprehensive linkages to other nationwide databases. Overall, 32 518 men with a median age of 67 years were diagnosed with favorable-risk prostate cancer, including 4693, 15 403, and 17 115 men with very-low-risk (subset of the low-risk group) (clinical stage, T1c; Gleason score, ≤6; prostate-specific antigen [PSA], Sweden, with the highest rates yet reported and almost complete uptake for very-low-risk cancer. These data should serve as a benchmark to compare the use of active surveillance for favorable-risk disease around the world.

  7. Prognostic biomarkers in osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attur, Mukundan; Krasnokutsky-Samuels, Svetlana; Samuels, Jonathan; Abramson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Identification of patients at risk for incident disease or disease progression in osteoarthritis remains challenging, as radiography is an insensitive reflection of molecular changes that presage cartilage and bone abnormalities. Thus there is a widely appreciated need for biochemical and imaging biomarkers. We describe recent developments with such biomarkers to identify osteoarthritis patients who are at risk for disease progression. Recent findings The biochemical markers currently under evaluation include anabolic, catabolic, and inflammatory molecules representing diverse biological pathways. A few promising cartilage and bone degradation and synthesis biomarkers are in various stages of development, awaiting further validation in larger populations. A number of studies have shown elevated expression levels of inflammatory biomarkers, both locally (synovial fluid) and systemically (serum and plasma). These chemical biomarkers are under evaluation in combination with imaging biomarkers to predict early onset and the burden of disease. Summary Prognostic biomarkers may be used in clinical knee osteoarthritis to identify subgroups in whom the disease progresses at different rates. This could facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis and allow us to differentiate phenotypes within a heterogeneous knee osteoarthritis population. Ultimately, such findings may help facilitate the development of disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs). PMID:23169101

  8. Perinatal mortality and morbidity in a nationwide cohort of 529,688 low-risk planned home and hospital births

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de jonge, A.; van der Goes, B. Y.; Ravelli, A. C. J.; Amelink-Verburg, M. P.; Mol, B. W.; Nijhuis, J. G.; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Buitendijk, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal mortality and severe perinatal morbidity between planned home and planned hospital births, among low-risk women who started their labour in primary care. DESIGN: A nationwide cohort study. SETTING: The entire Netherlands. POPULATION: A total of 529,688 low-risk women

  9. National Trends and Predictors of Androgen Deprivation Therapy Use in Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, David D. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Muralidhar, Vinayak [Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mahal, Brandon A. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Labe, Shelby A.; Nezolosky, Michelle D.; Vastola, Marie E.; King, Martin T.; Martin, Neil E.; Orio, Peter F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Choueiri, Toni K. [Department of Medical Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Trinh, Quoc-Dien [Division of Urological Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Spratt, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Departments of Urology & Medicine and Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); and others

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is not recommended for low-risk prostate cancer because of its lack of benefit and potential for harm. We evaluated the incidence and predictors of ADT use in low-risk disease. Methods and Materials: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 197,957 patients with low-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score of 3 + 3 = 6, prostate-specific antigen level <10 ng/mL, and cT1-T2a) diagnosed from 2004 to 2012 with complete demographic and treatment information. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate predictors of ADT use and Cox regression to examine its association with all-cause mortality. Results: Overall ADT use decreased from 17.6% in 2004 to 3.5% in 2012. In 2012, 11.5% of low-risk brachytherapy patients and 7.6% of external beam radiation therapy patients received ADT. Among 82,352 irradiation-managed patients, predictors of ADT use included treatment in a community versus academic cancer program (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-1.71; P<.001; incidence, 14.0% vs 6.0% in 2012); treatment in the South (AOR, 1.51), Midwest (AOR, 1.81), or Northeast (AOR, 1.90) versus West (P<.001); and brachytherapy use versus external beam radiation therapy (AOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.27-1.37; P<.001). Among 25,196 patients who did not receive local therapy, predictors of primary ADT use included a Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score of ≥2 versus 0 (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.06-1.91; P=.018); treatment in a community versus academic cancer program (AOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.37-1.90; P<.001); and treatment in the South (AOR, 1.26), Midwest (AOR, 1.52), or Northeast (AOR, 1.28) versus West (P≤.008). Primary ADT use was associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients who did not receive local therapy (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14-1.43; P<.001) after adjustment for age and comorbidity. Conclusions: ADT use in low-risk prostate cancer has declined nationally but may remain an issue

  10. Organizaciones campesinas en la provincia de Chaco, Argentina. Una aproximación a su composición social a partir de sus acciones de protesta: el caso de la Unión Campesina del Chaco (UCC, 2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Muñoz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando la creciente conflictividad protagonizada por diversas organizaciones que se reivindican campesinas e indígenas en el espacio agrario de la provincia del Chaco, el presente trabajo busca reconstruir el origen y la historia de la Unión Campesina del Chaco (UCC. Específicamente, analizaremos las acciones de protesta que lleva adelante desde su surgimiento en el año 2003 hasta la actualidad. Con tal fin, en primer lugar, describiremos las transformaciones que experimenta la estructura agraria chaqueña en las últimas décadas. Luego, reconstruiremos las acciones protagonizadas por la UCC, en base a la revisión exhaustiva de periódicos provinciales y nacionales; la prensa partidaria del Partido Comunista Revolucionario (PCR, dada sus vinculaciones con esta organización, y los documentos emitidos por la UCC. A partir del análisis de sus reclamos y reivindicaciones, nuestro interés radica en presentar una primera aproximación a la caracterización social de sus integrantes, poniendo en cuestión su condición de campesinos.

  11. Unilateral prostate cancer cannot be accurately predicted in low-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbarn, Hendrik; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Vogel, Susanne; Jeldres, Claudio; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco; Perrotte, Paul; Ahyai, Sascha A; Budäus, Lars; Eichelberg, Christian; Heuer, Roman; Köllermann, Jens; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Steuber, Thomas; Haese, Alexander; Zacharias, Mario; Fisch, Margit; Heinzer, Hans; Huland, Hartwig; Chun, Felix K H; Graefen, Markus

    2010-07-01

    Hemiablative therapy (HAT) is increasing in popularity for treatment of patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The validity of this therapeutic modality, which exclusively treats PCa within a single prostate lobe, rests on accurate staging. We tested the accuracy of unilaterally unremarkable biopsy findings in cases of low-risk PCa patients who are potential candidates for HAT. The study population consisted of 243 men with clinical stage low-risk PCa, confirmed by clinical stage and biopsy findings, have bilateral or non-organ-confined PCa at radical prostatectomy. This alarming finding questions the safety and validity of HAT. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of prophylactic antibiotics in low risk elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: is there a need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Muhammad Ali; Mehraj, Adnan; Ejaz, Raja; Mian, Amer

    2013-01-01

    Elective cholecystectomy for symptomatic gall stone disease carries low risk of postoperative infective complications. Yet the routine use of prophylactic antibiotic is in vogue in many centres. The aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing postoperative infective complications in low risk elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Randomised controlled trial was carried out in our hospital from 1st Nov 2009 to 15th Oct 2011. A total of 350 patients were included in the study and were divided into Group A (n = 177). and Group B (n = 173). Group A was given single dose of injection Celfuroxime 1.5 gm as prophylactic antibiotic at the time of induction of anaesthesia, and Group B was not given any antibiotic. In both groups, age, sex, duration of surgery, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, duration of surgery and length of hospital stay were recorded. Patients were followed-up weekly for 4 weeks and rates of superficial surgical site infections as well as intra-abdominal infections were recorded. There were no significant differences in both groups in terms of age, sex, duration of surgery, length of hospital stay. Eight (4.5%) cases of superficial surgical site infection were noted in Group A and 7 (4.0%) in Group B which was insignificant statistically (p > 0.05). In low risk patients antibiotic prophylaxis does not seem to affect the incidence of postoperative infective complications in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The use of prophylactic antibiotics should be reserved for high risk patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  13. Preferred place of birth: characteristics and motives of low-risk nulliparous women in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren-Ten Haken, Tamar; Hendrix, Marijke; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nijhuis, Jan

    2012-10-01

    to explores preferences, characteristics and motives regarding place of birth of low-risk nulliparous women in the Netherlands. a prospective cohort study of low-risk nulliparous women and their partners starting their pregnancy in midwifery-led care or in obstetric-led care. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, including questions on demographic, psychosocial and pregnancy factors and statements about motives with regard to place of birth. Depression, worry and self-esteem were explored using the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS), the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSE). participants were recruited in 100 independent midwifery practices and 14 hospitals from 2007 to 2011. 550 low-risk nulliparous women; 231 women preferred a home birth, 170 women a hospital birth in midwifery-led care and 149 women a birth in obstetric-led care. Significant differences in characteristics were found in the group who preferred a birth in obstetric-led care compared to the two groups who preferred midwifery-led care. Those women were older (F (2,551)=16.14, pbirth is driven by a desire for greater personal autonomy, whereas women's choice for a hospital birth is driven by a desire to feel safe and control risks. the characteristics of women who prefer a hospital birth are different than the characteristics of women who prefer a home birth. It appears that for women preferring a hospital birth, the assumed safety of the hospital is more important than type of care provider. This brings up the question whether women are fully aware of the possibilities of maternity care services. Women might need concrete information about the availability and the characteristics of the services within the maternity care system and the risks and benefits associated with either setting, in order to make an informed choice where to give birth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A pharmacoeconomic analysis of the use of single MMC instillation in low risk NMIBC in Italy

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    Renzo Colombo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer accounts for 5-10% of all cancers in Europe and up to 85% patients presents a noninvasive tumor, whose treatment of choice is the transurethral bladder resection (TURB paired with adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Despite several clinical trials showed that this treatment is safe and decreases recurrences by 17% to 44% this practice is limited for many reasons. The study objective is to analyze the economical advantages of the single immediate post operative Mitomycin C instillation in Non Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC low-risk patients.METHODS: A cost-benefit analysis was performed evaluating the economical gain that would raised from a scenario with a single immediate post operative mitomycin C instillation in each low-risk NMIBC patient who underwent to TURB. Net present value and cost-benefit ratio were calculated and sensitivity analyses were performed. Base case analysis was performed considering tumor recurrence rate reduction of 11.7% and a TURB costs of 2,167.0 €, while sensitivity analyses were performed using a recurrence rate reduction of 19.2% and 15.0% and a TURB cost of 2,472.93 €. The discount rate was 2%.RESULTS: The single immediate post operative instillation of mitomycin C resulted to be cost-beneficial with a cost-benefit ratio that goes from 0.48 to 0.79 when compared to TURB alone raising a Net Present Value that goes from 660,284.39 € to 2,650,530.79 €.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that even assuming conservative parameters for recurrence rates reduction, a single immediate post operative mitomycin C instillation in low risk NMIBC patients would lower not only the recurrence rate but also the caring cost for bladder cancer.

  15. Patients' beliefs regarding informed consent for low-risk pragmatic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Carcas, Antonio J; Carné, Xavier; Wendler, David

    2017-09-18

    The requirement to obtain written informed consent may undermine the potential of pragmatic randomized clinical trials (pRCTs) to improve evidence-based care. This requirement could compromise trials statistical power or even force it to close them down prematurely. However, recent data from the U.S. and Spain suggest that a majority of the public endorses written consent for low-risk pRCTs. The present manuscript assesses whether this view is shared by patients. This was a cross-sectional, probability-based survey, with a 2 × 2 factorial design, assessing support for written informed consent versus verbal consent or general notification for two low-risk pRCTs in hypertension, one comparing 2 drugs with similar risk/benefit profiles and the other comparing the same drug being taken in the morning or at night. This web-based survey was conducted in May 2016. Two-thousand and eight adults who were representative of the Spanish population participated in the survey (response rate: 61%). Of these 2008 respondents, 338 indicated that they had been diagnosed with hypertension and were being treated with prescription medicines for this condition at the time of responding to the survey. The primary outcome measures were respondents' personal preference and recommendation to a research ethics committee regarding the use of written informed consent versus verbal consent or general notification. Overall, 74% of the 338 patient respondents endorsed written consent. In both scenarios, general notification received significantly more support (30.6%-44.7%) than verbal consent (13.3%-17.6%). 43% of respondents preferred and/or recommended general notification rather than written consent. As in the survey of the general public, more patients endorsed written consent than the alternative option. However, two factors suggest that a different approach to written consent should be investigated for low-risk pRCTs: a) a substantial minority of respondents supported general

  16. Patients’ beliefs regarding informed consent for low-risk pragmatic trials

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    Rafael Dal-Ré

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The requirement to obtain written informed consent may undermine the potential of pragmatic randomized clinical trials (pRCTs to improve evidence-based care. This requirement could compromise trials statistical power or even force it to close them down prematurely. However, recent data from the U.S. and Spain suggest that a majority of the public endorses written consent for low-risk pRCTs. The present manuscript assesses whether this view is shared by patients. Methods This was a cross-sectional, probability-based survey, with a 2 × 2 factorial design, assessing support for written informed consent versus verbal consent or general notification for two low-risk pRCTs in hypertension, one comparing 2 drugs with similar risk/benefit profiles and the other comparing the same drug being taken in the morning or at night. This web-based survey was conducted in May 2016. Two-thousand and eight adults who were representative of the Spanish population participated in the survey (response rate: 61%. Of these 2008 respondents, 338 indicated that they had been diagnosed with hypertension and were being treated with prescription medicines for this condition at the time of responding to the survey. The primary outcome measures were respondents’ personal preference and recommendation to a research ethics committee regarding the use of written informed consent versus verbal consent or general notification. Results Overall, 74% of the 338 patient respondents endorsed written consent. In both scenarios, general notification received significantly more support (30.6%-44.7% than verbal consent (13.3%-17.6%. 43% of respondents preferred and/or recommended general notification rather than written consent. Conclusions As in the survey of the general public, more patients endorsed written consent than the alternative option. However, two factors suggest that a different approach to written consent should be investigated for low-risk pRCTs: a a

  17. Recommendations for malaria prevention in moderate to low risk areas: travellers' choice and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Rachel; Berthod, Delphine; Rambaud-Althaus, Clotilde; D'Acremont, Valérie; Genton, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    The considerable malaria decline in several countries challenges the strategy of chemoprophylaxis for travellers visiting moderate- to low-risk areas. An international consensus on the best strategy is lacking. It is essential to include travellers' opinions in the decision process. The preference of travellers regarding malaria prevention for moderate- to low-risk areas, related to their risk perception, as well as the reasons for their choices were investigated. Prior to pre-travel consultation in the Travel Clinic, a self-administered questionnaire was given to travellers visiting moderate- to low-risk malaria areas. Four preventive options were proposed to the traveller, i.e., bite prevention only, chemoprophylaxis, stand-by emergency treatment alone, and stand-by emergency treatment with rapid diagnostic test. The information was accompanied by a risk scale for incidence of malaria, anti-malarial adverse drug reactions and other travel-related risks, inspired by Paling palettes from the Risk Communication Institute. A total of 391 travellers were included from December 2012 to December 2013. Fifty-nine (15%) opted for chemoprophylaxis, 116 (30%) for stand-by emergency treatment, 112 (29%) for stand-by emergency treatment with rapid diagnostic test, 100 (26%) for bite prevention only, and four (1%) for other choices. Travellers choosing chemoprophylaxis justified their choice for security reasons (42%), better preventive action (29%), higher efficacy (15%) and easiness (15%). The reasons for choosing stand-by treatment or bite prevention only were less medication consumed (29%), less adverse drug reactions (23%) and lower price (9%). Those who chose chemoprophylaxis were more likely to have used it in the past (OR = 3.0 (CI 1.7-5.44)), but were not different in terms of demographic, travel characteristics or risk behaviour. When travelling to moderate- to low-risk malaria areas, 85% of interviewees chose not to take chemoprophylaxis as malaria prevention

  18. Melanoma prognostic model using tissue microarrays and genetic algorithms.

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    Gould Rothberg, Bonnie E; Berger, Aaron J; Molinaro, Annette M; Subtil, Antonio; Krauthammer, Michael O; Camp, Robert L; Bradley, William R; Ariyan, Stephan; Kluger, Harriet M; Rimm, David L

    2009-12-01

    As a result of the questionable risk-to-benefit ratio of adjuvant therapies, stage II melanoma is currently managed by observation because available clinicopathologic parameters cannot identify the 20% to 60% of such patients likely to develop metastatic disease. Here, we propose a multimarker molecular prognostic assay that can help triage patients at increased risk of recurrence. Protein expression for 38 candidates relevant to melanoma oncogenesis was evaluated using the automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) method for immunofluorescence-based immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from a cohort of 192 primary melanomas collected during 1959 to 1994. The prognostic assay was built using a genetic algorithm and validated on an independent cohort of 246 serial primary melanomas collected from 1997 to 2004. Multiple iterations of the genetic algorithm yielded a consistent five-marker solution. A favorable prognosis was predicted by ATF2 ln(non-nuclear/nuclear AQUA score ratio) of more than -0.052, p21(WAF1) nuclear compartment AQUA score of more than 12.98, p16(INK4A) ln(non-nuclear/nuclear AQUA score ratio) of < or = -0.083, beta-catenin total AQUA score of more than 38.68, and fibronectin total AQUA score of < or = 57.93. Primary tumors that met at least four of these five conditions were considered a low-risk group, and those that met three or fewer conditions formed a high-risk group (log-rank P < .0001). Multivariable proportional hazards analysis adjusting for clinicopathologic parameters shows that the high-risk group has significantly reduced survival on both the discovery (hazard ratio = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.46 to 5.49; P = .002) and validation (hazard ratio = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.12 to 6.58; P = .027) cohorts. This multimarker prognostic assay, an independent determinant of melanoma survival, might be beneficial in improving the selection of stage II patients for adjuvant therapy.

  19. Low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: evaluating the need for initial inpatient treatment during low-dose methotrexate chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lucy D; Hancock, Barry W; Everard, Janet E

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the need for initial inpatient treatment for patients being treated with low-dose intramuscular methotrexate for low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Clinical notes of all patients treated with low-dose intramuscular methotrexate for low-risk GTN were analyzed and side effects noted. There were no episodes of increased uterine bleeding requiring extra medical intervention. There were 7 cases of chest pain; none required a change from methotrexate chemotherapy. Patients being treated with low-dose intramuscular methotrexate for low-risk GTN do not need to be treated routinely in the hospital for their first treatment cycle.

  20. [Predictive and prognostic factors of preeclampsia: Interest of PlGF and sFLT-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillefosse, S; Guibourdenche, J; Atallah, A; Haddad, B; Fournier, T; Tsatsaris, V; Lecarpentier, E

    2016-11-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by the association of hypertension and a de novo proteinuria in the second half of pregnancy. Currently, obstetrical teams do not have any tool to detect during the first trimester of pregnancy, in low risk population, the patients likely to develop early and severe preeclampsia. On the other hand, there is no diagnostic/prognostic tool in case of strong suspicion of preeclampsia. The Placental Growth Factor (PIGF) and soluble receptor of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (sFlt-1) are respectively two molecules pro- and anti-angiogenic released mainly by the placenta during pregnancy. Numerous experimental and clinical results suggest that an imbalance of pro/anti-angiogenic factors is involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. We selected and analyzed the main studies that have evaluated the predictive, diagnostic and prognostic value of these two biomarkers for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A Generic Software Architecture For Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubert, Christopher; Daigle, Matthew J.; Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai; Watkins, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Prognostics is a systems engineering discipline focused on predicting end-of-life of components and systems. As a relatively new and emerging technology, there are few fielded implementations of prognostics, due in part to practitioners perceiving a large hurdle in developing the models, algorithms, architecture, and integration pieces. As a result, no open software frameworks for applying prognostics currently exist. This paper introduces the Generic Software Architecture for Prognostics (GSAP), an open-source, cross-platform, object-oriented software framework and support library for creating prognostics applications. GSAP was designed to make prognostics more accessible and enable faster adoption and implementation by industry, by reducing the effort and investment required to develop, test, and deploy prognostics. This paper describes the requirements, design, and testing of GSAP. Additionally, a detailed case study involving battery prognostics demonstrates its use.

  2. Distributed Prognostics Based on Structural Model Decomposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Within systems health management, prognostics focuses on predicting the remaining useful life of a system. In the model-based prognostics paradigm, physics-based...

  3. Fetal Hemodynamic Parameters in Low Risk Pregnancies: Doppler Velocimetry of Uterine, Umbilical, and Middle Cerebral Artery

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    C. O. Figueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To elaborate curves of longitudinal reference intervals of pulsatility index (PI and systolic velocity (SV for uterine (UtA, umbilical (UA, and middle cerebral arteries (MCA, in low risk pregnancies. Methods. Doppler velocimetric measurements of PI and SV from 63 low risk pregnant women between 16 and 41 weeks of gestational age. Means (±SD for intervals of gestational age and percentiles 5, 50, and 95 were calculated for each parameter. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC were also estimated for assessing intra- and intervariability of measurements. Results. Mean PI of UtA showed decreasing values during pregnancy, but no regular pattern was identified for mean SV. For UA, PI decreased and SV increased along gestation. MCA presented PI increasing values until 32–35 weeks. SV showed higher levels with increasing gestation. High ICC values indicated good reproducibility. Conclusions. Reference intervals for the assessment of SV and PI of UtA, UA, and MCA were established. These reference intervals showed how a normal pregnancy is expected to progress regarding these Doppler velocimetric parameters and are useful to follow high risk pregnancies. The comparison between results using different curves may provide insights about the best patterns to be used.

  4. Patient selection for TAVI 2015 - TAVI in low-risk patients: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussig, Stephan; Linke, Axel

    2015-09-01

    For decades, surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has been the standard treatment for severe aortic stenosis (AS). With the clinical introduction of the concept of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), a rapid development took place and, based on the results of landmark randomised controlled trials, within a few years TAVI became first-line therapy for inoperable patients with severe AS and an alternative to SAVR in operable high-risk patients. Indeed, data from a recent randomised controlled trial suggest that TAVI is superior to SAVR in higher-risk patients with AS. New TAVI devices have been developed to address current limitations, to optimise results further and to minimise complications. First results using these second-generation valves are promising. However, no data from randomised controlled trials assessing TAVI in younger, low-risk patients are yet available. While we await the results of trials addressing these issues (e.g., SURTAVI [NCT01586910] and PARTNER II [NCT01314313]), recent data from TAVI registries suggest that treatment of low-risk patients is already fact and no longer fiction.

  5. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer: five-year outcomes

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    King Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Hypofractionated, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT is an emerging treatment approach for prostate cancer. We present the outcomes for low-risk prostate cancer patients with a median follow-up of 5 years after SBRT. Method and Materials Between Dec. 2003 and Dec. 2005, a pooled cohort of 41 consecutive patients from Stanford, CA and Naples, FL received SBRT with CyberKnife for clinically localized, low-risk prostate cancer. Prescribed dose was 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions. No patient received hormone therapy. Kaplan-Meier biochemical progression-free survival (defined using the Phoenix method and RTOG toxicity outcomes were assessed. Results At a median follow-up of 5 years, the biochemical progression-free survival was 93% (95% CI = 84.7% to 100%. Acute side effects resolved within 1-3 months of treatment completion. There were no grade 4 toxicities. No late grade 3 rectal toxicity occurred, and only one late grade 3 genitourinary toxicity occurred following repeated urologic instrumentation. Conclusion Five-year results of SBRT for localized prostate cancer demonstrate the efficacy and safety of shorter courses of high dose per fraction radiation delivered with SBRT technique. Ongoing clinical trials are underway to further explore this treatment approach.

  6. Vaginal flora alterations and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Fausto; da Silva, Márcia G; Polettini, Jossimara; Tristao, Andréa da R; Peracoli, José C; Witkin, Steven S; Rudge, Marilza V C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate associations between alterations in vaginal flora and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women. Vaginal specimens from 245 pregnant women were analyzed by microscopy for vaginal flora. Signs and symptoms of vaginal infection were determined by patient interviews and gynecologic examinations. Abnormal vaginal flora was identified in 45.7% of the subjects. The final clinical diagnoses were bacterial vaginosis (21.6%), vaginal candidosis (10.2%), intermediate vaginal flora (5.2%), aerobic vaginitis (2.9%), mixed flora (2.9%) and other abnormal findings (2.9%). The percentage of women with or without clinical signs or symptoms was not significantly different between these categories. The presence of vaginal odor or vaginal discharge characteristics was not diagnostic of any specific flora alteration; pruritus was highly associated with candidosis (p vaginal odor was associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.0026). The prevalence of atypical vaginal flora is common in our low-risk pregnant population and is not always associated with pathology. The occurrence of specific signs or symptoms does not always discriminate between women with different types of atypical vaginal flora or between those with abnormal and normal vaginal flora. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Prophylactic neck dissection for low-risk differentiated thyroid cancers: Risk-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubernard, Xavier; Dabakuyo, Sandrine; Ouedraogo, Samiratou; Amroun, Koceila; Kere, David; Nasser, Talal; Deguelte, Sophie; Pochart, Jean-Marie; Merol, Jean-Claude; Makeieff, Marc; Chays, André; Schvartz, Claire

    2016-07-01

    The benefit of neck dissection is the subject of debate in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). We analyze the risk-benefit of neck dissection for low-risk DTC without detectable lymph nodes. We conducted a retrospective study from 1983 to 2003; which included 295 patients without detectable lymph nodes who were treated by thyroidectomy with (C+) or without (C-) neck dissection. All patients had iodine131 therapy. We compared the frequency of remission, disease progression, and permanent complications between groups. Two hundred twelve patients comprised the C+ group, and 83 patients the C- group. Respectively for C+ versus C-, remission rates were 92% versus 89.2% (p = .40), and progressive disease observed was 3.3% versus 7.2% (p = .10). Permanent hypoparathyroidism occurred in 15.1% in C+ versus 3.6% in C- (p = .006). The risk-benefit analysis of neck dissection in patients with low-risk DTC shows no benefit in terms of complete remission or occurrence of progression. However, risk of complications seems to be higher in patients with neck dissection. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1091-1096, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk women attended in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre

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    Norhayati Moktar

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study reported zero incidence rate of trichomoniasis. The low incidence rate was postulated due to all women who participated in this study were categorized into a low-risk group.

  9. “The Cultural Links between Galicia and Ireland Continue to Flourish Today”: An Interview with the Director of the Irish Centre for Galician Studies (UCC Martín Veiga

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    Verónica Membrive Pérez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Martín Veiga Alonso is Director of the Irish Centre for Galician Studies and lecturer and co-ordinator of the Higher Diploma in Arts (Spanish at the Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies at University College Cork. His main areas of research include contemporary Galician and Irish travel writing and poetry, with special focus on the Galician poet Antón Avilés de Taramancos, about whom he has published Escribir na multitude: a obra literaria de Antón Avilés de Taramancos (2014, Antón Avilés de Taramancos (2003, Biografía sonora de Avilés de Taramancos (2009, Cantos caucanos (2003 and the edited volume Raiceiras e vento. A obra poética de Antón Avilés de Taramancos (2003. Veiga is co-editor of Galicia 21: Journal of Contemporary Galician Studies and has recently edited a special issue devoted to the works of the Galician poet and essayist Xavier Queipo (2013. Furthermore, Martín Veiga is also a prolific translator and poet, and his volumes of poetry have received important awards. His collections are Tempo van de porcelana (1990, As últimas ruínas (1994, Espiral Maior Prize, Ollos de ámbar (2005, Esquío Prize and Fundaxes (2006, Fiz Vergara Vilariño Prize. In this interview, held at University College Cork in July 2015, we discussed the historical vocation of Galician literature to look towards Ireland, as well as the role and activities of the Irish Centre for Galician Studies at UCC and the relevance and future of Galician Studies in Ireland and Europe.

  10. Public preferences on written informed consent for low-risk pragmatic clinical trials in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Carcas, Antonio J; Carné, Xavier; Wendler, David

    2017-09-01

    Pragmatic randomized clinical trials (pRCTs) collect data that have the potential to improve medical care significantly. However, these trials may be undermined by the requirement to obtain written informed consent, which can decrease accrual and increase selection bias. Recent data suggest that the majority of the US public endorses written consent for low-risk pRCTs. The present study was designed to assess whether this view is specific to the US. The study took the form of a cross-sectional, probability-based survey, with a 2 × 2 factorial design, assessing support for written informed consent vs. verbal consent or general notification for two low-risk pRCTs in hypertension, one comparing two drugs with similar risk/benefit profiles and the other comparing the same drug being taken in the morning or at night. The primary outcome measures were respondents' personal preference and hypothetical recommendation to a research ethics committee regarding the use of written informed consent vs. the alternatives. A total of 2008 adults sampled from a probability-based online panel responded to the web-based survey conducted in May 2016 (response rate: 61%). Overall, 77% of respondents endorsed written consent. In both scenarios, the alternative of general notification received significantly more support (28.7-37.1%) than the alternative of verbal consent (12.7-14.0%) (P = 0.001). Forty per cent of respondents preferred and/or recommended general notification rather than written consent. The results suggested that, rather than attempting to waive written consent, current pRCTs should focus on developing ways to implement written consent that provide sufficient information without undermining recruitment or increasing selection bias. The finding that around 40% of respondents endorsed general notification over written consent raises the possibility that, with educational efforts, the majority of Spaniards might accept general notification for low-risk pRCTs. © 2017 The

  11. Chances of Adverse Neonatal Outcome in High-Risk and Low-Risk Obstetrical Patients

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    Y. Krilova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze and compare occurrence of adverse immediate neonatal outcomes in high and low-risk obstetrical population. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 2370 pregnant women. The odds of adverse outcomes (i.e. low Apgar score (1–4 points and intermediate Apgar score (5–8 points at 1 and 5 minutes of life, birth to a small-for-gestational-age neonate (below 90th percentile of birth weight, and requirement for advanced level II-III nursery care as well as odds of primary cesarean delivery–-were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results All of the studied outcomes were seen more often among the high-risk patients. When the outcomes were analyzed within a given group some interesting observations were made. The highest odds of abnormal Apgar scores (when compared to the low risk population were seen in patients with preeclampsia–-6.06 (95% CI 3.28; 11.22 and twin pregnancies–-odds ratio of 6.63 (95% CI 2.24; 19.67. Among Small-for-Gestational-Age newborns the most frequently identified maternal condition was preeclampsia (21.57%, out of all fetal conditions twin gestation (26.67% was number one identified scenario. The highest proportion of patients requiring advanced level nursery care (level II and III was observed in those with twin gestation, pregnancies complicated by hypertension with and without diabetes. The highest odds of having primary cesarean delivery in laboring patients (when compared to the low risk population were seen in the patients with IUGR fetus–-odds ratio of 26.78 [95% CI 7.65; 93.75], followed by macrosomia–-odds ratio 5.74 [95% CI 2.14; 15.41], preeclampsia–-odds ratio 5.52 [95% CI 3.14; 9.69]. For additional findings and more information on select conditions, please, refer to the full-text article. Conclusion The studied outcomes are useful markers of fetal/neonatal status and can be used to compare perinatal outcomes between different medical conditions, different locales and to

  12. Electrocardiograms in Low-Risk Patients Undergoing an Annual Health Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, R Sacha; Bouck, Zachary; Ivers, Noah M; Mecredy, Graham; Singh, Jasjit; Pendrith, Ciara; Ko, Dennis T; Martin, Danielle; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Tu, Jack V; Wilson, Lynn; Wintemute, Kimberly; Dorian, Paul; Tepper, Joshua; Austin, Peter C; Glazier, Richard H; Levinson, Wendy

    2017-09-01

    Clinical guidelines advise against routine electrocardiograms (ECG) in low-risk, asymptomatic patients, but the frequency and impact of such ECGs are unknown. To assess the frequency of ECGs following an annual health examination (AHE) with a primary care physician among patients with no known cardiac conditions or risk factors, to explore factors predictive of receiving an ECG in this clinical scenario, and to compare downstream cardiac testing and clinical outcomes in low-risk patients who did and did not receive an ECG after their AHE. A population-based retrospective cohort study using administrative health care databases from Ontario, Canada, between 2010/2011 and 2014/2015 to identify low-risk primary care patients and to assess the subsequent outcomes of interest in this time frame. All patients 18 years or older who had no prior cardiac medical history or risk factors who received an AHE. Receipt of an ECG within 30 days of an AHE. Primary outcome was receipt of downstream cardiac testing or consultation with a cardiologist. Secondary outcomes were death, hospitalization, and revascularization at 12 months. A total of 3 629 859 adult patients had at least 1 AHE between fiscal years 2010/2011 and 2014/2015. Of these patients, 21.5% had an ECG within 30 days after an AHE. The proportion of patients receiving an ECG after an AHE varied from 1.8% to 76.1% among 679 primary care practices (coefficient of quartile dispersion [CQD], 0.50) and from 1.1% to 94.9% among 8036 primary care physicians (CQD, 0.54). Patients who had an ECG were significantly more likely to receive additional cardiac tests, visits, or procedures than those who did not (odds ratio [OR], 5.14; 95% CI, 5.07-5.21; P < .001). The rates of death (0.19% vs 0.16%), cardiac-related hospitalizations (0.46% vs 0.12%), and coronary revascularizations (0.20% vs 0.04%) were low in both the ECG and non-ECG cohorts. Despite recommendations to the contrary, ECG testing after an AHE is relatively

  13. A Systematic Approach to Discussing Active Surveillance with Patients with Low-risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehdaie, Behfar; Assel, Melissa; Benfante, Nicole; Malhotra, Deepak; Vickers, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Physicians report difficulty convincing patients with prostate cancer about the merits of active surveillance (AS); as a result, a majority of patients unnecessarily choose to undergo radical treatment. To develop and evaluate a systematic approach for physicians to counsel patients with low-risk prostate cancer to increase acceptance of AS. A systematic counseling approach was developed and piloted in one clinic. Then five surgeons participated in a 1-h training session in which they learned about the approach. A total of 1003 patients with Gleason 3+3 prostate cancer were included in the study. We compared AS rates for 761 patients who were counseled over a 24-mo period before the training intervention with AS rates for 242 patients who were counseled over a 12-mo period afterwards, controlling for temporal trends and case mix. A systematic approach for communicating the merits of AS using appropriate framing techniques derived from principles studied by negotiation scholars. The rate of AS acceptance by patients for management of low-risk prostate cancer. In the pilot phase, 81 of 86 patients (94%) accepted AS after counseling by the physician who developed the counseling approach. In the subsequent study, the cohort for the training intervention comprised 1003 consecutive patients, 80% of whom met the Epstein criteria for very low-risk disease. The proportion of patients who selected AS increased from 69% before the training intervention to 81% afterwards. After adjusting for time trends and case mix, the rate of AS after the intervention was 9.1% higher (95% confidence interval -0.4% to 19.4%) than expected, a relative reduction of approximately 30% in the risk of unnecessary curative treatment. A systematic approach to counseling can be taught to physicians in a 1-h lecture. We found evidence that even this minimal intervention can decrease overtreatment. Our novel approach offers a framework to help address cancer screening-related overtreatment that occurs

  14. Elastography in predicting preterm delivery in asymptomatic, low-risk women: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Slawomir; Czuczwar, Piotr; Szkodziak, Piotr; Milart, Pawel; Wozniakowska, Ewa; Paszkowski, Tomasz

    2014-07-21

    Despite the efforts to decrease the rate of preterm birth, preterm delivery is still the main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Identifying patients threatened with preterm delivery remains one of the main obstetric challenges. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential value of elastographic evaluation of internal cervical os stiffness at 18-22 weeks of pregnancy in low risk, asymptomatic women in the prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery. This prospective observational study included 333 low-risk, asymptomatic women presenting for the routine second trimester ultrasound scan according to the Polish Gynecological Society recommendation between 18-22 weeks of pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations of the cervix were performed transvaginally. The following data were recorded: elastographic color assessment of the internal os and ultrasound cervical length at 18-22 and 30 weeks of pregnancy; maternal age; obstetrical history; presence of cervical funneling at 30 weeks of pregnancy; gestational age at birth. Elastographic assessment of the internal os was performed using a color map: red (soft), yellow (medium soft), blue (medium hard) and purple (hard). If two colors were visible in the region of the internal os, the softer option was noted. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica software (version 10, Statsoft Poland) using the following tests: chi square test to compare frequency of preterm deliveries in various categories of internal os assessment and Spearman correlation test to determine the correlation between elastographic assessment and cervical shortening. To determine the cut off category of internal os elastography assessment in selecting high preterm delivery risk patients we have calculated the sensivity, specifity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value. The number of preterm deliveries (red and yellow groups, than in the blue and purple groups. The sensivity, specifity, NPV and PPV for both red and yellow

  15. How to identify twins at low risk of spontaneous preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Kiil, C; Larsen, L U

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate transvaginal sonographic assessment of cervical length at 23 weeks as a screening test for spontaneous preterm delivery in order to define a cut-off value that could be used to select twin pregnancies at low risk of spontaneous preterm delivery...... delivery at different cut-off levels of cervical length were determined. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the twins had dichorionic placentation and 58% were conceived after assisted reproduction. The rate of spontaneous preterm delivery was 2.3% (1.5% for dichorionic (DC) and 9.1% for (MC) monochorionic...... twins) before 28 weeks and 18.5% (17.1% for DC and 29.5% for MC twins) before 35 weeks. The screen-positive rate was 5% for a cervical length

  16. Maternal and newborn morbidity by birth facility among selected United States 2006 low-risk births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Joseph R; Pinette, Michael G; Cartin, Angelina; Blackstone, Jacquelyn

    2010-02-01

    We sought to evaluate perinatal morbidity by delivery location (hospital, freestanding birth center, and home). Selected 2006 US birth certificate data were accessed online from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Low-risk maternal and newborn outcomes were tabulated and compared by birth facility. A total of 745,690 deliveries were included, of which 733,143 (97.0%) occurred in hospital, 4661 (0.6%) at birth centers, and 7427 (0.9%) at home. Compared with hospital deliveries, home and birthing center deliveries were associated with more frequent prolonged and precipitous labors. Home births experienced more frequent 5-minute Apgar scores labor, meconium staining, assisted ventilation, neonatal intensive care unit admission, and birthweight labors and low 5-minute Apgar scores. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychosocial differences in high risk versus low risk acute low-back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, C B; Gatchel, R J; Gardea, M A

    2001-03-01

    The current study built upon previous research that predicted with 90.7% accuracy which patients presenting with acute low-back pain go on to develop chronic disability problems. Fifty-seven patients were classified as high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) according to a predictive algorithm, and were evaluated with a variety of psychosocial measures. Overall, HR patients had more Axis I pathology than LR patients, and used poorer coping styles. Logistic regression analyses identified variables that differentiated, with 80% accuracy, between the HR and LR patients. The results highlight the importance of identifying patients who are at risk for developing chronic pain following acute injury so that prophylactic intervention can be offered before chronic pain disability status becomes entrenched.

  18. CHA2DS2-VASc Score for Identifying Truly Low-Risk Atrial Fibrillation for Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yang, Pil-Sung; Kim, Daehoon

    2017-01-01

    -risk patients toward initially identifying patients with a truly low risk of ischemic stroke, who do not need antithrombotic therapy. We tested the predictive ability of the congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (doubled; CHADS2......), congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 (doubled), diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (doubled), vascular disease, age 65 to 74, female (CHA2DS2-VASc), and Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) risk stratification schemes in oral anticoagulants...... naive patients with atrial fibrillation in a Korean nationwide sample cohort. METHODS: From January 2002 to December 2008, a total of 5855 oral anticoagulant naive patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation aged ≥20 years were enrolled from Korea National Health Insurance Service-Sample Cohort...

  19. Fear of childbirth and emergency caesarean section in low-risk nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Cecilie; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Schroll, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between fear of childbirth (FOC) and emergency caesarean section. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of low-risk nulliparous women at term. SETTING: Nine obstetric departments in Denmark, May 2004-July 2005. POPULATION: A total of 2598 nulliparous women...... in spontaneous labor with a single fetus in cephalic presentation at term. METHODS: Self-reported FOC was assessed at 37 weeks of gestation by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) version A and at admission to the labor ward by the Delivery Fear Scale (DFS). Mode of delivery...... was recorded by the attending staff. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of emergency caesarean section in women who feared childbirth. RESULTS: FOC (W-DEQ sum score ≥ 85 and DFS sum score ≥ 70) was not associated...

  20. Prospective Validation of Modified NEXUS Cervical Spine Injury Criteria in Low-risk Elderly Fall Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The National Emergency X-radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS criteria are used extensively in emergency departments to rule out C-spine injuries (CSI in the general population. Although the NEXUS validation set included 2,943 elderly patients, multiple case reports and the Canadian C-Spine Rules question the validity of applying NEXUS to geriatric populations. The objective of this study was to validate a modified NEXUS criteria in a low-risk elderly fall population with two changes: a modified definition for distracting injury and the definition of normal mentation. Methods: This is a prospective, observational cohort study of geriatric fall patients who presented to a Level I trauma center and were not triaged to the trauma bay. Providers enrolled non-intoxicated patients at baseline mental status with no lateralizing neurologic deficits. They recorded midline neck tenderness, signs of trauma, and presence of other distracting injury. Results: We enrolled 800 patients. One patient fall event was excluded due to duplicate enrollment, and four were lost to follow up, leaving 795 for analysis. Average age was 83.6 (range 65-101. The numbers in parenthesis after the negative predictive value represent confidence interval. There were 11 (1.4% cervical spine injuries. One hundred seventeen patients had midline tenderness and seven of these had CSI; 366 patients had signs of trauma to the face/neck, and 10 of these patients had CSI. Using signs of trauma to the head/neck as the only distracting injury and baseline mental status as normal alertness, the modified NEXUS criteria was 100% sensitive (CI [67.9-100] with a negative predictive value of 100 (98.7-100. Conclusion: Our study suggests that a modified NEXUS criteria can be safely applied to low-risk elderly falls.

  1. Factors associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease in low-risk pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the prevalence of periodontal disease (PD among Brazilian low-risk pregnant women and its association with sociodemographic factors, habits and oral hygiene. Method This cross-sectional study included 334 low-risk pregnant women divided in groups with or without PD. Indexes of plaque and gingival bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and gingival recession were evaluated at one periodontal examination below 32 weeks of gestation. Independent variables were: age, race/color, schooling, marital status, parity, gestational age, smoking habit, alcohol and drugs consumption, use of medication, presence of any systemic diseases and BMI (body mass index. Statistical analyses provided prevalence ratios and their respective 95%CI and also a multivariate analysis. Results The prevalence of PD was 47% and significantly associated with higher gestational age (PR 1.40; 1.01 - 1.94 for 17-24 weeks and PR 1.52; 1.10 - 2.08 for 25-32 weeks, maternal age 25-29 years, obesity (PR 1.65; 1.02 - 2.68 and the presence of gingival bleeding on probing (ORadj 2.01, 95%CI 1.41 - 2.88. Poor oral hygiene was associated with PD by the mean values of plaque and bleeding on probing indexes significantly greater in PD group. Conclusions The prevalence of PD is high and associated with gingival bleeding on probing, more advanced gestational age and obesity. A program of oral health care should be included in prenatal care for early pregnancy, especially for low-income populations.

  2. Distinct evolutionary mechanisms for genomic imbalances in high-risk and low-risk neuroblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øra Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroblastoma (NB is the most common extracranial solid tumour of childhood. Several genomic imbalances correlate to prognosis in NB, with structural rearrangements, including gene amplification, in a near-diploid setting typically signifying high-risk tumours and numerical changes in a near-triploid setting signifying low-risk tumours. Little is known about the temporal sequence in which these imbalances occur during the carcinogenic process. Methods We have reconstructed the appearance of cytogenetic imbalances in 270 NBs by first grouping tumours and imbalances through principal component analysis and then using the number of imbalances in each tumour as an indicator of evolutionary progression. Results Tumours clustered in four sub-groups, dominated respectively by (1 gene amplification in double minute chromosomes and few other aberrations, (2 gene amplification and loss of 1p sequences, (3 loss of 1p and other structural aberrations including gain of 17q, and (4 whole-chromosome gains and losses. Temporal analysis showed that the structural changes in groups 1–3 were acquired in a step-wise fashion, with loss of 1p sequences and the emergence of double minute chromosomes as the earliest cytogenetic events. In contrast, the gains and losses of whole chromosomes in group 4 occurred through multiple simultaneous events leading to a near-triploid chromosome number. Conclusion The finding of different temporal patterns for the acquisition of genomic imbalances in high-risk and low-risk NBs lends strong support to the hypothesis that these tumours are biologically diverse entities, evolving through distinct genetic mechanisms.

  3. Outcome of pregnancy subsequent to chemotherapy with actinomycin-D in low risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2017-07-01

    Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with GTN who were referred to Firoozgar and Mirza Koochak Khan teaching hospitals during 10 years, starting from 2004. The inclusion criterion was patients with low-risk persistent GTN after molar pregnancy, EP, and abortion, that treated with single agent chemotherapy actinomycin-D. After following the patients for 12 months, patients with serum βHCG lower than 5 mIU/ml, who intended to have child were allowed to become pregnant. The following items were observed in the study: age, body mass index (BMI, parity, chemotherapy duration, and pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion or preterm labor, pre-eclampsia, stillbirth, fetal malformation, and repeated molar pregnancy. Results: 74 patients were monitored, 83.78% of them had uncomplicated pregnancy and labor, 4.05% had the abortion, 4.05% had second molar pregnancy, 2.7% had pre-eclampsia, 5.40% had preterm labor. Moreover, stillbirth and malformation did not occur in this study even after chemotherapy treatment. There was not any significant correlation between age, BMI, parity, and chemotherapy duration with pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion: The outcomes of pregnancy after chemotherapy with actinomycin-D is similar to the general population who did not have chemotherapy. The abortion rate and repeated molar pregnancy were similar between population and sample too. Thus, the study shows that the cured patients with low-risk GTN have as much chance of having a normal pregnancy as normal women. In other words, treatment with actinomycin-D does not have any adverse effect in future pregnancies.

  4. [Heparin in coronary angioplasty. Randomized study in cases with low risk of acute occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanajura, L F; Sousa, A G; Pinto, I M; Chaves, A J; Centemero, M P; Feres, F; Mattos, L A; Cano, M N; Maldonado, G A; Sousa, J E

    1993-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of heparin in preventing the abrupt closure after coronary angioplasty in low risk patients for this phenomenon. In the last 4 years, 525 patients successfully dilated were randomized to receive intravenous heparin (n = 264) or not (n = 261) after the angioplasty. The excluding criteria were contraindications for heparin and risk for abrupt closure (refractory unstable angina, primary coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction, evidence of intracoronary thrombus, intimal tear after the procedure and cases of chronic total occlusions). Both heparin and non heparin groups were similar in respect to female sex (15% x 17%; p = NS), age over 70 years old (7% x 9%; p = NS), previous myocardial infarction (26% x 24%; p = NS), multi-vessel procedures (4% x 7%; p = NS, stable angina (40% x 46%; p = NS), unstable angina (52% x 48%; p = NS) and angioplasty after thrombolytic therapy (8% x 6%; p = NS). The overall incidence of abrupt closure was 2/525 (0.4%), with one case (0.4%) in each group. The in-hospital mortality was 1/525 (0.2%), which occurred in a non-heparin patient, due to a anterior myocardial infarction. Major complications occurred similarly in heparin and non-heparin groups (0.4%). Bleeding complications were observed more frequently in the heparin group (7% x 2%; p = 0.002). All of them were in the catheterization site and none required blood transfusion. Severe systemic bleeding were not observed. In patients regarded as low risk for abrupt closure, the incidence of this complication was really low (0.4%) and heparin probably do not prevent it.

  5. Care management for low-risk patients with heart failure: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Robert Frank; Miller, Nancy Houston; Parker, Kathleen Marie; Bandura, Albert; Kraemer, Helena Chmura; Cher, Daniel Joseph; West, Jeffrey Alan; Fowler, Michael Bruce; Greenwald, George

    2004-10-19

    Nurse care management programs for patients with chronic illness have been shown to be safe and effective. To determine whether a telephone-mediated nurse care management program for heart failure reduced the rate of rehospitalization for heart failure and for all causes over a 1-year period. Randomized, controlled trial of usual care with nurse management versus usual care alone in patients hospitalized for heart failure from May 1998 through October 2001. 5 northern California hospitals in a large health maintenance organization. Of 2786 patients screened, 462 met clinical criteria for heart failure and were randomly assigned (228 to intervention and 234 to usual care). Nurse care management provided structured telephone surveillance and treatment for heart failure and coordination of patients' care with primary care physicians. Time to first rehospitalization for heart failure or for any cause and time to a combined end point of first rehospitalization, emergency department visit, or death. At 1 year, half of the patients had been rehospitalized at least once and 11% had died. Only one third of rehospitalizations were for heart failure. The rate of first rehospitalization for heart failure was similar in both groups (proportional hazard, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.46 to 1.57]). The rate of all-cause rehospitalization was similar (proportional hazard, 0.98 [CI, 0.76 to 1.27]). The findings of this study, conducted in a single health care system, may not be generalizable to other health care systems. The overall effect of the intervention was minor. Among patients with heart failure at low risk on the basis of sociodemographic and medical attributes, nurse care management did not statistically significantly reduce rehospitalizations for heart failure or for any cause. Such programs may be less effective for patients at low risk than those at high risk.

  6. Neonatal Outcomes of Low-Risk, Late-Preterm Twins Compared With Late-Preterm Singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Shimrit Yaniv; Kibel, Mia; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Zaltz, Arthur; Barrett, Jon; Melamed, Nir

    2017-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that the risk of neonatal morbidity among late-preterm twins is similar to that of late-preterm singletons. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all women with twin or singleton pregnancy who gave birth during the late-preterm period in a single tertiary center between 2008 and 2015. Neonatal outcomes of low-risk, late-preterm twins were compared with those of low-risk, late-preterm singletons. The primary outcome was the same primary composite respiratory morbidity variable that was used in the randomized controlled trial of Gyamfi-Bannerman et al on the administration of antenatal corticosteroids during the late-preterm period. A total of 922 singleton and 721 twin late-preterm neonates met the inclusion criteria. The rates of composite respiratory morbidity and severe composite respiratory morbidity were similar for twins and singletons (8.3% compared with 7.4%, P=.5 and 6.8% compared with 6.0%, P=.5, respectively), but were lower than the rates of the same composite respiratory morbidity variable in the randomized controlled study described previously. The odds for respiratory morbidity were similar for twins and singletons for both composite respiratory morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.73, 95% CI 0.48-1.12) and severe composite respiratory morbidity (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.50-1.24). The risk of respiratory morbidity among late-preterm twins is similar to that of late-preterm singletons. Still, the low absolute rates of the composite respiratory morbidity in our population suggest that administration of antenatal corticosteroids may be mostly justified among neonates born closer to 34 weeks of gestation.

  7. The prognostic value of oncogenic antigen 519 (OA-519) expression and proliferative activity detected by antibody MIB-1 in node-negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V; Ladekarl, M; Holm-Nielsen, P

    1995-01-01

    The prognostic value of oncogenic antigen 519 (OA-519) expression and tumour proliferative activity was evaluated in a retrospective series of 118 patients with low-risk breast cancer. Low risk was defined as negative axillary nodes, tumour diameter ... of invasion of skin or deep fascia (= T1N0M0 and T2N0M0). The median follow-up time was 104 months (range 5-143 months). Immunohistochemical analysis of OA-519 expression was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. The proliferative activity was estimated using a Ki-67 equivalent monoclonal...... analysis, both the MIB-1 index and OA-519 expression were of independent prognostic value (2p cancer who might benefit from adjuvant therapy....

  8. Patient perceptions of risky drinking: Knowledge of daily and weekly low-risk guidelines and standard drink sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Debra J; Vinson, Daniel C

    2017-01-01

    Effective intervention for risky drinking requires that clinicians and patients know low-risk daily and weekly guidelines and what constitutes a "standard drink." The authors hypothesized that most patients lack this knowledge, and that education is required. Following primary care visits, patients completed anonymous exit questionnaires that included the 3 Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questions, "How many drinks (containing alcohol) can you safely have in one day?" and questions about size, in ounces, of a standard drink of wine, beer, and liquor. Descriptive analyses were done in Stata. Of 1,331 respondents (60% female, mean age: 49.6, SD = 17.5), 21% screened positive on the AUDIT-C for risky drinking. Only 10% of those accurately estimated daily low-risk limits, with 9% accurate on weekly limits, and half estimated low-risk limits at or below guidelines. Fewer than half who checked "Yes" to "Do you know what a 'standard drink' is?" provided accurate answers for beer, wine, or liquor. Patients with a positive screen were twice as likely to say they knew what a standard drink is, but only a third gave accurate estimates. When asked about plans in the next month regarding change in drinking behavior, 23% with a positive AUDIT-C indicated they were at least considering a change. Most patients in primary care don't know specifics of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) guidelines for low-risk drinking. Exploring patient perceptions of low-risk guidelines and current drinking behavior may reveal discrepancies worth discussing. For risky drinkers, most of whom don't know daily and weekly low-risk guidelines or standard drink sizes, education can be vital in intervening. Findings suggest the need for detailed and explicit social marketing and communication on exactly what low-risk drinking entails.

  9. Efficacy of NETDC (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center prognostic index score to predict gestational trophoblastic tumor from hydatidiform mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrismawan Khrismawan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A prospective longitudinal analytic study assessing the efficacy of NETDC (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center prognostic index score in predicting malignancy after hydatidiform mole had been performed. Of the parameter evaluated; age of patients, type of hydatidiform mole, uterine enlargement, serum hCG level, lutein cyst, and presence of complicating factors were significant risk factors for malignancy after hydatidiform mole were evacuated (p<0.032. The study were done on 50 women diagnosed with hydatidiform mole with 1 year observation (January 2001-December 2002 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. The results showed that the NETDC prognostic index score predicted malignancy in 50% of high risk group and 10% in low risk group (p<0.05. This showed a higher number than that found by the WHO (19%-30%. The risk for incidence of  malignancy after hydatidiform mole in the high risk group is 9.0 times higher compared to that of the low risk group (CI: 1.769-45.786. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 40-6 Keywords: New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC, gestational trophoblastic tumor, hydatidiform mole, high and low risk

  10. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  11. Prognostic stratification of ulcerated melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie L; Schmidt, Henrik; Christensen, Ib J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For patients with melanoma, ulceration is an important prognostic marker and interestingly also a predictive marker for the response of adjuvant interferon. A consensual definition and accurate assessment of ulceration are therefore crucial for proper staging and clinical management. We...... stratification of ulcerated lesions. METHODS: From H&E-stained sections, the status (presence vs absence), extent (percentage of the total tumor length), and type (infiltrative vs attenuative) of ulceration and epidermal involvement were evaluated from 385 patients with cutaneous melanoma. RESULTS: The presence...... of ulceration (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83), an attenuative type of ulceration (HR, 3.02), and excessive ulceration (HR, 3.57) were independent predictors of poor melanoma-specific survival. Further subdivision of minimal/moderate ulceration showed independent prognostic value only for lesions with epidermal...

  12. Negative lymph node count is an independent prognostic factor for patients with rectal cancer who received preoperative radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxing; Lu, Hao; Xu, Kai; Wang, Haolu; Liang, Xiaowen; Hu, Zhiqian

    2017-03-28

    Negative lymph node (NLN) count has been reported to provide more accurate prognostic information than the N stage alone in patients with rectal cancer (RC). Since preoperative radiotherapy (Pre-RT) can significantly affect the LN status, it is unclear whether NLN count still has prognostic value count on survival of patients with RC who received Pre-RT. In this study, clinicopathological characteristics, number of positive LNs and survival time were collected from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER)-registered RC patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the risk factors for survival. X-tile plots identified 9 (P < 0.001) as the optimal cutoff NLN value to divide the patients into high and low risk subsets in terms of cause specific survival (CSS). NLN count was validated as independently prognostic factor in univariate and multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that NLN count was an independently prognostic factor for patients with stage ypII (P = 0.002) and ypIII (P < 0.001). Our results firmly demonstrated that NLN count provides accurate prognostic information for RC patients with Pre-RT.

  13. First-line chemotherapy in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzam, Mo’iad; Tidy, John; Hancock, Barry W; Osborne, Raymond; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in Issue 1, 2009. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare but curable disease arising in the fetal chorion during pregnancy. Most women with low-risk GTN will be cured by evacuation of the uterus with or without single-agent chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy regimens vary between treatment centres worldwide and the comparable benefits and risks of these different regimens are unclear. Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of first-line chemotherapy in the treatment of low-risk GTN. Search methods In September 2008, we electronically searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 3, 2008), MEDLINE and EMBASE. In addition, we searched online trial registers, conference proceedings and reference lists of identified studies. We re-ran these searches in February 2012 for this updated review. Selection criteria For the original review, we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and non-RCTs that compared first-line chemotherapy for the treatment of low-risk GTN. For this updated version of the review, we included only RCTs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data to a pre-designed data extraction form. Meta-analysis was performed by pooling the risk ratio (RR) of individual trials. Main results We included five moderate to high quality RCTs (517 women) in the updated review. These studies all compared methotrexate with dactinomycin. Three studies compared weekly intramuscular (IM) methotrexate with bi-weekly pulsed intravenous (IV) dactinomycin (393 women), one study compared five-day IM methotrexate with bi-weekly pulsed IV dactinomycin (75 women) and one study compared eight-day IM methotrexate-folinic acid (MTX-FA) with five-day IV dactinomycin (49 women). Overall, dactinomycin was associated

  14. Role of blood cells dynamism on hemostatic complications in low-risk patients with essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccin, Andrea; Steurer, Michael; Mitterer, Manfred; Blöchl, Elisabeth Maria; Marcheselli, Luigi; Pusceddu, Irene; Marabese, Alessandra; Bertozzi, Irene; Corvetta, Daisy; Randi, Maria Luigia; Elli, Elena; Pogliani, Enrico Maria; Veneri, Dino; Perbellini, Omar; Krampera, Mauro; Pacquola, Enrica; Gottardi, Michele; Tiribelli, Mario; Guella, Anna; Innella, Barbara; Vivaldi, Paolo; De Biasi, Ercole; Sancetta, Rosaria; Rocconi, Roberta; Bassan, Renato; Gherlinzoni, Filippo; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Gastl, Günther; Cortelazzo, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) aged less than 60 years, who have not suffered a previous vascular event (low-risk patients), may develop thrombotic or hemorrhagic events. So far, it has not been possible to identify useful markers capable of predicting which of these patients are more likely to develop an event and therefore who needs to be treated. In the present study, we analysed the relationship between vascular complications and longitudinal blood counts of 136 low-risk ET patients taken over a sustained period of time (blood cells dynamism). After a median follow-up of 60 months, 45 out of 136 patients (33%) suffered 40 major thrombotic and 5 severe hemorrhagic complications. A total number of 5,781 blood counts were collected longitudinally. Thrombotic and hemorrhagic events were studied together (primary endpoint) but also separately (thrombotic alone = secondary endpoint; hemorrhagic alone = tertiary endpoint). The primary endpoint showed no significant association between platelet and WBC count at diagnosis and risk of any event (platelet, p = 0.797; WBC, p = 0.178), while Hb at baseline did show an association (p = 0.024). In the dynamic analysis with Cox regression model, where the blood count values were studied by time of follow-up, we observed that the risk for Hb was 1.49 (95% CI 1.13-1.97) for every increase of 1 g/dL, and that this risk then marginally decreased during follow-up. WBC was associated with an increased risk at baseline for every increase of 1 × 10(9)/L (hazard ratio (HR) 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13, p = 0.034), the risk was stable during follow-up (HR 0.95, p = 0.187 at 60 months). Also, for each increment at baseline of 100 × 10(9) platelets/L, HR was increased by 1.08 (95% CI 0.97-1.22, p = 0.159) and decreases during follow-up. In conclusion, this study is the first to evaluate in ET low-risk patients, the risk of developing a thrombotic/hemorrhagic event considering blood counts over time. Overall our study shows that

  15. Prognostic models in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Antoine; Mallett, Susan; Daoud-Elias, Marie; Poggi, Jean-Noël; Clarke, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence for existing prognostic models in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and determine how valid and useful they are for predicting patient outcomes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources OVID MEDLINE and EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library from inception to July 2014, and sources of grey literature. Eligibility criteria Studies aiming at constructing, validating, updating or studying the impact of prognostic models to predict all-cause death, PE-related death or venous thromboembolic events up to a 3-month follow-up in patients with an acute symptomatic PE. Data extraction Study characteristics and study quality using prognostic criteria. Studies were selected and data extracted by 2 reviewers. Data analysis Summary estimates (95% CI) for proportion of risk groups and event rates within risk groups, and accuracy. Results We included 71 studies (44 298 patients). Among them, 17 were model construction studies specific to PE prognosis. The most validated models were the PE Severity Index (PESI) and its simplified version (sPESI). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 2.3% (1.7% to 2.9%) in the low-risk group and 11.4% (9.9% to 13.1%) in the high-risk group for PESI (9 studies), and 1.5% (0.9% to 2.5%) in the low-risk group and 10.7% (8.8% to12.9%) in the high-risk group for sPESI (11 studies). PESI has proved clinically useful in an impact study. Shifting the cut-off or using novel and updated models specifically developed for normotensive PE improves the ability for identifying patients at lower risk for early death or adverse outcome (0.5–1%) and those at higher risk (up to 20–29% of event rate). Conclusions We provide evidence-based information about the validity and utility of the existing prognostic models in acute PE that may be helpful for identifying patients at low risk. Novel models seem attractive for the high-risk normotensive PE but need to be externally validated then be assessed in impact studies. PMID

  16. Antenatal Care Utilisation and Content between Low-Risk and High-Risk Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Ping Ling; Hornetz, Klaus; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of antenatal care is to monitor and improve the wellbeing of the mother and foetus. The World Health Organization recommends risk-oriented strategy that includes: (i) routine care to all women, (ii) additional care for women with moderately severe diseases and complications, (iii) specialised obstetrical and neonatal care for women with severe diseases and complications. Antenatal care is concerned with adequate care in order to be effective. Measurement for adequacy of antenatal care often applies indexes that assess initiation of care and number of visits. In addition, adequacy of care content should also be assessed. Results of studies in developed settings demonstrate that women without risk factors use antenatal services more frequently than recommended. Such over-utilisation is problematic for low-resourced settings. Moreover, studies show that a substantial proportion of high-risk women had utilisation or content of care below the recommended standard. Yet studies in developing countries have seldom included a comparison between low-risk and high-risk women. The purpose of the study was therefore to assess adequacy of care and pregnancy outcomes for the different risk groups. Methods A retrospective study using a multistage sampling technique, at public-funded primary health care clinics was conducted. Antenatal utilisation level was assessed using a modified Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index that measures the timing for initiation of care and observed-to-expected visits ratio. Adequacy of antenatal care content assessed compliance to routine care based on the local guidelines. Results Intensive or “adequate-plus” antenatal care utilisation as defined by the modified index was noted in over half of the low-risk women. On the other hand, there were 26% of the high-risk women without the expected intensive utilisation. Primary- or non-educated high-risk women were less likely to have a higher antenatal care utilisation

  17. Maternal Vascular Malperfusion and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Low-Risk Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emily; Audette, Melanie C; Ye, Xiang Y; Keating, Sarah; Hoffman, Barry; Lye, Stephen J; Shah, Prakesh S; Kingdom, John C

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the disease burden of placental maternal vascular malperfusion pathology in a low-risk nulliparous population and test the hypothesis that a multiparameter model in the second trimester can predict maternal vascular malperfusion with high precision. A single-center, prospective cohort study was conducted in healthy nulliparous women. Maternal vascular malperfusion disease burden was estimated by incidence, relative risk (RR), and population-attributable risk percent. Maternal risk factors, serum biomarkers, Doppler, and placental morphologic ultrasonography were examined in isolation and in combination for prediction of this placental pathology. The incidence of maternal vascular malperfusion pathology was 8.4% (72/856). Women with pathology had higher risk of preeclampsia (8.33% compared with 1.79%; RR 4.67, 95% CI 1.85-11.77%; population-attributable risk 23.6%, 95% CI 16.9-31.6%), small for gestational age (SGA) (47.22% compared with 9.45%; RR 5.00, 95% CI 3.6-6.93%; population-attributable risk 25.2%, 95% CI 22.1-28.5%), and the composite of adverse outcomes (defined as SGA or preeclampsia) (47.22% compared with 10.59%; RR 4.46, 95% CI 3.25-6.13; population-attributable risk 22.5%, 95% CI 19.8-25.5%). The combination of parameters was superior to individual modalities alone in predicting maternal vascular malperfusion, but achieved only moderate precision (area under the curve 0.77, 95% CI 0.71-0.84). One in 12 healthy nulliparous women develop maternal vascular malperfusion placental pathology, and these pregnancies had a 4.5 times higher risk of developing preeclampsia or delivering a SGA neonate compared with those without this pathology. A multiparameter model achieved modest precision to predict placental maternal vascular malperfusion. Importantly, in low-risk pregnancies, maternal vascular malperfusion accounts for one fourth of pregnancy outcomes with SGA or preeclampsia. The low population-attributable risk of this placental pathology for

  18. Strategies of radioiodine ablation in patients with low-risk thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, Martin; Catargi, Bogdan; Borget, Isabelle; Deandreis, Désirée; Zerdoud, Slimane; Bridji, Boumédiène; Bardet, Stéphane; Leenhardt, Laurence; Bastie, Delphine; Schvartz, Claire; Vera, Pierre; Morel, Olivier; Benisvy, Danielle; Bournaud, Claire; Bonichon, Françoise; Dejax, Catherine; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth; Leboulleux, Sophie; Ricard, Marcel; Benhamou, Ellen

    2012-05-03

    It is not clear whether the administration of radioiodine provides any benefit to patients with low-risk thyroid cancer after a complete surgical resection. The administration of the smallest possible amount of radioiodine would improve care. In our randomized, phase 3 trial, we compared two thyrotropin-stimulation methods (thyroid hormone withdrawal and use of recombinant human thyrotropin) and two radioiodine ((131)I) doses (i.e., administered activities) (1.1 GBq and 3.7 GBq) in a 2-by-2 design. Inclusion criteria were an age of 18 years or older; total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma; tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, ascertained on pathological examination (p) of a surgical specimen, of pT1 (with tumor diameter ≤1 cm) and N1 or Nx, pT1 (with tumor diameter >1 to 2 cm) and any N stage, or pT2N0; absence of distant metastasis; and no iodine contamination. Thyroid ablation was assessed 8 months after radioiodine administration by neck ultrasonography and measurement of recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated thyroglobulin. Comparisons were based on an equivalence framework. There were 752 patients enrolled between 2007 and 2010; 92% had papillary cancer. There were no unexpected serious adverse events. In the 684 patients with data that could be evaluated, ultrasonography of the neck was normal in 652 (95%), and the stimulated thyroglobulin level was 1.0 ng per milliliter or less in 621 of the 652 patients (95%) without detectable thyroglobulin antibodies. Thyroid ablation was complete in 631 of the 684 patients (92%). The ablation rate was equivalent between the (131)I doses and between the thyrotropin-stimulation methods. The use of recombinant human thyrotropin and low-dose (1.1 GBq) postoperative radioiodine ablation may be sufficient for the management of low-risk thyroid cancer. (Funded by the French National Cancer Institute [INCa] and the French Ministry of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00435851; INCa number, RECF0447.).

  19. Validation of the 18-gene classifier as a prognostic biomarker of distant metastasis in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skye Hung-Chun Cheng

    Full Text Available We validated an 18-gene classifier (GC initially developed to predict local/regional recurrence after mastectomy in estimating distant metastasis risk. The 18-gene scoring algorithm defines scores as: <21, low risk; ≥21, high risk. Six hundred eighty-three patients with primary operable breast cancer and fresh frozen tumor tissues available were included. The primary outcome was the 5-year probability of freedom from distant metastasis (DMFP. Two external datasets were used to test the predictive accuracy of 18-GC. The 5-year rates of DMFP for patients classified as low-risk (n = 146, 21.7% and high-risk (n = 537, 78.6% were 96.2% (95% CI, 91.1%-98.8% and 80.9% (74.6%-81.9%, respectively (median follow-up interval, 71.8 months. The 5-year rates of DMFP of the low-risk group in stage I (n = 62, 35.6%, stage II (n = 66, 20.1%, and stage III (n = 18, 10.3% were 100%, 94.2% (78.5%-98.5%, and 90.9% (50.8%-98.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 18-GC is an independent prognostic factor of distant metastasis (adjusted hazard ratio, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.8-14.1; p = 0.0017 for scores of ≥21. External validation showed that the 5-year rate of DMFP in the low- and high-risk patients was 94.1% (82.9%-100% and 80.3% (70.7%-89.9%, p = 0.06 in a Singapore dataset, and 89.5% (81.9%-94.1% and 73.6% (67.2%-79.0%, p = 0.0039 in the GEO-GSE20685 dataset, respectively. In conclusion, 18-GC is a viable prognostic biomarker for breast cancer to estimate distant metastasis risk.

  20. Prediction of high- and low-risk multiple myeloma based on gene expression and the International Staging System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kuiper (Ruud); M. van Duin (Mark); M.H. van Vliet (Martin); A. Broijl (Annemiek); B. van der Holt (Bronno); L.E. Jarari (Laila El); E.H. van Beers (Erik); G. Mulligan (George); H. Avet-Loiseau (Hervé); W. Gregory (W.); G. Morgan (Gareth); H. Goldschmidt (Hartmut); H.M. Lokhorst (Henk); P. Sonneveld (Pieter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPatients with multiple myeloma have variable survival and require reliable prognostic and predictive scoring systems. Currently, clinical and biological risk markers are used independently. Here, International Staging System (ISS), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) markers, and

  1. Freestanding midwifery unit versus obstetric unit: a matched cohort study of outcomes in low-risk women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Møller, Anna Margrethe; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare perinatal and maternal morbidity and birth interventions in low-risk women giving birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMUs) and two obstetric units (OUs). Design A cohort study with a matched control group. Setting The region of North Jutland, Denmark. Participants 839...... low-risk women intending FMU birth and a matched control group of 839 low-risk women intending OU birth were included at the start of care in labour. OU women were individually chosen to match selected obstetric/socio-economic characteristics of FMU women. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main...... outcome measures Perinatal and maternal morbidity and interventions. Results No significant differences in perinatal morbidity were observed between groups (Apgar scores outcomes were rare and occurred in both groups. FMU...

  2. Prognostic significance of cell surface phenotype in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiek Aejaz Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: To find out the phenotypic character of lymphoblasts of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients in our study cohort and their possible effect on the prognosis. Aims: To investigate the phenotype in ALL in our demographic population and to prognosticate various upfront current protocols employed in our hospital. Settings and Design: The study spanned over a period of 4 years with retrospective and prospective data of January 2008 through December 2011. Materials and Methods: 159 patients of all age groups were enrolled for the study, of which flow cytometry was done in 144 patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis was done using the variables on SPSS (statistical package for social sciences software on computer. Survival curves were estimated by method of Kaplan-Meir. Results: Majority of the patients were of B-cell (68.1% and 30.6% patients were of T-cell lineage. Of these, 80.6% patients were having cALLa positivity. Complete remission (CR was achieved in 59.1%, 16.4% relapsed, and 20.1% patients died. Conclusions: Phenotyping has become an important and integral part of diagnosis, classification, management and prognosticating in ALL. B-cell has been found to have a better survival over T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. cALLa antigen positivity has good impact in achieving CR in only B-cell lineage, myeloid coexpression has no significant effect on the outcome. BFM (Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster based protocols though showed a higher CR and survival vis-a-vis UKALL-XII. However, patients enrolled in former group being of low risk category and lesser in numbers cannot be compared statistically with a fair degree of confidence.

  3. Generic Software Architecture for Prognostics (GSAP) User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubert, Christopher Allen; Daigle, Matthew John; Watkins, Jason; Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The Generic Software Architecture for Prognostics (GSAP) is a framework for applying prognostics. It makes applying prognostics easier by implementing many of the common elements across prognostic applications. The standard interface enables reuse of prognostic algorithms and models across systems using the GSAP framework.

  4. Long-term oral sensitivity and feeding skills of low-risk pre-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Pamela; McMahon, Sandra; Ward, Elizabeth; Weir, Kelly; Donovan, Tim; Riddle, Bena

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the oral sensitivity and feeding skills of low-risk pre-term infants at 11-17 months corrected age. Twenty pre-term infants (PT) born between 32 and 37 weeks at birth without any medical comorbidities were assessed. All of this PT group received supplemental nasogastric (NG) tube feeds during their birth-stay in hospital. A matched control group of 10 healthy full-term infants (FT) was also assessed. Oral sensitivity and feeding skills were assessed during a typical mealtime using the Royal Children's Hospital Oral Sensitivity Checklist (OSC) and the Pre-Speech Assessment Scale (PSAS). Results demonstrated that, at 11-17 months corrected age, the PT group displayed significantly more behaviours suggestive of altered oral sensitivity and facial defensiveness, and a trend of more delayed feeding development than the FT group. Further, results demonstrated that, relative to the FT group, pre-term infants who received greater than 3 weeks of NG feeding (PT>3NG) displayed significantly more facial defensive behaviour, and displayed significant delays across more aspects of their feeding development than pre-term infants who received less than 2 weeks of NG feeding (PToral sensitivity and facial defensiveness, as well as feeding delays. These observations warrant further investigation on this topic.

  5. Obstetric interventions during labor and childbirth in Brazilian low-risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo Leal, Maria do; Pereira, Ana Paula Esteves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Bastos, Maria Helena; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the use of best practices (eating, movement, use of nonpharmacological methods for pain relief and partograph) and obstetric interventions in labor and delivery among low-risk women. Data from the hospital-based survey Birth in Brazil conducted between 2011 and 2012 was used. Best practices during labor occurred in less than 50% of women and prevalence of the use of these practices was lower in the North, Northeast and Central West Regions. The rate of use of oxytocin drips and amniotomy was 40%, and was higher among women admitted to public hospitals and in women with a low level of education. The uterine fundal pressure, episiotomy and lithotomy were used in 37%, 56% and 92% of women, respectively. Caesarean section rates were lower in women using the public health system, nonwhites, women with a low level of education and multiparous women. To improve the health of mothers and newborns and promote quality of life, a change of approach to labor and childbirth that focuses on evidence-based care is required in both the public and private health sectors.

  6. Malaria morbidity and temperature variation in a low risk Kenyan district: a case of overdiagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, John; Muita, James; Mundia, George

    2009-05-01

    Diagnosis of malaria using only clinical means leads to overdiagnosis. This has implications due to safety concerns and the recent introduction of more expensive drugs. Temperature is a major climatic factor influencing the transmission dynamics of malaria. This study looked at trends in malaria morbidity in the low risk Kenyan district of Nyandarua, coupled with data on temperature and precipitation for the years 2003-2006. July had the highest number of cases (12.2% of all cases) followed by August (10.2% of all cases). July and August also had the lowest mean maximum temperatures, 20.1 and 20.2 °C respectively. April, July and August had the highest rainfall, with daily means of 4.0, 4.3 and 4.9 mm, respectively. Observation showed that the coldest months experienced the highest number of cases of malaria. Despite the high rainfall, transmission of malaria tends to be limited by low temperatures due to the long duration required for sporogony, with fewer vectors surviving. These cold months also tend to have the highest number of cases of respiratory infections. There is a possibility that some of these were misdiagnosed as malaria based on the fact that only a small proportion of malaria cases were diagnosed using microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests. We conclude that overdiagnosis may be prevalent in this district and there may be a need to design an intervention to minimise it.

  7. Comparing and evaluating the efficacy of methotrexate and actinomycin D as first-line single chemotherapy agents in low risk gestational trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Jae; Park, Jeong Yeol; Kim, Dae Yeon; Suh, Dae Shik; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Yong Man; Kim, Young Tak; Nam, Joo Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare responses to single-agent chemotherapies and evaluate the predictive factors of resistance in low risk (LR) gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). The chemotherapy agents included methotrexate (MTX) and actinomycin D (ACT-D). We conducted a retrospective study of 126 patients with GTD who were treated between 2000 and 2013. A total of 71 patients with LR GTD were treated with MTX (8-day regimen or weekly regimen, n=53) or ACT-D (bi-weekly pulsed regimen or 5-day regimen, n=18). The successful treatment group and the failed treatment group were compared and analyzed to identify prognostic factors. The complete response rates were 83.3% for ACT-D and 62.2% for MTX, with no statistically significant difference. There was no severe adverse effect reported for either group. Longer interval durations from the index pregnancy (>2 months, p=0.040) and larger tumor size (>3 cm, p=0.020) were more common in non-responders than in responders; these results were statistically significant. Based on our results, ACT-D may be a better option than MTX as a first-line single chemotherapy agent for LR GTD. The bi-weekly pulsed ACT-D regimen had minimal, or at least the same, toxicities compared with MTX. However, due to the lack of strong supporting evidence, it cannot be conclusively stated that this is the best single agent for first-line chemotherapy in LR GTD patients. Further larger controlled trials will be necessary to establish the best guidelines for GTD treatment.

  8. [Open clinical trial with oral acyclovir for the prophylaxis of disease by Cytomegalovirus in low risk liver transplant recipients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J; Montero, J L; Gavilán, F; Costán, G; Herrero, C; Cárdenas, M; Sánchez-Guijo, P; Torre-Cisneros, J

    1999-10-01

    Checking the first 70 low risk liver transplantation performed in our hospital, who did not receive prophylaxis for Cytomegalovirus, we found that the incidence of Cytomegalovirus-infection and Cytomegalovirus-disease were 47% and 16% respectively. For this reason we started a prospective, open clinical study, to address the safety of acyclovir prophylaxis in low-risk liver transplant patients. Seventy patients did not receive acyclovir. Fifty patients received oral acyclovir during 3 months (800-3,200 mg/day). The occurrence of Cytomegalovirus infection was not modified (40%) but Cytomegalovirus disease decreased dramatically (4%, p Varicela-zoster symptomatic disease in this group of patients.

  9. Regional brain volume reduction and cognitive outcomes in preterm children at low risk at 9 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhan, Ebru; Gücüyener, Kıvılcım; Soysal, Şebnem; Şalvarlı, Şafak; Gürses, M Ali; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe; Demir, Ercan; Ergenekon, Ebru; Türkyılmaz, Canan; Önal, Esra; Koç, Esin; Atalay, Yıldız

    2017-08-01

    More information is needed on "low-risk" preterm infants' neurological outcome so that they can be included in follow-up programs. A prospective study was performed to examine the regional brain volume changes compared to term children and to assess the relationship between the regional brain volumes to cognitive outcome of the low-risk preterm children at 9 years of age. Subjects comprised 22 preterm children who were determined to be at low risk for neurodevelopmental deficits with a gestational age between 28 and 33 weeks without a major neonatal morbidity in the neonatal period and 24 age-matched term control children term and matched for age, sex, and parental educational and occupational status. Regional volumetric analysis was performed for cerebellum, hippocampus, and corpus callosum area. Cognitive outcomes of both preterm and control subjects were assessed by Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (Turkish version), and attention and executive functions were assessed by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Stroop Test TBAG version. Low-risk preterm children showed regional brain volume reduction in cerebellum, hippocampus, and corpus callosum area and achieved statistical significance when compared with term control. When the groups were compared for all WISC-R subscale scores, preterm children at low risk had significantly lower scores on information, vocabulary, similarities, arithmetics, picture completion, block design, object assembly, and coding compared to children born at term. Preterm and term groups were compared on the Stroop Test for mistakes and corrections made on each card, the time spent for completing each card, and total mistakes and corrections. In the preterm group, we found a positive correlation between regional volumes with IQ, attention, and executive function scores. Additionally, a significant correlation was found between cerebellar volume and attention and executive function scores in the preterm group. Low-risk preterm

  10. High-Risk and Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus and the Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN 3 or worse) after detection of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and after a negative high-risk HPV test. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive liquid-based cer......OBJECTIVE: To determine the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN 3 or worse) after detection of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and after a negative high-risk HPV test. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive liquid...

  11. Transcriptomic analyses of genes differentially expressed by high-risk and low-risk human papilloma virus E6 oncoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly, Pooja; Ganguly, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    Human papilloma virus is the causative agent for cervical cancer with 99 % of cervical cancer cases containing HPV. The high risk HPV-16, 18 and 31 are the major causative agents. The low risk HPV-6, 11 have been reported to cause penile, laryngeal, bronchogenic and oesophageal cancer. Since E6 oncoprotein is frequently over expressed in cancers, we did gene expression studies to compare between the E6 genes of high-risk (HPV18) or low-risk (HPV11)stably transfected in epithelial cell line EP...

  12. A combined pulmonary function and emphysema score prognostic index for staging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutou, Afroditi K; Nair, Arjun; Douraghi-Zadeh, Dariush; Sandhu, Ranbir; Hansell, David M; Wells, Athol U; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Lung computed tomography parameters, individually or as part of a composite index, may provide more prognostic information than pulmonary function tests alone. To investigate the prognostic value of emphysema score and pulmonary artery measurements compared with lung function parameters in COPD and construct a prognostic index using a contingent staging approach. Predictors of mortality were assessed in COPD outpatients whose lung computed tomography, spirometry, lung volumes and gas transfer data were collected prospectively in a clinical database. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis models with bootstrap techniques were used. 169 patients were included (59.8% male, 61.1 years old; Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second % predicted: 40.5±19.2). 20.1% died; mean survival was 115.4 months. Age (HR = 1.098, 95% Cl = 1.04-1.252) and emphysema score (HR = 1.034, 95% CI = 1.007-1.07) were the only independent predictors of mortality. Pulmonary artery dimensions were not associated with survival. An emphysema score of 55% was chosen as the optimal threshold and 30% and 65% as suboptimals. Where emphysema score was between 30% and 65% (intermediate risk) the optimal lung volume threshold, a functional residual capacity of 210% predicted, was applied. This contingent staging approach separated patients with an intermediate risk based on emphysema score alone into high risk (Functional Residual Capacity ≥210% predicted) or low risk (Functional Residual Capacity Emphysema score-Functional Residual Capacity index might provide a better separation of high and low risk patients with COPD, than other individual predictors alone.

  13. Prognostic index for chronic- and smoldering-type adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuya, Hiroo; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Amano, Masahiro; Utsunomiya, Atae; Hino, Ryosuke; Hanada, Shuichi; Jo, Tatsuro; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Suzushima, Hitoshi; Miyahara, Masaharu; Yamashita, Kiyoshi; Eto, Tetsuya; Suzumiya, Junji; Tamura, Kazuo

    2017-07-06

    Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) has been divided into 4 clinical subtypes: acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering. The aim of this study is to develop a novel prognostic index (PI) for chronic and smoldering ATL. We conducted a nationwide retrospective survey on ATL patients, and 248 fully eligible individuals were used in this analysis. In the univariate analysis, sex, performance status, log10 (soluble interleukin-2 receptor [sIL-2R]), neutrophils count, and lymphadenopathy showed values of P < .05 in training samples. A multivariate analysis was performed on these factors, and only log10 (sIL-2R) was identified as an independent prognostic factor in training samples. Using a regression coefficient of this variable, a prognostic model was formulated to identify different levels of risk: indolent ATL-PI (iATL-PI) = 1.51 × log10 (sIL-2R [U/mL]). The values calculated by iATL-PI were divided into 3 groups using a quartile point. In the validation sample, median survival times (MSTs) were 1.6 years, 5.5 years, and not reached for patients in the high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups, respectively (P < .0001). To make the scoring system clinically practicable, we simplified iATL-PI according to trichotomizing sIL-2R at 1000 and 6000 U/mL, using a quartile point. Patients with more than 6000 U/mL sIL-2R were categorized into the high-risk group, less than and equal to 1000 U/mL into the low-risk group, and the others into the intermediate-risk group, and MSTs were 1.6 years, not reached, and 5.5 years, respectively (P < .0001). iATL-PI has potential as a novel tool for a risk-adapted therapeutic approach. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Metrics for Evaluating Performance of Prognostic Techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics is an emerging concept in condition basedmaintenance(CBM)ofcriticalsystems.Alongwith developing the fundamentals of being able to confidently predict...

  15. Health Monitoring and Prognostics for Computer Servers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract Prognostics solutions for mission critical systems require a comprehensive methodology for proactively detecting and isolating failures, recommending and...

  16. Embedded Diagnostics & Prognostics Wireless Sensing Platforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ousachi, Mark; Scott, Andrew; Yee, David; Hosmer, Thomas; Daniszewski, Dave

    2004-01-01

    An embedded diagnostics and prognostics architecture affects several aspects associated with military ground vehicles such as improved safety, reduction in maintenance times, weapon system readiness...

  17. A DISTRIBUTED PROGNOSTIC HEALTH MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper introduces a generic distributed prognostic health management (PHM) architecture with specific application to the electrical power systems domain. Current...

  18. Simulating Degradation Data for Prognostic Algorithm Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PHM08 Challenge Dataset is now publicly available at the NASA Prognostics Respository + Download INTRODUCTION - WHY SIMULATE DEGRADATION DATA? Of various challenges...

  19. A Survey of Artificial Intelligence for Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrated Systems Health Management includes as key elements fault detection, fault diagnostics, and failure prognostics. Whereas fault detection and diagnostics...

  20. Clinical and Histopathological Prognostic Factors in Chondrosarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Lund

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In an attempt to identify clinical and histopathological factors of prognostic importance in chondrosarcomas, 115 cases of malignant and borderline chondromatous tumours were reviewed.

  1. Prognostic Factors in Hodgkin's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht

    1996-01-01

    Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease (HD) are reviewed. The Ann Arbor staging classification remains the basis for evaluation of patients with HD. However, subgroups of patients with differing prognoses exist within the individual stages. In pathological stages I and II, the number of involved...... of extent of disease such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anemia, and serum albumin. In advanced disease the number of involved nodal and extranodal regions, the total tumor burden, B symptoms, age, gender, histology, and a number of hematologic and biochemical indicators are significant. Research...

  2. Foot length measurements of newborns of high and low risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salge, Ana Karina Marques; Rocha, Érika Lopes; Gaíva, Maria Aparecida Munhoz; Castral, Thaíla Correa; Guimarães, Janaína Valadares; Xavier, Raphaela Maioni

    2017-03-09

    Comparing foot length measurements of newborns in high and low risk pregnancies at a public hospital in Goiânia, GO, Brazil. A cross-sectional study carried out between April, 2013 and May, 2015, with a sample consisting of 180 newborns; 106 infants of women from high-risk pregnancies and 74 of women from low-risk pregnancies. Data were descriptively analyzed. Foot length measurement was performed using a stiff transparent plastic ruler, graduated in millimeters. The length of both feet was measured from the tip of the hallux (big toe) to the end of the heel. A statistically significant relationship was found between the foot length and newborn's weight, between the cephalic and thoracic perimeters in the high-risk group and between the cephalic perimeter in the control group. There is a need for creating cut-off points to identify newborns with intrauterine growth disorders using foot length. Comparar as medidas do comprimento hálux-calcâneo de recém-nascidos em gestações de alto e baixo risco em um hospital público de Goiânia, GO. Estudo transversal, realizado no período de abril de 2013 a maio de 2015, cuja amostra constituiu-se de 180 recém-nascidos, 106 filhos de mulheres com gestação de alto risco e 74 de mulheres com gestação de baixo risco. Os dados foram analisados descritivamente. A medida do comprimento hálux-calcâneo foi realizada utilizando-se de régua plástica transparente rígida, graduada em milímetros. Foram medidos ambos os pés, aferindo-se o comprimento da ponta do hálux até a extremidade do calcâneo. Foi encontrada relação estatisticamente significante entre o comprimento hálux-calcâneo e o peso do recém-nascido, entre os perímetros cefálico e torácico no grupo de alto risco e entre o perímetro cefálico no grupo controle. Existe necessidade da criação de pontos de corte para identificar recém-nascidos com desvios de crescimento intrauterino utilizando-se do comprimento hálux-calcâneo. Comparar las mediciones

  3. Updating and prospective validation of a prognostic model for high sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, C A M; Heymans, M W; Twisk, J W R; van Rhenen, W; Pallesen, S; Bjorvatn, B; Moen, B E; Magerøy, N

    2015-01-01

    To further develop and validate a Dutch prognostic model for high sickness absence (SA). Three-wave longitudinal cohort study of 2,059 Norwegian nurses. The Dutch prognostic model was used to predict high SA among Norwegian nurses at wave 2. Subsequently, the model was updated by adding person-related (age, gender, marital status, children at home, and coping strategies), health-related (BMI, physical activity, smoking, and caffeine and alcohol intake), and work-related (job satisfaction, job demands, decision latitude, social support at work, and both work-to-family and family-to-work spillover) variables. The updated model was then prospectively validated for predictions at wave 3. 1,557 (77 %) nurses had complete data at wave 2 and 1,342 (65 %) at wave 3. The risk of high SA was under-estimated by the Dutch model, but discrimination between high-risk and low-risk nurses was fair after re-calibration to the Norwegian data. Gender, marital status, BMI, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, job satisfaction, job demands, decision latitude, support at the workplace, and work-to-family spillover were identified as potential predictors of high SA. However, these predictors did not improve the model's discriminative ability, which remained fair at wave 3. The prognostic model correctly identifies 73 % of Norwegian nurses at risk of high SA, although additional predictors are needed before the model can be used to screen working populations for risk of high SA.

  4. Uveal melanoma prognostication: from lesion size and cell type to molecular class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Harmeet S; Char, Devron H

    2012-06-01

    To review the evidence for molecular genetic testing of uveal melanoma in the context of prognostic indicators of metastasis and tumour-related mortality. Review of the literature and personal experiences of the authors. We conducted a MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed literature search (1980-2011) for English-language abstracts and full-text references regarding molecular genetic testing of uveal melanoma. Search terms included uveal, melanoma, cytogenetic, gene, and molecular. All studies in which patients with primary uveal melanoma underwent molecular genetic testing with survival data for disease-related metastasis and mortality were reviewed. From 176 identified articles, 40 were scientific studies of uveal melanomas that included histologic and molecular genetic analysis. Of those, 24 included survival data, correlation of molecular genetic features with other prognostic indicators, or both. Cytogenetic and microarray gene expression analysis allows uveal melanoma lesions to be classified as high risk or low risk for metastasis and disease-related mortality. Gene expression profiling supersedes clinical, histologic, and cytogenetic prognosticators. Uveal melanoma comprises a heterogeneous group of malignancies based on its molecular biology. Molecular class by gene expression profiling has the most strongly predictive value for uveal melanoma metastasis and mortality. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Portrayal of alcohol consumption in movies and drinking initiation in low-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Sargent, James D; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Ultrasonographic study and Doppler flow velocimetry of maternal kidneys and liver in low-risk pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Helena Daher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Longitudinal study with B-mode ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography of maternal kidneys and liver in low-risk pregnancy, to establish and quantify normality parameters, correlating them with physiological changes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five pregnant women were assessed and selected to participate in the study, each of them undergoing four examinations at the first, second, third trimesters and postpartum. Results: Findings during pregnancy were the following: increased renal volume, pyelocaliceal dilatation with incidence of 45.4% in the right kidney, and 9% in the left kidney; nephrolithiasis, 18.1% in the right kidney, 13.6% in the left kidney. With pyelocaliceal dilatation, mean values for resistivity index were: 0.68 for renal arteries; 0.66 for segmental arteries; 0.64 for interlobar arteries; 0.64 for arcuate arteries. Without pyelocaliceal dilatation, 0.67 for renal arteries; 0.64 for segmental arteries; 0.63 for interlobar arteries; and 0.61 for arcuate arteries. Portal vein flow velocities presented higher values in pregnancy, with mean value for maximum velocity of 28.9 cm/s, and 22.6 cm/s postpartum. The waveform pattern of the right hepatic vein presented changes persisting in the postpartum period in 31.8% of the patients. Cholelithiasis was observed in 18.1% of the patients. Conclusion: Alterations in renal volume, pyelocaliceal dilatation, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, changes in portal vein flow velocity, alterations in waveform pattern of the right hepatic vein, proved to be significant.

  7. Acquisition of voice onset time in toddlers at high and low risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenausky, Karen; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2017-07-01

    Although language delay is common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research is equivocal on whether speech development is affected. We used acoustic methods to investigate the existence of sub-perceptual differences in the speech of toddlers who developed ASD. Development of the distinction between b and p was prospectively tracked in 22 toddlers at low risk for ASD (LRC), 22 at high risk for ASD without ASD (HRA-), and 11 at high risk for ASD who were diagnosed with ASD at 36 months (HRA+). Voice onset time (VOT), the main acoustic difference between b and p, was measured from spontaneously produced words at 18, 24, and 36 months. Number of words, number of tokens (instances) of syllable-initial b and p produced, error rates, language scores, and motor ability were also assessed. All groups' mean language scores were within the average range or slightly higher. No between-group differences were found in number of words, b's, p's, or errors produced; or in mean or standard deviation of VOT. Binary logistic regression showed that only diagnostic status, not language score, motor ability, number of words, number of b's and p's, or number of errors significantly predicted whether a toddler produced acoustically distinct b and p populations at 36 months. HRA+ toddlers were significantly less likely to produce acoustically distinct b's and p's at 36 months, which may indicate that the HRA+ group may be using different strategies to produce this distinction. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1269-1279. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Quantification of CT images for the classification of high- and low-risk pancreatic cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Lior; Chakraborty, Jayasree; Attiyeh, Marc; Langdon-Embry, Liana; Allen, Peter J.; Do, Richard K. G.; Simpson, Amber L.

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal cancer with an overall 5-year survival rate of 7%1 due to the late stage at diagnosis and the ineffectiveness of current therapeutic strategies. Given the poor prognosis, early detection at a pre-cancerous stage is the best tool for preventing this disease. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), cystic tumors of the pancreas, represent the only radiographically identifiable precursor lesion of pancreatic cancer and are known to evolve stepwise from low-to-high-grade dysplasia before progressing into an invasive carcinoma. Observation is usually recommended for low-risk (low- and intermediate-grade dysplasia) patients, while high-risk (high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma) patients undergo resection; hence, patient selection is critically important in the management of pancreatic cysts.2 Radiologists use standard criteria such as main pancreatic duct size, cyst size, or presence of a solid enhancing component in the cyst to optimally select patients for surgery.3 However, these findings are subject to a radiologist's interpretation and have been shown to be inconsistent with regards to the presence of a mural nodule or solid component.4 We propose objective classification of risk groups based on quantitative imaging features extracted from CT scans. We apply new features that represent the solid component (i.e. areas of high intensity) within the cyst and extract standard texture features. An adaptive boost classifier5 achieves the best performance with area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.73 and accuracy of 77.3% for texture features. The random forest classifier achieves the best performance with AUC of 0.71 and accuracy of 70.8% with the solid component features.

  9. Statin Therapy in Low-Risk Air Force Aviators with Isolated Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Mahaney, Heather J; Schroeder, Valarie M; Maupin, Genny M

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the use of statin therapy in U.S. Air Force (USAF) aviators with isolated hypercholesterolemia in terms of compliance with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and effectiveness in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. This was a mixed design, 8-yr retrospective study that included 8185 participants with isolated hypercholesterolemia, of which 1458 (17.81%) were prescribed statin monotherapy. Overall agreement between CPG recommendations and patient-clinician decision makers was 0.920 (95% confidence interval: 0.955, 0.959) and 0.891 (95% confidence interval: 0.843, 0.851) per 2002 and 2013 CPGs, respectively. Overall agreement was primarily driven by the negative proportion of specific agreement; positive agreement was moderate for the 2002 CPG and poor for the 2013 CPG. LDL-C levels marginally decreased for all participants except non-CPG-recommended statin users per the 2002 CPG. CHD risk was minimally reduced for all participants per the 2002 CPG with the exception of CPG-recommended statin users, for whom risk increased; CHD risk decreased for CPG-recommended statin users, but increased for non-CPG-recommended statin users per the 2013 CPG. No one statin medication was found to be more clinically effective in reducing LDL-C or CHD risk, regardless of dose intensity. Aerospace medicine practitioners are following CPG recommendations for statin therapy. Statins provided minimal benefit, however, and CPG recommendations proved irrelevant in reducing LDL-C and CHD risk in this population of Air Force aviators. This result is attributable, in part, to the young age of the study cohort and the short follow-up period.Tvaryanas AP, Mahaney HJ, Schroeder VM, Maupin GM. Statin therapy in low-risk air force aviators with isolated hypercholesterolemia. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):752-759.

  10. Benefit of early discharge among patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Baser, Onur; Wells, Phil; Peacock, W Frank; Coleman, Craig I; Fermann, Gregory J; Schein, Jeff; Crivera, Concetta

    2017-01-01

    Clinical guidelines recommend early discharge of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism (LRPE). This study measured the overall impact of early discharge of LRPE patients on clinical outcomes and costs in the Veterans Health Administration population. Adult patients with ≥1 inpatient diagnosis for pulmonary embolism (PE) (index date) between 10/2011-06/2015, continuous enrollment for ≥12 months pre- and 3 months post-index date were included. PE risk stratification was performed using the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Stratification Index. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to compare 90-day adverse PE events (APEs) [recurrent venous thromboembolism, major bleed and death], hospital-acquired complications (HACs), healthcare utilization, and costs among short (≤2 days) versus long length of stay (LOS). Net clinical benefit was defined as 1 minus the combined rate of APE and HAC. Among 6,746 PE patients, 95.4% were men, 22.0% were African American, and 1,918 had LRPE. Among LRPE patients, only 688 had a short LOS. After 1:1 PSM, there were no differences in APE, but short LOS had fewer HAC (1.5% vs 13.3%, 95% CI: 3.77-19.94) and bacterial pneumonias (5.9% vs 11.7%, 95% CI: 1.24-3.23), resulting in better net clinical benefit (86.9% vs 78.3%, 95% CI: 0.84-0.96). Among long LOS patients, HACs (52) exceeded APEs (14 recurrent DVT, 5 bleeds). Short LOS incurred lower inpatient ($2,164 vs $5,100, 95% CI: $646.8-$5225.0) and total costs ($9,056 vs $12,544, 95% CI: $636.6-$6337.7). LRPE patients with short LOS had better net clinical outcomes at lower costs than matched LRPE patients with long LOS.

  11. Clinical trial registration was not an indicator for low risk of bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Cynthia M; Showell, Marian G; Showell, Emily A E; Beetham, Penny; Baak, Nora; Mourad, Selma; Jordan, Vanessa M B

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of registered trials and to evaluate the risk of bias between registered and unregistered clinical trials. The Cochrane Gynecology and Fertility Group's specialized register was searched on November 5, 2015, for randomized controlled trials published from 2010 to 2014. Studies were selected if they had randomized women or men for fertility treatments, were published in full text and written in English. Two reviewers then independently assessed trial registration status for each trial, by searching the publication, trial registries, and by contacting the original authors. Of 693 eligible randomized controlled trials, only 44% were found to be registered. Unregistered clinical trials had smaller sample sizes than registered trials (P risk of bias using five of the Cochrane Risk of Bias "domains." Registered and unregistered trials differed in their risk of bias for random sequence generation (P = 0.001), allocation concealment (P = 0.003), and selective reporting (P  0.05) domains. Only 54 (43.2%) of the 125 registered trials were registered prospectively. This study has the following limitations. Only English language trials were included in this review. We were unable to obtain protocols for the unregistered trials and therefore were unable to assess the risk of bias in the selective reporting domain. All available trials should be included in systematic reviews and assessed for risk of bias as there are both registered trials with high risk of bias and unregistered trials with low risk of bias and by excluding unregistered trials more than half of the available evidence will be lost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasonographic study and Doppler flow velocimetry of maternal kidneys and liver in low-risk pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daher, Cibele Helena; Gomes, Andrea Cavalanti; Kobayashi, Sergio; Chammas, Maria Cristina, E-mail: cibeledaher@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (In-Rad/HC-FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2015-05-15

    Objective: longitudinal study with B-mode ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography of maternal kidneys and liver in low-risk pregnancy, to establish and quantify normality parameters, correlating them with physiological changes. Materials and methods: twenty-five pregnant women were assessed and selected to participate in the study, each of them undergoing four examinations at the first, second, third trimesters and postpartum. Results: findings during pregnancy were the following: increased renal volume, pyelocaliceal dilatation with incidence of 45.4% in the right kidney, and 9% in the left kidney; nephrolithiasis, 18.1% in the right kidney, 13.6% in the left kidney. With pyelocaliceal dilatation, mean values for resistivity index were: 0.68 for renal arteries; 0.66 for segmental arteries; 0.64 for interlobar arteries; 0.64 for arcuate arteries. Without pyelocaliceal dilatation, 0.67 for renal arteries; 0.64 for segmental arteries; 0.63 for interlobar arteries; and 0.61 for arcuate arteries. Portal vein flow velocities presented higher values in pregnancy, with mean value for maximum velocity of 28.9 cm/s, and 22.6 cm/s postpartum. The waveform pattern of the right hepatic vein presented changes persisting in the postpartum period in 31.8% of the patients. Cholelithiasis was observed in 18.1% of the patients. Conclusion: alterations in renal volume, pyelocaliceal dilatation, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, changes in portal vein flow velocity, alterations in waveform pattern of the right hepatic vein, proved to be significant. (author)

  13. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536

  14. Applicator-guided volumetric-modulated arc therapy for low-risk endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilla, Savino, E-mail: savinocilla@gmail.com [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Sabatino, Domenico [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Digesù, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Piermattei, Angelo [Physics Institute, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy); De Spirito, Marco [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Morganti, Alessio G. [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Radiation Oncology Unit, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report the feasibility of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in the postoperative irradiation of the vaginal vault. Moreover, the VMAT technique was compared with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), in terms of target coverage and organs at risk sparing. The number of monitor units and the delivery time were analyzed to score the treatment efficiency. All plans were verified in a dedicated solid water phantom using a 2D array of ionization chambers. Twelve patients with endometrial carcinoma who underwent radical hystero-adenexectomy and fixed-field IMRT treatments were retrospectively included in this analysis; for each patient, plans were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms, homogeneity index, and conformity indexes. All techniques met the prescription goal for planning target volume coverage, with VMAT showing the highest level of conformity at all dose levels. VMAT resulted in significant reduction of rectal and bladder volumes irradiated at all dose levels compared with 3D-CRT. No significant differences were found with respect to IMRT. Moreover, a significant improvement of the dose conformity was reached by VMAT technique not only at the 95% dose level (0.74 vs. 0.67 and 0.62) but also at 50% and 75% levels of dose prescription. In addition, VMAT plans showed a significant reduction of monitor units by nearly 28% with respect to IMRT, and reduced treatment time from 11 to <3 minutes for a single 6-Gy fraction. In conclusion, VMAT plans can be planned and carried out with high quality and efficiency for the irradiation of vaginal vault alone, providing similar or better sparing of organs at risk to fixed-field IMRT and resulting in the most efficient treatment option. VMAT is currently our standard approach for radiotherapy of low-risk endometrial cancer.

  15. Does Preendoscopy Rockall Score Safely Identify Low Risk Patients following Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if preendoscopy Rockall score (PERS enables safe outpatient management of New Zealanders with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH. Methods. Retrospective analysis of adults with UGIH over 59 consecutive months. PERS, diagnosis, demographics, need for endoscopic therapy, transfusion or surgery and 30-day mortality and 14-day rebleeding rate, and sensitivity and specificity of PERS for enabling safe discharge preendoscopy were calculated. Results. 424 admissions with UGIH. Median age was 74.3 years (range 19–93 years, with 55.1% being males. 30-day mortality was 4.6% and 14-day rebleeding rate was 6.0%. Intervention was required in 181 (46.6%: blood transfusion (147 : 37.9%, endoscopic intervention (75 : 19.3%, and surgery (8 : 2.1%. 42 (10.8% had PERS = 0 with intervention required in 15 (35.7%. Females more frequently required intervention, OR 1.73 (CI: 1.12–2.69. PERS did not predict intervention but did predict 30-day mortality: each point increase equated to an increase in mortality of OR 1.46 (CI: 1.11–1.92. Taking NSAIDs/aspirin reduced 30-day mortality, OR 0.22 (CI: 0.08–0.60. Conclusion. PERS identifies 10.8% of those with UGIH as low risk but 35.7% required intervention or died. It has a limited role in assessing these patients and should not be used to identify those suitable for outpatient endoscopy.

  16. High incidence of pseudotumours after hip resurfacing even in low risk patients; results from an intensified MRI screening protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weegen, W. van der; Smolders, J.M.; Sijbesma, T.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Brakel, K.; Susante, J.L.C. van

    2013-01-01

    We intensified our screening protocol for the presence of pseudotumours in a consecutive series of patients with a hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA), to establish whether we should be alert to the presence of 'silent' pseudotumours. Patients categorised with high risk (11 hips) and low risk (10

  17. Correlates of High-Risk and Low-Risk Alcohol Use among College Students in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Gowda, Guru S; Nair, B Sivasankaran; Menon, Priya G; Rani, Anjana; Radhakrishnan, K S; Revamma, M; Jeevan, C R; Kishore, Anupam; Thennarasu, K; Benegal, Vivek

    2017-09-26

    This study describes the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among college students in Ernakulam, Kerala State, India. A total of 5784 students from 58 colleges selected by stratified random sampling completed a questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. The prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 21.4% with a male predominance. Among users, low-risk, hazardous, and dependent use were 80.2%, 18.3% and 0.9% respectively. Initiation was mostly with friends (45.3%). Both low-risk and high-risk alcohol users (hazardous and dependent users), in comparison to abstainers, had higher odds of being older, non-Muslim, having a part-time job, using other substances, and exposure to sexual abuse. Students who reported low-risk use also had an urban background, more severe psychological distress and suicidal thoughts, while high-risk users had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Students who reported high-risk use compared to low-risk users had higher odds of having a part-time job, tobacco use, and ADHD symptoms. Alcohol use among college students is common, with both low- and high-risk drinking associated with significant morbidity. This study highlights the need to promote public health policies to target and prevent all patterns of alcohol use among young people.

  18. Relapse rates after two versus three consolidation courses of methotrexate in the treatment of low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lybol, C.; Sweep, F.C.; Harvey, R.; Mitchell, H.; Short, D.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Savage, P.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Seckl, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methotrexate (MTX) alternating with folinic acid is a commonly used treatment regimen for low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). In The Netherlands, two courses of MTX are administered after normalization of serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels (consolidation

  19. Identification of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism suitable for outpatient treatment using the pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCabe, A

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that outpatient treatment of patients with low-risk stable pulmonary embolism (PE) is safe, effective and potentially reduces costs. It is not clear how many patients presenting to an Irish Emergency Department (ED) are potentially suitable for outpatient management.

  20. Family practice versus specialist care for low-risk obstetrics: examining patient satisfaction in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Monica; Avery, Susan; Duggan, Norah; McPhail, Jennifer

    2013-10-01

    To investigate patient satisfaction with 3 models of low-risk obstetrics care: solo care by a GP, group care by GPs, and specialist care. Three-arm study comparing results of a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. Two academic family practices and the labour and delivery ward in St John's, Nfld. A total of 220 women deemed to have low-risk pregnancies; 82 women completed the questionnaire (37% response rate). Patient satisfaction scores obtained from a modified version of the Patient Expectations and Satisfaction with Prenatal Care instrument. Low-risk maternity patients' satisfaction with obstetric care provided by GPs in a group-care setting was equivalent to that with obstetric care provided by GPs working solo and greater than that with obstetric care provided by specialists. Patients found that group care by GPs was an acceptable means of receiving obstetric services in a low-risk setting. Therefore, a group practice model might provide an attractive means for FPs to keep obstetrics within the scope of primary care.

  1. Combined effect of low-risk dietary and lifestyle behaviors in primary prevention of myocardial infarction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Agneta; Weismayer, Christoph; Newby, P K; Wolk, Alicja

    2007-10-22

    Limited data are available on the benefit of combining healthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors in the prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) in women. We used factor analysis to identify a low-risk behavior-based dietary pattern in 24 444 postmenopausal women from the population-based prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort who were free of diagnosed cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus at baseline (September 15, 1997). We also defined 3 low-risk lifestyle factors: nonsmoking, waist-hip ratio less than the 75th percentile (/= 5 g of alcohol per day), along with the 3 low-risk lifestyle behaviors, was associated with 92% decreased risk (95% confidence interval, 72%-98%) compared with findings in women without any low-risk diet and lifestyle factors. This combination of healthy behaviors, present in 5%, may prevent 77% of MIs in the study population. Most MIs in women may be preventable by consuming a healthy diet and moderate amounts of alcohol, being physically active, not smoking, and maintaining a healthy weight.

  2. Prognostic radiographic aspects of spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraste, H.; Brostroem, L.A.; Aparisi, T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of 202 patients (133 men, 69 women) with lumbar spondylolysis were examined radiographically on two occasions, first at the time of diagnosis and later at a follow-up, after an observation period of 20 years or more. The films from patients in groups without and with moderate and severe olisthesis were evaluated with respect to variables describing lumbosacral lordosis, wedging of the spondylolytic vertebra, lengths of the transverse processes and iliolumbar ligaments, disk height, progression of slipping, and influence on measured olisthesis of lumbar spine flexion and extension at the radiographic examination. The evaluation was made with special attention to possible signs which could be predictive for the prognosis of vertebral slipping. Progression of slipping did not differ between patients diagnosed as adults or adolescents. Reduction of disk height was correlated to the degree of slipping present at the initial examination and to the progression of olisthesis. Flexion and extension of the lumbar spine did not modify the degree of olisthesis. Data concerning the lengths of the transverse processes and the iliolumbar ligaments, and lumbar lordosis, cannot be used for prognostic purposes. The lumbar index reflecting the degree of wedge deformity of the spondylolytic vertebra was shown to be the only variable of prognostic value for the development of vertebral slipping.

  3. Aggressive fibromatosis - impact of prognostic variables on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery ... To determine the impact of prognostic variables on local control in patients with aggressive fibromatosis treated with or without radiation. Materials and methods. ... The addition of radiation therapy to surgery as well as other known prognostic parameters did not impact on local control.

  4. Concordance for prognostic models with competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolbers, Marcel; Blanche, Paul; Koller, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    The concordance probability is a widely used measure to assess discrimination of prognostic models with binary and survival endpoints. We formally define the concordance probability for a prognostic model of the absolute risk of an event of interest in the presence of competing risks and relate i...... of the working model. We further illustrate the methods by computing the concordance probability for a prognostic model of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in the presence of the competing risk of non-CHD death.......The concordance probability is a widely used measure to assess discrimination of prognostic models with binary and survival endpoints. We formally define the concordance probability for a prognostic model of the absolute risk of an event of interest in the presence of competing risks and relate...

  5. Model-Based Prognostics of Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Model-based prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the model-based prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the model-based prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.

  6. Prognostic molecular markers in cancer - quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søland, Tine M; Brusevold, Ingvild J

    2013-09-01

    Despite the tremendous number of studies of prognostic molecular markers in cancer, only a few such markers have entered clinical practise. The lack of clinical prognostic markers clearly reflects limitations in or an inappropriate approach to prognostic studies. This situation should be of great concern for the research community, clinicians and patients. In the present review, we evaluate immunohistochemical prognostic marker studies in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) from 2006 to 2012. We comment upon general issues such as study design, assay methods and statistical methods, applicable to prognostic marker studies irrespective of cancer type. The three most frequently studied markers in OSCC are reviewed. Our analysis revealed that most new molecular markers are reported only once. To draw conclusions of clinical relevance based on the few markers that appeared in more than one study was problematic due to between-study heterogeneity. Currently, much valuable tissue material, time and money are wasted on irrelevant studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Identification of Patients at Very Low Risk of Local Recurrence After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sally L., E-mail: ssmith11@bccancer.bc.ca [Radiation Therapy Program and Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Truong, Pauline T. [Radiation Therapy Program and Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Lu, Linghong; Lesperance, Mary [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo A. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical and pathological factors that identify groups of women with stage I breast cancer with a 5-year risk of local recurrence (LR) ≤1.5% after breast-conserving therapy (BCS) plus whole-breast radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Study subjects were 5974 patients ≥50 years of age whose cancer was diagnosed between 1989 and 2006, and were referred with pT1 pN0 invasive breast cancer treated with BCS and RT. Cases of 5- and 10-year LR were examined using Kaplan-Meier methods. Recursive partitioning analysis was performed in patients treated with and without endocrine therapy to identify combinations of factors associated with a 5-year LR risk ≤1.5%. Results: The median follow-up was 8.61 years. Median age was 63 years of age (range, 50 to 91). Overall 5-year LR was 1.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2%-1.9%) and 10-year LR was 3.4% (95% CI, 2.8%-4.0%). Of 2830 patients treated with endocrine therapy, patient subsets identified with 5-year LR ≤1.5% included patients with grade 1 histology (n=1038; LR, 0.2%; 95% CI, 0%-0.5%) or grade 2 histology plus ≥60 years of age (n=843; LR, 0.5%; 95% CI, 0%-1.0%). Ten-year LR for these groups were 0.8% (95% CI, 0.1%-1.6%) and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2%-1.6%), respectively. Of 3144 patients treated without endocrine therapy, patients with grade 1 histology plus clear margins had 5-year LR ≤1.5% (n=821; LR, 0.6%; 95% CI, 0.1%-1.2%). Ten-year LR for this group was 2.2% (95% CI, 1.0%-3.4%). Conclusions: Histologic grade, age, margin status, and use of endocrine therapy identified 45% of a population-based cohort of female patients over age 50 with stage I breast cancer with a 5-year LR risk ≤1.5% after BCS plus RT. Prospective study is needed to evaluate the safety of omitting RT in patients with such a low risk of LR.

  8. [Outcomes of Planned Out-of-Hospital and Low-Risk Hospital Births in Lower Saxony].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Antje; Köhler, Lea-Marie; Schwarz, Christiane; Vaske, Bernhard; Gross, Mechthild M

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Internationally, there is debate on the safety of different birth settings inside and outside of hospitals. Low-risk women in Germany can choose where they give birth, and out-of-hospital births are especially necessary in regions lacking infrastructure. To date, national studies are required. Materials and Methods We investigated planned out-of-hospital (OH) and hospital births in Lower Saxony, Germany, in 2005. Women with a singleton fetus in the vertex position were included once they reached 34+0 gestational weeks. 1 273 out of 4 424 births were included via risk assessment. Outcomes were compared using Pearson's chi-squared test, the Mann-Whitney test, and logistic regression. Results 152 (36.6%) nulliparae (NP) and 263 (63.4%) multiparae (MP) gave birth out of hospital, 439 (51.2%) nulliparae and 419 (48.8%) multiparae in a hospital. 10.1% of women whose care started outside of the hospital needed a transfer to the hospital. Women who planned OH were older and had a higher level of education. Women without a migration background displayed an increased rate of out-of-hospital birth. A higher proportion received their antenatal care from midwives rather than medical doctors. Induction of labor was less likely for women with planned out-of-hospital births, as were other intrapartum interventions. In hospital births, fetal monitoring was more likely performed via cardiotocograph instead of intermittent auscultation. Duration of labor was significantly longer in OH births (median: NP: 9.01 h vs. 7.38 h; MP: 4.53 h vs. 4.25 h). Nulliparae had more spontaneous births out-of-hospital (94.7%) than in hospital (73.6%). There was no difference in adverse fetal outcomes, blood loss, and severe perineal lacerations. The perineum was less frequently intact in hospital births. Retained placenta was more often documented in out-of-hospital births. Conclusions In an out-of-hospital setting, fewer interventions were performed, spontaneous births

  9. Shared decision making in patients with low risk chest pain: prospective randomized pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Erik P; Hollander, Judd E; Schaffer, Jason T; Kline, Jeffrey A; Torres, Carlos A; Diercks, Deborah B; Jones, Russell; Owen, Kelly P; Meisel, Zachary F; Demers, Michel; Leblanc, Annie; Shah, Nilay D; Inselman, Jonathan; Herrin, Jeph; Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Montori, Victor M

    2016-12-05

     To compare the effectiveness of shared decision making with usual care in choice of admission for observation and further cardiac testing or for referral for outpatient evaluation in patients with possible acute coronary syndrome.  Multicenter pragmatic parallel randomized controlled trial.  Six emergency departments in the United States.  898 adults (aged >17 years) with a primary complaint of chest pain who were being considered for admission to an observation unit for cardiac testing (451 were allocated to the decision aid and 447 to usual care), and 361 emergency clinicians (emergency physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) caring for patients with chest pain.  Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by an electronic, web based system to shared decision making facilitated by a decision aid or to usual care. The primary outcome, selected by patient and caregiver advisers, was patient knowledge of their risk for acute coronary syndrome and options for care; secondary outcomes were involvement in the decision to be admitted, proportion of patients admitted for cardiac testing, and the 30 day rate of major adverse cardiac events.  Compared with the usual care arm, patients in the decision aid arm had greater knowledge of their risk for acute coronary syndrome and options for care (questions correct: decision aid, 4.2 v usual care, 3.6; mean difference 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 0.86), were more involved in the decision (observing patient involvement scores: decision aid, 18.3 v usual care, 7.9; 10.3, 9.1 to 11.5), and less frequently decided with their clinician to be admitted for cardiac testing (decision aid, 37% v usual care, 52%; absolute difference 15%; Ppatients at low risk for acute coronary syndrome increased patient knowledge about their risk, increased engagement, and safely decreased the rate of admission to an observation unit for cardiac testing.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01969240. Published by the BMJ

  10. Utilization of prostate brachytherapy for low risk prostate cancer: Is the decline overstated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Safdieh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Several prior studies have suggested that brachytherapy utilization has markedly decreased, coinciding with the recent increased utilization of intensity modulated radiation therapy, as well as an increase in urologist-owned centers. We sought to investigate the brachytherapy utilization in a large, hospital-based registry. Material and methods: Men with prostate cancer diagnosed between 2004-2012 and treated with either external beam radiation and/or prostate brachytherapy were abstracted from the National Cancer Database. In order to be included, men had to be clinically staged as T1c-T2aNx-0Mx-0, Gleason 6, PSA ≤ 10.0 ng/ml. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze brachytherapy utilization over time and were compared via χ2. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess for covariables associated with increased brachytherapy usage. Results : There were 89,413 men included in this study, of which 37,054 (41.6% received only external beam radiation, and 52,089 (58.4% received prostate brachytherapy. The use of brachytherapy declined over time from 62.9% in 2004 to 51.3% in 2012 (p < 0.001. This decline was noted in both academic facilities (60.8% in 2004 to 47.0% in 2012, p < 0.001 as well as in non-academic facilities (63.7% in 2004 to 53.0% in 2012, p < 0.001. The decline was more pronounced in patients who lived closer to treatment facilities than those who lived further. The use of intensity modulated radiation therapy increased during this same time period from 18.4% in 2004 to 38.2% in 2012 (p < 0.001. On multivariate analysis, treatment at an academic center, increasing age, decreasing distance from the treatment center, and years of diagnosis from 2006-2012 were significantly associated with reduced brachytherapy usage. Conclusions : In this hospital-based registry, prostate brachytherapy usage has declined for low risk prostate cancer as intensity modulated radiation therapy usage has increased. However, it still

  11. Impact of Relative Contraindications to Home Management in Emergency Department Patients with Low-Risk Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenten, Carrieann E.; Huang, Jie; Morley, J. Eileen; Anderson, Megan L.; Reed, Mary E.; Nishijima, Daniel K.; Liu, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Studies of adults presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) suggest that those who are low risk on the PE Severity Index (classes I and II) can be managed safely without hospitalization. However, the impact of relative contraindications to home management on outcomes has not been described. Objectives: To compare 5-day and 30-day adverse event rates among low-risk ED patients with acute PE without and with outpatient ineligibility criteria. Methods: We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study of adults presenting to the ED with acute low-risk PE between 2010 and 2012. We evaluated the association between outpatient treatment eligibility criteria based on a comprehensive list of relative contraindications and 5-day adverse events and 30-day outcomes, including major hemorrhage, recurrent venous thromboembolism, and all-cause mortality. Measurements and Main Results: Of 423 adults with acute low-risk PE, 271 (64.1%) had no relative contraindications to outpatient treatment (outpatient eligible), whereas 152 (35.9%) had at least one contraindication (outpatient ineligible). Relative contraindications were categorized as PE-related factors (n = 112; 26.5%), comorbid illness (n = 42; 9.9%), and psychosocial barriers (n = 19; 4.5%). There were no 5-day events in the outpatient-eligible group (95% upper confidence limit, 1.7%) and two events (1.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1–5.0%) in the outpatient-ineligible group (P = 0.13). At 30 days, there were five events (two recurrent venous thromboemboli and three major bleeding events) in the outpatient-eligible group (1.8%; 95% CI, 0.7–4.4%) compared with nine in the ineligible group (5.9%; 95% CI, 2.7–10.9%; P < 0.05). This difference remained significant when controlling for PE severity class. Conclusions: Nearly two-thirds of adults presenting to the ED with low-risk PE were potentially eligible for outpatient therapy. Relative

  12. Physicians' perceptions of the value of prognostic models: the benefits and risks of prognostic confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallen, Sarah A M; Hootsmans, Norbert A M; Blaisdell, Laura; Gutheil, Caitlin M; Han, Paul K J

    2015-12-01

    The communication of prognosis in end-of-life (EOL) care is a challenging task that is limited by prognostic uncertainty and physicians' lack of confidence in their prognostic estimates. Clinical prediction models (CPMs) are increasingly common evidence-based tools that may mitigate these problems and facilitate the communication and use of prognostic information in EOL care; however, little is known about physicians' perceptions of the value of these tools. To explore physicians' perceptions of the value of CPMs in EOL care. Qualitative study using semi-structured individual interviews which were analysed using a constant comparative method. Convenience sample of 17 attending physicians representing five different medical specialties at a single large tertiary care medical centre. Physicians perceived CPMs as having three main benefits in EOL care: (i) enhancing their prognostic confidence; (ii) increasing their prognostic authority; and (iii) enabling patient persuasion in circumstances of low prognostic and therapeutic uncertainty. However, physicians also perceived CPMs as having potential risks, which include producing emotional distress in patients and promoting prognostic overconfidence in EOL care. Physicians perceive CPMs as a potentially valuable means of increasing their prognostic confidence, communication and explicit use of prognostic information in EOL care. However, physicians' perceptions of CPMs also indicate a need to establish broad and consistent implementation processes to engage patients in shared decision making in EOL care, to effectively communicate uncertainty in prognostic information and to help both patients and physicians manage uncertainty in EOL care decisions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Prognostic Impact of Time to Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Recurrence after Breast Conserving Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Gosset

    Full Text Available The poor prognosis of patients who experience ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR after breast conserving surgery (BCS is established. A short time between primary cancer and IBTR is a prognostic factor but no clinically relevant threshold was determined. Classification of IBTR may help tailor treatment strategies.We determined a specific time frame, which differentiates IBTR into early and late recurrence, and identified prognostic factors for patients with IBTR at time of the recurrence.We analyzed 2209 patients with IBTR after BCS. We applied the optimal cut-points method for survival data to determine the cut-off times to IBTR. A subgroup analysis was performed by hormone receptor (HR status. Survival analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazard model to determine clinical features associated with distant-disease-free survival (DDFS after IBTR. We therefor built decision trees.On the 828 metastatic events observed, the majority occurred within the first 3 months after IBTR: 157 in the HR positive group, 98 in the HR negative group. We found different prognostic times to IBTR: 49 months in the HR positive group, 33 in the HR negative group. After multivariate analysis, time to IBTR was the first discriminant prognostic factor in both groups (HR 0.65 CI95% [0.54-0.79] and 0.42 [0.30-0.57] respectively. The other following variables were significantly correlated with the DDFS: the initial number of positive lymph nodes for both groups, the initial tumor size and grade for HR positive tumors.A short interval time to IBTR is the strongest factor of poor prognosis and reflects occult distant disease. It would appear that prognosis after IBTR depends more on clinical and histological parameters than on surgical treatment. A prospective trial in a low-risk group of patients to validate the safety of salvage BCS instead of mastectomy in IBTR is needed.

  14. Comparison of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Prognostic Scoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektaş, Özlen; Üner, Ayşegül; Eliaçık, Eylem; Uz, Burak; Işık, Ayşe; Etgül, Sezgin; Bozkurt, Süreyya; Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim Celalettin; Göker, Hakan; Sayınalp, Nilgün; Aksu, Salih; Demiroğlu, Haluk; Özcebe, Osman İlhami; Büyükaşık, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disease. Patients are at risk of developing cytopenias or progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Different classifications and prognostic scoring systems have been developed. The aim of this study was to compare the different prognostic scoring systems. Materials and Methods: One hundred and one patients who were diagnosed with primary MDS in 2003-2011 in a tertiary care university hospital’s hematology department were included in the study. Results: As the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), World Health Organization Classification-Based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS), MD Anderson Prognostic Scoring System (MPSS), and revised IPSS (IPSS-R) risk categories increased, leukemia-free survival and overall survival decreased (p<0.001). When the IPSS, WPSS, MPSS, and IPSS-R prognostic systems were compared by Cox regression analysis, the WPSS was the best in predicting leukemia-free survival (p<0.001), and the WPSS (p<0.001) and IPSS-R (p=0.037) were better in predicting overall survival. Conclusion: All 4 prognostic systems were successful in predicting overall survival and leukemia-free survival (p<0.001). The WPSS was found to be the best predictor for leukemia-free survival, while the WPSS and IPSS-R were found to be the best predictors for overall survival. PMID:26376664

  15. Comparison of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Prognostic Scoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlen Bektaş

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disease. Patients are at risk of developing cytopenias or progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Different classifications and prognostic scoring systems have been developed. The aim of this study was to compare the different prognostic scoring systems. Materials and Methods: One hundred and one patients who were diagnosed with primary MDS in 2003-2011 in a tertiary care university hospital’s hematology department were included in the study. Results: As the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS, World Health Organization Classification-Based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS, MD Anderson Prognostic Scoring System (MPSS, and revised IPSS (IPSS-R risk categories increased, leukemia-free survival and overall survival decreased (p<0.001. When the IPSS, WPSS, MPSS, and IPSS-R prognostic systems were compared by Cox regression analysis, the WPSS was the best in predicting leukemia-free survival (p<0.001, and the WPSS (p<0.001 and IPSS-R (p=0.037 were better in predicting overall survival. Conclusion: All 4 prognostic systems were successful in predicting overall survival and leukemia-free survival (p<0.001. The WPSS was found to be the best predictor for leukemia-free survival, while the WPSS and IPSS-R were found to be the best predictors for overall survival.

  16. Development of quality indicators for low-risk labor care provided by midwives using a RAND-modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kayo; Ohtera, Shosuke; Kaso, Misato; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-09-22

    In childbirth, most deliveries are low-risk, defined as spontaneous labor at full term without special high-risk facts or complications, especially in high-resource countries where maternal and perinatal mortality rates are very low. Indeed, the majority of mothers and infants have no serious conditions during labor. However, the quality of care provided is not assured, and performance may vary by birthing facility and provider. The overuse of technology in childbirth in some parts of the world is almost certainly based on assumptions like, "something can go wrong at any minute." There is a need to assess the quality of care provided for mothers and infants in low-risk labor. We aimed to develop specific quality indicators for low-risk labor care provided primarily by midwives in Japan. We used a RAND-modified Delphi method, which integrates evidence review with expert consensus development. The procedure comprises five steps: (1) literature review, including clinical practice guidelines, to extract and develop quality indicator candidates; (2) formation of a multidisciplinary panel; (3) independent panel ratings (Round 1); (4) panel meeting and independent panel ratings (Round 2); and (5) independent panel ratings (Round 3). The three independent panel ratings (Rounds 1-3) were held between July and December 2012. The assembled multidisciplinary panel comprised eight clinicians (two pediatricians, three obstetricians, and three midwives) and three mothers who were nonclinicians. Evidentiary review extracted 166 key recommendations from 32 clinical practice guidelines, and 31 existing quality indicators were added. After excluding duplicate recommendations and quality indicators, the panel discussed 25 candidate indicators. Of these, 18 were adopted, one was modified, six were not adopted, and four were added during the meeting, respectively. We established 23 quality indicators for low-risk labor care provided by midwives in labor units in Japan.

  17. Perineal injuries and birth positions among 2992 women with a low risk pregnancy who opted for a homebirth

    OpenAIRE

    Edqvist, Malin; Blix, Ellen; Hegaard,Hanne Kristine; Olafsdottir, Olof Asta; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Ingversen, Karen; Mollberg, Margareta; Lindgren, Helena E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whether certain birth positions are associated with perineal injuries and severe perineal trauma (SPT) is still unclear. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of perineal injuries of different severity in a low-risk population of women who planned to give birth at home and to compare the prevalence of perineal injuries, SPT and episiotomy in different birth positions in four Nordic countries. Methods: A population-based prospective cohort stu...

  18. [C-section rate in low-risk women: a useful indicator to compare hospitals attending deliveries with different risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librero, Julián; Peiró, Salvador; Belda, Ana; Calabuig, Julia

    2014-01-01

    the C-section rate has been criticized as a performance indicator for not considering that different hospitals manage deliveries with diverse risks. In this work we explore the characteristics of a new indicator restricted to low C-section risk deliveries. retrospective cohort of all births (n=214,611) in all public hospitals during 2005-2010 in the Valencia Region, Spain (source: minimum basic dataset). A low-risk subpopulation consisting of women under-35, no history of c-section, between 37 and 41 gestational weeks, and with a single fetus, with cephalic presentation and normal weight (2500-3999 g) was constructed. We analyzed variability in the new indicator, its correlation with the crude indicator and, using multilevel logistic regression models, the presence of residual risks. a total of 117 589 births (58.4% of the whole deliveries) were identified as low C-section risk. The c-section rate in these women was 11.9% (24.4% for all deliveries) ranging between hospitals from 7.0% to 28.9%. The c-section rate in low-risk and total deliveries correlated strongly (r=0.88). The remaining risks in the population of low risk did not alter the hospital effect on the c-section rate. the percentage of C-section in low risk women include a high volume of deliveries, correlated with the crude indicator and residual risks are not differentially influenced by hospitals, being a useful indicator for monitoring the quality of obstetric care in the National Health System.

  19. Compliance with stress testing in patients discharged from the emergency department following a diagnosis of low-risk chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kent; Prabhala, Shreyas

    2014-01-01

    To determine rates of compliance with outpatient stress testing in patients with a diagnosis of low-risk chest pain, reasons for non-compliance and incidence of adverse cardiac events (ACE). This was a prospective study of 79 patients who were discharged from the emergency department with low-risk chest pain. Patients were followed-up by phone interview. 36.7% of patients completed EST within 30 days, 2.5% of patients completed their EST within the recommended 72 h. A lack of time was the most common reason for non-compliance and was seen in 32.0% of patients. 20% of ESTs were cancelled by the primary care physician (PCP). 12% of patients were non-compliant, as they believed the pain to be non-cardiac. There were no documented ACEs in the study. Compliance with EST is poor in patients with low-risk chest pain. Non-compliance is related to a number of factors including work commitments, cancellation of studies by the PCP and patients beliefs about the nature of their chest pain.

  20. Identification of patients at low risk of dying after acute myocardial infarction, by simple clinical and submaximal exercise test criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S; A'Hern, R; Quigley, P; Vincent, R; Jewitt, D; Chamberlain, D

    1988-09-01

    A consecutive series of 559 hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction aged less than 66 years were studied; 93 were designated prospectively as low-risk because they were suitable for early submaximal exercise testing and had none of the following clinical or exercise test 'risk factors': (1) angina for at least one month prior to infarction; (2) symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias, or (3) recurrent ischaemic pain, both after the first 24 h of infarction; (4) cardiac failure; (5) cardiomegaly; and (6) an abnormal exercise test (angina, ST-depression or poor blood pressure response). Altogether 301 patients were exercised; their mortality over a median follow-up of 2.4 years was 10.2%, versus 24.6% in the 258 patients not exercised (P = 0.0005). Absence of clinical 'risk factors' alone, in the exercised patients, identified 156 with a mortality of 5.4% versus 15.6% in the 145 with at least one clinical 'risk factor' (P = 0.004). The fully defined low-risk group comprised 93 of the former patients who had neither clinical nor exercise test 'risk factors'. None of these patients died compared with 19 of those with at least one 'risk factor' (mortality = 14.7%; P = 0.002). Their respective rates of non-fatal reinfarction were similar and never exceeded 5% per annum. Therefore, simple clinical and exercise test criteria can positively identify low-risk patients after infarction in whom secondary prevention may be inappropriate.

  1. Can emergency nurses safely and accurately remove cervical spine collars in low risk adult trauma patients: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicola; Curtis, Kate

    2016-05-01

    Well validated clinical decision rules exist to facilitate the safe removal of collars in the alert, orientated, low risk adult trauma patient, however this practice is traditionally conducted by medical staff. The aim of this review is to synthesise current evidence to determine the efficacy of emergency nurses in safely and accurately removing cervical spine collars using cervical spine rules, in alert, orientated, low risk trauma adult patients. A multi-method search strategy was used to find primary research studies followed by a rigorous screening and quality appraisal process. Data from included articles were extracted, grouped and synthesised. Nine quantitative research articles resulted in four key findings: the inter-rater reliability between nurses and doctors clearing the cervical spine was high (kappa range (0.61-0.80)); nurses can safely implement the cervical spine clinical decision rule; use of a cervical spine clinical decision rule decreases the time patients are immobilised and; nurses felt confident applying a cervical spine clinical decision rule. Appropriately trained emergency nurses can safely apply cervical spine rules to alert, orientated, low risk adult trauma patients. Implementation of nurses clearing cervical spines should include training and ongoing monitoring. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Qualitative insights into how men with low-risk prostate cancer choosing active surveillance negotiate stress and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Emily M; Li, Hsin H; Lyons, Kathleen D; Morley, Christopher P; Formica, Margaret K; Perrapato, Scott D; Irwin, Brian H; Seigne, John D; Hyams, Elias S; Mosher, Terry; Hegel, Mark T; Stewart, Telisa M

    2017-05-08

    Active surveillance is a management strategy for men diagnosed with early-stage, low-risk prostate cancer in which their cancer is monitored and treatment is delayed. This study investigated the primary coping mechanisms for men following the active surveillance treatment plan, with a specific focus on how these men interact with their social network as they negotiate the stress and uncertainty of their diagnosis and treatment approach. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews at two academic institutions located in the northeastern US. Participants include 15 men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer following active surveillance. The decision to follow active surveillance reflects the desire to avoid potentially life-altering side effects associated with active treatment options. Men on active surveillance cope with their prostate cancer diagnosis by both maintaining a sense of control over their daily lives, as well as relying on the support provided them by their social networks and the medical community. Social networks support men on active surveillance by encouraging lifestyle changes and serving as a resource to discuss and ease cancer-related stress. Support systems for men with low-risk prostate cancer do not always interface directly with the medical community. Spousal and social support play important roles in helping men understand and accept their prostate cancer diagnosis and chosen care plan. It may be beneficial to highlight the role of social support in interventions targeting the psychosocial health of men on active surveillance.

  3. Multicenter comparison of CD34+ myeloid cell count by flow cytometry in low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Patricia; Subirá, Dolores; Matarraz, Sergio; Benavente, Celina; Cedena, María Teresa; Morado, Marta; Pérez Corral, Ana; Bellón, José María; Díez-Martín, José Luis

    2017-06-15

    Accuracy of bone marrow (BM) blast count in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) still remains a challenge though it is essential for prognosis. We investigated whether the enumeration of CD34+ myeloid cells by flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI) could be used as a consistent parameter for clinical MDS studies. Six clinical centers entered the study and information on their FCI protocols was recorded. Sixty-seven flow cytometry listmodes from BM samples of patients with low-risk MDS with debris/aggregates. The frequency of discordant results increased with the accumulation of pitfalls (none, 16%; 1 pitfall, 40%; 2 pitfalls, 83%; P = 0.006). Finally, the use of a common gating strategy for analysis increased the percentage of files with "very good" agreement to 100%. Prevention of specific technical pitfalls is mandatory to reach a good reproducibility of CD34+ cell count among centers. These recommendations set the basis for laboratory standardization and enable the use of CD34+ cell enumeration as additional information in low-risk MDS patients. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  4. D-dimer for the exclusion of cerebral venous thrombosis : A meta-analysis of low risk patients with isolated headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, Imanda M E; Jellema, Korné; Wermer, Marieke J H; Algra, Ale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with isolated headache may have cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). D-dimers are proven sensitive in excluding deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in low risk patients. We aimed to determine whether D-dimer may play the same role in low risk CVT patients with

  5. [FRAX® thresholds to identify people with high or low risk of osteoporotic fracture in Spanish female population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagra, Rafael; Roca, Genís; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Casado, Enrique; Encabo, Gloria; Zwart, Marta; Aguyé, Amada; Díez-Pérez, Adolf

    2015-01-06

    To detect FRAX(®) threshold levels that identify groups of the population that are at high/low risk of osteoporotic fracture in the Spanish female population using a cost-effective assessment. This is a cohort study. Eight hundred and sixteen women 40-90 years old selected from the FRIDEX cohort with densitometry and risk factors for fracture at baseline who received no treatment for osteoporosis during the 10 year follow-up period and were stratified into 3 groups/levels of fracture risk (low20%) according to the real fracture incidence. The thresholds of FRAX(®) baseline for major osteoporotic fracture were: low risk<5; intermediate ≥ 5 to <7.5 and high ≥ 7.5. The incidence of fracture with these values was: low risk (3.6%; 95% CI 2.2-5.9), intermediate risk (13.7%; 95% CI 7.1-24.2) and high risk (21.4%; 95% CI12.9-33.2). The most cost-effective option was to refer to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA-scan) for FRAX(®)≥ 5 (Intermediate and high risk) to reclassify by FRAX(®) with DXA-scan at high/low risk. These thresholds select 17.5% of women for DXA-scan and 10% for treatment. With these thresholds of FRAX(®), compared with the strategy of opportunistic case finding isolated risk factors, would improve the predictive parameters and reduce 82.5% the DXA-scan, 35.4% osteoporosis prescriptions and 28.7% cost to detect the same number of women who suffer fractures. The use of FRAX ® thresholds identified as high/low risk of osteoporotic fracture in this calibration (FRIDEX model) improve predictive parameters in Spanish women and in a more cost-effective than the traditional model based on the T-score ≤ -2.5 of DXA scan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Tackling V&V for Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We believe our approach to gathering and organizing prognostics V the descriptive text recorded proved on occasion to be insufficient to serve as a standalone...

  7. Distilling the Verification Process for Prognostics Algorithms

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of prognostics and health management (PHM) systems is to ensure system safety, and reduce downtime and maintenance costs. It is important that a PHM system...

  8. Prognostic Factors for Refractory Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN studied the outcome and identified prognostic factors for refractory status epilepticus (RSE in 54 adult patients, median age 52 years [range 18-93].

  9. Requirements Flowdown for Prognostics and Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) principles have considerable promise to change the game of lifecycle cost of engineering systems at high safety levels by...

  10. Evaluating Algorithm Performance Metrics Tailored for Prognostics

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics has taken center stage in Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) where it is desired to estimate Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of a system so that remedial...

  11. Detection and Prognostics on Low Dimensional Systems

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes the application of known and novel prognostic algorithms on systems that can be described by low dimensional, potentially nonlinear dynamics....

  12. Precursor Parameter Identification for IGBT Prognostics

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precursor parameters have been identified to enable development of a prognostic approach for insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT). The IGBT were subjected to...

  13. Model-based Prognostics under Limited Sensing

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics is crucial to providing reliable condition-based maintenance decisions. To obtain accurate predictions of component life, a variety of sensors are often...

  14. How to appraise a prognostic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kenneth; Kum, Cheng Kiong

    2005-05-01

    Prognostic studies are studies that examine selected predictive variables or risk factors and assess their influence on the outcome of a disease. They allow clinicians to understand better the natural history of a disease, guide clinical decision-making by facilitating the selection of appropriate treatment options, and allow more accurate prediction of disease outcomes. Appraising prognostic studies involves determining the internal validity of the study design and evaluating the influence of systemic errors or bias. In studies examining multiple prognostic variables, care must be taken to minimize the confounding influence each variable would have on the other parameters. Evaluating the results of appropriate statistical analysis enables conclusions to be made that may influence clinical practice. Care must be taken to ensure that the conditions under which the prognostic study were conducted resemble circumstances in the local institution so as to allow the conclusions to be applied to local practices.

  15. Myelodysplastic syndrome: classification and prognostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Invernizzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS are acquired clonal disorders of hematopoiesis, that are characterized most frequently by normocellular or hypercellular bone marrow specimens, and maturation that is morphologically and functionally dysplastic. MDS constitute a complex hematological problem: differences in disease presentation, progression and outcome have made it necessary to use classification systems to improve diagnosis, prognostication and treatment selection. On the basis of new scientific and clinical information, classification and prognostic systems have recently been updated and minimal diagnostic criteria forMDS have been proposed by expert panels. In addition, in the last few years our ability to define the prognosis of the individual patient with MDS has improved. In this paper World Health Organization (WHO classification refinements and recent prognostic scoring systems for the definition of individual risk are highlighted and current criteria are discussed. The recommendations should facilitate diagnostic and prognostic evaluations in MDS and selection of patients for new effective targeted therapies.

  16. Metrics for Evaluating Performance of Prognostics Techniques

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics is an emerging concept in condition based maintenance (CBM) of critical systems. Along with developing the fundamentals of being able to confidently...

  17. Predictive factors of relapse in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia patients successfully treated with methotrexate alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couder, Florence; Massardier, Jérôme; You, Benoît; Abbas, Fatima; Hajri, Touria; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Schott, Anne-Marie; Golfier, François

    2016-07-01

    Patients with 2000 FIGO low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are commonly treated with single-agent chemotherapy. Methotrexate is widely used in this indication in Europe. Analysis of relapse after treatment and identification of factors associated with relapse would help understand their potential impacts on 2000 FIGO score evolution and chemotherapy management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia patients. This retrospective study analyzes the predictive factors of relapse in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia patients whose hormone chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) normalized with methotrexate alone. Between 1999 and 2014, 993 patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia were identified in the French Trophoblastic Disease Reference Center database, of which 465 were low-risk patients whose hCG normalized with methotrexate alone. Using univariate and multivariate analysis we identified significant predictive factors for relapse after methotrexate. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot the outcome of patients. The 5-year recurrence rate of low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia patients whose hCG normalized with methotrexate alone was 5.7% (confidence interval [IC], 3.86-8.46). Univariate analysis identified an antecedent pregnancy resulting in a delivery (HR = 5.96; 95% CI, 1.40-25.4, P = .016), a number of methotrexate courses superior to 5 courses (5-8 courses vs 1-4: HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 1.43-26.8, P = .015; 9 courses and more vs 1-4: HR = 6.80; 95% CI, 1.32-35.1, P = .022), and hCG normalization delay centered to the mean as predictive factors of recurrence (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.09-1.49, P = .003). Multivariate analysis confirmed the type of antecedent pregnancy and the number of methotrexate courses as independent predictive factors of recurrence. A low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia arising after a normal delivery had an 8.66 times higher relapse risk than that of a postmole gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

  18. Prognostic factors in patients with metastatic germ cell tumors who experienced treatment failure with cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Anja; Beyer, Jörg; Bascoul-Mollevi, Caroline; Kramar, Andrew; Einhorn, Lawrence H; Necchi, Andrea; Massard, Christophe; De Giorgi, Ugo; Fléchon, Aude; Margolin, Kim A; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Germa Lluch, Jose Ramon; Powles, Thomas; Kollmannsberger, Christian K

    2010-11-20

    To develop a prognostic model in patients with germ cell tumors (GCT) who experience treatment failure with cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy. Data from 1,984 patients with GCT who progressed after at least three cisplatin-based cycles and were treated with cisplatin-based conventional-dose or carboplatin-based high-dose salvage chemotherapy was retrospectively collected from 38 centers/groups worldwide. One thousand five hundred ninety-four (80%) of 1,984 eligible patients were randomly divided into a training set of 1,067 patients (67%) and a validation set of 527 patients (33%). Seminomas were set aside for posthoc analyses. Primary end point was the 2-year progression-free survival after salvage treatment. Overall, 990 patients (62%) relapsed and 604 patients (38%) remained relapse free. Histology, primary tumor location, response, and progression-free interval after first-line treatment, as well as levels of alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and the presence of liver, bone, or brain metastases at salvage were identified as independent prognostic variables and used to build a prognostic model in the training set. Survival rates in the training and validation set were very similar. The estimated 2-year progression-free survival rates in patients not included in the training set was 75% in very low risk, 51% in low risk, 40% in intermediate risk, 26% in high risk, and only 6% in very high-risk patients. Due to missing values in individual variables, 69 patients could not reliably be classified into one of these categories. Prognostic variables are important in patients with GCT who experienced treatment failure with cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy and can be used to construct a prognostic model to guide salvage strategies.

  19. Validation of the 18-gene classifier as a prognostic biomarker of distant metastasis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Skye Hung-Chun; Huang, Tzu-Ting; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Tan, Tee Benita Kiat; Horng, Chen-Fang; Wang, Yong Alison; Brian, Nicholas Shannon; Shih, Li-Sun; Yu, Ben-Long

    2017-01-01

    We validated an 18-gene classifier (GC) initially developed to predict local/regional recurrence after mastectomy in estimating distant metastasis risk. The 18-gene scoring algorithm defines scores as: breast cancer and fresh frozen tumor tissues available were included. The primary outcome was the 5-year probability of freedom from distant metastasis (DMFP). Two external datasets were used to test the predictive accuracy of 18-GC. The 5-year rates of DMFP for patients classified as low-risk (n = 146, 21.7%) and high-risk (n = 537, 78.6%) were 96.2% (95% CI, 91.1%-98.8%) and 80.9% (74.6%-81.9%), respectively (median follow-up interval, 71.8 months). The 5-year rates of DMFP of the low-risk group in stage I (n = 62, 35.6%), stage II (n = 66, 20.1%), and stage III (n = 18, 10.3%) were 100%, 94.2% (78.5%-98.5%), and 90.9% (50.8%-98.7%), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 18-GC is an independent prognostic factor of distant metastasis (adjusted hazard ratio, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.8-14.1; p = 0.0017) for scores of ≥21. External validation showed that the 5-year rate of DMFP in the low- and high-risk patients was 94.1% (82.9%-100%) and 80.3% (70.7%-89.9%, p = 0.06) in a Singapore dataset, and 89.5% (81.9%-94.1%) and 73.6% (67.2%-79.0%, p = 0.0039) in the GEO-GSE20685 dataset, respectively. In conclusion, 18-GC is a viable prognostic biomarker for breast cancer to estimate distant metastasis risk.

  20. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Metric Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornhill, Dennis; Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines a set of metrics for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic schemes developed for the Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR), a system-level reasoner that encompasses the multiple levels of large, complex systems such as those for aircraft and spacecraft. VIPR health managers are organized hierarchically and operate together to derive diagnostic and prognostic inferences from symptoms and conditions reported by a set of diagnostic and prognostic monitors. For layered reasoners such as VIPR, the overall performance cannot be evaluated by metrics solely directed toward timely detection and accuracy of estimation of the faults in individual components. Among other factors, overall vehicle reasoner performance is governed by the effectiveness of the communication schemes between monitors and reasoners in the architecture, and the ability to propagate and fuse relevant information to make accurate, consistent, and timely predictions at different levels of the reasoner hierarchy. We outline an extended set of diagnostic and prognostics metrics that can be broadly categorized as evaluation measures for diagnostic coverage, prognostic coverage, accuracy of inferences, latency in making inferences, computational cost, and sensitivity to different fault and degradation conditions. We report metrics from Monte Carlo experiments using two variations of an aircraft reference model that supported both flat and hierarchical reasoning.

  1. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  2. Prognostic factors and life expectancy in myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to WHO criteria: a basis for clinical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcovati, Luca; Porta, Matteo Giovanni Della; Pascutto, Cristiana; Invernizzi, Rosangela; Boni, Marina; Travaglino, Erica; Passamonti, Francesco; Arcaini, Luca; Maffioli, Margherita; Bernasconi, Paolo; Lazzarino, Mario; Cazzola, Mario

    2005-10-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the WHO proposal, to assess the role of the main prognostic factors in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) classified into WHO subgroups, and to estimate mortality (standardized mortality ratio [SMR]) and life expectancy in these groups as a basis for clinical decision making. Four hundred sixty-seven patients who were diagnosed as having de novo MDS at the Division of Hematology, University of Pavia (Pavia, Italy), between 1992 and 2002, were evaluated retrospectively for clinical and hematologic features at diagnosis, overall survival (OS), and progression to leukemia (leukemia-free survival). Significant differences in survival were noted between patients with refractory anemia (RA), refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, RA with excess blasts, type 1 (RAEB-1), and RAEB-2. The effect of demographic factors on OS was observed in MDS patients without excess blasts (age, P = .001; sex, P = .006), as in the general population. The mortality of RA patients 70 years or older did not differ significantly from that of the general population (SMR, 1.62; P = .06). Cytogenetics was the only International Prognostic Scoring System variable showing a prognostic value in MDS classified into WHO subgroups. Transfusion-dependent patients had a significantly shorter survival than patients who did not require transfusions (P WHO classification of MDSs has a relevant prognostic value. This classification, along with cytogenetics, might be useful in decisions regarding transplantation. MDS with isolated erythroid lineage dysplasia identifies a subset of truly low-risk patients, for whom a conservative approach is advisable.

  3. Prediction model for the incidence of emergent cesarean section during induction of labor specialized in nulliparous low-risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Wataru; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Uemura, Yukari; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Hyodo, Hironobu; Yamashita, Takahiro; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Kozuma, Shiro; Taketani, Yuji

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the factors affecting the outcome of induction of labor (IOL) in a Japanese population and to develop a prediction model to assess the probability of emergent cesarean section (CS). By reviewing the medical records of 1029 women who underwent IOL, we compared the emergent CS rate during IOL among subgroups divided by parity and pre-labor risk, such as fetal anomaly and maternal complication. We created a prediction model to predict the CS rate during IOL focusing on 392 cases of nulliparous women with premature rupture of membrane (PROM). Six factors, including Bishop score (BS), gestational age, maternal body mass index (BMI), maternal height (MH) and birth weight (BW) were extracted and multivariable logistic regression analysis followed by cross-validation test were performed. The emergent CS rate was remarkably higher in the nulliparous group than in the multiparous group (17.6% vs 2.0%). In the nulliparous group, the high-risk group demonstrated a higher CS rate than the low-risk group (33.8% vs 15.6%). Multivariate analysis on nulliparous low-risk cases with PROM demonstrated significant odds ratios for emergent CS in BS, MH and BW. Cross-validation test selected these three factors as the best combination of parameters. The prediction formula was determined as follows: probability of CS (%) = (odds/1 + odds) ∗ 100, odds = e(X) and X = 8.18 + 1.23 ∗ BW (kg)- 7.74 ∗ MH (m)- 0.253 ∗ BS. This study is the first to provide a prediction formula targeting an Asian population. Our model, which is specialized for nulliparous low-risk women could enable obstetricians to inform patients of the precise prospect of IOL outcome. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Once-daily, oral levofloxacin monotherapy for low-risk neutropenic fever in cancer patients: a pilot study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lixian; Zhao, Su; Weng, Heng; Yang, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study assesses the safety and efficacy of once-daily, oral levofloxacin monotherapy in Chinese patients with low-risk febrile neutropenia. In this prospective, single-arm, open-label, multicenter clinical trial, 46 adult Chinese patients with solid tumors and low-risk febrile neutropenia were included. Patients received oral levofloxacin monotherapy (500 mg orally/day) until day 12, followed by 7 days of follow-up (day 19). Body temperature was measured three times per day. On days 2, 3, 5–7, 9, 12, and 19, disease symptoms and vital signs were recorded, adverse drug reactions were assessed, and blood samples were collected to determine the whole-blood cell count and the absolute neutrophil count. Blood cultures and chest radiographs were performed simultaneously until negative results were found. Oral levofloxacin was effective and well tolerated in 97.6% of patients irrespective of the cancer type and cause of fever. Body temperature began to decline in 24.4, 68.3, and 90.2% of patients, respectively, at 12, 24, and 48 h after initiating levofloxacin therapy. On days 5 and 7, 95.1 and 97.6% of the patients had complete defervescence, respectively. The median time for absolute neutrophil count recovery to at least 1500/mm3 after initiation of treatment was 3 days. Only one patient reported mild diarrhea. This pilot study showed that oral levofloxacin quickly and effectively reduced fever, initiated neutrophil recovery, and was well tolerated in Chinese low-risk febrile neutropenic patients with solid tumors. Further study is needed to compare patient data of levofloxacin with the standard amoxicillin/ciprofloxacin protocol in this population for both safety and efficacy. PMID:25486597

  5. Pattern recognition and functional neuroimaging help to discriminate healthy adolescents at risk for mood disorders from low risk adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Mourão-Miranda

    Full Text Available There are no known biological measures that accurately predict future development of psychiatric disorders in individual at-risk adolescents. We investigated whether machine learning and fMRI could help to: 1. differentiate healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I psychiatric disorders from healthy adolescents at low risk of developing these disorders; 2. identify those healthy genetically at-risk adolescents who were most likely to develop future Axis I disorders.16 healthy offspring genetically at risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I disorders by virtue of having a parent with bipolar disorder and 16 healthy, age- and gender-matched low-risk offspring of healthy parents with no history of psychiatric disorders (12-17 year-olds performed two emotional face gender-labeling tasks (happy/neutral; fearful/neutral during fMRI. We used Gaussian Process Classifiers (GPC, a machine learning approach that assigns a predictive probability of group membership to an individual person, to differentiate groups and to identify those at-risk adolescents most likely to develop future Axis I disorders.Using GPC, activity to neutral faces presented during the happy experiment accurately and significantly differentiated groups, achieving 75% accuracy (sensitivity = 75%, specificity = 75%. Furthermore, predictive probabilities were significantly higher for those at-risk adolescents who subsequently developed an Axis I disorder than for those at-risk adolescents remaining healthy at follow-up.We show that a combination of two promising techniques, machine learning and neuroimaging, not only discriminates healthy low-risk from healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for Axis I disorders, but may ultimately help to predict which at-risk adolescents subsequently develop these disorders.

  6. Prognostic Disclosures to Children: A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Bryan A; Bluebond-Langner, Myra; Wiener, Lori; Mack, Jennifer; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-09-01

    Prognostic disclosure to children has perpetually challenged clinicians and parents. In this article, we review the historical literature on prognostic disclosure to children in the United States using cancer as an illness model. Before 1948, there was virtually no literature focused on prognostic disclosure to children. As articles began to be published in the 1950s and 1960s, many clinicians and researchers initially recommended a "protective" approach to disclosure, where children were shielded from the harms of bad news. We identified 4 main arguments in the literature at this time supporting this "protective" approach. By the late 1960s, however, a growing number of clinicians and researchers were recommending a more "open" approach, where children were included in discussions of diagnosis, which at the time was often synonymous with a terminal prognosis. Four different arguments in the literature were used at this time supporting this "open" approach. Then, by the late 1980s, the recommended approach to prognostic disclosure in pediatrics shifted largely from "never tell" to "always tell." In recent years, however, there has been a growing appreciation for the complexity of prognostic disclosure in pediatrics. Current understanding of pediatric disclosure does not lead to simple "black-and-white" recommendations for disclosure practices. As with most difficult questions, we are left to balance competing factors on a case-by-case basis. We highlight 4 categories of current considerations related to prognostic disclosure in pediatrics, and we offer several approaches to prognostic disclosure for clinicians who care for these young patients and their families. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Relationship between polycythemia and in-hospital mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lu; Chughtai, Aamer Rasheed; Jiang, Hongli; Gao, Lingyun; Yang, Yan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yuejian

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds Pulmonary embolism (PE) is frequent in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated with high mortality. This multi-center retrospective study was performed to investigate if secondary polycythemia is associated with in-hospital mortality in COPD patients with low-risk PE. Methods We identified COPD patients with proven PE between October, 2005 and October, 2015. Patients in risk classes III–V on the basis of the PESI score were excluded. We extracted demographic, clinical and laboratory information at the time of admission from medical records. All subjects were followed until hospital discharge to identify all-cause mortality. Results We enrolled 629 consecutive patients with COPD and PE at low risk: 132 of them (21.0%) with and 497 (79.0%) without secondary polycythemia. Compared with those without polycythemia, the polycythemia group had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) level (0.9±0.3 vs. 1.4±0.5, P=0.000), lower PaO2 and SpO2 as well as higher PaCO2 (P=0.03, P=0.03 and P=0.000, respectively). COPD patients with polycythemia had a higher proportion of arrhythmia in electrocardiogram (ECG) (49.5% vs. 35.7%, P=0.02), a longer hospital duration time (15.3±10.1 vs. 9.7±9.1, P=0.001), a higher mechanical ventilation rate (noninvasive and invasive, 51.7% vs. 30.3%, P=0.04 and 31.0% vs. 7.9%, P=0.04, respectively), and a higher in-hospital mortality (12.1% vs. 6.6%, P=0.04). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that polycythemia was associated with mortality in COPD patients with low-risk PE (adjusted OR 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04–1.66). Conclusions Polycythemia is an independent risk factor for all-cause in-hospital mortality in COPD patients with PE at low risk. PMID:28066591

  8. Clinical governance and research ethics as barriers to UK low-risk population-based health research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Flora

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the Helsinki Declaration was introduced in 1964 as a code of practice for clinical research, it has generally been agreed that research governance is also needed in the field of public health and health promotion research. Recently, a range of factors led to the development of more stringent bureaucratic procedures, governing the conduct of low-risk population-based health research in the United Kingdom. Methods Our paper highlights a case study of the application process to medical research ethics committees in the United Kingdom for a study of the promotion of physical activity by health care providers. The case study presented here is an illustration of the challenges in conducting low-risk population-based health research. Results Our mixed-methods approach involved a questionnaire survey of and semi-structured interviews with health professionals (who were all healthy volunteers. Since our study does not involve the participation of either patients or the general population, one would expect the application to the relevant research ethics committees to be a formality. This proved not to be the case! Conclusion Research ethics committees could be counter-productive, rather than protecting the vulnerable in the research process, they can stifle low-risk population-based health research. Research ethics in health services research is first and foremost the responsibility of the researcher(s, and we need to learn to trust health service researchers again. The burden of current research governance regulation to address the perceived ethical problems is neither appropriate nor adequate. Senior researchers/academics need to educate and train students and junior researchers in the area of research ethics, whilst at the same time reducing pressures on them that lead to unethical research, such as commercial funding, inappropriate government interference and the pressure to publish. We propose that non-invasive low-risk

  9. Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer

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    Siri H. Strand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181 and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC.

  10. A Distributed Prognostic Health Management Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Saha; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a generic distributed prognostic health management (PHM) architecture with specific application to the electrical power systems domain. Current state-of-the-art PHM systems are mostly centralized in nature, where all the processing is reliant on a single processor. This can lead to loss of functionality in case of a crash of the central processor or monitor. Furthermore, with increases in the volume of sensor data as well as the complexity of algorithms, traditional centralized systems become unsuitable for successful deployment, and efficient distributed architectures are required. A distributed architecture though, is not effective unless there is an algorithmic framework to take advantage of its unique abilities. The health management paradigm envisaged here incorporates a heterogeneous set of system components monitored by a varied suite of sensors and a particle filtering (PF) framework that has the power and the flexibility to adapt to the different diagnostic and prognostic needs. Both the diagnostic and prognostic tasks are formulated as a particle filtering problem in order to explicitly represent and manage uncertainties; however, typically the complexity of the prognostic routine is higher than the computational power of one computational element ( CE). Individual CEs run diagnostic routines until the system variable being monitored crosses beyond a nominal threshold, upon which it coordinates with other networked CEs to run the prognostic routine in a distributed fashion. Implementation results from a network of distributed embedded devices monitoring a prototypical aircraft electrical power system are presented, where the CEs are Sun Microsystems Small Programmable Object Technology (SPOT) devices.

  11. Prognostic modeling in pediatric acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Dhawan, Anil

    2016-10-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the only proven treatment for pediatric acute liver failure (PALF). However, over a period of time, spontaneous native liver survival is increasingly reported, making us wonder if we are overtransplanting children with acute liver failure (ALF). An effective prognostic model for PALF would help direct appropriate organ allocation. Only patients who would die would undergo LT, and those who would spontaneously recover would avoid unnecessary LT. Deriving and validating such a model for PALF, however, encompasses numerous challenges. In particular, the heterogeneity of age and etiology in PALF, as well as a lack of understanding of the natural history of the disease, contributed by the availability of LT has led to difficulties in prognostic model development. Several prognostic laboratory variables have been identified, and the incorporation of these variables into scoring systems has been attempted. A reliable targeted prognostic model for ALF in Wilson's disease has been established and externally validated. The roles of physiological, immunological, and metabolomic parameters in prognosis are being investigated. This review discusses the challenges with prognostic modeling in PALF and describes predictive methods that are currently available and in development for the future. Liver Transplantation 22 1418-1430 2016 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. The clinical value of maternal and fetal Doppler parameters in low-risk postdates pregnancies - a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovitz, Oshrit; Barzilay, Eran; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gat, Itai; Achiron, Reuven; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-08-09

    The objective of this study is to determine the clinical significance of maternal and fetal ultrasound Doppler flow indices in postdates pregnancies. This prospective study comprised 120 low-risk pregnant women beyond 40 weeks of gestation. All participants underwent Doppler assessment including of fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA), umbilical, and uterine arteries. Perinatal outcomes were recorded and evaluated for possible associations with Doppler flow values. Adverse perinatal outcomes were defined as umbilical cord arterial pH Doppler indices of umbilical artery, MCA, uterine artery and the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) did not differ significantly between pregnant women with and without adverse perinatal outcomes. Neonatal birth weight was found to correlate negatively with umbilical artery Doppler indices, including the peak systolic to end diastolic ratio (p = .04), the resistance index (p = .02), and the pulsatility index (p = .01). Doppler values of the uterine artery, MCA and CPR did not correlate with neonatal birth weight. The contribution of maternal and fetal ultrasound Doppler to the prediction of adverse perinatal outcomes in low-risk postdates pregnancies is low. Hence, performing routine Doppler examination as part of postdates pregnancy assessments is unlikely to yield significant clinical benefit.

  13. Validation of a predictive model for identifying febrile young infants with altered urinalysis at low risk of invasive bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, R; Gómez, B; Hernández-Bou, S; Olaciregui, I; de la Torre, M; González, A; Rivas, A; Durán, I; Rubio, A

    2017-02-01

    In 2015, a predictive model for invasive bacterial infection (IBI) in febrile young infants with altered urine dipstick was published. The aim of this study was to externally validate a previously published set of low risk criteria for invasive bacterial infection in febrile young infants with altered urine dipstick. Retrospective multicenter study including nine Spanish hospitals. Febrile infants ≤90 days old with altered urinalysis (presence of leukocyturia and/or nitrituria) were included. According to our predictive model, an infant is classified as low-risk for IBI when meeting all the following: appearing well at arrival to the emergency department, being >21 days old, having a procalcitonin value model was 93.3 % (CI 95% 78.7-98.2) and negative predictive value was 98.1 % (93.3-99.4). Although our predictive model was shown to be less accurate in the validation cohort, it still showed a good discriminatory ability to detect IBI. Larger prospective external validation studies, taking into account fever duration as well as the role of ED observation, should be undertaken before its implementation into clinical practice.

  14. Applying decision tree for identification of a low risk population for type 2 diabetes. Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezankhani, Azra; Pournik, Omid; Shahrabi, Jamal; Khalili, Davood; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to create a prediction model using data mining approach to identify low risk individuals for incidence of type 2 diabetes, using the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) database. For a 6647 population without diabetes, aged ≥20 years, followed for 12 years, a prediction model was developed using classification by the decision tree technique. Seven hundred and twenty-nine (11%) diabetes cases occurred during the follow-up. Predictor variables were selected from demographic characteristics, smoking status, medical and drug history and laboratory measures. We developed the predictive models by decision tree using 60 input variables and one output variable. The overall classification accuracy was 90.5%, with 31.1% sensitivity, 97.9% specificity; and for the subjects without diabetes, precision and f-measure were 92% and 0.95, respectively. The identified variables included fasting plasma glucose, body mass index, triglycerides, mean arterial blood pressure, family history of diabetes, educational level and job status. In conclusion, decision tree analysis, using routine demographic, clinical, anthropometric and laboratory measurements, created a simple tool to predict individuals at low risk for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of parity on first trimester uterine artery Doppler waveforms in low-risk singleton pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulkumen, Burcu Artunc; Pala, Halil Gursoy; Uyar, Yildiz; Baytur, Yesim Bulbul; Koyuncu, Faik Mumtaz

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effeot of parity on uteroplacental blood flow during the first trimester in low-risk singleton pregnancies. Uterine artery Doppler examinations were performed in 190 singleton pregnancies between 11-14 gestational weeks. Twenty-five pregnancies were excluded from the study due to history ci preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus or inherited thrombophilia. A total of 165 low-risk singleton pregnancies were included in the study Mean uterine artery pulsatility index (P1) was recorded and compared between nulliparous and multiparous women. The relation between maternal age, gestational week, maternal weight, parity biochemica, markers and abnormal uterine artery Doppler flows was evaluated. T-test and logistic regression analyses were used for the statistical analysis. A total of 165 singleton pregnancies without any risk factors for uteroplacental insufficiency were includec in the study Of them, 58 (36.7%) were nulliparous and 107(63.3%) were parous. Correlation analysis revealed that the uterine artery pulsatifity indices during the first trimester were not affected by maternal age and parity: Mean uterine artery pulsatility indices are not different in nulliparous and multiparous low nisA pregnancies at 11-14 weeks of gestation.

  16. The impact of ultrasonographic placental architecture on antenatal course, labor and delivery in a low-risk primigravid population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the impact of placental architecture on antenatal course and labor delivery in a low-risk primigravid population. METHODS: This study involves prospective recruitment of 1011 low-risk primigravids with placental ultrasound at 22?24 weeks and 36 weeks. Detailed postnatal review of all mothers and infants was undertaken. Retrospective analysis of ultrasound and clinical outcome data was performed. RESULTS: Eight hundred ten women with complete outcome data were available. Anterior placentation was statistically associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth and fundal placentation was significantly associated with a higher incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and infants with a birthweight less than the 9th centile. Placental infarcts in the third trimester was significantly increased in cases complicated by pre-eclampsia (PET) and in cases with fetal acidosis. Placental calcification was associated a 40-fold increase in the incidence of IUGR. Placental lakes in the second trimester were more prevalent in patients with threatened miscarriage. Increased placental thickness was associated with a higher rate of fetal acidosis. The Grannum grade of the placenta was higher with threatened first or second trimester loss, PET and in infants born less than 9th centile for gestation. CONCLUSION: Placental site and architecture impact on the incidence of maternal and fetal disease.

  17. Prospective Validation of Pooled Prognostic Factors in Women with Advanced Cervical Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy with/without Bevacizumab: NRG Oncology/GOG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Sill, Michael W.; Monk, Bradley J.; Penson, Richard T.; Long, Harry J.; Poveda, Andrés; Landrum, Lisa M.; Leitao, Mario M.; Brown, Jubilee; Reid, Thomas J.A.; Michael, Helen E.; Moore, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the randomized phase III trial, Gynecologic Oncology Group protocol 240, the incorporation of bevacizumab with chemotherapy significantly increased overall survival (OS) in women with advanced cervical cancer. A major objective of GOG-240 was to prospectively analyze previously identified pooled clinical prognostic factors known as the Moore criteria. Experimental Design Potential negative factors included black race, performance status 1, pelvic disease, prior cisplatin, and progression-free interval <365 days. Risk categories included low-risk (0-1 factor); intermediate-risk (2-3 factors); high-risk (4-5 factors). Each test of association was conducted at the 5% level of significance. Logistic regression and survival analysis was used to determine whether factors were prognostic or could be used to guide therapy. Results For the entire population (n=452), high-risk patients had significantly worse OS (p<0.0001). The hazard ratios of death for treating with topotecan in low-risk, mid-risk, and high-risk subsets are 1.18 (95% CI 0.63-2.24), 1.11 (95% CI 0.82-1.5), and 0.84 (95% CI 0.50-1.42), respectively. The hazard ratios of death for treating with bevacizumab in low-risk, mid-risk, and high-risk subsets are 0.96 (95% CI 0.51-1.83; p=0.9087), 0.673 (95% CI 0.5-0.91; p=0.0094), and 0.536 (95% CI 0.32-0.905; p=0.0196), respectively. Conclusions This is the first prospectively validated scoring system in cervical cancer. The Moore criteria have real world clinical applicability. Toxicity concerns may justify omission of bevacizumab in some low-risk patients where survival benefit is small. The benefit to receiving bevacizumab appears to be greatest in the moderate- and high-risk subgroups (5.8 month increase in median OS). PMID:26672085

  18. A prognostic index for locoregional recurrence after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Vicent, C; Guerrero-Zotano, A; Gavilá-Gregori, J; Hernández-Blanquisett, A; Sandiego-Contreras, S; Samper-Hiraldo, J M; Guillem-Porta, V; Ruiz-Simón, A

    2016-01-01

    groups, respectively (p = 0.001). For mastectomy, the six-year LRR rates were 0%, 8%, and 27% for the low (score 0, n = 20), intermediate (score 1-2, n 191), and high (score 3-4, n = 30) risk groups, respectively (p = 0.001). Of note, 21 patients that had a LRR event were HER2 positive, all of them had received trastuzumab. Patients with a score of 0, which made up to 19% of the study population, had very low risk of LRR. The score enabled the identification of a small group (7%) of patients with very high risk of LRR, and who may benefit from alternative treatment.

  19. Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk ... on the STD Data and Statistics page . * HPV = human papillomavirus. NOTE: Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval. ...

  20. Is the operative delivery rate in low-risk women dependent on the level of birth care? : a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bernitz, Stine; Rolland, Rune; Blix, Ellen; Jacobsen, Morten; Sjøborg, Katrine Dønvold; Øian, Pål

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible differences in operative delivery rate among low-risk women, randomised to an alongside midwifery-led unit or to standard obstetric units within the same hospital. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Østfold Hospital Trust, Tromsø, Norway. Population: A total of 1111 women assessed to be at low risk at onset of spontaneous labour. Methods: Randomisation into one of three birth units: the special...

  1. A Model-based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain...

  2. Prognostics-Enabled Power Supply for ADAPT Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop's role is to develop electronic prognostics for sensing power systems in support of NASA/Ames ADAPT testbed. The prognostic enabled power systems from...

  3. A Model-Based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain...

  4. PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CD56 EXPRESSION IN ACUTE LEUKEMIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. CD56 antigenic expression in AML cases represents an adverse prognostic factor. It should be regularly investigated in cases of AML for better prognostic stratification and assessment. KEY WORDS: CD56; leukemia, myeloid; prognosis

  5. Distributed Prognostics System Implementation on Wireless Embedded Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed prognostics is the next step in the evolution of prognostic methodologies. It is an important enabling technology for the emerging Condition Based...

  6. Communication Optimizations for a Wireless Distributed Prognostic Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed architecture for prognostics is an essential step in prognostic research in order to enable feasible real-time system health management. Communication...

  7. Noninvasive in vivo detection of prognostic indicators for high-risk uveal melanoma: ultrasound parameter imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D Jackson; Silverman, Ronald H; Rondeau, Mark J; Boldt, H Culver; Lloyd, Harriet O; Lizzi, Frederic L; Weingeist, Thomas A; Chen, Xue; Vangveeravong, Sumalee; Folberg, Robert

    2004-03-01

    -validation procedure, 80.10% of cases were correctly classified. Ultrasound can be used noninvasively to classify tumors into high-risk and low-risk groups by detecting the presence of EMP patterns. By the use of previous studies that compared the histologic presence of EMP patterns with patient survival, estimates of hazard rates associated with ultrasound risk groups can be made. The noninvasive ultrasound classification is potentially useful as a prognostic variable and as a tool for stratification of patient populations for tumor treatment evaluation.

  8. An association study of established breast cancer reproductive and lifestyle risk factors with tumour subtype defined by the prognostic 70-gene expression signature (MammaPrint®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makama, M; Drukker, C A; Rutgers, E J Th; Slaets, L; Cardoso, F; Rookus, M A; Tryfonidis, K; Van't Veer, L J; Schmidt, M K

    2017-04-01

    Reproductive and lifestyle factors influence both breast cancer risk and prognosis; this might be through breast cancer subtype. Subtypes defined by immunohistochemical hormone receptor markers and gene expression signatures are used to predict prognosis of breast cancer patients based on their tumour biology. We investigated the association between established breast cancer risk factors and the 70-gene prognostication signature in breast cancer patients. Standardised questionnaires were used to obtain information on established risk factors of breast cancer from the Dutch patients of the MINDACT trial. Clinical-pathological and genomic information were obtained from the trial database. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between lifestyle risk factors and tumour prognostic subtypes, measured by the 70-gene MammaPrint® signature (i.e. low-risk or high-risk tumours). Of the 1555 breast cancer patients included, 910 had low-risk and 645 had high-risk tumours. Current body mass index (BMI), age at menarche, age at first birth, age at menopause, hormonal contraceptive use and hormone replacement therapy use were not associated with MammaPrint®. In parous women, higher parity was associated with a lower risk (OR: 0.75, [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.59-0.95] P = 0.018) and longer breastfeeding duration with a higher risk (OR: 1.03, [95% CI: 1.01-1.05] P = 0.005) of developing high-risk tumours; risk estimates were similar within oestrogen receptor-positive disease. After stratifying by menopausal status, the associations remained present in post-menopausal women. Using prognostic gene expression profiles, we have indications that specific reproductive factors may be associated with prognostic tumour subtypes beyond hormone receptor status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A prognostic model comprising only two biomarkers (IGHV mutational status and FISH cytogenetics) separates patients with different outcome and simplifies the CLL-IPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Julio; Doubek, Michael; Baumann, Tycho; Kotaskova, Jana; Molica, Stefano; Mozas, Pablo; Rivas-Delgado, Alfredo; Morabito, Fortunato; Pospisilova, Sarka; Montserrat, Emili

    2017-04-01

    Rai and Binet staging systems are important to predict the outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but do not reflect the biologic diversity of the disease nor predict response to therapy, which ultimately shape patients' outcome. We devised a biomarkers-only CLL prognostic system based on the two most important prognostic parameters in CLL (i.e., IGHV mutational status and fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH] cytogenetics), separating three different risk groups: (1) low-risk (mutated IGHV + no adverse FISH cytogenetics [del(17p), del(11q)]); (2) intermediate-risk (either unmutated IGHV or adverse FISH cytogenetics) and (3) high-risk (unmutated IGHV + adverse FISH cytogenetics). In 524 unselected subjects with CLL, the 10-year overall survival was 82% (95% CI 76%-88%), 52% (45%-62%), and 27% (17%-42%) for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. Patients with low-risk comprised around 50% of the series and had a life expectancy comparable to the general population. The prognostic model was fully validated in two independent cohorts, including 417 patients representative of general CLL population and 337 patients with Binet stage A CLL. The model had a similar discriminatory value as the CLL-IPI. Moreover, it applied to all patients with CLL independently of age, and separated patients with different risk within Rai or Binet clinical stages. The biomarkers-only CLL prognostic system presented here simplifies the CLL-IPI and could be useful in daily practice and to stratify patients in clinical trials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prognostic, quantitative histopathologic variables in lobular carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1993-01-01

    of disease, vv(nuc), MI, and NI were of significant independent, prognostic value. On the basis of the multivariate analyses, a prognostic index with highly distinguishing capacity between prognostically poor and favorable cases was constructed. CONCLUSION: Quantitative histopathologic variables are of value...

  11. Evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Kathleen F; Roth, Jeremy; Zhu, Kehao; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Meisner, Allison; Wilson, Francis Perry; Coca, Steven; Parikh, Chirag R

    2017-12-01

    A potential use of biomarkers is to assist in prognostic enrichment of clinical trials, where only patients at relatively higher risk for an outcome of interest are eligible for the trial. We investigated methods for evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment. We identified five key considerations when considering a biomarker and a screening threshold for prognostic enrichment: (1) clinical trial sample size, (2) calendar time to enroll the trial, (3) total patient screening costs and the total per-patient trial costs, (4) generalizability of trial results, and (5) ethical evaluation of trial eligibility criteria. Items (1)-(3) are amenable to quantitative analysis. We developed the Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool for evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment at varying levels of screening stringency. We demonstrate that both modestly prognostic and strongly prognostic biomarkers can improve trial metrics using Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool. Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool is available as a webtool at http://prognosticenrichment.com and as a package for the R statistical computing platform. In some clinical settings, even biomarkers with modest prognostic performance can be useful for prognostic enrichment. In addition to the quantitative analysis provided by Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool, investigators must consider the generalizability of trial results and evaluate the ethics of trial eligibility criteria.

  12. Prognostication in young and elderly breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijff, Esther Michelle de

    2015-01-01

    Part I describes the prognostic effect and interactions of the immune system in breast cancer patients. Part II of the thesis describes the prognostic effect of these prognostic immune parameters and biomarkers molecular subtypes and stem cell marker ALDH-1, which are known to be strong breast

  13. Decreased Prognostic Value of International Prognostic Score in Chinese Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Treated in the Contemporary Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The IPS has decreased the prognostic value in Chinese advanced HL patients treated in the contemporary era. More prognostic factors are needed to supplement this original scoring system so as to identify different risk populations more accurately.

  14. High Lipoprotein(a) and Low Risk of Major Bleeding in Brain and Airways in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Kamstrup, Pia R; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The physiological role of lipoprotein(a) is unclear; however, lipoprotein(a) may play a role in hemostasis and wound healing. We tested the hypothesis that high lipoprotein(a) concentrations are associated with low risk of major bleeding in the brain and airways both observationally......), LPA kringle-IV type 2 (KIV-2) number of repeats (n = 98965), and/or LPA single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10455872 associated with high lipoprotein(a) concentrations (n = 109 169), and information on hospital contacts or death due to major bleeding in brain and airways from registers. RESULTS: Using...... extreme phenotypes or genotypes, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for major bleeding in the brain and airways was 0.84 (95%CI: 0.71-0.99) for lipoprotein(a), >800 mg/L vs 35 number of repeats; and 0.89 (0.81-0.97) for rs10455872 carriers...

  15. A comparison of midwife-led care versus obstetrician-led care for low-risk women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Mariko; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Nagamori, Kumiko

    2014-09-01

    Continuity of midwife-led care is recommended in maternity care because of its various positive outcomes. In Japan, midwife-led care is receiving broad attention as well. In order to popularise midwifery care within the entire system of perinatal care in Japan, there is a need to show evidence that continuity of midwife care for women will bring about positive outcomes. The objectives of this study were to compare the health outcomes of women and infants who received midwife-led care with obstetrician-led care in Japan. This was an observational study using non-random purposive sampling with a survey questionnaire. Settings where midwife-led care and obstetrician-led care were chosen by purposive samples. Participants were low-risk women who received antenatal care and delivered a term-singleton-infant at the participating settings during the research period. Measurements were: Women-centred care pregnancy questionnaire, Stein's maternity blues questionnaire, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Midwife-led care was perceived by women to be beneficial and had no adverse outcomes compared to obstetrician-led care. Main findings are: (1) Perception of Women-centred care was higher; (2) Less premature rupture of membranes, and the Apgar scores of the infants were similar; (3) Exclusively breast-feeding during hospitalisation and at one-month postpartum; (4) Stein's maternity blues scale scores was lower in women who received midwife-led care than those who received obstetrician-led care. Continuity of midwife-led care was perceived by women to be beneficial and had no adverse outcomes. Therefore, midwife-led care in low-risk pregnancy could be applicable and recommended. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validity Assessment of Low-risk SCORE Function and SCORE Function Calibrated to the Spanish Population in the FRESCO Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Subirana, Isaac; Ramos, Rafael; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Elosua, Roberto; Vila, Joan; Marín-Ibáñez, Alejandro; Guembe, María Jesús; Rigo, Fernando; Tormo-Díaz, María José; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Cabré, Joan Josep; Segura, Antonio; Lapetra, José; Quesada, Miquel; Medrano, María José; González-Diego, Paulino; Frontera, Guillem; Gavrila, Diana; Ardanaz, Eva; Basora, Josep; García, José María; García-Lareo, Manel; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Mayoral, Eduardo; Sala, Joan; R Degano, Irene; Francès, Albert; Castell, Conxa; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume

    2017-05-26

    To assess the validity of the original low-risk SCORE function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and SCORE calibrated to the Spanish population. Pooled analysis with individual data from 12 Spanish population-based cohort studies. We included 30 919 individuals aged 40 to 64 years with no history of cardiovascular disease at baseline, who were followed up for 10 years for the causes of death included in the SCORE project. The validity of the risk functions was analyzed with the area under the ROC curve (discrimination) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (calibration), respectively. Follow-up comprised 286 105 persons/y. Ten-year cardiovascular mortality was 0.6%. The ratio between estimated/observed cases ranged from 9.1, 6.5, and 9.1 in men and 3.3, 1.3, and 1.9 in women with original low-risk SCORE risk function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calibrated SCORE, respectively; differences were statistically significant with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test between predicted and observed mortality with SCORE (P < .001 in both sexes and with all functions). The area under the ROC curve with the original SCORE was 0.68 in men and 0.69 in women. All versions of the SCORE functions available in Spain significantly overestimate the cardiovascular mortality observed in the Spanish population. Despite the acceptable discrimination capacity, prediction of the number of fatal cardiovascular events (calibration) was significantly inaccurate. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical performance of transperineal template guided mapping biopsy for therapeutic decision making in low risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahallal, Y; Sanchez-Salas, R; Sivaraman, A; Barret, E; Secin, F P; Validire, P; Rozet, F; Galiano, M; Cathelineau, X

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the role of Transperineal Template guided Mapping Biopsy (TTMB) in determining the management strategy in patients with low risk prostate cancer (PCa). We retroscpectively evaluated 169 patients who underwent TTMB at our institution from February 2008 to June 2011. Ninety eight of them harbored indolent PCa defined as: Prostate Specific Antigen<10ng/ml, Gleason score 6 or less, clinical stage T2a or less, unilateral disease and a maximum of one third positive cores at first biopsy and<50% of the core involved. TTMB results were analyzed for Gleason score upgrading and upstaging as compared to initial TransRectal UltraSound (TRUS) biopsies and its influence on the change in the treatment decisions. TTMB detected cancer in 64 (65%) patients. The upgrade, upstage and both were noted in 33% (n=21), 12% (n=8) and 7% (n=5) respectively of the detected cancers. The disease characteristics was similar to initial TRUS in 30 (48%) patients and TTMB was negative in 34 (35%) patients. Prostate volume was significantly smaller in patients with upgrade and/or upstage noted at TTMB (45.4 vs 37.9; P=.03). TTMB results influenced 73.5% of upgraded and/or upstaged patients to receive radical treatment while 81% of the patients with unmodified stage and/or grade continued active surveillance or focal therapy. In patients with low risk PCa diagnosed by TRUS, subsequent TTMB demonstrated cancer upgrade and/or upstage in about one-third of the patients and resulted in eventual change in treatment decision. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Low-Risk Children Using Tuberculin Skin Test: A Study in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Alborzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculin skin test (TST is a readily available test for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI. This study was designed to evaluate LTBI in low-risk children aged 1-15 years.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in Shiraz, Iran, over six months during 2009. Totally, 1289 boys and girls were selected by stratified multistage random sampling from four municipality areas before allocating them to 15 groups. Inclusion criteria included age 1-15 years, documented history of BCG vaccination at birth, Iranian nationality and a healthy state of being. Children with acute febrile diseases, immunosuppression, on medication and immigrants were excluded. We considered a TST ≥ 10 mm of induration as positive.Results: The prevalence of LTBI in 1-15 years old children was 4.5%. The percentage was 3.5% in 1-5 year old, 4.1% in 6-10 year old and 5.7% in 11-15 year old children. The highest rate of infection was 9.8% in 15 year olds and the lowest was 2.2% in 3-year old children. Gender had no effect on LTBI rate. There is no significant difference of LTBI prevalence between four municipality areas.Conclusion: The prevalence of LTBI in this study was lower in comparison with other studies performed in Iran. Positive predictive value of TST decreases in low endemic areas for tuberculosis, especially in low-risk groups; therefore, most positive results are false-positive created by nonspecific reactions and infection with environmental mycobacteria. Hence, there is a need for new diagnostic tools that are easy and cost-effective.

  19. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular diseases incidence in a low risk population: the MATISS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Donfrancesco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD independently increases the risk of death and cardiovascular disease (CVD in the general population. However, the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and CVD/death risk in a general population at low risk of CVD has not been explored so far. DESIGN: Baseline and longitudinal data of 1465 men and 1459 women aged 35-74 years participating to the MATISS study, an Italian general population cohort, were used to evaluate the role of eGFR in the prediction of all-cause mortality and incident CVD. METHODS: Bio-bank stored sera were used to evaluate eGFR at baseline. Serum creatinine was measured on thawed samples by means of an IDMS-calibrated enzymatic method. eGFR was calculated by the CKD-EPI formula. RESULTS: At baseline, less than 2% of enrolled persons had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2 and more than 70% had a 10-year cardiovascular risk score < 10%. In people 60 or more years old, the first and the last eGFR quintiles (<90 and ≥109 mL/min/1.73 m(2, respectively were associated to an increased risk for both all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.1 and 4.3, 1.6-11.7, respectively and incident CVD (1.6, 1.0-2.4 and 7.0, 2.2-22.9, respectively, even if adjusted for classical risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strongly suggest that in an elderly, general population at low risk of CVD and low prevalence of reduced renal filtration, even a modest eGFR reduction is related to all-cause mortality and CVD incidence, underlying the potential benefit to this population of considering eGFR for their risk prediction.

  20. Identifying patients with mild traumatic intracranial hemorrhage at low risk of decompensation who are safe for ED observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Peter; Penn, Joshua; Peak, David; Borczuk, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage and mild traumatic brain injury (mTIH) receive broadly variable care which often includes transfer to a trauma center, neurosurgery consultation and ICU admission. However, there may be a low risk cohort of patients who can be managed without utilizing such significant resources. Describe mTIH patients who are at low risk of clinical or radiographic decompensation and can be safely managed in an ED observation unit (EDOU). Retrospective evaluation of patients age≥16, GCS≥13 with ICH on CT. Primary outcomes included clinical/neurologic deterioration, CT worsening or need for neurosurgery. 1185 consecutive patients were studied. 814 were admitted and 371 observed patients (OP) were monitored in the EDOU or discharged from the ED after a period of observation. None of the OP deteriorated clinically. 299 OP (81%) had a single lesion on CT; 72 had mixed lesions. 120 patients had isolated subarachnoid hemorrhage (iSAH) and they did uniformly well. Of the 119 OP who had subdural hematoma (SDH), 6 had worsening CT scans and 3 underwent burr hole drainage procedures as inpatients due to persistent SDH without new deficit. Of the 39 OP who had cerebral contusions, 3 had worsening CT scans and one required NSG admission. No patient returned to the ED with a complication. Follow-up was obtained on 81% of OP. 2 patients with SDH required burr hole procedure >2weeks after discharge. Patients with mTIH, particularly those with iSAH, have very low rates of clinical or radiographic deterioration and may be safe for monitoring in an emergency department observation unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Less-Restrictive Food Intake During Labor in Low-Risk Singleton Pregnancies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardulli, Andrea; Saccone, Gabriele; Anastasio, Hannah; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate benefits and harms of food intake during labor. Electronic databases such as MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from their inception until October 2016. We included randomized trials comparing a policy of less-restrictive food intake with a policy of more restrictive food intake during labor. The primary outcome was the mean duration of labor. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to produce summary treatment effects in terms of either a relative risk or a mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI). Ten trials, including 3,982 laboring women, were included. All the studies involved laboring singletons considered at low risk because they had no obstetric or medical complications that would increase the likelihood of cesarean delivery. In three studies, women were allowed to select from a low-residue diet throughout the course of labor. One study had honey date syrup as the allowed food intake. Five studies had carbohydrate drinks as food intake in labor. The last one was the only trial that allowed unrestrictive food intake. In the included studies, all women in the intervention group were allowed the assigned food intake until delivery, whereas women in a control group were allowed only ice chips, water, or sips of water until delivery. A policy of less-restrictive food intake was associated with a significantly shorter duration of labor (mean difference -16 minutes, 95% CI -25 to -7). No other benefits or harms in obstetric or neonatal outcome were noticed. Regurgitation during general anesthesia and Mendelson syndrome did not occur in either group. Women with low-risk singleton pregnancies who were allowed to eat more freely during labor had a shorter duration of labor. A policy of less-restrictive food intake during labor did not influence other obstetric or neonatal outcomes nor did it increase the incidence of vomiting. Operative delivery rates were similar.

  2. Low-risk variants FGFR2, TNRC9 and LSP1 in German familial breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Engel, Christoph; Chen, Bowang; Burwinkel, Barbara; Försti, Asta; Sutter, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Hellebrand, Heide; Illig, Thomas; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Dworniczak, Bernd; Deissler, Helmut; Kast, Karin; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kiechle, Marion; Bartram, Claus R; Schmutzler, Rita K; Meindl, Alfons

    2010-06-15

    To validate common low-risk variants predisposing for breast cancer (BC) in a large set of BRCA1/2 negative familial or genetically enriched cases from Germany, we genotyped 1,415 cases and 1,830 healthy women by MALDI-TOF in 105 candidate SNPs. Significantly higher ORs than previously reported for heterozygous unselected cases were found for the minor allele in FGFR2 (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.30-1.59, p-value = 1.24 x 10(-12)) and for TNRC9 (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.19-1.46, p-value = 1.54 x 10(-7)). Most intriguing, however, were the ORs for homozygous carriers from high-risk families for FGFR2 (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.68-2.51, LSP1 (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.28-0.86) and TNRC9 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.27-2.07). Moreover, the additional validation of 99 CGEMS-SNPs identified putative novel susceptibility alleles within the LSP1 gene (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.61-0.87, p-value = 5.23 x 10(-4)). Finally, we provide evidence for the first time that a low-risk variant located at 6q22.33 (rs6569479) is associated with estrogen receptor negative BC in familial cases (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06-1.66; p-value = 0.012). Our data confirm the impact of the previously identified susceptibility loci and provide preliminary evidence for novel susceptibility loci in familial BC cases and correlate them to specific histopathological subtypes defined by estrogen receptor status.

  3. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Low-Risk Deliveries: A Comparison of Midwives, Family Physicians and Obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Dylan; Gupta, Archna; Nam, Austin E; Lake, Jennifer; Martino, Frank; Coyte, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the cost-effectiveness of in-hospital obstetrical care by obstetricians (OBs), family physicians (FPs) and midwives (MWs) for delivery of low-risk obstetrical patients. Cost-effectiveness analysis from the Ministry of Health perspective using a retrospective cohort study. The time horizon was from hospital admission of a low-risk pregnant patient to the discharge of the mother and infant. Costing data included human resource, intervention and hospital case-mix costs. Interventions measured were induction or augmentation of labour with oxytocin, epidural use, forceps or vacuum delivery and caesarean section. The outcome measured was avoidance of transfer to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Model results were tested using various types of sensitivity analyses. The mean maternal age by provider groups was 29.7 for OBs, 29.8 for FPs and 31.2 for MWs - a statistically higher mean for the MW group. The MW deliveries had lower costs and better outcomes than FPs and OBs. FPs also dominated OB.s The differences in cost per delivery were small, but slightly lower in MW ($5,102) and FP ($5,116) than in OB ($5,188). Avoidance of transfer to an NICU was highest for MW at 94.0% (95% CI: 91.0-97.0), compared with 90.2% for FP (95% CI: 88.2-92.2) and 89.6% for OB (95% CI: 88.6-90.6). The cost-effectiveness of the MW group is diminished by increases in compensation, and the cost-effectiveness of the FP group is sensitive to changes in intervention rates and costs. The MW strategy was the most cost-effective in this hospital setting. Given data limitations to further examine patient characteristics between groups, the overall conservative findings of this study support investments and better integration for MWs in the current system. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.

  4. Requirements Flowdown for Prognostics and Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) principles have considerable promise to change the game of lifecycle cost of engineering systems at high safety levels by providing a reliable estimate of future system states. This estimate is a key for planning and decision making in an operational setting. While technology solutions have made considerable advances, the tie-in into the systems engineering process is lagging behind, which delays fielding of PHM-enabled systems. The derivation of specifications from high level requirements for algorithm performance to ensure quality predictions is not well developed. From an engineering perspective some key parameters driving the requirements for prognostics performance include: (1) maximum allowable Probability of Failure (PoF) of the prognostic system to bound the risk of losing an asset, (2) tolerable limits on proactive maintenance to minimize missed opportunity of asset usage, (3) lead time to specify the amount of advanced warning needed for actionable decisions, and (4) required confidence to specify when prognosis is sufficiently good to be used. This paper takes a systems engineering view towards the requirements specification process and presents a method for the flowdown process. A case study based on an electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (e-UAV) scenario demonstrates how top level requirements for performance, cost, and safety flow down to the health management level and specify quantitative requirements for prognostic algorithm performance.

  5. Prognostic indices in childhood heart failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mia (28%), and congenital heart disease (25 %). There was a case-fatality rate of 24% among the study population. Poor prognostic indices identified were age below one year or above 5years, presence of underlying acute respiratory in- fections, rheumatic heart disease and renal disorders. Conclusion: Heart failure in ...

  6. Identification of Prostate Cancer Prognostic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    role in cellular energetics and growth. So far, our results suggest that genomic alterations may serve as prognostic markers that would improve the...shRNA vectors with better knockdown efficiency . Stable ECI1- knockdown cells would be ultimately used to perform rescue experiments for the phenotypes

  7. Prognostic factors for neckpain in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J.L.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Twisk, J.W.R.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Windt, D. van der; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Prognostic studies on neck pain are scarce and are typically restricted to short-term follow-up only. In this prospective cohort study, indicators of short- and long-term outcomes of neck pain were identified that can easily be measured in general practice. Patients between 18 and 70 years of age,

  8. Prognostic factors in Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Mungan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS is an immune-mediated disorder of peripheral nerves resulting as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. GBS has a heterogeneous clinical course and laboratory findings. Acute onset and progressive course, and is usually associated with a good prognosis but some forms have a poor prognosis. Factors that can affect the prognosis of GBS have been investigated in several studies. Assessment of poor prognostic factors of GBS plays a vital role in the management and monitorization of patients. Methods: In this retrospective study of patients admitted to the acute phase of GBS removing clinical and laboratory profiles and was planned to investigate the prognostic factors. Results: Totally 23 patients (Female/male: 16/7 were recruited. Mean age was 47 (range: 17-70 years. Statistically significant poor prognostic factors were advanced age (p=0.042, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0.027 and serum albumin level (p=0.007. Conclusion: Advanced age, increased ESR and decreased albumin levels were found as poor prognostic factors in GBS.

  9. Prognostic biological features in neck dissection specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolgar, J.A.; Triantafyllou, A.; Lewis Jr., J.S.; Hunt, J.; Williams, M.D.; Takes, R.P.; Thompson, L.D.; Slootweg, P.J.; Devaney, K.O.; Ferlito, A.

    2013-01-01

    The superior prognostic value offered by routine histopathological staging of neck dissections, as compared to clinical staging using palpation and modern imaging techniques, is well established in the literature concerning the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In this

  10. Towards Performance Prognostics of a Launch Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    Towards Performance Prognostics of a Launch Valve Glenn Shevach1, Mark Blair2, James Hing3, Larry Venetsky4, Everard Martin5, John Wheelock6...focuses on robotics and machine learning for ALRE & SE applications. Everard Martin is a Mechanical Engineer in the Steam Catapult Launcher In-Service

  11. The biology of melanoma prognostic factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spatz, A.; Stock, N.; Batist, G.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma still represents a paradox among all solid tumors. It is the cancer for which the best prognostic markers ever identified in solid tumors are available, yet there is very little understanding of their biological significance. This review focuses on recent biological data that shed

  12. Integrated Diagnostics and Prognostics of Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam W. Ng

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of current research efforts in integrated diagnostics and prognostics of rotating machinery. Specifically, the following topics are discussed: sensing techniques and sensors; signal detection, identification and extraction; classification of faults; predictive failure models; data/model fusion; information management; and man–machine interface. Technical issues, recommendations, and future research directions are also addressed.

  13. Presence of small sessile serrated polyps increases rate of advanced neoplasia upon surveillance compared with isolated low-risk tubular adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melson, Joshua; Ma, Karen; Arshad, Saba; Greenspan, Michael; Kaminsky, Thomas; Melvani, Vinesh; Bishehsari, Faraz; Mahon, Brett; Jakate, Shriram

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Multi-Society Task Force (USMSTF) stratifies patients with sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) without cytologic dysplasia of neoplasia and recommends management similar to low-risk conventional tubular adenomas. Evidence supporting the recommended surveillance interval for these low-risk SSPs is limited. We aimed to assess rates of metachronous advanced neoplasia based on the presence of an initial low-risk SSP compared with isolated low-risk tubular adenomas. Colonoscopy data were retrieved for 2260 patients found to have an adenoma or SSP on pathology records between 2005 and 2011 at an academic medical center. The 788 patients who met study design criteria were stratified into 4 groups based on the presence of a high- or low-risk adenoma (HRA or LRA) and of a synchronous SSP on initial colonoscopy. The rates of advanced neoplasia at surveillance colonoscopy were then compared between groups. The rate of advanced neoplasia at surveillance in the LRA inclusive of SSP group (12/66, 18.2%) was greater than in the LRA without any SSP group (29/370, 7.8%; P = .019). The rate of advanced neoplasia at surveillance in patients with isolated low-risk SSP (10/56, 17.9%) remained significantly greater than those with isolated low-risk tubular adenomas (29/370, 7.8%; P = .024). The rate of advanced neoplasia upon surveillance in the LRA inclusive of SSP group (18.2%) was comparable with the rate observed in the index HRA without any SSP group (15.9%) (40/252, P = .709). The rate of advanced neoplasia upon surveillance in patients with initial low-risk SSPs is higher than in patients with initial isolated low-risk tubular adenomas and more similar to patients with initial high-risk tubular adenomas. These findings suggest that the rate of metachronous advanced neoplasia in patients with what are considered by USMSTF as "low-risk" SSPs is higher than in those without SSPs. Therefore, a surveillance interval that accounts for the presence of SSPs even in small lesions

  14. The prognostic value of pulmonary embolism severity index in acute pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Prognostic assessment is important for the management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) and simple PESI (sPESI) are new emerged prognostic assessment tools for APE. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the accuracy of the PESI and the sPESI to predict prognostic outcomes (all-cause and PE-related mortality, serious adverse events) in APE patients, and compare between these two PESIs. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE database were searched up to June 2012 using the terms “Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index” and “pulmonary embolism”. Summary odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prognostic outcomes in low risk PESI versus high risk PESI were calculated. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) used to estimate overall predicting accuracies of prognostic outcomes. Results Twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed low-risk PESI was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.15), PE-related mortality (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.17) and serious adverse events (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.41), with no homogeneity across studies. In sPESI subgroup, the OR of all-cause mortality, PE-related mortality, and serious adverse events was 0.10 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.14), 0.09 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.26) and 0.40 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.51), respectively; while in PESI subgroup, the OR was 0.14 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.16), 0.09 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.21), and 0.30 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.38), respectively. For accuracy analysis, the pooled sensitivity, the pooled specificity, and the overall weighted AUC for PESI predicting all-cause mortality was 0.909 (95% CI: 0.900 to 0.916), 0.411 (95% CI: 0.407 to 0.415), and 0.7853±0.0058, respectively; for PE-related mortality, it was 0.953 (95% CI: 0.913 to 0.978), 0.374 (95% CI: 0.360 to 0.388), and 0.8218±0.0349, respectively; for serious adverse events, it was 0.821 (95% CI: 0.795 to 0.845), 0

  15. The Biochemical Prognostic Factors of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Won Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT are common in clinical practice. However, the clinical significance of SHT, including prognosis, has not been established. Further clarifying SHT will be critical in devising a management plan and treatment guidelines for SHT patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors of SHT.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of Korean patients who visited the endocrinology outpatient clinic of Severance Hospital from January 2008 to September 2012. Newly-diagnosed patients with SHT were selected and reviewed retrospectively. We compared two groups: the SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group.ResultsThe SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group had initial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels that were significantly different (P=0.035. In subanalysis for subjects with TSH levels between 5 to 10 µIU/mL, the spontaneous improvement group showed significantly lower antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer than the SHT maintenance group (P=0.039. Regarding lipid profiles, only triglyceride level, unlike total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, was related to TSH level, which is correlated with the severity of SHT. Diffuse thyroiditis on ultrasonography only contributed to the severity of SHT, not to the prognosis. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and urine iodine excretion, generally regarded as possible prognostic factors, did not show any significant relation with the prognosis and severity of SHT.ConclusionOnly initial TSH level was a definite prognostic factor of SHT. TPO-Ab titer was also a helpful prognostic factor for SHT in cases with mildly elevated TSH. Other than TSH and TPO-Ab, we were unable to validate biochemical prognostic factors in this retrospective study for Korean SHT patients.

  16. Cross-national validation of prognostic models predicting sickness absence and the added value of work environment variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Heymans, Martijn W; van Rhenen, Willem; Labriola, Merete; Nielsen, Claus V; Bültmann, Ute; Jensen, Chris

    2015-06-01

    To validate Dutch prognostic models including age, self-rated health and prior sickness absence (SA) for ability to predict high SA in Danish eldercare. The added value of work environment variables to the models' risk discrimination was also investigated. 2,562 municipal eldercare workers (95% women) participated in the Working in Eldercare Survey. Predictor variables were measured by questionnaire at baseline in 2005. Prognostic models were validated for predictions of high (≥30) SA days and high (≥3) SA episodes retrieved from employer records during 1-year follow-up. The accuracy of predictions was assessed by calibration graphs and the ability of the models to discriminate between high- and low-risk workers was investigated by ROC-analysis. The added value of work environment variables was measured with Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI). 1,930 workers had complete data for analysis. The models underestimated the risk of high SA in eldercare workers and the SA episodes model had to be re-calibrated to the Danish data. Discrimination was practically useful for the re-calibrated SA episodes model, but not the SA days model. Physical workload improved the SA days model (IDI = 0.40; 95% CI 0.19-0.60) and psychosocial work factors, particularly the quality of leadership (IDI = 0.70; 95% CI 053-0.86) improved the SA episodes model. The prognostic model predicting high SA days showed poor performance even after physical workload was added. The prognostic model predicting high SA episodes could be used to identify high-risk workers, especially when psychosocial work factors are added as predictor variables.

  17. Prostate Cancer in Patients With High Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels but Otherwise Very-Low-Risk Disease Behaves Like Prostate Cancer in High-Risk Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestaut, Matthew M; Pruszynski, Jessica E; Swanson, Gregory P

    2017-08-01

    Rarely, patients with prostate cancer present with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) scores > 20 ng/mL but with otherwise very-low-risk disease. Oncologists have debated whether the malignancies in these patients behave more comparably to low-risk or high-risk disease. Our objective was to elucidate the behavior of these malignancies. A retrospective review was conducted of prostate cancer patients treated with radiation from 2000 to 2013. The inclusion criteria for very-low-risk disease included stage T1a-T1c, Gleason score ≤ 6, ≤ 3 positive cores, ≤ 50% involvement of any core, and PSA level high-grade, low-volume group consisted of patients with stage T1c-T2a, PSA level high-grade groups, respectively. Biochemical progression-free survival at 5 years was 71.3% for the divergent group, 68.8% for the high-grade group, and 98.3% for the low-risk group. The biochemical failure rate for the divergent group differed significantly from the low-risk group (P = .021), and that for the low-risk group was significantly different from that of the high-grade group (P = .025). However, the divergent group did not appear different from the high-grade group (P = .53). The results of our study have shown that the disease prognosis for the divergent-risk group is worse than that for the very-low-risk disease group and does not appear to be different from that for the low-volume, high-grade disease group. Oncologists should be aware that the outcomes for divergent patients are similarly poor to their low-volume, classically high-risk counterparts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-risk diet and lifestyle habits in the primary prevention of myocardial infarction in men: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Agneta; Larsson, Susanna C; Discacciati, Andrea; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-09-30

    Adherence to a combination of healthy dietary and lifestyle practices may have an impressive impact on the primary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of this study was to examine the benefit of combined low-risk diet and healthy lifestyle practices on the incidence of MI in men. The population-based, prospective cohort of Swedish men comprised 45- to 79-year-old men who completed a detailed questionnaire on diet and lifestyle at baseline in 1997. In total, 20,721 men with no history of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, or high cholesterol levels were followed through 2009. Low-risk behavior included 5 factors: a healthy diet (top quintile of Recommended Food Score), moderate alcohol consumption (10 to 30 g/day), no smoking, being physically active (walking/bicycling ≥40 min/day and exercising ≥1 h/week), and having no abdominal adiposity (waist circumference <95 cm). During 11 years of follow-up, we ascertained 1,361 incident cases of MI. The low-risk dietary choice together with moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a relative risk of 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48 to 0.87) compared with men having 0 of 5 low-risk factors. Men having all 5 low-risk factors compared with those with 0 low-risk factors had a relative risk of 0.14 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.43). This combination of healthy behaviors, present in 1% of the men, could prevent 79% (95% CI: 34% to 93%) of the MI events on the basis of the study population. Almost 4 of 5 MIs in men may be preventable with a combined low-risk behavior. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Distributed Prognostic Health Management with Gaussian Process Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sankalita; Saha, Bhaskar; Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2010-01-01

    Distributed prognostics architecture design is an enabling step for efficient implementation of health management systems. A major challenge encountered in such design is formulation of optimal distributed prognostics algorithms. In this paper. we present a distributed GPR based prognostics algorithm whose target platform is a wireless sensor network. In addition to challenges encountered in a distributed implementation, a wireless network poses constraints on communication patterns, thereby making the problem more challenging. The prognostics application that was used to demonstrate our new algorithms is battery prognostics. In order to present trade-offs within different prognostic approaches, we present comparison with the distributed implementation of a particle filter based prognostics for the same battery data.

  20. Sterile α Motif Domain Containing 9 Is a Novel Cellular Interacting Partner to Low-Risk Type Human Papillomavirus E6 Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    Full Text Available Low-risk type human papillomavirus (HPV 6 and 11 infection causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP and genital warts. RRP is the most common benign tumor of the larynx in children with frequent relapses. Repeated surgeries are often needed to improve vocal function and prevent life-threatening respiratory obstruction. Currently, there are no effective treatments available to completely eliminate these diseases, largely due to limited knowledge regarding their viral molecular pathogenesis. HPV E6 proteins contribute to cell immortalization by interacting with a variety of cellular proteins, which have been well studied for the high-risk type HPVs related to cancer progression. However, the functions of low-risk HPV E6 proteins are largely unknown. In this study, we report GST-pulldown coupled mass spectrometry analysis with low-risk HPV E6 proteins that identified sterile alpha motif domain containing 9 (SAMD9 as a novel interacting partner. We then confirmed the interaction between HPV-E6 and SAMD9 using co-immunoprecipitation, proximity ligation assay, and confocal immunofluorescence staining. The SAMD9 gene is down-regulated in a variety of neoplasms and deleteriously mutated in normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. Interestingly, SAMD9 also has antiviral functions against poxvirus. Our study adds to the limited knowledge of the molecular properties of low-risk HPVs and describes new potential functions for the low-risk HPV E6 protein.

  1. Prediction of clinical outcome by myocardial CT perfusion in patients with low-risk unstable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jesper J; Sørgaard, Mathias; Kühl, Jørgen T

    2017-01-01

    The prognostic implications of myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) analyses are unknown. In this sub-study to the CATCH-trial we evaluate the ability of adenosine stress CTP findings to predict mid-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE). In 240 patients with acute-onset chest pain, yet...... %) suffered a MACE (cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and revascularizations). Accuracy for the prediction of MACE expressed as the area under curve (AUC) on receiver-operating characteristic curves was 0.88 (0.83-0.92) for visual assessment of a PD and 0.80 (0.73-0.85) for stress TPR (transmural.......98-0.99) for stress TPR, p 10 % of the LV myocardium had a worse prognosis compared to patients with a PD covering sensitivity 84...

  2. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging findings in men with low-risk prostate cancer followed using active surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Jeffrey K.; Bonekamp, David; Landis, Patricia; Begum, Hosne; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Macura, Katarzyna J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying pathological-index (path-index) lesions, defined as cancer present in the same prostate sextant in two separate surveillance biopsies, in men followed within an active surveillance (AS) programme for low-risk prostate cancer (CaP) with extended follow-up. Materials and Methods A total of 50 men, representing >215 person-years of follow-up in an AS programme, who were referred for prostate MRI were randomly chosen to have their images reviewed by a radiologist with expertise in prostate MRI, who was blinded to biopsy results. Index lesions on MRI were defined as a single suspicious lesion ≥10 mm or >2 lesions in a given prostate sextant. Lesions on MRI were considered suspicious if ≥2 abnormal parameters co-registered anatomically. Path-index lesions were defined as cancer present in a given prostate sextant on two separate biopsy sessions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to test the performance of MRI for identifying path-index lesions. Clinical and pathological features were compared between men with and without a MRI-index lesion. Results A total of 31 path-index and 13 MRI-index lesions were detected in 22 and 10 patients, respectively. Multiparametric MRI demonstrated excellent specificity and negative predictive value (0.974 and 0.897, respectively) for the detection of path-index lesions. Sensitivity (0.19) and positive predictive value (0.46) were considerably lower. Patients with an index lesion on MRI were younger and less likely to have met the ‘Epstein’ criteria for very low-risk CaP. Compared with men without an MRI lesion, a significant increase in biopsy reclassification was noted for men with a MRI lesion (40 vs 12.5%, P = 0.04). Conclusions A non-suspicious MRI was highly correlated with a lack of path-index lesions in an AS population. Multiparametric MRI may be useful in both the selection and monitoring of patients undergoing

  3. Package of care for active management in labour for reducing caesarean section rates in low-risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather C; Paranjothy, Shantini; Dowswell, Therese; Thomas, Jane

    2013-09-16

    Approximately 15% of women have caesarean sections (CS) and while the rate varies, the number is increasing in many countries. This is of concern because higher CS rates do not confer additional health gain but may adversely affect maternal health and have implications for future pregnancies. Active management of labour has been proposed as a means of reducing CS rates. This refers to a package of care including strict diagnosis of labour, routine amniotomy, oxytocin for slow progress and one-to-one support in labour. To determine whether active management of labour reduces CS rates in low-risk women and improves satisfaction. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (16 April 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing low-risk women receiving a predefined package of care (active management) with women receiving routine (variable) care. Trials where slow progress had been diagnosed before entry into the trial were excluded. At least two review authors extracted data. We assessed included studies for risk of bias. We included seven trials, with a total of 5390 women. The quality of studies was mixed. The CS rate was slightly lower in the active management group compared with the group that received routine care, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.01). However, in one study there was a large number of post-randomisation exclusions. On excluding this study, CS rates in the active management group were statistically significantly lower than in the routine care group (RR 0.77 95% CI 0.63 to 0.94). More women in the active management group had labours lasting less than 12 hours, but there was wide variation in length of labour within and between trials. There were no differences between groups in use of analgesia, rates of assisted vaginal deliveries or maternal or neonatal complications. Only one trial examined maternal satisfaction; the majority of women (over 75%) in both groups

  4. Could (Disseminated and Residual Minimal Disease be a useful prognostic marker in non-Hodgkin paediatric Lymphomas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Mussolin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimal Disseminated Disease (MDD represents the small number of tumour cells in the patients' bone marrow at the time of diagnosis, whereas Minimal Residual Disease (MRD represents the small number of tumour cells remaining in the bone marrow during treatment. Generally, MDD and MRD are measured by polymerase chain reaction, a highly sensitive technique. For a long time, bone marrow involvement has been considered an uncommon event in solid tumours. However, in recent years, several studies demonstrated that MDD and MRD could be powerful tools in paediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma for stratifying patients in different prognostic groups. Risk stratification in future clinical trials on non-Hodgkin lymphoma based on these newly identified risk categories should be useful to improve therapies in order to increase survival for high-risk patients and decrease toxicity for low-risk patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v8i2.902 

  5. A dynamic prognostic model to predict survival in primary myelofibrosis: a study by the IWG-MRT (International Working Group for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Francesco; Cervantes, Francisco; Vannucchi, Alessandro Maria; Morra, Enrica; Rumi, Elisa; Pereira, Arturo; Guglielmelli, Paola; Pungolino, Ester; Caramella, Marianna; Maffioli, Margherita; Pascutto, Cristiana; Lazzarino, Mario; Cazzola, Mario; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2010-03-04

    Age older than 65 years, hemoglobin level lower than 100 g/L (10 g/dL), white blood cell count greater than 25 x 10(9)/L, peripheral blood blasts 1% or higher, and constitutional symptoms have been shown to predict poor survival in primary myelofibrosis (PMF) at diagnosis. To investigate whether the acquisition of these factors during follow-up predicts survival, we studied 525 PMF patients regularly followed. All 5 variables had a significant impact on survival when analyzed as time-dependent covariates in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model and were included in 2 separate models, 1 for all patients (Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System [DIPSS]) and 1 for patients younger than 65 years (age-adjusted DIPSS). Risk factors were assigned score values based on hazard ratios (HRs). Risk categories were low, intermediate-1, intermediate-2, and high in both models. Survival was estimated by the HR. When shifting to the next risk category, the HR was 4.13 for low risk, 4.61 for intermediate-1, and 2.54 for intermediate-2 according to DIPSS; 3.97 for low risk, 2.84 for intermediate-1, and 1.81 for intermediate-2 according to the age-adjusted DIPSS. The novelty of these models is the prognostic assessment of patients with PMF anytime during their clinical course, which may be useful for treatment decision-making.

  6. Assessing calibration of prognostic risk scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowson, Cynthia S; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M

    2016-08-01

    Current methods used to assess calibration are limited, particularly in the assessment of prognostic models. Methods for testing and visualizing calibration (e.g. the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and calibration slope) have been well thought out in the binary regression setting. However, extension of these methods to Cox models is less well known and could be improved. We describe a model-based framework for the assessment of calibration in the binary setting that provides natural extensions to the survival data setting. We show that Poisson regression models can be used to easily assess calibration in prognostic models. In addition, we show that a calibration test suggested for use in survival data has poor performance. Finally, we apply these methods to the problem of external validation of a risk score developed for the general population when assessed in a special patient population (i.e. patients with particular comorbidities, such as rheumatoid arthritis). © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic biomarkers in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Montezuma, Diana; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Growing cancer incidence and mortality worldwide demands development of accurate biomarkers to perfect detection, diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring. Urologic (prostate, bladder, kidney), lung, breast and colorectal cancers are the most common and despite major advances in their characterization, this has seldom translated into biomarkers amenable for clinical practice. Epigenetic alterations are innovative cancer biomarkers owing to stability, frequency, reversibility and accessibility in body fluids, entailing great potential of assay development to assist in patient management. Several studies identified putative epigenetic cancer biomarkers, some of which have been commercialized. However, large multicenter validation studies are required to foster translation to the clinics. Herein we review the most promising epigenetic detection, diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for the most common cancers.

  8. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Cornhill, Dennis; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Mack, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A systems view is necessary to detect, diagnose, predict, and mitigate adverse events during the flight of an aircraft. While most aircraft subsystems look for simple threshold exceedances and report them to a central maintenance computer, the vehicle integrated prognostic reasoner (VIPR) proactively generates evidence and takes an active role in aircraft-level health assessment. Establishing the technical feasibility and a design trade-space for this next-generation vehicle-level reasoning system (VLRS) is the focus of our work.

  9. Prognostic Analysis of the Tactical Quiet Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, Lee M [ORNL

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.

  10. Machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a complete presentatin of the basic essentials of machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management, and takes a look at the cutting-edge discipline of intelligent failure prognosis technologies for condition-based maintenance.  Latest research results and application methods are introduced for signal processing, reliability moelling, deterioration evaluation, residual life prediction and maintenance-optimization as well as applications of these methods.

  11. Prognostic factors in young ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klar, M; Hasenburg, A; Hasanov, M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated in a large study meta-database of prospectively randomised phase III trials the prognostic factors for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients 40 years of age with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: A total of 5055 patients...... epithelial ovarian cancer, excellent performance status, who had received complete macroscopic upfront cytoreduction and ≥5 chemotherapy cycles. RESULTS: For patients

  12. No prognostic value added by vitamin D pathway SNPs to current prognostic system for melanoma survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Orlow, Irene; Kanetsky, Peter A; Thomas, Nancy E; Fang, Shenying; Lee, Jeffrey E; Berwick, Marianne; Lee, Ji-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The prognostic improvement attributed to genetic markers over current prognostic system has not been well studied for melanoma. The goal of this study is to evaluate the added prognostic value of Vitamin D Pathway (VitD) SNPs to currently known clinical and demographic factors such as age, sex, Breslow thickness, mitosis and ulceration (CDF). We utilized two large independent well-characterized melanoma studies: the Genes, Environment, and Melanoma (GEM) and MD Anderson studies, and performed variable selection of VitD pathway SNPs and CDF using Random Survival Forest (RSF) method in addition to Cox proportional hazards models. The Harrell's C-index was used to compare the performance of model predictability. The population-based GEM study enrolled 3,578 incident cases of cutaneous melanoma (CM), and the hospital-based MD Anderson study consisted of 1,804 CM patients. Including both VitD SNPs and CDF yielded C-index of 0.85, which provided slight but not significant improvement by CDF alone (C-index = 0.83) in the GEM study. Similar results were observed in the independent MD Anderson study (C-index = 0.84 and 0.83, respectively). The Cox model identified no significant associations after adjusting for multiplicity. Our results do not support clinically significant prognostic improvements attributable to VitD pathway SNPs over current prognostic system for melanoma survival.

  13. No prognostic value added by vitamin D pathway SNPs to current prognostic system for melanoma survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luo

    Full Text Available The prognostic improvement attributed to genetic markers over current prognostic system has not been well studied for melanoma. The goal of this study is to evaluate the added prognostic value of Vitamin D Pathway (VitD SNPs to currently known clinical and demographic factors such as age, sex, Breslow thickness, mitosis and ulceration (CDF. We utilized two large independent well-characterized melanoma studies: the Genes, Environment, and Melanoma (GEM and MD Anderson studies, and performed variable selection of VitD pathway SNPs and CDF using Random Survival Forest (RSF method in addition to Cox proportional hazards models. The Harrell's C-index was used to compare the performance of model predictability. The population-based GEM study enrolled 3,578 incident cases of cutaneous melanoma (CM, and the hospital-based MD Anderson study consisted of 1,804 CM patients. Including both VitD SNPs and CDF yielded C-index of 0.85, which provided slight but not significant improvement by CDF alone (C-index = 0.83 in the GEM study. Similar results were observed in the independent MD Anderson study (C-index = 0.84 and 0.83, respectively. The Cox model identified no significant associations after adjusting for multiplicity. Our results do not support clinically significant prognostic improvements attributable to VitD pathway SNPs over current prognostic system for melanoma survival.

  14. A Distributed Approach to System-Level Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics, which deals with predicting remaining useful life of components, subsystems, and systems, is a key technology for systems health management that leads to improved safety and reliability with reduced costs. The prognostics problem is often approached from a component-centric view. However, in most cases, it is not specifically component lifetimes that are important, but, rather, the lifetimes of the systems in which these components reside. The system-level prognostics problem can be quite difficult due to the increased scale and scope of the prognostics problem and the relative Jack of scalability and efficiency of typical prognostics approaches. In order to address these is ues, we develop a distributed solution to the system-level prognostics problem, based on the concept of structural model decomposition. The system model is decomposed into independent submodels. Independent local prognostics subproblems are then formed based on these local submodels, resul ting in a scalable, efficient, and flexible distributed approach to the system-level prognostics problem. We provide a formulation of the system-level prognostics problem and demonstrate the approach on a four-wheeled rover simulation testbed. The results show that the system-level prognostics problem can be accurately and efficiently solved in a distributed fashion.

  15. New prognostic biomarkers in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Szudy-Szczyrek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a malignant neoplastic disease, characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, which is usually connected with production of a monoclonal protein. It is the second most common hematologic malignancy. It constitutes approximately 1% of all cancers and 10% of hematological malignancies. Despite the huge progress that has been made in the treatment of multiple myeloma in the past 30 years including the introduction of new immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors, it is still an incurable disease. According to current data, the five-year survival rate is 45%. Multiple myeloma is a very heterogeneous disease with a very diverse clinical course, which is expressed by differences in effectiveness of therapeutic strategies and ability to develop chemoresistance. This diversity implies the need to define risk stratification factors that would help to create personalized and optimized therapy and thereby improve treatment outcomes. Prognostic markers that aim to objectively evaluate the risk of a poor outcome, relapse and the patient’s overall outcome are useful for this purpose. The existing, widely used prognostic classifications, such as the Salmon-Durie classification or ISS, do not allow for individualization of treatment. As a result of the development of diagnostic techniques, especially cytogenetics and molecular biology, we were able to discover a lot of new, more sensitive and specific prognostic factors. The paper presents recent reports on the role of molecular, cytogenetic and biochemical alterations in pathogenesis and prognosis of the disease.

  16. Psychological Distress in Healthy Low-Risk First-Time Mothers during the Postpartum Period: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Murphey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N=33, within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9 in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N=33 reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n=25 reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed.

  17. Offshore Evidence for an Undocumented Tsunami Event in the 'Low Risk' Gulf of Aqaba-Eilat, Northern Red Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Goodman Tchernov

    Full Text Available Although the Gulf of Aqaba-Eilat is located in the tectonically active northern Red Sea, it has been described as low-risk with regard to tsunami activity because there are no modern records of damaging tsunami events and only one tsunami (1068 AD referred to in historical records. However, this assessment may be poorly informed given that the area was formed by and is located along the seismically active Dead Sea Fault, its population is known to fluctuate in size and literacy in part due to its harsh hyper-arid climate, and there is a dearth of field studies addressing the presence or absence of tsunamigenic deposits. Here we show evidence from two offshore cores for a major paleotsunami that occurred ~2300 years ago with a sedimentological footprint that far exceeds the scarce markers of the historically mentioned 1068 AD event. The interpretation is based on the presence of a laterally continuous and synchronous, anomalous sedimentological deposit that includes allochtonous inclusions and unique structural characteristics. Based on sedimentological parameters, these deposits could not be accounted for by other transport events, or other known background sedimentological processes.

  18. Impaired Expression of Focal Adhesion Kinase in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Low-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuenv Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic role of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS development and progression has been investigated by numerous studies, yet, it remains controversial in some aspects (1, 2. In the present study, we found distinct features of MSCs from low-risk (LR-MDS stromal microenvironment as compared to those from healthy subjects. At the molecular level, focal adhesion kinase, a key tyrosine kinase in control of cell proliferation, survival, and adhesion process, was found profoundly suppressed in expression and activation in LR-MDS MSC. At a functional level, LR-MDS MSCs showed impaired growth and clonogenic capacity, which were independent of cellular senescence and apoptosis. The pro-adipogenic differentiation and attenuated osteogenic capacity along with reduced SDF-1 expression could be involved in creating an unfavorable microenvironment for hematopoiesis. In conclusion, our experiments support the theory that the stromal microenvironment is fundamentally altered in LR-MDS, and these preliminary data offer a new perspective on LR-MDS pathophysiology.

  19. Mycophenolate mofetil in low-risk renal transplantation in patients receiving no cyclosporine: a single-centre experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: We assess our long-term experience with regards the safety and efficacy of Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) in our low risk renal transplant population and compared it retrospectively to Azathioprine (AZA) immunosuppressive regimen. Patients and methods. Between January 1999 and December 2005, 240 renal transplants received MMF as part of their immunosuppressive protocol (MMF group). AZA group of 135 renal transplants was included for comparative analysis (AZA group). Patients received Cyclosporine was excluded from this study. RESULTS: The incidence of biopsy proven 3-month acute rejections was 30 (12.5%) in MMF group and 22 (16%) in AZA group respectively (P = 0.307). Patient survival rates at 1 and 5 years for the MMF group were 97 and 94%, respectively, compared to 100% and 91% at 1 and 5 years respectively for the AZA group (P = 0.61). Graft survival rates at 1 and 5 years for the MMF group were 95 and 83%, respectively, compared to 97 and 84% at 1 and 5 years, respectively for the AZA group (P = 0.62). CONCLUSION: There was no difference in acute rejection episodes between MMF and AZA based immunotherapy. Additionally, we observed no significant difference concerning graft survival in the MMF group when compared to AZA group.

  20. Water aerobics II: maternal body composition and perinatal outcomes after a program for low risk pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ana L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of water aerobics during pregnancy. Methods A randomized controlled trial carried out in 71 low-risk sedentary pregnant women, randomly allocated to water aerobics or no physical exercise. Maternal body composition and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. For statistical analysis Chi-square, Fisher's or Student's t-tests were applied. Risk ratios and their 95% CI were estimated for main outcomes. Body composition was evaluated across time using MANOVA or Friedman multiple analysis. Results There were no significant differences between the groups regarding maternal weight gain, BMI or percentage of body fat during pregnancy. Incidence of preterm births (RR = 0.84; 95%CI:0.28–2.53, vaginal births (RR = 1.24; 95%CI:0.73–2.09, low birthweight (RR = 1.30; 95%CI:0.61–2.79 and adequate weight for gestational age (RR = 1.50; 95%CI:0.65–3.48 were also not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate between before and immediately after the water aerobics session. Conclusion Water aerobics for sedentary pregnant women proved to be safe and was not associated with any alteration in maternal body composition, type of delivery, preterm birth rate, neonatal well-being or weight.

  1. Evolutionary ecology of human papillomavirus: trade-offs, coexistence, and origins of high-risk and low-risk types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Paul A; Gatenby, Robert A; Giuliano, Anna R; Brown, Joel S

    2012-01-15

    We address the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV) that lead to the dichotomy between high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) types. We hypothesize that HPV faces an evolutionary tradeoff between persistence and per-contact transmission probability. High virion production enhances transmissibility but also provokes an immune response leading to clearance and limited persistence. Alternatively, low virion production increases persistence at the cost of diminished transmission probability per sexual contact. We propose that LR HPV types use the former strategy and that HR types use the latter. Sexual behaviors in a host population determine the success of each strategy. We develop an evolutionary model of HPV epidemiology, which includes host sexual behavior, and we find evolutionarily stable strategies of HPV. A slow turnover of sexual partners favors HR HPV, whereas high frequency of partner turnover selects for LR. When both sexual behaviors exist as subcultures in a population, disruptive selection can result in the coevolution and ecological coexistence of both HR and LR HPV types. Our results indicate that the elimination of HR HPV through vaccines may alter the evolutionary trajectory of the remaining types and promote evolution of new HR HPV types.

  2. Term and postterm low-risk pregnancies: management schemes for the reduction of high rates of cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, S; Ferrazzani, S; De Carolis, S; Carducci, B; De Santis, L; Caruso, A

    1996-03-01

    We compare trends and current levels of cesarean section delivery by indication in some industrialized countries to help us understand factors underlying national differences in obstetric delivery practice and identify pathways to lower cesarean rates. In this report we describe the schemes employed at our Department for the management of low-risk at term and postterm pregnancies and list the most important motivations for increased cesarean section rate and remedies suggested to reduce high cesarean section rate. Moreover a randomized trial to assess the role of labor induction with PGE2 gel vs i.v. Oxytocin+Amniotomy in the management of prolonged pregnancy is being evaluated presently at our center. To date, 75 postterm pregnancies have been followed. Patients are enrolled at > or = 287 days (41 weeks). Intracervical PGE2 gel (0.5 mg) is used for cervical ripening. Induction of labor is randomly performed using intravaginal PGE2 gel (2 mg) or i.v. Oxytocin+Amniotomy. Overall rates of 75% for spontaneous delivery, and 25% for cesarean section have been observed in our study group of prolonged pregnancies. The accurate labelling of low- and high-risk pregnancy and the appropriate management of term and postterm pregnancy are two important steps for the reduction of a high rate of cesarean section.

  3. Cost of detecting gastric neoplasia by surveillance endoscopy in atrophic gastritis in Italy: A low risk country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Edith; Hassan, Cesare; Esposito, Gianluca; Carabotti, Marilia; Zullo, Angelo; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mario; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) is at increased risk of gastric neoplasia, thus surveillance gastroscopy has been proposed. To assess cost of detecting gastric neoplasias by surveillance endoscopy according to identified risk factors in Italy. Post-hoc analysis of a cohort study including 200 AG-patients from Italy followed up for a mean of 7.5 (4-23.4) years was done. Considered risk factors were: age >50years, extensive atrophy, pernicious anaemia, OLGA-OLGIM scores 3-4 at diagnosis. The number of 4-year-surveillance endoscopies needed to be performed to detect one gastric neoplasia (NNS) was calculated. In 19 patients neoplasias (4 gastric cancers, 8 type 1 gastric carcinoids, 7 dysplasias) were detected at the 361 surveillance gastroscopies, corresponding to NNS of 19 and a cost per gastric neoplastic lesion of €2945. By restricting surveillance to pernicious anaemia patients, reduction of NNS and cost per neoplasia to 13.8 and €2139 may be obtained still detecting 74% of neoplasias. By limiting the surveillance to pernicious anaemia patients and OLGA 3-4, 5 (26.3%) neoplasias would have been detected with a corresponding NNS of 5.4 and a cost per lesion of €837. Risk factors may allow an efficient allocation of financial and medical resources for endoscopic surveillance in AG in a low risk country. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mycophenolate mofetil in low-risk renal transplantation in patients receiving no cyclosporine: a single-centre experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raheem, Omer A

    2011-05-28

    BACKGROUND: We assess our long-term experience with regards the safety and efficacy of Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) in our low risk renal transplant population and compared it retrospectively to Azathioprine (AZA) immunosuppressive regimen. Patients and methods. Between January 1999 and December 2005, 240 renal transplants received MMF as part of their immunosuppressive protocol (MMF group). AZA group of 135 renal transplants was included for comparative analysis (AZA group). Patients received Cyclosporine was excluded from this study. RESULTS: The incidence of biopsy proven 3-month acute rejections was 30 (12.5%) in MMF group and 22 (16%) in AZA group respectively (P = 0.307). Patient survival rates at 1 and 5 years for the MMF group were 97 and 94%, respectively, compared to 100% and 91% at 1 and 5 years respectively for the AZA group (P = 0.61). Graft survival rates at 1 and 5 years for the MMF group were 95 and 83%, respectively, compared to 97 and 84% at 1 and 5 years, respectively for the AZA group (P = 0.62). CONCLUSION: There was no difference in acute rejection episodes between MMF and AZA based immunotherapy. Additionally, we observed no significant difference concerning graft survival in the MMF group when compared to AZA group.

  5. Costs and effects of screening and treating low risk women with a singleton pregnancy for asymptomatic bacteriuria, the ASB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemier Brenda M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnancy is 2-10% and is associated with both maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes as pyelonephritis and preterm delivery. Antibiotic treatment is reported to decrease these adverse outcomes although the existing evidence is of poor quality. Methods/Design We plan a combined screen and treat study in women with a singleton pregnancy. We will screen women between 16 and 22 weeks of gestation for ASB using the urine dipslide technique. The dipslide is considered positive when colony concentration ≥105 colony forming units (CFU/mL of a single microorganism or two different colonies but one ≥105 CFU/mL is found, or when Group B Streptococcus bacteriuria is found in any colony concentration. Women with a positive dipslide will be randomly allocated to receive nitrofurantoin or placebo 100 mg twice a day for 5 consecutive days (double blind. Primary outcomes of this trial are maternal pyelonephritis and/or preterm delivery before 34 weeks. Secondary outcomes are neonatal and maternal morbidity, neonatal weight, time to delivery, preterm delivery rate before 32 and 37 weeks, days of admission in neonatal intensive care unit, maternal admission days and costs. Discussion This trial will provide evidence for the benefit and cost-effectiveness of dipslide screening for ASB among low risk women at 16–22 weeks of pregnancy and subsequent nitrofurantoin treatment. Trial registration Dutch trial registry: NTR-3068

  6. Prevalence and Overlap of Noncardiac Conditions in the Evaluation of Low-risk Acute Chest Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Mohammad; Winchester, David E

    2015-09-01

    When patients present to the emergency department with a complaint concerning for heart disease, this often becomes the primary focus of their evaluation. While patients with noncardiac causes of chest pain outnumber those with cardiac causes, noncardiac etiologies are frequently overlooked. We investigated symptoms and noncardiac conditions in a cohort of patients with chest pain at low risk of cardiac disease. We analyzed data from a prospective registry of patients who were evaluated in our chest pain evaluation center. Registry participants completed standardized and validated instruments for depression (by Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9), anxiety (by Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD-7), and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disorder (GERD; by GERD Symptom Frequency Questionnaire). Chest pain characteristics were recorded; severity was reported on a 10-point scale. A total of 195 patients were included in the investigation. Using the instruments noted above, the prevalence of depression was 34%, anxiety was 30%, and GERD was 44%, each of at least moderate severity. 32.5% of patients had 2 or more conditions. The median for the severity of angina was 7/10 and the number of episodes over the preceding week was 2, respectively. Severity of angina was associated with PHQ-9 (r = 0.238; P acute chest pain patients, depression, anxiety, and GERD were common, substantial overlap was observed. The severity of these noncardiac causes of chest pain causes correlated with the self-reported severity and frequency of angina, but weakly. These conditions should be part of a comprehensive plan of care for chest pain management.

  7. Q fever pneumonia in French Guiana: prevalence, risk factors, and prognostic score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Loïc; Chesnais, Cédric; Boullé, Charlotte; Drogoul, Anne-Sophie; Raoult, Didier; Djossou, Félix; Mahamat, Aba

    2012-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the major manifestation of Q fever, an emerging disease in French Guiana. Consequently, the empirical antibiotherapy used for the treatment of CAP combines doxycycline and the recommended amoxicillin. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Q fever pneumonia and to build a prediction rule to identify patients with Q fever pneumonia for empirical antibiotic guidance. A retrospective case-control study was conducted on inpatients admitted with CAP in the Department of Infectious Diseases of Cayenne Hospital from 2004 to 2007. Serodiagnosis for Coxiella burnetii was performed for all patients. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression, and a prognostic score was computed using bootstrap procedures. The score performance characteristics were used to choose the best prediction rule to identify patients with Q fever pneumonia. One hundred thirty-one patients with CAP were included and the Q fever pneumonia prevalence was 24.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.1-31.9). In multivariate analysis, male sex, middle age (age, 30-60 years), headache, leukocyte count 185 mg/L were independently associated with Q fever pneumonia. Patients with a predictive score ≤3 had a low risk of Q fever pneumonia with a negative predictive value of 0.97 (95% CI, .90-1) and a sensitivity of 0.97 (95% CI, .89-1). The prediction rule described here accurately identifies patients with low risk of Q fever pneumonia and may help physicians to make more rational decisions about the empirical use of antibiotherapy. Further prospective studies should be performed to validate this score.

  8. SU-F-R-24: Identifying Prognostic Imaging Biomarkers in Early Stage Lung Cancer Using Radiomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, X [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Wu, J [Stanford University Palo Alto, CA (United States); Cui, Y; Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gao, H [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patients diagnosed with early stage lung cancer have favorable outcomes when treated with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy. However, a significant proportion (∼20%) of patients will develop metastatic disease and eventually die of the disease. The purpose of this work is to identify quantitative imaging biomarkers from CT for predicting overall survival in early stage lung cancer. Methods: In this institutional review board-approved HIPPA-compliant retrospective study, we retrospectively analyzed the diagnostic CT scans of 110 patients with early stage lung cancer. Data from 70 patients were used for training/discovery purposes, while those of remaining 40 patients were used for independent validation. We extracted 191 radiomic features, including statistical, histogram, morphological, and texture features. Cox proportional hazard regression model, coupled with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), was used to predict overall survival based on the radiomic features. Results: The optimal prognostic model included three image features from the Law’s feature and wavelet texture. In the discovery cohort, this model achieved a concordance index or CI=0.67, and it separated the low-risk from high-risk groups in predicting overall survival (hazard ratio=2.72, log-rank p=0.007). In the independent validation cohort, this radiomic signature achieved a CI=0.62, and significantly stratified the low-risk and high-risk groups in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio=2.20, log-rank p=0.042). Conclusion: We identified CT imaging characteristics associated with overall survival in early stage lung cancer. If prospectively validated, this could potentially help identify high-risk patients who might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy.

  9. Independent prognostic impact of CD15 on complete remission achievement in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisini, Marta; Stefanizzi, Caterina; Ceglie, Teresa; Raponi, Sara; Vozella, Federico; Colafigli, Gioia; Salaroli, Adriano; D'Angiò, Mariella; Mancini, Marco; Diverio, Daniela; Breccia, Massimo; Mancini, Francesca; Minotti, Clara; Trisolini, Silvia; Capria, Saveria; Testi, Anna Maria; Guarini, Anna; Latagliata, Roberto; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Foà, Robin

    2017-12-01

    The prognostic role of CD15 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been tested in different studies with conflicting results. To address this issue, we retrospectively evaluated a cohort of 460 AML patients of all ages with the exclusion of acute promyelocytic leukemia (M/F 243/217, median age 50.6 years [range 0.9-81.2]) intensively treated at our institute between January 1999 and December 2010. CD15 positivity was found in 171 of 406 evaluable patients (42.1%). Complete remission (CR) was achieved by 334 patients (72.6%), while 82 (17.8%) were resistant and 44 (9.6%) died during induction: the median CR duration was 15.5 months (range 0.6-176.0), with 2-year disease-free survival rate of 45.1% (95% confidence interval 39.6-50.6). The median overall survival was 14.4 months (range 0.3-177.0), with 2-year overall survival rate of 42.2% (95% confidence interval 37.5-46.9). At univariate analysis for CR achievement, age classification (P = .045), low-risk karyotype (P  8 g/dL (P = .020), and white blood cell < 50 × 10 9 /L (P = .034) had a favorable impact. At a multivariate logistic regression model, CD15 positivity (P = .002), age < 60 years (P = .008), white blood cell < 50 × 10 9 /L (P = .017), and low-risk/no high-risk karyotype (P = .026/P = .025) retained an independent prognostic role on CR achievement. The baseline assessment of CD15 positivity appears to have a role in the risk evaluation for CR achievement in AML patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy and should be assessed in prospective studies together with other clinical and biologic features already reported. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Does the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) have a prognostic role in esophageal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Siun M; Casey, Sarah; Kennedy, Raymond; Ravi, Narayanasamy; Reynolds, John V

    2016-06-01

    The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), which combines indices of decreased plasma albumin and elevated CRP, has reported independent prognostic significance in colorectal cancer, but its value in upper gastrointestinal cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of mGPS in patients with operable esophageal malignancy. Patients undergoing resection with curative intent between January 2008 and June 2013 were included. The mGPS was scored as 0, 1, or 2 based on CRP(>10 mg/L) and albumin(<35g/L). The mGPS score (0 vs. 1/2 combined) was correlated with patient and tumor characteristics, and operative and oncologic outcomes. Two hundred and twenty-three patients were included. Median (range) follow-up was 21(12-70) months. The mGPS was 0 in 174 patients(78%). mGPS was significantly associated with positive nodal status(P = 0.008) and stage ≥III (P = 0.017). There was a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with mGPS = 0 (47.8 vs. 37.5 months, P = 0.014) but in multivariate analysis, only TNM-stage and nodal status were found to be independent prognostic indicators. mGPS is associated with advanced stage but has no independent prognostic significance and does not impact on operative outcomes. Consequently, this data does not support its routine application in patient selection or prognostication. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:732-737. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Jørgensen, K E

    1998-01-01

    To identify clinical and histologic prognostic factors and to investigate whether immunohistochemical detection of p53 expression might contain prognostic information, a retrospective study of patient and tumor characteristics was performed in 225 cases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcino...... prognostic indicator, which might be of value in the treatment planning in patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas.......To identify clinical and histologic prognostic factors and to investigate whether immunohistochemical detection of p53 expression might contain prognostic information, a retrospective study of patient and tumor characteristics was performed in 225 cases of papillary and follicular thyroid...... carcinomas. The analyses were based on cause-specific and crude survival. In univariate analysis, age at diagnosis, tumor size, presence of distant metastases, histology (papillary contra follicular type), extrathyroidal invasion, necrosis in primary tumor, and p53 expression were significant prognostic...

  12. The histone chaperone HJURP is a new independent prognostic marker for luminal A breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Rocío; Gurard-Levin, Zachary A; Berger, Frédérique; Rehman, Haniya; Martel, Elise; Corpet, Armelle; de Koning, Leanne; Vassias, Isabelle; Wilson, Laurence O W; Meseure, Didier; Reyal, Fabien; Savignoni, Alexia; Asselain, Bernard; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with different molecular subtypes that have varying responses to therapy. An ongoing challenge in breast cancer research is to distinguish high-risk patients from good prognosis patients. This is particularly difficult in the low-grade, ER-positive luminal A tumors, where robust diagnostic tools to aid clinical treatment decisions are lacking. Recent data implicating chromatin regulators in cancer initiation and progression offers a promising avenue to develop new tools to help guide clinical decisions. Here we exploit a published transcriptome dataset and an independent validation cohort to correlate the mRNA expression of selected chromatin regulators with respect to the four intrinsic breast cancer molecular subtypes. We then perform univariate and multivariate analyses to compare the prognostic value of a panel of chromatin regulators to Ki67, a currently utilized proliferation marker. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed a gene cluster containing several histone chaperones and histone variants highly-expressed in the proliferative subtypes (basal-like, HER2-positive, luminal B) but not in the luminal A subtype. Several chromatin regulators, including the histone chaperones CAF-1 (subunits p150 and p60), ASF1b, and HJURP, and the centromeric histone variant CENP-A, associated with local and metastatic relapse and poor patient outcome. Importantly, we find that HJURP can discriminate favorable and unfavorable outcome within the luminal A subtype, outperforming the currently utilized proliferation marker Ki67, as an independent prognostic marker for luminal A patients. The integration of chromatin regulators as clinical biomarkers, in particular the histone chaperone HJURP, will help guide patient substratification and treatment options for low-risk luminal A breast carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Prognostic impact of human papilloma virus (HPV) genotyping and HPV-16 subtyping in vaginal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Gabriella Lillsunde; Helenius, Gisela; Andersson, Sören; Sorbe, Bengt; Karlsson, Mats G

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the human papilloma virus (HPV) distribution in vaginal cancer and to evaluate HPV-genotype as well as HPV16-variant impact on prognosis. Sixty-nine patients diagnosed with primary vaginal carcinoma (1975-2002) were included in the study. Detection of twelve high-risk HPV (hr HPV) and two low-risk HPV (lr HPV) was performed with realtime-PCR. Samples positive for HPV-16 were analyzed for variants in the E6-gene with PCR and pyrosequencing. 53.6% (37/69) of the tumors were found to be HPV-positive, mostly for HPV-16 (N=26). Other HPV-types were HPV-18 (N=2), HPV-31 (N=2), HPV-33 (N=2), HPV-45 (N=1), HPV-52 (N=2), HPV-56 (N=1) and HPV-58 (N=1). Only European subtypes of HPV-16 were represented and the two most common HPV-16-variants were E-p (N=13) and E-G350 (N=11). Patients with HPV-positive tumors (N=37) had a significantly (log-rank test=3.341; p=0.0008) superior 5-year overall survival rate as well as cancer-specific survival rate and progression-free survival rate (p=0.0002; p=0.0004), compared with patients with HPV-negative tumors (N=32). Interestingly, patients with HPV-16-positive tumors had a superior overall survival compared with patients with tumors containing other HPV-genotypes. In a Cox proportional multivariate analysis age, tumor size, and HPV-status were independent and significant prognostic factors with regard to overall survival rate. HPV-status is of prognostic importance in vaginal carcinoma and varies with viral genotype. In this era of HPV-vaccination, genotypes other than those included in the vaccination program could still lead to vaginal carcinoma with unfavorable prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Prognostic Model for One-year Mortality in Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Shannon S.; Garrett, Joanne; Hanson, Laura C.; Lanier, Joyce; Govert, Joe; Brake, Mary C.; Landucci, Dante L.; Cox, Christopher E.; Carey, Timothy S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective A measure that identifies patients who are at high risk of mortality after prolonged ventilation will help physicians communicate prognosis to patients or surrogate decision-makers. Our objective was to develop and validate a prognostic model for 1-year mortality in patients ventilated for 21 days or more. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting University-based tertiary care hospital Patients 300 consecutive medical, surgical, and trauma patients requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 21 days were prospectively enrolled. Measurements and Main Results Predictive variables were measured on day 21 of ventilation for the first 200 patients and entered into logistic regression models with 1-year and 3-month mortality as outcomes. Final models were validated using data from 100 subsequent patients. One-year mortality was 51% in the development set and 58% in the validation set. Independent predictors of mortality included requirement for vasopressors, hemodialysis, platelet count ≤150 ×109/L, and age ≥50. Areas under the ROC curve for the development model and validation model were 0.82 (se 0.03) and 0.82 (se 0.05) respectively. The model had sensitivity of 0.42 (se 0.12) and specificity of 0.99 (se 0.01) for identifying patients who had ≥90% risk of death at 1 year. Observed mortality was highly consistent with both 3- and 12-month predicted mortality. These four predictive variables can be used in a simple prognostic score that clearly identifies low risk patients (no risk factors, 15% mortality) and high risk patients (3 or 4 risk factors, 97% mortality). Conclusions Simple clinical variables measured on day 21 of mechanical ventilation can identify patients at highest and lowest risk of death from prolonged ventilation. PMID:18552692

  15. Obstetric Outcomes in Adolescents Related to Body Mass Index and Compared with Low-Risk Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramö Isgren, Anna; Kjølhede, Preben; Blomberg, Marie

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate in adolescents the association between body mass index (BMI) and obstetric outcomes and to determine whether the outcomes in the BMI groups of adolescents differ from those of a low-risk population of adult women. This is a nationwide population-based register study. Obstetric outcomes of 31,386 singleton primiparous adolescents were evaluated in relation to BMI classes. Furthermore, the outcomes of the adolescents and 178,844 normal weight, nonsmoking, singleton primiparous women, 25-29 years old with no known comorbidity, defined as standard women, were compared. Multiple logistic regression models were used. Results are presented as crude odds ratios (ORs) or adjusted ORs and with a 95% confidence interval. Compared with normal weight adolescents, obese adolescents had a lower chance of a normal vaginal delivery (VD)-76% versus 85% [adjusted OR 0.61 (0.55-0.68)], a higher risk for acute cesarean section (CS)-8.9% versus 4.5% [adjusted OR 2.45 (2.08-2.88)], and stillbirth-0.7% versus 0.2% [adjusted OR 3.17 (1.74-5.77)]. Compared with standard women, overweight adolescents had a higher chance of a normal VD-82% versus 75% [crude OR 1.53 (1.44-1.64)] and a lower risk for acute CS-6.3% versus 7.1% [crude OR 0.85 (0.76-0.95)]. Obese adolescents had a lower risk for instrumental VD-8% versus 13% [crude OR 0.61 (0.53-0.71)] and obstetric anal sphincter injury-1% versus 3% [crude OR 0.38 (0.26-0.57)]. Several adverse obstetric outcomes were obesity related among adolescents. Overweight adolescents seemed to have better obstetric outcomes than standard women, something to consider when optimizing resources for women during pregnancy and delivery.

  16. A Comparison of Postpartum Depression among Low-risk-pregnant Women with Emotion- and Problem-focused Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Salehi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Postpartum depression is one of most important health problems in women. This study was performed with the purpose of comparing the frequency of postpartum depression in pregnant women with emotion and problem-focused coping strategies. Methods: This study was conducted as a prospective cohort study on 200 pregnant women with stress (low and high levels. The samples were pregnant women referred to all health-treatment, centers of Ardabil, which were selected using a multi-stage sampling method; and according to coping strategy, they were divided into two groups: emotion-focused and problem-focused. Low-risk pregnant women completed questionnaires about demographic characteristics, perceived stress, and Billings and Moos coping strategies in the 38th to 42th week of their pregnancy, and completed the Edinburgh depression scale in the 3th to 4th weeks after childbirth. Data were analyzed using chi 2 and t tests. p<0.05 considered significant.Results: In this study, 170 participant women (85% used emotion-focused strategy and 30 women (15% used problem-focused strategy. Frequency of postpartum depression was 6.7% in the problem-focused group and 8.2% in the emotion-focused group. There was no significant difference in the frequency of postpartum depression between women with the problem- and emotion-focused strategies. Relative risk for postpartum depression was 1.2 times more among the women used emotion-focused strategy than women used problem-focused strategy (p<0.05.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there was no significant relationship between postpartum depression and the two emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies. This can be due to high influence of postpartum specific endocrine factors in the etiology of this type of depression compared to other depressions.

  17. Long-Term Outcomes From a Prospective Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Christopher R., E-mail: crking@mednet.ucla.edu [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Urology, University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Brooks, James D.; Gill, Harcharan; Presti, Joseph C. [Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiotherapy has an intrinsically different normal tissue and tumor radiobiology. The results of a prospective trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer with long-term patient-reported toxicity and tumor control rates are presented. Methods and Materials: From 2003 through 2009, 67 patients with clinically localized low-risk prostate cancer were enrolled. Treatment consisted of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions using SBRT with the CyberKnife as the delivery technology. No patient received hormone therapy. Patient self-reported bladder and rectal toxicities were graded on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale (RTOG). Results: Median follow-up was 2.7 years. There were no grade 4 toxicities. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3, 2, and 1 bladder toxicities were seen in 3% (2 patients), 5% (3 patients), and 23% (13 patients) respectively. Dysuria exacerbated by urologic instrumentation accounted for both patients with Grade 3 toxicity. Urinary incontinence, complete obstruction, or persistent hematuria was not observed. Rectal Grade 3, 2, and 1 toxicities were seen in 0, 2% (1 patient), and 12.5% (7 patients), respectively. Persistent rectal bleeding was not observed. Low-grade toxicities were substantially less frequent with QOD vs. QD dose regimen (p = 0.001 for gastrointestinal and p = 0.007 for genitourinary). There were two prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy-proven failures with negative metastatic workup. Median PSA at follow-up was 0.5 {+-} 0.72 ng/mL. The 4-year Kaplan-Meier PSA relapse-free survival was 94% (95% confidence interval, 85%-102%). Conclusion: Significant late bladder and rectal toxicities from SBRT for prostate cancer are infrequent. PSA relapse-free survival compares favorably with other definitive treatments. The current evidence supports consideration of stereotactic body radiotherapy among the therapeutic options for localized prostate cancer.

  18. Distribution of high and low risk HPV types by cytological status: a population based study from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pini Maria T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV type distribution by cytological status represents useful information to predict the impact of mass vaccination on screening programs. Methods women aged from 25 to 64 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII low and high risk probes. Women repeating Pap-test upon unsatisfactory or positive results, or as a post-treatment and post-colposcopy follow-up analysis, were excluded from our study. High risk (HR HPV positive samples were typed using GP5+/GP6+ primed PCR, followed by Reverse Line Blot for 18 high/intermediate risk HPV types, while low risk (LR HPV positive samples were tested with type specific primers for HPV6 and HPV11. Results 3410 women had a valid HCII and Pap-test. The prevalence of HR and LR infections was 7.0% and 3.6%, 29.1% and 13.7%, 68.1% and 31.9%, 60.0% and 0.0%, 65.0% and 12.0%, for negative, ASC-US, L-SIL, ASC-H and H-SIL cytology, respectively. The fraction of ASC-US+ cytology due to HPV 16 and 18 ranged from 11.2 (HPV 16/18 alone to 15.4% (including HPV 16/18 in co-infection with other virus strains, and that due to HPV 6 and 11 ranged from 0.2% (HPV 6/11 alone to 0.7% (including HPV 6/11 in co-infection with other LR virus strains. Conclusions mass vaccination with bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine would modestly impact on prevalence of abnormal Pap-test in screening.

  19. Perineal injuries and birth positions among 2992 women with a low risk pregnancy who opted for a homebirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edqvist, Malin; Blix, Ellen; Hegaard, Hanne K; Ólafsdottir, Olöf Ásta; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Ingversen, Karen; Mollberg, Margareta; Lindgren, Helena

    2016-07-29

    Whether certain birth positions are associated with perineal injuries and severe perineal trauma (SPT) is still unclear. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of perineal injuries of different severity in a low-risk population of women who planned to give birth at home and to compare the prevalence of perineal injuries, SPT and episiotomy in different birth positions in four Nordic countries. A population-based prospective cohort study of planned home births in four Nordic countries. To assess medical outcomes a questionnaire completed after birth by the attending midwife was used. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Two thousand nine hundred ninety-two women with planned home births, who birthed spontaneously at home or after transfer to hospital, between 2008 and 2013 were included. The prevalence of SPT was 0.7 % and the prevalence of episiotomy was 1.0 %. There were differences between the countries regarding all maternal characteristics. No association between flexible sacrum positions and sutured perineal injuries was found (OR 1.02; 95 % CI 0.86-1.21) or SPT (OR 0.68; CI 95 % 0.26-1.79). Flexible sacrum positions were associated with fewer episiotomies (OR 0.20; CI 95 % 0.10-0.54). A low prevalence of SPT and episiotomy was found among women opting for a home birth in four Nordic countries. Women used a variety of birth positions and a majority gave birth in flexible sacrum positions. No associations were found between flexible sacrum positions and SPT. Flexible sacrum positions were associated with fewer episiotomies.

  20. Protocol-based active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer: anxiety levels in both men and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Daniel; Randazzo, Marco; Leupold, Ulrich; Zeh, Nina; Isbarn, Hendrik; Chun, Felix K; Ahyai, Sascha A; Baumgartner, Martin; Huber, Andreas; Recker, Franz; Kwiatkowski, Maciej

    2012-09-01

    To assess anxiety levels and health-related quality of life in partners of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) on active surveillance. For low-risk PCa, active surveillance is frequently chosen as a monitoring strategy. Active surveillance has been shown to be associated with low anxiety levels and a fair health-related quality of life in patients. However, little is known about the impact on their partners. We hypothesized that the latter suffer more from PCa diagnosis than the men themselves. Therefore, between February and August 2010, 133 couples-a response rate of 46.9%-completed a written questionnaire at their individual time lags from PCa diagnosis. A Wilcoxon test was performed to assess how distress levels affected the couples' quality of life. Binary logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting distress levels. The mean age was 66.2 years in partners and 69.3 in men. At the time quartiles, partners had anxiety scores of 5.5, 4.6, 5.4, and 5.6. Scores in men were statistically significantly lower: 3.9 (P = .05), 2.0 (P < .001), 3.3 (P = .002), and 3.3 (P = .02), respectively. However, the partners' scores were still well below 7 (ie, normal). Prostate-specific anxiety scores were below the clinical threshold as well: 15.5, 9.5, 6.5, and 9.0, respectively. Active surveillance preserves an encouragingly high health-related quality of life in both men on active surveillance and their partners. Fortunately, the more adverse values of the partners are well within the normal range and thus clinically not relevant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal Medical Complexity: Impact on Prenatal Health Care Spending among Women at Low Risk for Cesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shayna D; Herrera, Carolina; Udo, Ifeyinwa E; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Barrette, Eric; Magriples, Urania; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    Obstetric procedures are among the most expensive health care services, yet relatively little is known about health care spending among pregnant women, particularly the commercially-insured. The objective of this study was to examine the association between maternal medical complexity, as a result of having one or more comorbid conditions, and health care spending during the prenatal period among a national sample of 95,663 commercially-insured women at low risk for cesarean delivery. We conducted secondary analyses of 2010-2011 inpatient, outpatient, and professional claims for health care services from the Health Care Cost Institute. Allowed charges were summed for the prenatal and childbirth periods. Ordinary least squares regressions tested associations between maternal health conditions and health care expenditures during pregnancy. Thirty-four percent of pregnant women had one or more comorbidities; 8% had two or more. Pregnant women with one or more comorbidities had significantly higher allowed charges than those without comorbidities (p women with preexisting diabetes compared with women with no comorbid conditions. Average levels of prenatal period spending associated with maternal comorbidities were similar for women who had vaginal and cesarean deliveries. Patient characteristics accounted for 30% of the variance in prenatal period expenditures. The impact of maternal comorbidities, and in particular preexisting diabetes, on prenatal care expenditures should be taken into account as provider payment reforms, such as pay-for performance incentives and bundled payments for episodes of care, extend to maternal and child health-related services. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution of high and low risk HPV types by cytological status: a population based study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Chini, Francesco; Bisanzi, Simonetta; Burroni, Elena; Carillo, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Angeloni, Claudio; Scalisi, Aurora; Macis, Rosalba; Pini, Maria T; Capparucci, Paola; Guasticchi, Gabriella; Carozzi, Francesca M

    2011-01-20

    HPV type distribution by cytological status represents useful information to predict the impact of mass vaccination on screening programs. women aged from 25 to 64 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII) low and high risk probes. Women repeating Pap-test upon unsatisfactory or positive results, or as a post-treatment and post-colposcopy follow-up analysis, were excluded from our study. High risk (HR) HPV positive samples were typed using GP5+/GP6+ primed PCR, followed by Reverse Line Blot for 18 high/intermediate risk HPV types, while low risk (LR) HPV positive samples were tested with type specific primers for HPV6 and HPV11. 3410 women had a valid HCII and Pap-test. The prevalence of HR and LR infections was 7.0% and 3.6%, 29.1% and 13.7%, 68.1% and 31.9%, 60.0% and 0.0%, 65.0% and 12.0%, for negative, ASC-US, L-SIL, ASC-H and H-SIL cytology, respectively. The fraction of ASC-US+ cytology due to HPV 16 and 18 ranged from 11.2 (HPV 16/18 alone) to 15.4% (including HPV 16/18 in co-infection with other virus strains), and that due to HPV 6 and 11 ranged from 0.2% (HPV 6/11 alone) to 0.7% (including HPV 6/11 in co-infection with other LR virus strains). mass vaccination with bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine would modestly impact on prevalence of abnormal Pap-test in screening.

  3. Effectiveness of multidisciplinary primary prevention in decreasing the risk of work disability in a low-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltychev, Mikhail; Laimi, Katri; El-Metwally, Ashraf; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 4-week primary prevention program (vocationally oriented multidisciplinary early rehabilitation or VOMR) in reducing the risk of long-term work disability among public sector employees at risk of deteriorating work capacity because of work-related strain. As a part of the prospective Finnish public sector study, a follow-up study was carried out among 1394 public sector employees who underwent VOMR and their 4146 propensity score-matched controls. Baseline characteristics of 41 488 employees with full data on all 25 matching variables, measured from survey responses and national health registers, were used to calculate a propensity score for each employee to be granted rehabilitation. The cases were compared with the controls using Cox proportional hazard models as regards the risk of long-term work disability (sick leave >90 days or retirement on health grounds) after rehabilitation. During a mean follow-up of 2.8 years [standard deviation (SD) 1.49, range 0.04-5.0], incident all-cause work disability was observed for 6.1% of the rehabilitants and 6.2% of the controls [hazard ratio (HR) 0.98, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.76-1.25]. The corresponding HR for the main causes of work disability stemming from musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders were 0.86 (95% CI 0.57-1.30) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.67-1.74), respectively. VOMR was not associated with a lowered risk of long-term work disability compared to the controls. No support was obtained for the effectiveness of primary prevention for work disability in a low-risk cohort of employees.

  4. Global trends in nasopharyngeal cancer mortality since 1970 and predictions for 2020: Focus on low-risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carioli, Greta; Negri, Eva; Kawakita, Daisuke; Garavello, Werner; La Vecchia, Carlo; Malvezzi, Matteo

    2017-05-15

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) mortality shows great disparity between endemic high risk areas, where non-keratinizing carcinoma (NKC) histology is prevalent, and non-endemic low risk regions, where the keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (KSCC) type is more frequent. We used the World Health Organization database to calculate NPC mortality trends from 1970 to 2014 in several countries worldwide. For the European Union (EU), the United States (US) and Japan, we also predicted trends to 2020. In 2012, the highest age-standardized (world standard) rates were in Hong Kong (4.51/100,000 men and 1.15/100,000 women), followed by selected Eastern European countries. The lowest rates were in Northern Europe and Latin America. EU rates were 0.27/100,000 men and 0.09/100,000 women, US rates were 0.20/100,000 men and 0.08/100,000 women and Japanese rates were 0.16/100,000 men and 0.04/100,000 women. NPC mortality trends were favourable for several countries. The decline was -15% in men and -5% in women between 2002 and 2012 in the EU, -12% in men and -9% in women in the US and about -30% in both sexes in Hong Kong and Japan. The favourable patterns in Europe and the United States are predicted to continue. Changes in salted fish and preserved food consumption account for the fall in NKC. Smoking and alcohol prevalence disparities between sexes and geographic areas may explain the different rates and trends observed for KSCC and partially for NKC. Dietary patterns, as well as improvement in management of the disease, may partly account for the observed trends, too. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Cervical dilatation patterns of 'low-risk' women with spontaneous labour and normal perinatal outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladapo, Olufemi T; Diaz, Virginia; Bonet, Mercedes; Abalos, Edgardo; Thwin, Soe Soe; Souza, Hayala; Perdoná, Gleici; Souza, Joao Paulo; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2017-09-11

    The call for women-centred approaches to reduce labour interventions, particularly primary caesarean section, has renewed interest in a better understanding of natural labour progression. To synthesise available data on the cervical dilatation patterns during spontaneous labour of 'low-risk' women with normal perinatal outcomes. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, POPLINE, Global Health Library, and reference lists of eligible studies. Observational studies and other study designs. Two authors extracted data on maternal characteristics, labour interventions, duration of labour centimetre by centimetre; and from dilatation at admission through 10 cm. We pooled data across studies using weighted medians and employed Bootstrap-t method to generate their corresponding confidence bounds. Seven observational studies describing labour patterns for 99971 women met our inclusion criteria. The median time to advance by 1 cm in nulliparous women was longer than 1 hour until 5 cm was reached with markedly rapid progress after 6 cm. Similar labour progression patterns were observed in parous women. The 95th percentiles for both parity groups suggest it is not uncommon for some women to reach 10 cm despite dilatation rates much slower than 1-cm/hour threshold for the most part of their labours. An expectation of a minimum cervical dilatation threshold of 1-cm/hour throughout first stage of labour is unrealistic for most healthy nulliparous and parous women. Our findings call into question the universal application of clinical standards that are conceptually based on an expectation of a linear labour progress in all women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Reverse-phase protein array for prediction of patients at low risk of developing bone metastasis from breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Naoki; Manyam, Ganiraju C; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M; Niikura, Naoki; Yamauchi, Hideko; Nakamura, Seigo; Hortobágyi, Gabriel N; Baggerly, Keith A; Ueno, Naoto T

    2014-09-01

    A biomarker that predicts bone metastasis based on a protein laboratory assay has not been demonstrated. Reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) enables quantification of total and phosphorylated proteins, providing information about their functional status. The aim of this study was to identify bone-metastasis-related markers in patients with primary breast cancer using RPPA analysis. Tumor samples were obtained from 169 patients with primary invasive breast carcinoma who underwent surgery. The patients were categorized by whether they developed breast cancer bone metastasis (BCBM) during follow-up. Clinical characteristics and protein expression by RPPA were compared and verified by leave-one-out cross-validation. Lymph node status (p = .023) and expression level of 22 proteins by RPPA were significantly correlated with BCBM in logistic regression analysis. These variables were used to build a logistic regression model. After filtering the variables through a stepwise algorithm, the final model, consisting of 8 proteins and lymph node status, had sensitivity of 30.0%, specificity of 90.5%, positive predictive value of 30.0%, and negative predictive value of 90.5% in the cross-validation. Most of the identified proteins were associated with cell cycle or signal transduction (CDK2, CDKN1A, Rb1, Src, phosphorylated-ribosomal S6 kinase, HER2, BCL11A, and MYH11). Our validated model, in which the primary tumor is tested with RPPA, can predict patients who are at low risk of developing BCBM and thus who likely would not benefit from receiving a bisphosphonate in the adjuvant setting. Clinical trials excluding these patients have the potential to clarify the benefit of bisphosphonates in the adjuvant setting. ©AlphaMed Press.

  7. Human Papillomavirus Investigation in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Initial Report from the Low Risk HPV Types Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaie Niya, Mohammad Hadi; Safarnezhad Tameshkel, Fahimeh; Panahi, Mahshid; Bokharaei Salim, Farah; Monavari, Seyed Hamid Reza; Keyvani, Hossein

    2017-09-27

    Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are a major health issue in many parts of the world. Recently, attention has focused on the human papilloma virus (HPV) as a potential causative agent for HNSCC. This study aimed to survey HPV occurrence in HNSCCs as part of a comprehensive molecular epidemiology approach. Methods: In this retrospective study, patients were recruited from hospitals affiliated to the Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks were subjected to DNA isolation by QIAamp® DNA FFPE Tissue Kit and nested PCR, HPV-16 specific conventional PCR, and extra INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping assays were subsequently performed. PCR products were purified with a High Pure PCR Product Purification Kit and sequenced with an ABI 3730 XL sequencer. CLC Main Workbench 5 and MEGA5 bioinformatics software was used to analyze the raw data and to create the phylogenetic tree. SPSS v.20 was applied for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 156 FFPE blocks were collected from 2011 to 2017. Total mean age (y) of participants was 60.5 ± 12.6; 77.6 % (121/156) being men and 22.4% (35/156) e women. Overall, 5/156 (3.2%) patients (3 females and 2 males) were found to be HPV positive using the three methods. HPV genotyping revealed HPV types 16, 2, 27, and 43 in these malignancies. Tumor location and lymph node involvement indicated significant differences between the sexes. Conclusion: Although high risk HPV genotypes have been associated with HNSCCs, our findings indicate a potential of low risk HPV types to also contribute to such malignancies. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. 48. Can early 24 hours Holter monitoring predict obstructive coronary artery lesions in patients with low risk acute coronary syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Taha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of patients at increased risk of death due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS can add to risk stratification and guide the next step in the management of those patients. Altered HRV has been associated with adverse outcomes in heart disease, but this has not been established in patients with acute chest pain.This study aimed to create a non-invasive, economical and risk-free method in the clinical evaluation and diagnosis of significant CAD among patients with unstable angina.Twenty-four-hour Holter recordings of 100 patients with ACS were initiated within 24 hours of admission at the emergency department; stress ECG was done for all patients while coronary angiography was done only for patients with abnormal stress test. Time domain, frequency domain, and nonlinear HRV were examined.The mean SDNN was statistically significantly lower in patients with abnormal stress test, many time and frequency domain HRV parameters was statistically lower in patients with significant coronary arteries obstruction. HRV measured close to the ACS onset may assist in risk stratification. HRV parameters may provide additional, incremental prognostic information to established assessment guidelines and possible early intervention in those patients.

  9. A Survey of Metrics for Performance Evaluation of Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics is an emerging concept in condition basedmaintenance(CBM)ofcriticalsystems.Alongwith developing the fundamentals of being able to confidently predict...

  10. Distributed Prognostic Health Management with Gaussian Process Regression

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed prognostics architecture design is an enabling step for efficient implementation of health management systems. A major challenge encountered in such...

  11. An Approach to Prognostic Decision Making in the Aerospace Domain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The field of Prognostic Health Management (PHM) has been undergoing rapid growth in recent years, with development of increasingly sophisticated techniques for...

  12. Evaluating Prognostics Performance for Algorithms Incorporating Uncertainty Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncertainty Representation and Management (URM) are an integral part of the prognostic system development.1As capabilities of prediction algorithms evolve, research...

  13. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions....

  14. Higher risk for adverse obstetric outcomes among immigrants of African and Asian descent: a comparison study at a low-risk maternity hospital in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Kjersti S; Skjeldal, Ola H; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2015-06-01

    Immigrants have higher risks for some adverse obstetric outcomes, and 40 percent of women giving birth at the low-risk maternity ward in Baerum Hospital, Norway, are immigrants. This study compared obstetric outcomes between immigrants and ethnic Norwegians giving birth in a low-risk setting. This was a population-based study linking the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to Statistics Norway. The study included the first registered birth during the study period to immigrant and ethnic Norwegian women at Baerum Hospital from 2006 to 2010. The main outcome measures were onset of labor, operative vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery, episiotomy, postpartum bleeding > 500 mL, epidural analgesia, labor dystocia, gestational age, meconium-stained liquor, 5-minute Apgar score, birthweight, and transfer to a neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 11,540 women originating from 141 countries were divided into seven groups. Compared with Norwegians, women from East, Southeast, and Central Asia had increased risk for operative vaginal delivery, postpartum bleeding, and low Apgar score. The African women had increased risk for postterm birth, meconium-stained liquor, episiotomy, operative vaginal delivery, emergency cesarean delivery, postpartum bleeding, low Apgar score, and low birthweight. Women from South and Western Asia had increased risk for low birthweight. Obstetric outcomes of immigrants differ significantly from those of Norwegians, even in a low-risk maternity unit. Thus, immigrant women would benefit from more targeted care during pregnancy and childbirth, even in low-risk settings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Perinatal and maternal outcomes by planned place of birth for healthy women with low risk pregnancies: the Birthplace in England national prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocklehurst, P.; Kwee, A.; Birthplace in England Collaborative Group

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare perinatal outcomes, maternal outcomes, and interventions in labour by planned place of birth at the start of care in labour for women with low risk pregnancies. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: England: all NHS trusts providing intrapartum care at home,

  16. The Mother-Infant Feeding Relationship across the First Year and the Development of Feeding Difficulties in Low-Risk Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Dalia; Feldman, Ruth; Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Kuint, Jacob; Geva, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Although feeding problems are common during infancy and are typically accompanied by relational difficulties, little research observed the mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year as an antecedent to the development of feeding difficulties. We followed 76 low-risk premature infants and their mothers from the transition to oral…

  17. Plasma IL-8 and IL-6 levels can be used to define a group with low risk of septicaemia among cancer patients with fever and neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, ESJM; Vellenga, E; Swaanenburg, JCJM; Fidler, [No Value; Visser-van Brummen, PJ; Kamps, WA

    1999-01-01

    The standard therapy for patients with fever and chemotherapy-related neutropenia is hospitalization and infusion of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Early discharge of a defined group of patients at low risk for septicaemia would be of great advantage for these patients. Ih this study plasma

  18. Ultrasound assessment of placental function: the effectiveness of placental biometry in a low-risk population as a predictor of a small for gestational age neonate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinty, Patricia

    2012-07-01

    The aims of the study were to establish reference ranges for placental length and thickness in a low-risk obstetric population and to assess the likelihood of a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate on the basis of placental length at 18-24 weeks\\' gestation.

  19. Expressed Emotion in Mothers of Currently Depressed, Remitted, High-Risk, and Low-Risk Youth: Links to Child Depression Status and Longitudinal Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Ziegler, Melissa L.; Whalen, Diana J.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Dietz, Laura J.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Williamson, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined expressed emotion in the families of children and adolescents who were (a) in a current episode of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), (b) in remission from a past episode of MDD, (c) at high familial risk for developing MDD, and (d) low-risk controls. Participants were 109 mother-child dyads (children ages 8-19). Expressed…

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine (CLB) in low risk human volunteers and in patients treated with chronic haemodialysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reerink-Brongers, E. E.; Lelie, P. N.; Reesink, H. W.; Dees, P. J.; Brummelhuis, H. G.; van Aken, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    The immunogenicity and safety of a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine (HB-vaccine) were studied in healthy human volunteers (n = 471) at a low risk to be infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and in patients on chronic haemodialysis (n = 227), who were treated in hepatitis B free centres. After

  1. An observational study of the success and complications of 2546 external cephalic versions in low-risk pregnant women performed by trained midwives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuckens, A.; Rijnders, M.; Verburgt-Doeleman, G.H.M.; Rijninks-van Driel, G.C.; Thorpe, J.; Huttom, E.K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the success of an external cephalic version (ECV) training programme, and to determine the rates of successful ECV, complications, and caesarean birth in a low-risk population. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Primary health care and hospital settings throughout

  2. Left Visual Field Biases when Infants Process Faces: A Comparison of Infants at High- and Low-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Eva; Gastgeb, Holly; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    While it is well-known that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties processing faces, very little is known about the origins of these deficits. The current study focused on 6- and 11-month-old infants who were at either high-risk (n = 43) or low-risk (n = 31) for developing ASD based on having a sibling already diagnosed…

  3. Effect of rosuvastatin on the echolucency of the common carotid intima-media in low-risk individuals: the METEOR trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lind, L.; Peters, S.A.; Ruijter, H.M. Den; Palmer, M.K.; Grobbee, D.E.; Crouse, J.R.; O'Leary, D.H.; Evans, G.W.; Raichlen, J.S.; Bots, M.L.; Goldstein, M.; Staessen, J.A.; Marchal, G.; Linhart, A.; Salonen, J.T.; Simon, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The echolucency of the carotid intima-media is related to increased cardiovascular risk factor levels, morbidity, and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of statins on the echolucency of the common carotid intima-media in a low-risk population. METHODS: Data from

  4. Identification of false-positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assays by repeat testing in HIV-infected patients at low risk for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jacob; Reves, Randall; Johnson, Steven; Belknap, Robert

    2012-02-01

    The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) is increasingly being used for latent tuberculosis screening in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States. This is a retrospective analysis of repeating positive QFT assays as a strategy to identify false-positive results in HIV-infected patients at low risk for tuberculosis.

  5. Efficacy of multi-detector coronary computed tomography angiography in comparison with exercise electrocardiogram in the triage of patients of low risk acute chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagori, M; Narain, V S; Saran, R K; Dwivedi, S K; Sethi, R

    2014-01-01

    To compare the safety and diagnostic efficacy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) with exercise electrocardiography (XECG) in triaging patients of low risk acute chest pain. Noninvasive assessment of coronary stenosis by CTA may improve early and accurate triage of patients presenting with acute chest pain to the emergency department (ED). Low risk patients of possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were included in the study. The patients in CTA arm with significant stenosis (≥ 50%) underwent catheterization, while those with no or intermediate stenosis (chest pain presenting to the ED, with a PPV of 94.7% and an NPV of 100%.The overall diagnostic efficacy was 97.6%. XECG was observed to be 72.7% sensitive and 96.6% specific in diagnosing MACE with a PPV of 88.9% and NPV of 90.3% in low risk chest pain patients presenting to the ED. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 90%. CTA is an excellent diagnostic tool in ED patients with low risk of ACS, with minimum time delay as compared to XECG, and also is safe for triaging such patients. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The value of ultrasound and Doppler exams after 22 weeks of gestation for the diagnosis of obstetric and perinatal pathology in low-risk pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safonova I.M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — determining the importance of sonographic and Doppler examination after 22 weeks of gestation for the diagnosis of obstetric and perinatal complications at pregnancy low risk. Patients and methods. 4580 pregnant women from low risk subpopulation with normal results of ultrasound screenings. After 22 weeks of gestation sonographic and Doppler studies of pregnancy were performed. Perinatal outcomes of were studied as well. Results. The incidence of pathological ultrasound changes after 22 weeks of gestation in women at low risk subpopulations was 9.8%. Сritical placental violations were found in 51/4580 women (1.13%. In early fetal growth retardation cases at 26–30 weeks of gestation (44/51 or 86.2% the outcomes of pregnancies were unfavorable. In 83.9% cases of placental noncritical violations there were clinically favorable perinatal outcomes. In isolated polyhydramnios favorable outcomes were observed in 61.3% of cases. The risk of intrapartum distress after normal results of the III trimester ultrasound was high: OR 25 (95% CI 29–21, RR 83 (95% CI 77–88. The risk of premature rupture of membranes at normal results of the III trimester ultrasound was also high: OR 35 (95% CI 41–29, RR 88 (95% CI 94–80. Despite the low overall rate (2.5% of identify of uterine artery Doppler changes more than half of women with such disorders had perinatally significant complications which were observed later. An important predictor of preeclampsia and perinatal complications in low-risk pregnancy can be considered a bilateral abnormal uterine artery Doppler in conjunction with early calcification of the placenta: OR 300 (95% CI 278–335, RR 75 (95% CI 71–79. Conclusions. Features revealed by US in the second half of low-risk pregnancy in 3.2% of cases «translate» low'risk pregnancy into the high'risk, and in 6.6% — into the indefinite risk pregnancy. Medical tactics changed less than in 1% of the cases on the basis of ultrasound

  7. Depth of invasion, tumor budding, and worst pattern of invasion: prognostic indicators in early-stage oral tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almangush, Alhadi; Bello, Ibrahim O; Keski-Säntti, Harri; Mäkinen, Laura K; Kauppila, Joonas H; Pukkila, Matti; Hagström, Jaana; Laranne, Jussi; Tommola, Satu; Nieminen, Outi; Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Koivunen, Petri; Grénman, Reidar; Leivo, Ilmo; Salo, Tuula

    2014-06-01

    Oral (mobile) tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is characterized by a highly variable prognosis in early-stage disease (T1/T2 N0M0). The ability to classify early oral tongue SCCs into low-risk and high-risk categories would represent a major advancement in their management. Depth of invasion, tumor budding, histologic risk-assessment score (HRS), and cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) density were studied in 233 cases of T1/T2 N0M0 oral tongue SCC managed in 5 university hospitals in Finland. Tumor budding (≥5 clusters at the invasive front of the tumor) and depth of invasion (≥4 mm) were associated with poor prognosis in patients with early oral tongue SCC (hazard ratio [HR], 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-3.55; HR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.25-5.20, respectively) after multivariate analysis. The HRS and CAF density did not predict survival. However, high-risk worst pattern of invasion (WPOI), a component of HRS, was also an independent prognostic factor (HR, 4.47; 95% CI, 1.59-12.51). Analyzing the depth of invasion, tumor budding, and/or WPOI in prognostication and treatment planning of T1/T2 N0M0 oral tongue SCC is recommended. © 2013 The Authors. Head & Neck published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Prognostic value of average home blood pressure and variability: 19-year follow-up of the Didima study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntineri, Angeliki; Kalogeropoulos, Petros G; Kyriakoulis, Konstantinos G; Aissopou, Evaggelia K; Thomopoulou, Georgia; Kollias, Anastasios; Stergiou, George S

    2018-01-01

    The current general population study explored the prognostic value of home blood pressure (HBP) average and variability (BPV) versus office measurements (OBP). In 1997, 665 adults of Didima, Argolida, Greece were evaluated with OBP (two visits, six readings) and HBP (3 days, 12 readings) measurements. Total mortality and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (CVD) were assessed after 19.0 ± 1.4 years. BPV was quantified by using SD and coefficient of variation. During follow-up, 216 deaths (124 cardiovascular) and 146 cardiovascular events (fatal and nonfatal) were documented. Hazard ratios for total mortality were 1.39/1.20 (P home BPV (not diastolic) predicted total mortality (adjusted hazard ratios 1.18/1.17 for 1-SD increase in SD/coefficient of variation; P office BPV predicted CVD outcome (for total mortality only systolic), yet not after adjustment. Systolic home BPV predicted total mortality and CVD independent of office BPV. In this general population study with 19-year follow-up, average HBP predicted total mortality and CVD as reliably as OBP. Only normotension (low OBP and HBP) was associated with low risk. Systolic home BPV exhibited superior prognostic ability than OBP, deserving further research.

  9. Prognostic indicators in alcoholic cirrhotic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Nielsen, G

    1988-01-01

    The relationships between portal pressure, liver function and clinical variables on one hand and development of variceal hemorrhage and death on the other were investigated in 58 men with newly diagnosed alcoholic cirrhosis. Portal pressure was determined during hepatic vein catheterization...... information regarding development of variceal hemorrhage, even when easily obtained variables with known prognostic information were included [modified Child-Turcotte's criteria and incapacitation index (a weighted sum of days without normal health)]. During follow-up, 17 patients (29%) died. Applying Cox...... of prognosis in alcoholic cirrhotic men may be significantly improved by information about size of esophageal varices and level of portal pressure....

  10. Cellular prognostic markers in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Luigi; Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Damiano, Elvira; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Buonaguro, Franco M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the five big killers worldwide and is frequently associated with chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections. Tumor microenvironment consists of a complex network of cells and factors that plays a key role in the tumor progression and prognosis. This is true also for HCC. Several studies have shown strikingly strong correlation between HCC clinical prognosis and intratumoral infiltration of cells affecting tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. None of such cells is yet validated for routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment. The present review aims at providing a state-of-the-art of such studies.

  11. A new prognostic index (MIPI) for patients with advanced-stage mantle cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoster, Eva; Dreyling, Martin; Klapper, Wolfram; Gisselbrecht, Christian; van Hoof, Achiel; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Reiser, Marcel; Metzner, Bernd; Einsele, Hermann; Peter, Norma; Jung, Wolfram; Woermann, Bernhard; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Duehrsen, Ulrich; Eimermacher, Hartmut; Wandt, Hannes; Hasford, Joerg; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Unterhalt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    There is no generally established prognostic index for patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), because the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) have been developed for diffuse large cell and follicular lymphoma patients, respectively.

  12. Does the presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at CT have any prognostic value in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Hugo J.A.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Fijnheer, Rob [Meander Medical Center, Department of Hematology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Heggelman, Ben G.F. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Dubois, Stefan V. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prognostic value of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at computed tomography (CT) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This retrospective study included 105 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone CT and bone marrow biopsy (BMB) before R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, and prednisolone) chemo-immunotherapy. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the associations of cortical bone status at CT (absence vs. presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction), BMB findings (negative vs. positive for lymphomatous involvement), and dichotomized National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) strata (low risk vs. high risk) with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariate Cox regression analysis indicated that cortical bone status at CT was no significant predictor of either PFS or OS (p = 0.358 and p = 0.560, respectively), whereas BMB findings (p = 0.002 and p = 0.013, respectively) and dichotomized NCCN-IPI risk strata (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively) were significant predictors of both PFS and OS. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, only the dichotomized NCCN-IPI score was an independent predictive factor of PFS and OS (p = 0.004 and p = 0.003, respectively). The presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at CT was not found to have any prognostic implications in newly diagnosed DLBCL. (orig.)

  13. Subtype-dependent prognostic relevance of an interferon-induced pathway metagene in node-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callari, Maurizio; Musella, Valeria; Di Buduo, Eleonora; Sensi, Marialuisa; Miodini, Patrizia; Dugo, Matteo; Orlandi, Rosaria; Agresti, Roberto; Paolini, Biagio; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Cappelletti, Vera; Daidone, Maria Grazia

    2014-10-01

    The majority of gene expression signatures developed to predict the likelihood to relapse in breast cancer (BC) patients assigns a high risk score to patients with Estrogen Receptor (ER) negative or highly proliferating tumors. We aimed to identify a signature of differentially expressed (DE) metagenes, rather than single DE genes, associated with distant metastases beyond classical risk factors. We used 105 gene expression profiles from consecutive BCs to identify metagenes whose prognostic role was defined on an independent series of 92 ESR1+/ERBB2- node-negative BCs (42 cases developing metastases within 5 years from diagnosis and 50 cases metastasis-free for more than 5 years, comparable for age, tumor size, ER status and surgery). Findings were validated on publicly available datasets of 684 node-negative BCs including all the subtypes. Only a metagene containing interferon-induced genes (IFN metagene) proved to be predictive of distant metastasis in our series of patients with ESR1+/ERBB2- tumors (P = 0.029), and such a finding was validated on 457 ESR1+/ERBB2- BCs from public datasets (P = 0.0424). Conversely, the IFN metagene was associated with a low risk of metastasis in 104 ERBB2+ tumors (P = 0.0099) whereas it did not prove to significantly affect prognosis in 123 ESR1-/ERBB2- tumors (P = 0.2235). A complex prognostic interaction was revealed in ESR1+/ERBB2- and ERBB2+ tumors when the association between the IFN metagene and a T-cell metagene was considered. The study confirms the importance of analyzing prognostic variables separately within BC subtypes, highlights the advantages of using metagenes rather than genes, and finally identifies in node-negative ESR1+/ERBB2- BCs, the unfavorable role of high IFN metagene expression. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of a prognostic score for early mortality in severe head injury cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Pedro A; de-la-Cruz, Javier; Lora, David; Jiménez-Roldán, Luis; Rodríguez-Boto, Gregorio; Sarabia, Rosario; Sahuquillo, Juan; Lastra, Roberto; Morera, Jesus; Lazo, Eglis; Dominguez, Jaime; Ibañez, Javier; Brell, Marta; de-la-Lama, Adolfo; Lobato, Ramiro D; Lagares, Alfonso

    2014-12-01

    of early death estimated with the model, 4 risk of early death groups were established: low risk, sum score 0-3 ( 50%). This score could be used for selecting patients for clinical studies. For example, if patients with very high risk scores were excluded from our study sample, the patients included (eligibility score < 13) would represent 80% of the original sample and only 23% of the patients who died early. The combination of Glasgow Coma Scale score, CT scanning results, and secondary insult data into a prognostic score improved the prediction of early death and the classification of TBI patients.

  15. The Design and Operation of Suborbital Low Cost and Low Risk Vehicle to the Edge of Space (SOLVES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Nasrun, Nasri; Rashidy Zulkifi, Mohd; Izmir Yamin, Mohd; Othman, Jamaludin; Rafidi Zakaria, Norul

    2013-09-01

    Inclusive in the planning of Spaceport Malaysia are 2 local suborbital vehicles development. One of the vehicles is called SOLVES or Suborbital Low Cost and Low Risk Vehicle to the Edge of Space. The emphasis on the design and operation of SOLVES is green and robotic technology, where both green technology and robotic technology are used to protect the environment and enhance safety. As SOLVES climbs, its center of gravity stabilizes and remains at the bottom as its propellant being used until it depletes, due to the position of the vehicle's passenger cabin and its engines at its lower end. It will reach 80km from sea level generally known as "the edge of space" due to its momentum although its propellant will be depleted at a lower altitude. As the suborbital vehicle descends tail first, its wings automatically extend and rotate at horizontal axes perpendicular to the fuselage. These naturally and passively rotating wings ensure controlled low velocity and stable descend of the vehicle. The passenger cabin also rotates automatically at a steady low speed at the centerline of its fuselage as it descends, caused naturally by the lift force, enabling its passengers a surrounding 360 degrees view. SOLVES is steered automatically to its landing point by an electrical propulsion system with a vectoring nozzle. The electrical propulsion minimizes space and weight and is free of pollution and noise. Its electrical power comes from a battery aided by power generated by the naturally rotating wings. When the vehicle lands, it is in the safest mode as its propellant is depleted and its center of gravity remains at the bottom of its cabin. The cabin, being located at the bottom of the fuselage, enables very convenient, rapid and safe entry and exit of its passengers. SOLVES will be a robotic suborbital vehicle with green technology. The vehicle will carry 4 passengers and each passenger will be trained to land the vehicle manually if the fully automated landing system fails

  16. Outpatient treatment of low-risk venous thromboembolism with monotherapy oral anticoagulation: patient quality of life outcomes and clinician acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kline JA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey A Kline,1,2 Zachary P Kahler,1,3 Daren M Beam1,2 1Department of Emergency Medicine, 2Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 3Department of Emergency Medicine, University of South Carolina Greenville School of Medicine, Greenville, SC, USA Background: Oral monotherapy anticoagulation has facilitated home treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE in outpatients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure efficacy, safety, as well as patient and physician perceptions produced by a protocol that selected VTE patients as low-risk patients by the Hestia criteria, and initiated home anticoagulation with an oral factor Xa antagonist. Methods: Patients were administered the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study Quality of life/Symptoms ques­tionnaire [VEINEs QoL/Sym] and the physical component summary [PCS] from the Rand 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF36]. The primary outcomes were VTE recurrence and hemorrhage at 30 days. Secondary outcomes compared psychometric test scores between patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT to those with pulmonary embolism (PE. Patient perceptions were abstracted from written comments and physician perceptions specific to PE outpatient treatment obtained from structured survey. Results: From April 2013 to September 2015, 253 patients were treated, including 67 with PE. Within 30 days, 2/ 253 patients had recurrent DVT and 2/253 had major hemor­rhage; all four had DVT at enrollment. The initial PCS scores did not differ between DVT and PE patients (37.2±13.9 and 38.0±12.1, respectively and both DVT and PE patients had similar improvement over the treatment period (42.2±12.9 and 43.4±12.7, respectively, consistent with prior literature. The most common adverse event was menorrhagia, present in 15% of women. Themes from patient-written responses reflected satisfaction with increased autonomy. Physicians’ (N=116

  17. [Molecular biological evaluation of prognostic parameters in GIST. Development of an integrative model of tumor progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, F

    2010-10-01

    Prognosis evaluation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is currently based on tumor diameter, mitotic counts and anatomic localisation. There are two risk classifications as well as the first ever TNM classification for GISTs, whereby the risk classification according to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) has the best correlation with clinical follow-up according to own experiences. "Very low/low risk" GISTs are almost benign, while the majority of "high risk" GISTs metastasize and benefit from adjuvant therapy. Careful evaluation of mitotic counts in 50 high-power fields is of particular relevance for correct risk classification. Apart from these classical prognostic factors, many molecular genetic parameters with correlation to follow-up have been evaluated and may help to improve prognosis evaluation of GISTs in the future. Since most of the molecular genetic parameters are associated or even determined by the clinico-pathological parameters, an integrated model for tumor progression of GISTs is helpful to interpret the different factors in correlation to one another. In particular for "intermediate risk" GISTs, additional parameters are needed for improved prognosis evaluation.

  18. Meningoencephalitis of unknown origin: investigation of prognostic factors and outcome using a standard treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, M; Smith, P M; Garosi, L

    2013-05-18

    Meningoencephalitis of unknown origin (MUO) is a common inflammatory CNS disease in dogs, with a variable and unpredictable outcome. MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) features were prospectively evaluated to establish their utility as prognostic markers for predicting mortality, relapse and long-term outcome in 39 dogs with MUO. MRI and CSF analysis were performed at initial diagnosis and three months into treatment with prednisolone and cytosine arabinoside. When possible, MRI was repeated every 12 months thereafter. Median survival time was 26 days. All deaths occurred within 52 days of diagnosis (22/39; 56 per cent). One-third (13/39) died within 72 hours of diagnosis. Outcome was good or excellent in 12/17 surviving dogs. Loss of the cerebral sulci and foramen magnum herniation on MRI were associated with increased risk of mortality. An abnormal CSF analysis at the three-month re-examination was associated with increased risk of relapse (P=0.04). The combination of MRI and CSF analysis provided a greater sensitivity for predicting relapse than one modality alone. Discontinuing treatment before MRI lesions resolved always resulted in relapse. The presence of certain MRI characteristics may indicate an increased risk of mortality. Dogs alive three months following diagnosis have a very low risk of death due to MUO.

  19. Liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - diagnostic challenge with prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stål, Per

    2015-10-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world, with a prevalence of 20%. In a subgroup of patients, inflammation, ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes and a varying degree of fibrosis may develop, a condition named non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Advanced liver fibrosis (stage F3) and cirrhosis (stage F4) are histologic features that most accurately predict increased mortality in both liver-related and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis are at risk for complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and esophageal varices and should therefore be included in surveillance programs. However, liver disease and fibrosis are often unrecognized in patients with NAFLD, possibly leading to a delayed diagnosis of complications. The early diagnosis of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD is therefore crucial, and it can be accomplished using serum biomarkers (e.g., the NAFLD Fibrosis Score, Fib-4 Index or BARD) or non-invasive imaging techniques (transient elastography or acoustic radiation force impulse imaging). The screening of risk groups, such as patients with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, for NAFLD development with these non-invasive methods may detect advanced fibrosis at an early stage. Additionally, patients with a low risk for advanced fibrosis can be identified, and the need for liver biopsies can be minimized. This review focuses on the diagnostic challenge and prognostic impact of advanced liver fibrosis in NAFLD.

  20. Serum Uric Acid Level as a Prognostic Marker in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Lee, Sang-Min

    2017-01-01

    Uric acid acts as both a pathogenic inflammatory mediator and an antioxidative agent. Several studies have shown that uric acid level correlates with the incidence, severity, and prognosis of pulmonary diseases. However, the association between uric acid level and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has not been studied. This study was conducted to elucidate how serum uric acid level is related with clinical prognosis of ARDS. A retrospective cohort study with propensity score matching was conducted at a medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The medical records of patients diagnosed with ARDS admitted from 2005 through 2011 were reviewed. Two hundred thirty-seven patients with ARDS met the inclusion criteria. Patients with a serum uric acid level uric acid group, and those with a level ≥3 mg/dL were classified into the normal to high uric acid group. We selected 40 patients in each group using propensity score matching. A higher percentage of patients in the low uric acid group experienced clinical improvement in ARDS. More patients died from sepsis in the normal to high uric acid group. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a low serum uric acid level was significantly associated with better survival rate. In patients with ARDS, a low serum uric acid level may be a prognostic marker of a low risk of in-hospital mortality.

  1. A simple prognostic model for overall survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Hazem I.; Patenaude, Francois; Toumishey, Ethan; Ross, Laura; Abdelsalam, Mahmoud; Reiman, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The primary purpose of this study was to develop a simpler prognostic model to predict overall survival for patients treated for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) by examining variables shown in the literature to be associated with survival. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients treated for mRCC at two Canadian centres. All patients who started first-line treatment were included in the analysis. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was constructed using a stepwise procedure. Patients were assigned to risk groups depending on how many of the three risk factors from the final multivariate model they had. Results: There were three risk factors in the final multivariate model: hemoglobin, prior nephrectomy, and time from diagnosis to treatment. Patients in the high-risk group (two or three risk factors) had a median survival of 5.9 months, while those in the intermediate-risk group (one risk factor) had a median survival of 16.2 months, and those in the low-risk group (no risk factors) had a median survival of 50.6 months. Conclusions: In multivariate analysis, shorter survival times were associated with hemoglobin below the lower limit of normal, absence of prior nephrectomy, and initiation of treatment within one year of diagnosis. PMID:27217858

  2. Prognostic modeling of oral cancer by gene profiles and clinicopathological co-variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mes, Steven W; Te Beest, Dennis; Poli, Tito; Rossi, Silvia; Scheckenbach, Kathrin; van Wieringen, Wessel N; Brink, Arjen; Bertani, Nicoletta; Lanfranco, Davide; Silini, Enrico M; van Diest, Paul J; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Leemans, C René; van de Wiel, Mark A; Brakenhoff, Ruud H

    2017-08-29

    Accurate staging and outcome prediction is a major problem in clinical management of oral cancer patients, hampering high precision treatment and adjuvant therapy planning. Here, we have built and validated multivariable models that integrate gene signatures with clinical and pathological variables to improve staging and survival prediction of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Gene expression profiles from 249 human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative OSCCs were explored to identify a 22-gene lymph node metastasis signature (LNMsig) and a 40-gene overall survival signature (OSsig). To facilitate future clinical implementation and increase performance, these signatures were transferred to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays and validated in an independent cohort of 125 HPV-negative tumors. When applied in the clinically relevant subgroup of early-stage (cT1-2N0) OSCC, the LNMsig could prevent overtreatment in two-third of the patients. Additionally, the integration of RT-qPCR gene signatures with clinical and pathological variables provided accurate prognostic models for oral cancer, strongly outperforming TNM. Finally, the OSsig gene signature identified a subpopulation of patients, currently considered at low-risk for disease-related survival, who showed an unexpected poor prognosis. These well-validated models will assist in personalizing primary treatment with respect to neck dissection and adjuvant therapies.

  3. Clinical prognostic markers in stage IIIC melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Max F; Schopman, Jaap H H; Berger, Danique M S; Klop, Willem M C; Jóźwiak, Katarzyna; Wouters, Michel W J M; van der Hage, Jos A; van Akkooi, Alexander C J

    2017-08-01

    Although the EORTC 18071-trial has shown a clear survival benefit for adjuvant ipilimumab, accurately selecting patients for this toxic adjuvant therapy is important. We aimed to identify prognostic factors for death and disease recurrence in AJCC stage IIIC melanoma patients. Retrospective analysis of patients who underwent lymph node dissection (LND) for stage IIIC melanoma in our institution between 2000 and 2016. Baseline characteristics, melanoma-specific survival (MSS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed, and prognostic factors for recurrence and survival were analyzed using uni- and multivariable analysis. A total of 205 patients were included. Median follow-up was 20 months (interquartile range 11-43 months), median MSS was 28 months, and median DFS was 11 months. Five-year MSS was 33% and 5-year DFS was 23%. N3 (≥4 involved lymph nodes) and extracapsular extension (ECE) carried an increased risk of disease recurrence after LND and death by melanoma. Patients with both N3 and ECE had virtually no long-term survival. Although survival for patients with stage IIIC is poor in general, patients with both N3 disease and ECE constitute the group with the worst prognosis and should be considered for adjuvant therapy with ipilimumab or any other future effective adjuvant therapy (study). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Prognostic factors of supratentorial cerebrovascular accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, C H; Guisasola, L M; Salas-Puig, X; Tuñón, A; Mateos, V; Vidal, J A

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to delimit prognostic factors in supratentorial stroke based on data obtained upon hospitalization. We studied two series of patients, the first being 150 with brain infarct and the second 135 having intracerebral haemorrhage. We analyzed: age, Glasgow and Canadian scales, glucose and urgence haemogram and the size of the lesion across its greatest diameter using computerized tomography (CT). Follow-up time was until death or one year after the stroke. Those who lived longer than one year after were subclassified according to the Rankin scale as or = 3. There was a significant difference between those who survived for less than one month and those surviving more than one year: their age (p or = 3 also differed significantly with regard to age. Noteworthy were the unfavourable data: Glasgow 6 cm and haematomas > 4 cm in diameter. We comment on other evolutionary variables which may influence prognostic assessment such as clinical deterioration or CT sensitivity of the infarct depending on the carry-out time.

  5. Prognostics Applied to Electric Propulsion UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saha, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Health management plays an important role in operations of UAV. If there is equipment malfunction on critical components, safe operation of the UAV might possibly be compromised. A technology with particular promise in this arena is equipment prognostics. This technology provides a state assessment of the health of components of interest and, if a degraded state has been found, it estimates how long it will take before the equipment will reach a failure threshold, conditional on assumptions about future operating conditions and future environmental conditions. This chapter explores the technical underpinnings of how to perform prognostics and shows an implementation on the propulsion of an electric UAV. A particle filter is shown as the method of choice in performing state assessment and predicting future degradation. The method is then applied to the batteries that provide power to the propeller motors. An accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm is of critical importance to ensure the safe operation of the vehicle if one wants to maximize in-air time. Current reliability based techniques turn out to be insufficient to manage the use of such batteries where loads vary frequently in uncertain environments.

  6. Prognostic ability of EndoPredict compared to research-based versions of the PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) scores in node-positive, estrogen receptor-positive, and HER2-negative breast cancer. A GEICAM/9906 sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Miguel; Brase, Jan C; Ruiz, Amparo; Prat, Aleix; Kronenwett, Ralf; Calvo, Lourdes; Petry, Christoph; Bernard, Philip S; Ruiz-Borrego, Manuel; Weber, Karsten E; Rodriguez, César A; Alvarez, Isabel M; Segui, Miguel A; Perou, Charles M; Casas, Maribel; Carrasco, Eva; Caballero, Rosalía; Rodriguez-Lescure, Alvaro

    2016-02-01

    There are several prognostic multigene-based tests for managing breast cancer (BC), but limited data comparing them in the same cohort. We compared the prognostic performance of the EndoPredict (EP) test (standardized for pathology laboratory) with the research-based PAM50 non-standardized qRT-PCR assay in node-positive estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and HER2-negative (HER2-) BC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy (ET) in the GEICAM/9906 trial. EP and PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) scores [based on subtype (ROR-S) and on subtype and proliferation (ROR-P)] were compared in 536 ER+/HER2- patients. Scores combined with clinical information were evaluated: ROR-T (ROR-S, tumor size), ROR-PT (ROR-P, tumor size), and EPclin (EP, tumor size, nodal status). Patients were assigned to risk-categories according to prespecified cutoffs. Distant metastasis-free survival (MFS) was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier. ROR-S, ROR-P, and EP scores identified a low-risk group with a relative better outcome (10-year MFS: ROR-S 87 %; ROR-P 89 %; EP 93 %). There was no significant difference between tests. Predictors including clinical information showed superior prognostic performance compared to molecular scores alone (10-year MFS, low-risk group: ROR-T 88 %; ROR-PT 92 %; EPclin 100 %). The EPclin-based risk stratification achieved a significantly improved prediction of MFS compared to ROR-T, but not ROR-PT. All signatures added prognostic information to common clinical parameters. EPclin provided independent prognostic information beyond ROR-T and ROR-PT. ROR and EP can reliably predict risk of distant metastasis in node-positive ER+/HER2- BC patients treated with chemotherapy and ET. Addition of clinical parameters into risk scores improves their prognostic ability.

  7. Improving the Prognostic Ability through Better Use of Standard Clinical Data - The Nottingham Prognostic Index as an Example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Jürgen Winzer

    Full Text Available Prognostic factors and prognostic models play a key role in medical research and patient management. The Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI is a well-established prognostic classification scheme for patients with breast cancer. In a very simple way, it combines the information from tumor size, lymph node stage and tumor grade. For the resulting index cutpoints are proposed to classify it into three to six groups with different prognosis. As not all prognostic information from the three and other standard factors is used, we will consider improvement of the prognostic ability using suitable analysis approaches.Reanalyzing overall survival data of 1560 patients from a clinical database by using multivariable fractional polynomials and further modern statistical methods we illustrate suitable multivariable modelling and methods to derive and assess the prognostic ability of an index. Using a REMARK type profile we summarize relevant steps of the analysis. Adding the information from hormonal receptor status and using the full information from the three NPI components, specifically concerning the number of positive lymph nodes, an extended NPI with improved prognostic ability is derived.The prognostic ability of even one of the best established prognostic index in medicine can be improved by using suitable statistical methodology to extract the full information from standard clinical data. This extended version of the NPI can serve as a benchmark to assess the added value of new information, ranging from a new single clinical marker to a derived index from omics data. An established benchmark would also help to harmonize the statistical analyses of such studies and protect against the propagation of many false promises concerning the prognostic value of new measurements. Statistical methods used are generally available and can be used for similar analyses in other diseases.

  8. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Prognostic Marker: A Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first proves the utilization of osteopontin and mesothelin for diagnostic and prognostic assessment of MPM in patients previously exposed to asbestos and those with pleural metastasis. The second proves that immunohistochemical analysis identified osteopontin to have a prognostic role from its expression in MPM.

  9. Prognostic laboratory markers of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, E; Henriksen, Karen Eberhardt; Bendtzen, K

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether determination of a set of laboratory markers at baseline provides prognostic information on joint damage in hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis.......To investigate whether determination of a set of laboratory markers at baseline provides prognostic information on joint damage in hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis....

  10. Diagnostic and prognostic values of antikeratin antibodies (AKA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    prognostic predictors 2. Antikeratin antibodies (AKA) are detectable at the time of initial diagnosis of adult. RA and its positivity may have prognostic significance in the disease course 3,4. Furthermore, it is considered now as one of the specific serological markers of RA 5. PIIINP is a marker of type III collagen synthesis as.

  11. Prognostic factors of sciatica in the Canon of Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaee, Bagher; Abbassian, Alireza; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Rostamian, Abdorrahman

    2013-12-01

    Prognosis studies are fast developing and very practical types of medical research. Sciatica is one of the common types of low back pain and identifying prognostic factors of the illness can help physicians and patients to choose best method of practice. The prognostic factors of sciatica are presented from the Canon of Avicenna, one of the most famous physicians in the history of medicine.

  12. Prognostic Disclosure and its Influence on Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsiu Chen

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: In order to close the gap between patients’ preferences for prognostic disclosure and actual receipt of prognostic information, healthcare professionals should develop interventions to overcome the physicians’ difficulty in revealing prognosis, thus facilitating cancer patients’ awareness of prognosis and providing high quality end-of-life care.

  13. Integration and operation of prognostics in logistics systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez de la Cruz, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the concept of prognostics integrated logistics is introduced. The idea behind this concept is to investigate the use of technological tools for continuous monitoring and data gathering to do accurate prognostics on logistics requirements; i.e.: maintenance procedures, stock

  14. The prognostic role of comorbidity in salivary gland carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, Chris H. J.; van der Schroeff, Marc P.; van Schie, Kim; Eerenstein, Simone E. J.; Lubsen, Herman; Kaanders, Johannes H. A. M.; Smeele, Ludwig E.; Burlage, Fred R.; van den Ende, Piet L.; de Jong, Robert J. Baatenburg

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Patients with head and neck cancer are prone to develop significant comorbidity mainly because of the high incidence of tobacco and alcohol abuse, both of which are etiologic and prognostic factors. However, to the authors' knowledge little is known regarding the prognostic relevance of

  15. Prognostic importance of complete atrioventricular block complicating acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aplin, Mark; Engstrøm, Thomas; Vejlstrup, Niels G

    2003-01-01

    Third-degree atrioventricular block after acute myocardial infarction is considered to have prognostic importance. However, its importance in conjunction with thrombolytic therapy and its relation to left ventricular function remains uncertain. This report also outlines an important distinction...... between atrioventricular block in the setting of anterior and inferior wall acute myocardial infarction, with profound clinical and prognostic implications....

  16. [Expression and prognostic significance of microenvironment related prognostic factors in patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T T; Li, S X; Xia, B; Zhao, H F; Xu, W; Yang, H L; Wang, X F; Yu, Y; Sun, B C; Zhang, Y Z

    2017-05-16

    Objective: To observe the expression of three microenvironment related prognostic factors, i. e. programmed death 1 (PD-1), forkhead box protein 3(FOXP3) and colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor(CSF-1R) protein in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (CHL) patients, and to explore the correlation between the protein expression and the prognosis of the patients. Methods: A total of 45 cases of CHL patients, who had been admitted to the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital and Chinese PLA General Hospital from February 2005 to August 2010 were analyzed, including clinical features, prognostic factors, and treatment regimens. CHL patients' specimens were collected and the expression of PD-1, FOXP3, and CSF-1R proteins analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. Epstein-Barr virus encoded mRNA (EBER) was detected by in situ hybridization analysis. The relationship between the protein expression of PD-1, FOXP3 and CSF-1R and the patients' outcome was analyzed with clinical and follow-up data. Survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method, the Cox proportional hazard model was used to perform multivariate analysis. Results: In this cohort of 45 CHL patients, PD-1 positive was found in 7 cases (15.6%), FOXP3 high expression in 23 cases (51.1%), CSF-1R positive in 18 cases (40.0%). In the univariate analysis, the expression of FOXP3 and CSF-1R, International Prognostic Index (IPI) score, Ann Arbor stage and EBER were related with the patients' 5-year overall survival (OS); IPI score, the expression of FOXP3 and EBER were related with the patients' 5-year progress-free survival (PFS). Multivariate analysis indicated that CSF-1R protein expression was the independent prognostic factor affecting the patients' 5-year OS(HR: 8.918, P=0.020), and FOXP3 protein expression was the independent prognostic factor affecting the patients' 5-year PFS (HR: 0.122, PCSF-1R and EBV may be independent prognostic factors of CHL and this study may provide novel strategies

  17. Prognostic factors of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Ferri, Belén; Martínez-Barba, Enrique; Torregrosa, Núria M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    Most prognostic studies in differentiated carcinoma have included a high number of papillary carcinomas and few follicular carcinomas, and not all of their conclusions therefore apply to the latter. To analyze the prognostic factors of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Patients with histological diagnosis of follicular carcinoma who had undergone potentially curative surgery, had no disseminated disease at diagnosis, and had been followed up for at least 5 years. Tumor recurrence was defined as: 1) tumor lesions with cytological analysis suggesting malignancy and/or 2) patients with total thyroidectomy with thyroglobulin levels >2 ng/mL. Clinical, therapeutic, and histological parameters were analyzed to assess prognostic factors. Recurrence was found in 25 (38%) of the 66 study patients during a follow-up period of 99 ± 38 months. Most patients with recurrence (n=20) had increased Tg levels without anatomical location, and were initially treated with radioactive I131. In the remaining 5 cases, surgical excision of the lesion was performed, and three patients required surgery during the follow-up period. Two patients died due to the disease (3%), and two other patients (3%) currently have distant metastases. Mean disease-free interval was 154 ± 14 months, and rates of disease-free patients at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 71, 58, 58, and 58% respectively. Clinical factors influencing recurrence included 1) age (p=0.0035); 2) sex (p=0.0114); and 3) cervical pain (p=0.0026). Histological/surgical factors associated with recurrence included 1) infiltration into neighboring structures (p=0.0000); 2) type of carcinoma (p=0.0000); 3) size (p=0.0162); 4) vascular invasion (p=0.0085); and 5) adenopathies (p=0.046). In the multivariate study, cervical pain (p=0.018) and extrathyroid invasion (p=0.045) continued to be significant factors. In follicular carcinoma, rates of disease-free patients are 71% at 5 years and 58% at 10 years, and the main predictive factors are presence

  18. Mode of birth and medical interventions among women at low risk of complications: A cross-national comparison of birth settings in England and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Ank; Peters, Lilian; Geerts, Caroline C; van Roosmalen, Jos J M; Twisk, Jos W R; Brocklehurst, Peter; Hollowell, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    To compare mode of birth and medical interventions between broadly equivalent birth settings in England and the Netherlands. Data were combined from the Birthplace study in England (from April 2008 to April 2010) and the National Perinatal Register in the Netherlands (2009). Low risk women in England planning birth at home (16,470) or in freestanding midwifery units (11,133) were compared with Dutch women with planned home births (40,468). Low risk English women with births planned in alongside midwifery units (16,418) or obstetric units (19,096) were compared with Dutch women with planned midwife-led hospital births (37,887). CS rates varied across planned births settings from 6.5% to 15.5% among nulliparous and 0.6% to 5.1% among multiparous women. CS rates were higher among low risk nulliparous and multiparous English women planning obstetric unit births compared to Dutch women planning midwife-led hospital births (adjusted (adj) OR 1.89 (95% CI 1.64 to 2.18) and 3.66 (2.90 to 4.63) respectively). Instrumental vaginal birth rates varied from 10.7% to 22.5% for nulliparous and from 0.9% to 5.7% for multiparous women. Rates were lower in the English comparison groups apart from planned births in obstetric units. Transfer, augmentation and episiotomy rates were much lower in England compared to the Netherlands for all midwife-led groups. In most comparisons, epidural rates were higher among English groups. When considering maternal outcomes, findings confirm advantages of giving birth in midwife-led settings for low risk women. Further research is needed into strategies to decrease rates of medical intervention in obstetric units in England and to reduce rates of avoidable transfer, episiotomy and augmentation of labour in the Netherlands.

  19. The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery in older patients with low risk breast cancer- a meta-analysis of randomized trials

    OpenAIRE

    Matuschek, Christiane; B?lke, Edwin; Haussmann, Jan; Mohrmann, Svjetlana; Nestle-Kr?mling, Carolin; Gerber, Peter Arne; Corradini, Stefanie; Orth, Klaus; Kammers, Kai; Budach, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s) It is currently unclear whether patients with low risk breast cancer receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy need adjuvant radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. The data of randomized trials are available. Materials/Methods In a database search 5 randomized trials including in total 3766 mostly elderly patients with early stage breast cancer tr?eated either with adjuvant endocrine therapy or with endocrine therapy and additional whole breast radiation after brea...

  20. Comparison of pathological data between prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimen in patients with low to very low risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendínez-Cano, G; Alonso-Flores, J; Beltrán-Aguilar, V; Cayuela, A; Salazar-Otero, S; Bachiller-Burgos, J

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the correlation between pathological data found in radical prostatectomy and previously performed biopsy in patients at low risk prostate cancer. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the characteristics of radical prostatectomies performed in our center from January 2012 to November 2014. The inclusion criteria were patients with low-risk disease (cT1c-T2a, PSA≤10ng/mL and Gleason score≤6). We excluded patients who had fewer than 8 cores in the biopsy, an unspecified number of affected cores, rectal examinations not reported in the medical history or biopsies performed in another center. Of the 184 patients who underwent prostatectomy during this period, 87 met the inclusion criteria, and 26 of these had<3 affected cores and PSA density≤.15 (very low risk). In the entire sample, the percentage of undergrading (Gleason score≥7) and extracapsular invasion (pT3) was 18.4% (95% CI 10.3-27.6) and 10.35% (95% CI 4.6-17.2), respectively. The percentage of positive margins was 21.8% (95% CI 12.6-29.9). In the very low-risk group, we found no cases of extracapsular invasion and only 1 case of undergrading (Gleason 7 [3+4]), representing 3.8% of the total (95% CI 0-12.5). Predictors of no correlation (stage≥pT3a or undergrading) were the initial risk group, volume, PSA density and affected cores. Prostate volume, PSA density, the number of affected cores and the patient's initial risk group influence the poor pathological prognosis in the radical prostatectomy specimen (extracapsular invasion and Gleason score≥7). Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Debunking the claim that abstinence is usually healthier for smokers than switching to a low-risk alternative, and other observations about anti-tobacco-harm-reduction arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Carl V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nicotine is so desirable to many people that when they are given only the options of consuming nicotine by smoking, with its high health costs, and not consuming nicotine at all, many opt for the former. Few smokers realize that there is a third choice: non-combustion nicotine sources, such as smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, or pharmaceutical nicotine, which eliminate almost all the risk while still allowing consumption of nicotine. Widespread dissemination of misleading health claims is used to prevent smokers from learning about this lifesaving option, and to discourage opinion leaders from telling smokers the truth. One common misleading claim is a risk-risk comparison that has not before been quantified: A smoker who would have eventually quit nicotine entirely, but learns the truth about low-risk alternatives, might switch to an alternative instead of quitting entirely, and thus might suffer a net increase in health risk. While this has mathematical face validity, a simple calculation of the tradeoff -- switching to lifelong low-risk nicotine use versus continuing to smoke until quitting -- shows that such net health costs are extremely unlikely and of trivial maximum magnitude. In particular, for the average smoker, smoking for just one more month before quitting causes greater health risk than switching to a low-risk nicotine source and never quitting it. Thus, discouraging a smoker, even one who would have quit entirely, from switching to a low-risk alternative is almost certainly more likely to kill him than it is to save him. Similarly, a strategy of waiting for better anti-smoking tools to be developed, rather than encouraging immediate tobacco harm reduction using current options, kills more smokers every month than it could possibly ever save.

  2. CNS relapse in a low risk acute promyelocytic leukemia patient treated with ATRA-based regimen: is there a role for prophylactic CNS therapy in acute promyelocytic leukemia?

    OpenAIRE

    Gangadharan, K. V.; Prabhu, Raghuveer; Mampilly, Neena

    2009-01-01

    Though the incidence of CNS relapse in acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML-M3 FAB classification) has increased following the advent of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), still CNS relapse accounts for only 2–3% of all relapses in AML-M3 trated with standard ATRA plus chemotherapy regimen. We report a case of low risk AML-M3 treated with standard therapy, developing CNS relapse while on maintenance therapy with ATRA + 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) + methotrexate (MTX).

  3. Is {sup 131}I ablation necessary for patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma and slightly elevated stimulated thyroglobulin after thyroidectomy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Mourao, Gabriela Franco, E-mail: pedrowsrosario@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa

    2016-02-15

    Objective: This prospective study evaluated the recurrence rate in low-risk patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) who presented slightly elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) after thyroidectomy and who did not undergo ablation with {sup 131}I. Subjects and methods: The study included 53 low-risk patients (non aggressive histology; pT1b-3, cN0pNx, M0) with slightly elevated Tg after thyroidectomy (> 1 ng/mL, but ≤ 5 ng/mL after levothyroxine withdrawal or ≤ 2 ng/mL after recombinant human TSH). Results: The time of follow-up ranged from 36 to 96 months. Lymph node metastases were detected in only one patient (1.9%). Fifty-two patients continued to present negative neck ultrasound. None of these patients without apparent disease presented an increase in Tg. Conclusions: Low-risk patients with PTC who present slightly elevated Tg after thyroidectomy do not require ablation with {sup 131}I. (author)

  4. Impact of prostate weight on probability of positive surgical margins in patients with low-risk prostate cancer after robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Pablo E; Shikanov, Sergey; Razmaria, Aria A; Zagaja, Gregory P; Shalhav, Arieh L

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of prostate weight (PW) on probability of positive surgical margin (PSM) in patients undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for low-risk prostate cancer. The cohort consisted of 690 men with low-risk prostate cancer (clinical stage T1c, prostate-specific antigen probability of PSM and PW was assessed with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. A PSM was identified in 105 patients (15.2%). Patients with PSM had significant higher prostate-specific antigen (P = .04), smaller prostates (P = .0001), higher Gleason score (P = .004), and higher pathologic stage (P probability of PSM for 25-, 50-, 100-, and 150-g prostates were 22% (95% CI 16%, 30%), 13% (95% CI 11%, 16%), 5% (95% CI 1%, 8%), and 1% (95% CI 0%, 3%), respectively. Lower PW is independently associated with higher probability of PSM in low-risk patients undergoing RARP with bilateral nerve-sparing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Low serum total testosterone level as a predictor of upstaging and upgrading in low-risk prostate cancer patients meeting the inclusion criteria for active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Bruzzese, Dario; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Perdonà, Sisto; Autorino, Riccardo; Cantiello, Francesco; La Rocca, Roberto; Busetto, Gian Maria; Cimmino, Amelia; Buonerba, Carlo; Battaglia, Michele; Damiano, Rocco; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Mirone, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2017-03-14

    Active surveillance (AS) is currently a widely accepted treatment option for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). Several reports have highlighted the association of low serum testosterone levels with high-grade, high-stage PCa. However, the impact of serum testosterone as a predictor of progression in men with low-risk PCa has been little assessed.In this study, we evaluated the association of circulating testosterone concentrations with a staging/grading reclassification in a cohort of low-risk PCa patients meeting the inclusion criteria for the AS protocol but opting for radical prostatectomy.Radical prostatectomy (RP) was performed in 338 patients, eligible for AS according to the following criteria: clinical stage T2a or less, PSApT2) and upgrading (GS≥7; primary Gleason pattern 4) disease. Unfavorable disease was defined as the occurrence of pathological stage>pT2 and predominant Gleason score 4. Total testosterone was measured before surgery.Low serum testosterone levels (testosterone to a base model, including age, PSA, PSA density, clinical stage and positive cancer involvement in cores, showed a significant independent influence of this variable on upstaging, upgrading and unfavorable disease.In conclusion, our results support the idea that total testosterone should be a selection criterion for inclusion of low-risk PCa patients in AS programs and suggest that testosterone level less than 300 ng/dL should be considered a discouraging factor when a close AS program is considered as treatment option.

  6. Prognostic accuracy of electroencephalograms in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Emilie Pi; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Greisen, Gorm

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Brain injury is common in preterm infants, and predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome are relevant. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic test accuracy of the background activity of the EEG recorded as amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) or conventional EEG early in life in preterm infants...... for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. STUDY SELECTION: We included observational studies that had obtained an aEEG or EEG within 7 days of life in preterm infants and reported.......77-0.87). LIMITATIONS: All studies were at high risk of bias. Heterogeneity was evident among the studies with regard to the investigated aEEG and EEG variables, neurodevelopmental outcomes, and cutoff values. CONCLUSIONS: AEEG or EEG recorded within the first 7 days of life in preterm infants may have potential...

  7. Accelerated Aging in Electrolytic Capacitors for Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Kulkarni, Chetan; Saha, Sankalita; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this work is the analysis of different degradation phenomena based on thermal overstress and electrical overstress accelerated aging systems and the use of accelerated aging techniques for prognostics algorithm development. Results on thermal overstress and electrical overstress experiments are presented. In addition, preliminary results toward the development of physics-based degradation models are presented focusing on the electrolyte evaporation failure mechanism. An empirical degradation model based on percentage capacitance loss under electrical overstress is presented and used in: (i) a Bayesian-based implementation of model-based prognostics using a discrete Kalman filter for health state estimation, and (ii) a dynamic system representation of the degradation model for forecasting and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation. A leave-one-out validation methodology is used to assess the validity of the methodology under the small sample size constrain. The results observed on the RUL estimation are consistent through the validation tests comparing relative accuracy and prediction error. It has been observed that the inaccuracy of the model to represent the change in degradation behavior observed at the end of the test data is consistent throughout the validation tests, indicating the need of a more detailed degradation model or the use of an algorithm that could estimate model parameters on-line. Based on the observed degradation process under different stress intensity with rest periods, the need for more sophisticated degradation models is further supported. The current degradation model does not represent the capacitance recovery over rest periods following an accelerated aging stress period.

  8. Prognostic impact of stress testing in coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severi, S.; Michelassi, C. (CNR Clinical Physiology Institute, Pisa, (Italy))

    1991-05-01

    Observational data prospectively collected permit the examination of a complex set of decisions, including the decision not to perform any stress testing. Patients with or without previous myocardial infarction admitted for coronary evaluation and not submitted to any stress testing because of clinical reasons are at a higher risk for subsequent death. For prognostication, no test has been better validated than exercise electrocardiography: it can identify patients at low and high risk for future cardiac events among those without symptoms, with typical chest pain, and with previous myocardial infarction. In patients with triple-vessel disease, the results of exercise also allow those at low and high risk to be recognized. Both exercise radionuclide angiography and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy (the latter in larger patient populations) have also demonstrated significant prognostic value on patients with or without previous myocardial infarction. Neither one has shown superiority to the other in prognostication. So far, they have been considered the only viable alternatives to exercise electrocardiography stress testing for diagnosis and prognostication. However, their costs limit their extensive application. Preliminary data suggest that intravenous dipyridamole echocardiography can be used for both diagnosis and prognostication of coronary artery disease; moreover, the prognostic information derived from dipyridamole echocardiography testing seems independent of and additive to that provided by exercise electrocardiography. Further prospective studies on larger patient populations are needed to better define the prognostic value of dipyridamole echocardiography testing.47 references.

  9. Comparison of two prognostic models for acute pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-ElRahim Ibrahim Youssef

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: (1 There is an agreement to great extent in risk stratification of APE patients by PESI and ESC prognostic models, where mortality rate is increased among high risk classes of both models, (2 ESC prognostic model is more accurate than PESI model in mortality prediction of APE patients especially in the high risk class, (3 echocardiographic evidence of RVD and elevated plasma BNP can help to identify APE patients at increased risk of adverse short-term outcome and (4 integration of RVD assessment by echocardiography and BNP to clinical findings improves the prognostic value of ESC model.

  10. Prognostic Significance of Melanoma Differentiation and Trans-Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddodi, Nityanand; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi, E-mail: setaluri@wisc.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 1300 University Avenue, B25, Madison WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-05-26

    Cutaneous malignant melanomas share a number of molecular attributes such as limitless replicative potential that define capabilities acquired by most malignancies. Accordingly, much effort has been focused on evaluating and validating protein markers related to these capabilities to function as melanoma prognostic markers. However, a few studies have also highlighted the prognostic value of markers that define melanocytic differentiation and the plasticity of melanoma cells to trans-differentiate along several other cellular pathways. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and evaluation of the prognostic significance of melanocyte-lineage markers such as MITF and melanogenic proteins, as well as markers of vascular epithelial and neuronal differentiation.

  11. Risk estimation of distant metastasis in node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients using an RT-PCR based prognostic expression signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutt, Andrew; Wang, Alice; Rowland, Charles; Gillett, Cheryl; Lau, Kit; Chew, Karen; Dai, Hongyue; Kwok, Shirley; Ryder, Kenneth; Shu, Henry; Springall, Robert; Cane, Paul; McCallie, Blair; Kam-Morgan, Lauren; Anderson, Steve; Buerger, Horst; Gray, Joe; Bennington, James; Esserman, Laura; Hastie, Trevor; Broder, Samuel; Sninsky, John; Brandt, Burkhard; Waldman, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background Given the large number of genes purported to be prognostic for breast cancer, it would be optimal if the genes identified are not confounded by the continuously changing systemic therapies. The aim of this study was to discover and validate a breast cancer prognostic expression signature for distant metastasis in untreated, early stage, lymph node-negative (N-) estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients with extensive follow-up times. Methods 197 genes previously associated with metastasis and ER status were profiled from 142 untreated breast cancer subjects. A "metastasis score" (MS) representing fourteen differentially expressed genes was developed and evaluated for its association with distant-metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Categorical risk classification was established from the continuous MS and further evaluated on an independent set of 279 untreated subjects. A third set of 45 subjects was tested to determine the prognostic performance of the MS in tamoxifen-treated women. Results A 14-gene signature was found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with distant metastasis in a training set and subsequently in an independent validation set. In the validation set, the hazard ratios (HR) of the high risk compared to low risk groups were 4.02 (95% CI 1.91–8.44) for the endpoint of DMFS and 1.97 (95% CI 1.28 to 3.04) for overall survival after adjustment for age, tumor size and grade. The low and high MS risk groups had 10-year estimates (95% CI) of 96% (90–99%) and 72% (64–78%) respectively, for DMFS and 91% (84–95%) and 68% (61–75%), respectively for overall survival. Performance characteristics of the signature in the two sets were similar. Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was predictive for recurrent disease in the training set, but lost significance after adjustment for the expression signature. In a study of tamoxifen-treated patients, the HR for DMFS in high compared to low risk groups was 3.61 (95% CI 0.86–15.14). Conclusion The 14

  12. Prospective Validation of Pooled Prognostic Factors in Women with Advanced Cervical Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy with/without Bevacizumab: NRG Oncology/GOG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishnansu S; Sill, Michael W; Monk, Bradley J; Penson, Richard T; Long, Harry J; Poveda, Andrés; Landrum, Lisa M; Leitao, Mario M; Brown, Jubilee; Reid, Thomas J A; Michael, Helen E; Moore, David H

    2015-12-15

    In the randomized phase III trial, Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) protocol 240, the incorporation of bevacizumab with chemotherapy significantly increased overall survival (OS) in women with advanced cervical cancer. A major objective of GOG-240 was to prospectively analyze previously identified pooled clinical prognostic factors known as the Moore criteria. Potential negative factors included black race, performance status 1, pelvic disease, prior cisplatin, and progression-free interval cervical cancer. The Moore criteria have real-world clinical applicability. Toxicity concerns may justify omission of bevacizumab in some low-risk patients where survival benefit is small. The benefit to receiving bevacizumab appears to be greatest in the moderate- and high-risk subgroups (5.8-month increase in median OS). Clin Cancer Res; 21(24); 5480-7. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based prognostic models in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Tina M.; Jensen, Andreas K.; Holst, René

    2016-01-01

    We present a multiplex analysis for genes known to have prognostic value in an attempt to design a clinically useful classification model in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure transcript levels of 28 relevant genes in 194 de...... models. The best model was validated in data from an online available R-CHOP treated cohort. With progression-free survival (PFS) as primary endpoint, the best performing IPI independent model incorporated the LMO2 and HLADQA1 as well as gene interactions for GCSAMxMIB1, GCSAMxCTGF and FOXP1xPDE4B....... 82% for low risk group (P new drug trials....

  14. The Results and Prognostic Factors of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Early Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    To evaluate the results and prognostic factors for postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in patients at stages I and II of endometrial cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 1991 and December 2006, 35 patients with FIGO stages I and II disease, who received adjuvant radiation therapy following surgery for endometrial cancer at Ewha Womans University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. A total of 17 patients received postoperative pelvic external beam radiation therapy; whereas, 12 patients received vaginal brachytherapy alone, and 6 patients received both pelvic radiation therapy and vaginal brachytherapy. Results: The median follow-up period for all patients was 54 months. The 5-yr overall survival and disease-free survival rates for all patients were 91.4% and 81.7%, respectively. The 5-yr overall survival rates for low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups were 100%, 100% and 55.6%, respectively. In addition, the 5-yr disease-free survival rates were 100%, 70.0%, and 45.7%, respectively. Although no locoregional relapses were identified, distant metastases were observed in 5 patients (14%). The most common site of distant metastases was the lung, followed by bone, liver, adrenal gland, and peritoneum. A univariate analysis revealed a significant correlation between distant metastases and risk-group (p=0.018), pathology type (p=0.001), and grade (p=0.019). A multivariate analysis also revealed that distant metastases were correlated with pathology type (p=0.009). Papillary, serous and clear cell carcinoma cases demonstrated a poor patient survival rate compared to cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. The most common complication of pelvic external beam radiation therapy was enteritis (30%), followed by proctitis, leucopenia, and lymphedema. All these complications were of RTOG grades 1 and 2; no grades 3 and 4 were observed. Conclusion: For the low-risk and intermediate-risk groups (stages 1 and 2) endometrial

  15. Prognostic impact of pretherapeutic gamma-glutamyltransferase on patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Feng Wen

    Full Text Available Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT is a membrane-bound enzyme involved in the metabolism of glutathione. Studies suggested that GGT played an important role in the tumor development, progression, invasion and drug resistance and prognosis. The association between GGT and prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC was unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the association of pretherapeutic serum level of GGT with clinical-pathological parameters and survival in patients with NPC.Two hundred and twenty-two patients with NPC were recruited in this study and were stratified into two GGT risk groups (≤ 34.5 U/L, > 34.5 U/L. The association of pretherapeutic serum GGT levels with clinical-pathological parameters was examined. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed.The pretherapeutic serum level of GGT was not associated with gender, age, pathology, T stage, N stage, TNM stage, chemotherapy or radiotherapy in patients with NPC. Patients in the high-risk GGT group had a poorer survival than the low-risk GGT group (3-year overall survival, 74.2% vs. 50.2%, P = 0.001; 3-year progression-free survival, 76.4% vs. 47.1%, P < 0.001; 3-year loco-regional relapse-free survival, 76.4% vs. 51.3%, P < 0.001; 3-year distant metastasis-free survival, 89.5% vs. 66.4%, P < 0.001. Multivariate analysis suggested that patients in the high-risk GGT group had 2.117 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.225 ∼ 3.659, P = 0.007 times the risk of death, 2.836 (95% CI, 1.765 ∼ 4.557, P < 0.001 times the risk of progression, 2.551 (95% CI, 1.573 ∼ 4.138, P < 0.001 times the risk of relapse, and 3.331 (95% CI, 1.676 ∼ 6.622, P < 0.001 times the risk of metastasis compared with those in the low-risk GGT group.The pretherapeutic serum level of GGT might serve as a novel independent prognostic factor for overall-survival, progression-free survival, loco-regional relapse-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival in patients

  16. Accelerated Aging with Electrical Overstress and Prognostics for Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sankalita; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Vashchenko, Vladislav; Mahiuddin, Shompa; Goebel, Kai F.

    2011-01-01

    Power electronics play an increasingly important role in energy applications as part of their power converter circuits. Understanding the behavior of these devices, especially their failure modes as they age with nominal usage or sudden fault development is critical in ensuring efficiency. In this paper, a prognostics based health management of power MOSFETs undergoing accelerated aging through electrical overstress at the gate area is presented. Details of the accelerated aging methodology, modeling of the degradation process of the device and prognostics algorithm for prediction of the future state of health of the device are presented. Experiments with multiple devices demonstrate the performance of the model and the prognostics algorithm as well as the scope of application. Index Terms Power MOSFET, accelerated aging, prognostics

  17. Prognostics of Power Electronics, methods and validation testbeds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An overview of the current results of prognostics for DC- DC power converters is presented, focusing on the output filter capacitor component. The electrolytic...

  18. Prognostics for Ground Support Systems: Case Study on Pneumatic Valves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics technologies determine the health (or damage) state of a component or sub- system, and make end of life (EOL) and remaining useful life (RUL)...

  19. Accelerated Aging System for Prognostics of Power Semiconductor Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics is an engineering discipline that focuses on estimation of the health state of a component and the prediction of its remaining useful life (RUL) before...

  20. Model Adaptation for Prognostics in a Particle Filtering Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the key motivating factors for using particle filters for prognostics is the ability to include model parameters as part of the state vector to be estimated....

  1. A Labview System with Novel and Advanced Prognostic Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a portable data acquisition and prognostic system that contains both hardware and software with several innovative ideas. First, our hardware system...

  2. Precursor Parameter Identification for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precursor parameters have been identified to enable development of a prognostic approach for insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT). The IGBT were subjected to...

  3. Accelerated Aging Platform for Prognostics of Power Electronics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To advance the field of electronics prognostics, the study of transistor fault modes and their precursors is essential. This paper reports on a platform for the...

  4. Model-based Prognostics with Concurrent Damage Progression Processes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics approaches rely on physics-based models that describe the behavior of systems and their components. These models must account for the several...

  5. Prognostics and health management of engineering systems an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Choi, Joo-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the methods for predicting the future behavior of a system’s health and the remaining useful life to determine an appropriate maintenance schedule. The authors introduce the history, industrial applications, algorithms, and benefits and challenges of PHM (Prognostics and Health Management) to help readers understand this highly interdisciplinary engineering approach that incorporates sensing technologies, physics of failure, machine learning, modern statistics, and reliability engineering. It is ideal for beginners because it introduces various prognostics algorithms and explains their attributes, pros and cons in terms of model definition, model parameter estimation, and ability to handle noise and bias in data, allowing readers to select the appropriate methods for their fields of application. Among the many topics discussed in-depth are: • Prognostics tutorials using least-squares • Bayesian inference and parameter estimation • Physics-based prognostics algorithms including non...

  6. Prognostic value of proliferation in pleomorphic soft tissue sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seinen, Jojanneke M; Jönsson, Mats; Bendahl, Pär-Ola O

    2012-01-01

    = 1.6-12.1), Top2a (hazard ratio = 2.2, CI = 1.2-3.5) and high S-phase fraction (hazard ratio = 1.8, CI = 1.2-3.7) significantly correlated with risk for metastasis. When combined with currently used prognostic factors, Ki-67, S-phase fraction and Top2a fraction contributed to refined identification...... of prognostic risk groups. Proliferation, as assessed by expression of Ki-67 and Top2a and evaluation of S-phase fraction and applied to statistical decision-tree models, provides prognostic information in soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity and trunk wall. Though proliferation contributes independently...... to currently applied prognosticators, its role is particularly strong when few other factors are available, which suggests a role in preoperative decision-making related to identification of high-risk individuals who would benefit from neoadjuvant therapy....

  7. The Prognostic Value of Serum Biomarkers in Localized Bone Sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Maretty-Kongstad, Katja; Keller, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    cases. Adjusting for confounders such as comorbidity and age is an essential safeguard against erroneous conclusions regarding the possible prognostic value of these biomarkers. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of a battery of pretreatment biomarkers in the serum of patients......, lymphocytes, and sodium were collected from the patient records. The prognostic values of overall and disease-specific mortality were tested for each individual biomarker as well as for the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and for a new composite score incorporating five biomarkers (Aarhus composite biomarker...... for comorbidity and other confounders, it was found that elevated levels of CRP, low hemoglobin, low sodium, high GPS, and high ACBS were associated with increased overall mortality. Furthermore, elevated levels of CRP, low hemoglobin, high GPS, and high ACBS were associated with increased disease...

  8. Distributed Damage Estimation for Prognostics based on Structural Model Decomposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics approaches capture system knowl- edge in the form of physics-based models of components that include how they fail. These methods consist of...

  9. Prognostic, quantitative histopathologic variables in lobular carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A retrospective investigation of 53 consecutively treated patients with operable lobular carcinoma of the breast, with a median follow-up of 6.6 years, was performed to examine the prognostic value of quantitative histopathologic parameters.METHODS: The measurements were performed...... of disease, vv(nuc), MI, and NI were of significant independent, prognostic value. On the basis of the multivariate analyses, a prognostic index with highly distinguishing capacity between prognostically poor and favorable cases was constructed.CONCLUSION: Quantitative histopathologic variables are of value...... for objective grading of malignancy in lobular carcinomas. The new parameter--estimates of the mean nuclear volume--is highly reproducible and suitable for routine use. However, larger and prospective studies are needed to establish the true value of the quantitative histopathologic variables in the clinical...

  10. A Distributed Approach to System-Level Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics, which deals with predicting remaining useful life of components, subsystems, and systems, is a key tech- nology for systems health management that leads...

  11. Prognostic factors and outcomes for osteosarcoma: an international collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakos, Emilios E.; Nearchou, Andreas D.; Grimer, Robert J.; Koumoullis, Haris D.; Abudu, Adesegun; Bramer, Jos A. M.; Jeys, Lee M.; Franchi, Alessandro; Scoccianti, Guido; Campanacci, Domenico; Capanna, Rodolfo; Aparicio, Jorge; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Holzer, Gerold; Abdolvahab, Fashid; Funovics, Philipp; Dominkus, Martin; Ilhan, Inci; Berrak, Su G.; Patino-Garcia, Ana; Sierrasesumaga, Luis; San-Julian, Mikel; Garraus, Moira; Petrilli, Antonio Sergio; Filho, Reynaldo Jesus Garcia; Macedo, Carla Renata Pacheco Donato; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas; Seiwerth, Sven; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Cripe, Timothy P.; Ioannidis, John P. A.

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of traditional clinical predictors in osteosarcoma through an international collaboration of 10 teams of investigators (2680 patients) who participated. In multivariate models the mortality risk increased with older age, presence of metastatic disease

  12. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit......) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measures and can be used in full health economic evaluations of prognostic models used for screening and allocating risk...... reduction interventions. We extend previous work in this area by quantifying net benefits in life years, thus linking prognostic performance to health economic measures; by taking full account of the occurrence of events over time; and by considering estimation and cross-validation in a multiple...

  13. A Model-based Avionic Prognostic Reasoner (MAPR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Model-based Avionic Prognostic Reasoner (MAPR) presented in this paper is an innovative solution for non-intrusively monitoring the state of health (SoH) and...

  14. Prognostics Approach For Power Mosfet Under Thermal-Stress Aging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The prognostic technique for a power MOSFET presented in this paper is based on accelerated aging of MOSFET IRF520Npbf in a TO-220 package. The methodology utilizes...

  15. Multiple Damage Progression Paths in Model-based Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics approaches employ do- main knowledge about a system, its components, and how they fail through the use of physics-based models. Compo- nent...

  16. Prognostics Design Solutions in Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The chapter describes the application of prognostic techniques to the domain of structural health and demonstrates the efficacy of the methods using fatigue data...

  17. Model-based Prognostics with Fixed-lag Particle Filters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics exploits domain knowl- edge of the system, its components, and how they fail by casting the underlying physical phenom- ena in a...

  18. Prognostics and Health Monitoring of High Power LED

    OpenAIRE

    Sutharssan, Thamo; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Bailey, Christopher; Rosunally, Yasmine

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics is seen as a key component of health usage monitoring systems, where prognostics algorithms can both detect anomalies in the behaviour/performance of a micro-device/system, and predict its remaining useful life when subjected to monitored operational and environmental conditions. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are optoelectronic micro-devices that are now replacing traditional incadescent and fluorescent lighting, as they have many advantages including higher reliability, greater en...

  19. Prognostic factors in the development of opioid addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Vasila Talimbekova

    2011-01-01

    In 145 patients with opioid addiction were studied prognostic factors of the formation of the disease and their medical and social consequences. In the examined patients duration of the narcotization was from 1 year to 15 years. Analysis of studies showed that the most significant adverse prognostic factors, determining formation rate of medical and social consequences in opioid addiction, may include: perinatal pathology, personality deviation in the premorbid; early age of onset of drug use...

  20. Predicting Acute Pancreatitis Severity: Comparison of Prognostic Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Simoes, Marco; Alves, Patricia; Esperto, Helder; Canha, Catarina; Meira, Elisa; Ferreira, Erica; Gomes, Manuel; Fonseca, Isabel; Barbosa, Benilde; Costa, Jose Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis has a broad clinical spectrum, from mild illness to multiple organ failure and death. Prognostic scores have been developed or adapted to predict disease severity. This study aimed to compare the prognostic scores according to sensitivity and specificity, receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve. Statistical correlation with disease severity, length of hospital stay, mortality and complication rates. Methods Retrospective analysis of the ...

  1. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  2. Prognostic impact of autophagy biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Yao Li Tang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prognosis and survival for malignant melanoma is highly dependent on early diagnosis and treatment. While the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC criteria provides a means of staging melanomas and guiding treatment approaches, it is unable to identify the risk of disease progression of early stage tumours or provide reliable stratification for novel adjuvant therapies. The demand for credible prognostic/companion biomarkers able to identify high risk melanoma subgroups as well as guide more effective personalised/precision based therapy is therefore of paramount importance. Autophagy, the principle lysosomal-mediated process for the degradation/recycling of cellular debris, is a hot topic in cancer medicine and observations of its deregulation in melanoma have brought its potential as a prognostic biomarker to the forefront of current research. Key regulatory proteins, including Atg8/microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3 and BECN1 (Beclin 1 have been proposed as potential prognostic biomarkers. However, given the dynamic nature of autophagy, their expression in vitro does not translate to their use as a prognostic biomarker for melanoma in vivo. We have recently identified the expression levels of Sequestosome1/SQSTM1 (p62 and activating molecule in Beclin 1 regulated autophagy protein 1 (AMBRA1 as novel independent prognostic biomarkers for early stage melanomas. While increasing followed by subsequent decreasing levels of p62 expression reflects the paradoxical role of autophagy in melanoma, expression levels additionally define a novel prognostic biomarker for AJCC stage II tumours. Conversely, loss of AMBRA1 in the epidermis overlying primary melanomas defines a novel prognostic biomarker for AJCC stage I tumours. Collectively, the definition of AMBRA1 and p62 as prognostic biomarkers for early stage melanomas provides novel and accurate means through which to identify tumours at risk of disease progression, facilitating earlier

  3. Prognostic Impact of Autophagy Biomarkers for Cutaneous Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Diana Y L; Ellis, Robert A; Lovat, Penny E

    2016-01-01

    Prognosis and survival for malignant melanoma is highly dependent on early diagnosis and treatment. While the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) criterion provides a means of staging melanomas and guiding treatment approaches, it is unable to identify the risk of disease progression of early stage tumors or provide reliable stratification for novel adjuvant therapies. The demand for credible prognostic/companion biomarkers able to identify high-risk melanoma subgroups as well as guide more effective personalized/precision-based therapy is therefore of paramount importance. Autophagy, the principle lysosomal-mediated process for the degradation/recycling of cellular debris, is a hot topic in cancer medicine, and observations of its deregulation in melanoma have brought its potential as a prognostic biomarker to the forefront of current research. Key regulatory proteins, including Atg8/microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3) and BECN1 (Beclin 1), have been proposed as potential prognostic biomarkers. However, given the dynamic nature of autophagy, their expression in vitro does not translate to their use as a prognostic biomarker for melanoma in vivo. We have recently identified the expression levels of Sequestosome1/SQSTM1 (p62) and activating molecule in Beclin 1-regulated autophagy protein 1 (AMBRA1) as novel independent prognostic biomarkers for early stage melanomas. While increasing followed by subsequent decreasing levels of p62 expression reflects the paradoxical role of autophagy in melanoma, expression levels additionally define a novel prognostic biomarker for AJCC stage II tumors. Conversely, loss of AMBRA1 in the epidermis overlying primary melanomas defines a novel prognostic biomarker for AJCC stage I tumors. Collectively, the definition of AMBRA1 and p62 as prognostic biomarkers for early stage melanomas provides novel and accurate means through which to identify tumors at risk of disease progression, facilitating earlier patient therapeutic

  4. A prognostic index for locoregional recurrence after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero-Vicent, C; Guerrero-Zotano, A; Gavil?-Gregori, J; Hern?ndez-Blanquisett, A; Sandiego-Contreras, S; Samper-Hiraldo, JM; Guillem-Porta, V; Ruiz-Sim?n, A

    2016-01-01

    Background The appropriate selection criteria for breast-conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) are poorly defined. The aim of this study is to analyse the incidence and prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients with breast cancer (BC) treated with NAC to develop a prognostic score to help with clinical decision-making. Materials and methods Using our retrospective maintained BC database, we identified 730 patients treated with NAC (...

  5. En governmentality analyse af Professionshøjskolen UCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendsen, Ida Theodora Wolf

    2009-01-01

    processer, som ustyrbare og turbulente, fragmenterede og løst koblede enheder. Ledelse- og beslutningsprocesser er uforudsigelig og ofte baseret på garbage can modellen. Kulturelledelse (Bush 2003) anskuer ledelse, som rituel og symbolsk. Ledelse er bundet i medarbejderes og lederes ejerskab til fælles tro...

  6. 1982 UCC-ND/GAT environmental protection seminar: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    This environmental protection seminar was divided into seven sessions: (1) general environmental protection, (2) air and water pollution control, (3) spill control and countermeasures, (4) toxic materials control, (5) hazardous materials control, (6) environmental protection projects, and (7) cost benefit analysis. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 41 papers presented therein. (ACR)

  7. A prospective study of health-related quality-of-life outcomes for patients with low-risk prostate cancer managed by active surveillance or radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, John S; Hurwitz, Lauren M; Cullen, Jennifer; Wolff, Erika M; Levie, Katherine E; Rosner, Inger L; Brand, Timothy C; LʼEsperance, James O; Sterbis, Joseph R; Porter, Christopher R

    2017-05-01

    Patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) often have excellent oncologic outcomes. However, treatment with curative intent can lead to decrements in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients treated with radical prostatectomy have been shown to suffer declines in urinary and sexual HRQoL as compared to those managed with active surveillance (AS). Similarly, patients treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) are hypothesized to experience greater declines in bowel HRQoL. As health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) concerns are paramount when selecting among treatment options for low-risk PCa, this study examined HRQoL outcomes in men undergoing EBRT as compared to AS in a prospective, racially diverse cohort. A prospective study of HRQoL in patients with PCa enrolled in the Center for Prostate Disease Research (CPDR) Multicenter National Database was initiated in 2007. The current study included patients diagnosed through April 2014. HRQoL was assessed with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36). Temporal changes in HRQoL were compared for patients with low-risk PCa managed on AS vs. EBRT at baseline, 1-, 2-, and 3 years post-PCa diagnosis. Longitudinal patterns were modeled using linear regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations (GEE), adjusting for baseline HRQoL, demographic, and clinical patient characteristics. Of the 499 eligible patients with low-risk PCa, 103 (21%) selected AS and 60 (12%) were treated with EBRT. Demographic characteristics of the treatment groups were similar, though a greater proportion of patients in the EBRT group were African American (P = 0.0003). At baseline, both treatment groups reported comparable HRQoL. EBRT patients experienced significantly worse bowel function and bother at 1 year (adjusted mean score: 87 vs. 95, P = 0.001 and 89 vs. 95, P = 0.008, respectively) and 2 years (87 vs. 93, P = 0.007 and 87 vs. 96, P = 0

  8. Comparison of Four Bleeding Risk Scores to Identify Rivaroxaban-treated Patients With Venous Thromboembolism at Low Risk for Major Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Jimenez, David; Courtney, D Mark; Ianus, Juliana; Cao, Lynn; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Prins, Martin H; Wells, Philip S

    2016-02-01

    Outpatient treatment of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) requires the selection of patients with a low risk of bleeding during the first few weeks of anticoagulation. The accuracy of four systems, originally derived for predicting bleeding in VTE treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), was assessed in VTE patients treated with rivaroxaban. All patients treated with rivaroxaban in the multinational EINSTEIN deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) trials were included. Major bleeding was defined as ≥2 g/dL drop in hemoglobin or ≥2-unit blood transfusion, bleeding in critical area, or bleeding contributing to death. The authors examined the incidence of major bleeding in patients with low-risk assignment by the systems of Ruiz-Gimenez et al. (score = 0 to 1), Beyth et al. (score = 0), Kuijer et al. (score = 0), and Landefeld and Goldman. (score = 0). For clinical relevance, the definition of low risk for all scores except Kuijer includes all patients 731 with DVT only, 2,399 with PE with or without DVT) were treated with rivaroxaban for a mean (±SD) duration of 207.6 (±95.9) days. Major bleeding occurred in 1.0% (40 of 4,130; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7% to 1.3%) overall. Rates of major bleeding for low-risk patients during the entire treatment period were similar: Ruiz-Gimenez et al., 12 of 2,622 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0.2% to 0.8%); Beyth et al., nine of 2,249 (0.4%; 95% CI = 0.2% to 0.8%); Kuijer et al., four of 1,186 (0.3%; 95% CI = 0.1% to 0.9%); and Landefeld and Goldman, 11 of 2,407 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0.2% to 0.8%). At 30 days, major bleed rates for low-risk patients were as follows: Ruiz-Gimenez et al., five of 2,622 (0.2%; 95% CI = 0.1% to 0.4%); Beyth et al., five of 2,249 (0.2%; 95% CI = 0.1% to 0.5%); Kuijer et al., three of 1,186 (0.3%; 95% CI = 0.1% to 0.7%); and Landefeld and Goldman, seven of 2,407 (0.3%; 95% CI = 0.1% to 0.6%). No low-risk patient had a fatal bleed. Four scoring systems that use criteria obtained in routine

  9. Prognostic model for advanced breast carcinoma with luminal subtype and impact of hormonal maintenance: Implications for post-progression and conditional survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbognin, Luisa; Sperduti, Isabella; Ciccarese, Mariangela; Fabi, Alessandra; Petrucelli, Luciana; Vari, Sabrina; Forcignanò, Rosa Chiara; Nortilli, Rolando; Vicentini, Cecilia; Pilotto, Sara; Merler, Sara; Zampiva, Ilaria; Brunelli, Matteo; Manfrin, Erminia; Giannarelli, Diana; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this analysis was to develop and validate a prognostic model for advanced breast cancer (ABC) with luminal subtype based on the combination of clinical, pathological and therapeutic predictors to provide a practical tool to evaluate patients' prognosis. Clinical and pathological data were retrospectively correlated to progression-free and overall survival (PFS/OS) using a Cox model. Significant treatment variables were adjusted with the propensity score analysis. A continuous score to identify risk classes was derived according to model ratios. The performance of the risk-class model was tested for post-progression survival (PPS) and conditional survival (CS) as well. Data from 335 patients (3 institutions) were gathered (median follow-up 58 months). At multivariate analysis Ki67, Performance Status (PS) and number of metastatic sites were significant predictors for PFS, whereas Ki67, PS, brain metastases, PFS after 1st-line therapy, number of chemotherapy lines, hormonal therapy and maintenance were significant predictors for OS. The hormonal maintenance resulted to be prognostic after adjustment with propensity score analysis. A two-class model significantly differentiated low-risk and high-risk patients for 2-year PFS (31.5% and 11.0%, p model separated low risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients for 2-year PFS (40.8%, 24.4%, and 11.0%, p models equally discriminate the luminal ABC prognosis in terms of PPS and CS. A risk stratification model including 'easy-to-obtain' clinical, pathological and therapeutic parameters accurately separates luminal ABC patients into different risk classes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic and Prognostic Models for Generator Step-Up Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Binh T. Pham

    2014-09-01

    In 2014, the online monitoring (OLM) of active components project under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) focused on diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for generator step-up transformers. INL worked with subject matter experts from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the GSU fault signatures previously implemented in the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. Two prognostic models were identified and implemented for GSUs in the FW-PHM Suite software. INL and EPRI demonstrated the use of prognostic capabilities for GSUs. The complete set of fault signatures developed for GSUs in the Asset Fault Signature Database of the FW-PHM Suite for GSUs is presented in this report. Two prognostic models are described for paper insulation: the Chendong model for degree of polymerization, and an IEEE model that uses a loading profile to calculates life consumption based on hot spot winding temperatures. Both models are life consumption models, which are examples of type II prognostic models. Use of the models in the FW-PHM Suite was successfully demonstrated at the 2014 August Utility Working Group Meeting, Idaho Falls, Idaho, to representatives from different utilities, EPRI, and the Halden Research Project.

  11. Fear of knowledge: Clinical hypotheses in diagnostic and prognostic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiffi, Daniele; Zanotti, Renzo

    2017-10-01

    Patients are interested in receiving accurate diagnostic and prognostic information. Models and reasoning about diagnoses have been extensively investigated from a foundational perspective; however, for all its importance, prognosis has yet to receive a comparable degree of philosophical and methodological attention, and this may be due to the difficulties inherent in accurate prognostics. In the light of these considerations, we discuss a considerable body of critical thinking on the topic of prognostication and its strict relations with diagnostic reasoning, pointing out the distinction between nosographic and pathophysiological types of diagnosis and prognosis, underlying the importance of the explication and explanation processes. We then distinguish between various forms of hypothetical reasoning applied to reach diagnostic and prognostic judgments, comparing them with specific forms of abductive reasoning. The main thesis is that creative abduction regarding clinical hypotheses in diagnostic process is very unlikely to occur, whereas this seems to be often the case for prognostic judgments. The reasons behind this distinction are due to the different types of uncertainty involved in diagnostic and prognostic judgments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Development of an oncological-multidimensional prognostic index (Onco-MPI) for mortality prediction in older cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, Antonella; Fontana, Andrea; Zafferri, Valeria; Panza, Francesco; Fiduccia, Pasquale; Basso, Umberto; Copetti, Massimiliano; Lonardi, Sara; Roma, Anna; Falci, Cristina; Monfardini, Silvio; Cella, Alberto; Pilotto, Alberto; Zagonel, Vittorina

    2016-05-01

    A multidimensional prognostic index (MPI) based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) has been developed and validated in independent cohorts of older patients demonstrating good accuracy in predicting one-year mortality. The aim of this study was to develop a cancer-specific modified MPI (Onco-MPI) for mortality prediction in older cancer patients. We enrolled 658 new cancer subjects ≥70 years (mean age 77.1 years, 433 females, 65.8 %) attending oncological outpatient services from September 2004 to June 2011. The Onco-MPI was calculated according to a validated algorithm as a weighted linear combination of the following CGA domains: age, sex, basal and instrumental activities of daily living, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, mini-mental state examination, body mass index, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, number of drugs and the presence of caregiver. Cancer sites (breast 46.5 %, colorectal 21.3 %, lung 6.4 %, prostate 5.5 %, urinary tract 5.0 %, other 15.3 %) and cancer stages (I 37 %, II 22 %, III 19 %, IV 22 %) were also included in the model. All-cause mortality was recorded. Three grades of severity of the Onco-MPI score (low risk: 0.0-0.46, medium risk: 0.47-0.63, high risk: 0.64-1.0) were calculated using RECPAM method. Discriminatory power and calibration were assessed by estimating survival C-indices, along with 95 % confidence interval (CI) and the survival-based Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) measures. One-year mortality incidence rate was 17.4 %. A significant difference in mortality rates was observed in Onco-MPI low risk compared to medium- and high-risk patients (2.1 vs. 17.7 vs. 80.8 %, p patients that can be useful for clinical decision making in this age group.

  13. Investigation of maternal and cord blood erythropoietin and copeptin levels in low-risk term deliveries complicated by meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur, Hakan; Tokmak, Aytekin; Taflan, Selen; Hançerlioğullari, Necati; Laleli, Bergen; İnal, Hasan Ali; Moraloğlu, Özlem; Danişman, Nuri

    2017-03-01

    To compare maternal, cord blood erythropoietin (EPO), and copeptin levels in low-risk term deliveries which are complicated by meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) to those with clear amniotic fluid. Also, to evaluate the relations between these markers and cord blood pH values. Low-risk term pregnant women with MSAF at an active phase of labor were defined as the study group (n = 39). Pregnant women with clear amniotic fluid were selected for the control group (n = 41). The two groups were matched for age, body mass index and gestational age. Maternal, cord blood EPO and copeptin levels with cord blood pH values were also measured. Maternal, cord blood EPO, and copeptin levels of study and control groups were 42.6 ± 9.0 versus 40.7 ± 9.2, 134.2 (20.5-834.6) versus 38.4 (10.3-114.2), 4.9 (0.1-31.1) versus 4.0 (3.1-28.4), and 4.7 (2.6-25.5) versus 3.6 (2.0-23.2), respectively. The differences were statistically significant for cord blood EPO, maternal and cord blood copeptin levels (p copeptin levels were inversely correlated with cord blood pH values in the study group (p copeptin levels may be an indicator of fetal acidosis in low-risk term deliveries complicated by MSAF.

  14. No survival difference after successful {sup 131}I ablation between patients with initially low-risk and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik Anton [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Stokkel, Marcel P.M.; Verkooijen, Robbert B.T. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Dueren, Christian; Reiners, Christoph [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Maeder, Uwe [University of Wuerzburg, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wuerzburg (Germany); Isselt, Johannes W. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Marlowe, Robert J. [Spencer-Fontayne Corporation, Jersey City, NJ (United States); Smit, Johannes W. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology, Leiden (Netherlands); Luster, Markus [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    To compare disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival (RFS) after successful {sup 131}I ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) between those defined before ablation as low-risk and those defined as high-risk according to the European Thyroid Association 2006 consensus statement. Retrospective data from three university hospitals were pooled. Of 2009 consecutive patients receiving ablation, 509 were identified as successfully ablated based on both undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin in the absence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and a negative diagnostic whole-body scan in a follow-up examination conducted 8.1{+-}4.6 months after ablation. Of these 509 patients, 169 were defined as high-risk. After a mean follow-up of 81{+-}64 months (range 4-306 months), only three patients had died of DTC, rendering assessment of disease-specific survival differences impossible. Of the 509 patients, 12 (2.4%) developed a recurrence a mean 35 months (range 12-59 months) after ablation. RFS for the duration of follow-up was 96.6% according to the Kaplan-Meier method. RFS did not differ between high-risk and low-risk patients (p=0.68). RFS differed slightly but significantly between those with papillary and those with follicular thyroid carcinoma (p=0.03) and between those aged {<=}45 years those aged >45 years at diagnosis (p=0.018). After (near) total thyroidectomy and successful {sup 131}I ablation, RFS does not differ between patients classified as high-risk and those classified as low-risk based on TNM stage at diagnosis. Consequently, the follow-up protocol should be determined on the basis of the result of initial treatment rather than on the initial tumour classification. (orig.)

  15. Relationship between race and clinical characteristics, extent of disease, and response to chemotherapy in patients with low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestá, Izildinha; Berkowitz, Ross S; Goldstein, Donald P; Bernstein, Marilyn R; Ramírez, Luz Angela C; Horowitz, Neil S

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the potential effects of race on clinical characteristics, extent of disease, and response to chemotherapy in women with postmolar low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). This non-concurrent cohort study was undertaken including patients with FIGO-defined postmolar low-risk GTN treated with comparable doses and schedules of chemotherapy at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC) between 1973 and 2012. Racial groups investigated included whites, African American and Asians. Information on patient characteristics and response to chemotherapy (need for second line chemotherapy, reason for changing to an alternative chemotherapy, number of cycles/regimens, need for combination chemotherapy, and time to hCG remission) was obtained. Of 316 women, 274 (86.7%) were white, 19 (6%) African American, and 23 (7.3%) Asian. African Americans were significantly younger than white and Asian women (p=0.008). Disease presentation, and extent of disease, including antecedent molar histology, median time to persistence, median hCG level at persistence, rate of D&C at persistence, presence of metastatic disease, and FIGO stage and risk score were similar among races. Need for second line chemotherapy (p=0.023), and median number of regimens (p=0.035) were greater in Asian women than in other races. Low-risk GTN was more aggressive in Asian women, who were significantly more likely to need second line chemotherapy and a higher number of chemotherapy regimens to achieve complete remission than women of African American and Asian descent. Further studies involving racial differences related to clinical, biological and environmental characteristics are needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Validation of the North American Chest Pain Rule in Prediction of Very Low-Risk Chest Pain; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Valadkhani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute coronary syndrome accounts for more than 15% of the chest pains. Recently, Hess et al. developed North American Chest Pain Rule (NACPR to identify very low-risk patients who can be safely discharged from emergency department (ED. The present study aimed to validate this rule in EDs of two academic hospitals.Methods: A prospective diagnostic accuracy study was conducted on consecutive patients 24 years of age and older presenting to the ED with the chief complaint of acute chest pain, during March 2013 to June 2013. Chest pain characteristics, cardiac history, electrocardiogram findings, and cardiac biomarker measurement of patients were collected and screening performance characteristics of NACPR with 95% confidence interval were calculated using SPSS 21.Results: From 400 eligible patients with completed follow up, 69 (17.25 % developed myocardial infarction, 121 (30.25% underwent coronary revascularization, and 4 (2% died because of cardiac or unidentifiable causes. By using NACPR, 34 (8.50% of all the patients could be considered very low- risk and discharged after a brief ED assessment. Among these patients, none developed above-mentioned adverse outcomes within 30 days. Sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction value, and negative prediction value of the rule were 100% (95% CI: 87.35 - 100.00, 45.35 (95% CI: 40.19 - 50.61, 14.52 (95% CI: 10.40 – 19.85, and 100 (95% CI: 97.18 - 100.00, respectively.Conclusions: The present multicenter study showed that NACPR is a good screening tool for early discharge of patients with very low-risk chest pain from ED.

  17. Predictive value of general movements' quality in low-risk infants for minor neurological dysfunction and behavioural problems at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennema, Anne N; Schendelaar, Pamela; Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L; Heineman, Maas Jan; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-03-01

    General movement (GM) assessment is a well-established tool to predict cerebral palsy in high-risk infants. Little is known on the predictive value of GM assessment in low-risk populations. To assess the predictive value of GM quality in early infancy for the development of the clinically relevant form of minor neurological dysfunction (complex MND) and behavioral problems at preschool age. Prospective cohort study. A total of 216 members of the prospective Groningen Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) cohort study were included in this study. ART did not affect neurodevelopmental outcome of these relatively low-risk infants born to subfertile parents. GM quality was determined at 2 weeks and 3 months. At 18 months and 4 years, the Hempel neurological examination was used to assess MND. At 4 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist; this resulted in the total problem score (TPS), internalizing problem score (IPS), and externalizing problem score (EPS). Predictive values of definitely (DA) and mildly (MA) abnormal GMs were calculated. DA GMs at 2 weeks were associated with complex MND at 18 months and atypical TPS and IPS at 4 years (all pvalue of DA GMs at 2 weeks were rather low (13%-60%); specificity and negative predictive value were excellent (92%-99%). DA GMs at 3 months occurred too infrequently to calculate prediction. MA GMs were not associated with outcome. GM quality as a single predictor for complex MND and behavioral problems at preschool age has limited clinical value in children at low risk for developmental disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Written Informed Consent for Computed Tomography of the Abdomen/Pelvis is Associated with Decreased CT Utilization in Low-Risk Emergency Department Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa H. Merck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing rate of patient exposure to radiation from computerized tomography (CT raises questions about appropriateness of utilization. There is no current standard to employ informed consent for CT (ICCT. Our study assessed the relationship between informed consent and CT utilization in emergency department (ED patients. Methods: An observational multiphase before-after cohort study was completed from 4/2010-5/2011. We assessed CT utilization before and after (Time I/ Time II the implementation of an informed consent protocol. Adult patients were included if they presented with symptoms of abdominal/pelvic pathology or completed ED CT. We excluded patients with pregnancy, trauma, or altered mental status. Data on history, exam, diagnostics, and disposition were collected via standard abstraction tool. We generated a multivariate logistic model via stepwise regression, to assess CT utilization across risk groups. Logistic models, stratified by risk, were generated to include study phase and a propensity score that controlled for potential confounders of CT utilization. Results: 7,684 patients met inclusion criteria. In PHASE 2, there was a 24% (95% CI [10-36%] reduction in CT utilization in the low-risk patient group (p<0.002. ICCT did not affect CT utilization in the high-risk group (p=0.16. In low-risk patients, the propensity score was significant (p<0.001. There were no adverse events reported during the study period. Conclusion: The implementation of ICCT was associated with reduced CT utilization in low-risk ED patients. ICCT has the potential to increase informed, shared decision making with patients, as well as to reduce the risks and cost associated with CT.

  19. An observational study of the success and complications of 2546 external cephalic versions in low-risk pregnant women performed by trained midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuckens, A; Rijnders, M; Verburgt-Doeleman, G H M; Rijninks-van Driel, G C; Thorpe, J; Hutton, E K

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the success of an external cephalic version (ECV) training programme, and to determine the rates of successful ECV, complications, and caesarean birth in a low-risk population. Prospective observational study. Primary health care and hospital settings throughout the Netherlands (January 2008-September 2011). Low-risk women with a singleton fetus in breech presentation, without contraindications to ECV, were offered ECV at approximately 36 weeks of gestation. Data were collected for all ECVs performed by midwives, and were entered into a national online database. Successful ECV was defined as the fetus having a cephalic presentation immediately following the procedure and at birth. Complications were observed at ≤ 30 minutes and between 30 minutes and 48 hours after the ECV procedure. All serious pregnancy outcomes that occurred after the ECV procedure until birth were reported. A total of 47% had a successful ECv and a cephalic at the time of birth: 34% of nulliparous and 66% of multiparous women. After ECV, 57% of women gave birth vaginally: 45% of nulliparous women and 76% of multiparous women. Within 30 minutes after ECV, and between 30 minutes and 48 hours after ECV, the proportion of women experiencing a complication or serious pregnancy outcome was 0.9% and 1.8%, respectively. Serious pregnancy outcome at any time following ECV until birth was experienced by 58 (2.5%) of the women. The success rate of ECVs performed by trained midwives in primary health care or hospital settings is comparable with that of other providers, and the procedure is safe for low-risk women. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Gateway Effects: Why the Cited Evidence Does Not Support Their Existence for Low-Risk Tobacco Products (and What Evidence Would

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl V. Phillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that low-risk drugs still create harm because of “gateway effects”, in which they cause the use of a high-risk alternative. Such claims are popular among opponents of tobacco harm reduction, claiming that low-risk tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco cause people to start smoking, sometimes backed by empirical studies that ostensibly support the claim. However, these studies consistently ignore the obvious alternative causal pathways, particularly that observed associations might represent causation in the opposite direction (smoking causes people to seek low-risk alternatives or confounding (the same individual characteristics increase the chance of using any tobacco product. Due to these complications, any useful analysis must deal with simultaneity and confounding by common cause. In practice, existing analyses seem almost as if they were designed to provide teaching examples about drawing simplistic and unsupported causal conclusions from observed associations. The present analysis examines what evidence and research strategies would be needed to empirically detect such a gateway effect, if there were one, explaining key methodological concepts including causation and confounding, examining the logic of the claim, identifying potentially useful data, and debunking common fallacies on both sides of the argument, as well as presenting an extended example of proper empirical testing. The analysis demonstrates that none of the empirical studies to date that are purported to show a gateway effect from tobacco harm reduction products actually does so. The observations and approaches can be generalized to other cases where observed association of individual characteristics in cross-sectional data could result from any of several causal relationships.

  1. Outcomes of Pregnancies After Kidney Transplantation: Lessons Learned From CKD. A Comparison of Transplanted, Nontransplanted Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and Low-Risk Pregnancies: A Multicenter Nationwide Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Attini, Rossella; Gerbino, Martina; Todeschini, Paola; Perrino, Maria Luisa; Manzione, Ana Maria; Piredda, Gian Benedetto; Gnappi, Elisa; Caputo, Flavia; Montagnino, Giuseppe; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Di Loreto, Pierluigi; Martino, Francesca; Montanaro, Domenico; Rossini, Michele; Castellino, Santina; Biolcati, Marilisa; Fassio, Federica; Loi, Valentina; Parisi, Silvia; Versino, Elisabetta; Pani, Antonello; Todros, Tullia

    2017-10-01

    Kidney transplantation (KT) may restore fertility in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The reasons why maternofetal outcomes are still inferior to the overall population are only partially known. Comparison with the CKD population may offer some useful insights for management and counselling.Aim of this study was to analyse the outcomes of pregnancy after KT, compared with a large population of nontransplanted CKD patients and with low-risk control pregnancies, observed in Italy the new millennium. We selected 121 live-born singletons after KT (Italian study group of kidney in pregnancy, national coverage about 75%), 610 live-born singletons in CKD, and 1418 low-risk controls recruited in 2 large Italian Units in the same period (2000-2014). The following outcomes were considered: maternal and fetal death; malformations; preterm delivery; small for gestational age (SGA) baby; need for the neonatal intensive care unit; doubling of serum creatinine or increase in CKD stage. Data were analyzed according to kidney diseases, renal function (staging according to CKD-epidemiology collaboration), hypertension, maternal age, parity, ethnicity. Maternofetal outcomes are less favourable in CKD and KT as compared with the low-risk population. CKD stage and hypertension are important determinants of results. Kidney transplantation patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 90 have worse outcomes compared with CKD stage 1 patients; the differences level off when only CKD patients affected by glomerulonephritis or systemic diseases ("progressive CKD") are compared with KT. In the multivariate analysis, risk for preterm and early-preterm delivery was linked to CKD stage (2-5 vs 1: relative risk 3.42 and 3.78) and hypertension (RR 3.68 and 3.16) while no difference was associated with being a KT or a CKD patient. The maternofetal outcomes in patients with kidney transplantation are comparable with those of nontransplanted CKD patients with similar levels of kidney

  2. Gateway Effects: Why the Cited Evidence Does Not Support Their Existence for Low-Risk Tobacco Products (and What Evidence Would).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carl V

    2015-05-21

    It is often claimed that low-risk drugs still create harm because of "gateway effects", in which they cause the use of a high-risk alternative. Such claims are popular among opponents of tobacco harm reduction, claiming that low-risk tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco) cause people to start smoking, sometimes backed by empirical studies that ostensibly support the claim. However, these studies consistently ignore the obvious alternative causal pathways, particularly that observed associations might represent causation in the opposite direction (smoking causes people to seek low-risk alternatives) or confounding (the same individual characteristics increase the chance of using any tobacco product). Due to these complications, any useful analysis must deal with simultaneity and confounding by common cause. In practice, existing analyses seem almost as if they were designed to provide teaching examples about drawing simplistic and unsupported causal conclusions from observed associations. The present analysis examines what evidence and research strategies would be needed to empirically detect such a gateway effect, if there were one, explaining key methodological concepts including causation and confounding, examining the logic of the claim, identifying potentially useful data, and debunking common fallacies on both sides of the argument, as well as presenting an extended example of proper empirical testing. The analysis demonstrates that none of the empirical studies to date that are purported to show a gateway effect from tobacco harm reduction products actually does so. The observations and approaches can be generalized to other cases where observed association of individual characteristics in cross-sectional data could result from any of several causal relationships.

  3. Best Clinical Practice: Current Controversies in the Evaluation of Low-Risk Chest Pain with Risk Stratification Aids. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Brit; Koyfman, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Chest pain accounts for 10% of emergency department (ED) visits annually, and many of these patients are admitted because of potentially life-threatening conditions. A substantial percentage of patients with chest pain are at low risk for a major cardiac adverse event (MACE). We investigated controversies in the evaluation of patients with low-risk chest pain, including clinical scores, decision pathways, and shared decision-making. ED patients with chest pain who have negative biomarker results and nonischemic electrocardiograms are at low risk for MACE. With the large number of chest pain patients evaluated in the ED, several risk scores and pathways are in use based on history, electrocardiographic results, and biomarker results. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events scores are older rules with validation; however, they do not have adequate sensitivity or are not easy to use in the ED. The Vancouver chest pain and North American chest pain rules may be used for patients with undifferentiated chest pain in the ED. The Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes rule uses eight factors, several of which are not available in the United States. The history, electrocardiography, age, risk factors, and troponin (HEART) score and pathway are easy to use, have high sensitivity and negative predictive values, and have better discriminatory capability for categorization. The use of pathways with shared decision-making involves the patient in management, shortens the duration of stay, and decreases risk to both the patient and the provider. Risk stratification of ED patients with chest pain has evolved, and there are many tools available. The HEART pathway, designed for ED use, has several attributes that provide safe and efficient care for patients with chest pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-line test in pregnancies with a priori low risk for the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Francesco; Napoletano, Stefania; Caiazzo, Fiorina; Sessa, Mariateresa; Bono, Sara; Spizzichino, Letizia; Gordon, Anthony; Nuccitelli, Andrea; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Baldi, Marina

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the utility of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in groups of pregnancies with a priori low risk for detection of submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities, usually not considered an indication for testing, in order to assess whether CMA improves the detection rate of prenatal chromosomal aberrations. A total of 3000 prenatal samples were processed in parallel using both whole-genome CMA and conventional karyotyping. The indications for prenatal testing included: advanced maternal age, maternal serum screening test abnormality, abnormal ultrasound findings, known abnormal fetal karyotype, parental anxiety, family history of a genetic condition and cell culture failure. The use of CMA resulted in an increased detection rate regardless of the indication for analysis. This was evident in high risk groups (abnormal ultrasound findings and abnormal fetal karyotype), in which the percentage of detection was 5.8% (7/120), and also in low risk groups, such as advanced maternal age (6/1118, 0.5%), and parental anxiety (11/1674, 0.7%). A total of 24 (0.8%) fetal conditions would have remained undiagnosed if only a standard karyotype had been performed. Importantly, 17 (0.6%) of such findings would have otherwise been overlooked if CMA was offered only to high risk pregnancies.The results of this study suggest that more widespread CMA testing of fetuses would result in a higher detection of clinically relevant chromosome abnormalities, even in low risk pregnancies. Our findings provide substantial evidence for the introduction of CMA as a first-line diagnostic test for all pregnant women undergoing invasive prenatal testing, regardless of risk factors.

  5. Prognostic significance of the prognostic nutritional index in esophageal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, M; Migita, K; Matsumoto, S; Wakatsuki, K; Ito, M; Nakade, H; Kunishige, T; Kitano, M; Kanehiro, H

    2017-08-01

    Nutritional status is one of the most important issues faced by cancer patients. Several studies have shown that a low preoperative nutritional status is associated with a worse prognosis in patients with various types of cancer, including esophageal cancer (EC). Recently, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and/or radiotherapy have been accepted as the standard treatment for resectable advanced EC. However, NAC has the potential to deteriorate the nutritional status of a patient. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the nutritional status for EC patients who underwent NAC. We retrospectively reviewed 66 squamous cell EC patients who underwent NAC consisting of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil followed by subtotal esophagectomy at Nara Medical University Hospital between January 2009 and August 2015. To assess the patients' nutritional status, the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) before commencing NAC and prior to the operation was calculated as 10 × serum albumin (g/dl) + 0.005 × total lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood (per mm3). The cutoff value of the PNI was set at 45. A multivariable analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). The mean pre-NAC and preoperative PNI were 50.2 ± 5.7 and 48.1 ± 4.7, respectively (P = 0.005). The PNI decreased following NAC in 44 (66.7%) patients. Before initiating NAC, 9 (13.6%) patients had a low PNI, and 12 (18.2%) patients had a low PNI prior to the operation. The pre-NAC PNI and preoperative PNI were significantly associated with the OS (P = 0.013 and P = 0.004, respectively) and RFS (P = 0.036 and P = 0.005, respectively) rates. The multivariable analysis identified the preoperative PNI as an independent prognostic factor for poor OS and RFS, although the pre-NAC PNI was not an independent predictor. Our results suggest that the preoperative PNI is a useful marker for predicting the long-term outcomes of EC patients

  6. Physics-of-Failure Approach to Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.

    2017-01-01

    As more and more electric vehicles emerge in our daily operation progressively, a very critical challenge lies in accurate prediction of the electrical components present in the system. In case of electric vehicles, computing remaining battery charge is safety-critical. In order to tackle and solve the prediction problem, it is essential to have awareness of the current state and health of the system, especially since it is necessary to perform condition-based predictions. To be able to predict the future state of the system, it is also required to possess knowledge of the current and future operations of the vehicle. In this presentation our approach to develop a system level health monitoring safety indicator for different electronic components is presented which runs estimation and prediction algorithms to determine state-of-charge and estimate remaining useful life of respective components. Given models of the current and future system behavior, the general approach of model-based prognostics can be employed as a solution to the prediction problem and further for decision making.

  7. Prognostic stratification in the treatment of AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asou, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) still relies on intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). AML is a heterogeneous neoplasm characterized by distinct chromosomal and genetic abnormalities. Recent comprehensive gene analyses have highlighted distinct genetic subgroups that are associated with different responses to chemotherapy. Therefore, the molecular landscape of AML is fundamental to the development of novel therapeutic approaches and provides opportunities for individualization of therapy. In addition, the age-related incidence of clonal hematopoiesis is high, affecting nearly 10% of healthy people more than 65 years of age. Clonal hematopoiesis is confirmed by the presence of mutations related to AML including genes involved in DNA methylation, chromatin modification and RNA splicing. In the analysis of gene mutation profiles in secondary AML (s-AML) from myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms, secondary-type gene mutations were identified with >95% specificity in s-AML as compared with de novo AML, including RNA splicing, chromatin modification and cohesion complex genes, and were highly associated with poor responses to chemotherapy as well as TP53 mutation. It is important to identify genetic subgroups at relatively high-risk of relapses who should receive allogeneic HSCT during the first remission. In this review, prognostic stratification for individualized treatment of AML is discussed.

  8. Prognostic Factors in Severe Chagasic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sandra de Araújo; Rassi, Salvador; Freitas, Elis Marra da Madeira; Gutierrez, Natália da Silva; Boaventura, Fabiana Miranda; Sampaio, Larissa Pereira da Costa; Silva, João Bastista Masson

    2017-03-01

    Prognostic factors are extensively studied in heart failure; however, their role in severe Chagasic heart failure have not been established. To identify the association of clinical and laboratory factors with the prognosis of severe Chagasic heart failure, as well as the association of these factors with mortality and survival in a 7.5-year follow-up. 60 patients with severe Chagasic heart failure were evaluated regarding the following variables: age, blood pressure, ejection fraction, serum sodium, creatinine, 6-minute walk test, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, QRS width, indexed left atrial volume, and functional class. 53 (88.3%) patients died during follow-up, and 7 (11.7%) remained alive. Cumulative overall survival probability was approximately 11%. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (HR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.04 - 4.31; p 72 mL/m2 are independent predictors of mortality in severe Chagasic heart failure, with cumulative survival probability of only 11% in 7.5 years.

  9. A prospective study on transvaginal ultrasound of cervical length (CL) in the first and second trimester in a low-risk population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, C B; Rode, L; Rosthøj, S

    2017-01-01

    CL in the second trimester was 50% at a 10% false-positive rate. More than 1500 women would need to be CL screened at 19-21 weeks to prevent one case of spontaneous preterm delivery before 34 weeks in a population like ours. CONCLUSION: Our data showed an association between first-trimester CL...... and the risk of short cervix in the second trimester. Once a short CL was observed the risk of preterm delivery (PTD) was highly increased. Whether universal CL screening should be implemented in our low risk population must however depend on a cost-benefit analysis taking into account the low proportions...

  10. Are freestanding midwifery units a safe alternative to obstetric units for low-risk, primiparous childbirth? An analysis of effect differences by parity in a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Louise Fischer; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2017-01-09

    Intrapartum complications and the use of obstetric interventions are more common in primiparous childbirth than in multiparous childbirth, leading to concern about out of hospital birth for primiparous women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity and the use of obstetric interventions differed by parity among low-risk women intending to give birth in a freestanding midwifery unit or in an obstetric unit in the North Denmark Region. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a matched cohort study including 839 low-risk women intending birth in a freestanding midwifery unit (primary participants) and 839 low-risk women intending birth in an obstetric unit (individually matched control group). Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to compute odds ratios and effect ratios with 95% confidence intervals for matched pairs stratified by parity. On no outcome did the effect of birthplace differ significantly between primiparous and multiparous women. Compared with their counterparts intending birth in an obstetric unit, both primiparous and multiparous women intending birth in a freestanding midwifery unit were significantly more likely to have an uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant and less likely to require caesarean section, instrumental delivery, augmented labour or epidural analgesia (although for caesarean section this trend did not attain statistical significance for multiparous women). Perinatal outcomes were comparable between the two birth settings irrespective of parity. Compared to multiparas, transfer rates were substantially higher for primiparas, but fell over time while rates for multiparas remained stable. Freestanding midwifery units appear to confer significant advantages over obstetric units to both primiparous and multiparous mothers, while their infants are equally safe in both settings

  11. Long-term Psychological and Quality-of-life Effects of Active Surveillance and Watchful Waiting After Diagnosis of Low-risk Localised Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Sam J; Calopedos, Ross J; O'Connell, Dianne L; Chambers, Suzanne K; Woo, Henry H; Smith, David P

    2017-08-26

    Long-term psychological well-being and quality-of-life are important considerations when deciding whether to undergo active treatment for low-risk localised prostate cancer. To assess the long-term effects of active surveillance (AS) and/or watchful waiting (WW) on psychological and quality-of-life outcomes for low-risk localised prostate cancer patients. The Prostate Cancer Care and Outcome Study is a population-based prospective cohort study in New South Wales, Australia. Participants for these analyses were low-risk localised prostate cancer patients aged prostate cancer patients. Adjusted mean differences (AMDs) in outcome scores between prostate cancer treatment groups were estimated using linear regression. At 9-11 yr after diagnosis, patients who started AS/WW initially had (1) higher levels of distress and hyperarousal than initial radiation/high-dose-rate brachytherapy patients (AMD=5.9; 95% confidence interval or CI [0.5, 11.3] and AMD=5.4; 95% CI [0.2, 10.5], respectively), (2) higher levels of distress and avoidance than initial low-dose-rate brachytherapy patients (AMD=5.3; 95% CI [0.2, 10.3] and AMD=7.0; 95% CI [0.5, 13.5], respectively), (3) better urinary incontinence scores than initial radical prostatectomy patients (AMD=-9.1; 95% CI [-16.3, -2.0]), and (4) less bowel bother than initial radiation/high-dose-rate brachytherapy patients (AMD=-16.8; 95% CI [-27.6, -6.0]). No other significant differences were found. Limitations include participant attrition, inability to assess urinary voiding and storage symptoms, and nonrandom treatment allocation. Notwithstanding some long-term differences between AS/WW and various active treatment groups in terms of distress, hyperarousal, avoidance, urinary incontinence, and bowel bother, most long-term outcomes were similar between these groups. This study assessed the long-term psychological and quality-of-life impacts of initially monitoring rather than actively treating low-risk prostate cancer. The results

  12. Distant metastases in head and neck carcinoma: Identification of prognostic groups with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljumanovic, Redina [Department of Radiology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Redina.Ljumanovic@vumc.nl; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hoekstra, Otto S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands) and Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rene Leemans, C. [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Castelijns, Jonas A. [Department of Radiology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate retrospectively the prognostic significance of lymph node parameters assessed on pretreatment magnetic resonance (MR) images for development of distant metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Materials and methods: Pretreatment MR images of 311 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of lymph nodes at specific neck node levels as well as the size and the presence of a number of lymph node characteristics including extranodal spread, central necrosis and number and volume of ipsi- and contralateral nodes. Of these patients, 174 (56%) had MRI-positive nodes (defined as nodes with minimum axial diameter >8 and >4 mm for paratracheal level and retropharyngeal nodes). Results: The 2-year distant-metastasis free survival rate (DMFSR) for patients without MRI-positive nodes was 94% compared to 75% for those patients with MRI-positive nodes. In patients with MRI-positive nodes, results of multivariate analysis with the Cox regression model yielded statistical significance for presence of extranodal spread (ENS), detected on MRI, as the only independent prognostic factor associated with the 2-year DMFSR (p = 0.002). Based on the analysis, three risk groups regarding the DMFSR could be identified. Low-risk group (DMFSR:94%) consisted of patients without MRI-positive nodes. Intermediate-risk group (DMFSR:81%) consisted of patients with MRI-positive nodes without ENS. High-risk group (DMFSR:59%) consisted of patients with MRI-positive nodes and ENS as shown on MRI (p < 0.0001). Statistical separation for different tumor locations showed MRI-determined ENS (larynx: p = 0.05; oropharynx: p = 0.04; oral cavity: p < 0.001), lowjugular/posterior triangle nodes (oropharynx: p = 0.02), paratracheal nodes (larynx: p = 0.03), and contralateral node volume >5 cm{sup 3} (larynx: p = 0.03; oral cavity: p = 0.02) to be significant predictors with regard to DMFSR. Conclusion: Especially patients with on MRI demonstrating

  13. Prognostic Value of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Compared with Risk Scores in Stable Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Moritz; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Kuhner, Manuel; Zelniker, Thomas; Mueller-Hennessen, Matthias; Vafaie, Mehrshad; Trenk, Dietmar; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Hochholzer, Willibald; Katus, Hugo A

    2017-05-01

    Risk stratification of patients with cardiovascular disease remains challenging despite consideration of risk scores. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic performance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in a low-risk outpatient population presenting for nonsecondary and secondary prevention. All-cause mortality, a composite of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke (end point 2), and a composite of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, stroke and rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, and decompensated heart failure (end point 3) were defined. The prognostic performance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T on index visit was compared with the PROCAM score and 3 FRAMINGHAM subscores. In 693 patients with a median follow-up of 796 days, we observed 16 deaths, 32 patients with end point 2, and 83 patients with end point 3. All risk scores performed better in the prediction of all-cause mortality in nonsecondary prevention (area under the curve [AUC]: PROCAM: 0.922 vs 0.523, P = .001, consistent for all other scores). In secondary prevention, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T outperformed all risk scores in the prediction of all-cause mortality (ΔAUC: PROCAM: 0.319, P risk scores. Our findings on the prediction of all-cause mortality compared with the FRAMINGHAM-Hard Coronary Heart Disease score were confirmed in an independent validation cohort on 2046 patients. High-sensitivity troponin T provides excellent risk stratification regarding all-cause mortality and all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke in a secondary prevention cohort in whom risk scores perform poorly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. IDH mutation status trumps the Pignatti risk score as a prognostic marker in low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxaniz, Olatz; Carrato, Cristina; de Aguirre, Itziar; Queralt, Cristina; Muñoz, Ana; Ramirez, José L; Rosell, Rafael; Villà, Salvador; Diaz, Rocio; Estival, Ana; Teixidor, Pilar; Indacochea, Alberto; Ahjal, Sara; Vilà, Laia; Balañá, Carme

    2017-11-01

    Management of low-grade gliomas (LGG) is based on clinical and radiologic features, including the Pignatti prognostic scoring system, which classifies patients as low- or high-risk. To determine whether molecular data can offer advantages over these features, we have examined the prognostic impact of several molecular alterations in LGG. In a cohort of 58 patients with LGG, we have retrospectively analyzed clinical and molecular characteristics, including the Pignatti criteria, IDH mutations, TP53 mutations, the 1p/19q deletion, and MGMT methylation, and correlated our findings with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Mean age of patients was 45 years; 71% were classified as low-risk by the Pignatti system. IDH mutations were detected in 62%, p53 mutations in 17%, the 1p/19q codeletion in 46%, and MGMT methylation in 40% of patients. Survival analyses were performed in the 49 patients without contrast enhancement. In the univariate analysis, IDH mutations, the 1p/19q codeletion, and the combination of IDH mutations with the 1p/19q codeletion were associated with both longer PFS (P = 0.006, P = 0.037, and P = 0.003, respectively) and longer OS (P IDH mutations as a factor for greater risk of progression [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.1; P = 0.007]and death (HR = 6.4; P IDH mutations may be more effective than the Pignatti score in discriminating low- and high-risk patients with LGG.

  15. Prognostic value of TIMI score versus GRACE score in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luis C L; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Carvalhal, Manuela; Oliveira, Ruan; Silva, André; Vasconcelos, Isis; Henri, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2014-08-01

    The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow) in relation to hospital death. The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively), as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively). Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98), similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99) - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by χ2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92), well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed χ2 = 14 (p = 0.08). This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively), differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%), which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles.

  16. Prognostic Value of TIMI Score versus GRACE Score in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. L. Correia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Objective: Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. Methods: We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow in relation to hospital death. Results: The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively, as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively. Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98, similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99 - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by χ2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92, well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed χ2 = 14 (p = 0.08. This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively, differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%, which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Conclusion: Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles.

  17. Prognostic relevance of pretherapeutic gamma-glutamyltransferase in patients with primary metastatic breast cancer.

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    Christine Staudigl

    Full Text Available Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT is a known marker for apoptotic balance and cell detoxification. Recently, an association of baseline GGT levels and breast cancer incidence, tumor progression and chemotherapy resistance was shown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of pre-therapeutic GGT levels, clinical-pathological parameters and survival in patients with primary metastatic breast cancer (PMBC.In this multicenter analysis, pre-therapeutic GGT levels and clinical-pathological parameters of 114 patients diagnosed with PMBC between 1996 and 2012 were evaluated. The association between GGT levels and clinical-pathological parameters were analysed. Patients were stratified into four GGT risk-groups (GGT < 18.00 U/L: normal low, 18.00 to 35.99 U/L: normal high, 36.00 to 71.99 U/L: elevated and ≥ 72.00 U/L: highly elevated and survival analyses were performed.Patients in the high risk GGT group had a poorer overall survival, when compared to the low risk group with five-year overall survival rates of 39.5% and 53.7% (p = 0.04, respectively. Patients with larger breast tumors had a trend towards higher GGT levels (p = 0.053. Pre-therapeutic GGT levels were not associated with indicators of aggressive tumor biology such as HER2-status, triple negative histology, or poorly differentiated cancers.Pre-therapeutic GGT serum level might serve as a novel prognostic factor for overall-survival in patients with PMBC.

  18. Prognostic Value of Her2/neu Expression in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Immunohistochemical Study

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    Ahmed M Abd El-Aziz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a relatively rare type of neoplasms. In Egypt, it represents 2.5% of gastrointestinal tumors and 0.3% of all malignancies. Most of the GISTs develop in the stomach. Aim: To reveal the significance of Her2/neu immunohistochemical expression in GIST and its correlation with other histopathologic parameters and tumor relapse after regular follow-up. Patients and methods: This study is a retrospective and prospective cohort. It included 32 patients with GISTs, who were resectable with no distant metastasis. Immunohistochemical staining by Her2/neu was performed after complete surgical resection of the tumors with preservation of the pseudocapsule. Results: In total, 53.1% of cases were men and 46.9% women. Tumors were classified into low-risk (25%, intermediate-risk (21.9%, and high-risk groups (53.1%. Her2/neu expression was negative in 56.3% of GISTs and positive in 43.7%. Its expression was significantly correlated with risk grade ( P = .04, tumor size ( P = .001, mitotic count ( P = .00, and increased risk of relapse ( P = .00. Furthermore, tumor relapse was significantly correlated with the tumor mitotic counts ( P = .00. Using kappa agreement test, it showed that 4 mitotic counts/50 high-power fields (HPF was the cutoff value with which the tumor might be associated more with relapse, with 83% sensitivity, 70% specificity, and P value of .003. Conclusions: Her2/neu might be used as an independent prognostic marker for tumor recurrence after complete resection of GIST, and the cutoff value of mitotic count that might predict tumor relapse is 4/50 HPF. However, more clinical studies with greater number of cases with fluorescent in situ hybridization integration are recommended.

  19. Prognostic Value of Her2/neu Expression in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Immunohistochemical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aziz, Ahmed M; Ibrahim, Eman A; Abd-Elmoghny, Ashraf; El-Bassiouny, Mohammed; Laban, Zina M; Saad El-Din, Somaia A; Shohdy, Youhanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a relatively rare type of neoplasms. In Egypt, it represents 2.5% of gastrointestinal tumors and 0.3% of all malignancies. Most of the GISTs develop in the stomach. Aim: To reveal the significance of Her2/neu immunohistochemical expression in GIST and its correlation with other histopathologic parameters and tumor relapse after regular follow-up. Patients and methods: This study is a retrospective and prospective cohort. It included 32 patients with GISTs, who were resectable with no distant metastasis. Immunohistochemical staining by Her2/neu was performed after complete surgical resection of the tumors with preservation of the pseudocapsule. Results: In total, 53.1% of cases were men and 46.9% women. Tumors were classified into low-risk (25%), intermediate-risk (21.9%), and high-risk groups (53.1%). Her2/neu expression was negative in 56.3% of GISTs and positive in 43.7%. Its expression was significantly correlated with risk grade (P = .04), tumor size (P = .001), mitotic count (P = .00), and increased risk of relapse (P = .00). Furthermore, tumor relapse was significantly correlated with the tumor mitotic counts (P = .00). Using kappa agreement test, it showed that 4 mitotic counts/50 high-power fields (HPF) was the cutoff value with which the tumor might be associated more with relapse, with 83% sensitivity, 70% specificity, and P value of .003. Conclusions: Her2/neu might be used as an independent prognostic marker for tumor recurrence after complete resection of GIST, and the cutoff value of mitotic count that might predict tumor relapse is 4/50 HPF. However, more clinical studies with greater number of cases with fluorescent in situ hybridization integration are recommended. PMID:28469470

  20. Outcome of planned home and hospital births among low-risk women in Iceland in 2005-2009: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Smarason, Alexander Kr; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Sveinsdottir, Herdis

    2015-03-01

    At 2.2 percent in 2012, the home birth rate in Iceland is the highest in the Nordic countries and has been rising rapidly in the new millennium. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of planned home births and planned hospital births in comparable low-risk groups in Iceland. The study is a retrospective cohort study comparing the total population of 307 planned home births in Iceland in 2005-2009 to a matched 1:3 sample of 921 planned hospital births. Regression analysis, adjusted for confounding variables, was performed for the primary outcome variables. The rate of oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia, and postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower when labor started as a planned home birth. Differences in the rates of other primary outcome variables were not significant. The home birth group had lower rates of operative birth and obstetric anal sphincter injury. The rate of 5-minute Apgar score < 7 was the same in the home and hospital birth groups, but the home birth group had a higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit admission. Intervention and adverse outcome rates in both study groups, including transfer rates, were higher among primiparas than multiparas. Oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia, and postpartum hemorrhage rates were significantly interrelated. This study adds to the growing body of evidence that suggests that planned home birth for low-risk women is as safe as planned hospital birth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for normal cervical cytology in low-risk women age 30–65 years by family physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Marisyl D.; Young, Alisa P.; Ruffin, Mack T.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess HPV ordering for normal cervical cytology among low-risk women age 30–65 years. METHODS Audits of 833 cytology request forms of low-risk women completing a Pap smear, January 2008–April 2011, from five Michigan Family Medicine clinics determined HPV orders completed by the Pap-smear performing clinician. Multivariate logistic regression models examined differences in HPV ordering by age at Pap and provider status, gender, and clinic across sites. A poisson regression model analyzed the annual number of HPV orders over time. RESULTS Cytology requests were completed by: 622 faculty (75%), 169 residents/fellows (20%), and 42 Nurse Practitioner/Physician Assistants (NP/PAs) (5%). HPV testing for any cytology result was ordered on 324 request forms (39%) by residents/fellows (48%), faculty (38%), and NP/PAs (10%). Female providers were twice as likely as males to order HPV for any cytology result across all clinics and provider status (p<0.001). There were significant differences in HPV ordering among clinics. Annually between 2008–2011 cytology requests increased 46% including HPV for any cytology result after adjusting for faculty provider gender. CONCLUSION HPV ordering at cytology collection varied by clinic and provider status and gender. HPV cotesting for any cytology result remains modest, but increasing over time in these clinics. PMID:24204068

  2. Is the peripheral arterial disease in low risk type 2 diabetic patients influenced by body mass index, lipidemic control, and statins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Jayesh Dalpatbhai; Makwana, Amit H; Mehta, Hemant B; Gokhale, Pradnya A; Shah, Chinmay J

    2016-01-01

    To correlate BMI, lipidemic control, and statin therapy with PAD measured by ABI in low risk type 2 diabetics. A sample of 101 nonsmoking, asymptomatic type 2 diabetics (50 males, 51 females) with known glycemic (fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin) and lipidemic (total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and triglycerides [TGAs]) control was taken. Vascular Doppler was used to derive ABI and PAD was defined as ABI control and prevalence of PAD 30%. There was insignificantly low ABI profile in patient having BMI ≥25, hyperlipidemia and absent statin therapy with odds ratio being highest for TGAs ≥150 (3.23) followed by BMI ≥25 (2.61), high-density lipoprotein ≤50 (1.61), low-density lipoprotein ≥100 (1.20), and disuse of statin (1.14) with significance only for BMI. We observed small, insignificant PAD risk by dyslipidemia or non-use of statins in low-risk ambulatory T2DM patients, not so by BMI. This suggests importance of good glycemic control, maintenance of optimum weight, and lifestyle modifications as primary prevention rather than opting for costly and inefficient secondary prevention.

  3. Performance of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 serum levels in pediatric oncology patients with neutropenia and fever for the assessment of low-risk

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    Kontny Udo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chemotherapy-related neutropenia and fever are usually hospitalized and treated on empirical intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens. Early diagnosis of sepsis in children with febrile neutropenia remains difficult due to non-specific clinical and laboratory signs of infection. We aimed to analyze whether IL-6 and IL-8 could define a group of patients at low risk of septicemia. Methods A prospective study was performed to assess the potential value of IL-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein serum levels to predict severe bacterial infection or bacteremia in febrile neutropenic children with cancer during chemotherapy. Statistical test used: Friedman test, Wilcoxon-Test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Mann-Whitney U-Test and Receiver Operating Characteristics. Results The analysis of cytokine levels measured at the onset of fever indicated that IL-6 and IL-8 are useful to define a possible group of patients with low risk of sepsis. In predicting bacteremia or severe bacterial infection, IL-6 was the best predictor with the optimum IL-6 cut-off level of 42 pg/ml showing a high sensitivity (90% and specificity (85%. Conclusion These findings may have clinical implications for risk-based antimicrobial treatment strategies.

  4. Limiting overdiagnosis of low-risk prostate cancer through an evaluation of the predictive value of transrectal and power Doppler ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvain, Jean Luc; Sauvain, Elise; Papavero, Roger; Louis, Didier; Rohmer, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Overdiagnosis induced by prostate cancer screening makes necessary a better selection of candidate patients for prostate biopsy. The objective of our study is to assess the probability of having a high- or low-risk lesion that could require active surveillance (AS) after biopsies and a normal or abnormal examination, including transrectal and power Doppler ultrasonography (TRUS-PDS). Four hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients with a PSA level risk of a biological recurrence and Dall'Era's criteria to assess possible AS. The TRUS-PDS was considered positive if one biopsy was positive in the same sextant as the suspect image. One hundred and seventy-seven out of 429 (41 %) T1c cancers were diagnosed; 131 out of 177 (74 %) could be qualified as low risk, and 119 out of 177 (67 %) could require AS. The TRUS-PDS was normal in 285 of 429 patients (66 %). With a normal TRUS-PDS, the probability of not having cancer with a high or intermediate risk was 96 % (negative predictive value). With an abnormal TRUS-PDS, the probability of having a positive biopsy was 59 %, and the probability of having a significant cancer was 30 %, according to the Dall'Era criteria. When TRUS-PDS was normal, these probabilities significantly decreased to 32 and 5 %, respectively ( p  risk of high- or intermediate-risk cancer.

  5. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for normal cervical cytology in low-risk women aged 30-65 years by family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Maria Syl D; Young, Alisa P; Ruffin, Mack T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess ordering of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for normal cervical cytology among low-risk women aged 30 to 65 years. Audits of 833 cytology request forms for low-risk women completing a Papanicolaou smear, from January 2008 to April 2011, from 5 Michigan family medicine clinics determined HPV orders completed by the clinician performing the Papanicolaou smear. Multivariate logistic regression models examined differences in HPV test ordering by patient age at Papanicolaou test, provider status and sex, and clinic across sites. A Poisson regression model analyzed the annual number of HPV test orders over time. Cytology requests were completed by 622 faculty (75%), 169 residents/fellows (20%), and 42 nurse practitioner/physician assistants (NP/PAs) (5%). HPV testing for any cytology result was ordered on 324 request forms (39%) by residents/fellows (48%), faculty (38%), and NP/PAs (10%). Female providers were twice as likely as men to order HPV testing for any cytology result across all clinics and provider statuses (P HPV test ordering among clinics. Between 2008 and 2011 annual cytology requests increased 46%, including HPV testing for any cytology result after adjusting for faculty provider sex. HPV test ordering when cytology is collected varied by clinic and provider status and sex. HPV co-testing for any cytology result remains modest, but is increasing over time in these clinics.

  6. Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy: definition of TSH cut-off should precede the decision of screening in low-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Pedro W; Purisch, Saulo

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the frequency of elevated TSH in pregnant women of low risk for thyroid dysfunction. TSH was measured in 838 pregnant women during the first trimester of gestation (from 6 to 14 weeks, median 9 weeks) and who were considered to be of low risk for thyroid dysfunction because they did not meet any of the following criteria: known or clinically suspected thyroid disease; history of head and neck radiotherapy; personal history of autoimmune diseases; family history of thyroid disease; history of abortion or prematurity. The frequency of elevated TSH was 0.25%, 1.2% and 5.5% at cut-off values of 4, 3 and 2.5?mIU/l, respectively. These rates increase to 1.43%, 2.4% and 6.2% if cases of TSH> 2 mIU/l with TPOAb are included. TSH was undetectable in 18 women (2.1%), but only six (0.71%) had elevated T4. The definition of a TSH cut-off that defines subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) should precede the decision of screening pregnant women without any risk factors for thyroid dysfunction.

  7. The impact of umbilical and uterine artery Doppler indices on antenatal course, labor and delivery in a low-risk primigravid population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the impact of umbilical and uterine artery Doppler in the second and third trimester on antenatal course, labor and delivery in a low-risk primigravid population. METHODS: Prospective recruitment of 1011 low-risk primigravidas with uterine and umbilical artery Doppler assessment at 22-24 weeks and 36 weeks. All mothers and infants were reviewed postnatally with a retrospective analysis of ultrasound and clinical outcome data. RESULTS: Elevated uterine artery indices were associated with increased rates of threatened miscarriage, higher rates of pre-eclampsia (PET) and a higher incidence of fetal birth weight <2nd and 9th centile for gestation. Uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) >95th centile for gestation was associated with statistically higher rates of small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants. Elevated umbilical artery indices were associated with higher rates of induction of labor and a higher incidence of fetal birth weight infants <2nd and 9th centile for gestation. Umbilical artery PI >95th centile for gestation was associated with statistically higher rates of SGA infants. CONCLUSION: Elevated uterine and umbilical artery indices are associated with higher rates of maternal and fetal disease.

  8. Nutrient and food intakes of middle-aged adults at low risk of cardiovascular disease: the international study of macro-/micronutrients and blood pressure (INTERMAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Christina M; Stamler, Jeremiah; Dyer, Alan R; Brown, Ian J; Chan, Queenie; Elliott, Paul; Zhao, Liancheng; Okuda, Nagako; Miura, Katsuyuki; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda

    2012-12-01

    Individuals with favorable levels of readily measured cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (low risk, LR) experience low long-term rates of CVD mortality and greater longevity. The purpose of the current study was to compare nutrient/food intakes of LR participants with participants not LR in the INTERMAP study. Men and women (40-59 years) from 17 population samples in four countries (China, Japan, UK, US) provided four 24-h dietary recalls and two timed 24-h urine collections. LR was defined as meeting all of the following CVD risk criteria: systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP) ≤ 120/ ≤ 80 mmHg; no drug treatment for high BP, hyperlipidemia, or CVD; non-smoking; BMI CVD. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations of nutrient/food intakes with LR. LR individuals reported higher intake of vegetable protein, fiber, magnesium, non-heme iron, potassium; lower energy intake; lower intake of cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, animal protein; and lower 24-h urinary sodium compared with individuals not LR. With regard to foods, LR individuals reported higher intake of fruits, vegetables, grains, pasta/rice, fish; lower intakes of meats, processed meats, high-fat dairy, and sugar-sweetened beverages than individuals not LR. Lower energy intake and differential intake of multiple specific nutrients and foods are characteristic of individuals at low risk for developing CVD. Identification of dietary habits associated with LR is important for further development of public health efforts aimed at reduction/prevention of CVD.

  9. Prognostic factors in non-Hodgkin lymphomas

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    Karin Zattar Cecyn

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In Hodgkin's disease, each clinical or pathologic stage can be related to the extent of the area involved and predicts the next anatomical region at risk for tumor dissemination. OBJECTIVE: To determine the best prognostic factors that could predict survival in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. DESIGN: A retrospective study. LOCATION: Department of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina. PARTICIPANTS: 142 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed between February 1988 and March 1993. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Histological subset, Sex, Age, Race, B symptoms, Performance status, Stage, Extranodal disease, Bulk disease, Mediastinal disease, CNS involvement, BM infiltration, Level of DHL, Immunophenotype. RESULTS: In the first study (113 patients, the following variables had a worse influence on survival: yellow race (P<0.1; ECOG II, III e IV (P<0.1 and extranodal disease (P<0.1 for high grade lymphomas; constitutional symptoms (P<0.1, ECOG II, III e IV (P<0.1 and involvement of CNS (P<0.1 for intermediate grade and the subtype lymphoplasmocytoid (P=0.0186 for low grade lymphomas. In the second survey (93 patients, when treatment was included, the variables related to NHL survival were: CNS involvement (P<0.1 for high grade lymphomas, constitutional symptoms (P<0.1, ECOG II, III, IV (P=0.0185 and also CNS involvement (P<0.1 for the intermediate group. There were no variables related to the survival for low-grade lymphomas. CONCLUSIONS: The intermediate grade lymphomas were more compatible with data found in the literature, probably because of the larger number of patients. In this specific case, the treatment did not have an influence on the survival.

  10. Prognostic factors and scoring system for survival in colonic perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Shuhei; Shimomatsuya, Takumi; Nakajima, Masayuki; Amaya, Hirokazu; Kobuchi, Taketsune; Shiraishi, Susumu; Konishi, Sayuri; Ono, Susumu; Maruhashi, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    No ideal and generally accepted prognostic factors and scoring systems exist to determine the prognosis of peritonitis associated with colonic perforation. This study was designed to investigate prognostic factors and evaluate the various scoring systems to allow identification of high-risk patients. Between 1996 and 2003, excluding iatrogenic and trauma cases, 26 consecutive patients underwent emergency operations for colorectal perforation and were selected for this retrospective study. Several clinical factors were analyzed as possible predictive factors, and APACHE II, SOFA, MPI, and MOF scores were calculated. The overall mortality was 26.9%. Compared with the survivors, non-survivors were found more frequently in Hinchey's stage III-IV, a low preoperative marker of pH, base excess (BE), and a low postoperative marker of white blood cell count, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and renal output (24h). According to the logistic regression model, BE was a significant independent variable. Concerning the prognostic scoring systems, an APACHE II score of 19, a SOFA score of 8, an MPI score of 30, and an MOF score of 7 or more were significantly related to poor prognosis. Preoperative BE and postoperative white blood cell count were reliable prognostic factors and early classification using prognostic scoring systems at specific points in the disease process are useful to improve our understanding of the problems involved.

  11. Prognostic value of the monoethylglycinexylidide test in alcoholic cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhise, Satish B; Dias, Remeth J; Mali, Kailas K

    2007-01-01

    The existing conventional liver function tests (LFTs) are indirect, inferior and have limited prognostic value. Therefore, the monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) test, which provides a direct measure of the actual functional state of the liver, is proposed as a real-time liver function test. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the MEGX test in cirrhosis by comparing it with Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP), the Mayo end stage liver disease (MELD) and discriminant function (DF) scores. The study was carried out in Satara, India during the period of January 2005 to June 2006 and included 79 adult alcoholic cirrhotic patients. The serum specimen from each patient was analyzed using conventional LFTs and the MEGX test. The prognostic scores-CTP, MELD and DF scores were calculated and statistical analyses was performed. Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the MELD score and MEGX60 showed excellent sensitivity and specificity. The comparison of area under ROC curves showed that MELD and MEGX60 had superior prognostic accuracy when compared to other scores. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for corresponding cutoff values clearly differentiated between patients with different survival times. The MEGX test has shown more sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than CTP and DF scores in determining cases with the possibility of three- and six-month survival. Thus, it can be concluded that MEGX test along with MELD, is an effective prognostic tool in the hands of clinicians for predicting short-term survival.

  12. A Model-based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Daigle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain knowledge of the system, its components, and how they fail by casting the underlying physical phenomena in a physics-based model that is derived from first principles. Uncertainty cannot be avoided in prediction, therefore, algorithms are employed that help in managing these uncertainties. The particle filtering algorithm has become a popular choice for model-based prognostics due to its wide applicability, ease of implementation, and support for uncertainty management. We develop a general model-based prognostics methodology within a robust probabilistic framework using particle filters. As a case study, we consider a pneumatic valve from the Space Shuttle cryogenic refueling system. We develop a detailed physics-based model of the pneumatic valve, and perform comprehensive simulation experiments to illustrate our prognostics approach and evaluate its effectiveness and robustness. The approach is demonstrated using historical pneumatic valve data from the refueling system.

  13. Prognostic stratification of ulcerated melanoma: not only the extent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie L; Schmidt, Henrik; Christensen, Ib J; Damsgaard, Tine E; Møller, Holger J; Bastholt, Lars; Nørgaard, Peter H; Steiniche, Torben

    2014-12-01

    For patients with melanoma, ulceration is an important prognostic marker and interestingly also a predictive marker for the response of adjuvant interferon. A consensual definition and accurate assessment of ulceration are therefore crucial for proper staging and clinical management. We evaluated the prognostic impact of the extent and type of ulceration and the epidermal involvement theoretically preceding it (consumption of epidermis and cleft formation) or seen subsequent to the inflammation (reepithelialization and reactive epidermal hyperplasia), aiming for better prognostic stratification of ulcerated lesions. From H&E-stained sections, the status (presence vs absence), extent (percentage of the total tumor length), and type (infiltrative vs attenuative) of ulceration and epidermal involvement were evaluated from 385 patients with cutaneous melanoma. The presence of ulceration (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83), an attenuative type of ulceration (HR, 3.02), and excessive ulceration (HR, 3.57) were independent predictors of poor melanoma-specific survival. Further subdivision of minimal/moderate ulceration showed independent prognostic value only for lesions with epidermal involvement of the surrounding epidermis (HR, 1.78). The extent and type of ulceration and involvement of the surrounding epidermis provided more accurate prognostic information than the mere absence or presence and may be useful markers allowing better stratification of ulcerated lesions. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  14. State of the art and taxonomy of prognostics approaches, trends of prognostics applications and open issues towards maturity at different technology readiness levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Kamran; Gouriveau, Rafael; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2017-09-01

    Integrating prognostics to a real application requires a certain maturity level and for this reason there is a lack of success stories about development of a complete Prognostics and Health Management system. In fact, the maturity of prognostics is closely linked to data and domain specific entities like modeling. Basically, prognostics task aims at predicting the degradation of engineering assets. However, practically it is not possible to precisely predict the impending failure, which requires a thorough understanding to encounter different sources of uncertainty that affect prognostics. Therefore, different aspects crucial to the prognostics framework, i.e., from monitoring data to remaining useful life of equipment need to be addressed. To this aim, the paper contributes to state of the art and taxonomy of prognostics approaches and their application perspectives. In addition, factors for prognostics approach selection are identified, and new case studies from component-system level are discussed. Moreover, open challenges toward maturity of the prognostics under uncertainty are highlighted and scheme for an efficient prognostics approach is presented. Finally, the existing challenges for verification and validation of prognostics at different technology readiness levels are discussed with respect to open challenges.

  15. Rising cesarean deliveries among apparently low-risk mothers at university teaching hospitals in Jordan: analysis of population survey data, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rifai, Rami

    2014-05-01

    Cesarean delivery conducted without medical indication places mothers and infants at risk for adverse outcomes. This study assessed changes in trends of, and factors associated with, cesarean deliveries in Jordan, from 2002 to 2012. Data for ever-married women ages 15-49 years from the 2002, 2007, and 2012 Jordan Population and Family Health Surveys were used. Analyses were restricted to mothers who responded to a question regarding the hospital-based mode of delivery for their last birth occurring within the 5 years preceding each survey (2002, N = 3,450; 2007, N = 6,307; 2012, N = 6,365). Normal birth weight infants and singleton births were used as markers for births that were potentially low risk for cesarean delivery, because low/high birth weight and multiple births are among the main obstetric variables that have been documented to increase risk of cesareans. Weighted descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted using 4 logistic regression models: (1) among all mothers; and among mothers stratified (2) by place of delivery; (3) by birth weight of infants; and (4) by singleton vs. multiple births. The cesarean delivery rate increased significantly over time, from 18.2% in 2002, to 20.1% in 2007, to 30.3% in 2012. Place of delivery, birth weight, and birth multiplicity were significantly associated with cesarean delivery after adjusting for confounding factors. Between 2002 and 2012, the rate increased by 99% in public hospitals vs. 70% in private hospitals; by 93% among normal birth weight infants vs. 73% among low/high birth weight infants; and by 92% among singleton births vs. 29% among multiple births. The changes were significant across all categories except among multiple births. Further stratification revealed that the cesarean delivery rate was 2.29 times higher in university teaching hospitals (UTHs) than in private hospitals (Pweight infants (adjusted OR = 2.15) and singleton births (adjusted OR = 2.39). The rising

  16. Effectiveness and toxicity of first-line methotrexate chemotherapy in low-risk postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: The New England Trophoblastic Disease Center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestá, Izildinha; Nitecki, Roni; Horowitz, Neil S; Goldstein, Donald P; de Freitas Segalla Moreira, Marjory; Elias, Kevin M; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2017-10-29

    To assess the outcomes and toxicity of first-line methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy in low-risk postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) patients receiving 8-day methotrexate or one-day methotrexate infusion regimens. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC), between 1974 and 2014, and included 325 patients with FIGO-defined low-risk postmolar GTN receiving first-line 8-day MTX/folinic acid (FA) or one-day MTX infusion and FA. Demographics, disease presentation, initial treatment plan, treatment outcome, and treatment-related adverse events were assessed. Sustained remission (84% vs 62%, p<0.001) and need to switch to second-line therapy due to treatment-related adverse events (5.3% vs 0%, p=0.001) were higher for 8-day MTX/FA compared to one-day MTX infusion. MTX resistance, however, was more frequent with one-day MTX (34.5%) than with 8-day MTX/FA (7.3%, p<0.001). Relapse rates were similar with both regimens (3.0%). Compared to one-day MTX infusion, 8-day MTX/FA was associated with significantly higher gastrointestinal disorders (48% vs 24%), abnormal laboratory findings (48% vs 28%), eye disorders (37% vs 19%) and general disorders (22% vs 5%) (p<0.001). Only infection frequency did not differ between 8-day MTX/FA and one-day MTX infusion (20% vs 12%, p=0.083). This is one of the largest studies to comprehensively catalogue toxicities associated with 8-day MTX/FA and one-day MTX infusion. Although treatment-related adverse events were more frequent with 8-day MTX/FA, these were all self-limited and resolved with no long-term sequelae. Given this and its higher effectiveness, 8-day MTX/FA remains the treatment of choice at NETDC for patients with low-risk postmolar GTN. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Placental Growth Factor Levels in Populations with High Versus Low Risk for Cardiovascular Disease and Stressful Physiological Environments such as Microgravity: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Mehta, Satish K.; Schlegel, Todd. T.; Russomano, Thais; Pierson, Duane L.; Mann, Vivek; Mansoor, Elvedina; Olamigoke, Loretta; Okoro, Elvis

    2017-02-01

    This pilot study compared placental growth factor (PIGF) levels in populations with high versus low risk for cardiovascular disease. Previous experiments from our laboratory (Sundaresan et al. 2005, 2009) revealed that the angiogenic factor PIGF was up regulated in modeled microgravity conditions in human lymphocytes leading to possible atherogenesis and pathogenesis in microgravity. Since the findings came from microgravity analog experiments, there is a strong link to its usefulness in the microgravity field as a biomarker. It is important to understand, that these findings came from both studies on expression levels of this cardiovascular marker in human lymphocytes in microgravity ( in vitro microgravity analog), and a follow up gene expression study in hind limb suspended mice ( in vivo microgravity analog). The relevance is enhanced because in life on earth, PIGF is an inflammatory biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Studies on the levels of PIGF would help to reduce the risk and prevention of heart failures in astronauts. If we can use this marker to predict and reduce the risk of cardiac events in astronauts and pilots, it would significantly help aerospace medicine operations. The investigations here confirmed that in a cardiovascular stressed population such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, PIGF could be overexpressed. We desired to re-evaluate this marker in patients with cardiovascular disease in our own study. PIGF is a marker of inflammation and a predictor of short-term and long-term adverse outcome in ACS. In addition, elevated PIGF levels may be associated with increased risk for CAD.PIGF levels were determined in thirty-one patients undergoing cardiovascular catheterization for reasons other than ACS and in thirty-three low-risk asymptomatic subjects. Additional data on traditional cardiovascular risk factors for both populations were also compiled and compared. We found that PIGF levels were

  18. Audit of a new model of birth care for women with low risk pregnancies in South Africa: the primary care onsite midwife-led birth unit (OMBU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, George Justus; Mancotywa, Thozeka; Silwana-Kwadjo, Nomvula; Mgudlwa, Batembu; Lawrie, Theresa A; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin

    2014-12-20

    South Africa's health system is based on the primary care model in which low-risk maternity care is provided at community health centres and clinics, and 'high-risk' care is provided at secondary/tertiary hospitals. This model has the disadvantage of delays in the management of unexpected intrapartum complications in otherwise low-risk pregnancies, therefore, there is a need to re-evaluate the models of birth care in South Africa. To date, two primary care onsite midwife-led birth units (OMBUs) have been established in the Eastern Cape. OMBUs are similar to alongside midwifery units but have been adapted to the South African health system in that they are staffed, administered and funded by the primary care service. They allow women considered to be at 'low risk' to choose between birth in a community health centre and birth in the OMBU. The purpose of this audit was to evaluate the impact of establishing an OMBU at Frere Maternity Hospital in East London, South Africa, on maternity services. We conducted an audit of routinely collected data from Frere Maternity Hospital over two 12 month periods, before and after the OMBU opened. Retrospectively retrieved data included the number of births, maternal and perinatal deaths, and mode of delivery. After the OMBU opened at Frere Maternity Hospital, the total number of births on the hospital premises increased by 16%. The total number of births in the hospital obstetric unit (OU) dropped by 9.3%, with 1611 births out of 7375 (22%) occurring in the new OMBU. The number of maternal and perinatal deaths was lower in the post-OMBU period compared with the pre-OMBU period. These improvements cannot be assumed to be the result of the intervention as observational studies are prone to bias. The mortality data should be interpreted with caution as other factors such as change in risk profile may have contributed to the death reductions. There are many additional advantages for women, hospital staff and primary care staff with

  19. Incidences of Unfavorable Events in the Management of Low-Risk Papillary Microcarcinoma of the Thyroid by Active Surveillance Versus Immediate Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Hitomi; Miyauchi, Akira; Ito, Yasuhiro; Yoshioka, Kana; Nakayama, Ayako; Sasai, Hisanori; Masuoka, Hiroo; Yabuta, Tomonori; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Higashiyama, Takuya; Kihara, Minoru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Miya, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) of the thyroid is rapidly increasing globally, making the management of PMC an important clinical issue. Excellent oncological outcomes of active surveillance for low-risk PMC have been reported previously. Here, unfavorable events following active surveillance and surgical treatment for PMC were studied. From February 2005 to August 2013, 2153 patients were diagnosed with low-risk PMC. Of these, 1179 patients chose active surveillance and 974 patients chose immediate surgery. The oncological outcomes and the incidences of unfavorable events of these groups were analyzed. In the active surveillance group, 94 patients underwent surgery for various reasons; tumor enlargement and the appearance of novel lymph node metastases were the reasons in 27 (2.3%) and six patients (0.5%), respectively. One of the patients with conversion to surgery had nodal recurrence, and five patients in the immediate surgery group had a recurrence in a cervical node or unresected thyroid lobe. All of these recurrences were successfully treated. None of the patients had distant metastases, and none died of the disease. The immediate surgery group had significantly higher incidences of transient vocal cord paralysis (VCP), transient hypoparathyroidism, and permanent hypoparathyroidism than the active-surveillance group did (4.1% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.0001; 16.7% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.0001; and 1.6% vs. 0.08%, p < 0.0001, respectively). Permanent VCP occurred only in two patients (0.2%) in the immediate surgery group. The proportion of patients on L-thyroxine for supplemental or thyrotropin (TSH)-suppressive purposes was significantly larger in the immediate surgery group than in the active surveillance group (66.1% vs. 20.7%, p < 0.0001). The immediate surgery group had significantly higher incidences of postsurgical hematoma and surgical scar in the neck compared with the active surveillance group (0.5% vs. 0%, p < 0.05; and 8.0% vs

  20. Prognostic nutritional index as a prognostic biomarker for survival in digestive system carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xu, Peng; Kang, Huafeng; Lin, Shuai; Wang, Meng; Yang, Pengtao; Dai, Cong; Liu, Xinghan; Liu, Kang; Zheng, Yi; Dai, Zhijun

    2016-12-27

    The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been reported to correlate with the prognosis in patients with various malignancies. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the predictive potential of PNI in digestive system cancers. Twenty-three studies with a total of 7,384 patients suffering from digestive system carcinomas were involved in this meta-analysis. A lower PNI was significantly associated with the shorter overall survival (OS) [Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.83, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.62-2.07], the poorer disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.19-2.89), and the higher rate of post-operative complications (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.63-3.28). In conclusion, PNI was allowed to function as an efficient indicator for the prognosis of patients with digestive system carcinomas.