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Sample records for progesterone p4 secretion

  1. Determination of progesterone (P4) from bovine serum samples using a microfluidic immunosensor system.

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    Arévalo, Fernando Javier; Messina, Germán Alejandro; Molina, Patricia Gabriela; Zón, María Alicia; Raba, Julio; Fernández, Héctor

    2010-03-15

    Progesterone (P4) is a steroidal hormone with a vital role in the maintenance of human and animal health. This paper describes the development of an immunosensor coupled to glassy carbon (GC) electrode and integrated to a microfluidic system to quantify P4 from bovine serum samples in a fast and sensitive way. The serum samples spiked with a given P4 concentration and a given P4 concentration bound to horseradish peroxide (HPR) were simultaneously added and, therefore, they competed immunologically with sheep monoclonal anti-P4 antibodies that were immobilized at a rotating disk. HRP in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) catalyzes the chatecol (H(2)Q) oxidation to benzoquinone (Q). Its reverse electrochemical reduction to H(2)Q can be detected at a GC electrode surface at -0.15 V by chronoamperometric measurements. These current responses are proportional to the enzyme activity and inversely proportional to the P4 amount present in bovine serum samples. This P4 immunosensor showed a linear working range from 0.5 to 12.5 ng mL(-1). The detection (DL) and quantification (QL) limits were 0.2 and 0.5 ng mL(-1), respectively. The electrochemical immunosensor had a higher sensitivity than the ELISA method using conventional spectrophotometric detections. However, both methods allowed us to obtain similar detection limits. The immunosensor allowed us to make up to 100 determinations on different samples without any previous pre-treatment. This behavior proved to be suitable to detect P4 in routine veterinary, clinical, biological, physiological, and analytical assays. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of unilateral progesterone infusion into the ovarian artery during the middle luteal phase on progesterone secretion in gilts.

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    Wasowska, Barbara; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, Stanisława

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine, in an experiment performed on conscious gilts, whether an increased amount of progesterone (P4) supplied to the porcine corpus luteum (CL), maintained within a physiological systemic concentration would influence its own secretion. On day 9 of the estrous cycle the jugular veins as well as both ovarian arteries and both ovarian veins were cannulated. In the experimental gilts (n=5), P4 was infused into the right ovarian arteries on days 10, 11 and 12 of the estrous cycle at a rate adequate for physiological retrograde transfer found during the middle luteal phase. The left ovarian arteries of these gilts were infused with saline. Both ovarian arteries of the control gilts (n=5) were infused with saline. The P4 infusion rate was 0.62 microg/min (10 day), 2 x 0.62 microg/min ( 11 day) and 3 x 0.62 microg/min (12 day) and physiological levels of the steroid were maintained. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and both ovarian veins in the experimental and control animals on days 10, 11 and 12 of the estrous cycle during two periods on each day: before and after P4 or saline infusion. The mean plasma P4 level in the ovarian vein ipsilateral to the P4-infused ovary was significantly (pgilts and in the ovarian vein of the control gilts. This was also true for day 12 of the estrous cycle (p0.05) among the particular days of the experiment. In contrast, mean P4 levels in the contralateral ovarian vein of the experimental gilts as well as in the ovarian vein of the control gilts tended to decrease (pfeedback between P4 being retrograde transferred into the ovary and P4 ovarian secretion.

  3. Progesterone

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    ... cancer. Progesterone is also used to bring on menstruation (period) in women of childbearing age who have ... in the uterus. It works to bring on menstruation by replacing the natural progesterone that some women ...

  4. Local effect of progesterone infusion into the porcine ovarian artery on androgen and estrogen secretion during the middle luteal phase.

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    Wasowska, Barbara; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, Stanisława

    2009-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate whether an increased, but physiological, amount of progesterone (P(4)) supplied to the porcine corpus luteum (CL) affects luteal secretion of androgens and estrogens in freely moving gilts. On day 9 of the estrous cycle, the jugular veins as well as both ovarian arteries and both ovarian veins of gilts were cannulated. Progesterone was infused into the right ovarian arteries of experimental gilts (n=5) on days 10, 11 and 12 of the estrous cycle at a rate adequate to physiological retrograde transfer found during the middle luteal phase of the cycle. The left ovarian arteries of the experimental gilts were infused with saline. Both ovarian arteries of the control gilts (n=5) were infused with saline. The P(4) infusion rate was 0.62 microg/min (10 day), 2x0.62 microg/min (11 day) and 3x0.62 microg/min (12 day). Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and both ovarian veins of the experimental and control gilts on days 10-12 of the estrous cycle before and after P(4) or saline infusion. The mean plasma androstenedione (A(4)) level in the ovarian vein ipsilateral to the P(4)-infused ovary was higher (pgilts as well as the control gilts. The ovarian venous level of testosterone (T) in the ovarian vein ipsilateral to the P(4)-infused ovary on days 10-12 of the estrous cycle was not significantly different (p>0.05) from those found in the contralateral ovarian vein of the experimental gilts and ovarian vein of the control gilts. However, on day 12, a decrease in T concentration was demonstrated in the ovarian vein ipsilateral to the P4-infused ovary in comparison to those of the contralateral and control ovarian veins. The mean plasma 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) level in the ovarian vein ipsilateral to the P(4)-infused ovary was lower on days 10-12 than those found in the contralateral ovarian vein of the experimental gilts and in the ovarian vein of the control gilts (pfeedback for A(4) secretion and a negative

  5. Temporary undernutrition during early gestation, corpora lutea morphometrics, ovarian progesterone secretion and embryo survival in gilts.

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    Langendijk, P; Bouwman, E G; Chen, T Y; Koopmanschap, R E; Soede, N M

    2017-07-01

    The present study reports effects of severe undernutrition on luteal function and pregnancy in pigs. Gilts were inseminated and either fasted on Day 10 and 11 after conception (n=11) or fully fed throughout (n=10). Fasting did not affect LH or progesterone pulsatile secretion pattern on Day 11 in samples taken from blood vessels draining an ovary. Ultrasonographic measurements of the size of the corpora lutea did not show any effect of fasting either. However, fasted gilts had 10 to 30% lower systemic progesterone from Day 12 through Day 15 after conception (Pgilts farrowed, but fasted gilts had fewer born piglets than fully fed gilts (8.8±0.8 vs 10.9±0.5 respectively; P<0.05). In conclusion, fasting during embryo elongation can compromise embryonic survival by affecting ovarian function in the days after fasting, without having an immediate effect on LH secretion and progesterone output by the ovaries.

  6. Temporary undernutrition during early gestation, corpora lutea morphometrics, ovarian progesterone secretion and embryo survival in gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Bouwman, E.G.; Chen, T.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Soede, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports effects of severe undernutrition on luteal function and pregnancy in pigs. Gilts were inseminated and either fasted on Day 10 and 11 after conception (n = 11) or fully fed throughout (n = 10). Fasting did not affect LH or progesterone pulsatile secretion pattern on Day 11

  7. Local effect of progesterone infusion into ovarian artery on activin A and inhibin alpha-subunit secretion during the middle luteal phase in gilts.

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    Wasowska, B; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate whether an increased, but physiological, amount of progesterone (P4) supplied to the porcine corpus luteum affects luteal secretion of activin A and inhibin alpha-subunit (Inhalpha) in freely moving gilts. On day 9 of the estrous cycle (EC), both ovarian arteries and both ovarian veins of gilts (n = 5) were cannulated. Progesterone was infused into the right ovarian arteries in gilts on days 10, 11 and 12 of the EC at a rate adequate to its physiological retrograde transfer found during the middle luteal phase of the EC. The P4 infusion rate was 0.62 microg/min (day 10), 2 x 0.62 microg/min (day 11) and 3 x 0.62 microg/min (day 12). The left ovarian arteries were infused with saline (control). Blood samples were collected from both ovarian veins on days 10-12 of the EC before and after P4 or saline infusion. The mean plasma activin A level in the ovarian vein ipsilateral to the P4-infused ovary was higher (P 0.05) than this found in the contralateral ovarian vein. The results of the present study indicate that a local elevation of P4 concentration in blood supplying the ovary during the middle luteal phase of the porcine EC affects ovarian secretion of activin A. The effect of P4 on the secretion of activin A suggested the existence of a short regulatory loop of a positive feedback between P4 being retrogradely transferred into the ovary and the secretion of this peptide.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Recombinant Pig Intestinal Parasite Cecropin P4 Peptide Secreted from

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    Ki-Duk Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cecropins (Cec are antibacterial peptides and their expression is induced in a pig intestinal parasite Ascaris suum by bacterial infection. To explore the usefulness of its activity as an antibiotic, CecP4 cDNA was prepared and cloned into the pPICZ B expression vector and followed by the integration into AOX1 locus in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants from cell culture were collected after methanol induction and concentrated for the test of antimicrobial activity. The recombinant P. patoris having CecP4 showed antimicrobial activity when tested against Staphyllococcus aureus in disc diffusion assay. We selected one of the CecP4 clones (CecP4-2 and performed further studies with it. The growth of recombinant P. pastoris was optimized using various concentration of methanol, and it was found that 2% methanol in the culture induced more antibacterial activity, compared to 1% methanol. We extended the test of antimicrobial activity by applying the concentrated supernatant of CecP4 culture to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Recombinant CecP4 also showed antimicrobial activity against both Pseudomona and E. coli, suggesting the broad spectrum of its antimicrobial activity. After improvements for the scale-up, it will be feasible to use recombinant CecP4 for supplementation to the feed to control microbial infections in young animals, such as piglets.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Recombinant Pig Intestinal Parasite Cecropin P4 Peptide Secreted from Pichia pastoris.

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    Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Woon-Kyu

    2014-02-01

    Cecropins (Cec) are antibacterial peptides and their expression is induced in a pig intestinal parasite Ascaris suum by bacterial infection. To explore the usefulness of its activity as an antibiotic, CecP4 cDNA was prepared and cloned into the pPICZ B expression vector and followed by the integration into AOX1 locus in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants from cell culture were collected after methanol induction and concentrated for the test of antimicrobial activity. The recombinant P. patoris having CecP4 showed antimicrobial activity when tested against Staphyllococcus aureus in disc diffusion assay. We selected one of the CecP4 clones (CecP4-2) and performed further studies with it. The growth of recombinant P. pastoris was optimized using various concentration of methanol, and it was found that 2% methanol in the culture induced more antibacterial activity, compared to 1% methanol. We extended the test of antimicrobial activity by applying the concentrated supernatant of CecP4 culture to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Recombinant CecP4 also showed antimicrobial activity against both Pseudomona and E. coli, suggesting the broad spectrum of its antimicrobial activity. After improvements for the scale-up, it will be feasible to use recombinant CecP4 for supplementation to the feed to control microbial infections in young animals, such as piglets.

  10. Aldosterone and progesterone-secreting adrenocortical adenocarcinoma in a cat with a concurrent meningioma

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    Jana Leshinsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 12-year-old, male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred for investigation of suspected hyperaldosteronism due to persistent hypokalaemia, hindlimb ataxia, weakness of 1 month’s duration and a left adrenal mass that was detected on abdominal ultrasound. Neurological examination findings at referral were suggestive of a concurrent left forebrain lesion. Hyperaldosteronism and concurrent hyperprogesteronism were confirmed on endocrine testing. On computed tomography (CT of the abdomen and thorax there was no evidence of local vascular invasion by the adrenal mass or of metastatic disease. CT and magnetic resonance imaging featured a large, focal rim-enhancing extra-axial left forebrain lesion consistent with a meningioma. Surgical excision of the forebrain mass was followed by adrenalectomy 2 weeks later. The tumours were classified on histopathology as a psammomatous meningioma and an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining of the meningioma confirmed the presence of progesterone receptors. The cat remains well 2 years later. Relevance and novel information In humans, elevated serum progesterone levels have been associated with rapid growth of meningiomas due to the presence of progesterone receptors on the tumour. This is the first report of a cat with a progesterone and aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical adenocarcinoma and a concurrent meningioma. Clinicians should be aware of the potential effect of elevated progesterone on meningiomas in cats.

  11. Stress-induced progesterone secretion and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus are modulated by pubertal development in male rats.

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    Romeo, Russell D; Bellani, Rudy; McEwen, Bruce S

    2005-12-01

    Male rats show a differential adrenocortical response to stress before and after pubertal development, such that prepubertal animals have a more prolonged stress-induced corticosterone response compared to adults. Whether pubertal maturation affects other adrenocortical responses to stress is currently unknown. To address this question, we assessed stress-induced progesterone secretion in both intact and gonadectomized prepubertal (28 days of age) and adult (77 days of age) male rats either before or after exposure to a 30 min session of restraint stress. We found that prepubertal males show a greater and more prolonged stress-induced progesterone response compared to adults. We also found a similar effect in castrated prepubertal and adult males, indicating the differential stress-induced progesterone response is not gonadal in origin. We also examined progesterone receptor (PR) levels by immunohistochemistry in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, a key regulatory nucleus of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and found lower PR protein expression in the PVN of prepubertal compared to adult males. These data indicate that in addition to corticosterone, stress-induced adrenocortical progesterone levels are differentially affected by pubertal maturation. Furthermore, these data raise the possibility of different progesterone sensitivity of the PVN before and after puberty. The significance of this differential response is presently unknown. However, given the pleiotropic effects of progesterone on male physiology and behaviour, it is likely that the disparate post-stress exposure to progesterone affects the prepubertal and adult male differently.

  12. Inhibin secretion in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome before and after treatment with progesterone

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    Anifandis George

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives It has been suggested that inhibin secretion is altered in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. However, the contribution of a preceding luteal phase has not been taken into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether progesterone in the context of a simulated luteal phase affects basal and FSH-induced inhibin secretion in women with PCOS and elevated LH. Methods Ten women with PCOS and 8 normally cycling women participated in an experimental procedure (Exp involving the administration of a single injection of recombinant FSH (450 IU sc. In the women with PCOS, the procedure was performed before (Exp 1 and after a 20-day treatment with progesterone (Exp 2, while in the normal women on day 2 of the cycle (Exp 3. Inhibin A and B levels were measured in blood samples taken before and 24 hours after the FSH injection. Results Basal LH levels were significantly higher and inhibin A levels were significantly lower in the PCOS group compared to the control group, while inhibin B levels were comparable in the two groups. In the PCOS group, after treatment with progesterone inhibin A and LH but not inhibin B levels decreased significantly (p Conclusions In women with PCOS, as compared to control women, the dissimilar pattern of inhibin A and inhibin B secretion in response to FSH appears to be independent of a preceding simulated luteal phase. It is possible that compared to normal ovaries, the PCOS ovaries are less sensitive to endogenous LH regarding inhibin A secretion and more sensitive to exogenous FSH stimulation in terms of inhibin A and inhibin B secretion.

  13. Progesterone from the cumulus cells is the sperm chemoattractant secreted by the rabbit oocyte cumulus complex.

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    Héctor Alejandro Guidobaldi

    Full Text Available Sperm chemotaxis in mammals have been identified towards several female sources as follicular fluid (FF, oviduct fluid, and conditioned medium from the cumulus oophorus (CU and the oocyte (O. Though several substances were confirmed as sperm chemoattractant, Progesterone (P seems to be the best chemoattractant candidate, because: 1 spermatozoa express a cell surface P receptor, 2 capacitated spermatozoa are chemotactically attracted in vitro by gradients of low quantities of P; 3 the CU cells produce and secrete P after ovulation; 4 a gradient of P may be kept stable along the CU; and 5 the most probable site for sperm chemotaxis in vivo could be near and/or inside the CU. The aim of this study was to verify whether P is the sperm chemoattractant secreted by the rabbit oocyte-cumulus complex (OCC in the rabbit, as a mammalian animal model. By means of videomicroscopy and computer image analysis we observed that only the CU are a stable source of sperm attractants. The CU produce and secrete P since the hormone was localized inside these cells by immunocytochemistry and in the conditioned medium by enzyme immunoassay. In addition, rabbit spermatozoa express a cell surface P receptor detected by western blot and localized over the acrosomal region by immunocytochemistry. To confirm that P is the sperm chemoattractant secreted by the CU, the sperm chemotactic response towards the OCC conditioned medium was inhibited by three different approaches: P from the OCC conditioned medium was removed with an anti-P antibody, the attractant gradient of the OCC conditioned medium was disrupted by a P counter gradient, and the sperm P receptor was blocked with a specific antibody. We concluded that only the CU but not the oocyte secretes P, and the latter chemoattract spermatozoa by means of a cell surface receptor. Our findings may be of interest in assisted reproduction procedures in humans, animals of economic importance and endangered species.

  14. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat

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    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

  15. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elvations in progesterone (P4) on the LH Surge in the ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-primed rat

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    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depen...

  16. Growth Hormone Is Secreted by Normal Breast Epithelium upon Progesterone Stimulation and Increases Proliferation of Stem/Progenitor Cells

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    Sara Lombardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using in vitro and in vivo experimental systems and in situ analysis, we show that growth hormone (GH is secreted locally by normal human mammary epithelial cells upon progesterone stimulation. GH increases proliferation of a subset of cells that express growth hormone receptor (GHR and have functional properties of stem and early progenitor cells. In 72% of ductal carcinoma in situ lesions, an expansion of the cell population that expresses GHR was observed, suggesting that GH signaling may contribute to breast cancer development.

  17. Effect of feeding allowance level on embryonic survival, IGF-1, insulin, GH, leptin and progesterone secretion in early pregnancy gilts.

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    De, W; Ai-rong, Z; Yan, L; Sheng-yu, X; Hai-yan, G; Yong, Z

    2009-10-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding allowance level on embryonic survival, uterine development and reproductive hormone secretion in early gestation gilts. A total of 54 F1 crosses of Landrace x Large white gilts were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of high (H, 2 x maintenance), medium (M, 1.2 x maintenance) and low (L, 0.6 x maintenance) feeding level after mating. Blood samples and uterine flushings were collected on day 12, 25 and 35 of pregnancy, and embryonic survival rate was estimated. Concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF)-1, insulin, growth harmone (GH), leptin and progesterone in serum and uterine flushings were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Embryonic survival was affected by dietary treatment; total number of viable embryos and embryo survival of group M were higher than other groups in the early pregnancy (p allowance level. In serum, concentrations of IGF-1, leptin and insulin tended to be greater in H than in M and L during the early gestation, while concentrations of GH were greater in M and progesterone were the lowest in H. At the same time, feed allowance level affected the concentration of IGF-1, insulin, GH, leptin and progesterone in uterine flushings. These data demonstrated that feed allowance level after mating has important consequence on embryo survival, embryo development and uterine development, possibly mediated by nutrition level inducing changes in concentrations of reproductive hormones and/or intermediary metabolites in early pregnancy.

  18. The effect of group X secreted phospholipase A2 on fertilization outcome is specific and not mimicked by other secreted phospholipases A2 or progesterone.

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    Abi Nahed, Roland; Escoffier, Jessica; Revel, Charlaine; Jeammet, Louise; Payré, Christine; Ray, Pierre F; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Lambeau, Gerard; Arnoult, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Mouse group X sPLA2 (mGX) is an acrosomal protein playing an important role in fertilization and controlling acrosome reaction (AR) occurring during capacitation. We demonstrated previously that sperm from mGX knock-out mice had a severely impaired fertilization potential in vitro. We also showed that treatment of wild-type sperm with recombinant mGX during capacitation improved fertilization outcome. This interesting property suggests that sPLA2s could be used to improve fertilization in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However the molecular mechanism explaining the mGX-dependent enhancing effect on fertilization outcome remains unclear so far. Interestingly, like progesterone (P4), mGX is a very potent activator of AR and the role of mGX-induced AR in fertilization outcome was not evaluated so far. To assess the role of sPLA2-induced AR in IVF, we first tested the potency of 9 mouse and 2 human sPLA2s and P4 to trigger AR of mouse sperm. We then tested the ability of 6 of these molecules (mouse Group IIA, mouse Group IID, mouse Group X, human Group V, human Group X and P4) to improve the yield of 2-cell embryos obtained by IVF in mouse. We showed that in the mouse neither P4 nor any of the other sPLA2s tested were able to mimic the IVF improvement produced by mGX-treatment. These results demonstrate that sPLA2s are not commutable in the context of mouse sperm fertility, indicating that their utilisation in other species, is subjected to the identification of probably unique species-specific active sPLA2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of aging on the human ovary: the secretion of immunoreactive alpha-inhibin and progesterone.

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    Pellicer, A; Marí, M; de los Santos, M J; Simón, C; Remohí, J; Tarín, J J

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the changes induced by age in the function and secretory pattern of the human ovary. Immunoreactive alpha-inhibin, E2, and P secretion in vivo and in vitro have been compared in two different populations. Prospective study. Women undergoing IVF-ET were divided into two groups according to age: group 1 (32.0 +/- 0.7 years; mean +/- SEM) and group 2 (40.3 +/- 0.3 years). In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. A total of 33 infertile women with regular menses, undergoing IVF-ET. Follicle aspiration performed by transvaginal ultrasound. Four follicles per patient were aspirated in individual plastic tubes. Granulosa-luteal cells isolated with Percoll columns and cultured in vitro up to 4 days in the presence of hCG. In vitro fertilization parameters, serum levels of E2, immunoreactive alpha-inhibin, and P, as well as the secretion of immunoreactive alpha-inhibin and P by the cultured granulosa-luteal cells. Serum immunoreactive alpha-inhibin levels the day of ovum pick-up were significantly lower in group 2 compared with group 1. Incubation of cells for 96 hours showed a significantly higher ability to accumulate immunoreactive alpha-inhibin in group 1 than 2. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulated immunoreactive alpha-inhibin production after 96 hours. Cells from younger women displayed a significantly higher ability to secrete P than cells from older women. Human chorionic gonadotropin was able to significantly stimulate P production in group 1. These results confirm previous observations showing a reduced production of immunoreactive alpha-inhibin and steroids of ovaries from older women and suggest that a reduced cellular function, rather than a decrease in the follicular population, is the main mechanism by which these changes are produced.

  20. Efeitos do estresse térmico nas concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona (P4 e estradiol 17-b (E2 e temperatura retal em cabras da raça Pardo Alpina Effects of heat stress on progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17b plasma concentrations and rectal temperature of Alpine Brown goats

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    Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras lactantes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em um delineamento experimental em "crossover", em dois grupos: sob condições termoneutras e estresse térmico. Um período de adaptação de 28 dias foi seguido por quatro períodos de 14 dias cada, quando os animais sob estresse térmico foram expostos à temperatura média de 33,84ºC; THI de 86,20; BGT de 36,18 e BT de 32,11ºC das 8 às 17 horas, incluindo radiação solar simulada das 10 às 15 horas. Não houve diferença entre as concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona, mas as fêmeas submetidas ao estresse térmico apresentaram diminuição nas concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol, quando comparados ao grupo termoneutro. A temperatura retal dos animais sob estresse térmico foi mais elevada quando foi comparada à do grupo de animais em condições de termoneutralidade. As cabras mantiveram as concentrações plasmáticas da progesterona, com diminuição na secreção de estradiol, quando expostas a um estresse repetido e intermitente, a despeito de ocorrer hipertermia durante o estresse pelo calor.Six lactating goats were randomly assigned to a crossover experimental design in two groups, under thermoneutral and heat stress conditions. An adaptation period of 28 days were followed by 4-periods of 14 days each, when the animals under heat stress were exposed to an average temperature of 33.34ºC; THI of 86.20; BGT of 36.18 and BT of 32.11ºC from 8 to 17 hours, including simulated solar radiation from 10 to 15 hours. There was no difference for progesterone plasma concentrations but the animals under heat stress showed a reduction of estradiol plasma concentrations as compared to the thermoneutral group. The rectal temperature of the animals under heat stress was higher when compared to the animals under thermoneutral conditions. The goats maintained progesterone plasma concentrations with reduction of estradiol secretion when exposed to repeat stress and intermittent

  1. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-KV Transmission Line

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    Lee, Jack Monroe, Jr.

    There is ongoing controversy about the possibility of adverse biological effects from environmental exposures to electric and magnetic fields. These fields are produced by all electrical equipment and appliances including electrical transmission lines. The objective of this environmental science study was to investigate the possible effects of a high voltage transmission line on domestic sheep (Ovis aries L.), a species that can often be found near such lines. The study was primarily designed to determine whether a specific effect of electric and magnetic fields found in laboratory animals also occurs in livestock under natural environmental conditions. The effect is the ability of fields, at levels found in the environment, to significantly depress the normally high nocturnal concentrations of the pineal hormone-melatonin. Ten female Suffolk lambs were penned for 10 months directly beneath a 500-kV transmission line near Estacada, Oregon. Ten other lambs of the same type were penned in a control area away from the transmission line where electric and magnetic fields were at ambient levels. Serum melatonin was analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) from 6618 blood samples collected at 0.5 to 3-hour intervals over eight 48-hour periods. Serum progesterone was analyzed by RIA from blood samples collected twice weekly. Serum cortisol was also assayed by RIA from the blood samples collected during the 48-hour samples. Results showed that lambs in both the control and line groups had the typical pattern of melatonin secretion consisting of low daytime and high nighttime serum concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in melatonin levels, or in the phase or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation. Age at puberty and number of reproductive cycles also did not differ between groups. Serum cortisol showed a circadian rhythm with highest concentrations during the day. There were, however, no differences in cortisol concentrations

  2. Circannual changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes, luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized estradiol-implanted ewes, and prolactin secretion in three sheep breeds anticipated to differ in seasonality of reproduction.

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    Goff, Katherine J; Knight, James W; Pelzer, Kevin D; Akers, R Michael; Notter, David R

    2013-05-01

    Changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes (7 or 9 per breed) and luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted ewes (9 or 10 per breed) were monitored for 12 mo in Suffolk, tropically adapted St. Croix, and OOS ewes. The OOS line is a composite population of 50% Dorset, 25% Rambouillet, and 25% Finnish Landrace breeding that was selected for 10 yr for ability to lamb in October and early November. Ewes were isolated from rams, and blood samples were collected twice weekly. Circulating prolactin concentrations were also determined from blood samples collected near the summer and winter solstice and vernal and autumnal equinox. Intact OOS ewes entered anestrus later, began the subsequent breeding season sooner, and had a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk and St. Croix ewes (P ≤ 0.005). St. Croix ewes did not differ from Suffolk ewes in date of onset or cessation of breeding or duration of anestrus (P ≥ 0.06). Breed differences in duration of luteinizing hormone inhibition in ovariectomized ewes were essentially identical to those observed for duration of anestrous. Prolactin concentrations varied during the year: annual changes were larger in relatively seasonal Suffolk ewes than in tropically-derived St. Croix ewes (Psheep did not have a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk sheep under temperate conditions and ram isolation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The CRH-R₁ receptor mediates luteinizing hormone, prolactin, corticosterone and progesterone secretion induced by restraint stress in estrogen-primed rats.

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    Traslaviña, Guillermo A Ariza; Franci, Celso Rodrigues

    2011-11-03

    Acute stress has been shown to modify hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the principal regulator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has been implicated as a mediator of stress-induced effects on the reproductive axis. The role of the specific CRH receptor subtypes in this response is not completely understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of the CRH-R(1) receptor on luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P) and corticosterone (CT) secretion in stress-induced responses under the influence of estrogen (E(2)). Estrogen-primed ovariectomized rats (estradiol cypionate, 10 μg sc) received an i.v. administration of antalarmin (0.1 or 1mg/kg), a selective CRH-R(1) antagonist, or vehicle before restraint stress for 40 min. Seven blood samples were collected from two experimental groups (one from 10:00 h to 14:00 h and the other from 10:00 h to 18:00 h). An increase of plasma LH induced by restraint acute-stress was followed by alteration of the secretion pattern in the estrogen-induced afternoon surge. In a similar manner, we observed a suppression of the afternoon surge in plasma FSH, a delay of E(2)-induced PRL secretion, and an increase in plasma P and CT. Antalarmin attenuated stress-induce LH increase, decreased CT and P secretion and blocked the stress effects on PRL secretion. These findings suggest that CRH-R(1) mediates, at least in part, the restraint stress effects on the HPA, PRL, and reproductive axes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. P4-ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Theorin, Lisa; Palmgren, Michael Broberg

    2014-01-01

    ) comprises lipid flippases that catalyze the translocation of phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaflet of cell membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases, recent studies of individual P4-ATPase family members from fungi, plants, and animals show that P4......Cellular membranes, notably eukaryotic plasma membranes, are equipped with special proteins that actively translocate lipids from one leaflet to the other and thereby help generate membrane lipid asymmetry. Among these ATP-driven transporters, the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases...

  5. P4 medicine needs P4 education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Alfredo; Auffray, Charles; Russo, Patrizia; Hood, Leroy

    2014-01-01

    This monographic issue of Current Pharmacological Design discusses extensively on the innovative paradigms for disease control in Active and Healthy Ageing. Wellness, as a status to be achieved and maintained in our lives, getting longer and hopefully healtier, is the new and comprehensive declination of "health" itself, leading the shaping of research and research policy in the health domain worldwide. Many of the contributions describe the state of the art -and beyond- approaches for the most common diseases based on the available medical knowledge; two, in particular (Bousquet J et al., Cesario A, et al.), extend to the innovative approaches defined in the framework of the holistic and integrative philosophy of the Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory (P4) Systems Medicine. The availability of more and more powerful technologies to extract data coupled with the inclusion of information coming from the nonstrictly-medical sphere of the patient/individual and his/her lifestyle along with the increase in computational power, will definitely set the stage for a paradigm-shift in bio-medicine with deep ethical and societal impact. The brief comment that follows speculates about the implications of this transition from the educational perspective taking stock of the direct experience of the Authors in the consultation process active in the scientific community.

  6. Progesterone-dependent immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres-Bartho, J; Polgar, B; Kozma, N; Miko, E; Par, G; Szereday, L; Barakonyi, A; Palkovics, T; Papp, O; Varga, P

    2005-01-01

    The biological effects of progesterone are mediated by a 34-kDa protein named the progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF). PIBF, synthesized by lymphocytes of healthy pregnant women in the presence of progesterone, inhibits arachidonic acid release as well as NK activity, and modifies the cytokine balance. Within the cell the full-length PIBF is associated with the centrosome, while secretion of shorter forms is induced by activation of the cell. PIBF induces nuclear translocation of STAT6 as well as PKC phosphorylation and exerts a negative effect on STAT4 phosphorylation. The concentration of PIBF in pregnancy urine is related to the positive or negative outcome of pregnancy; furthermore, premature pregnancy termination is predictable by lower than normal pregnancy PIBF values. In vivo data suggest the biological importance of the above findings. Treatment of pregnant Balb/c mice with the antiprogesterone RU 486 results in an increased resorption rate, which is associated with the inability of spleen cells to produce PIBF. High resorption rates induced by progesterone receptor block as well as those due to high NK activity are corrected by simultaneous PIBF treatment.

  7. The Role of Progesterone and a Novel Progesterone Receptor, Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1, in the Inflammatory Response of Fetal Membranes to Ureaplasma parvum Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Feng

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma parvum (U. parvum is gaining recognition as an important pathogen for chorioamnionitis and preterm premature rupture of membranes. We aimed to investigate the roles of progesterone (P4 and a novel progesterone receptor, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, in the response of fetal membranes to U. parvum. Fetal membrane cells (amnion, chorion and decidua were isolated and confirmed to be free of Mycoplasmataceae. Cells were treated with U. parvum (5x106 CFU, and adherence was quantified by qPCR. Amnion and chorion cells were transfected with scrambled siRNA or validated PGRMC1 siRNA for 72h. Cells were then treated with U. parvum for 4h with or without pretreatment with P4 (10-7 M or ethanol for 1h. Interleukin-8 (IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 mRNA expression were quantified by qRT-PCR. Culture medium was harvested and analyzed for IL-8 and prostaglandin (PGE2 secretion by ELISA and MMP9 activity by zymography. U. parvum had a mean adherence of 15.0±0.6%, 16.9± 3.7% and 4.7±0.3% in cultured amnion, chorion and decidua cells, respectively. Exposure to U. parvum elicited significant inflammatory responses including induction of IL-8, COX-2, PGE2 and MMP9. A possible role of PGRMC1 was identified in the inhibition of U. parvum-stimulated COX-2 and MMP9 mRNA expression in chorion cells and MMP9 activity in amnion cells. On the other hand, it might enhance the U. parvum-stimulated IL-8 protein secretion in amnion cells. P4, mediated through PGRMC1, significantly inhibited U. Parvum-induced MMP9 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA expression in chorion cells. P4 appeared to attenuate U. parvum induced IL-8 mRNA expression in chorion cells, but this P4 effect might not mediated through PGRMC1. In summary, U. parvum preferentially adheres to and induces inflammatory responses in chorion and amnion cells. P4 and PGRMC1 appear to differentially modulate the inflammatory responses induced by U. parvum among

  8. Effects of adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf.) hull extracts on the secretion of progesterone and estradiol in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Shih-Min; Yeh, Chih-Lan; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wang, Paulus S; Chiang, Wenchang

    2007-10-01

    Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf.) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for dysfunction of the endocrine system. However, there have been few studies on the effects of adlay seed on the endocrine system. In the present study, both the in vivo and in vitro effects of methanolic extracts of adlay hull (AHM) on progesterone synthesis were studied. AHM was partitioned with four different solvents: water, 1-butanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane. Four fractions, namely, AHM-Wa (water fraction), AHM-Bu (1-butanol fraction), AHM-EA (ethyl acetate fraction), and AHM-Hex (n-hexane fraction), were respectively obtained. Granulosa cells (GCs) were prepared from pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-primed immature female rats and were challenged with different reagents, including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 0.5 IU/ml), 8-bromo-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP; 0.1 mM), forskolin (10 microM), 25-OH-cholesterol (10 microM), and pregnenolone (10 microM), in the presence or absence of AHM (100 microg/ml). The functions of steroidogenic enzymes, including protein expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), protein kinase A (PKA), and aromatase activity, were investigated. The expression of StAR mRNA was also explored by using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In the in vivo study, AHM decreased plasma progesterone and estradiol levels after an intravenous injection of AHM (2 mg/ ml/kg). In the in vitro studies, AHM decreased progesterone and estradiol via inhibition of (i) the cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathway, (ii) cAMP accumulation, (iii) P450scc and 3beta-HSD enzyme activities, (iv) PKA, P450scc and StAR protein expressions and StAR mRNA expression, and (v) aromatase activity in rat GCs. These results suggest that AHM decreased the production of progesterone via mechanisms involving the inhibition of the cAMP pathway, enzyme activities

  9. Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is a rare cyclic premenstrual allergic reaction to progesterone produced during the luteal phase of a woman's menstrual cycle. Patients present with a variety of conditions including erythema multiforme, eczema, urticaria, angioedema, and progesterone-induced anaphylaxis. Case. Thirty-eight-year-old woman G2P2002 presents with erythema multiforme and urticarial rash one week prior to her menses starting one year after menarche. She was treated with oral contraceptive pills and the symptoms resolved. Conclusion. This is a typical case of progesterone autoimmunity. The diagnosis is based on cyclic nature of the dermatitis. This differentiates the condition from other allergies or systemic diseases with skin manifestations. Inhibition of ovulation in such cases results in decrease in progesterone secretion and prevention of symptoms.

  10. Effect of progesterone on adiponectin system in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyn, K; Smolinska, N; Szeszko, K; Kiezun, M; Maleszka, A; Rytelewska, E; Kaminski, T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of progesterone (P4) on adiponectin system genes and protein expression in the endometrium and myometrium during early gestation. Twenty-five gilts were assigned to 1 of 5 groups ( = 5): d 10 to 11 (embryo migration), 12 to 13 (maternal recognition of pregnancy), 15 to 16 (implantation), and 27 to 28 (end of implantation) of pregnancy and d 10 to 11 of the cycle (fully active corpora lutea, corresponding to the corpora lutea activity during gestation). The endometrial and myometrial tissues were cut into 100 mg slices, treated with P4 (10, 100, 1000 nM) and incubated for 24 h. Gene expression was analyzed by the real-time PCR method. Adiponectin secretion was determined by ELISA. Receptor protein content was defined using Western Blot analysis. In the endometrium, on d 10 to 11 of pregnancy, P4 stimulated adiponectin protein secretion. On those days, P4 enhanced adiponectin receptor type 1 () and type 2 () gene expression but inhibited both receptors' protein content. On d 12 to 13 of pregnancy, P4 inhibited adiponectin gene expression. During those period, P4 enhanced gene expression but suppressed both receptors' protein content. On d 15 to 16 of gestation, P4 increased adiponectin gene expression but inhibited the protein secretion. During those days, P4 suppressed gene expression and enhanced AdipoR2 protein content. On d 27 to 28 of gestation, P4 enhanced gene and AdipoR1 protein expression ( gestation, P4 increased both receptors' gene expression but suppressed their protein content. On d 12 to 13 of pregnancy, P4 increased adiponectin and genes and AdipoR1 protein expression but decreased AdipoR2 protein content. On d 15 to 16 of gestation, P4 inhibited adiponectin gene expression. On those days, P4 enhanced gene and protein expression. On d 27 to 28 of gestation, P4 decreased adiponectin gene expression. On those days, P4 increased the myometrial AdipoR2 protein concentration and decreased gene protein

  11. Progesterone, selected heavy metals and micronutrients in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Environmental and endocrine factors have been implicated in the aetiology of recurrent abortion, with poorly understood roles. Luteal phase insufficiency marked with insufficient progesterone secretion has been reported. Objective: To define the involvement of progesterone, trace metals, and Vitamin E in ...

  12. Effects of progesterone injection on performance, plasma hormones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate responses of feed-satiated and feed- restricted breeder hens to daily injection of progesterone (P4). A total of 64 Cobb 500 hens were fed either restricted or ad libitum from 27 to 38 wk of age. Fourteen laying hens from each group were selected to conduct P4 injection assay.

  13. Synergistic effect of DDT and its metabolites in lipopolysaccharide-mediated TNF-α production is inhibited by progesterone in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Lopez, Pablo; Diaz-Cueto, Laura; Aguilar-Rojas, Arturo; Arechavaleta-Velasco, Fabian

    2017-07-01

    Increased TNF-α levels have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), 1,1-bis-(chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (DDE), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) induce TNF-α release in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Conversely, progesterone (P4) inhibits TNF-α secretion. Pregnant women in malaria endemic areas may be co-exposure to these compounds. Thus, this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of LPS and these pesticides in PBMC and to assess P4 influence on this synergy. Cultured PBMC were exposed to each pesticide in the presence of LPS, P4, or their combination. TNF-α was measured by ELISA. All pesticides enhanced TNF-α synthesis in PBMC. Co-exposure with LPS synergizes TNF-α production, which is blocked by progesterone. These results indicate that these organochlorines act synergistically with LPS to induce TNF-α secretion in PBMC. This effect is blocked by P4. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Progesterone supplementation in women with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawar Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Recurrent miscarriages, the loss of three or more consecutive intrauterine pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation with the same partner, affect 1%-1.5% of the pregnant population. The inadequate secretion of progesterone in early pregnancy has been proposed as a cause of recurrent miscarriages. Aims: The aim was to investigate the efficacy of progesterone supplementation in patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriages. Settings And Design: This was a 9-year cohort study of women with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriages who attended a recurrent miscarriage clinic in a tertiary care university hospital. Subjects and Methods: Women with at least three unexplained recurrent miscarriages were included in the study. They were divided into three groups according to their initial and 48-h repeat progesterone levels. For women with inadequate endogenous progesterone secretion, natural progesterone vaginal pessaries 400 mg 12-hourly were offered until 12 weeks gestation. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and 95% confidence intervals calculated for categorical variables and the chi-square test were used to show statistical significance. Medians and ranges were calculated for noncontinuous variables. Results: Pregnancy cycles (n = 203 were analyzed to examine the miscarriage rate following progesterone supplementation. Overall live birth and miscarriage rates were 63% and 36%, respectively. When analyzed by the number of previous miscarriages there was a reduction in the miscarriage rate following progesterone supplementation in women with 4 previous miscarriages when compared with historical data. Conclusions: Progesterone supplementation may have beneficial effects in women with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriages.

  15. Preimplantation Factor (PIF Promotes HLA-G, -E, -F, -C Expression in JEG-3 Choriocarcinoma Cells and Endogenous Progesterone Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miya Soukaina Hakam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pregnancy success requires mandatory maternal tolerance of the semi/ allogeneic embryo involving embryo-derived signals. Expression levels of PreImplantation Factor (PIF, a novel peptide secreted by viable embryos, correlate with embryo development, and its early detection in circulation correlates with a favourable pregnancy outcome. PIF enhances endometrial receptivity to promote embryo implantation. Via the p53 pathway, it increases trophoblast invasion, improving cell survival / immune privilege. PIF also reduces spontaneous and LPS-induced foetal death in immune naïve murine model. We examined PIF effect on gene expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-G, -E -F and –C and the influence of PIF on local progesterone activity in JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells. Methods: PIF and progesterone (P4 effects on JEG-3 cells surface and intracellular HLA molecules was tested using monoclonal antibodies, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. PIF and IL17 effects on P4 and cytokines secretion was determined by ELISA. PIF and P4 effects on JEG-3 cells proteome was examined using 2D gel staining followed by spot analysis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analysis. Results: In cytotrophoblastic JEG-3 cells PIF increased intracellular expression of HLA-G, HLA-F, HLA-E and HLA-C and surface expression of HLA-G, HLA-E and HLA-C in dose and time dependent manner. In case of HLA-E, -F results were confirmed also by Western blot. Proteome analysis confirmed an increase in HLA-G, pro-tolerance FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs, coagulation factors and complement regulator. In contrast, PIF reduced PRDX2 and HSP70s to negate oxidative stress and protein misfolding. PIF enhanced local progesterone activity, increasing steroid secretion and the receptor protein. It also promoted the secretion of the Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-1β, IL-8, GM-CSF and TGF-β1, resulting in improved maternal signalling. Conclusion: PIF can generate a pro

  16. Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, Olive; Lethaby, Anne; Roberts, Helen; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 5% of women experience severe symptoms called premenstrual syndrome (PMS), only in the two weeks before their menstrual periods. Treatment with progesterone may restore a deficiency, balance menstrual hormone levels or reduce effects of falling progesterone levels on the brain or

  17. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women...... renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone resistant state...... and their targets. Environmental toxins, such as dioxin, play a possible role in the genesis of endometriosis by permitting an inflammatory milieu. A consequence of impaired progesterone action is that hormonal therapy is rendered ineffective for a subset of women with endometriosis. Synthetic progestins...

  18. Evidence that exposure to progesterone alone is a sufficient stimulus to cause a precipitous rise in the immunomodulatory protein the progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rachael A; Check, Jerome H; Dougherty, Michael P

    2016-02-01

    To determine if exposure to progesterone alone is sufficient to increase the production of the immunomodulatory protein known as the progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF). Also to determine what method of progesterone delivery or form of P best stimulates PIBF secretion. Serum samples from patients with infertility and paid volunteers were evaluated for both PIBF and progesterone at various times during the follicular phase and the luteal phase in both natural cycles and cycles involving embryo transfer after endogenous and exogenous progesterone exposure and after various synthetic progestins. PIBF was measured by a non-commercial research ELISA assay. Comparisons were made of serum PIBF before and after exposure to progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and oral contraceptives. PIBF was also measured before and after transfer of embryos. Progesterone alone without exposure to the fetal allogeneic stimulus was able to produce a marked increase in serum PIBF. Neither a synthetic progestin (19-nortestosterone derivative) nor 17-hydroxyprogesterone caused an increase in PIBF. Some PIBF is generally detected even in the follicular phase. A previous concept considered that an allogeneic stimulus, e.g., from the fetal semi-allograft, was necessary to induce de novo progesterone receptors in gamma delta T cells, which, in turn, when exposed to a high concentration of progesterone, would secrete high levels of PIBF. These data show that exposure to an allogeneic stimulus is not needed to cause a marked rise in PIBF, merely progesterone alone is sufficient.

  19. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mühlbauer

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P < 0.05, Pearson's test, thereby validating this noninvasive technique for the study of the estrous cycle in these animals. Ovulation was detected in two sloths (SL03 and SL04 whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  20. Influence of the reuse of progesterone implants in a fixed-time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... the reuse of the P4 implant can influence the conception rates of dairy cows. Key words: Heat stress, Holstein cows, ... progesterone concentration achieved after insertion of new or reused progesterone ... insemination was performed with semen from the same bull and single inseminator. A pregnancy ...

  1. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma.

  2. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...

  3. Effects of progesterone injection on performance, plasma hormones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... steroid hormones (P4, E2 and testosterone) and regres- sed ovary. Progesterone injection increased numbers of hens holding a hard-shelled egg in their uterus. Proges- terone injection had no significant effect on glucose home ostasis and lipid metabolism. Restricted fed and laying ad libitum fed breeder ...

  4. Progesterone Regulation of Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Rodent Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Michael R.; Akopian, Garnik; Thompson, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian hormones influence memory formation by eliciting changes in neural activity. The effects of various concentrations of progesterone (P4) on synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were studied using in vitro hippocampal slices. Extracellular studies show that the…

  5. Characterization of the Ca2+ Channels Involved in the Progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is evidence that intracellular Ca2+ concentration plays significant roles in sperm function such as motility and acrosome reaction. Many calcium channels have been identified in the plasma membrane of sperm. Progesterone (P4) stimulates Ca2+ influx and acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa. The effects of ...

  6. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  7. Progesterone as an immunomodulatory molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres-Bartho, J; Barakonyi, A; Par, G; Polgar, B; Palkovics, T; Szereday, L

    2001-06-01

    Increased progesterone sensitivity of pregnancy lymphocytes is due to activation-induced appearance of progesterone binding sites in the lymphocytes. Following recognition of fetally derived antigens gamma/delta TCR+ cells develop progesterone receptors. Progesterone binding results in the synthesis of a mediator protein named the progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF). PIBF by acting on the phospholipase A2 enzyme interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism, induces a Th2 biased immune response, and by controlling NK activity exerts an anti-abortive effect.

  8. Hypothalamic effects of progesterone on regulation of the pulsatile and surge release of luteinising hormone in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen; Li, Xiaofeng; Adekunbi, Daniel; Liu, Yali; Long, Hui; Wang, Li; Lyu, Qifeng; Kuang, Yanping; O'Byrne, Kevin T

    2017-08-14

    Progesterone can block the oestradiol-induced GnRH/LH surge and inhibit LH pulse frequency. Recent studies reported that progesterone prevented premature LH surges during ovarian hyperstimulation in women. As the most potent stimulator of GnRH/LH release, kisspeptin is believed to mediate the positive and negative feedback effects of oestradiol in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei, while the region-specific role of progesterone receptors in these nuclei remains unknown. This study examined the hypothesis that progesterone inhibits LH surge and pulsatile secretion via its receptor in the ARC and/or AVPV nuclei. Adult female rats received a single injection of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin followed by progesterone or vehicle. Progesterone administration resulted in a significant prolongation of the oestrous cycle and blockade of LH surge. However, microinjection of the progesterone receptor antagonist, RU486, into the AVPV reversed the prolonged cycle length and rescued the progesterone blockade LH surge, while RU486 into the ARC shortened LH pulse interval in the progesterone treated rats. These results demonstrated that progesterone's inhibitory effect on the GnRH/LH surge and pulsatile secretion is mediated by its receptor in the kisspeptin enriched hypothalamic AVPV and ARC respectively, which are essential for progesterone regulation of oestrous cyclicity in rats.

  9. Rodent Models of Non-classical Progesterone Action Regulating Ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A. Mittelman-Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that steroid hormones act not only by binding to nuclear receptors that associate with specific response elements in the nucleus but also by binding to receptors on the cell membrane. In this newly discovered manner, steroid hormones can initiate intracellular signaling cascades which elicit rapid effects such as release of internal calcium stores and activation of kinases. We have learned much about the translocation and signaling of steroid hormone receptors from investigations into estrogen receptor α, which can be trafficked to, and signal from, the cell membrane. It is now clear that progesterone (P4 can also elicit effects that cannot be exclusively explained by transcriptional changes. Similar to E2 and its receptors, P4 can initiate signaling at the cell membrane, both through progesterone receptor and via a host of newly discovered membrane receptors (e.g., membrane progesterone receptors, progesterone receptor membrane components. This review discusses the parallels between neurotransmitter-like E2 action and the more recently investigated non-classical P4 signaling, in the context of reproductive behaviors in the rodent.

  10. Progesterone Inhibits Human Myometrial Contractions by Action on Membrane Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzi Gokdeniz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms for myometrial inhibition are still being investigated Aim: To examine mechanisms of progesterone (P4 inhibition of uterine contractility. Methods: Prospective study Tertiary care center at St. Joseph’s Hospital and at Maricopa Hospital, Phoenix, AZ and research center in Arizona, USA. During 2010-2011, 24 women given birth by cesarean section. Uterine tissues from women (n=24 at term were suspended in organ chambers and exposed to various agents. Contractility was registered and compared before and after addition of agents. Tissues were treated with P4 alone, a progestin (R5020 with low affinity to the progesterone membrane receptor (mPR, or a non-sex steroid (cholesterol. Other tissues were pretreated with inhibitors of adenylate cyclase (SQ 22536, phosphodiesterase (rolipram, nitric oxide (NO synthases (L-NAME or a nuclear P4 receptor antagonist (mifepristone, MIF, followed by P4. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: P4 (P0.05 inhibitory effects. P4 inhibition is not blocked by MIF, SQ, ODQ, rolipram or L-NAME (P>0.05. Conclusions: P4 rapidly inhibits myometrial contractility by nongenomic mechanisms through action on mPR but not via cAMP, cGMP, or NO [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 92-102

  11. Progesterone Action in Endometrial Cancer, Endometriosis, Uterine Fibroids, and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. Julie; Kurita, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) mediates the actions of the ovarian steroid progesterone, which together with estradiol regulates gonadotropin secretion, prepares the endometrium for implantation, maintains pregnancy, and differentiates breast tissue. Separation of estrogen and progesterone actions in hormone-responsive tissues remains a challenge. Pathologies of the uterus and breast, including endometrial cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer, are highly associated with estrogen, considered to be the mitogenic factor. Emerging evidence supports distinct roles of progesterone and its influence on the pathogenesis of these diseases. Progesterone antagonizes estrogen-driven growth in the endometrium, and insufficient progesterone action strikingly increases the risk of endometrial cancer. In endometriosis, eutopic and ectopic tissues do not respond sufficiently to progesterone and are considered to be progesterone-resistant, which contributes to proliferation and survival. In uterine fibroids, progesterone promotes growth by increasing proliferation, cellular hypertrophy, and deposition of extracellular matrix. In normal mammary tissue and breast cancer, progesterone is pro-proliferative and carcinogenic. A key difference between these tissues that could explain the diverse effects of progesterone is the paracrine interactions of PR-expressing stroma and epithelium. Normal endometrium is a mucosa containing large quantities of distinct stromal cells with abundant PR, which influences epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation and protects against carcinogenic transformation. In contrast, the primary target cells of progesterone in the breast and fibroids are the mammary epithelial cells and the leiomyoma cells, which lack specifically organized stromal components with significant PR expression. This review provides a unifying perspective for the diverse effects of progesterone across human tissues and diseases. PMID:23303565

  12. Progesterone and 17β-estradiol regulate expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in mouse pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yiwa; Kim, Jinhee; Im, Eunji; Kim, Heejeong; Yang, Hyunwon

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 was first shown to be involved in the control of appetite and energy metabolism in the hypothalamus. Many recent reports have shown nesfatin-1 expression in various tissues including the pituitary gland, but its expression and regulation mechanisms in the pituitary gland are unclear. Therefore, first, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression of nesfatin-1 in the pituitary using qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Expression of NUCB2 mRNA and nesfatin-1 protein was higher in the pituitary gland than in other organs, and nesfatin-1 protein was localized in many cells in the anterior pituitary gland. Next, we investigated whether NUCB2 mRNA expression in the pituitary gland was regulated by sex steroid hormones secreted by the ovary. Mice were ovariectomized and injected with progesterone (P4) and 17β-estradiol (E2). The expression of NUCB2 in the pituitary gland was dramatically decreased after ovariectomy and increased with injection of P4 and E2, respectively. The in vitro experiment to elucidate the direct effect of P4 and E2 on NUCB2 mRNA expression showed NUCB2 mRNA expression was significantly increased with E2 and decreased with P4 alone and P4 plus E2 in cultured pituitary tissue. The present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was highly expressed in the mouse pituitary and was regulated by P4 and E2. These data suggest that reproductive-endocrine regulation through hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis may contribute to nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression in the pituitary gland. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of estradiol, progesterone, and nutrition on concentrations of gonadotropins and GnRH receptors, and abundance of mRNA for GnRH receptors and gonadotropin subunits in pituitary glands of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looper, M L; Vizcarra, J A; Wettemann, R P; Malayer, J R; Braden, T D; Geisert, R D; Morgan, G L

    2003-01-01

    Nutritionally induced anovulatory cows (n = 28) were used to determine the effect of steroids on regulation of synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins. Anovulatory cows were ovariectomized and received intravaginal inserts containing estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), E2 and P4 (E2P4), or a sham intravaginal insert (C) for 7 d. Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were quantified in serum and E2 and P4 were quantified in plasma. Cows were exsanguinated within 1 to 2 h after removal of intravaginal inserts and pituitary glands were collected and stored at -80 degrees C until messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) and gonadotropin subunits, pituitary content of GnRH-R, and LH and FSH were quantified. Pituitary glands from five proestrous cows were harvested to compare gonadotropin characteristics between ovariectomized, anovulatory cows and intact cows. Plasma concentrations of E2 were greater (P cows than in sham-treated cows. Concentrations of P4 were greater (P cows treated with P4 than in sham-treated cows. Mean serum concentrations of LH and FSH were not significantly influenced by steroid treatments. However, frequency of LH pulses of ovariectomized, nutritionally induced anovulatory cows was increased (P cows treated with E2 or P4 than in cows treated with E2P4 or sham-treated. Quantity of mRNA for LHbeta in the pituitary gland was greater when cows were treated with P4. Concentrations of LH in the pituitary gland were not affected by steroid treatments; however, pituitary concentrations of FSH were less (P cows than in sham-treated cows. The number of GnRH-R was increased (P cows treated with E2, but P4 treatment did not influence the number of GnRH-R. Abundance of mRNA for GnRH-R, common alpha-subunit, and FSHbeta were not affected by treatments. Pituitary concentrations of LH were greater (P cows than in ovariectomized, anovulatory cows treated with or without

  14. The Effects of Progesterone on Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Zavareh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte maturation and embryo development are controlled by intra-ovarian factors suchas steroid hormones. Progesterone (P4 exists in the follicular fluid that contributes tonormal mammalian ovarian function and has several critical functions during embryodevelopment and implantation, including endometrial receptivity, embryonic survivalduring gestation and transformation of the endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells.It is well known that the physiological effects of P4 during the pre-implantation stages ofsome mammal’s embryos are mediated by P4 receptors and their gene expression is determined.The effects of P4 on oocytes and embryo development have been assessed bysome investigations, with contradictory results. P4, a dominant steroid in follicular fluidat approximately 18 hours after the luteinizing hormone (LH surge may have a criticalrole in maturation of oocytes at the germinal stage. However, it has been shown that differentconcentrations of P4 could not improve in vitro maturation rates of germinal vesicles(GV in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs and cumulus denuded oocytes (CDOs.Culture media supplemented with P4 significantly improved mouse embryo development.In addition, an in vivo experimental design has shown high blastocyst survival andimplantation rates in P4-treated mice.In this review we explain some of the findings that pertain to the effects of P4 onoocyte maturation and embryo development both in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakumari K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemia in luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined the relationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and insulin during the luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesterone levels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle and throughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOS women and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample and luteal (3 samples phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r. The endocrine study showed low progesterone level (4.9 ng/ml during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml. A significant negative correlation was observed between insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01 and between progesterone and LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05 concentrations, and a positive correlation (r = 0.83; P < 0.001 was observed between LH and insulin. The study further demonstrated a significant enhancement in luteal progesterone concentration (16.97 ng/ml in PCOS women treated with metformin. The results suggest that hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance may be responsible for low progesterone levels during the luteal phase in PCOS. The luteal progesterone level may be enhanced in PCOS by decreasing insulin secretion with metformin.

  16. USO DE ANTIOXIDANTES PARA MELHORAR A EFICIÊNCIA REPRODUTIVA DE REBANHO BOVINO SUBMETIDO A PROTOCOLO DE SINCRONIZAÇÃO COM PROGESTERONA (P4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zanella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Estrus synchronization with progesterone is commonly used in farms with better reproductive control. Free radicals production, i.e. oxidative stress, is associated with progesterone levels. The oxidative stress is responsible for aggression to the cellular membrane, leading to a lise and lipoperoxide formation. In this work, the antioxidant compensatory effect (Vitamins C and E associated with the exogenous progesterone implant (P4, used in estrus synchronization protocols in cattle, was evaluated. Twenty-five cows were randomly selected in 5 different groups: 1 control without P4, 2 control with P4, 3 P4 + vitamin C and E, 4 P4 + vitamin E, 5 P4 + vitamin C. The lipid lipoperoxidation was measured trough Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS and Glutatione Peroxidase enzyme (GSHpx at days 0 and 7 of the estrus synchronization protocol. The use of vitamin E, in this experiment, showed a better pregnancy rate, however, the results must be validated before orienting the use of the vitamin in cows synchronized with P4.

  17. Effects of dexamethasone on progesterone and estrogen profiles and uterine progesterone receptor localization during pregnancy in Sahel goat in Semi-Arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Yahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the widespread use of dexamethasone in veterinary and human medicine, it is reported to cause some severe pregnancy related side effects like abortion in some animals. The mechanism of the response is not clear but seems to be related to interspecies and/or breed difference in response which may involve alterations in the concentrations of some reproductive hormones. Methods Twenty Sahel goats comprising 18 does and 2 bucks were used for this study. Pregnancies were achieved by natural mating after synchronization. Repeated dexamethasone injections were given at 0.25 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected biweekly for hormonal assay. Uterine biopsies were harvested at days 28 and day 78 of gestation through caesarean section for immunohistochemical analysis using 3 pregnant does randomly selected from each group at each instant. Data were expressed as Means ± Standard Deviations and analyzed using statistical soft ware package, GraphPad Instant, version 3.0 (2003 and progesterone receptor (PR were scored semi-quantitatively. Results Dexamethasone treatments had no significant (p > 0.05 effect on progesterone and estrogen concentrations in pregnant Sahel goats but up regulated PR from 2+ to 3+ in second trimester. Conclusion As dexamethasone adverse effect on placenta is an established fact, the lack of effect on progesterone level in this study may be due to the fact that unlike other species whose progesterone production during pregnancy is placenta – dependent, in goats is corpus luteum - dependent. Consequently dexamethasone adverse effect on placenta reported in literatures did not influence progesterone levels during pregnancy in Sahel goat. The up regulation of progesterone receptor (PR in Sahel goat gravid uterus is a beneficial effects and that dexamethasone can safely be used in corpus luteum – dependent progesterone secreting pregnant animal species like Sahel goat and camel. Therefore

  18. Effects of dexamethasone on progesterone and estrogen profiles and uterine progesterone receptor localization during pregnancy in Sahel goat in Semi-Arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahi, Dauda; Ojo, Nicholas Adetayo; Mshelia, Gideon Dauda

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of dexamethasone in veterinary and human medicine, it is reported to cause some severe pregnancy related side effects like abortion in some animals. The mechanism of the response is not clear but seems to be related to interspecies and/or breed difference in response which may involve alterations in the concentrations of some reproductive hormones. Twenty Sahel goats comprising 18 does and 2 bucks were used for this study. Pregnancies were achieved by natural mating after synchronization. Repeated dexamethasone injections were given at 0.25 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected biweekly for hormonal assay. Uterine biopsies were harvested at days 28 and day 78 of gestation through caesarean section for immunohistochemical analysis using 3 pregnant does randomly selected from each group at each instant. Data were expressed as Means ± Standard Deviations and analyzed using statistical soft ware package, GraphPad Instant, version 3.0 (2003) and progesterone receptor (PR) were scored semi-quantitatively. Dexamethasone treatments had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on progesterone and estrogen concentrations in pregnant Sahel goats but up regulated PR from 2+ to 3+ in second trimester. As dexamethasone adverse effect on placenta is an established fact, the lack of effect on progesterone level in this study may be due to the fact that unlike other species whose progesterone production during pregnancy is placenta - dependent, in goats is corpus luteum - dependent. Consequently dexamethasone adverse effect on placenta reported in literatures did not influence progesterone levels during pregnancy in Sahel goat. The up regulation of progesterone receptor (PR) in Sahel goat gravid uterus is a beneficial effects and that dexamethasone can safely be used in corpus luteum - dependent progesterone secreting pregnant animal species like Sahel goat and camel. Therefore source of progesterone secretions during pregnancy should be considered

  19. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korndoerfer, Clotilde Maria; Meirelles, Cyro Ferreira; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ciencias Animais]. E-mail: cfmeirel@esalq.usp.br

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a practical procedure for the extraction of progesterone (P{sub 4}) from feces and to determine if the P4 plasma profiles during pregnancy were reflected in total fecal P4 of pregnant rabbits. The rabbit was used as model for the techniques. Plasma and feces were collected from 11 rabbits during a period of 42 days. Three different methods of P4 extraction were used. The total P4 was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) with {sup 125} I-P4 as the tracer. Results suggested that it was possible to extract total P4 from rabbit feces with methanol and petroleum ether. Plasma and fecal P4 profiles were compared for both pregnant and ovariectomized rabbits. It was possible to differentiate total P4 extracted from day two through 28 after breeding (p<0.01). (author)

  20. Novel Progesterone Receptors: Neural Localization and Possible Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Petersen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone (P4 regulates a wide range of neural functions and likely acts through multiple receptors. Over the past 30 years, most studies investigating neural effects of P4 focused on genomic and non-genomic actions of the classical progestin receptor (PGR. More recently the focus has widened to include two groups of non-classical P4 signaling molecules. Members of the Class II progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR family are called membrane progestin receptors (mPRs and include: mPRα (PAQR7, mPRβ (PAQR8, mPRγ (PAQR5, mPRδ (PAQR6 and mPRε (PAQR9. Members of the b5-like heme/steroid-binding protein family include progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, PGRMC2, neudesin and neuferricin. Results of our recent mapping studies show that members of the PGRMC1/S2R family, but not mPRs, are quite abundant in forebrain structures important for neuroendocrine regulation and other non-genomic effects of P4. Herein we describe the structures, neuroanatomical localization and signaling mechanisms of these molecules. We also discuss possible roles for Pgrmc1/S2R in gonadotropin release, feminine sexual behaviors, fluid balance and neuroprotection, as well as catamenial epilepsy.

  1. Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10(-7)M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (Pcontractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of poly(lactic acid) nanostructured membranes for the controlled delivery of progesterone to livestock animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Juliano Elvis [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Eliton Souto [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais (DEMAT), Cidade Universitaria, 58.051-900, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Cardozo, Lucio; Voll, Fernando [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), 87.020, 900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Madureira, Ed Hoffmann [Departamento de Reproducao Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia (FMVZ), Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga-SP (Brazil); Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli, E-mail: mattoso@cnpdia.embrapa.br [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Assis, Odilio Benedito Garrido [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    Solution blow spinning (SBS) is a novel technology feasible to produce nanostructured polymeric membranes loaded with active agents. In the present study, nanofibrous mats of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) loaded with progesterone (P4) were produced by SBS at different P4 concentrations. The spun membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The in vitro releasing of P4 was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Interactions between progesterone and PLA were confirmed by rheological measurements of the PLA/P4 solutions and in the spun mats by microscopy (SEM), thermal (DSC) and spectral (FTIR) analyses. SEM micrographs provided evidences of a smooth and homogeneous structure for nanostructured membranes without progesterone crystals on fiber surface. FTIR spectroscopy indicated miscibility and interaction between the ester of PLA and the ketone groups of the P4 in the nanofibers. X-ray analysis indicated that the size of PLA crystallites increased with progesterone content. Finally, by in vitro release experiments it was possible to observe that the progesterone releasing follows nearly first-order kinetics, probably due to the diffusion of hormone into PLA nanofibers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofibers of PLA loading with progesterone were prepared via solution blow spinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their morphology, FTIR, and XRD and DSC characterization were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibers of PLA/progesterone with diameters from 280 to 440 nm were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of progesterone content in fiber properties was studied.

  3. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blavy, P.; Derks, M.; Martin, O.

    2016-01-01

    kernel of three data points was used to smooth the progesterone time series. The time between start of progesterone rise and end of progesterone decline was identified by fitting a simple model consisting of base length and a quadratic curve to progesterone data, and this luteal like phase (LLP) was used...... to classify progesterone profiles without recourse to an a priori set of rules, which arbitrarily segment the natural variability in these profiles. Using data-derived profile shapes may allow a more accurate assessment of the effects of for example nutritional management or breeding system on progesterone...

  4. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the impact of premature progesterone rise on the IVF outcome. The objective of this review is to assess evidence of poorer ongoing pregnancy rate in IVF cycles with elevated serum progesterone at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. It also...... of premature progesterone in stimulated IVF cycles. There is an ongoing debate regarding the impact of premature progesterone rise on the IVF outcome. The objective of this review is to assess evidence of poorer ongoing pregnancy rate in IVF cycles with elevated serum progesterone at the end of follicular...... should document the cause and origin of premature progesterone in stimulated IVF cycles....

  5. Atrazine-induced elevation or attenuation of the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estrogen-primed female rat: role of adrenal progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jerome M; Davis, Lori K; Murr, Ashley S; Cooper, Ralph L

    2013-10-01

    Multiple exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATRZ) were shown to suppress the LH surge in both cycling female rats and those ovariectomized (OVX) and primed with estradiol (E2). A single ATRZ administration was found to induce a prompt and marked increase in progesterone (P4). As exogenous P4 is known to have a differential effect on the LH surge depending on its temporal relationship with the surge, it was hypothesized that a single treatment in an OVX, E2-primed rat would augment the surge, whereas several exposures would cause a decrease. Following four daily treatments with 100 mg/kg, LH surge was suppressed. In contrast, a single ATRZ exposure elevated the surge. Two treatments were without effect. The single administration caused a large increase in P4 at 30 and 60 min that was likely attributable to adrenal secretion. Four exposures also elevated P4 after the final treatment, although the duration of the increase was shortened. A single treatment with 0, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg ATRZ showed similar elevations at the highest concentration in P4, the LH peak, and area under the curve (AUC), whereas four exposures reduced the AUC. An increase at 1 h in the expression of Kiss1 in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus suggests that this regional kisspeptin neuronal population has a role in the ATRZ augmentation of the surge. These data support the hypothesis that ATRZ-induced changes in adrenal P4 can either augment or attenuate the surge depending on the temporal proximity of exposure to the rise in LH.

  6. The dialectic role of progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Johannes C; Ott, Johannes

    2009-04-20

    Progesterone is known to be metabolized into various metabolites exerting various effects, predominantly into 5alpha-pregnanes and 4-pregnenes. Studies on uterine tissues showed numerous progesterone-converting enzymes such as 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR), 5beta-reductase, 3alpha-, 3beta-, 20alpha-, and 20beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductases and others. The main progesterone-metabolizing enzymes in human breast tissues are 5alphaR, 3alpha-HSO 3beta-HSO, and 20alpha-HSO. Tumor genesis in the breast has been shown to be enhanced by high 5alphaR activity and suppression of 3alpha-HSO and 20alpha-HSO. A major determinant of 5alphaR, the breast's gate-keeping enzyme activity is the genetic variation in the enzyme's gene. Two polymorphisms within the steroid 5alphaR type 2 gene, Ala>Thr at codon 49 and Val>Leu at codon 89 have been reported to strongly affect the enzyme's activity, even in regard to breast cancer risk. As steroid hormones are known to be converted into many other steroids occupying different receptors and thereby exerting various different effects, progesterone receptors are important factors when mediating the hormone's effects. The progesterone receptor (PR) gene is transcribed from one gene by two alternative promoters and translated into PR-B, a potent transcriptional activator, and PR-A, the shorter isoform, necessary to oppose the effects of PR-B. In addition, endocrine reactions are modulated by epigenetics. The expression of progesterone receptors has been shown to be up- and downregulated by various epigenetic mechanisms. Many factors must be also taken into account in hormonal (replacement) therapy. Thus natural steroids should not be disparaged as treatment options for gender-specific diseases. An update on endocrinological knowledge and experience is rather mandatory for gynaecologists.

  7. Estimating genetic parameters for fertility in dairy cows from in-line milk progesterone profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenghe, A.M.M.; Bouwman, A.C.; Berglund, B.; Strandberg, E.; Blom, J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define endocrine fertility traits from in-line milk progesterone (P4) records and to estimate genetic parameters for these traits. Correlations of classical fertility (calving interval and calving to first service) and milk production traits with endocrine fertility

  8. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and its role in ovarian follicle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Peluso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone (P4 is synthesized in the ovary and acts directly on granulosa cells of developing ovarian follicles to suppress their rate of mitosis and apoptosis. Granulosa cells do not express nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR but rather progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1. PGRMC1 binds P4 and mediates P4’s actions, as evidenced by PGRMC1 siRNA studies. PGRMC1 acts by binding plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA binding protein and regulating gene expression. Specifically, PGRMC1 suppresses some genes that promote cell death (i.e. Bad, Caspase-3, Caspase-4. P4 regulates gene expression in part by inhibiting PGRMC1 binding to Tcf/Lef transcription sites, thereby reducing Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. Since Tcf/Lef transcription sites are located within the promoters of genes that initiate mitosis and/or apoptosis (i.e. c-jun and c-myc, P4-PGRMC1 mediated suppression of these Tcf/Lef regulated genes could account for P4’s actions. PGRMC1 expression is also altered in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, premature ovarian failure and infertility. Collectively, these observations support a role for PGRMC1 in regulating human ovarian follicle development.

  9. Pemisahan P4 (Progesteron) Dari Serum Kuda Indonesia CBG4 Bunting 3,5 Bulan Dengan Sephadex G-75

    OpenAIRE

    Rai Widjaja , Ngakan Made

    2012-01-01

    ECG (equine Chorionic Gonadotropin) atau PMSG (Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin) merupakan hormon gonadotropin yang beredar di pasaran yang saat ini masih diproduksi menggunakan bahan baku serum Thoroughbred bunting. eCG sangat dibutuhkan untuk mengobati kasus hipofungsi ovarium (inactive ovaries/post partum acyclicity) pada sapi, tetapi harganya mahal dan di Indonesia saat ini sulit memperolehnya. Sudah di...

  10. Proliferative and Invasive Effects of Progesterone-Induced Blocking Factor in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Gutiérrez-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF is a progesterone (P4 regulated protein expressed in different types of high proliferative cells including astrocytomas, the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. It has been shown that PIBF increases the number of human astrocytoma cells. In this work, we evaluated PIBF regulation by P4 and the effects of PIBF on proliferation, migration, and invasion of U87 and U251 cells, both derived from human glioblastomas. PIBF mRNA expression was upregulated by P4 (10 nM from 12 to 24 h. Glioblastoma cells expressed two PIBF isoforms, 90 and 57 kDa. The content of the shorter isoform was increased by P4 at 24 h, while progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 (10 μM blocked this effect. PIBF (100 ng/mL increased the number of U87 cells on days 4 and 5 of treatment and induced cell proliferation on day 4. Wound-healing assays showed that PIBF increased the migration of U87 (12–48 h and U251 (24 and 48 h cells. Transwell invasion assays showed that PIBF augmented the number of invasive cells in both cell lines at 24 h. These data suggest that PIBF promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of human glioblastoma cells.

  11. Cross calibration of IRS-P4 OCM satellite sensor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Naik, P.; Nayak, S.R.

    The cross calibration of ocean color satellite sensor, IRS-P4 OCM using the radiative transfer code, with SeaWiFS as a reference are presented here. Since the bands of IRS-P4 OCM are identical to those of SeaWiFS and SeaWiFS has been continuously...

  12. Relationship between endogenous progesterone and follicular dynamics in lactating dairy cows with ovarian follicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatler, T B; Hayes, S H; Laranja da Fonseca, L F; Silvia, W J

    2003-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine circulating concentrations of progesterone (P4) in cows with ovarian follicular cysts (OFCs) and to relate differing levels of P4 to subsequent follicular events. In experiment 1, peripheral concentrations of P4 were determined in cows diagnosed with OFCs. Nonpregnant, lactating Holstein and Jersey cows (n = 32) were diagnosed as having OFCs by rectal palpation. Ovarian follicular cysts were then examined by transrectal ultrasonography to confirm the presence of OFCs (follicle diameter, >/=17 mm; absence of luteal tissue). At confirmation, a blood sample was collected for quantification of P4. The concentration of P4 at confirmation was classified as low (/=10 mm) that formed in the presence of an OFC was determined and related to circulating concentrations of P4 during follicular development. Follicles (n = 59) that formed in the presence of an OFC ovulated (n = 19), formed a cyst (n = 30), or underwent normal growth and regression (NGR; n = 10). Endogenous P4 in the 7-day period during follicular development was classified as low (if P4 dropped to 1.0 ng/ml and never dropped to cysts, compared with 10% that ovulated and 15% that experienced NGR. In the presence of low P4, 53%, 41%, and 6% of follicles ovulated, formed a follicular cyst, or experienced NGR, respectively. Thus, an association between intermediate P4 and the formation of OFCs was established.

  13. [Progesterone and prevention of preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F; Senat, M-V

    2015-10-01

    The literature confirms the interest of progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in specific indications for patients carrying a singleton pregnancy. In contrast, randomized trials have shown no benefit using progesterone in the prevention of prematurity in twins and even an adverse effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. PROGESTERONE: BIOSYNTHESIS FROM PREGNENOLONE IN HOLARRHENA FLORIBUNDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BENNETT, R D; HEFTMANN, E

    1965-08-06

    After administration of pregnenolone-4-C(14) to Holarrhena floribunda leaves, radioactive progesterone was isolated and purified to constant specific activity by chromatography, conversion to a derivative, and recrystallization. The result suggests that the biogenetic sequence leading to progesterone is the same in plants as in animals.

  15. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensler, J M; Silverman, B L; Sanghavi, J; Goolsby, C; Speck, G; Brizio-Molteni, L; Molteni, A

    2000-10-01

    The etiology of gynecomastia is unknown. There seems to be no increased incidence of malignancies in patients with idiopathic gynecomastia; however, patients with Klinefelter syndrome exhibit an increased incidence of malignancy. The authors reviewed the results of 34 patients with gynecomastia diagnosed in adolescence who, following initial evaluation, had a mastectomy. The estrogen and progesterone receptors were analyzed in these patients. Three of the patients were diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. These three patients exhibited elevated amounts of estrogen and progesterone receptors. None of the patients who were not diagnosed with this syndrome demonstrated significant elevation of their estrogen or progesterone receptors. The presence of elevated estrogen and progesterone receptors in patients with Klinefelter syndrome provides a potential mechanism by which these patients may develop breast neoplasms. The absence of elevated estrogen and progesterone receptors in patients with idiopathic gynecomastia may serve to clarify why these patients' disease rarely degenerates into malignancy.

  16. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  17. Effect of early pregnancy on the expression of progesterone receptor and progesterone-induced blocking factor in ovine lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Zang, Shengqin; Bai, Ying; Yao, Xiaolei; Zhang, Leying

    2017-04-15

    Lymph nodes are the sites where the immune reaction or suppression takes place. Progesterone (P4) exerts an essential effect of the immunomodulation on the maternal uterus during early pregnancy in ruminants. At present study, the inguinal lymph nodes were obtained at day 16 of non-pregnancy, days 13, 16 and 25 of pregnancy (n = 3 for each group) in ewes, and RT-PCR assay, western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to analyze to the effect of early pregnancy on the expression of P4 receptor (PGR) and progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) in the lymph nodes. Our results showed that the PGR and PIBF mRNA were up-regulated in the lymph nodes in pregnant ewes, and the PGR isoform (60 kDa) and the PIBF variant (75 kDa) were expressed constantly in the lymph nodes. However, there was no expression of the PGR isoform (40 kDa) and the PIBF variant (48 kDa) at day 16 of the estrous cycle. The immunohistochemistry results confirmed that the PGR and PIBF proteins were limited to the subcapsular sinus and trabeculae in the cortex, medullary sinuses, and were localized in the cytoplasm of the specific cells. This paper reports for the first time that early pregnancy exerts its effect on the specific cells in the lymph nodes through P4, which results in the up-regulated expression of the PGR mRNA and 40 kDa isoform, the PIBF mRNA and 48 kDa variant, and is involved in the immunoregulation of the lymph nodes through a cytosolic pathway in ewes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Testosterone and progesterone concentrations in blow samples are biologically relevant in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Justin T; Robeck, Todd R; Osborn, Steven D; Naples, Lisa; McDermott, Alexa; LaForge, Robert; Romano, Tracy A; Sartini, Becky L

    2017-05-15

    Steroid hormone analysis in blow (respiratory vapor) may provide a minimally invasive way to assess the reproductive status of wild cetaceans. Biological validation of the method is needed to allow for the interpretation of hormone measurements in blow samples. Utilizing samples collected from trained belugas (Delphinapterus leucas, n=20), enzyme immunoassays for testosterone and progesterone were validated for use with beluga blow samples. Testosterone concentrations in 40 matched blood and blow samples collected from 4 male belugas demonstrated a positive correlation (R 2 =0.52, pblow samples from 11 females were also positively correlated (R 2 =0.60, pblow samples collected from adult males (119.3±14.2pg/ml) were higher (pblow demonstrated a seasonal pattern of secretion, with peak secretion occurring during the breeding season (February-April, 136.95±33.8pg/ml). Progesterone concentrations in blow varied by reproductive status; pregnant females (410.6±87.8pg/ml) and females in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle (339.5±51.0pg/ml) had higher (pblow progesterone concentrations than non-pregnant females without a corpus luteum (242.5±27.3pg/ml). Results indicate that blow sample analysis can be used to detect variation in reproductive states associated with large differences in circulating testosterone or progesterone in belugas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mathematical characterization of the milk progesterone profile as a leg up to individualized monitoring of reproduction status in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Ines; Huybrechts, Tjebbe; Geerinckx, Katleen; Daems, Devin; Lammertyn, Jeroen; De Ketelaere, Bart; Saeys, Wouter; Aernouts, Ben

    2017-11-01

    Reproductive performance is an important factor affecting the profitability of dairy farms. Optimal fertility results are often confined by the time-consuming nature of classical heat detection, the fact that high-producing dairy cows show estrous symptoms shorter and less clearly, and the occurrence of ovarian problems. Today's commercially available solutions for automatic estrus detection include monitoring of activity, temperature and progesterone. The latter has the advantage that, besides estrus, it also allows to detect pregnancy and ovarian problems. Due to the large variation in progesterone profiles, even between cycles within the same cow, the use of general thresholds is suboptimal. To this end, an intelligent and individual interpretation of the progesterone measurements is required. Therefore, an alternative solution is proposed, which takes individual and complete cycle progesterone profiles into account for reproduction monitoring. In this way, profile characteristics can be translated into specific attentions for the farmers, based on individual rather than general guidelines. To enable the use of the profile and cycle characteristics, an appropriate model to describe the milk progesterone profile was developed. The proposed model describes the basal adrenal progesterone production and the growing and regressing cyclic corpus luteum. To identify the most appropriate way to describe the increasing and decreasing part of each cycle, three mathematical candidate functions were evaluated on the increasing and decreasing parts of the progesterone cycle separately: the Hill function, the logistic growth curve and the Gompertz growth curve. These functions differ in the way they describe the sigmoidal shape of each profile. The increasing and decreasing parts of the P4 cycles were described best by the model based on respectively the Hill and Gompertz function. Combining these two functions, a full mathematical model to characterize the progesterone cycle

  20. LPS-Challenged TNFα Production, Prostaglandin Secretion, and TNFα/TNFRs Expression in the Endometrium of Domestic Cats in Estrus or Diestrus, and in Cats with Pyometra or Receiving Medroxyprogesterone Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Jursza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone (P4 derivatives which are commonly used to block the cyclicity of domestic cats disturb the endocrine balance in the endometrium. The aims of this study were (i to examine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS is responsible for enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα secretion by the feline endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in vitro, (ii to know whether immunolocalization of TNFα/TNFR1 and TNFR2 differs in cats at estrus or diestrus, receiving medroxyprogesterone acetate and suffering from pyometra, and (iii to determine if TNFα-challenged prostaglandin secretion is stopped by prostaglandin synthases inhibitors. A total of 37 domestic adult cats in estrus or diestrus, receiving octane medroxyprogesterone or having clinical symptoms of pyometra, were enrolled in this study. The results obtained showed a distinct increase in LPS-challenged TNFα secretion in endometrial epithelial, but not stromal cells. TNFα augmented PG secretion was blocked by phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and cyclooxygeanase-2 (COX-2, but not by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitor. TNFα/TNFR1 and 2 protein expressions were limited mostly to the surface and glandular epithelium. TNFα/TNFRs protein was upregulated in the inflammatory uterus and hence may be involved in development of pathologic changes in the endometrial glands in cats receiving exogenous P4 as a hormonal contraceptive.

  1. LPS-Challenged TNFα Production, Prostaglandin Secretion, and TNFα/TNFRs Expression in the Endometrium of Domestic Cats in Estrus or Diestrus, and in Cats with Pyometra or Receiving Medroxyprogesterone Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jursza, Ewelina; Szóstek, Anna Z.; Kowalewski, Mariusz P.; Boos, Alois; Okuda, Kiyoshi; Siemieniuch, Marta J.

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) derivatives which are commonly used to block the cyclicity of domestic cats disturb the endocrine balance in the endometrium. The aims of this study were (i) to examine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is responsible for enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) secretion by the feline endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in vitro, (ii) to know whether immunolocalization of TNFα/TNFR1 and TNFR2 differs in cats at estrus or diestrus, receiving medroxyprogesterone acetate and suffering from pyometra, and (iii) to determine if TNFα-challenged prostaglandin secretion is stopped by prostaglandin synthases inhibitors. A total of 37 domestic adult cats in estrus or diestrus, receiving octane medroxyprogesterone or having clinical symptoms of pyometra, were enrolled in this study. The results obtained showed a distinct increase in LPS-challenged TNFα secretion in endometrial epithelial, but not stromal cells. TNFα augmented PG secretion was blocked by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclooxygeanase-2 (COX-2), but not by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor. TNFα/TNFR1 and 2 protein expressions were limited mostly to the surface and glandular epithelium. TNFα/TNFRs protein was upregulated in the inflammatory uterus and hence may be involved in development of pathologic changes in the endometrial glands in cats receiving exogenous P4 as a hormonal contraceptive. PMID:25028529

  2. [Profiles of estrone, estrone sulfate and progesterone in donkey (Equus asinus) mares during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, B; Bernhardt, A W; Failing, K; Schuler, G

    2014-01-01

    To gain further data on the hormonal control of pregnancy in the donkey and to obtain reference values for hormonal pregnancy testing. Blood samples were collected at monthly intervals from 23 donkey mares with normal singleton pregnancies. Further samples were obtained from six mares displaying pregnancies with clinical disorders. Progesterone (P4), total estrone (TE), free (E) and conjugated estrone (ES) were determined using radioimmunoassay. Mean duration of pregnancy was 372 ± 16 days. It was longer (p 5 ng/ml being indicative for pregnancy. At present, monitoring of P4 and estrone during pregnancy does not allow the prediction of clinical disorders.

  3. Ovarian stimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone under increasing or minimal concentration of progesterone in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherry, T M; Matsui, M; Kida, K; Miyamoto, A; Megahed, G A; Shehata, S H; Miyake, Y-I

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence or absence of Corpus luteum (CL) on the follicular population during superstimulation in dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cattle). Animals were divided into two groups as follows: (1) Growing CL group (G1): Cows (n=7) received a total dose of 28 Armour units (AU) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) through the first 4 d (twice daily) after spontaneous ovulation (Day 0). (2) CL Absence group (G2): Cows (n=10) received prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) at 9 or 10 d after ovulation. After 36h, all the follicles (larger than 5mm) were aspirated (Day 0). The FSH treatment started 24h after aspiration and continued for 4 d. The number of small (3 to or = 8mm) follicles was examined on Days 1, 3, and 5 in all groups. Blood samples were collected daily for 5 d, and progesterone (P(4)), estradiol (E(2)), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH) in plasma were measured by enzyme immunoassays. The results showed that in G1, the P(4) level increased gradually from 0.5 ng/mL at Day 1 to 2 ng/mL at Day 5, whereas in G2, the P(4) level was completely below 0.5 ng/mL. All cows of the G2 group showed an increase of E(2) at Day 3 or Day 4 followed by an increase of IGF-1 within 24h, while GH increased concomitantly with the E(2) increase in 8 of 10 trials. On the other hand, cows of the G1 group showed neither E(2) nor IGF-1 increase. Moreover, at the end of the treatment, the number of follicles in the G2 group was significantly increased compared with that of the G1 group (22.8+/-2.0 vs. 11.6+/-2.0). In conclusion, low P(4) level during FSH treatment enhanced multiple follicular growth and E(2) secretion, which was followed by increase of IGF-1 and GH. Therefore, the absence of the CL may play a critical role in the superovulation response by controlling the number of growing follicles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Innate Immunity in the Vagina (Part I): Estradiol Inhibits HBD2 and Elafin Secretion by Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V.; Fahey, John V.; Rossoll, Richard M.; Wira, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Problem Vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) are the first line of defense against incoming pathogens in the female reproductive tract. Their ability to produce the anti-HIV molecules elafin and HBD2 under hormonal stimulation is unknown. Method of study Vaginal epithelial cells were recovered using a menstrual cup and cultured overnight prior to treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) or a panel of selective estrogen response modulators (SERMs). Conditioned media were recovered and analyzed for protein concentration and anti-HIV activity. Results E2 significantly decreased the secretion of HBD2 and elafin by VEC over 48 hrs, while P4 and the SERMs (tamoxifen, PHTTP, ICI or Y134) had no effect. VEC conditioned media from E2-treated cells had no anti-HIV activity, while that from E2/P4-treated cells significantly inhibited HIV-BaL infection. Conclusion The menstrual cup allows for effective recovery of primary VEC. Their production of HBD2 and elafin is sensitive to E2, suggesting that innate immune protection varies in the vagina across the menstrual cycle. PMID:23398087

  5. Human endometrial milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFGE8) is up regulated by estradiol at the transcriptional level, and its secretion via microvesicles is stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    KAUST Repository

    Sarhan, Abbaa

    2013-10-17

    Objective: We have recently showed that MFGE8, a novel epithelial cell protein in the human endometrium, upregulated during the window of implantation. We hypothesized that MFGE8 may act as a key modulator of endometrial remodeling and trophoblast invasion. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the in vitro regulation of human endometrial epithelial cells MFGE8 transcription, translation, and secretion by sex steroids and hCG; and (ii) to examine the possibility of MFGE8 secretion via microvesicles. Design: Experimental in vitro study using Ishikawa cells. Setting: University center. Interventions: Treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and human chorionic gonatropin (hCG). Main outcome measures: MFGE8 mRNA and protein expression, and identification of secreted microvesicles by mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting. Results: E2, but not P4 or hCG, significantly upregulated MFGE8 mRNA expression. hCG significantly increased MFGE8 secretion. Microvesicels obtained after ultracentrifugation were visualized with atomic force microscopy ranging from ~100 to 200 nm. In addition to the expected 46 kD protein, the microvesicles contained a second form of secreted MFGE8 measuring ~30 kD which was confirmed by MS. Conclusions: We demonstrated (i) dual effects of E2 and hCG on the regulation of MFGE8, and (ii) MFGE8 protein secretion in association with microvesicles. MFGE8 has the potential to modulate endometrial function and implantation via exocrine and/ or paracrine-autocrine effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microvesicular secretion of any regulatory protein by endometrial epithelial cells, providing initial evidence suggestive of microvesicular participation in cellular trafficking information in the non-pregnant and pregnant endometrium.

  6. Effect of feeding level on luteal function and progesterone concentration in the vena cava during early pregnancy in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athorn, R Z; Stott, P; Bouwman, E G; Chen, T Y; Kennaway, D J; Langendijk, P

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of feeding level on progesterone concentration in the caudal vena cava during early pregnancy in gilts. Twenty-four Landrace gilts were allocated to either a high (2.8±0.02) or a low (1.5±0.01 kg day⁻¹) feeding level at Day 0 of pregnancy. Serial blood samples were collected every 15 min for 3 h before and 3 h after feeding on Days 6 and 9 of pregnancy. Embryo survival and development as well as in vitro luteal progesterone production were assessed at Day 10 of pregnancy. Progesterone concentration in the vena cava was pulsatile with gilts on the high feeding level having more pulses compared with Low gilts on Day 9 of pregnancy (Pgilts on the high feeding level (Pgilts compared with 77±3% for Low gilts (P<0.05). No difference in embryo development between the treatments was seen. There was no difference between treatments in in vitro secretion of progesterone by luteal tissue. In conclusion, a high plane of nutrition positively affects progesterone secretion by the ovaries in early pregnancy.

  7. Sensor and instrumentation for progesterone detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2012-05-01

    The reported research work uses a real time and noninvasive method to detect progesterone hormone concentration in purified water using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (E.I.S.) technique. Planar capacitive sensor, consisting of inter-digitated microelectrodes, is designed and fabricated on silicon substrate using thin-film Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based semiconductor device fabrication technology. The sensor in conjunction with EIS is used to evaluate conductivity, permeability and dielectric properties of reproductive hormone progesterone and its concentration quantification in purified water. Impedance spectrums are obtained with various concentrations of the hormone in purified water by using an electric circuit in order to extract sample conductance. Relationship of sample conductance with progesterone concentration level is studied in this research work. The ability of E.I.S. to detect progesterone concentration is aimed to be used in dairy farming industry in order to obtain better reproductive performance of the dairy cattle. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Uses of progesterone in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M P; Shantha, S

    1999-01-01

    Progesterone is the natural progestagen produced by the corpus luteum during the luteal phase. It is absorbed when administered orally, but is greater than 90% metabolized during the first hepatic pass. This greatly limits the efficacy of once-daily administration and also results in unphysiologically high levels of progesterone metabolites, particularly those reduced at the 5-a position. These metabolites can cause dizziness and drowsiness to the point of preventing the operation of a motor vehicle. Synthetic progestins, such as medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethindrone acetate (NETA), have been specifically designed to resist enzymatic degradation and remain active after oral administration. However, these compounds exert undesirable effects on the liver and often cause severe psychological side effects. The permeability of the skin does not allow for administration of progesterone in the quantities normally produced by the corpus luteum, i.e., up to 25 mg/day during the mid-luteal phase. To avoid this problem, synthetic progestins such as NETA have been administered transdermally. These compounds, though, just like synthetic estrogens administered non-orally, retain undesirable hepatic effects even when administered transdermally. Transvaginal administration of progesterone is a practical non-oral route available for administering progesterone. Early experience was gained with vaginal suppositories, which lack manufacturing controls. Recently, a new progesterone gel formulation has been designed for vaginal use. The clinical acceptability of this product has been enhanced by the bioadhesive characteristics of its polycarbophil-based gel, which conveys controlled and sustained-released properties. Investigations have shown that because of local direct vagina-to-uterus transport, which results in a preferential uterine uptake of progesterone, this formulation given in conjunction with physiological amounts of estradiol produces endometrial changes similar to

  9. PROGESTERONE EXERTS NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS AFTER BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Donald G.

    2007-01-01

    Progesterone, although still widely considered primarily a sex hormone, is an important agent affecting many central nervous system functions. This review assesses recent, primarily in vivo, evidence that progesterone can play an important role in promoting and enhancing repair after traumatic brain injury and stroke. Although many of its specific actions on neuroplasticity remain to be discovered, there is growing evidence that this hormone may be a safe and effective treatment for traumatic...

  10. Progesterone exerts neuroprotective effects after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Donald G

    2008-03-01

    Progesterone, although still widely considered primarily a sex hormone, is an important agent affecting many central nervous system functions. This review assesses recent, primarily in vivo, evidence that progesterone can play an important role in promoting and enhancing repair after traumatic brain injury and stroke. Although many of its specific actions on neuroplasticity remain to be discovered, there is growing evidence that this hormone may be a safe and effective treatment for traumatic brain injury and other neural disorders in humans.

  11. TBI and sex: crucial role of progesterone protecting the brain in an omega-3 deficient condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ethika; Agrawal, Rahul; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    We assessed whether the protective action of progesterone on traumatic brain injury (TBI) could be influenced by the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids during early life. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on omega-3 adequate or deficient diet from 3rd day of pregnancy and their female offspring were kept on the same diets up to the age of 15 weeks. Ovariectomy was performed at the age of 12 weeks to deprive animals from endogenous steroids until the time of a fluid percussion injury (FPI). Dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency increased anxiety in sham animals and TBI aggravated the effects of the deficiency. Progesterone replacement counteracted the effects of TBI on the animals reared under n-3 deficiency. A similar pattern was observed for markers of membrane homeostasis such as 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) and secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2), synaptic plasticity such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), syntaxin (STX)-3 and growth associated protein (GAP)-43, and for growth inhibitory molecules such as myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and Nogo-A. Results that progesterone had no effects on sham n-3 deficient animals suggest that the availability of progesterone is essential under injury conditions. Progesterone treatment counteracted several parameters related to synaptic plasticity and membrane stability reduced by FPI and n-3 deficiency suggest potential targets for therapeutic applications. These results reveal the importance of n-3 preconditioning during early life and the efficacy of progesterone therapy during adulthood to counteract weaknesses in neuronal and behavioral plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype, estradiol, progesterone and emotional information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, Danielle A; de Kloet, E Ronald; Quataert, Ina; Jansen, Myrthe; Van der Does, Willem

    2017-02-01

    Carriers of MR-haplotype 1 and 3 (GA/CG; rs5522 and rs2070951) are more sensitive to the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) and menstrual cycle phase on emotional information processing than MR-haplotype 2 (CA) carriers. We investigated whether this effect is associated with estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P4) levels. Healthy MR-genotyped premenopausal women were tested twice in a counterbalanced design. Naturally cycling (NC) women were tested in the early-follicular and mid-luteal phase and OC-users during OC-intake and in the pill-free week. At both sessions E2 and P4 were assessed in saliva. Tests included implicit and explicit positive and negative affect, attentional blink accuracy, emotional memory, emotion recognition, and risky decision-making (gambling). MR-haplotype 2 homozygotes had higher implicit happiness scores than MR-haplotype 2 heterozygotes (p=0.031) and MR-haplotype 1/3 carriers (p<0.001). MR-haplotype 2 homozygotes also had longer reaction times to happy faces in an emotion recognition test than MR-haplotype 1/3 (p=0.001). Practice effects were observed for most measures. The pattern of correlations between information processing and P4 or E2 differed between sessions, as well as the moderating effects of the MR genotype. In the first session the MR-genotype moderated the influence of P4 on implicit anxiety (sr=-0.30; p=0.005): higher P4 was associated with reduction in implicit anxiety, but only in MR-haplotype 2 homozygotes (sr=-0.61; p=0.012). In the second session the MR-genotype moderated the influence of E2 on the recognition of facial expressions of happiness (sr=-0.21; p=0.035): only in MR-haplotype 1/3 higher E2 was correlated with happiness recognition (sr=0.29; p=0.005). In the second session higher E2 and P4 were negatively correlated with accuracy in lag2 trials of the attentional blink task (p<0.001). Thus NC women, compared to OC-users, performed worse on lag 2 trials (p=0.041). The higher implicit happiness scores of MR

  13. Towards the structure of yeast and mammalian P4-ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyons, Joseph; Laban, Milena; Mikkelsen, Stine

    2017-01-01

    a basis for the analysis of reported mutagenesis data, we aim to solve the first molecular structures of the PS transporting P4-ATPases using electron microscopy. To date, negative stain EM analysis, on detergent, amphipol and saposin-lipoprotein nanoparticle (Salipro) reconstituted of both Drs2p/CDC50p...

  14. Sera of patients with recurrent miscarriages containing anti-trophoblast antibodies (ATAB) reduce hCG and progesterone production in trophoblast cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schönfeldt, Viktoria; Rogenhofer, Nina; Ruf, Katharina; Thaler, Christian J; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive failure including RM has been suggested to correlate with antibodies that cross react with HLA-negative syncytiotrophoblasts and we have reported that 17% of women with 2 or more miscarriages and 34% of women with 3 or more miscarriages express anti-trophoblast antibodies (ATAB). Until now, the mechanism, how ATAB interfere with pregnancy success is not known. HCG and progesterone both play fundamental roles in supporting human pregnancy. Therefore we investigated the effects of sera of RM patients containing ATAB on the hCG and progesterone production of cells of the choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. In vitro study to investigate effects of patient sera with and without ATAB on hCG and progesterone secretion of JEG-3 cells. The presence of ATAB was detected as described earlier. Effects of sera from ATAB positive and ATAB negative RM patients on hCG and progesterone secretion by JEG-3 cells were analysed 12 and 24h after plating. Sera of women without pregnancy pathologies served as controls. Sera of ATAB-positive RM patients significantly inhibit hCG secretion of JEG-3 cells for 12h after plating compared to sera of healthy controls (p=0.019) and significantly reduce progesterone production for 12h (p=0.046) and 24h (p=0.027) of co-culture. Sera of ATAB-negative RM patient show no significant effect on progesterone secretion. Inhibition of hCG and progesterone production might point to a mechanism, how ATAB interfere with early pregnancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of a cow-side milk progesterone assay and assessment of the positive predictive value of oestrus diagnosis by dairy farmers in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenhoff, L; Hall, E; House, J K

    2016-12-01

    The three objectives of this study were to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of oestrus diagnosis (heat detection accuracy) by dairy farmers, calculate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the P4 Rapid milk progesterone assay for detecting a corpus luteum and evaluate the economics of using a cow-side milk progesterone assay designed to aid oestrus diagnosis. Milk samples were collected from 752 cows diagnosed in oestrus by farm personnel on 14 dairy farms. Samples were tested using the P4 Rapid milk progesterone assay to estimate the PPV of oestrus diagnosis at each farm and a crude pooled mean of PPV of oestrus diagnosis across all farms. A further 156 milk samples were collected from cows with luteal tissue status determined by transrectal ultrasound and tested by the P4 Rapid assay to enable calculation of the sensitivity and specificity of the P4 Rapid assay. For pooled farm samples, the PPV was 97.0%, with a range between farms of 88.9-100%. Sensitivity of the P4 Rapid milk progesterone assay for detecting a corpus luteum was 90.1% and specificity was 98.7%. Misclassification of oestrus in cows previously identified as pregnant was the most common cause of false-positive oestrus diagnoses by farm personnel. Routine testing of milk progesterone in all cows diagnosed in oestrus is not economically justified and may even slightly reduce submission rates; conversely, strategic use of cow-side milk progesterone assays can improve herd reproductive performance by facilitating decisions on whether to rebreed cows previously diagnosed as pregnant. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Development of a progesterone immunosensor based on thionine-graphene oxide composites platforms: Improvement by biotin-streptavidin-amplified system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiu-Xiu; Yuan, Li-Peng; Liu, Yi-Xin; Wu, Min-Fu; Liu, Bo; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Shen, Yu-Dong; Xu, Zhen-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Progesterone (P4) is a kind of hormone that can cause neuropathic disturbances in humans when the concentration overpasses a certain degree. In this work, an electrochemical immunosensor capable of detecting P4 sensitively and selectively was developed. Thionine-graphene oxide (Thi-GO) composites with excellent biocompatibility were synthesized and coated to a clear glassy carbon electrode. P4 coating antigen (P4-OVA) was immobilized to the electrode, then sample as well as biotinylated antibody (biotin-P4 Ab) were added. The free P4 can compete with P4-OVA for binding to biotin-P4 Ab. After the further addition of streptavidin-HRP, H2O2 was introduced to develop electrical signal for quantitative determination of P4. After careful optimization of assay conditions, the proposed immunosensor showed a linear range from 0.02 to 20ngmL(-1) for P4 in milk samples. The averaged recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 84.0% to 102.0%, which correlated well with standard HPLC-MS/MS. The biosensor also showed good specificity, reproducibility and stability, indicating its potential application in monitoring of P4 in a simple and low cost manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Crosstalk between monocytes and myometrial smooth muscle in culture generates synergistic pro-inflammatory cytokine production and enhances myocyte contraction, with effects opposed by progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, S.P.; Hutchinson, J.L.; Dorward, D.A.; Rossi, A.G.; Norman, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Both term and preterm parturition are characterized by an influx of macrophages and neutrophils into the myometrium and cervix, with co-incident increased peripheral blood monocyte activation. Infection and inflammation are strongly implicated in the pathology of preterm labour (PTL), with progesterone considered a promising candidate for its prevention or treatment. In this study, we investigated the effect of monocytes on myometrial smooth muscle cell inflammatory cytokine production both alone and in response to LPS, a TLR4 agonist used to trigger PTL in vivo. We also investigated the effect of monocytes on myocyte contraction. Monocytes, isolated from peripheral blood samples from term pregnant women, were cultured alone, or co-cultured with PHM1-41 myometrial smooth muscle cells, for 24 h. In a third set of experiments, PHM1-41 myocytes were cultured for 24 h in isolation. Cytokine secretion was determined by ELISA or multiplex assays. Co-culture of monocytes and myocytes led to synergistic secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1, with the secretion being further enhanced by LPS (100 ng/ml). The synergistic secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 from co-cultures was mediated in part by direct cell–cell contact, and by TNF. Conditioned media from co-cultures stimulated contraction of PHM1-41 myocytes, and the effect was inhibited by progesterone. Both progesterone and IL-10 inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 secretion from co-cultures, while progesterone also inhibited chemokine secretion. These data suggest that monocytes infiltrating the myometrium at labour participate in crosstalk that potentiates pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, an effect that is enhanced by LPS, and can augment myocyte contraction. These effects are all partially inhibited by progesterone. PMID:26002969

  18. Progesterone induces adult mammary stem cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Purna A; Jackson, Hartland W; Beristain, Alexander G; Di Grappa, Marco A; Mote, Patricia A; Clarke, Christine L; Stingl, John; Waterhouse, Paul D; Khokha, Rama

    2010-06-10

    Reproductive history is the strongest risk factor for breast cancer after age, genetics and breast density. Increased breast cancer risk is entwined with a greater number of ovarian hormone-dependent reproductive cycles, yet the basis for this predisposition is unknown. Mammary stem cells (MaSCs) are located within a specialized niche in the basal epithelial compartment that is under local and systemic regulation. The emerging role of MaSCs in cancer initiation warrants the study of ovarian hormones in MaSC homeostasis. Here we show that the MaSC pool increases 14-fold during maximal progesterone levels at the luteal dioestrus phase of the mouse. Stem-cell-enriched CD49fhi cells amplify at dioestrus, or with exogenous progesterone, demonstrating a key role for progesterone in propelling this expansion. In aged mice, CD49fhi cells display stasis upon cessation of the reproductive cycle. Progesterone drives a series of events where luminal cells probably provide Wnt4 and RANKL signals to basal cells which in turn respond by upregulating their cognate receptors, transcriptional targets and cell cycle markers. Our findings uncover a dynamic role for progesterone in activating adult MaSCs within the mammary stem cell niche during the reproductive cycle, where MaSCs are putative targets for cell transformation events leading to breast cancer.

  19. Regulatory Mechanisms in the P4-ATPase Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Sara

    Eukaryotic cell membranes are equipped with special proteins that actively translocate lipids from one leaflet to the other and thereby help generate membrane lipid asymmetry. Several relevant physiological processes depend on trans-bilayer phospholipid asymmetry, including vesiculation in the se......Eukaryotic cell membranes are equipped with special proteins that actively translocate lipids from one leaflet to the other and thereby help generate membrane lipid asymmetry. Several relevant physiological processes depend on trans-bilayer phospholipid asymmetry, including vesiculation...... in the secretory and endocytic pathways. The inward-oriented translocation of phospholipids is catalyzed by proteins called P4-ATPases or flippases, which belong to a subfamily of P-type ATPases. P4-ATPases, together with their CDC50 β-subunits, are essential for eukaryotic life but the key features...... of their activity and regulation remain to be elucidated. Therefore, these studies focus on the role of the catalytic and CDC50 β-subunit in the phospholipid translocation and the regulation processes behind it. Recent studies suggested that P4-ATPase complex functionality is highly dependent on the conformation...

  20. Continuous versus cyclic progesterone exposure differentially regulates hippocampal gene expression and functional profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Zhao

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of chronic exposure to continuous (CoP4 versus cyclic progesterone (CyP4 alone or in combination with 17β-estradiol (E2 on gene expression profiles targeting bioenergetics, metabolism and inflammation in the adult female rat hippocampus. High-throughput qRT-PCR analyses revealed that ovarian hormonal depletion induced by ovariectomy (OVX led to multiple significant gene expression alterations, which were to a great extent reversed by co-administration of E2 and CyP4. In contrast, co-administration of E2 and CoP4 induced a pattern highly resembling OVX. Bioinformatics analyses further revealed clear disparities in functional profiles associated with E2+CoP4 and E2+CyP4. Genes involved in mitochondrial energy (ATP synthase α subunit; Atp5a1, redox homeostasis (peroxiredoxin 5; Prdx5, insulin signaling (insulin-like growth factor I; Igf1, and cholesterol trafficking (liver X receptor α subtype; Nr1h3, differed in direction of regulation by E2+CoP4 (down-regulation relative to OVX and E2+CyP4 (up-regulation relative to OVX. In contrast, genes involved in amyloid metabolism (β-secretase; Bace1 differed only in degree of regulation, as both E2+CoP4 and E2+CyP4 induced down-regulation at different efficacy. E2+CyP4-induced changes could be associated with regulation of progesterone receptor membrane component 1(Pgrmc1. In summary, results from this study provide evidence at the molecular level that differing regimens of hormone therapy (HT can induce disparate gene expression profiles in brain. From a translational perspective, confirmation of these results in a model of natural menopause, would imply that the common regimen of continuous combined HT may have adverse consequences whereas a cyclic combined regimen, which is more physiological, could be an effective strategy to maintain neurological health and function throughout menopausal aging.

  1. Progesterone promotes cell migration, invasion and cofilin activation in human astrocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Cerbón, Marco; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytomas are the most common and aggressive primary brain tumors in humans. Invasiveness of these tumors has been attributed in part to deregulation of cell motility-dependent cytoskeletal dynamics that involves actin-binding proteins such as cofilin. Progesterone (P4) has been found to induce migration and invasion of cells derived from breast cancer and endothelium. However, the role of P4 in migration and invasion of astrocytoma cells as well as its effects on astrocytomas cytoskeleton remodeling is not known. In this work we evaluated these aspects in D54 and U251 cells derived from human astrocytomas from the highest degree of malignancy (grade IV, glioblastoma). Our results showed that in scratch-wound assays P4 increased the number of D54 and U251 cells migrating from 3 to 48 h. Both RU486, a P4 receptor (PR) antagonist, and an oligonucleotide antisense against PR significantly blocked P4 effects. Transwell assays showed that P4 significantly increased the number of invasive cells at 24h. As in the case of migration, this effect was blocked by RU486. Finally, by Western blotting, an increase in the cofilin/p-cofilin ratio at 15 and 30 min and a decrease at 30 and 60 min in U251 and D54 cells, respectively, was observed after P4, P4+RU486 and RU486 treatments. These data suggest that P4 increases human astrocytoma cells migration and invasion through its intracellular receptor, and that cofilin activation by P4 is independent of PR action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The History of GalaFLEX P4HB Scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Simon F.; Martin, David P.; Moses, Arikha C.

    2016-01-01

    The GalaFLEX Scaffold (Galatea Surgical, Inc., Lexington, MA) for plastic and reconstructive surgery belongs to a new generation of products for soft tissue reinforcement made from poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB). Other members of this new family of products include MonoMax Suture (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) for soft tissue approximation, BioFiber Scaffold (Tornier, Inc., Edina, MN) for tendon repair, and Phasix Mesh (C.R. Bard, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ) for hernia repair. Each of these ful...

  3. Effect of exogenous progesterone on oestrus response of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four (24) healthy, parous West African dwarf (WAD) does aged 2 – 3 years were used to study the effects of varying doses of progesterone on oestrus synchronization and plasma progesterone levels. The does were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups consisting of 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 mg progesterone ...

  4. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, D.E.; Rhees, R.W.; Williams, S.R.; Kurth, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development.

  5. Progesterone receptor expression declines in the guinea pig uterus during functional progesterone withdrawal and in response to prostaglandins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni N Welsh

    Full Text Available Progesterone withdrawal is essential for parturition, but the mechanism of this pivotal hormonal change is unclear in women and other mammals that give birth without a pre-labor drop in maternal progesterone levels. One possibility suggested by uterine tissue analyses and cell culture models is that progesterone receptor levels change at term decreasing the progesterone responsiveness of the myometrium, which causes progesterone withdrawal at the functional level and results in estrogen dominance enhancing uterine contractility. In this investigation we have explored whether receptor mediated functional progesterone withdrawal occurs during late pregnancy and labor in vivo. We have also determined whether prostaglandins that induce labor cause functional progesterone withdrawal by altering myometrial progesterone receptor expression. Pregnant guinea pigs were used, since this animal loses progesterone responsiveness at term and gives birth in the presence of high maternal progesterone level similarly to primates. We found that progesterone receptor mRNA and protein A and B expression decreased in the guinea pig uterus during the last third of gestation and in labor. Prostaglandin administration reduced while prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor treatment increased progesterone receptor A protein abundance. Estrogen receptor-1 protein levels remained unchanged during late gestation, in labor and after prostaglandin or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor administration. Steroid receptor levels were higher in the non-pregnant than in the pregnant uterine horns. We conclude that the decreasing expression of both progesterone receptors A and B is a physiological mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal in the guinea pig during late pregnancy and in labor. Further, prostaglandins administered exogenously or produced endogenously stimulate labor in part by suppressing uterine progesterone receptor A expression, which may cause functional progesterone

  6. Progesterone Receptor Expression Declines in the Guinea Pig Uterus during Functional Progesterone Withdrawal and in Response to Prostaglandins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Toni N.; Hirst, Jonathan J.; Palliser, Hannah; Zakar, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal is essential for parturition, but the mechanism of this pivotal hormonal change is unclear in women and other mammals that give birth without a pre-labor drop in maternal progesterone levels. One possibility suggested by uterine tissue analyses and cell culture models is that progesterone receptor levels change at term decreasing the progesterone responsiveness of the myometrium, which causes progesterone withdrawal at the functional level and results in estrogen dominance enhancing uterine contractility. In this investigation we have explored whether receptor mediated functional progesterone withdrawal occurs during late pregnancy and labor in vivo. We have also determined whether prostaglandins that induce labor cause functional progesterone withdrawal by altering myometrial progesterone receptor expression. Pregnant guinea pigs were used, since this animal loses progesterone responsiveness at term and gives birth in the presence of high maternal progesterone level similarly to primates. We found that progesterone receptor mRNA and protein A and B expression decreased in the guinea pig uterus during the last third of gestation and in labor. Prostaglandin administration reduced while prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor treatment increased progesterone receptor A protein abundance. Estrogen receptor-1 protein levels remained unchanged during late gestation, in labor and after prostaglandin or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor administration. Steroid receptor levels were higher in the non-pregnant than in the pregnant uterine horns. We conclude that the decreasing expression of both progesterone receptors A and B is a physiological mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal in the guinea pig during late pregnancy and in labor. Further, prostaglandins administered exogenously or produced endogenously stimulate labor in part by suppressing uterine progesterone receptor A expression, which may cause functional progesterone withdrawal, promote

  7. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    response. PR are expressed in multiple human tissues including the uterus, mammary gland , brain, pancreas, thymus , bone, ovary, testes, and in the...ABSTRACT Progesterone receptors (PR) are critical mediators of mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression. Progestin...receptors (PR) are critical for massive breast epithelial cell expansion during mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression

  8. Determination of plasma progesterone during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, H.J. van der

    A modification of Short's method for the determination of plasma progesterone is described, which allows the estimation of 0.5–1.0 μg per sample. The reliability of the method is tested and plasma levels in cord and peripheral blood during pregnancy are reported.

  9. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current clinical practice employs the use of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), as biomarkers to appropriately select patients that would benefit from targeted therapy against these major molecular pathways of the disease. This study aims at ...

  10. Milk progesterone concentrations: an accurate early pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimal day of milk sampling for pregnancy diagnosis by milk progesterone quantitation was determined as well as the diagnostic efficiency of the test for days 14- 24 post insemination in dairy cattle. The results show that on days. 22 and 23 after insemination diagnostic efficiencies of approximately 100% can be ...

  11. Systems Biology and P4 Medicine: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Hood

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying complex biological systems in a holistic rather than a “one gene or one protein” at a time approach requires the concerted effort of scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. The Institute for Systems Biology (ISB has seamlessly integrated these disparate fields to create a cross-disciplinary platform and culture in which “biology drives technology drives computation.” To achieve this platform/culture, it has been necessary for cross-disciplinary ISB scientists to learn one another’s languages and work together effectively in teams. The focus of this “systems” approach on disease has led to a discipline denoted systems medicine. The advent of technological breakthroughs in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and, indeed, the other “omics” is catalyzing striking advances in systems medicine that have and are transforming diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Systems medicine has united genomics and genetics through family genomics to more readily identify disease genes. It has made blood a window into health and disease. It is leading to the stratification of diseases (division into discrete subtypes for proper impedance match against drugs and the stratification of patients into subgroups that respond to environmental challenges in a similar manner (e.g. response to drugs, response to toxins, etc.. The convergence of patient-activated social networks, big data and their analytics, and systems medicine has led to a P4 medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory. Medicine will focus on each individual. It will become proactive in nature. It will increasingly focus on wellness rather than disease. For example, in 10 years each patient will be surrounded by a virtual cloud of billions of data points, and we will have the tools to reduce this enormous data dimensionality into simple hypotheses about how to optimize wellness and avoid disease for each individual. P4 medicine will be able to

  12. Systems biology and p4 medicine: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Leroy

    2013-04-01

    Studying complex biological systems in a holistic rather than a "one gene or one protein" at a time approach requires the concerted effort of scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. The Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) has seamlessly integrated these disparate fields to create a cross-disciplinary platform and culture in which "biology drives technology drives computation." To achieve this platform/culture, it has been necessary for cross-disciplinary ISB scientists to learn one another's languages and work together effectively in teams. The focus of this "systems" approach on disease has led to a discipline denoted systems medicine. The advent of technological breakthroughs in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and, indeed, the other "omics" is catalyzing striking advances in systems medicine that have and are transforming diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Systems medicine has united genomics and genetics through family genomics to more readily identify disease genes. It has made blood a window into health and disease. It is leading to the stratification of diseases (division into discrete subtypes) for proper impedance match against drugs and the stratification of patients into subgroups that respond to environmental challenges in a similar manner (e.g. response to drugs, response to toxins, etc.). The convergence of patient-activated social networks, big data and their analytics, and systems medicine has led to a P4 medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory. Medicine will focus on each individual. It will become proactive in nature. It will increasingly focus on wellness rather than disease. For example, in 10 years each patient will be surrounded by a virtual cloud of billions of data points, and we will have the tools to reduce this enormous data dimensionality into simple hypotheses about how to optimize wellness and avoid disease for each individual. P4 medicine will be able to detect and treat perturbations in

  13. Comparing intramuscular progesterone, vaginal progesterone and 17 -hydroxyprogestrone caproate in IVF and ICSI cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Moini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supplementation of luteal phase with progesterone is prescribed for women undergoing routine IVF treatment.Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of three types of progesterone on biochemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates and abortion and live birth rates.Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized study was performed at Royan Institute between March 2008 and March 2009 in women under 40 years old, who use GnRH analog down-regulation. One hundred eighty six patients in three groups were received progesterone in oil (100 mg, IM daily, intravaginal progesterone (400 mg, twice daily and 17- hydroxyprogestrone caproate (375mg, every three days, respectively.Results: Final statistical analysis after withdrawal of some patients was performed in 50, 50 and 53 patients in group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. No differences between the groups were found in baseline characteristics. No statistical significance different was discovered for biochemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancies. Although the abortion rate was statistically higher in group 1 (p=0.025 the live birth rate was not statistically significant between the three groups.Conclusion: The effects of three types of progesterone were similar on pregnancies rate. We suggest the use of intravaginal progesterone during the luteal phase in patients undergoing an IVF-ET program because of the low numbers of abortions, and high ongoing pregnancy rates

  14. Mobile Application Removes Societal Barriers to P4 Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J-P

    2017-01-01

    The overlap between one innovative paradigm (P4 medicine: predictive, personalized, participatory and preventive) and another (a new definition of "Healthy ageing") is fertile ground for new technologies; a new mobile application (app) that could broaden our scientific knowledge of the ageing process and help us to better analyse the impact of possible interventions in slowing the ageing decline. A novel mobile application is here presented as a game including questions and tests will allow in 10 minutes the assessment of the following domains: robustness, flexibility (lower muscle strength), balance, mental and memory complaints, semantic memory and visual retention. This game is completed by specific measurements, which could allow establishing precise information on functional and cognitive abilities. A global evaluation precedes advice and different types of exercises. The repetition of the tests and measures will allow a long follow up of the individual performances which could be shared (on specific request) with family members and general practitioners.

  15. Ulipristal Acetate Inhibits Progesterone Receptor Isoform A-Mediated Human Breast Cancer Proliferation and BCl2-L1 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esber, Nathalie; Le Billan, Florian; Resche-Rigon, Michèle; Loosfelt, Hugues; Lombès, Marc; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The progesterone receptor (PR) with its isoforms and ligands are involved in breast tumorigenesis and prognosis. We aimed at analyzing the respective contribution of PR isoforms, PRA and PRB, in breast cancer cell proliferation in a new estrogen-independent cell based-model, allowing independent PR isoforms analysis. We used the bi-inducible human breast cancer cell system MDA-iPRAB. We studied the effects and molecular mechanisms of action of progesterone (P4) and ulipristal acetate (UPA), a new selective progesterone receptor modulator, alone or in combination. P4 significantly stimulated MDA-iPRA expressing cells proliferation. This was associated with P4-stimulated expression of the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2-L1 and enhanced recruitment of PRA, SRC-1 and RNA Pol II onto the +58 kb PR binding motif of the BCL2-L1 gene. UPA decreased cell proliferation and repressed BCL2-L1 expression in the presence of PRA, correlating with PRA and SRC1 but not RNA Pol II recruitment. These results bring new information on the mechanism of action of PR ligands in controlling breast cancer cell proliferation through PRA in an estrogen independent model. Evaluation of PR isoforms ratio, as well as molecular signature studies based on PRA target genes could be proposed to facilitate personalized breast cancer therapy. In this context, UPA could be of interest in endocrine therapy. Further confirmation in the clinical setting is required. PMID:26474308

  16. Ulipristal Acetate Inhibits Progesterone Receptor Isoform A-Mediated Human Breast Cancer Proliferation and BCl2-L1 Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Esber

    Full Text Available The progesterone receptor (PR with its isoforms and ligands are involved in breast tumorigenesis and prognosis. We aimed at analyzing the respective contribution of PR isoforms, PRA and PRB, in breast cancer cell proliferation in a new estrogen-independent cell based-model, allowing independent PR isoforms analysis. We used the bi-inducible human breast cancer cell system MDA-iPRAB. We studied the effects and molecular mechanisms of action of progesterone (P4 and ulipristal acetate (UPA, a new selective progesterone receptor modulator, alone or in combination. P4 significantly stimulated MDA-iPRA expressing cells proliferation. This was associated with P4-stimulated expression of the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2-L1 and enhanced recruitment of PRA, SRC-1 and RNA Pol II onto the +58 kb PR binding motif of the BCL2-L1 gene. UPA decreased cell proliferation and repressed BCL2-L1 expression in the presence of PRA, correlating with PRA and SRC1 but not RNA Pol II recruitment. These results bring new information on the mechanism of action of PR ligands in controlling breast cancer cell proliferation through PRA in an estrogen independent model. Evaluation of PR isoforms ratio, as well as molecular signature studies based on PRA target genes could be proposed to facilitate personalized breast cancer therapy. In this context, UPA could be of interest in endocrine therapy. Further confirmation in the clinical setting is required.

  17. Google Secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Become a Google guru with these effective tips, tricks, and techniques Sure, you use Google. But do you really use Google-and everything it has to offer-in the most effective way possible? Wish you could just sit down with a Google expert who would show you how to take your Google savviness to the next level? With Google Secrets, you can! Tech expert Jerri Ledford reveals the ins, outs, and little-known facts about Google to show you how to sharpen your skills so you can get more done, more efficiently. You may already be familiar with Google's most popular applications, but this indispensable

  18. Coordinated Regulation Among Progesterone, Prostaglandins, and EGF-Like Factors in Human Ovulatory Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yohan; Wilson, Kalin; Hannon, Patrick R; Rosewell, Katherine L; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James W; Curry, Thomas E; Jo, Misung

    2017-06-01

    In animal models, the luteinizing hormone surge increases progesterone (P4) and progesterone receptor (PGR), prostaglandins (PTGs), and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors that play essential roles in ovulation. However, little is known about the expression, regulation, and function of these key ovulatory mediators in humans. To determine when and how these key ovulatory mediators are induced after the luteinizing hormone surge in human ovaries. Timed periovulatory follicles were obtained from cycling women. Granulosa/lutein cells were collected from in vitro fertilization patients. The in vivo and in vitro expression of PGR, PTG synthases and transporters, and EGF-like factors were examined at the level of messenger RNA and protein. PGR binding to specific genes was assessed. P4 and PTGs in conditioned media were measured. PGR, PTGS2, and AREG expressions dramatically increased in ovulatory follicles at 12 to 18 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In human granulosa/lutein cell cultures, hCG increased P4 and PTG production and the expression of PGR, specific PTG synthases and transporters, and EGF-like factors, mimicking in vivo expression patterns. Inhibitors for P4/PGR and EGF-signaling pathways reduced hCG-induced increases in PTG production and the expression of EGF-like factors. PGR bound to the PTGS2, PTGES, and SLCO2A1 genes. This report demonstrated the time-dependent induction of PGR, AREG, and PTGS2 in human periovulatory follicles. In vitro studies indicated that collaborative actions of P4/PGR and EGF signaling are required for hCG-induced increases in PTG production and potentiation of EGF signaling in human periovulatory granulosa cells.

  19. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 deficiency attenuates growth while promoting chemosensitivity of human endometrial xenograft tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Anne M; Zhang, Ling; Pru, Cindy A; Clark, Nicole C; McCallum, Melissa L; Blok, Leen J; Shioda, Toshi; Peluso, John J; Rueda, Bo R; Pru, James K

    2015-01-28

    Endometrial cancer is the leading gynecologic cancer in women in the United States with 52,630 women predicted to be diagnosed with the disease in 2014. The objective of this study was to determine if progesterone (P4) receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) influenced endometrial cancer cell viability in response to chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. A lentiviral-based shRNA knockdown approach was used to generate stable PGRMC1-intact and PGRMC1-deplete Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines that also lacked expression of the classical progesterone receptor (PGR). Progesterone treatment inhibited mitosis of PGRMC1-intact, but not PGRMC1-deplete cells, suggesting that PGRMC1 mediates the anti-mitotic actions of P4. To test the hypothesis that PGRMC1 attenuates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, PGRMC1-intact and PGRMC1-deplete cells were treated in vitro with vehicle, P4 (1 µM), doxorubicin (Dox, 2 µg/ml), or P4 + Dox for 48 h. Doxorubicin treatment of PGRMC1-intact cells resulted in a significant increase in cell death; however, co-treatment with P4 significantly attenuated Dox-induced cell death. This response to P4 was lost in PGRMC1-deplete cells. To extend these observations in vivo, a xenograft model was employed where PGRMC1-intact and PGRMC1-deplete endometrial tumors were generated following subcutaneous and intraperitoneal inoculation of immunocompromised NOD/SCID and nude mice, respectively. Tumors derived from PGRMC1-deplete cells grew slower than tumors from PGRMC1-intact cells. Mice harboring endometrial tumors were then given three treatments of vehicle (1:1 cremophor EL: ethanol + 0.9% saline) or chemotherapy [Paclitaxel (15 mg/kg, i.p.) followed after an interval of 30 minutes by CARBOplatin (50 mg/kg)] at five day intervals. In response to chemotherapy, tumor volume decreased approximately four-fold more in PGRMC1-deplete tumors when compared with PGRMC1-intact control tumors, suggesting that PGRMC1 promotes tumor cell viability

  20. Ultrasonography and hormone profiles of persistent ovarian follicles (cysts) induced with low doses of progesterone in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, K M; Tebble, J E; Harvey, D; Dobson, H

    2000-11-01

    The aims of this study were to expose dominant ovarian follicles at the end of the oestrous cycle to low progesterone concentrations similar to those that occur during stress, and to examine the effect of a subsequent small increase in progesterone 10 days later. Half a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (0.5 PRID) was administered to 13 heifers from day 15 of the oestrous cycle. In group 1 (n = 7), one 0.5 PRID remained in place until day 40 or until each heifer ovulated. In group 2 (n = 6), the first 0.5 PRID was removed on day 28, and replaced immediately with a second 0.5 PRID. Ultra-sonography and blood collection (10 ml) were conducted each day for 26 days from day 14 and then on alternate days. The largest follicle that emerged during the first 5 days after insertion of the initial 0.5 PRID remained > 10 mm in diameter for 15.3 +/- 1.7 and 11.6 +/- 0.4 days in groups 1 and 2, respectively. This period of dominance, during which no other follicles emerged, was closely correlated with the duration of plasma oestradiol concentrations exceeding 10 pg ml(-1). In four heifers from group 1, the persistent follicle ovulated between days 30 and 37 (sub-group 1a; 0.5 PRID expelled). In three heifers from sub-group 1b (0.5 PRID retained), the dominant follicle secreted oestradiol for 17 +/- 5 days but remained detectable by ultrasonography for a total of 33 +/- 8 days (range 26-52 days). Monitoring continued beyond day 40 in these animals. In group 2, the new 0.5 PRID inserted on day 28 resulted in an increase in plasma progesterone concentration of 0.9 +/- 0.3 ng ml(-1). Simultaneously, oestradiol decreased by 10.1 +/- 3.3 pg ml(-1), and a new follicular wave emerged 5-7 days later. In conclusion, exposure to very low concentrations of progesterone produced persistent follicles that secreted oestradiol for 17 days. This oestradiol production could be disrupted by a second increase of 0.9 ng ml(-1) in peripheral progesterone concentration. In the absence of the

  1. Progesterone antagonizes the positive influence of estrogen on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E in an Ishikawa/SHT-290 co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, Jennifer; Schoborg, Robert V; Wyrick, Priscilla B; Hall, Jennifer V

    2015-06-01

    Studies indicate that estrogen enhances Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E infection in genital epithelial cells. Hormones have direct and indirect effects on endometrial epithelial cells. Estrogen and progesterone exposure induces endometrial stromal cells to release effectors that subsequently regulate growth and maturation of uterine epithelial cells. Estrogen enhances C. trachomatis infection by aiding entry and intracellular development in endometrial epithelial cell (Ishikawa, IK)/SHT-290 stromal cell co-culture. Enhanced chlamydial infection was mediated by direct estrogen-stimulated signaling events in epithelial cells and indirectly via estrogen-induced stromal cell effectors. The current study investigates the effects of hormones on chlamydial development using culture conditions representative of the menstrual cycle. Chlamydia trachomatis-infected IK or IK/SHT-290 cultures were exposed to 10(-8) M estrogen (E2), 10(-7) M progesterone (P4) or a combination of both hormones (10(-8) M E2 followed by 10(-9) M E2/10(-7) M P4). Chlamydial infectivity and progeny production were significantly decreased (30-66%) in cultures exposed to progesterone or estrogen/progesterone combination compared to estrogen alone. Thus, progesterone antagonized the positive effects of estrogen on chlamydial infection. These data indicate the susceptibility of endometrial epithelial cells to C. trachomatis infection during the menstrual cycle is altered by phase specific actions of sex hormones in the genital tract. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Review: P4-ATPases as Phospholipid Flippases-Structure, Function, and Enigmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens P; Vestergaard, Anna L; Mikkelsen, Stine A

    2016-01-01

    coagulation, apoptosis, bile and cholesterol homeostasis, and neuronal cell survival. Some P4-ATPases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine across the plasma membrane or intracellular membranes whereas other P4-ATPases are specific for phosphatidylcholine. The importance of P4-ATPases...... on properties of mammalian and yeast P4-ATPases for which most mechanistic insight is available. However, the structure, function and enigmas associated with mammalian and yeast P4-ATPases most likely extend to P4-ATPases of plants and other organisms....

  3. Mig-6 regulates endometrial genes involved in cell cycle and progesterone signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jae Hee [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Dunwoodie, Sally L. [Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Division, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010 (Australia); St. Vincent' s Clinical School and the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales 2033 (Australia); Ku, Bon Jeong, E-mail: bonjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae-Wook, E-mail: JaeWook.Jeong@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Department of Women' s Health, Spectrum Health System, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Mitogen inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) is an important mediator of progesterone (P4) signaling to inhibit estrogen (E2) signaling in the uterus. Ablation of Mig-6 in the murine uterus leads to the development of endometrial hyperplasia and E2-induced endometrial cancer. To identify the molecular pathways regulated by Mig-6, we performed microarray analysis on the uterus of ovariectomized Mig-6{sup f/f} and PGR{sup cre/+}Mig-6{sup f/f} (Mig-6{sup d/d}) mice treated with vehicle or P4 for 6 h. The results revealed that 772 transcripts were significantly regulated in the Mig-6{sup d/d} uterus treated with vehicle as compared with Mig-6{sup f/f} mice. The pathway analysis showed that Mig-6 suppressed the expression of gene-related cell cycle regulation in the absence of ovarian steroid hormone. The epithelium of Mig-6{sup d/d} mice showed a significant increase in the number of proliferative cells compared to Mig-6{sup f/f} mice. This microarray analysis also revealed that 324 genes are regulated by P4 as well as Mig-6. Cited2, the developmentally important transcription factor, was identified as being regulated by the P4-Mig-6 axis. To determine the role of Cited2 in the uterus, we used the mice with Cited2 that were conditionally ablated in progesterone receptor-positive cells (PGR{sup cre/+}Cited2{sup f/f}; Cited2{sup d/d}). Ablation of Cited2 in the uterus resulted in a significant reduction in the ability of the uterus to undergo a hormonally induced decidual reaction. Identification and analysis of these responsive genes will help define the role of P4 as well as Mig-6 in regulating uterine biology. - Highlights: • We identify Mig-6- and P4-regulated uterine genes by microarray analysis. • Mig-6 suppresses cell cycle progression and epithelial cell proliferation in uterus. • We identify the Mig-6 dependent induced genes by P4. • Cited2 plays an important role for decidualization as a P4 and Mig-6 target gene.

  4. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth preterm birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  5. Childhood conditions influence adult progesterone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Núñez-de la Mora

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Average profiles of salivary progesterone in women vary significantly at the inter- and intrapopulation level as a function of age and acute energetic conditions related to energy intake, energy expenditure, or a combination of both. In addition to acute stressors, baseline progesterone levels differ among populations. The causes of such chronic differences are not well understood, but it has been hypothesised that they may result from varying tempos of growth and maturation and, by implication, from diverse environmental conditions encountered during childhood and adolescence.To test this hypothesis, we conducted a migrant study among first- and second-generation Bangladeshi women aged 19-39 who migrated to London, UK at different points in the life-course, women still resident in Bangladesh, and women of European descent living in neighbourhoods similar to those of the migrants in London (total n = 227. Data collected included saliva samples for radioimmunoassay of progesterone, anthropometrics, and information from questionnaires on diet, lifestyle, and health. Results from multiple linear regression, controlled for anthropometric and reproductive variables, show that women who spend their childhood in conditions of low energy expenditure, stable energy intake, good sanitation, low immune challenges, and good health care in the UK have up to 103% higher levels of salivary progesterone and an earlier maturation than women who develop in less optimal conditions in Sylhet, Bangladesh (F9,178 = 5.05, p < 0.001, standard error of the mean = 0.32; adjusted R(2 = 0.16. Our results point to the period prior to puberty as a sensitive phase when changes in environmental conditions positively impact developmental tempos such as menarcheal age (F2,81 = 3.21, p = 0.03 and patterns of ovarian function as measured using salivary progesterone (F2,81 = 3.14, p = 0.04.This research demonstrates that human females use an extended period of the life cycle prior

  6. [Reproductive physiology of the European mink: progesterone profile during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavskiĭ, S Ia; Zav'ialov, E L; Ternovskaia, Iu G; Gerlinskaia, L A

    2010-04-01

    Reproductive physiology of the European mink, an endangered mustelid species, has been so far scarcely investigated. This study confirms that in European mink embryo implantation occurs on the day 12 of pregnancy. Progesterone profile during pregnancy has been compared in European mink and domestic ferret. In both species, progesterone increases at peri-implantation period, i. e. on day 8 and day 12 after mating. However, toward the end of pregnancy, on day 40 after mating, progesterone concentration in faeces of the ferrets decreases and does not differ from the initial level. In contrast, increase of progesterone during first 12 days of pregnancy in European mink is not as rapid as in ferrets, but in this species, there is no visible decrease of progesterone at the end of pregnancy. Peak levels of progesterone in faeces (day 8, 12) are lower in European mink than in ferret.

  7. Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis Presenting as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayer, Sara M; Laufer, Larry R; Farrell, Maureen E

    2017-10-01

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is an uncommon disease presenting with cyclical skin eruptions corresponding with the menstrual cycle luteal phase. Because symptoms are precipitated by rising progesterone levels, treatment relies on hormone suppression. A 22-year-old nulligravid woman presented with symptoms mistaken for Stevens-Johnson syndrome. A cyclic recurrence of her symptoms was noted, and the diagnosis of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis was made by an intradermal progesterone challenge. After 48 months, she remained refractory to medical management and definitive surgical treatment with bilateral oophorectomy was performed. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is a challenging diagnosis owing to its rarity and variety of clinical presentations. Treatment centers on suppression of endogenous progesterone and avoidance of exogenous triggers. When these modalities fail, surgical management must be undertaken.

  8. Distinct functions and regulation of epithelial progesterone receptor in the mouse cervix, vagina, and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Fabiola F; Son, Jieun; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Jang, Eunjung; Lydon, John P; Korach, Kenneth S; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-04-05

    While the function of progesterone receptor (PR) has been studied in the mouse vagina and uterus, its regulation and function in the cervix has not been described. We selectively deleted epithelial PR in the female reproductive tracts using the Cre/LoxP recombination system. We found that epithelial PR was required for induction of apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation by progesterone (P4) in the cervical and vaginal epithelium. We also found that epithelial PR was dispensable for P4 to suppress apoptosis and proliferation in the uterine epithelium. PR is encoded by the Pgr gene, which is regulated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the female reproductive tracts. Using knock-in mouse models expressing ERα mutants, we determined that the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and AF2 domain of ERα were required for upregulation of Pgr in the cervix and vagina as well as the uterine stroma. The ERα AF1 domain was required for upregulation of Pgr in the vaginal stroma and epithelium and cervical epithelium, but not in the uterine and cervical stroma. ERα DBD, AF1, and AF2 were required for suppression of Pgr in the uterine epithelium, which was mediated by stromal ERα. Epithelial ERα was responsible for upregulation of epithelial Pgr in the cervix and vagina. Our results indicate that regulation and functions of epithelial PR are different in the cervix, vagina, and uterus.

  9. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P coconut oil lowered P4 levels in diestrus in a dose-dependent fashion and did not prolonged the luteal phase of the mares. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The mTOR and canonical Wnt signaling pathways mediate the mnemonic effects of progesterone in the dorsal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M; Heisler, John D; Frick, Karyn M

    2015-05-01

    Although much is known about the neural mechanisms responsible for the mnemonic effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 ), very little is understood about the mechanisms through which progesterone (P4 ) regulates memory. We previously showed that intrahippocampal infusion of P4 in ovariectomized female mice enhances object recognition (OR) memory consolidation in a manner dependent on activation of dorsal hippocampal ERK and mTOR signaling. However, the role of specific progesterone receptors (PRs) in mediating the effects of progesterone on memory consolidation and hippocampal cell signaling are unknown. Therefore, the goals of this study were to investigate the roles of membrane-associated and intracellular PRs in mediating hippocampal memory consolidation, and identify downstream cell signaling pathways activated by PRs. Membrane-associated PRs were targeted using bovine serum albumin-conjugated progesterone (BSA-P), and intracellular PRs (PR-A, PR-B) were targeted using the intracellular PR agonist R5020. Immediately after OR training, ovariectomized mice received bilateral dorsal hippocampal infusion of vehicle, P4 , BSA-P, or R5020. OR memory consolidation was enhanced by P4 , BSA-P, and R5020. However, only P4 and BSA-P activated ERK and mTOR signaling. Furthermore, dorsal hippocampal infusion of the ERK inhibitor U0126 blocked the memory-enhancing effects of BSA-P, but not R5020. The intracellular PR antagonist RU486 blocked the memory-enhancing effects of R5020, but not BSA-P. Interestingly, P4 robustly activated canonical Wnt signaling in the dorsal hippocampus, which is consistent with our recent findings that canonical Wnt signaling is necessary for OR memory consolidation. R5020, but not BSA-P, also elicited a modest increase in canonical Wnt signaling. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of ERK signaling is necessary for membrane-associated PRs to enhance OR, and indicate a role for canonical Wnt signaling in the memory-enhancing effects of

  11. Relationships between Arachidonic Acid, Uterine Activity and Metabolic Regulation of Placental Lactogen Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    the same time as rapid lobulo - -23- alveolar development of the mammary gland. This development of lobulo - alveolar tissue, largely complete by...mammary gland growth in hypo- physecomized and bromocryptine, which inhibits prolactin secretion, pregnant goats. Development of lobulo -alveolar tissue...Kelly, P.A., H.A. Roberson and H.G. Friesan. 1974. Temporal pattern of placental lactogen and progesterone secretion in sheep. Nature 248: 435. Kim

  12. The benefits of progesterone therapy in imminent abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of imminent abortion are multi-factorial. The biggest causal factor is the low level of serum progesterone level. The lowest critical level of serum progesterone for survivability of pregnancy is 10 ng/ml. Eighty percent of patients experiencing abortion showed that their progesterone level was < 10 ng/ml. Patients who realized that their pregnancy would experience hemorrhage generally would suffer from depression. Stress was one of the factors responsible for the occurence of abortion. Administration of natural progesterone substitution (not  progestogen accelerates the disappearance of uterine contractions, and speeds up the stoppage of bleeding. In addition, progesterone has the effect of anti-anxiety. Adminstration of oral progesterone would result in metabolism in the intestine and liver, such that physiological level of serum progesterone could not be reached, while administration of suppositoria progesterone would result in physiological level of serum, such that it was effective to prevent imminent abortion. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:258-62Keywords: progesterone, imminent abortion

  13. The inhibitory effect of progesterone on lactogenesis during pregnancy is already evident by mid- to late gestation in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fontana, Constanza M; Maselli, María E; Salicioni, Ana M; Carón, Rubén W

    2012-01-01

    Lactogenesis is a very complex process highly dependent on hormonal regulation. In the present study the time-course of the inhibitory actions of progesterone on prolactin secretion, mammary gland morphology and lactogenesis from mid- to late gestation in rodents was investigated. Groups of pregnant rats were luteectomised or administered with mifepristone on Day 10, 13, 15 or 17 of gestation and decapitated 28 or 48h later. Whole-blood samples and the inguinal mammary glands were taken for determinations of hormone levels and for measurement of mammary content of casein and lactose and for tissue morphology analyses, respectively. Luteectomy or mifepristone evoked prolactin increases only after Day 17 of gestation. Mammary content of casein was increased by both treatments regardless of timing or duration. Mifepristone was less effective than luteectomy in inducing lactose production and the effect was only observed after Day 15 of gestation. Analysis of mammary gland morphology confirmed the observed effect of progesterone on lactogenesis. Both treatments triggered remarkable secretory activity in the mammary gland, even without a parallel epithelial proliferation, demonstrating that the mammary epithelium is able to synthesise milk compounds long before its full lobulo-alveolar development is achieved, provided that progesterone action is abolished. Thus, the present study demonstrates that progesterone is a potent hormonal switch for the prolactin and prolactin-like effects on mammary gland development and its milk-synthesising capacity during pregnancy, and that its inhibitory action is already evident by mid-pregnancy in rodents.

  14. A critical period of progesterone withdrawal precedes endometrial breakdown and shedding in mouse menstrual-like model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianxing; Xu, Xiangbo; He, Bin; Li, Yunfeng; Chen, Xihua; Wang, Jiedong

    2013-06-01

    Is there a critical period of progesterone (P4) withdrawal in a mouse menstrual-like model, and at what time after P4 withdrawal endometrial breakdown become irreversible? Our results showed that a 12-16 h critical period of P4 withdrawal exists in the mouse menstrual-like model. P4 withdrawal is the trigger for endometrial breakdown and shedding during menstruation. To date, the molecular mechanisms responsible for endometrial breakdown have not been fully elucidated. In an ovariectomized macaque model, P4 replacement could reduce or block menses during a period of 36-48 h after P4 withdrawal, but after this, P4 supplementation did not reduce or block menses. Thus, in the macaque, a critical period of P4 withdrawal lasting 36-48 h exists before menses. We created a mouse menstrual-like model and restored P4 at four time points. The total number of mice was 120 and the duration of treatment was 26 days. A mouse menstrual model was characterized by endometrial morphology and plasma P4 levels. P4 was then replaced at 8, 12, 16 and 20 h after the removal of P4 implants. Vaginal smears, endometrial morphology, plasma P4 levels and expression patterns of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-11 and MMP-13) were investigated. Replacement of P4 at 8 and 12 h blocked menstrual-like bleeding and endometrial shedding; however, replacement at 16 and 20 h did not suppress bleeding or shedding. Furthermore, P4 replacement at 12 h inhibited the expression of all latent or active MMPs; however, replacement at 16 h inhibited only pMMP-13. Although determination of the critical period in vivo using a mouse model was successfully demonstrated, the mechanisms of P4 regulation need to be further explored. The experimental opportunities provided by the mouse model will facilitate understanding the role of P4 in the regulation of menstruation and help to identify new targets for the clinical intervention of menstrual disorders.

  15. Salivary buffer capacity in relation to menarche and progesterone levels in saliva from adolescent girls: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Ambrosius, Katarina; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Twetman, Svante

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary buffer capacity and menarche, and to explore any association with levels of the sex hormone progesterone in stimulated whole saliva in adolescent girls. The material comprised 162 girls, 12 years of age at baseline in the 6th grade, who were followed for 3 years. Every 4th month, a stimulated whole saliva sample was collected, secretion rate and buffer capacity were determined, and information was gathered on menarche, ongoing menses, and caries increment. Once yearly, the salivary concentration of progesterone was determined with an enzyme immunoassay kit. The results showed a significantly impaired salivary buffer capacity over the years (P buffer capacity was significantly correlated with low secretion rate (r = 0.42; Pbuffer capacity did not differ from the postmenarche scores. The concentration of progesterone in saliva increased with age but displayed no significant relationship to buffer capacity, flow rate, or caries increment. In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that the salivary buffer capacity may be impaired over the adolescent years in females, but the reason remains unclear.

  16. Estrone, 17β-estradiol and progesterone concentrations in processed milk with different fat contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoj Tomaž

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine estrone (E1, 17β-estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 concentrations in processed milk with different fat contents and to compare the concentrations of these hormones in commercial ultrahigh temperature (UHT processed milk and commercial pasteurized milk. Materials and Methods. Commercial milks with different fat contents (UHT 0.5 %, UHT 1.5 %, UHT 3.5 % and pasteurized 3.5 % (10 samples of each type of milk were purchased in local stores. E1, E2 and P4 concentrations were determined by commercial ELISA kits. Results and Conclusions. E1 concentrations were below the limit of detection (15 pg mL-1 in all milks except in two UHT 3.5 % (out of 10 and two pasteurized 3.5 % (out of 10 milk samples. Mean E2 and P4 concentrations in UHT 3.5 % milk (25.37 ± 1.15 pg mL-1 and 10.76 ± 0.43 ng mL-1, respectively were significantly higher than in UHT 0.5 % milk (19.38 ± 0.79 pg mL-1 and 7.06 ± 0.26 ng mL-1, respectively. Significant positive correlations were determined between hormone concentrations and milk fat contents. Relatively high E2 and P4 concentrations indicate that the bulk of milk in the commercial milks examined originated from pregnant cows.

  17. Annual pattern of plasma melatonin and progesterone concentrations in hair and wool ewe lambs kept under natural photoperiod at lower latitudes in the southern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, L A; Rodrigues, P A; Nonaka, K O; Sasa, A; Balieiro, J C C; Vicente, W R R; Cipolla-Neto, J

    2006-09-01

    To study the annual pattern of plasma melatonin and progesterone concentrations in hair [Santa Inês (SI)] and wool [Romney Marsh (RM) and Suffolk (SU)] ewe lambs kept under natural photoperiods at 21 degrees 59'S, 12 ewe lambs (four/breed) were used. For melatonin, blood samples were collected monthly throughout the year at the onset (17:00, 19:00 and 21:00 hr) and end (04:00, 06:00 and 08:00 hr) of the night, and for progesterone the samples were collected in the morning, two to three times a week throughout the year. Plasma melatonin concentrations at different times of the day changed according to the season. In diurnal periods (17:00 and 8:00 hr) no seasonal differences were observed but they became evident in the nocturnal intervals (21:00 and 4:00 hr) and transitional night-day (6:00 hr) times. The patterns of melatonin secretion were higher in winter and autumn than in spring and summer. The patterns of plasma progesterone secretion were affected by interaction between breed and season. There was no seasonal variation in plasma progesterone concentrations for SI females. The progesterone pattern for RM and SU females varied with season. The plasma levels were higher in autumn and winter than in spring and summer. At 21 degrees 59'S hair and wool ewe lambs showed the same annual pattern of plasma melatonin concentration while the annual progesterone profiles were quite different. For SI females this pattern was constant along all seasons and for RM and SU females this pattern was higher during autumn and winter than spring and summer.

  18. Perspectives for on-site monitoring of progesterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.; Korf, J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The steroid hormone progesterone is the primary biomarker of the reproductive status of female mammals. Current techniques of monitoring progesterone are based predominantly on (enzyme) immunoassays, but these are too expensive to be affordable in daily screening programmes because of their

  19. Progesterone profiles of postpartum dairy cows as an aid to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mining the concentration of progesterone in milk samples. (Laing & Heap, 1971; Darling, Laing & Harkness, 1974). The rapid measurement of progesterone in milk using a semi-automated radioimmunoassay (RIA) is now a well established technique for pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cows. (Booth & Holdsworth, 1976).

  20. Progesterone, Estradiol and their Receptors in Leiomyomata and the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estradiol and progesterone binding in uterine leiomyomata and in normal uterine tissues. Obstetrics and. Gynaecology. 1980; 55: 4-20. 4. Jorge RP, Edgrad C, Jacques G,. Christine V, Bernard S and Albert N. Effect of Decapeptyl, an agonist analog of GnRH on estrogens, estrogen sulfates, and progesterone receptors in.

  1. Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A linear discriminant function (LDF) was used to estimate the level of milk progesterone which allowed the best overall classification of dairy cows into pregnant and non-pregnant groups (confirmed by rectal palpation). Progesterone levels were measured in milk samples drawn between 20 and 24 days after insemination.

  2. A Randomized Trial of Progesterone in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomarasamy, Arri; Williams, Helen; Truchanowicz, Ewa; Seed, Paul T; Small, Rachel; Quenby, Siobhan; Gupta, Pratima; Dawood, Feroza; Koot, Yvonne E M; Bender Atik, Ruth; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Brady, Rebecca; Briley, Annette L; Cavallaro, Rebecca; Cheong, Ying C; Chu, Justin J; Eapen, Abey; Ewies, Ayman; Hoek, Annemieke; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; Koks, Carolien A M; Li, Tin-Chiu; MacLean, Marjory; Mol, Ben W; Moore, Judith; Ross, Jackie A; Sharpe, Lisa; Stewart, Jane; Vaithilingam, Nirmala; Farquharson, Roy G; Kilby, Mark D; Khalaf, Yacoub; Goddijn, Mariette; Regan, Lesley; Rai, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. However, whether progesterone supplementation in the first trimester of pregnancy would increase the rate of live births among women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a

  3. Carbopol-based gels for nasal delivery of progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnam, Grace; Narayanan, N; Ilavarasan, R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nasal absorption of progesterone from carbopol-based nasal gels in rabbits. Progesterone nasal gels were prepared by dispersing carbopol 974 (1%, 1.5%, and 2%) in distilled water followed by addition of progesterone/progesterone-beta cyclodextrin complex dissolved in propylene glycol then neutralization. The potential use of beta cyclodextrin (CD) as nasal absorption enhancer by simple addition, as a physical mixture and as a complex with progesterone was investigated. The absolute bioavailability of progesterone from nasal gels in rabbits was studied by estimating the serum progesterone level by competitive solid-phase enzyme immunoassay in comparison to intravenous injection. The carbopol gel formulations produced a significant increase in bioavailability. CD complex promotes the nasal absorption of progesterone from carbopol gels as compared with gels where the CD is added by simple addition and gels which do not contain CD. This method of addition of CD as an inclusion complex in the gels could be considered as a preferred platform in nasal drug administration.

  4. Effect of Progesterone Therapy versus Diet Modification on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Progesterone Therapy versus Diet Modification on Constipation during Pregnancy. ... Aim: To compare the effect of progesterone versus diet modification in the treatment of constipation during pregnancy. Subjects and Methods: ... A randomized placebo controlled trial is required to confirm the data of this study.

  5. Women's Perspective on Progesterone: A Qualitative Study Conducted in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, M Joy; Dunn, Rebecca A; Houlahan, Kelli L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the perspective of women using compounded progesterone preparations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Victoria, Australia with eight self-selected women who were dispensed a progesterone-only preparation. Participating women gained symptome relief for migraine, painful breasts, mood swings, bloating, hot flushes, and other conditions. The participants also experienced unexpected benefits such as improvement in irregular and painful periods, relief from cystitis, or increased libido, without any reported negative side effects. The participants appreciated the ability to adjust the dose and dosage form to their individual requirements and held a positive perception of progesterone as a "natural" product. Accessibility of progesterone treatment is limited due to the limited number of doctors that have knowledge about the treatment, little information available for lay people, and cost. Participants who had been treated with progesterone were willing to share their experience with others, and many heard about progesterone therapy from their social contacts. The cost of progesterone therapy, which was often more expensive than traditional hormone replacement therapy, was outweighed by the benefits received. These women found that progesterone treatment, although hard to access, was beneficial over conventional therapy.

  6. Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two of the many factors which may affect the accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis using milk progesterone levels are day of sampling and number of samples taken per cow. These two aspects were analysed using information obtained from progesterone profiles encompassing 359 pregnancy tests. Where a single sample was ...

  7. Progesterone as a morphological regulatory factor of the male and female gerbil prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochi, Ricardo A; Santos, Fernanda C A; Goes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2013-12-01

    Testosterone (T) and oestrogen are the main active steroid hormones in the male and female reproductive system respectively. In female rodents progesterone (P4), together with testosterone and oestrogen, has an essential role in the regulation of the oestrous cycle, which influences the prostate physiology through their oscillations. In this work we investigated how the male and female prostate gland of Mongolian gerbils responds to surgical castration at the start of puberty and what are the effects of T, oestradiol (E2) and P4 replacement, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. We also examined the location of the main steroid receptors present in the prostate. In the castrated animals of both sexes an intense glandular regression, along with disorganization of the stromal compartment, and abundant hyperplasia was observed. The replacement of P4 secured a mild recovery of the glandular morphology, inducing the growth of secretory cells and restoring the androgen receptor (AR) cells. The administration of P4 and E2 eliminated epithelial hyperplasia and intensified gland hypertrophy, favouring the emergence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). In animals treated with T and P4, even though there are some inflammatory foci and other lesions, the prostate gland revealed morphology closer to that of control animals. In summary, through the administration of P4, we could demonstrate that this hormone has anabolic characteristics, promoting hyperplasia and hypertrophy, mainly in the epithelial compartment. When combined with E2 and T, there is an accentuation of glandular hypertrophy that interrupts the development of hyperplasia and ensures the presence of a less dysplastic glandular morphology. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2013 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  8. Progesterone withdrawal I: pro-convulsant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M H; Smith, S S

    1998-10-05

    Pro-convulsant withdrawal properties have been reported for a variety of GABA-modulatory drugs, such as the benzodiazepines (BDZs, [S.E. File, The history of BDZ dependence: a review of animal studies, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 14 (1990) 135-146; P.R. Finley, P. E. Nolan, Precipitation of BDZ withdrawal following sudden discontinuation of midazolam, DICP 23 (1989) 151-152]), barbiturates and ethanol [N. Kokka, D.E. Sapp, U. Witte, R.W. Olsen, Sex differences in sensitivity to pentylenetetrazol but not in GABAA receptor binding, Pharm. Biochem. Behav. 43 (1992) 441-447]. In this report, we test the hypothesis that pro-convulsant effects are produced by withdrawal from the GABA-modulatory neurosteroid 3alpha-OH-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP) after sustained exposure to elevated circulating levels of its parent compound progesterone (P). Seizure activity was precipitated by picrotoxin or with the BDZ inverse agonist n-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (beta-CC), and a seizure rating determined 24 h after abrupt discontinuation of P following a multiple withdrawal/chronic administration paradigm. In some cases, a pseudopregnant rat model was employed to produce increased ovarian production of P prior to withdrawal (ovariectomy). Rats undergoing P withdrawal exhibited greater seizure-like activity than vehicle-treated controls, and received seizure scores in the same range as rats undergoing BDZ withdrawal. Administration of a 5alpha-reductase blocker, MK-906, along with P, prevented this pro-convulsant effect of P withdrawal, suggesting that the GABA-modulatory 3alpha,5alpha-THP is the active compound responsible for this withdrawal effect. Combined administration of P and diazepam produced synergistic effects upon withdrawal and produced a seizure score higher than observed after withdrawal from either agent alone. These results suggest that P exhibits withdrawal properties via the neuroactive steroid 3alpha, 5alpha-THP, that include exacerbation of

  9. Reproductive performance of seasonally anovular mixed-bred dairy goats induced to ovulate with a combination of progesterone and eCG or estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Villarreal, Viridiana; Meza-Herrera, César A; Rivas-Muñoz, Raymundo; Angel-Garcia, Oscar; Luna-Orozco, Juan R; Carrillo, Evaristo; Mellado, Miguel; Véliz-Deras, Francisco G

    2016-06-01

    Adult goats (n = 32) were randomly assigned to one of four treatments (n = 8, each): (i) progesterone (P4 ) + equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), treated with 25 mg progesterone intramuscularly (i.m.) + 250 IU eCG 24 h later; (ii) cronolone + eCG, treated with vaginal sponges - 20 mg cronolone × 7 days + 250 IU eCG at pessary removal; (ii) P4 + estradiol (E2 ), treated with 25 mg progesterone i.m. + 1 mg estradiol 24 h later; (iv) cronolone + E2 , treated with vaginal sponges - 20 mg cronolone × 7 days + 1 mg of estradiol i.m. at pessary removal. Goats were tested for estrus throughout the presence of a buck. Seven days prior and after treatment, an ovarian ultrasonographic scanning was performed to determine ovarian function and structures. An ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnosis was performed on day 30 post-service. In all groups, 100% estrus response was observed within 96 h post-treatment. While ovulation occurred in 100% of P4 + eCG and cronolone + eCG treated goats, the other groups only depicted 50% ovulatory activity (P < 0.05). Pregnancy rate was higher (P <0.05) in the P4 + eCG and cronolone + eCG groups (88 and 100%, respectively), compared with 38% in P4 + E2 and cronolone + E2 groups. The best treatments were those in which eCG was applied. The P4 + eCG treatment was a pessary-free, cheaper and effective protocol to induce ovulation in goats during the seasonal anovulatory period. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Innate immunity in the vagina (part I): estradiol inhibits HBD2 and elafin secretion by human vaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V; Fahey, John V; Rossoll, Richard M; Wira, Charles R

    2013-05-01

    Vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) are the first line of defense against incoming pathogens in the female reproductive tract. Their ability to produce the anti-HIV molecules elafin and HBD2 under hormonal stimulation is unknown. Vaginal epithelial cells were recovered using a menstrual cup and cultured overnight prior to treatment with estradiol (E₂), progesterone (P₄) or a panel of selective estrogen response modulators (SERMs). Conditioned media were recovered and analyzed for protein concentration and anti-HIV activity. E₂ significantly decreased the secretion of HBD2 and elafin by VEC over 48 hrs, while P4 and the SERMs (tamoxifen, PHTTP, ICI or Y134) had no effect. VEC conditioned media from E₂ -treated cells had no anti-HIV activity, while that from E₂ /P₄ -treated cells significantly inhibited HIV-BaL infection. The menstrual cup allows for effective recovery of primary VEC. Their production of HBD2 and elafin is sensitive to E₂, suggesting that innate immune protection varies in the vagina across the menstrual cycle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Stromal Progesterone Receptors Mediate Induction of Indian Hedgehog (IHH) in Uterine Epithelium and Its Downstream Targets in Uterine Stroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Liz; Spiewak, Kerry A.; Ekman, Gail C.; Kim, Jaeyeon; Lydon, John P.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Cooke, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Uterine receptivity to embryo implantation depends on appropriate progesterone (P4) and estrogen stimulation. P4 rapidly stimulates production of the morphogen Indian hedgehog (IHH) in murine uterine epithelium as well as downstream molecules in the hedgehog pathway such as Patched homolog 1 (PTCH1) and nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 2 (NR2F2) in uterine stroma. Studies using IHH-null mice indicate that IHH is obligatory for the normal P4 response in the uterus. To determine whether IHH induction in uterine epithelium is mediated through P4 receptor (PR) in epithelium (E) and/or stroma (S), we produced tissue recombinants using uteri from neonatal PR knockout (ko) mice and wild-type (wt) mice containing PR in S and/or E or lacking PR altogether using a tissue recombinant methodology and assessed their response to P4. In tissue recombinants containing wt-S (wt-S + wt-E and wt-S + ko-E), P4 induced Ihh mRNA expression at 6 h that was 6-fold greater than in oil-treated controls (P < 0.05; n = 6) in both types of tissue recombinants despite the absence of epithelial PR in wt-S + ko-E grafts. Conversely, Ihh mRNA expression was unaffected by P4 in ko-S + ko-E and ko-S + wt-E grafts despite epithelial PR expression in the latter. Nr2f2 and Ptch1 mRNA expression was similar in that it was stimulated by P4 only in recombinants containing stromal PR. These results indicate that stromal PR is both necessary and sufficient for P4 stimulation of epithelial IHH as well as downstream events such as PTCH1 and NR2F2 increases in stroma. PMID:19372202

  12. Progesterone Negatively Regulates BCRP in Progesterone Receptor-Positive Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP plays a crucial role in multidrug resistance (MDR. Previous studies have shown that steroid hormones, like progesterone (PROG, regulate BCRP expression. The presence of a progesterone response element (PRE in the BCRP promoter, suggests that PROG may regulate transcription of BCRP. Methods: To investigate the role of PROG in the regulation of BCRP expression, two constructs encoding full-length BCRP driven by either an endogenous PRE promoter or a constitutive CMV promoter, were transfected into T47D cells that express the progesterone receptor (PR or into PR-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Results: After treatment with PROG, qPCR and Western blotting analyses indicated that BCRP mRNA and BCRP protein levels were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner in PR-positive cells, but PROG had no significant effect on BCRP levels in the PR-negative cells. The effect observed in PR-positive cells was reversed by co-treatment with RU-486, a specific PROG inhibitor. Cytometric analysis confirmed that BCRP-mediated drug efflux was inhibited and chemosensitivity to mitoxantrone was markedly increased by PROG treatment. Conclusion: These results suggest that PROG reverses BCRP-mediated MDR by down-regulating BCRP expression in breast cancer cells by affecting transcription from the PRE-containing BCRP promoter. Our studies suggest that breast cancer patients with BCRP-mediated MDR may be successfully treated with PROG.

  13. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in human saliva during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luisi, M.; Franchi, F.; Kicovic, P.M.; Silvestri, D.; Cossu, G.; Catarsi, A.L.; Barletta, D.; Gasperi, M. (Pisa Univ. (Italy))

    1981-10-01

    A sensitive, specific and accurate radioimmunoassay of progesterone in human saliva is described, using /sup 3/H. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.2 and 9.4%, respectively. The mean recovery from 60 samples was 93.2 +- 6.3%. Results obtained from nine healthy, normally menstruating women showed that salivary progesterone rose from the 4th day before ovulation to a mean peak (+- SD) of 1.14 +- 0.17 ng/ml on the 8th day after ovulation, followed by a gradual decline. Correlation of salivary and simultaneously obtained plasma progesterone levels was good (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), although the maximum percent increase in salivary progesterone was more than 10 times greater than that of plasma progesterone. Salivary progesterone is thought to reflect the unbound fraction of plasma progesterone and this non-invasive technique can be used for serial investigations in which frequent samplings are required.

  14. Progesterone and Mental Rotation Task: Is There Any Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Noreika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental rotation task (MRT incorporates elements of spatial abilities, important in many professions, with people of both genders involved. Importantly, these are the areas where spatial tasks might be performed for long time periods; thus adverse effects of mental fatigue are highly unwanted. Substantial variation of MRT performance in relation to estrogen levels has been observed in many studies, whereas the role of progesterone remains elusive. Here we aimed to elucidate the effect of progesterone level on the long-duration (1.5 hours performance of MRT. We included three groups of subjects: a group of males as a control, a group of females in their follicular phase (low progesterone and a group of females in their luteal phase (high progesterone, MRT accuracy and response time, subjective fatigue ratings and cardiovascular measures together with 17β-estradiol and progesterone concentrations were analyzed. We found that subjective ratings of fatigue increased, performance accuracy increased, and mean response times decreased during the task in all groups. Females in luteal phase were significantly slower not only than men, but also than females in their follicular phase. An increase in subjective fatigue ratings was positively related to progesterone level—at higher progesterone levels, females felt more tired.

  15. The rebirth of progesterone in the prevention of preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmouder, Vanessa M; Prescott, Gina M; Franco, Albert; Fan-Havard, Patty

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate data since 2003 on the efficacy and safety of progesterone supplementation in the prevention of preterm labor. A MEDLINE and Ovid database search (January 2003-September 2012) was performed using the search terms preterm, progesterone, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. All relevant abstracts were reviewed. For efficacy and safety data, the search was limited to randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with the primary outcome of preterm delivery, fetal loss, or neonatal morbidity or mortality. Quality of the studies was assessed using the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) guidelines for reporting parallel-group randomized trials. Eleven articles were selected for review. Preterm birth, prior to 37 weeks' gestation, remains the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the US due to lack of treatment options. Recently, the use of progesterone to prevent preterm labor, deemed decades ago to be ineffective, has been reexamined. Progesterone formulations and dosage regimens varied greatly between studies. In patients with prior preterm birth or shortened cervix shown on transvaginal ultrasound, progesterone appears efficacious in reducing the rate of preterm birth. However, this benefit was not demonstrated in multiple-gestation pregnancies. Overall, progesterone was well tolerated and appeared safe for mother and fetus. More studies are needed to confirm the dosage regimen and population that will benefit most from progesterone. Progesterone appears to be safe and efficacious in reducing the risk of preterm birth in a select group of high-risk women with prior spontaneous preterm births and those with an ultrasound-confirmed short cervix. Women with multiple gestations do not benefit from progesterone supplementation.

  16. Peripartal progesterone and prolactin have little effect on the rapid transport of immunoglobulin G into colostrum of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gross, J J; Kessler, E C; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum formation and lactogenesis in the mammary gland and the timing of parturition are regulated by endocrine signals. Changes in progesterone (P4) and prolactin (PRL) are considered key events that inhibit colostrum formation, trigger parturition, and signal the onset of lactation. The goal...... changes occurring during colostrogenesis and lactogenesis in dairy cows. The considerably rapid transfer of immunoglobulins into colostrum of prepartum-milked cows within a few hours leads to the hypothesis that the transfer of IgG can be very fast and—contrary to earlier findings—persist at least until...

  17. Prediction of ovulation in women using a rapid progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.; Coults, J.R.T. (Glasgow Univ. (UK))

    1982-02-01

    A rapid (3-h) radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone has been developed and used successfully to predict the time of ovulation in women undergoing artificial insemination. The results obtained using progesterone levels to date the stage of the cycle were analysed retrospectively by (1) estimation of the length of the ensuing luteal phases and comparison of these with luteal phase lengths of a control group (2) comparison of the dating using progesterone levels with retrospective determination of LH values and (3) by analysis of the dating in cycles in which conception occurred.

  18. Brief Exposure to Progesterone During a Critical Neonatal Window Prevents Uterine Gland Formation in Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Paul S.; Ekman, Gail C.; Kaur, Jaspreet; Davila, Juanmahel; Bagchi, Indrani C.; Clark, Sherrie G.; Dziuk, Philip J.; Hayashi, Kanako; Bartol, Frank F.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uterine gland development (adenogenesis) in mice begins on Postnatal Day (PND) 5 and is completed in adulthood. Adenogenesis depends on estrogen receptor 1, and progesterone (P4) inhibits mitogenic effects of estrogen on uterine epithelium. This progestin-induced effect has been used to inhibit uterine gland development; progestin treatment of ewes for 8 wk from birth has produced infertile adults lacking uterine glands. The goals of the present study were to determine if a window of susceptibility to P4-mediated inhibition of uterine gland development exists in mice and whether early P4 treatment abolishes adenogenesis and fertility. Mice were injected daily with P4 (40 μg/g) or vehicle during various postnatal windows. Adenogenesis, cell proliferation, and expression of key morphoregulatory transcripts and proteins were examined in uteri at PNDs 10 and 20. Additionally, adenogenesis was assessed in isolated uterine epithelium. Treatment during PNDs 3–9, 5–9, or 3–7 abolished adenogenesis at PND 10, whereas treatments during PNDs 3–5 and 7–9 did not. Critically, mice treated during PNDs 3–9 lacked glands in adulthood, indicating that adenogenesis did not resume after this treatment. However, glands were present by PND 20 and later following treatment during PNDs 5–9 or 3–7, whereas treatment during PNDs 10–16 produced partial inhibition of adenogenesis at PND 20 and later. Epithelial proliferation at PND 10 was low following P4 treatment (PNDs 3–9) but exceeded that in controls at PND 20, indicating a rebound of epithelial proliferation following treatment. Messenger RNA for Wnt, Fzd, and Hox genes was altered by neonatal P4 treatment. All groups cycled during adulthood. Mice treated with P4 during PNDs 3–9, but not during other developmental windows, showed minimal fertility in adulthood. In summary, brief P4 treatment (7 days) during a critical neonatal window (PNDs 3–9) transiently inhibited epithelial proliferation but totally

  19. Progesterone modulation of diazepam withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, M E; Acevedo, X; Pinardi, G; Miranda, H F

    1996-12-01

    The influence of progesterone and oestrogens on the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in mice was studied. The intraperitoneal administration of 15 mg/kg of flumazenil induced a withdrawal syndrome in chronic diazepam-treated mice, characterized by jerks, usually accompanied by tail lifts, and seizures. The principal finding of the present work is that the intensity of diazepam withdrawal syndrome was significantly reduced by acute administration of progesterone as revealed by a low incidence of jerks and seizures. The action of progesterone could be due to a modulatory role of the hormone on neuronal activity as an anxiolytic agent. The modulatory activity of progesterone appears to be related to changes in the pharmacological properties of benzodiazepine receptors.

  20. Effect of Progesterone Therapy versus Diet Modification on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pathophysiology underlying functional constipation is undoubtedly, multifactorial, and not well understood. Progressively, rising progesterone and estrogen levels ... Women with endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism),. Hirschsprung's disease, spinal anomalies, anorectal pathology, inflammatory bowel disease, previous.

  1. Progesterone receptor levels independently predict survival in endometrial adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Anette Lynge

    1995-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) contents were determined by biochemical (dextran charcoal-coated (DCC) assay) and immunohistochemical (ICA) methods in biopsies from 145 primary endometrial adenocarcinomas and those with eligible receptor measurements were analyzed with respect...

  2. Contraception with depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , South-South Nigeria. Cosmos E. Enyindah, Faith C. Mmom. Abstract. Clinical experience with depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) at the family planning clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital st st between 1 of ...

  3. Distinct cognitive effects of estrogen and progesterone in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent-Spillson, Alison; Briceno, Emily; Pinsky, Alana; Simmen, Angela; Persad, Carol C; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda R

    2015-09-01

    The effects of postmenopausal hormone treatment on cognitive outcomes are inconsistent in the literature. Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive effects are influenced by specific hormone formulations, and that progesterone is more likely to be associated with positive outcomes than synthetic progestin. There are very few studies of unopposed progesterone in postmenopausal women, and none that use functional neuroimaging, a sensitive measure of neurobiological function. In this study of 29 recently postmenopausal women, we used functional MRI and neuropsychological measures to separately assess the effects of estrogen or progesterone treatment on visual and verbal cognitive function. Women were randomized to receive 90 days of either estradiol or progesterone counterbalanced with placebo. After each treatment arm, women were given a battery of verbal and visual cognitive function and working memory tests, and underwent functional MRI including verbal processing and visual working memory tasks. We found that both estradiol and progesterone were associated with changes in activation patterns during verbal processing. Compared to placebo, women receiving estradiol treatment had greater activation in the left prefrontal cortex, a region associated with verbal processing and encoding. Progesterone was associated with changes in regional brain activation patterns during a visual memory task, with greater activation in the left prefrontal cortex and right hippocampus compared to placebo. Both treatments were associated with a statistically non-significant increase in number of words remembered following the verbal task performed during the fMRI scanning session, while only progesterone was associated with improved neuropsychological measures of verbal working memory compared to placebo. These results point to potential cognitive benefits of both estrogen and progesterone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Paraquat inhibits progesterone synthesis in human placental mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Ryszard; Sokołowska, Ewa; Rybakowska, Iwona; Kaletha, Krystian; Klimek, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    Human placenta mitochondria produces huge amounts of progesterone necessary for maintaining the pregnancy. Lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria inhibits progesterone synthesis and that inhibition can be reversed by superoxide dismutase and other antioxidants. Paraquat (PQ) a highly toxic herbicide generates superoxide radical inside cells and induces lipid peroxidation. Hence, it is supposed to stimulate lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria and in consequence to inhibit a placental mitochondrial steroidogenesis. Placentas were obtained from normal pregnancies. All experiments were done using isolated human placental mitochondria. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation was determined as tiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone or pregnenolone to progesterone was measured using radiolabeled steroids and thin layer chromatography. PQ enhanced the iron-dependent lipid peroxidation as also PQ heightened the inhibitory action of this process on progesterone synthesis in isolated human placental mitochondria. Paradoxically, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) reversed the inhibition of progesterone synthesis only minimally although it strongly inhibited PQ stimulated iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. When iron was absent, PQ stimulated only negligible lipid peroxidation but strongly inhibited progesterone synthesis. SOD had no effect on inhibition of progesterone synthesis by PQ. PQ strongly inhibited of the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone but had not got any influence on the enzymatic activity of mitochondrial 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. PQ strongly decreased the efficiency of NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reduction as well as it promoted the rapid oxidation of the pre-reduced mitochondrial cytochrome P450. However PQ has not inhibited combined activity of adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin. We conclude that the most important reason of the inhibition of progesterone synthesis by PQ

  5. A case of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis in an adolescent female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarla, Nirupama; Zurawin, Robert K

    2006-04-01

    Progesterone-induced dermatitis is a rare disorder. It typically occurs in females due to an autoimmune phenomenon to endogenous progesterone production, but can also be caused by exogenous intake of a synthetic progestin. Here, we present a case of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (AIPD) seen in an adolescent female. The patient is a 15-year-old Caucasian female with no significant past medical history and no prior exogenous hormone use, who presented to her primary care physician complaining of cyclic skin eruptions. She noted that her dermatologic symptoms occurred monthly, just prior to her menses. An intradermal skin test using 0.1 cc of progesterone was performed. The patient immediately developed a wheal, confirming the diagnosis of AIPD. The patient was begun on a continuous regimen of an oral contraceptive pill with 30 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg of levonorgestrel. The skin eruptions have not returned since the initiation of this therapy. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis manifests via the occurrence of cyclic skin eruptions. Women with the disorder commonly present with dermatologic lesions in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Diagnosis of AIPD is confirmed by performing a skin allergen test using progesterone. Due to its rarity, AIPD should be considered a diagnosis of exclusion. In cases believed to be due to an endogenous production of progesterone, several methods of therapy have been attempted. The ultimate goal of therapy is the suppression of ovulation, which will prevent endogenous hormone production as progesterone is only produced in ovulatory cycles. Currently, the first-line choice of therapy is a combination oral contraceptive. If this treatment is ineffective, patients have been treated with danazol, gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs, tamoxifen, and oophorectomy with varying success.

  6. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  7. The role of progesterone in prevention of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Dodd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Jodie M Dodd, Caroline A CrowtherDiscipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Preterm birth continues to provide an enormous challenge in the delivery of perinatal health care, and is associated with considerable short and long-term health consequences for surviving infants. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by suppression of the calcium–calmodulin–myosin light chain kinase system. Additionally, progesterone has recognized anti-inflammatory properties, raising a possible link between inflammatory processes, alterations in progesterone receptor expression and the onset of preterm labor. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth have been published, with primary outcomes of perinatal death, preterm birth <34 weeks, and neurodevelopmental handicap in childhood. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, involving 2714 women and 3452 infants, with results presented according to the reason women were considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth. While there is a potential beneficial effect in the use of progesterone for some women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth, primarily in the reduction in the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks gestation, it remains unclear if the observed prolongation of pregnancy translates into improved health outcomes for the infant.Keywords: progesterone, preterm birth, systematic review, randomized trial

  8. Aldosterone and progesterone-secreting adrenocortical adenocarcinoma in a cat with a concurrent meningioma

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Leshinsky; Beatty, Julia A; Anne Fawcett; Katja Voss; Mariano Makara; Krockenberger, Mark B; Barrs, Vanessa R.

    2016-01-01

    Case summary A 12-year-old, male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred for investigation of suspected hyperaldosteronism due to persistent hypokalaemia, hindlimb ataxia, weakness of 1 month’s duration and a left adrenal mass that was detected on abdominal ultrasound. Neurological examination findings at referral were suggestive of a concurrent left forebrain lesion. Hyperaldosteronism and concurrent hyperprogesteronism were confirmed on endocrine testing. On computed tomography (CT) of...

  9. Detection and characterization of a human G9P[4] rotavirus strain in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiji P; Kaida, Atsushi; Ono, Atsushi; Kubo, Hideyuki; Iritani, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    In a surveillance system in Osaka City, Japan, 48 sporadic rotavirus A (RVA) infections were detected during 2008/2009-2011/2012 seasons. The G/P-genotypes of detected RVAs were G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G9P[4], and G9P[8]. Although G9P[4] is a rare genotype that had not been reported in Japan, it was the second most prevalent genotype, following G1P[8], and accounted for 35.3% of RVA cases in the 2011/2012 season. Further genotyping revealed that the G9P[4] strain had genotype 2 internal protein genes except for NSP3: G9-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T1-E2-H2. Among detected RVA strains, G9P[4] and some G9P[8] strains shared high nucleotide identity in VP7 and NSP3 genes. Phylogenetic and BLAST search analyses showed that the G9P[4] strain in Japan shared high nucleotide identity in genotype 2 genes with common G2P[4] strains circulating globally, but was distinct from other G9P[4] strains circulating worldwide. These results suggest that the G9P[4] strain in Japan may have emerged through an independent reassortment between G9P[8] and G2P[4]. Finally, the role of NSP3 protein in the circulating RVA from an amino acid comparison between T1- and T2-type NSP3 is discussed. These findings provide an important insight into less problematic combinations of circulating RVA genes derived from different genotypes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Proper depiction of monsoon depression through IRS-P4 MSMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    analyzed for the complete life cycle of monsoon depression. Geophysical parameters obtained through IRS-P4 .... plete life cycle of this depression have been brought out. 2. Data. IRS-P4 MSMR measurement at .... data products; Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference. (PORSEC-2000) 182–191. Bhalme H N 1972 ...

  11. Metalate-Mediated Functionalization of P4 by Trapping Anionic [Cp*Fe(CO)2(η1-P4)]− with Lewis Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, Jaap E.; Jongkind, Maarten K.; Ehlers, Andreas W.; Lutz, Martin; Slootweg, J. Chris; Lammertsma, Koop

    2017-01-01

    The development of selective functionalization strategies ofwhite phosphorus (P4) is important to avoid the current chlori-nated intermediates. The use of transition metals (TMs) couldlead to catalytic procedures, but these are severely hamperedby the high reactivity and unpredictable nature of the

  12. Determination of estriol, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubinger, Jean C

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the development and validation of a reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection for the determination of the hormones estriol, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone in topically applied products. The developed method was then used to conduct a postmarket survey of consumer products for these hormones. Each product was first mixed with Celite and then extracted with methanol. Extracts were cleaned on a Waters Oasis HLB solid phase extraction cartridge, and then analyzed using reversed phase HPLC. The analytes were separated using an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 (5 μm, 250 mm by 4.6 mm) analytical column and detected by their absorbance at 230 nm. Chromatographic separation was achieved by a 1.0-ml/min linear gradient from 30% acetonitrile and 70% water to 80% acetonitrile and 20% water over 30 min. A final 5 min hold time and a re-equilibration time of 10 min were used to prepare the column for subsequent analysis. Recovery from two different brand lotions spiked with three different levels of estriol, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone ranged from 81.8% to 101%. In this study, a total of 70 cosmetic products were surveyed. Twenty two (63%) of the 35 products were labeled as containing an estrogen and/ or progesterone and also provided quantitative label information about the hormone ingredient. The most frequently labeled hormones were progesterone (66%), estriol (46%), estradiol (11%), and estrone (6%). Six products labeled as containing estriol were found to contain estradiol. An estrogen and/or progesterone were found in 34 products at concentrations ranging from 86.0 to 26,800 μg/g. Progesterone was not found in one product labeled as containing this hormone. An additional 35 products, which did not list hormones on their labels, were analyzed and estrogen or progesterone was not detected in these products.

  13. Evaluation of clinical evidences for progesterone therapy in catamenial epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao CHEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To formulate the best treatment plan for catamenial epilepsy patients by evaluating the efficacy and side effect of progesterone therapy via evidence-based medicine.  Methods Catamenial epilepsy, drug therapy, progesterone, allopregnanolone, systematic review and randomized controlled trial (RCT both in Chinese and English were used as retrieval words. Databases including Wanfang Data, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Google Scholar were used with applying of manual searching. Systematic reviews, RCTs, open-label trials, prospective and retrospective case analysis, case-observation studies and reviews were collected and evaluated by Jadad Scale.  Results After screening, 18 relevant resources were selected, including one systematic review, 3 RCTs, one open-label trial, 2 prospective case-controlled studies, one follow-up study and 10 reviews. Ten of the articles were evaluated to be high quality (Jadad Scale score ≥ 4, and the other 8 were of low quality (Jadad Scale score < 4. After the efficacy and safety of those clinical studies were evaluated, the results were summarized as follows: 1 progesterone combined with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs was well tolerated and resulted in a significant reduction of seizure frequency in a majority of patients with catamenial epilepsy. 2 Both natural progesterone and synthetic progesterone could be used in the treatment for catamenial epilepsy. 3 There were two ways of progestogen therapy for catamenial epilepsy: cyclical progesterone hormone therapy and suppressive therapy. The former was more commonly used.  Conclusions Using evidence-based medicine evaluation can provide best clinical evidence for the progesterone treatment on catamenial epilepsy. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.12.007

  14. Evaluation of pregnancy rates of Bos indicus cows subjected to different synchronization ovulation protocols using injectable progesterone or an intravaginal device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pregnancy rate in Nelore cows (Bos indicus that were subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI using different protocols consisting of injectable progesterone (P4 or an intravaginal device (impregnated with P4. Multiparous cows 72-84 months in age, 30-45 days postpartum, were selected on the basis of the absence of a corpus luteum (CL and follicles < 8 mm after transrectal palpation and ultrasound examinations. On a random day of the estrus cycle (D0, the selected animals (n = 135 were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (n = 45 each. Group I (injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours received 250 mg of injectable P4 and 2 mg EB on D0; on D7, they received 500 µg of cloprostenol; on D8, 300 IU of eCG and 1 mg of EB were administered; and finally, FTAI was performed 36 hours after the application of EB. Group II (injectable P4/FTAI 48 hours received the same protocol as Group I, except that the FTAI was performed 48 hours after ovulation induction. The animals of Group III (Control/CIDR received a conventional protocol for FTAI using an intravaginal device (D0: P4 and 2 mg EB; D8: device removal, 500 µg cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, 1 mg EB; and FTAI performed 48 hours after removal of the device. The results showed that cows synchronized with the conventional protocol for FTAI (Control/CIDR had a higher pregnancy rate (60 %, 27/45 than those synchronized with an injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (33.33 %; 15/45, P = 0.010. However, the group receiving injectable P4 group/FTAI 48 hours had a similar pregnancy rate (48.9 %; 22/45; P = 0.290 when compared to both the group receiving the conventional protocol and that receiving injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (P = 0.134. Although the injectable P4 may affect pregnancy rate with the FTAI performed in 36 hours, we found similar pregnancy rates from cows inseminated 48 hours after induction ovulation, considering injectable or intravaginal P4. Therefore, we suggest that

  15. Influence of monoolein on progesterone transdermal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Souza Cardoso Quintão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This work aimed to investigate in vitro the influence of monoolein (MO on progesterone (PG transdermal delivery and skin retention. Information about the role of MO as an absorption enhancer for lipophilic molecules can help on innovative product development capable of delivering the hormone through the skin in a consistent manner, improving transdermal therapy of hormonal replacement. MO was dispersed in propylene glycol under heat at concentrations of 0% (control, 5% w/w, 10% w/w and 20% w/w. Then, 0.6% of PG (w/w was added to each formulation. Permeation profile of the hormone was determined in vitro for 48 h using porcine skin in Franz diffusion cells. PG permeation doubled when 5% (w/w of MO was present in formulation in comparison to both the control and higher MO concentrations (10% and 20% w/w. An equal trend was observed for PG retention in stratum corneum (SC and reminiscent skin (E+D. PG release rates from the MO formulations, investigated using cellulose membranes, revealed that concentrations of MO higher than 5% (w/w hindered PG release, which indeed negatively reflected on the hormone permeation through the skin. In conclusion, this work demonstrated the feasibility of MO addition (at 5% w/w in formulations as a simple method to increase transdermal PG delivery for therapies of hormonal replacement. In contrast, higher MO concentrations (from 10% to 20% w/w can control active release, and this approach could be extrapolated to other lipophilic, low-molecular-weight molecules.

  16. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  17. Immunohistochemical Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Epulis Fissuratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Seyedmajidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epulis Fissuratum (Epulis Fissuratum (EF or Denture Epulis or inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia is a common hyperplastic tumor-like lesion with reactive nature, related to loose and ill-fitting, full or partial removable dentures and it is more common in women than men. For this reason, hormonal influences may also play role in its creation. The effect of steroid hormones especially sex hormones (Estrogen and progesterone on oral mucosa is identified in some studies. In the present study, the distribution pattern and presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in epithelial, stromal, endothelial and inflammatory cells in Epulis Fissuratum was investigated. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 samples of paraffin blocks with Epulis Fissuratum diagnosis and 30 samples of normal mucosal tissues as a control group who have had surgery as a margin beside the above lesions and had been obtained from the oral and maxillofacial pathology departement of Babol Dental School since 2003 up to 2010. Intensity of staining and immunoreactivity were evaluated using subjective index and considering the positive control group (breast carcinoma.Results: Epithelial, stromal, endothelial and inflammatory cells didn’t show reaction with monoclonal antibodies against estrogen and progesterone in none of the samples. Conclusion: It seems that the hypothesis of the existence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in epulis fissuratum and normal oral mucosa is ruled out. The possibility of direct effect of estrogen and progesterone in occurring of epulis fissuratum is rejected.

  18. Distribution of estrogen and progesterone receptors in Epulis Fissuratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrabi Sh.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Epulides Fissurata (EF are common proliferative and denture- induced lesions of the oral cavity with a predilection for female. This suggests a possible role for sex steroid hormones in the development and progression of these lesions. Purpose: The objective of this study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of epulis fissuratum of the oral cavity for estrogen and progesterone receptors expression in epithelial, stromal, inflammatory and endothelial cells populations. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 15 samples of formalin- fixed, paraffin- embedded epulis fissuratums including marginal mucosal tissues in 4 cases as a control group, were immuno-histochemically evaluated for estrogen and progesterone receptors protein expression. Result: In 10 cases, estrogen receptor positivity was found within the epithelium and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity was present in 7 cases. Stromal cells exhibited estrogen and progesterone receptor immunostaining in many cases but only few cases showed expression of these receptors in the inflammatory and endothelial cells. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were also detected in some cases containing salivary glands tissue. Conclusion: Although chronic irritation may be the initiating factor for the occurence of epulis fissuratum, some of the cells in the lesion, could be potential targets for estrogen and progestrone hormones.

  19. Physics & Preservice Teachers Partnership Project (P4): An interdisciplinary peer learning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Paul J.; Wenner, Julianne A.

    Physics graduate students (PGs) and teacher candidates (TCs) often graduate with specific weaknesses. PGs frequently lack training in teaching and effective communication. TCs are typically underprepared for teaching science, and physics in particular. In response to these challenges, we created P4 . P4 is an innovative model for peer learning, creating interdisciplinary partnerships that help college physics instructors train their students in the ``soft skills'' prized in both academia and industry, while helping teacher educators infuse more content knowledge into science methods courses. In P4, PGs plan a lesson and deliver physics content to TCs. TCs then use this content to design and execute a 15-minute elementary science lesson. Framed by the concept of peer learning, we expected P4 would help PGs develop their teaching and communication skills, and TCs learn more physics. We studied the affordances and constraints of P4 to inform future iterations. Overall, P4 was successful, with both PGs and TCs reporting benefits. Affordances for PGs included the chance to plan and teach a class; TCs benefitted from working with experts to increase content knowledge. We will share the full findings and implications of our study, and outline next steps for P4.

  20. Comparison of pregnancy rates with intramuscular and vaginal progesterone use for luteal phase support in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Isikalan

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The results of vaginal progesterone administration were similar with the results obtained with intramuscular progesterone. Vaginal progesterone use is a more tolerable method for patients. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 639-647

  1. Effect of oestrus synchronization with PGF2α/eCG/hCG on luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, M; Morawska-Pucinska, E; Krawczynski, K; Kiewisz, J; Ziecik, A J; Blitek, A

    2014-12-01

    Administration of hormones to synchronize oestrus is a useful tool in animal breeding. However, exogenous ovarian stimulation may be detrimental to reproductive function. This study was aimed to examine whether an oestrus synchronization with PGF2α/eCG/hCG could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 9, 12 and 16 of pregnancy from gilts with natural (n = 16) and synchronized (n = 18) oestrus and analysed for (i) the expre-ssion of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide (CYP11A1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD); (ii) the concentration of P4 in the luteal tissue and blood; and (iii) the expression of luteinizing hormone receptors (LHR) and oestrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). Additionally, the effect of LH on P4 secretion from CL slices collected from synchronized and naturally ovulated animals has been studied in vitro. PGF2α /eCG/hCG administration increased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1, 3βHSD, and LHR on day 9 and CYP11A1 and LHR on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group (p gilts with hormonally induced oestrus compared with control animals. Blood serum levels of P4 were lower in synchronized than control gilts (p gilts (p gilts did not impair the expression of luteal P4 synthesis system, although decreased P4 concentration in the blood. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Hyperandrogenemia in adolescent girls: origins of abnormal GnRH secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Burt Solorzano, Christine M.; McCartney, Christopher R.; Blank, Susan K.; Knudsen, Karen L.; Marshall, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a common disorder characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and hyperandrogenemia (HA). Its origins begin peripubertally, as adolescent HA commonly leads to adult HA and decreased fertility. HA reduces inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone pulse frequency by progesterone, causing rapid LH pulse secretion and further increasing ovarian androgen production. Obese girls are at risk for HA and develop increased LH pulse frequency with elevated mean LH by late pu...

  3. Hypothalamic mechanisms mediating inhibition of prolactin secretion following stress in early pregnant mice

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Victoria Joanne

    2012-01-01

    In early pregnancy prolonged exposure to stress is known to have profound adverse effects on reproduction and is associated with suppressed progesterone secretion and consequent disturbance of the pregnancy-protective cytokine milieu, thus threatening early pregnancy maintenance. Maternal neuroendocrine responses to stress in early pregnancy are poorly understood. Therefore, we designed experiments to (1) study the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress in...

  4. The influences of GnRH, oxytocin and vasoactive intestinal peptide on LH and PRL secretion by porcine pituitary cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, I; Siawrys, G; Okrasa, S; Kaminski, T; Przala, J

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible direct effects of GnRH, oxytocin (OT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the release of LH and PRL by dispersed porcine anterior pituitary cells. Pituitary glands were obtained from mature gilts, which were ovariectomized (OVX) one month before slaughter. Gilts randomly assigned to one of the four groups were treated: in Group 1 (n = 8) with 1 ml/100 kg b.w. corn oil (placebo); in Group 2 (n = 8) and Group 3 (n = 8) with estradiol benzoate (EB) at the dose 2.5 mg/100 kg b.w., respectively, 30-36 h and 60-66 h before slaughter; and in Group 4 (n = 9) with progesterone (P4) at the dose 120 mg/ 100 kg b.w. for five consecutive days before slaughter. In gilts of Group 2 and Group 3 treatments with EB have induced the negative and positive feedback in LH secretion, respectively. Isolated anterior pituitary cells (10(6)/well) were cultured in McCoy's 5a medium with horse serum and fetal calf serum for 3 days at 37 degrees C under the atmosphere of 95% air and 5% CO2. Subsequently, the culture plates were rinsed with fresh McCoy's 5A medium and the cells were incubated for 3.5 h at 37 degrees C in the same medium containing one of the following agents: GnRH (100 ng/ml), OT (10-1000 nM) or VIP (1-100 nM). The addition of GnRH to cultured pituitary cells resulted in marked increases in LH release (p gilts representing the positive feedback phase (Group 3). In contrast, OT and VIP were without any effect on LH release in Group 1 (placebo) and Group 2 (the negative feedback). Pituitary cells obtained from OVX gilts primed with P4 produced significantly higher amounts (p gilts of all experimental groups. Oxytocin also failed to alter PRL secretion in Group 1 and Group 2. However, pituitary cells from animals primed with EB 60-66 h before slaughter and P4 produced markedly increased amounts of PRL in the presence of OT. Neuropeptide VIP stimulated PRL release from pituitary cells of OVX gilts primed with EB

  5. Luminescence properties of Ce3+-doped NaPrP4O12 polyphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalapska, T.; Stryganyuk, G.; Gektin, A.; Kotlov, A.; Demchenko, P.; Voloshinovskii, A.

    2013-03-01

    Studies on the crystal structure and luminescence properties have been performed for the NaPr1-xCexP4O12 polyphosphate series. Excitation and emission spectra of Pr3+ and Ce3+ luminescence from NaPrP4O12:Ce3+ clearly reveal an efficient Pr3+ → Ce3+ energy transfer via migration over the Pr3+-sub-lattice and a nonradiative resonant transfer to the Ce3+ ions. Analysis on scintillation characteristics of the NaPr1-xCexP4O12 series shows a maximum light yield of 11 000 ± 1000 ph MeV-1 for NaPr0.99Ce0.01P4O12, proving the studied polyphosphates to be promising for application in the detection of x-ray and gamma quanta.

  6. Proper depiction of monsoon depression through IRS-P4 MSMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For this purpose, IRS P4 MSMR satellite data have been utilized over the domain ... Variations in deep convective activity obtained through visible, infrared and OLR data at ... Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune 411 008, India.

  7. Discovery of γ-MnP4 and the Polymorphism of Manganese Tetraphosphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henge, Dennis B; Hermus, Martin; Litterscheid, Christian F; Wagner, Norbert; Beck, Johannes; Albert, Barbara; Brgoch, Jakoah

    2015-09-08

    A new polymorph of MnP4 was prepared by reaction of the elements via chemical vapor transport with iodine as transporting agent. The crystal structure was refined using single-crystal diffraction data (space group Cc, no. 9, a = 5.1049(8) Å, b = 10.540(2) Å, c = 10.875(2) Å, β = 93.80(2)°). The phase is called γ-MnP4 as it is isostructural with γ-FeP4. It is the fourth reported binary polymorph in the MnP4 system, all of which are stacking variants of nets built with manganese and phosphorus atoms. In γ-MnP4, there are two Mn-Mn distances (2.93 and 3.72 Å) arising from a Peierls-like distortion effectively forming Mn2 dumbbells in the structure. Magnetic and electrical conductivity measurements show diamagnetism and a small anisotropic band gap (100-200 meV) with significantly enhanced conductivity along the crystallographic a axis. Calculations of the electronic and vibrational (phonon) structures show the P-P and Mn-P bonds within the nets are mainly responsible for the stability of the phase. The similar bonding motifs of the polymorphs give rise to the existence of numerous dynamically stable variants. The calculated Helmholtz energy shows the polymorph formation to be closely tied to temperature with the 6-MnP4 structure favorable at low temperatures, the 2-MnP4 favorable between approximately 800 and 2000 K, and 8-MnP4 preferred at high temperatures.

  8. High Physiological Concentrations of Progesterone Reverse Estradiol-Mediated Changes in Differentiation and Functions of Bone Marrow Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Fangming; Anipindi, Varun C; Nguyen, Philip V; Boudreau, Jeanette; Liang, Hong; Wan, Yonghong; Snider, Denis P; Kaushic, Charu

    2016-01-01

    Female sex steroids, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), play a key role in regulating immune responses in women, including dendritic cell (DC) development, and functions. Although the two hormones co-occur in the body of women throughout the reproductive years, no studies have explored their complex combinatorial effects on DCs, given their ability to regulate each other's actions. We examined murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) differentiation and functions, in the presence of a wide range of physiological concentrations of each hormone, as well as the combination of the two hormones. E2 (10(-12) to 10(-8)M) enhanced the differentiation of CD11b+CD11c+ DCs from BM precursor cells, and promoted the expression of CD40 and MHC Class-II, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, P4 (10(-9) to 10(-5)M) inhibited DC differentiation, but only at the highest concentrations. These effects on BMDCs were observed both in the presence or absence of LPS. When both hormones were combined, higher concentrations of P4, at levels seen in pregnancy (10(-6)M) reversed the E2 effects, regardless of the concentration of E2, especially in the absence of LPS. Functionally, antigen uptake was decreased and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12, IL-1 and IL-6 production by CD11b+CD11c+ DCs, was increased in the presence of E2 and these effects were reversed by high concentrations of P4. Our results demonstrate the distinct effects of E2 and P4 on differentiation and functions of bone marrow myeloid DCs. The dominating effect of higher physiological concentrations of P4 provides insight into how DC functions could be modulated during pregnancy.

  9. Antitumor effects of telomerase inhibitor TMPyP4 in osteosarcoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Jun; Matsuo, Toshihiro; Shimose, Shoji; Kubo, Tadahiko; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Yasunaga, Yuji; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2011-11-01

    Telomere studies in carcinomas have been extensively reported for prognostic utility and effective methods for targeting telomerase therapy has been described, but efficacy of telomerase inhibitor remained unknown in sarcoma cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of telomerase inhibitor cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 on telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth, and apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines. TMPyP4 significantly inhibited telomerase activity in telomerase positive HOS and Saos-2, but not in MG-63. TMPyP4 significantly induced telomere shortening, and inhibition of the cell growth in HOS and Saos-2 with over 17% apoptosis rates. In terms of MG-63, TMPyP4 did not induce inhibition of both telomerase activity and cell growth, although it induced significant telomere shortening. Telomere length after treatment was 5.60 kb in HOS, 4.00 kb in Saos-2, and 9.89 kb in MG-63. These results may suggest that both telomerase activity loss and sufficient telomere shortening are necessary to inhibit cell growth in telomerase positive osteosarcoma cells. TMPyP4 did not induced telomere shortening but significantly inhibited the growth with 22.6% apoptosis rate in telomerase negative with extremely longer telomere-U2OS, may indicating the antitumor effect of TMPyP4 may be related to DNA damage including telomere dysfunction through G-quadruplex stabilization, independent on telomere length. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  10. Effect of incremental levels of crude degummed canola oil on milk progesterone, plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of lactating cows with fat can alter the profiles of key reproductive hormones and boost postpartum energy balance. However, published data under Australian pasture-based dairy production conditions are scanty and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether dietary inclusion of crude degummed canola oil (CDCO at incremental levels for eight-weeks will have significant influence on progesterone (P4, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows grazing pastures. We tested the hypothesis that postpartum supplementation of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with dietary CDCO in a pasture-based system will alter the concentrations of P4, LH and FSH reproductive hormones. A random allocation of twenty primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows into four treatment groups that consisted of a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with no supplemental CDCO (control, or a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with CDCO added at 25 ml/kg (low, 35 ml/kg (medium and 50 ml/kg (high was employed in an eight-week feeding trial after two weeks of adjustment. Supplementation levels of CDCO and week of data collection were significant sources of variation (P  0.05. It was apparent that cows in the high (0.459 ng/ml, medium (0.367 ng/ml and low (0.251 ng/ml levels of oil treatments had higher mean plasma FSH concentrations compared to the control (0.172 ng/ml cows. It was concluded that the current levels of CDCO can be used in pasture-based dairy systems to increase FSH, but not LH and P4.

  11. Medroxyprogesterone acetate or long-acting progesterone in the biostimulation of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C.O. Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of prepubertal ewe lambs to exogenous administration of either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP or long-acting progesterone (LAP together with biostimulation. Two Pool Dorset adult males and 75 mixed-breed prepubertal ewe lambs (average of 179 days-old and 30.0kg were used. The females were randomly assigned to three different groups. In the first group the females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for 12 days and were then biostimulated for eight weeks. In the second group the females were submitted to a single injection of LAP (225 mg and then to biostimulation for eight weeks. In the last group, the females were only submitted to biostimulation for eight weeks. Animals were considered cyclic when plasma progesterone (P4 concentration exceeded 1.0 ng/mL in at least one of two consecutive blood samples taken within a 7-day interval in three distinct experimental moments. After treatments 93.3% of the females disregarding their group started their cyclicity and most of them (92.0%, continued to be cyclic after 63 days of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation under both male and female effect. We conclude that prepubertal ewe lambs when submitted to protocols of either MAP or LAP followed by biostimulation result in puberty at the 7 month of age. It can be deducted that some ewe lambs submitted to the administration of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation promoted a multiplier effect upon the other young females that were then stimulated to start cyclicity.

  12. Effects of the mycotoxins alpha- and beta-zearalenol on regulation of progesterone synthesis in cultured granulosa cells from porcine ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, U; Tomek, W; Schneider, F; Vanselow, J

    2003-01-01

    Mycotoxins as contaminants of animal food can impair fertility and can cause abnormal fetal development in farm animals. Therefore, the present study has investigated whether derivatives of the mycotoxin zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL), influence progesterone synthesis via cytochrome p450 side chain cleavage enzyme (p450scc) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3beta-HSD) in cultured porcine granulosa cells. Both enzymes are essential for the conversion of cholesterol to progesterone. No differences in basal progesterone levels and numbers of viable cell were observed between untreated granulosa cells and those treated with alpha- or beta-ZOL (15 and 30 microM). FSH (0.01 microg/ml) or forskolin (10 microM) enhanced the basal progesterone secretion in the absence of mycotoxins. The addition of alpha- or beta-ZOL (7.5, 15 and 30 microM) to cultures stimulated with FSH (0.01 microg) or forskolin (10 microM) reduced progesterone synthesis and the levels of p450scc and 3beta-HSD transcripts in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The enzymatic activity of 3beta-HSD and the abundance of p450scc protein were also reduced by these mycotoxins. In conclusion, effects of mycotoxins on FSH receptor-dependent and receptor-independent pathways indicate that adenylate cyclase activity and/or regulatory pathways further downstream are targets of mycotoxin actions. The apparent dose-dependent reduction of p450scc and 3beta-HSD transcripts implies an effect of alpha- and beta-ZOL on transcriptional regulation of these enzymes.

  13. Proprotein Convertases Process Pmel17 during Secretion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ralf M.; Vigneron, Nathalie; Rahner, Christoph; Cresswell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Pmel17 is a melanocyte/melanoma-specific protein that traffics to melanosomes where it forms a fibrillar matrix on which melanin gets deposited. Before being cleaved into smaller fibrillogenic fragments the protein undergoes processing by proprotein convertases, a class of serine proteases that typically recognize the canonical motif RX(R/K)R↓. The current model of Pmel17 maturation states that this processing step occurs in melanosomes, but in light of recent reports this issue has become controversial. We therefore addressed this question by thoroughly assessing the processing kinetics of either wild-type Pmel17 or a secreted soluble Pmel17 derivative. Our results demonstrate clearly that processing of Pmel17 occurs during secretion and that it does not require entry of the protein into the endocytic system. Strikingly, processing proceeds even in the presence of the secretion inhibitor monensin, suggesting that Pmel17 is an exceptionally good substrate. In line with this, we find that newly synthesized surface Pmel17 is already quantitatively cleaved. Moreover, we demonstrate that Pmel17 function is independent of the sequence identity of its unconventional proprotein convertase-cleavage motif that lacks arginine in P4 position. The data alter the current view of Pmel17 maturation and suggest that the multistep processing of Pmel17 begins with an early cleavage during secretion that primes the protein for later functional processing. PMID:21247888

  14. Proprotein convertases process Pmel17 during secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ralf M; Vigneron, Nathalie; Rahner, Christoph; Cresswell, Peter

    2011-03-18

    Pmel17 is a melanocyte/melanoma-specific protein that traffics to melanosomes where it forms a fibrillar matrix on which melanin gets deposited. Before being cleaved into smaller fibrillogenic fragments the protein undergoes processing by proprotein convertases, a class of serine proteases that typically recognize the canonical motif RX(R/K)R↓. The current model of Pmel17 maturation states that this processing step occurs in melanosomes, but in light of recent reports this issue has become controversial. We therefore addressed this question by thoroughly assessing the processing kinetics of either wild-type Pmel17 or a secreted soluble Pmel17 derivative. Our results demonstrate clearly that processing of Pmel17 occurs during secretion and that it does not require entry of the protein into the endocytic system. Strikingly, processing proceeds even in the presence of the secretion inhibitor monensin, suggesting that Pmel17 is an exceptionally good substrate. In line with this, we find that newly synthesized surface Pmel17 is already quantitatively cleaved. Moreover, we demonstrate that Pmel17 function is independent of the sequence identity of its unconventional proprotein convertase-cleavage motif that lacks arginine in P4 position. The data alter the current view of Pmel17 maturation and suggest that the multistep processing of Pmel17 begins with an early cleavage during secretion that primes the protein for later functional processing.

  15. Use of Progesterone Treatment for the Prevention of Recurrent Preterm Birth: Identification of Obstacles to Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Arianne C.; Goossens, Astrid; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Boer, Kees; Bruinse, Hein W.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone treatment has proven to be effective in preventing recurrent preterm birth. The use of progesterone varies widely between different obstetric clinics in the Netherlands. The study aimed to identify factors that hamper or facilitate the use of progesterone to create an implementation

  16. Milk progesterone on day 5 following insemination in the dairy cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the importance of progesterone on the fertility of lactating dairy cows, the factors that affect post ovulatory progesterone concentration are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the post ovulatory progesterone rise following 1st insemination in lactating dairy cows.

  17. Fabrication of Progesterone-Loaded Nanofibers for the Drug Delivery Applications in Bovine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppannan, Chitra; Sivaraj, Mehnath; Kumar, J. Ganesh; Seerangan, Rangasamy; Balasubramanian, S.; Gopal, Dhinakar Raj

    2017-02-01

    Progesterone is a potent drug for synchronization of the estrus and ovulation cycles in bovine. At present, the estrus cycle of bovine is controlled by the insertion of progesterone-embedded silicone bands. The disadvantage of nondegradable polymer inserts is to require for disposal of these bands after their use. The study currently focuses on preparation of biodegradable progesterone-incorporated nanofiber for estrus synchronization. Three different concentrations (1.2, 1.9, and 2.5 g) of progesterone-impregnated nanofibers were fabricated using electrospinning. The spun membrane were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Uniform surface morphology, narrow size distribution, and interaction between progesterone and zein were confirmed by SEM. FTIR spectroscopy indicated miscibility and interaction between zein and progesterone. X-ray analysis indicated that the size of zein crystallites increased with progesterone content in nanofibers. Significant differences in thermal behavior of progesterone-impregnated nanofiber were observed by DSC. Cell viability studies of progesterone-loaded nanofiber were examined using MTT assay. In vitro release experiment is to identify the suitable progesterone concentration for estrus synchronization. This study confirms that progesterone-impregnated nanofibers are an ideal vehicle for progesterone delivery for estrus synchronization of bovines.

  18. Molecular cloning and immunologic characterization of a novel cDNA coding for progesterone-induced blocking factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, Beata; Kispal, Gyula; Lachmann, Margit; Paar, Christian; Nagy, Eszter; Csere, Peter; Miko, Eva; Szereday, Laszlo; Varga, Peter; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Paar, Gabriella

    2003-12-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that the immunomodulatory effects of progesterone are mediated by a 34-kDa protein, named the progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF). Lymphocytes of women with threatened abortion fail to produce this factor. Via inducing a Th2 biased cytokine production and blocking of NK activity, PIBF prevents induced pregnancy loss in mice, suggesting that substitution therapy with PIBF could be useful as an alternative treatment of certain forms of recurrent spontaneous abortions. Our study was aimed at mapping the sequence and structure of PIBF coding cDNA and characterizing the encoded protein product. Screening of a human liver cDNA library revealed a 2765-bp clone with a 2271-bp open reading frame. The PIBF1 cDNA encodes a protein of 757 amino acid residues with an 89-kDa predicted molecular mass, which shows no significant amino acid sequence homology with any known protein. PIBF produced via recombinant technique is recognized by the Ab specific for the secreted lymphocyte PIBF Ab, and possesses the biological activities of the secreted lymphocyte PIBF. The full-length PIBF is associated with the nucleus, whereas secretion of shorter forms, such a 34-kDa protein is induced by activation of the cell. The 48-kDa N-terminal part of PIBF is biologically active, and the part of the molecule, responsible for modulating NK activity is encoded by exons 2-4. These data provide an initial step for exploiting the possible diagnostic and therapeutic potential of this immunomodulatory molecule.

  19. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct......The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...

  20. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through...... interaction with the environment. Extensive species variability exists in how and when maternal immunoglobulins are transferred to the neonate. In addition, there is a range of mechanisms by which the transferred immunoglobulins may play a protective role in the neonate. This chapter reviews...... the immunoglobulins found in mammary secretions in the context of their diversity of structure, origin, mechanisms of transfer, and function....

  1. Progesterone profiles of postpartum dairy cows as an aid to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insemination. It was concluded that repeat breeding could be due to several reasons, only some of which could be identified from progesterone profiles. Daaglikse melkprogesteroonwaardes van 44 melkkoeie is bepaal vanaf kalwing tot besetting sodat progesteroon- profiele gebruik kon word om voortplantingsgebreke.

  2. Effect of exogenous progesterone on oestrus response of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... 1Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of. Agriculture, PMB 2373 ... progesterone treatments and 1.0 ml physiological saline as the control. The animals were ... are more researches on goat reproduction and manage- ment in ...

  3. Progesterone supplementation and the prevention of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwitz, Errol R; Caughey, Aaron B

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth is currently the most important problem in maternal-child health in the United States and possibly throughout the world. It complicates one in eight US deliveries, and accounts for over 85% of all perinatal morbidity and mortality. Although survival of preterm infants has increased steadily over the past four decades-due in large part to the use of antenatal corticosteroids, improvements in neonatal resuscitation, and the introduction of neonatal intensive care units-efforts to prevent preterm birth have been largely unsuccessful. On February 3, 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of progesterone supplementation (hydroxyprogesterone caproate) during pregnancy to reduce the risk of recurrent preterm birth in women with a history of at least one prior spontaneous preterm delivery. This is the first time that the FDA has approved a medication for the prevention of preterm birth, and represents the first approval of a drug specifically for use in pregnancy in almost 15 years. This article reviews the evidence behind the use of progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth, and provides guidelines for the use of progesterone supplementation in clinical practice. A number of areas of ongoing controversy are addressed, including the optimal formulation and route of administration, the safety of progesterone supplementation in pregnancy, and its proposed mode of action.

  4. Effect of Exogenous Progesterone on Testes Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameters measured include seminiferous tubule diameter, paired testes weight (PTW), testis density, Daily sperm production (DSP) from gonadal sperm reserves (GSR) and DSP from quantitative testicular histology (QTH). The results show that progesterone significantly (P<0.05) increased the values of DSP from ...

  5. Long-term effects of prenatal progesterone exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, C.; Larsen, H.; Holmskov, Anni

    2016-01-01

    children from 498 twin pregnancies, were followed-up. PREDICT was a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial examining the effect of progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in unselected twin pregnancies. Medical histories of the children were reviewed and neurophysiological development...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1620 - Progesterone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Progesterone test system. 862.1620 Section 862.1620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the ovaries or placenta. (b) Classification. Class I...

  7. Collaborative Occupational Therapy: Teachers' Impressions of the Partnering for Change (P4C) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A L; Harris, S R

    2017-04-14

    Occupational therapists (OTs) often face barriers when trying to collaborate with teachers in school-based settings. Partnering for change (P4C), a collaborative practice model designed to support children with developmental coordination disorder, could potentially support all students with special needs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore how teachers experience OT services delivered using the P4C model to support children with a variety of special needs. P4C was implemented at one elementary school in Courtenay, British Columbia. Eleven teachers participated in two focus groups and a one-on-one interview to gather descriptive, qualitative data. Grounded theory techniques were used for data analysis. Four themes (collaborating in the thick of it all, learning and taking risks, managing limited time and resources, and appreciating responsive OT support) represented teachers' experiences of P4C. Teachers strongly preferred collaborative OT services based on the P4C model. Students with a variety of special needs were supported within their classrooms as teachers learned new strategies from the OT and found ways to embed these strategies into their daily routines.

  8. Biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate block copolymer P3HB-b-P4HB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Die; Chung, Ah-Leum; Wu, Lin-Ping; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jin-Chun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2011-09-12

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis genes phbC and orfZ cloned from Ralstonia eutropha H16 were transformed into beta-oxidation weakened Pseudomonas putida KTOY08ΔGC, a mutant of P. putida KT2442. The recombinant P. putida strain termed KTHH06 was able to produce a short-chain-length PHA block copolymer consisting of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) as one block and poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) as another block. One-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) clearly indicated the polymer was a diblock copolymer consisting of 20 mol % P3HB as one block and 80 mol % P4HB as another one. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) showed that P3HB block melting temperatures (T(m)) in the block copolymer P3HB-b-P4HB was shift to low temperature compared with homopolymer P3HB and a blend of P3HB and P4HB. The block copolymer with a number average molecular weight of 50000 Da and a polydispersity of 3.1 demonstrated a better yield and tensile strength compared with that of its related random copolymer and blend of homopolymers of P3HB and P4HB.

  9. IMPLEMENTATION BIRTH PLANNING AND COMPLICATIONS PREVENTIONS PROGRAM (P4K ON COASTAL COMMUNITIES IN MAMUJU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashriady Ashriady

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the 97 countries, there is a significant correlation between aid delivery with maternal mortality (Depkes, 2011. Proportion of birth in Indonesia showed 76.1% in Healthcare Facilities and 23.7% in home and another (Kemenkes RI, 2014. In the coastal community primary choices deliveries take place at home, assisted by shamans because mothers feel safe from evil spirits, and convenient for the family attended (Yunarti, 2013. Scope of delivery assistance by health workers in 2006 - 2011 in West Sulawesi has not reached the target of minimum service standards in 2015 by 90%, obstetric complications handled in 2011 in Mamuju 35.1%. The aim of research to analyze the implementation of Birth Planning and Complications Preventions Program (P4K based on the knowledge and attitude of Mother on Coastal Communities in Mamuju. This type of research is survey with cross sectional study design. In the study period in August-October 2016. The population is all Mother toddler who visited IHC 330, 149 of the samples obtained by using the formula, taken by accidental sampling method. The results showed 68 (81.9% of respondents have sufficient knowledge of the implementation of the less well P4K, 113 (79.6% positive attitude to the implementation mother P4K less good, there is no statistical relationship between knowledge and attitude of mothers with implementation P4K. Midwives need intensive assistance in filling and installation sticker P4K at home mom.

  10. Secreted proteases from dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monod, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Dermatophytes are highly specialized pathogenic fungi that exclusively infect the stratum corneum, nails or hair, and it is evident that secreted proteolytic activity is important for their virulence. Endo- and exoproteases-secreted by dermatophytes are similar to those of species of the genus Aspergillus. However, in contrast to Aspergillus spp., dermatophyte-secreted endoproteases are multiple and are members of two large protein families, the subtilisins (serine proteases) and the fungalysins (metalloproteases). In addition, dermatophytes excrete sulphite as a reducing agent. In the presence of sulphite, disulphide bounds of the keratin substrate are directly cleaved to cysteine and S-sulphocysteine, and reduced proteins become accessible for further digestion by various endo- and exoproteases secreted by the fungi. Sulphitolysis is likely to be an essential step in the digestion of compact keratinized tissues which precedes the action of all proteases.

  11. Development of a GnRH-PGF2α-progesterone-based synchronization protocol with eCG for inducing single and double ovulations in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M F; Tutt, D; Quirke, L D; Tattersfield, G; Juengel, J L

    2014-11-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of different doses and timing of an eCG treatment given during GnRH-based synchronization protocols on follicular dynamics and fertility in cattle. In Exp. 1, Angus heifers (n = 50) received a 7-d Ovsynch + progesterone protocol (on d 0, GnRH and progesterone insert were administered; on d 7, progesterone insert was removed and PGF2α was injected; and on d 9.5, GnRH was injected 56 h after progesterone removal) with eCG (0, 300, 500, 700, or 1,000 IU) administered on d 7. In Exp. 2, Angus cows (n = 27) received the same protocol as Exp. 1 and were assigned randomly to receive 0 or 400 IU eCG i.m. on d 2 or 7. In Exp. 3, Angus cows (n = 18) received a 6-d Ovsynch + progesterone protocol and were randomly assigned to receive 0 or 800 IU eCG on d 3 of the protocol (Exp. 3a). A pilot field trial was also performed using the same treatments in suckled Angus-cross cows (n = 72; Exp. 3b). In Exp. 4, beef heifers (n = 200) were assigned randomly to the same treatments as in Exp. 3, but the second GnRH was not given, with Holstein bulls introduced on d 6. In Exp. 5, Angus cows (n = 12) received the same treatment as in Exp. 3, but were not inseminated. Progesterone concentrations were assessed in plasma collected during the estrous cycle following synchronization. Ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian dynamics and to diagnose pregnancy. In Exp. 1, the mean number of ovulations was affected (P synchronization. Thus, the mechanism by which administration of eCG on d 3 of the synchronization increased pregnancy rates may be through supporting development of a healthy follicle and subsequent corpus luteum capable of secreting increased concentrations of progesterone during early pregnancy. In conclusion, strategic administration of eCG during a synchronization protocol can be used to improve reproductive performance through increased pregnancy rates in single ovulating animals as well as the induction of twin ovulations

  12. Protective actions of progesterone in the cardiovascular system: potential role of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) in mediating rapid effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei

    2013-06-01

    The protective functions of progesterone in the cardiovascular system have received little attention even though evidence has accumulated that progesterone lowers blood pressure, inhibits coronary hyperactivity and has powerful vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. One possible reason why potential beneficial actions of progesterone on cardiovascular functions have not been extensively studied is that divergent effects to those of progesterone have been observed in many clinical trials with synthetic progestins such as medroxyprogesterone acetate which are associated with increased risk of coronary disease. Evidence that progesterone exerts protective effects on cardiovascular functions is briefly reviewed. The finding that progesterone administration decreases blood vessel vasoconstriction in several animal models within a few minutes suggests that rapid, nongenomic progesterone mechanisms are of physiological importance in regulating vascular tone. Rapid activation of second messenger pathways by progesterone has been observed in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, resulting in alterations in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and calcium influx, respectively. Both nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) and novel membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are candidates for the intermediaries in these rapid, cell-surface initiated progesterone actions in endothelial and smooth muscle vascular cells. PRs have been detected in both cell types. New data are presented showing mPRα, mPRβ and mPRγ are also present in human endothelial and smooth muscle vascular cells. Preliminary evidence suggests mPRs mediate rapid progestin signaling in these endothelial cells, resulting in down-regulation of cAMP production and increased nitric oxide synthesis. The role of mPRs in progesterone regulation of cardiovascular functions warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Whole genomic analysis of G2P[4] human Rotaviruses in Mymensingh, north-central Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Aida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus A (RVA is a dominant causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. G2P[4] is one of the most common genotypes among human rotavirus (HRV strains, and has been persistently prevalent in South Asia including Bangladesh. In the present study, whole genome sequences of a total of 16 G2P[4] HRV strains (8 strains each in 2010 and 2013 detected in Mymensingh, north-central Bangladesh were determined. These strains had typical DS-1-like genotype constellation. Most of gene segments from DS-1 genogroup exhibited high level sequence identities to each other (>98%, while slight diversity was observed for VP1, VP3, and NSP4 genes. By phylogenetic analysis, individual RNA segments were classified into one (V or two-three lineages (V–VI or V–VII. In terms of lineages (sublineages of 11 gene segments, the 16 Bangladeshi strains could be further classified into four clades (A-D containing 8 lineage constellations, revealing the presence of three clades (A-C with three lineage constellations in 2010, and a single clade (D with four constellations in 2013. Therefore, co-existence of multiple G2P[4] HRV strains with different lineage constellations, and change in clades for the study period were demonstrated. Although amino acids in the antigenic regions on VP7 and VP4 were mostly identical to those of global G2P[4] strains after 2000, VP4 of clade D RVAs in 2013 had alanine and proline at positions 88 and 114, respectively, which are novel substitutions compared with recent global G2P[4] strains. Replacement of lineage constellations associated with unique amino acid changes in the antigenic region in VP4 suggested continuous genetic evolutionary state for emerging new G2P[4] rotavirus strains in Bangladesh.

  14. Embryo yield in llamas synchronized with two different intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices and superovulated with eCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Aller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of two intravaginal devices (ID containing the same dose (0.5 g of progesterone (P4 on subsequent ovarian response, embryo production and circulating P4 concentration profile in llamas (Lama glama treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG for ovarian superstimulation. Female llamas were randomly assigned (n = 10 llamas per group to one of the following groups and treated (Day 0 with an ID containing 0.5 g of vegetal P4 to synchronize the emergence of a new follicular wave: i DIB 0.5® and ii Cronipres M15®. On Day 3 llamas were intramuscularly treated with 1000 IU of eCG. The IDs were removed on Day 7. Llamas were naturally mated (Day 9 and treated with GnRH analogue to induce ovulation. A second mating was allowed 24 h later. Embryos were collected between 7 and 8 days after the first mating. Blood samples were taken every day from Day 0 to Day 7 to measure circulating P4 concentrations. The results indicated that DIB device maintained greater plasma P4 levels as compared to Cronipres until Day 2. However, the mean (± SD number of corpora lutea and recovered embryos was not affected (p < 0.05 by the type of ID (5.3 ± 2.6 vs 4.2 ± 2.2 and 3.5 ± 2.7 vs 2.6 ± 3.0 for DIB and Cronipres, respectively. In conclusion, both DIB and Cronipres devices can be successfully used to synchronize the emergence of follicular wave prior to a single dose of eCG in superovulation protocol in llamas.

  15. Embryo yield in llamas synchronized with two different intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices and superovulated with eCG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, J.F.; Abalos, M.C.; Acuña, F.A.; Virgili, R.; Requena, F.; Cancino, A.K.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of two intravaginal devices (ID) containing the same dose (0.5 g) of progesterone (P4) on subsequent ovarian response, embryo production and circulating P4 concentration profile in llamas (Lama glama) treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for ovarian superstimulation. Female llamas were randomly assigned (n = 10 llamas per group) to one of the following groups and treated (Day 0) with an ID containing 0.5 g of vegetal P4 to synchronize the emergence of a new follicular wave: i) DIB 0.5® and ii) Cronipres M15®. On Day 3 llamas were intramuscularly treated with 1000 IU of eCG. The IDs were removed on Day 7. Llamas were naturally mated (Day 9) and treated with GnRH analogue to induce ovulation. A second mating was allowed 24 h later. Embryos were collected between 7 and 8 days after the first mating. Blood samples were taken every day from Day 0 to Day 7 to measure circulating P4 concentrations. The results indicated that DIB device maintained greater plasma P4 levels as compared to Cronipres until Day 2. However, the mean (± SD) number of corpora lutea and recovered embryos was not affected (p < 0.05) by the type of ID (5.3 ± 2.6 vs 4.2 ± 2.2 and 3.5 ± 2.7 vs 2.6 ± 3.0 for DIB and Cronipres, respectively). In conclusion, both DIB and Cronipres devices can be successfully used to synchronize the emergence of follicular wave prior to a single dose of eCG in superovulation protocol in llamas. (Author)

  16. Maro Reef Site P4 9/16/2002 45-46M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P4 (25.461N, 170.680 W), between 45 and 46 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Maro Reef Site P4 9/16/2002 50-51M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P4 (25.461N, 170.680 W), between 50 and 51 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Maro Reef Site P4 9/16/2002 40-41M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P4 (25.461N, 170.680 W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Maro Reef Site P4 9/16/2002 42-43M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P4 (25.461N, 170.680 W), between 42 and 43 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. 77 FR 26014 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae AGENCY: Technology Transfer... polysaccharide vaccine conjugate for prevention of Streptococcus pneumonia infection in humans'') to practice the... ``Functional Epitopes of Streptococcus Pneumoniae PsaA Antigen and Uses Thereof,'' filed 7/ 18/2008, claiming...

  2. Detection of marine aerosols with IRS P4-Ocean Colour Monitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The atmospheric correction bands 7 and 8 (765nm and 865nm respectively) of the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS P4-OCM (Ocean Colour Monitor) can be used for deriving aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the oceans. A retrieval algorithm has been developed which computes the AOD using band 7 data by treating ...

  3. Biochemical Characterization of P4-ATPase Mutations Associated with Intrahepatic Cholestatic Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzel, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Mikkelsen, Stine

    The cholestatic disorders progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1) and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (BRIC1) are caused by mutation of the P4-ATPase ATP8B1 that flips phospholipid from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of canalicular membrane...

  4. Biochemical characterization of P4-ATPase mutations associated with Intrahepatic Cholestatic Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzel, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Mikkelsen, Stine

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1) and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (BRIC1) are caused by mutation of the P4-ATPase ATP8B1 that flips phospholipid from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of canalicular membranes. It is hypothesized that...

  5. Biochemical Characterization of P4-ATPase Mutations Associated with Intrahepatic Cholestatic Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzel, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Mikkelsen, Stine

    The cholestatic disorders progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1, also referred to as Byler’s disease) and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (BRIC1) are caused by mutation of the P4-ATPase ATP8B1. The substrate of ATP8B1 is very likely to be phosphatidylserine ...

  6. The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues Rosa Laura López-Marqués1, Lisbeth Rosager Poulsen1, Katharina Meffert2, Thomas Pomorski2, Michael Gjedde Palmgren1 1Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease - PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation...

  7. Estimation of surface Latent Heat Fluxes from IRS-P4/MSMR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The brightness temperatures of the Microwave sensor MSMR (Multichannel Scanning Microwave Radiometer) launched in May 1999 onboard Indian Oceansat-1 IRS-P4 are used to develop a direct retrieval method for latent heat ux by multivariate regression technique. The MSMR measures the microwave radiances at 8 ...

  8. Chitinase production and antifungal potential of endophytic Streptomyces strain P4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hataichanoke Niamsup

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic actinomycete P4 strain, previously isolated from sweet pea root, wasidentified as Streptomyces sp. by full 16S rRNA sequencing. It is mostly related to Streptomycesgriseoflavus with a 99.7% identity score. The Streptomyces sp. P4 was tested for its hydrolyticactivities by plate method. The result showed the presence of chitinase. The extent of chitinase activitywas assessed by spectrophotometric method along with growth monitoring. Chitinase production wasgrowth-associated and showed the highest activity on the fifth day. The dual culture method revealedthat the strain was effective in restricting the radial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, animportant phytopathogen of tomato. Scanning electronic microscopic analysis showed that the ruptureof the F. oxysporum mycelial cell wall occurred at the area of interaction between F. oxysporum andStreptomyces sp. P4. This was possibly due to the chitinolytic activity of the P4. Thus, thisactinomycete has the potential for being used as a biocontrol agent, thereby reducing the use ofchemical fungicides.

  9. Maro Reef Site P4 9/16/2002 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Maro Reef, site P4 (25.461N, 170.680 W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Genomic constellation and evolution of Ghanaian G2P[4] rotavirus strains from a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbemabiese, Chantal Ama; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Doan, Yen Hai; Do, Loan Phuong; Damanka, Susan; Armah, George E; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2016-11-01

    Understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of Rotavirus A (RVA) strains, a common cause of severe diarrhoea in children, needs to be based on the analysis at the whole genome level in the vaccine era. This study sequenced the whole genomes of six representative G2P[4] strains detected in Ghana from 2008 to 2013, and analysed them phylogenetically with a global collection of G2P[4] strains and African non-G2P[4] DS-1-like strains. The genotype constellation of the study strains was G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. Strains from the same season were highly identical across the whole genome while strains from different seasons were more divergent from each other. The VP7, VP4, VP2, NSP1, and NSP5 genes belonged to lineage IVa; the VP6, VP1, NSP2, and NSP3 genes belonged to lineage V, and all these genes evolved in the same fashion as the global strains. In the NSP4 gene, lineages V (2008) and X (2009) were replaced by VI (2012/2013) whereas in the VP3 gene, lineage V (2008/2009) was replaced by VII (2012/2013) and these replacements coincided with the vaccine introduction period (2012). The evolutionary rate of the NSP4 gene was 1.2×10(-3) substitutions/site/year and was rather comparable to that of the remaining 10 genes. The multiple NSP4 lineages were explained by intra-genotype reassortment with co-circulating African human DS-1-like strains bearing G2[6], G3P[6], G6[6] and G8. There was no explicit evidence of the contribution of animal RVA strains to the genome of the Ghanaian G2P[4] strains. In summary, this study revealed the dynamic evolution of the G2P[4] strains through intra-genotype reassortment events leading to African specific lineages such IX and X in the NSP4 gene. So far, there was no evidence of a recent direct involvement of animal RVA genes in the genome diversity of African G2P[4] strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estradiol stimulates glycogen synthesis whereas progesterone promotes glycogen catabolism in the uterus of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kole; Rose, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Glycogen synthesis by mink uterine glandular and luminal epithelia (GE and LE) is stimulated by estradiol (E 2 ) during estrus. Subsequently, the glycogen deposits are mobilized to near completion to meet the energy requirements of pre-embryonic development and implantation by as yet undetermined mechanisms. We hypothesized that progesterone (P 4 ) was responsible for catabolism of uterine glycogen reserves as one of its actions to ensure reproductive success. Mink were treated with E 2 , P 4 or vehicle (controls) for 3 days and uteri collected 24 h (E 2 , P 4 and vehicle) and 96 h (E 2 ) later. To evaluate E 2 priming, mink were treated with E 2 for 3 days, then P 4 for an additional 3 days (E 2 →P 4 ) and uteri collected 24 h later. Percent glycogen content of uterine epithelia was greater at E 2 + 96 h (GE = 5.71 ± 0.55; LE = 11.54 ± 2.32) than E 2 +24 h (GE = 3.63 ± 0.71; LE = 2.82 ± 1.03), and both were higher than controls (GE = 0.27 ± 0.15; LE = 0.54 ± 0.30; P < 0.05). Treatment as E 2 →P 4 reduced glycogen content (GE = 0.61 ± 0.16; LE = 0.51 ± 0.13), to levels not different from controls, while concomitantly increasing catabolic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase m and glucose-6-phosphatase) gene expression and amount of phospho-glycogen synthase protein (inactive) in uterine homogenates. Interestingly, E 2 →P 4 increased glycogen synthase 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and hexokinase 1mRNA and protein. Our findings suggest to us that while E 2 promotes glycogen accumulation by the mink uterus during estrus and pregnancy, it is P 4 that induces uterine glycogen catabolism, releasing the glucose that is essential to support pre-embryonic survival and implantation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Progesterone stimulates adipocyte determination and differentiation 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c gene expression. potential mechanism for the lipogenic effect of progesterone in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, D; Le Liepvre, X; Ferre, P; Dugail, I

    2001-04-13

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS), a nutritionally regulated lipogenic enzyme, is transcriptionally controlled by ADD1/SREBP1c (adipocyte determination and differentiation 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c), through insulin-mediated stimulation of ADD1/SREBP1c expression. Progesterone exerts lipogenic effects on adipocytes, and FAS is highly induced in breast tumor cell lines upon progesterone treatment. We show here that progesterone up-regulates ADD1/SREBP1c expression in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and the primary cultured preadipocyte from rat parametrial adipose tissue. In MCF7, progesterone induced ADD1/SREBP1c and Metallothionein II (a well known progesterone-regulated gene) mRNAs, with comparable potency. In preadipocytes, progesterone increased ADD1/SREBP1c mRNA dose-dependently, but not SREBP1a or SREBP2. Run-on experiments demonstrated that progesterone action on ADD1/SREBP1c was primarily at the transcriptional level. The membrane-bound and mature nuclear forms of ADD1/SREBP1 protein accumulated in preadipocytes cultured with progesterone, and FAS induction could be abolished by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a dominant negative form of ADD1/SREBP1 in these cells. Finally, in the presence of insulin, progesterone was unable to up-regulate ADD1/SREBP1c mRNA in preadipocytes, whereas its effect was restored after 24 h of insulin deprivation. Together these results demonstrate that ADD1/SREBP1c is controlled by progesterone, which, like insulin, acts by increasing ADD1/SREBP1c gene transcription. This provides a potential mechanism for the lipogenic actions of progesterone on adipose tissue.

  13. Computing on quantum shared secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yingkai; Tan, Si-Hui; Zhao, Liming; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.

    2017-11-01

    A (k ,n )-threshold secret-sharing scheme allows for a string to be split into n shares in such a way that any subset of at least k shares suffices to recover the secret string, but such that any subset of at most k -1 shares contains no information about the secret. Quantum secret-sharing schemes extend this idea to the sharing of quantum states. Here we propose a method of performing computation securely on quantum shared secrets. We introduce a (n ,n )-quantum secret sharing scheme together with a set of algorithms that allow quantum circuits to be evaluated securely on the shared secret without the need to decode the secret. We consider a multipartite setting, with each participant holding a share of the secret. We show that if there exists at least one honest participant, no group of dishonest participants can recover any information about the shared secret, independent of their deviations from the algorithm.

  14. Manipulation of progesterone to increase ovulatory response to the first GnRH treatment of an Ovsynch protocol in lactating dairy cows receiving first timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Wiltbank, M C; Fricke, P M

    2015-12-01

    Ovulation to the first GnRH (G1) treatment of the Ovsynch protocol improves synchronization rate and pregnancies per AI (P/AI). Elevated progesterone (P4) concentrations at G1 decrease the ovulatory response by decreasing the magnitude of the GnRH-induced LH surge. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the effect of temporarily decreasing P4 concentrations before initiation of an Ovsynch protocol on ovulatory response to G1 and P/AI. Lactating Holstein cows (n=800) at 53±3 (herd A) or 51±3 (herd B) d in milk (DIM) were synchronized using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol [pre-Ovsynch protocol (d 0, GnRH; d 7, PGF2α; d 10, GnRH) followed 7 d later by an Ovsynch-56 protocol (d 0, G1; d 7, PGF2α; d 8, PGF2α; d 9.5, GnRH)] to receive first timed artificial insemination (TAI; 80±3 DIM) 16h after the last GnRH treatment. Cows were randomly assigned to receive 12.5mg of PGF2α (a half-dose of dinoprost tromethamine) 2 d before G1 (low-P4) or serve as untreated controls (high-P4). Overall, high-P4 cows had greater P4 concentrations at G1 compared with low-P4 cows (3.0 vs. 1.3ng/mL, respectively). Ovulatory response to G1 was greater for low-P4 than high-P4 cows [81.1 vs. 60.3%, respectively]. Premature luteal regression during the second Ovsynch protocol did not differ between treatments [15.0% vs. 10.7%; for low-P4 vs. high-P4 cows, respectively]. Overall, P/AI did not differ between treatments 32 d after TAI [56.3 vs. 52.9%, for low-P4 vs. high-P4 cows, respectively] or 67 d after AI [50.5 vs. 47.6%, for low-P4 vs. high-P4 cows, respectively]. Pregnancy loss from 32 to 67 d after TAI did not differ between treatments [9.9 vs. 9.3%, for low-P4 vs. high-P4 cows, respectively]. Overall, cows that ovulated to G1 had more P/AI than cows that did not ovulate [58.2 vs. 41.8%, respectively]. The increase in P/AI for cows that ovulated to G1 (16.4%) combined with the observed increase in ovulation to G1 due to treatment (20.8%; low-P4 - high-P4) resulted in the expected

  15. Field experiences with early pregnancy diagnosis by progesterone-based ELISA in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boma

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In four Kenyan pig breeding units the pregnancy diagnosis of sows has been carried out in two groups: Group 1 (n = 1911: the sows were transrectaly pregnancy tested between Days 17–22 post-mating by ultrasound. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG (equine chorion gonadotropin, eCG and 200 IU human chorion gonadotropin (hCG. On showing signs of oestrous, the animals were subsequently artificially inseminated (AI. Group 2 (n = 1923: sows were pregnancy tested by serum progesterone (P4-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA on Day 17 post-breeding. P4 concentrations were categorized as positive (> 5 ng/ml or negative (< 5 ng/ml. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU PMSG and 200 IU hCG by injection, and were subsequently artificially inseminated. The following parameters were evaluated: sows diagnosed non-pregnant, days from first post-weaning insemination until the sows were inseminated at their first return to oestrus; farrowing rate and total piglets born and number of live-born piglets in litters.The percentage of sows diagnosed non-pregnant in the two groups, as well as the totals of born piglets and of live-born piglets in litters did not differ significantly between the two groups. The number of days from the first post-weaning mating until the sows were artificially inseminated at their first return to oestrus and the administration of eCG and hCG was shorter (P < 0.01 and farrowing rate was higher (P < 0.01 in the ELISA-tested sows.

  16. Field experiences with early pregnancy diagnosis by progesterone-based ELISA in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boma, M H; Bilkei, G

    2008-03-01

    In four Kenyan pig breeding units the pregnancy diagnosis of sows has been carried out in two groups: Group 1 (n = 1911): the sows were transrectaly pregnancy tested between Days 17-22 post-mating by ultrasound. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) (equine chorion gonadotropin, eCG) and 200 IU human chorion gonadotropin (hCG). On showing signs of oestrous, the animals were subsequently artificially inseminated (AI). Group 2 (n = 1923): sows were pregnancy tested by serum progesterone (P4)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on Day 17 post-breeding. P4 concentrations were categorized as positive (> 5 ng/ml) or negative (PMSG and 200 IU hCG by injection, and were subsequently artificially inseminated. The following parameters were evaluated: sows diagnosed non-pregnant, days from first post-weaning insemination until the sows were inseminated at their first return to oestrus; farrowing rate and total piglets born and number of live-born piglets in litters. The percentage of sows diagnosed non-pregnant in the two groups, as well as the totals of born piglets and of live-born piglets in litters did not differ significantly between the two groups. The number of days from the first post-weaning mating until the sows were artificially inseminated at their first return to oestrus and the administration of eCG and hCG was shorter (P < 0.01) and farrowing rate was higher (P< 0.01) in the ELISA-tested sows.

  17. Ovulation and conception rates according intravaginal progesterone device and hCG or GnRH to induce ovulation in buffalo during the off breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Baruselli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravaginal progesterone device (P4; first or second use of different ovulatory inductors on ovulation and conception rates in buffaloes during the off breeding season. Two hundred and forty two buffaloes were allocated in four groups and received P4 device of first or second use plus estradiol benzoate on Day 0 (D0. The P4 device was removed and a dose of PGF2α and eCG was administered on D9. On D11, buffaloes received hCG or GnRH and 16hs after the animals were inseminated. The ultrasound examination was performed on D0 to verify the ovarian status, from D9 to D14 to establish the moment of ovulation and on D40 for pregnancy diagnosis. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Chi-square test. There was no effect of interaction. The ovulation and conception rate were similar for P4 device of first and second use, for hCG and GnRH. Results indicate that the use of P4 device for two times and the use of GnRH instead of hCG provide satisfactory ovulation and conception rate in buffalo during the off breeding season and might reduce the cost of the protocol for artificial insemination.

  18. A prospective randomized multicentre study comparing vaginal progesterone gel and vaginal micronized progesterone tablets for luteal support after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Christina; Lindenberg, Svend; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY QUESTION: Is vaginal progesterone gel equivalent to vaginal micronized progesterone tablets concerning ongoing pregnancy rate and superior concerning patient convenience when used for luteal support after IVF/ICSI? SUMMARY ANSWER: Equivalence of treatments in terms of ongoing live intraut...

  19. Progesterone and the Latency Period: Threatened Preterm Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Borna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm labor is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality and results in increased obstetric and pediatric care costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of vaginal progesterone for maintenance therapy following treatment of threatened preterm labor for preventing preterm birth.Methods: The study included 70 singleton pregnant women with preterm labor with intact membranes. Patients were randomized to receive either maintenance vaginal progesterone therapy (n=37 administered (400 mg daily or no treatment (controls, n=33 after discontinuation of acute intravenous tocolysis.Results: The two groups were similar with at respect to maternal age, race, parity, gestational age at admission, bishop score, and preterm delivery risk factors .Compared to the control group, the mean ±SD time gained from initiation of maintenance therapy to delivery (36/1117/9 versus 24/5227/2 (meanSD days, p=0.037 and the gestational age at delivery (36.071.56 vs. 34.51.3 weeks, p=0.041 were higher in the vaginal progesterone maintenance therapy group. No significant differences were found with recurrent preterm labor 13 (35.1% versus 19 (57.6%, p=0.092. Respiratory distress syndrome 4 (10.8% versus 12 (36.4% p=0.021, Low birth weight10 (27% versus, 17 (51.5% p=0.04, birth weight (3101.54±587.9gr versus r 2609.39±662.9gr, p=0.002 were significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: The gestational age and time gained from initiation of maintenance therapy to delivery were longer in women receiving vaginal maintenance tocolysis with progesterone and improve perinatal outcomes. However, maintenance therapy did not decrease the recurrence of preterm labor episodes.

  20. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Frazee, James S.; Stoy, Patrick; Johnson, Latisha; Lu, Qing; Hammond, Marlys; Barton, Linda S.; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Madauss, Kevin P.; Williams, Shawn P.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Xu, Xiaoping; Laping, Nicholas J.; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Scott K. (GSKPA)

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  1. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydro Alcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajiuon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: waves cause hormonal disorders, whereas garlic is known as reducing risk factors associated with various diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of garlic against a hormonal disorder caused by the waves. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty rats were divided into 5male and 5female groups: control, sham (under exposed, experimental1 (garlic extract, and experimental2 and3 (both extract and microwaves. After a month, the rats were weighed, their blood samples were collected and concentration of estrogen, progesterone and testosterone were measured. Results were analyzed by SPSS, ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: In males, the mean weight were reduced in the control group than in the sham group, but increased in the experimental group than the control group 3. Testosterone concentrations of experimental groups 2 and 3 were decreased but in all groups showed a decline in estrogen. Progesterone also increased in all groups. Conclusion: Weight loss due to radiation observed in males were compensated with compounds such as thiamine, vitamin A contained in garlic allicin. Microwaves and garlic extract have effects on testes which reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. Progesterone increased as a result of waves on the hypothalamus and the stimulatory effect of garlic on the secretion of ovarian hormones. Thus, Garlic cannot overcome all detrimental effects of waves.

  2. Progesterone modulates microtubule dynamics and epiboly progression during zebrafish gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerle, Stephanie; Ringler, Mario; Lecaudey, Virginie; Nitschke, Roland; Driever, Wolfgang

    2017-12-26

    Control of microtubule dynamics is crucial for cell migration. We analyzed regulation of microtubule network dynamics in the zebrafish yolk cell during epiboly, the earliest coordinated gastrulation movement. We labeled microtubules with EMTB-3GFP and EB3-mCherry to visualize and measure microtubule dynamics by TIRF microscopy live imaging. Yolk cell microtubules dynamics is temporally modulated during epiboly progression. We used maternal zygotic Pou5f3 mutant (MZspg) embryos, which develop strong distortions of microtubule network organization and epiboly retardation, to investigate genetic control of microtubule dynamics. In MZspg embryos, microtubule plus-end growth tracks move slower and are less straight compared to wild-type. MZspg embryos have altered steroidogenic enzyme expression, resulting in increased pregnenolone and reduced progesterone levels. We show that progesterone positively affects microtubule plus-end growth and track straightness. Progesterone may thus act as a non-cell-autonomous regulator of microtubule dynamics across the large yolk cell, and may adjust differing demands on microtubule dynamics and stability during initiation and progression phases of epiboly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Overexpression and purification of the primase domain of bacteriophage P4 gp alpha for structure determination by NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Planque, M.R.R.; Ziegelin, G.; Lanka, E.; Boelens, R.

    2003-01-01

    Bacteriophage P4 is a temperate phage of E. coli and other Gram-negative prokaryotes. Its alpha gene encodes a 777-residue multifunctional protein, gpa, that is essential and sufficient for the initiation of P4 DNA replication. The gpa protein attaches to the P4 origin of replication, unwinds the

  4. Effect of Monochromatic Light on Expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER and Progesterone Receptor (PR in Ovarian Follicles of Chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingbin Liu

    and green monochromatic lights promote egg production traits via stimulating gonadal hormone secretion and up-regulating expression of ERs and PRs. Changes in PR-B protein suggest that this form of the progesterone receptor is predominant for progesterone action in the granulosa layers of preovulatory follicles in chickens during light stimulation.

  5. Prostate stromal cells express the progesterone receptor to control cancer cell mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yu

    Full Text Available Reciprocal interactions between epithelium and stroma play vital roles for prostate cancer development and progression. Enhanced secretions of cytokines and growth factors by cancer associated fibroblasts in prostate tumors create a favorable microenvironment for cancer cells to grow and metastasize. Our previous work showed that the progesterone receptor (PR was expressed specifically in prostate stromal fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. However, the expression levels of PR and its impact to tumor microenvironment in prostate tumors are poorly understood.Immunohistochemistry assays are applied to human prostate tissue biopsies. Cell migration, invasion and proliferation assays are performed using human prostate cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA are applied to measure gene expression at molecular levels.Immunohistochemistry assays showed that PR protein levels were decreased in cancer associated stroma when compared with paired normal prostate stroma. Using in vitro prostate stromal cell models, we showed that conditioned media collected from PR positive stromal cells inhibited prostate cancer cell migration and invasion, but had minor suppressive impacts on cancer cell proliferation. PR suppressed the secretion of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and interlukin-6 (IL-6 by stromal cells independent to PR ligands. Blocking PR expression by siRNA or supplementation of exogenous SDF-1 or IL-6 to conditioned media from PR positive stromal cells counteracted the inhibitory effects of PR to cancer cell migration and invasion.Decreased expression of the PR in cancer associated stroma may contribute to the elevated SDF-1 and IL-6 levels in prostate tumors and enhance prostate tumor progression.

  6. The Luteovirus P4 Movement Protein Is a Suppressor of Systemic RNA Silencing

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    Adriana F. Fusaro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant viral family Luteoviridae is divided into three genera: Luteovirus, Polerovirus and Enamovirus. Without assistance from another virus, members of the family are confined to the cells of the host plant’s vascular system. The first open reading frame (ORF of poleroviruses and enamoviruses encodes P0 proteins which act as silencing suppressor proteins (VSRs against the plant’s viral defense-mediating RNA silencing machinery. Luteoviruses, such as barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV, however, have no P0 to carry out the VSR role, so we investigated whether other proteins or RNAs encoded by BYDV-PAV confer protection against the plant’s silencing machinery. Deep-sequencing of small RNAs from plants infected with BYDV-PAV revealed that the virus is subjected to RNA silencing in the phloem tissues and there was no evidence of protection afforded by a possible decoy effect of the highly abundant subgenomic RNA3. However, analysis of VSR activity among the BYDV-PAV ORFs revealed systemic silencing suppression by the P4 movement protein, and a similar, but weaker, activity by P6. The closely related BYDV-PAS P4, but not the polerovirus potato leafroll virus P4, also displayed systemic VSR activity. Both luteovirus and the polerovirus P4 proteins also showed transient, weak local silencing suppression. This suggests that systemic silencing suppression is the principal mechanism by which the luteoviruses BYDV-PAV and BYDV-PAS minimize the effects of the plant’s anti-viral defense.

  7. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  8. A Public Secret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on anthropological fieldwork undertaken at two elite universities in Beijing. It addresses the paradoxical situation of the many instances of suicide among Chinese elite university students in Beijing, which constitute a public secret. The pressure of education weighs heavily...

  9. Secrets of Successful Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Parents who homeschool gifted children often find the daily practice of home education very different from what they had imagined. Gifted children are complex in both personality and learning styles. Parents who say that homeschooling works well for their gifted children have learned from others or discovered on their own several secrets that make…

  10. Progesterone is essential for protecting against LPS-induced pregnancy loss. LIF as a potential mediator of the anti-inflammatory effect of progesterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Aisemberg

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration to mice on day 7 of gestation led to 100% embryonic resorption after 24 h. In this model, nitric oxide is fundamental for the resorption process. Progesterone may be responsible, at least in part, for a Th2 switch in the feto-maternal interface, inducing active immune tolerance against fetal antigens. Th2 cells promote the development of T cells, producing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, which seems to be important due to its immunomodulatory action during early pregnancy. Our aim was to evaluate the involvement of progesterone in the mechanism of LPS-induced embryonic resorption, and whether LIF can mediate hormonal action. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we provide evidence that circulating progesterone is an important component of the process by which infection causes embryonic resorption in mice. Also, LIF seems to be a mediator of the progesterone effect under inflammatory conditions. We found that serum progesterone fell to very low levels after 24 h of LPS exposure. Moreover, progesterone supplementation prevented embryonic resorption and LPS-induced increase of uterine nitric oxide levels in vivo. Results show that LPS diminished the expression of the nuclear progesterone receptor in the uterus after 6 and 12 h of treatment. We investigated the expression of LIF in uterine tissue from pregnant mice and found that progesterone up-regulates LIF mRNA expression in vitro. We observed that LIF was able to modulate the levels of nitric oxide induced by LPS in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential mediator of the inflammatory action of progesterone. Our observations support the view that progesterone plays a critical role in a successful pregnancy as an anti-inflammatory agent, and that it could have possible therapeutic applications in the prevention of early reproductive failure associated with inflammatory disorders.

  11. Physician-level P4P--DOA? Can quality-based payment be resuscitated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Laurence F; Hofer, Timothy P; Hayward, Rodney A

    2007-05-01

    Unlike many areas of the economy where value is relatively easy to measure and reward, healthcare is "messy." Patients bring both clinical heterogeneity and illness-severity complexities to the interchange with their physician. The measurable outcomes or process measures are as likely to be due to patient characteristics as they are to be due to the actions (or inactions) of the patient's provider. Moreover, data suggest that the simplest fix for providers with bad metrics is to "dump" their sickest patients. Perhaps the most pernicious consequence of physician-level pay-for-performance (P4P) systems is how these systems can affect the neediest patients and their providers. As patient characteristics (eg, illness severity, preferences, resources) are more likely to be an issue in our poorer and minority communities, these patients' physicians will be at a financial disadvantage in a P4P system. It is likely that the widespread adoption of P4P systems will further limit these necessary resources.

  12. The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager

    physiological function.   1 Poulsen, L.R; López-Marqués, R.L et al. (2008) The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 localizes to the Golgi and requires a ß-subunit to function in lipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation. The Plant Cell, vol. 20, 658-676. 2 Gomès, E. et al. (2000) Chilling tolerance......  The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues Rosa Laura López-Marqués1, Lisbeth Rosager Poulsen1, Katharina Meffert2, Thomas Pomorski2, Michael Gjedde Palmgren1 1Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease - PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation......, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark 2Humboldt-University Berlin, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science I, Institute of Biology, 10115 Berlin, Germany In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana 12 P4-ATPases are present, named ALA1 to 12...

  13. The effect of circulating progesterone on magnitude of the GnRH-induced LH surge: Are there any differences between Bos indicus and Bos taurus heifers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Del Valle, T A; Ortolan, M D D V; Rennó, F P; Nogueira, G P; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of differing circulating progesterone (P4) levels on the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge profile following treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in B. indicus (Nelore, n = 13) and B. taurus (Holstein, n = 16) heifers. All heifers were synchronized with a hormonal protocol to induce either a Low or High circulating P4 environment at the time of GnRH treatment. Heifers were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial design composed by two genetic groups (B. indicus and B. taurus) and two levels of circulating P4 concentrations (Low or High). Blood samples were collected every 30 min from -30 to 210 min and at 270 min after GnRH treatment. As expected, mean P4 concentration was greater for cows in the High than in the Low P4 group (P = 0.0008) and in Bos indicus than in Bos taurus heifers (P = 0.06). Despite genetic group, the area under the curve of LH release was greater in the Low-P4 than in High-P4 concentration group (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, it appears that High P4 concentrations had a more pronounced effect on LH peak in B. indicus than in B. taurus heifers, as indicated by the interaction (P = 0.01) between genetic group and P4 levels. In conclusion, circulating P4 concentration have a great impact on the GnRH-induced LH surge of both B. indicus and B. taurus heifers, but it does not explain the much lower LH peak in B. indicus with low circulating P4. Thus, more studies are essential to uncover some of the underlying physiological factors other than circulating P4 that are limiting LH release following a GnRH treatment in B. indicus cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Progesterone inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H van der Horst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Every year approximately 74,000 women die of endometrial cancer, mainly due to recurrent or metastatic disease. The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs as well as progesterone receptor (PR positivity has been correlated with improved prognosis. This study describes two mechanisms by which progesterone inhibits metastatic spread of endometrial cancer: by stimulating T-cell infiltration and by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Paraffin sections from patients with (n = 9 or without (n = 9 progressive endometrial cancer (recurrent or metastatic disease were assessed for the presence of CD4+ (helper, CD8+ (cytotoxic and Foxp3+ (regulatory T-lymphocytes and PR expression. Progressive disease was observed to be associated with significant loss of TILs and loss of PR expression. Frozen tumor samples, used for genome-wide expression analysis, showed significant regulation of pathways involved in immunesurveillance, EMT and metastasis. For a number of genes, such as CXCL14, DKK1, DKK4, PEG10 and WIF1, quantitive RT-PCR was performed to verify up- or downregulation in progressive disease. To corroborate the role of progesterone in regulating invasion, Ishikawa (IK endometrial cancer cell lines stably transfected with PRA (IKPRA, PRB (IKPRB and PRA+PRB (IKPRAB were cultured in presence/absence of progesterone (MPA and used for genome-wide expression analysis, Boyden- and wound healing migration assays, and IHC for known EMT markers. IKPRB and IKPRAB cell lines showed MPA induced inhibition of migration and loss of the mesenchymal marker vimentin at the invasive front of the wound healing assay. Furthermore, pathway analysis of significantly MPA regulated genes showed significant down regulation of important pathways involved in EMT, immunesuppression and metastasis: such as IL6-, TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. CONCLUSION: Intact progesterone signaling in non

  15. Signatures of rocky planet engulfment in HAT-P-4. Implications for chemical tagging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffe, C.; Jofré, E.; Martioli, E.; Flores, M.; Petrucci, R.; Jaque Arancibia, M.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We aim to explore the possible chemical signature of planet formation in the binary system HAT-P-4 by studying the trends of abundance vs. condensation temperature Tc. The star HAT-P-4 hosts a planet detected by transits, while its stellar companion does not have any detected planet. We also study the lithium content, which might shed light on the problem of Li depletion in exoplanet host stars. Methods: We derived for the first time both stellar parameters and high-precision chemical abundances by applying a line-by-line full differential approach. The stellar parameters were determined by imposing ionization and excitation equilibrium of Fe lines, with an updated version of the FUNDPAR program, together with ATLAS9 model atmospheres and the MOOG code. We derived detailed abundances of different species with equivalent widths and spectral synthesis with the MOOG program. Results: The exoplanet host star HAT-P-4 is found to be 0.1 dex more metal rich than its companion, which is one of the highest differences in metallicity observed in similar systems. This could have important implications for chemical tagging studies. We rule out a possible peculiar composition for each star, such as is the case for λ Boötis and δ Scuti, and neither is this binary a blue straggler. The star HAT-P-4 is enhanced in refractory elements relative to volatile when compared to its stellar companion. Notably, the Li abundance in HAT-P-4 is greater than that of its companion by 0.3 dex, which is contrary to the model that explains the Li depletion by the presence of planets. We propose a scenario where at the time of planet formation, the star HAT-P-4 locked the inner refractory material in planetesimals and rocky planets, and formed the outer gas giant planet at a greater distance. The refractories were then accreted onto the star, possibly as a result of the migration of the giant planet. This explains the higher metallicity, the higher Li content, and the negative Tc trend we

  16. Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Hernández-Hernández, Olivia Tania; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; García-Varela, Martín; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a novel T. solium progesterone receptor (TsPR), since RU486 inhibits both scolex evagination and worm development induced by progesterone. Using RT-PCR and western blot, sequences related to progesterone receptor were detected in the parasite. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that TsPR is highly related to fish and amphibian progesterone receptors, whereas it has a distant relation with birds and mammals. Conclusively, progesterone directly acts upon T. solium cysticerci, possibly through its binding to a progesterone receptor synthesized by the parasite. PMID:20037735

  17. Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Escobedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a novel T. solium progesterone receptor (TsPR, since RU486 inhibits both scolex evagination and worm development induced by progesterone. Using RT-PCR and western blot, sequences related to progesterone receptor were detected in the parasite. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that TsPR is highly related to fish and amphibian progesterone receptors, whereas it has a distant relation with birds and mammals. Conclusively, progesterone directly acts upon T. solium cysticerci, possibly through its binding to a progesterone receptor synthesized by the parasite.

  18. Wrapped up in Covers: Preschoolers' Secrets and Secret Hiding Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Kimberly; Colwell, Malinda J.; Bell, Nancy J.; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this qualitative study, interviews about children's secret hiding places were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?17) in a university sponsored preschool programme using art narratives. Since prior studies indicate that children understand the concept of a secret as early as five and that they associate secrets with hiding places, the purpose of…

  19. Consequences of loss of progesterone receptor expression in development of invasive endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hanekamp, Eline; Blok, Leen; Gielen, Susanne; Smid-Koopman, Ellen; Kühne, Liesbeth; Ruiter, Petra; Chadha-Ajwani, Savi; Brinkmann, Albert; Grootegoed, Anton; Burger, Curt; Huikeshoven, Frans

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: In endometrial cancer, loss of progesterone receptors (PR) is associated with more advanced disease. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of progesterone and the loss of its receptors (PRA and PRB) in development of endometrial cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A 9600-cDNA microarray analysis was performed to study regulation of gene expression in the human endometrial cancer subcell line Ishikawa PRAB-36 by the progestagen medroxy progesterone acetate (MPA)...

  20. Progesterone concentration, pregnancy and calving rate in Simmental dairy cows after oestrus synchronisation and hCG treatment during the early luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuluburić, Adam; Milanović, Svetlana; Vranješ-Đurić, Sanja; Jovanović, Ivan B; Barna, Tomislav; Stojić, Milica; Fratrić, Natalija; Szenci, Ottó; Gvozdić, Dragan

    2017-09-01

    Early embryonic development may be negatively affected by insufficient progesterone (P4) production. Therefore, the aim of our study was to increase P4 by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments after inducing oestrus by prostaglandin (PG) treatment. Lactating Simmental dairy cows (n = 110), between 1 to 5 lactations, with an average milk production of 6,500 1/305 days, at 40-80 days postpartum were used and grouped as follows: (1) PG + GnRH treatment at AI (GnRH group), (2) PG + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (hCG group), (3) PG + GnRH at AI + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (GnRH/hCG group), and (4) spontaneous oestrus (C: control group). All animals were double inseminated (at the time of oestrus detection and 12 ± 2 h thereafter). Blood serum and milk samples were collected at the day of observed oestrus (day 0), and 14, 21 and 28 days after AI. Serum P4 was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) test (INEP, Zemun), and milk P4 was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test (NIV Novi Sad). Pregnancy status was confirmed by ultrasonography between days 28 and 35 after AI. Differences of serum or milk P4 medians, pregnancy (and calving) rate were determined using Dunn's Multiple Comparison Tests and Z test, respectively. Serum P4 medians were significantly higher at days 14, 21 and 28 after AI in the hCG-treated animals, indicating increased luteal activity, with a similar tendency in whole milk P4 values. Treatment with hCG during the early luteal phase significantly contributed to the maintenance of gestation at days 28-35 after AI, and also increased the calving rate in Simmental dairy cows.

  1. Pure Androgen-Secreting Adrenal Adenoma Associated with Resistant Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma is very rare, and its diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. Its association with resistant hypertension is uncommon and not well understood. We present an 18-year-old female with a 10-year history of hirsutism that was accidentally diagnosed with an adrenal mass during the evaluation of a hypertensive crisis. She had a long-standing history of hirsutism, clitorimegaly, deepening of the voice, and primary amenorrhea. She was phenotypically and socially a male. FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and progesterone were normal. Total testosterone and DHEA-S were elevated. Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, and nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia were ruled out. She underwent adrenalectomy and pathology reported an adenoma. At 2-month followup, hirsutism and virilizing symptoms clearly improved and blood pressure normalized without antihypertensive medications, current literature of this unusual illness and it association with hypertension is presented and discussed.

  2. An electrochemical immunosensor for detecting progesterone in milk from dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ling; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Xu, Chuang; Zhang, Hongyou

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an electrochemical immunosensor for milk progesterone produced by dairy cows was developed. Using the immunosensor, milk progesterone levels in healthy estrus dairy cows was found to range from 1 to 6 ng/mL 20 days after estrus. There were high levels of progesterone in the milk from cows with prolonged luteal phase and luteal cysts, which ranged from 15 to 28 and 19 to 29 ng/mL, respectively. Cows with inactive ovaries also showed low milk progesterone levels of 1-8 ng/mL, but...

  3. Progesterone modulates the proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gongjie; Cai, Chuan; Dai, Juan; Liu, Yali; Zhang, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Wen, Li; Ding, Yin

    2010-08-01

    Hormone deficiency has been recognized as a risk factor for periodontal disease in postmenopausal women. However, the anabolic effects of progesterone on human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) are still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to detect the expression of progesterone receptor (PgR) in hPDLCs and investigate the bone-sparing effects of progesterone. We detected PgR expression in hPDLCs by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. After progesterone stimulation, the percentage of hPDLCs entering the S + G2M phase of the cell cycle increased significantly, accompanied by an increased cell growth curve. In both basic culture medium and osteogenic medium, progesterone activated alkaline phosphatase-positive cells and alizarin red-positive nodules. Moreover, mineralization-related markers were up-regulated by progesterone in both time-dependent and dose-dependent manners. In contrast, these effects of progesterone were blocked by the PgR antagonist (RU486). Our results demonstrated that the PgR is expressed in hPDLCs at the gene and protein level, and that progesterone can stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of the hPDLCs. These findings suggest that progesterone may play a significant role in osteoblastic function of hPDLCs and may influence the maintenance of alveolar bone mass.

  4. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in human breast cancer. Correlation with histologic subtype and degree of differentiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammed, R H; Lakatua, D J; Haus, E; Yasmineh, W J

    1986-01-01

    Microscopic review of 490 consecutive human breast biopsy and mastectomy specimens were correlated with estrogen and progesterone receptor content of the tissue, by subtype and degree of differentiation...

  5. Progesterone increases dopamine neurone number in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, N F; Díaz-Martínez, N E; Velasco, I; Camacho-Arroyo, I

    2009-08-01

    Progesterone participates in the regulation of several functions in mammals, including brain differentiation and dopaminergic transmission, but the role of progesterone in dopaminergic cell differentiation is unknown. We investigated the effects of progesterone on dopaminergic differentiation of embryonic stem cells using a five-stage protocol. Cells were incubated with different progesterone concentrations during the proliferation (stage 4) or differentiation (stage 5) phases. Progesterone added at 1, 10 and 100 nm during stage 4 increased the number of dopamine neurones at stage 5 by 72%, 80% and 62%, respectively, compared to the control group. The administration of progesterone at stage 5 did not induce significant changes in the number of dopamine neurones. These actions were not mediated by the activation of intracellular progesterone receptors because RU 486 did not block the positive effects of progesterone on differentiation to dopaminergic neurones. The results obtained suggest that progesterone should prove useful with respect to producing higher proportions of dopamine neurones from embryonic stem cells in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  6. Short communication: Plasma progesterone concentration and ovarian dynamics of lactating Jersey cows treated with 1 or 2 intravaginal progesterone inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, João G N; Silva, Paula R B; Bortoletto, Nathália; Scanavez, Alexandre L A; Chebel, Ricardo C

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to determine circulating progesterone concentrations and ovarian follicle development of lactating Jersey cows treated with 1 or 2 controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert containing 1.38 g of progesterone during proestrus. Cows were enrolled in the experiment at 34 ± 3 d in milk and were paired by parity, body condition score, body weight, and milk yield. Estrous cycles were presynchronized with an injection of GnRH concurrent with a new CIDR insert (study d -7) and 2 injections of PGF2α given 5 and 6 d after the GnRH injection (study d -2 and -1, respectively). Cows assigned to the 1CIDR treatment (n=30) or 2CIDR treatment (n=30) received 1 and 2 CIDR inserts, respectively, from study d 0 through 7. Control cows (n=10) did not receive further treatment. On study d -2 and daily from study d 0 through 7, ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasound and blood samples were collected for determination of progesterone. On study d 7, CIDR inserts were removed after ultrasound exam and blood sample collection. Progesterone concentration from study d 0 through 7 was greatest for 2CIDR cows (2.17 ± 0.09 ng/mL), followed by 1CIDR cows (1.37 ± 0.10 ng/mL) and control cows (0.62 ± 0.21 ng/mL). The interaction between treatment and study day affected progesterone concentration from study d 0 through 7. The average increase in progesterone concentration from study d 1 through 7 was 0.80 ng/mL for 1CIDR and 1.72 ng/mL for 2CIDR cows compared with control cows. The percentage of cows that ovulated between study d 0 and 7 was greatest for control cows (80%), but it did not differ between 1CIDR (12%) and 2CIDR (3.7%) cows. Growth of class III follicles (10-17 mm) identified on study d 0 was affected by treatment because 1CIDR cows had larger class III follicles than 2CIDR cows on study d 5, 6 and 7. A larger proportion of control cows developed a new follicular wave between study d 0 and 7 (control=60.0%, 1CIDR=12.0%, 2

  7. Induction of LH hypersecretion in cyclic rats during the afternoon of oestrus by oestrogen in conjunction with progesterone antagonism or opioidergic blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, R H; Pfaff, D W; Fishman, J

    1988-05-01

    The pro-oestrous secretion of progesterone that follows the LH surge in the rat limits the expression of the daily signal for LH surge initiation until the following oestrous cycle. This study explored the role of endogenous opioid peptides in the extinction by progesterone of the signal for the LH surge induced by oestrogen. Intact cyclic rats underwent external jugular venous cannulation on dioestrus, and were allowed to elicit a spontaneous pro-oestrous LH surge. On the afternoon of pro-oestrus, rats received an s.c. injection of oestradiol and an s.c. injection of either oil, 17 beta-hydroxy-11 beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)17 alpha-(prop-1-ynyl)oestra-4,9,dien-3-one (RU 486; a synthetic anti-progestin), or N-cyclopropylmethyl-6-desoxy-6-methylene-noroxy-morphone (nalmefene; a long-acting opiate antagonist). Repeat doses of each were administered on the morning of oestrus to maintain increased oestrogen levels, and either progesterone or opioidergic blockade. Plasma was obtained from 13.00 to 19.00 h on oestrus for determination of the concentration of rat LH. Rats treated with oestradiol alone demonstrated consistently low concentrations of LH throughout the afternoon of oestrus. Rats treated with both oestradiol and either RU 486 or nalmefene demonstrated spontaneous augmentations of rat LH concentration during the afternoon of oestrus, which, although of diminished amplitude as compared with that seen in pro-oestrus, were consistent with a reactivation of the LH surge-generating mechanism. Rats treated with nalmefene in the absence of oestradiol were unable to augment LH secretion spontaneously.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  9. Bucarest, Strictement Secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Mihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’émission Bucarest, strictement secret représente un documentaire organisésous la forme d’une série télé, qui dépeint le Bucarest à partir de deux perspectives: de l’histoire, de la conte et du lieu. La valeur d’une cité réside dans l’existence d’une mystique, d’un romantisme abscons, à part et des caractères empruntés de drames de Shakespeare, mystérieux, serrés d’angoisse et des secrets qui assombrissent leur existence. Par conséquence, le rôle du metteur en scène est de dévoiler leur vraie identité et de remettre en place, autant que possible, la vérité.

  10. P4-ATPases on the spotlight: lessons from a green world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    A fundamental feature of eukaryotic cells is the presence of distinct organelles surrounded by lipid bilayers. Assembly and maintenance of the various organellar membranes requires translocation of lipids from one leaflet of the bilayer to the other. Specific membrane proteins, termed lipid...... flippases, play an essential role in this transport process. We have recently characterized several members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases as prime candidate lipid flippases in the secretory pathway of several eukaryotic cells. Our studies in yeast, plants and mammalian cells uncovered...

  11. Bile Formation and Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (~1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. PMID:23897680

  12. The Secret Suburb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The ability to be ‘invisible’ seems to be an important quality in relation to a summerhouse. In fact, summerhouses can be said to be ‘invisible’ in a double sense. As I will explore in this chapter, summerhouses are neglected in planning and partly forgotten in Danish building regulations, at the......, at the same time as their owners like to see summerhouses as hidden places where they can live secret lives, hidden away from the modern world....

  13. Progesterone regulates granulosa cell viability through a protein kinase G-dependent mechanism that may involve 14-3-3sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, J J; Pappalardo, A

    2004-12-01

    Progesterone (P4) inhibits granulosa cell and spontaneously immortalized granulosa cell (SIGC) apoptosis by regulating membrane-initiated events. However, the nature of the signal transduction pathway that is induced by these membrane-initiated events has not been defined. To gain insights into the P4-regulated signal transduction pathway, mouse granulosa cells and SIGCs were cultured with 8-br-cGMP and P4. In culture, 8-br-cGMP mimicked P4's antiapoptotic actions. Because cGMP activates protein kinase G (PKG), the effect of PKG antagonists on P4-regulated SIGC viability was assessed. P4's antiapoptotic action was attenuated by the PKG inhibitors, Rp-8-pCPT-cGMP, KT5823, the PKG-1alpha-specific inhibitor, DT-3, and a dominant negative PKG-1alpha. Further, the type I isoform of PKG was shown to be expressed by SIGCs and activated by P4. P4's antiapoptotic action was not affected by the PKA inhibitor, KT5720. Collectively, these findings indicate that P4 maintains SIGC viability by activating PKG-1alpha. PKG-1alpha-GFP was shown to localize predominantly to the cytoplasm of SIGCs. To identify potential cytoplasmic targets of PKG-1alpha, SIGCs were cultured for 5 h with P4 in the presence or absence of DT-3. Cell lysates were prepared and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. The resulting gels were sequentially stained with ProQ-Diamond Gel Stain and Coomassie Blue to reveal phosphorylated proteins. The two-dimensional gels revealed one major protein, the phosphorylation status of which was abrogated by DT-3. Mass spectrometric analysis identified this protein as 14-3-3sigma, with 14-3-3sigma being phosphorylated on tyrosine 19, serine 28, serine 69, serine 74, threonine 90, threonine 98, and serine 116. Finally, difopein, a specific 14-3-3 inhibitor, was shown to induce apoptosis even in the presence of serum. These data suggest that 1) P4 regulates the phosphorylation status of 14-3-3sigma through a PKG-dependent pathway and 2) 14-3-3sigma plays a central

  14. Microarray profiling of progesterone-regulated endometrial genes during the rhesus monkey secretory phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okulicz William C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the endometrium the steroid hormone progesterone (P, acting through its nuclear receptors, regulates the expression of specific target genes and gene networks required for endometrial maturation. Proper endometrial maturation is considered a requirement for embryo implantation. Endometrial receptivity is a complex process that is spatially and temporally restricted and the identity of genes that regulate receptivity has been pursued by a number of investigators. Methods In this study we have used high density oligonucleotide microarrays to screen for changes in mRNA transcript levels between normal proliferative and adequate secretory phases in Rhesus monkey artificial menstrual cycles. Biotinylated cRNA was prepared from day 13 and days 21–23 of the reproductive cycle and transcript levels were compared by hybridization to Affymetrix HG-U95A arrays. Results Of ~12,000 genes profiled, we identified 108 genes that were significantly regulated during the shift from a proliferative to an adequate secretory endometrium. Of these genes, 39 were up-regulated at days 21–23 versus day 13, and 69 were down-regulated. Genes up-regulated in P-dominant tissue included: secretoglobin (uteroglobin, histone 2A, polo-like kinase (PLK, spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase 2 (SAT2, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI and metallothionein 1G (MT1G, all of which have been previously documented as elevated in the Rhesus monkey or human endometrium during the secretory phase. Genes down-regulated included: transforming growth factor beta-induced (TGFBI or BIGH3, matrix metalloproteinase 11 (stromelysin 3, proenkephalin (PENK, cysteine/glycine-rich protein 2 (CSRP2, collagen type VII alpha 1 (COL7A1, secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, chemokine (C-X-C ligand 12 (CXCL12 and biglycan (BGN. In addition, many novel/unknown genes were also identified. Validation of array data

  15. Progesterone and non-specific immunologic mechanisms in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres-Bartho, J; Par, G; Szereday, L; Smart, C Y; Achatz, I

    1997-09-01

    Progesterone-dependent immunomodulation is one of the mechanisms that enables pregnancy to proceed to term. Immunologic effects of progesterone are mediated by a protein named the progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF). Among other effects this protein inhibits natural killer (NK) activity and displays an anti-abortive effect in mice. Recently, we have shown that PIBF induces a Th2 shift in vitro. The present study was aimed at investigating the in vivo effect of PIBF on cytokine production, as well as the relationship between cytokine production, NK activity, and pregnancy loss. Balb-c mice on day 8.5 of pregnancy were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 mg of rabbit anti-PIBF immunoglobulin G (IgG). Another group of mice was simultaneously treated with anti-NK monoclonal antibodies. Mice treated with the same amount of normal rabbit serum or untreated mice of similar gestational age were used as controls. The animals were sacrificed and their uteri were inspected. The ratio of living and resorbed embryos was determined. NK activity as well as cytokine expression on the spleen cells were determined by immunocytochemistry and enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA). Mitogen-activated spleen cells from anti-PIBF-treated mice produced significantly (P < 0.001) less IL-10 than those of pregnant control mice. A significantly higher percentage (P < 0.001) of spleen cells from anti-PIBF-treated mice expressed interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) as determined by immunocytochemistry, than those of untreated pregnant mice. There was a positive relationship between the percentage of IFN gamma-positive spleen cells and resorption rates, and an inverse relationship between the latter and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production. All these effects were corrected by treatment with anti-NK antibodies. Our data suggest that PIBF contributes to the success of gestation via cytokine-mediated inhibition of NK activity.

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, June M.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males...... preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual...... in the development of sexual orientation....

  17. Luteal Support for IVF/ICSI Cycles with Crinone 8% (90 mg Twice Daily Results in Higher Pregnancy Rates Than with Intramuscular Progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hong Ho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: The use of vaginal progesterone gel twice daily for luteal support results in better pregnancy outcomes than intramuscular progesterone. A high local progesterone effect from vaginal gel might improve endometrial receptivity under extraordinarily high serum estradiol levels.

  18. Dynamic secrets in communication security

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Sheng; Towsley, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic secrets are constantly generated and updated from messages exchanged between two communication users. When dynamic secrets are used as a complement to existing secure communication systems, a stolen key or password can be quickly and automatically reverted to its secret status without disrupting communication. 'Dynamic Secrets in Communication Security' presents unique security properties and application studies for this technology. Password theft and key theft no longer pose serious security threats when parties frequently use dynamic secrets. This book also illustrates that a dynamic

  19. On Cheating Immune Secret Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Pieprzyk

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the cheating prevention in secret sharing. We consider secret sharing with binary shares. The secret also is binary. This model allows us to use results and constructions from the well developed theory of cryptographically strong boolean functions. In particular, we prove that for given secret sharing, the average cheating probability over all cheating vectors and all original vectors, i.e., 1/n 2 n ∑ c=1...n ∑ α∈V n ρ c,α, denoted by ρ, satisfies ρ ≥ ½, and the equality holds if and only if ρ c,α satisfies ρ c,α = ½ for every cheating vector δ c and every original vector α. In this case the secret sharing is said to be cheating immune. We further establish a relationship between cheating-immune secret sharing and cryptographic criteria of boolean functions.This enables us to construct cheating-immune secret sharing.

  20. Estradiol processing by pituitary cells in culture: An examination of the influences of various exposures to progesterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, L.C.; Kamel, F. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Dispersed, estradiol (E{sub 2})-treated pituitary cells were used to examine the cellular mechanisms underlying progesterone (P) suppression of GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH secretion. When cells were exposed to 10{sup {minus}9}M E{sub 2} for 48 h prior to GnRH challenge, P treatment for the last 24 h suppressed gonadotroph responsiveness to GnRH for both LH and FSH secretion. To determine if P acts by blocking E{sub 2} processing and/or uptake, we exposed cells to 2,4,6,7-{sup 3}H-E{sub 2} {plus minus} P and monitored the level and distribution of {sup 3}H-estrogens bound to estrogen receptors salt-extracted from nuclear pellets purified by sucrose density centrifugation. At 1, 4 and 24 h, P had no effect on the level of {sup 3}H-estrogen+receptor complexes or on the distribution of receptor-bound {sup 3}H-E{sub 2}, {sup 3}H-estrone and {sup 3}H-estriol. The results indicate that chronic influences of P to suppress the responsiveness of E{sub 2}-treated gonadotrophs to GnRH cannot be explained by alterations in estrogen receptor occupation as is the case in reproductive tract tissues.

  1. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  2. Vaginal cytology, vaginoscopy and progesterone profile: breeding tools in bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. S. Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The exfoliative vaginal cytology, vaginoscopic examination of vaginal mucosa and progesterone profiles were recorded in an attempt to identify the ideal time of breeding in bitches. A total of 18 anestrus bitches were selected and divided into 03 groups (Control, CABG and eCG groups. The bitches in control group did not receive any treatment and exhibited estrus. The estrus was induced with Cabergoline (CABG and equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG in the other two groups of bitches. In control group, higher percentage of superficial cells (89.94 ± 0.64 and lower percentage of intermediate (7.30 ± 0.77 and parabasal cells (2.76 ± 0.30 were characteristic vaginal cytological changes during estrus. Vaginoscopic examination of CABG group of bitches revealed that the vaginal mucus was creamy and paper white with angular shrinkage during estrus. In eCG group of bitches, the plasma progesterone concentration was 1.55 ± 0.19 ng/ml on day 8.00 ± 0.71 of proestrus. The conception rates were 66.66, 83.33 and 83.33 per cent in Control, Cabergoline and eCG groups, respectively. The litter size varied from 3.50 + 1.12 to 4.83 + 0.83 in the three groups.

  3. Progesterone receptor modulates ERα action in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hisham; Russell, I Alasdair; Stark, Rory; Rueda, Oscar M; Hickey, Theresa E; Tarulli, Gerard A; Serandour, Aurelien A; Serandour, Aurelien A A; Birrell, Stephen N; Bruna, Alejandra; Saadi, Amel; Menon, Suraj; Hadfield, James; Pugh, Michelle; Raj, Ganesh V; Brown, Gordon D; D'Santos, Clive; Robinson, Jessica L L; Silva, Grace; Launchbury, Rosalind; Perou, Charles M; Stingl, John; Caldas, Carlos; Tilley, Wayne D; Carroll, Jason S

    2015-07-16

    Progesterone receptor (PR) expression is used as a biomarker of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) function and breast cancer prognosis. Here we show that PR is not merely an ERα-induced gene target, but is also an ERα-associated protein that modulates its behaviour. In the presence of agonist ligands, PR associates with ERα to direct ERα chromatin binding events within breast cancer cells, resulting in a unique gene expression programme that is associated with good clinical outcome. Progesterone inhibited oestrogen-mediated growth of ERα(+) cell line xenografts and primary ERα(+) breast tumour explants, and had increased anti-proliferative effects when coupled with an ERα antagonist. Copy number loss of PGR, the gene coding for PR, is a common feature in ERα(+) breast cancers, explaining lower PR levels in a subset of cases. Our findings indicate that PR functions as a molecular rheostat to control ERα chromatin binding and transcriptional activity, which has important implications for prognosis and therapeutic interventions.

  4. Plant P4-ATPases: lipid translocators with a role in membrane traficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    members of this family with respect to their localization, substrate specificity, physiological role and requirement for the presence of a ß-subunit [9,13-15]. At the moment we are working on understanding the mechanism of lipid trasnsport and the regulation of these pumps. In this context, we have...... a large family of membrane proteins involved in pumping different physiologically-relevant substrates across biological membranes [4]. The members of the P4 subfamily (also known as flippases) catalyze the energy-driven translocation of lipids necessary for establishing transbilayer lipid asymmetry [5...... of lipid translocation, our results suggest that the different transport features of these proteins might be related to their physiological function at the membrane where they are located....

  5. Architecture and characterization of the P4DI CMOS hybrid pixel sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Kazas, I.; Zervakis, E.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2017-09-01

    Gamma ray imaging can be used for the extraction either of the activity map of a source or of the attenuation map of an object or both, as well as for the identification of the material composition of the emitting source or the object. All these imaging modalities can benefit from instruments giving the information of the energy of the converted photons and also the spatial and time coordinates of the conversion. The P4DI CMOS and hybrid provides the core technology for this task being a 2-D array based on Cd(Zn)Te material for the sensing layer. It consists of 1250 pixels with 400 μ m pitch. The energy resolution of the 241Am photopeak is 3.5 keV, time resolution is less than 12 μ s and power consumption is less than 100 mW. Architecture and characterization are described.

  6. Stress-induced increases in progesterone and cortisol in naturally cycling women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ycaza Herrera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies with animals of both sexes show that the adrenal glands release progesterone in addition to cortisol in response to stress. However, little is known about the progesterone response to stress in naturally cycling women. We investigated the effect of stress on estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol levels in women during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. We found that physical stress (the cold pressor test had no effect on estradiol levels, but increased progesterone and cortisol. We also found positive correlations between baseline progesterone and cortisol levels, as well as between the change in progesterone and cortisol before and after water exposure in both the stress and control sessions. Mediation analyses revealed during the stress session, the change in progesterone from baseline to 42-min post-stress onset was mediated by the magnitude of change in cortisol levels across the same time span. Overall, these findings reveal that progesterone released in response to stress as observed in animals and men extends to women during the low ovarian output follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and that the mechanism of release may be similar to the mechanism of cortisol release.

  7. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in human breast cancer. Correlation with histologic subtype and degree of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R H; Lakatua, D J; Haus, E; Yasmineh, W J

    1986-09-01

    Microscopic review of 490 consecutive human breast biopsy and mastectomy specimens were correlated with estrogen and progesterone receptor content of the tissue, by subtype and degree of differentiation. Of the 4 grades of differentiation, the less differentiated Grade III and IV tumors showed significantly lower levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors in infiltrating ductal and lobular carcinoma (P less than 0.001). In contrast, patients with medullary carcinoma had the lowest tissue levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors with approximately 80% of the cases with less than 10 fmol/mg protein. Patients with mucinous carcinoma had the highest percentages of positive estrogen and progesterone receptor levels (75% and 87%, respectively). Sixty-three percent of the patients with Grade IV infiltrating ductal carcinoma were younger than 53 years of age (P less than 0.001). Patients younger than 53 years of age with Grade II and III infiltrating ductal carcinoma also had significantly lower levels of estrogen receptors, but not of progesterone receptors, than those patients older than 53 years of age (P less than 0.001). Nineteen of 20 "normal" breast tissue specimens were negative (less than 3 fmol/mg protein) for estrogen and progesterone receptors. About 50% of 17 tissue specimens from benign breast lesions (fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease, sclerosing adenosis) showed positive estrogen (greater than 10 fmol/mg protein) or progesterone receptor values. In two patients with gynecomastia, no estrogen or progesterone receptors were detectable.

  8. Progesterone-induced spike-wave discharges are inhibited by finasteride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budziszewska, B.; Tetich, M.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Lason, W.

    2004-01-01

    Previously, it was found that progesterone aggravates spike-wave discharges (SWD) in WAG/Rij rats in a non-genomic way. In order to elucidate whether the regulatory effect of progesterone depends on its conversion to allopregnanolone, the effect of finasteride, a 5?-reductase inhibitor, on

  9. Development of a competitive lateral flow immunoassay for progesterone : influence of coating conjugates and buffer components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A.; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    2008-01-01

    Several aspects of the development of competitive lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are described. The quantitation of progesterone is taken as an example. The LFIA format consisted of a nitrocellulose membrane spotted with various progesterone conjugates as the test line. A mixture of primary

  10. Development of a competitive lateral flow immunoassay for progesterone: influence of coating conjugates and buffer components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Korf, J.; Amerongen, van A.

    2008-01-01

    Several aspects of the development of competitive lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are described. The quantitation of progesterone is taken as an example. The LFIA format consisted of a nitrocellulose membrane spotted with various progesterone conjugates as the test line. A mixture of primary

  11. Serum progesterone as an indicator of cyclic activity in post-partum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Serum progesterone as an indicator of cyclic activity in post-partum goat does. V.M. Mmbengwa ... Reproduction is a major factor contributing to the efficiency of meat and milk production (Khanum et al.,. 2008). .... where energy intake was limited, exhibited low levels of serum progesterone concentrations and consequently.

  12. Progesterone receptor structure and protease activity in primary human endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, P D; Clarke, C L; Satyaswaroop, P G

    1988-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were used to investigate progesterone receptor structure (isoforms) in 33 primary human endometrial tumors. The monoclonal antibodies recognized on protein blots two progesterone receptor proteins with molecular weights of 116,000 and 81,000. The Mr 116,000 protein appeared as a triplet, while a single band was found for the Mr 81,000 protein. The triplet/singlet structure was found in all progesterone receptor-positive tumors, regardless of the degree of tumor differentiation. Protease activity, which gave rise to a false-negative pattern on protein blots, was found in approximately one-half of the tumors in which it was investigated. Inclusion of a cocktail of protease inhibitors during sample preparation resulted in the maintenance of the triplet/singlet progesterone receptor structure. Mixing experiments using a progesterone receptor-rich human endometrial carcinoma (EnCa 101), which lacks protease activity, and protease-containing primary tumor homogenates indicated that the protease was leupeptin sensitive. Interestingly, while the proteolytic activity reduced or eliminated the triplet/singlet progesterone receptor structure seen on protein blot analysis, it did not affect progesterone receptor concentration measured by Scatchard analysis. Sample preparation in the presence of protease inhibitors is therefore a requisite for structural analysis of the progesterone receptor in endometrial tumors.

  13. Radioimmunoassays to determine the presence of progesterone and estrone in the starfish Asterias rubens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, S.J.; Schoenmakers, H.J.N.

    1979-01-01

    RIA's have been made for progesterone and estrone with the antisera S74B7 and 7604-7 40, respectively, which will be described. The characteristics of the RIA for progesterone resemble those of other reported RIA's. The antiserum for the RIA of estrone is highly specific, with main cross-reactions

  14. Oral progesterone decreases saccadic eye velocity and increases sedation in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, F. van; Backstrom, T.; Verkes, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of a single dose of progesterone in women. Allopregnanolone is a metabolite of progesterone and a potent positive modulator of the GABA(A) receptor and produces sedative and anxiolytic effects. This study was

  15. Reduced progesterone concentration during growth of the first follicular wave affects embryo quality but has no effect on embryo survival post transfer in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fernando A; Mendonça, Luís G D; Lopes, Gláucio; Santos, José E P; Perez, Rolando V; Amstalden, Marcel; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; Chebel, Ricardo C

    2011-03-01

    Fertility of lactating dairy cows is associated with reduced progesterone (P(4)) concentration compared with nonlactating animals. The objective of the current study was to determine whether P(4) during growth of the first follicular wave (FFW) affects embryo quality. Lactating Holstein cows at 33±3 days post partum were allocated to one of three treatments. Cows in the FFW and FFW with P(4) (FFWP) treatments started the superstimulation protocol on day 1 of the estrous cycle and second follicular wave (SFW) cows started the superstimulation protocol on estrous cycle day 7. Cows were superstimulated with 400  mg of NIH-FSH-P1 (FSH) given twice daily for 5 days, two prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) injections given with the ninth and tenth injections of FSH, GNRH given 48  h after the first PGF(2α) injection, and timed insemination 12 and 24  h after the GNRH injection. Cows in the FFWP treatment received two intravaginal P(4) inserts during the superstimulation. Embryos were recovered 6.5 days after artificial insemination and excellent/good and fair embryos were frozen and transferred. Blood was sampled daily from estrous cycle day 0 until insemination from donor cows. During the superstimulation protocol, P(4) was (P<0.01) greatest for SFW cows followed by FFWP and FFW cows respectively. The percentage of embryos-oocytes from SFW and FFWP cows classified as excellent/good and fair embryos was (P=0.02) greater than those of FFW cows. Pregnancy per embryo transfer was not (P≥0.73) affected by embryo donor treatment. Reduced embryo quality of cows induced to ovulate the follicles from the first follicular wave is a consequence of reduced P(4) during follicle growth.

  16. Suppression of prolactin secretion by lisuride throughout the menstrual cycle and in hyperprolactinaemic menstrual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnet, H G; Hanker, J P; Horowski, R; Wickings, E J; Schneider, H P

    1979-09-01

    Normally menstruating volunteers as well as patients with hyperprolactinaemic menstrual disorders were treated with lisuride hydrogen maleate (200 micrograms b.i.d.), an ergoline derivative with dopaminergic properties. Within 3 h after an oral dose of 200 micrograms lisuride, PRL levels decreased significantly in all subjects to a plateau which lasted up to 3 h. Thereafter a gradual increase of serum PRL was noted. In the normally menstruating volunteers lisuride treatment did not result in any significant change of gonadotrophin or of sex steroid secretion, while both, basal as well as metoclopramide (MTCL) stimulated PRL release were significantly diminished. The inhibition of PRL secretion in patients with short luteal phases resulted in an increase of luteal progesterone output. In both treated groups ovulation occurred 1 to 5 days earlier in cycles on lisuride than in control cycles. LF-RH/MTCL tests performed in the patient bearing a pituitary prolactinoma before and after lisuride treatment revealed a continuous increase of pituitary LH pools, while PRL secretion decreased under lisuride therapy. Subsequently ovulation and menstruation occurred. The data presented demonstrate that lisuride is a potent inhibitor of PRL secretion and has proven its clinical usefulness for treatment of hyperprolactinaemic menstrual disorders. Application of lisuride resulted in an increase of luteal progesterone secretion in previously demonstrated corpus luteum insufficiency as well as in restoration of normal cyclical feedback mechanisms in tumorous hyperprolactinaemic anovulation. The MTCL-PRL stimulation test is suitable to monitor PRL suppression during lisuride treatment, while LH-RH testing reveals the effectiveness of lisuride by demonstrating an increase of pituitary gonadotrophin pools.

  17. Progesterone treatment shows greater protection in brain vs. retina in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion: Progesterone receptor levels may play an important role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rachael S; Sayeed, Iqbal; Oumarbaeva, Yuliya; Morrison, Katherine C; Choi, Paul H; Pardue, Machelle T; Stein, Donald G

    2016-11-22

    To determine whether inflammation increases in retina as it does in brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and whether the neurosteroid progesterone, shown to have protective effects in both retina and brain after MCAO, reduces inflammation in retina as well as brain. MCAO rats treated systemically with progesterone or vehicle were compared with shams. Protein levels of cytosolic NF-κB, nuclear NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, CD11b, progesterone receptor A and B, and pregnane X receptor were assessed in retinas and brains at 24 and 48 h using western blots. Following MCAO, significant increases were observed in the following inflammatory markers: pNF-κB and CD11b at 24 h in both brain and retina, nuclear NF-κB at 24 h in brain and 48 h in retina, and TNF-α at 24 h in brain.Progesterone treatment in MCAO animals significantly attenuated levels of the following markers in brain: pNF-κB, nuclear NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, and CD11b, with significantly increased levels of cytosolic NF-κB. Retinas from progesterone-treated animals showed significantly reduced levels of nuclear NF-κB and IL-6 and increased levels of cytosolic NF-κB, with a trend for reduction in other markers. Post-MCAO, progesterone receptors A and B were upregulated in brain and downregulated in retina. Inflammatory markers increased in both brain and retina after MCAO, with greater increases observed in brain. Progesterone treatment reduced inflammation, with more dramatic reductions observed in brain than retina. This differential effect may be due to differences in the response of progesterone receptors in brain and retina after injury.

  18. Intra-tissue steroid profiling indicates differential progesterone and testosterone metabolism in the endometrium and endometriosis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtinen, Kaisa; Saloniemi-Heinonen, Taija; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Desai, Reena; Laajala, Daniel; Ståhle, Mia; Häkkinen, Merja R; Awosanya, Michael; Suvitie, Pia; Kujari, Harry; Aittokallio, Tero; Handelsman, David J; Auriola, Seppo; Perheentupa, Antti; Poutanen, Matti

    2014-11-01

    Aberrant sex steroid signaling is suggested to promote endometriosis growth by several mechanisms, and the tissue concentrations of sex steroids are key determinants of the hormone action. However, their concentrations are only superficially known in the endometrium and endometriosis lesions. This study sought to evaluate whether the tissue steroid hormone concentrations in endometriosis differ from the endometrium or serum. Steroid analysis of serum and tissue specimens of women with endometriosis (n = 60) and healthy controls (n=16) was measured, and supporting data from quantitative RT-PCR for steroidogenic enzymes and explant cultures of a subset of specimens is provided. Endometrial tissue progesterone (P4) concentrations reflected the serum P4 levels during the menstrual cycle, whereas in endometriosis lesions, the cycle-dependent change was missing. Remarkably high tissue T concentrations were measured in endometriosis lesions independent of the cycle phase, being 5-19 times higher than the corresponding serum levels. Tissue/serum ratio of T was further increased in patients with contraceptive medication. The altered tissue steroid concentrations in endometriosis were in line with the expression of various steroidogenic enzymes in the lesions, of which HSD3B2 showed constantly high expression, whereas CYP11A1 expression was low. Furthermore, the high concentration of sex steroids detected in the ovarian lesions involves their production by the lesion and by the adjacent ovarian tissue. Endometriosis lesions present with progestin and androgen metabolism, which are different from that of the endometrium, and the lesions are characterized by high tissue T and a loss of cyclical changes in tissue P4 concentration.

  19. The putative α/β-hydrolases of Dietzia cinnamea P4 strain as potential enzymes for biocatalytic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procopio da Silva, Luciano; Macrae, Andrew; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    The draft genome of the soil actinomycete Dietzia cinnamea P4 reveals a versatile group of alpha/beta-hydrolase fold enzymes. Phylogenetic and comparative sequence analyses were used to classify the alpha/beta-hydrolases of strain P4 into six different groups: (i) lipases, (ii) esterases, (iii)

  20. Biosynthesis and characterization of diblock copolymer of p(3-hydroxypropionate)-block-p(4-hydroxybutyrate) from recombinant Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripathi, Lakshmi; Wu, Linping; Meng, Dechuan

    2013-01-01

    Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) is a highly elastic polymer, whereas poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a polymer with enormous tensile strength. This study aimed to biosynthesize a block copolymer consisting of soft P4HB block with a strong P3HP block to gain unique and excellent material proper...

  1. Plasma Progesterone and Some Uterine and Embryonic Characteristics in Early Gestation of Colombian Mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Paredes Higuera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four Colombian mares from 4 to 14 years of age were inseminated artificially. Progesterone (P4 plasma levels were quantified by the technique of solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA; corpus luteum (CL, the uterus and uterine edema were evaluated by ultrasonography from ovulation until day 40 post-ovulation. Pregnancy was diagnosed upon detecting a conceptus; it was evaluated daily from that moment until day 40. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics with mean values and standard deviation (SD. Pregnancy diagnosis was made on day 10.4 ± 0.8 (mean ± SD. The conceptus growth rate was 1.65 ± 0.1 mm / day; attachment to the uterus occurred on day 16.8 ± 1.5. The embryo was visualized within the gallbladder on day 20.8 ± 1.7; its growth rate was 0.8 ± 0.3 mm/day. Heartbeat was detected from day 23.9 ± 1.3. 100 % of the embryos had normal development until day 40 of gestation. 62.5 % of the CL was located in the right ovary and 33.3 % in the left; one animal had double ovulation. 66.6 % of the conceptus was located in the right utero corneal junction and 33.3 % in the left;79.1 % ipsilateral to the CL. Pregnancy in the mare shows physiological characteristics similar to those described in literature. The data presented here are important for clinical evaluations and provide a starting point for future studies.

  2. Vaginal versus intramuscular progesterone in the prevention of preterm labor and their effect on uterine and fetal blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A. Abd El Hameed

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: Vaginally administrated progesterone was nearly as equally effective as intra muscular progesterone in the prevention of PTL in women at risk and both were associated with significant reduction in fetal MCA-PI and RI, but a significant reduction in uterine artery RI and PI was observed only after vaginal progesterone.

  3. The roles of pregn-5-ene-3β,20α-diol and 20α-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase in the control of progesterone synthesis preceding parturition and lactogenesis in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Briley, M. S.

    1970-01-01

    1. The activity of 20α-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase in rat ovarian corpora lutea increased at least 50-fold between 2 days before and 2 days after parturition, and then fell gradually during lactation. The activity of 3β-hydroxy Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase decreased by 50% at parturition but remained constant at other times. 2. The 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one/progesterone concentration ratio in the ovary fell tenfold between 1 day before and 1 day after parturition, in contrast with the increase of the ratio for these steroids in plasma. 3. Pregnenolone was metabolized in intact cells or cell-free systems either to pregn-5-ene-3β,20α-diol and then to 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by 20α-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and 3β-hydroxy Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase respectively, or directly to progesterone by the latter enzyme. The relative activities of these pathways appeared to reflect the relative amounts of the two enzymes and the concentrations of their respective coenzymes NADPH and NAD+. 4. From these and other observations it was concluded that the cessation of progesterone secretion, which precedes parturition and lactogenesis at the end of pregnancy, is partly due to the redirected metabolism of pregnenolone away from progesterone and towards 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one as the secreted end product. This is primarily the consequence of the sharp increase in the activity of 20α-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase. This mechanism is super-imposed on the already declining rate of net Δ4-steroid release by the ovary. 5. A relationship of these pathways to subcellular compartments of luteal cells is proposed. PMID:4392955

  4. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-05-18

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of progesterone and norgestrel affects sex differentiation in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan-Qiu; Huang, Guo-Yong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Tian, Fei; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of progestins on the sex differentiation of zebrafish by measuring the sex ratio and transcriptions of genes related to sex differentiation (Amh, Dmrt1, Figa, Sox9a and Sox9b genes) as well as sex hormone levels and transcriptional expression profiles along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes in juvenile zebrafish. Exposure of zebrafish to 4, 33, 63ngL(-1) progesterone (P4) or 4, 34, 77ngL(-1) norgestrel (NGT) started at 20 days post fertilization (dpf) and ended at 60 dpf. The results showed that exposure to P4 caused a significant increase in proportion of females as well as significant down-regulation of Amh gene and up-regulation of Figa at a concentration of 63ngL(-1). However, the shift in the sex ratio toward males was observed following exposure to 34 and 77ngL(-1) NGT, which came along with the significant induction of Dmrt1 gene and inhibition of Figa gene. The sex hormones in exposed fish were measured with estrone being detected only in the fish exposed to the highest P4 concentration; whereas estradiol and androstenedione were detected only in the fish of the control and lowest NGT concentration. Furthermore, the increase in females was associated with the significant up-regulation of several key genes controlling the synthesis of sex hormones (i.e., Cyp17, Cyp19a1a and Hsd3b) following exposure to 63ngL(-1) P4 whereas the significant down-regulation of Cyp11a1, Cyp17, Cyp19a1a and Hsd3b genes was observed in the male-biased populations caused by 34 and 77ngL(-1) NGT. The overall results imply that both P4 and NGT could significantly affect sex differentiation in zebrafish, and that changes may be reflected by altered sex hormone levels and transcriptional expression profiles of genes related to synthesis of sex hormones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. NEMO, a Transcriptional Target of Estrogen and Progesterone, Is Linked to Tumor Suppressor PML in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsarraj, Hanan S; Valdez, Kelli E; Hong, Yan; Grimm, Sandra L; Ricci, Lawrence R; Fan, Fang; Tawfik, Ossama; May, Lisa; Cusick, Therese; Inciardi, Marc; Redick, Mark; Gatewood, Jason; Winblad, Onalisa; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Edwards, Dean P; Hagan, Christy R; Godwin, Andrew K; Fabian, Carol; Behbod, Fariba

    2017-07-15

    The beneficial versus detrimental roles of estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) in breast cancer remains controversial. Here we report a beneficial mechanism of E+P treatment in breast cancer cells driven by transcriptional upregulation of the NFκB modulator NEMO, which in turn promotes expression of the tumor suppressor protein promyelocytic leukemia (PML). E+P treatment of patient-derived epithelial cells derived from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) increased secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL6. Mechanistic investigations indicated that IL6 upregulation occurred as a result of transcriptional upregulation of NEMO, the gene that harbored estrogen receptor (ER) binding sites within its promoter. Accordingly, E+P treatment of breast cancer cells increased ER binding to the NEMO promoter, thereby increasing NEMO expression, NFκB activation, and IL6 secretion. In two mouse xenograft models of DCIS, we found that RNAi-mediated silencing of NEMO increased tumor invasion and progression. This seemingly paradoxical result was linked to NEMO-mediated regulation of NFκB and IL6 secretion, increased phosphorylation of STAT3 on Ser727, and increased expression of PML, a STAT3 transcriptional target. In identifying NEMO as a pivotal transcriptional target of E+P signaling in breast cancer cells, our work offers a mechanistic explanation for the paradoxical antitumorigenic roles of E+P in breast cancer by showing how it upregulates the tumor suppressor protein PML. Cancer Res; 77(14); 3802-13. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74±24.331, 365.9±16.55, and 367.5±21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325±0.243, 0.341±0.022, and 0.357  ±  0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6  ±  26.75, 315.6  ±  13.08, and 332.08  ±  24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P=.001. This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47% of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46% without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0% fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P=.017. ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P<.05. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele and fertile (P<.05. Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with

  8. Comparison of the administration of progesterone versus progesterone and vitamin D in improvement of outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury: A randomized clinical trial with placebo group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminmansour, Bahram; Nikbakht, Hossein; Ghorbani, Abbas; Rezvani, Majid; Rahmani, Paiman; Torkashvand, Mostaffa; Nourian, Mohammadamin; Moradi, Mehran

    2012-01-01

    Due to the heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI), many of single treatments have not been successful in prevention and cure of these kinds of injuries. The neuroprotective effect of progesterone drug on severe brain injuries has been identified, and recently, the neuroprotective effect of vitamin D has also been studied as the combination of these two drugs has shown better effects on animal samples in some studies. This study was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin D and progesterone on brain injury treatment after brain trauma. This study was performed on patients with severe brain trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 8) from April to September, 2011. The patients were divided to 3 groups (placebo, progesterone, progesterone-vitamin D), each with 20 people. Upon the patients' admission, their GCS and demographic information were recorded. After 3 months, they were reassessed, and their GCS and GOS (Glasgow outcome scale) were recorded. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Before intervention, GCS mean of the placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D groups were 6.3 ± 0.88, 6.31 ± 0.87, and 6 ± 0.88, respectively. They increased to 9.16 ± 1.11, 10.25 ± 1.34, and 11.27 ± 2.27, respectively 3 months after intervention. There was a significant difference among GCS means of the 3 groups (P-value = 0.001). GOS was classified to 2 main categories of favorable and unfavorable recovery, of which, favorable recovery in placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D was 25%, 45%, and 60%, respectively which showed a statistical significant difference among the groups (P-value = 0.03). The results showed that recovery rate in patients with severe brain trauma in the group receiving progesterone and vitamin D together was significantly higher than that of progesterone group, which was in turn higher than that of placebo group.

  9. Comparison of the administration of progesterone versus progesterone and vitamin D in improvement of outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury: A randomized clinical trial with placebo group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Aminmansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI, many of single treatments have not been successful in prevention and cure of these kinds of injuries. The neuroprotective effect of progesterone drug on severe brain injuries has been identified, and recently, the neuroprotective effect of vitamin D has also been studied as the combination of these two drugs has shown better effects on animal samples in some studies. This study was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin D and progesterone on brain injury treatment after brain trauma. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on patients with severe brain trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS ≤ 8 from April to September, 2011. The patients were divided to 3 groups (placebo, progesterone, progesterone-vitamin D, each with 20 people. Upon the patients′ admission, their GCS and demographic information were recorded. After 3 months, they were reassessed, and their GCS and GOS (Glasgow outcome scale were recorded. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA. Results: Before intervention, GCS mean of the placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D groups were 6.3 ± 0.88, 6.31 ± 0.87, and 6 ± 0.88, respectively. They increased to 9.16 ± 1.11, 10.25 ± 1.34, and 11.27 ± 2.27, respectively 3 months after intervention. There was a significant difference among GCS means of the 3 groups (P-value = 0.001. GOS was classified to 2 main categories of favorable and unfavorable recovery, of which, favorable recovery in placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D was 25%, 45%, and 60%, respectively which showed a statistical significant difference among the groups (P-value = 0.03. Conclusion: The results showed that recovery rate in patients with severe brain trauma in the group receiving progesterone and vitamin D together was significantly higher than that of progesterone group, which was in turn higher than that of placebo group.

  10. Catecholamine Secretion from Individual Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wightman, R

    1998-01-01

    .... Many cells, including neurons, communicate by secretion of chemical substances by exocytosis where substances are extruded into the extracellular space following fusion of the vesicle and plasma membranes...

  11. Secret and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André PETITAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The postures of secrecy and revelation maintain our common relational dynamics between sharing and not sharing. Science, which has become the dominant form of knowledge, is a rational and empirical knowledge sharing. For this purpose, the knowledge articulates languages, if possible unambiguous, spaces of rational deliberation, technical devices and resources of the imagination. This activity meets other logics called power, prestige, status, profit, customer, blind adherence and revealed truth, in which the postures of secret invite themselves massively. The codes of ethics attempt to regulate this mix of contradictory logics by setting standards of scientific exchanges, recalling the person rights and particularly the subjects observed rights, protecting the working conditions of the researcher, preserving its autonomy from funders and policy makers, and ensuring the dissemination of its results.

  12. n-ZnO/p-4H-SiC diode: Structural, electrical, and photoresponse characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziewicz, M.; Schifano, R.; Przezdziecka, E.; Domagala, J. Z.; Jung, W.; Krajewski, T. A.; Guziewicz, E.

    2015-09-01

    Epitaxial n-type ZnO film has been grown, on a commercial 5 μm thick p-type 4H-SiC(00.1) Al doped epilayer, by atomic layer deposition. A full width at half maximum of the ZnO 00.2 diffraction peak rocking curve of 0.34°± 0.02° has been measured. Diodes formed on the n-ZnO/p-4H-SiC heterostructure show rectifying behavior with a forward to reverse current ratio at the level of 109 at ±4 V, a leakage current density of ˜6 × 10-8 A/cm2, and a low ideality factor equal to 1.17 ± 0.04. In addition, the diodes exhibit selective photoresponse with a maximum at 367 nm, and with a current increase of ˜103 under illuminations with respect to the dark value, which makes such devices prospective candidates for ultraviolet light sensors.

  13. The effects of progesterone on transcriptional expression profiles of genes associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes during the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan-Qiu; Huang, Guo-Yong; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Liu, Shan; Peng, Feng-Jiao

    2015-06-01

    Progesterone (P4) has been reported in surface water, and it may have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This study provided the transcriptional effects of P4 during the early development of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed for 144 h post fertilization (hpf) to 0, 6, 45 and 90 ng L(-1) P4, and transcriptional expression profiles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes were assessed every day. For the receptor signaling pathways, P4 significantly induced the transcript of Pgr gene above 45 ng L(-1) at 72 and 144 hpf, but inhibited its transcript above 6 ng L(-1) at 96 and 120 hpf. A significant up-regulation of Vtg1 mRNA was observed at 6 ng L(-1) P4 or higher at 24, 96 and 144 hpf. For the steroidogenic pathways, the transcriptional expression of Cyp11a1 and Hsd17b3 mRNAs was mediated by 6 ng L(-1) P4 or higher according to different exposure time points. In addition, P4 resulted in a significant induction of Cyp19a1a and Cyp11b mRNA expression while it caused a significant inhibition of Hsd11b2 mRNA expression above 6 ng L(-1). For the other target genes related to hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, P4 mainly modulated the transcripts of Gnrh2, Fshb and Lhb genes at 6 ng L(-1) or higher. The overall results from the present study indicate that P4 at environmentally relevant concentrations could cause the potential effects on zebrafish reproductive and adrenal endocrine systems by interfering with the HPG and HPA axes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Produção de progesterona in vitro pelas células do corpo lúteo bovino ao longo da gestação In vitro progesterone production from bovine corpus luteum throughout gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana N. La Paz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido para testar a hipótese de que células luteínicas bovinas em cultivo, provenientes dos três terços de gestação, comportam-se da mesma maneira que células in vivo em relação à produção de P4. Foram coletadas amostras de corpos lúteos (CL de 90 (n=3, 150 (n=3 e 210 (n=3 dias de gestação obtidos em abatedouro. Sob condições assépticas, as células foram mecanicamente dispersas e cultivadas em placas de 96 poços. Após 24 horas de cultivo foram feitas a lavagem dos poços e a adição do precursor pregnenolona. Os tratamentos foram realizados em octuplicata para cada tempo de tratamento (24, 48 e 96 horas com três repetições de cada período gestacional. As amostras de meio de cultura e as células foram coletadas 24, 48 e 96 horas após adição do precursor e acondicionadas em freezer a -20ºC até o processamento. A progesterona foi dosada através de radioimunoensaio e o conteúdo protéico pelo método de Lowry. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente e considerados diferentes quando pThe aim was to test the hypothesis that cultivated bovine luteal cells from three different thirds of pregnancy behave the same way as in vivo luteal cells relative to P4 production. Corpus luteum samples from days 90 (n=3, 150 (n=3 and 210 (n=3 of pregnancy were obtained at a local slaughterhouse. Under aseptic conditions cells were mechanically dispersed and cultivated in a 96 wells-plate. After 24 hours of culture, cells were washed and the precursor pregnenolone was added. Experiments were conducted eight times for each studied time period (24, 48 and 96 h and three times for each gestational age. Culture medium and cells were collected after 24, 48 and 96 hours of precursor addition and kept frozen at -20ºC until processing. Progesterone was measured by RIA and protein content by Lowry's method. Results were statistically analyzed and considered different when p <0.05. A higher P4 production

  15. Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Shilpa P.; Parmar, Dinesh M.

    2012-01-01

    Unwanted pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception is defined as the use of drug or device after unprotected or underprotected intercourse to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel as a single dose or in two doses with 12 h apart taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse is the current gold standard emergency contraception regimen. This method is only effective if used as soon as possible after sexual intercourse and before ovulation. A single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate, a novel selective progesterone receptor modulator, has recently been proposed for the emergency contraception use up to 120 h of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate could possibly prevent pregnancy when administered in the advanced follicular phase, even if luteinizing hormone levels have already begun to rise, a time when levonorgestrel is no longer effective in inhibiting ovulation. PMID:22629083

  16. Progesterone release from magnetic alginate/chitosan microcapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Melina Vasconcelos; Castro, Mayara de Freitas e; Sanchez Rodriguez, Ruben J., E-mail: sanchez@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Rojas-Ayala, Chachi; Baggio-Saitovitch, Elisa Maria [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisa Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeir, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were prepared using the hydrothermal method (160°C) in a closed system and characterized with the aid of the techniques of X-ray Diffraction patterns (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase showed high crystallinity and medium crystallite size of 19nm with superparamagnetic properties, reversible behavior and saturation magnetization of 43 emu g{sup -1}. The nanoparticles coated with alginate / chitosan were characterized morphologically by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope. The microcapsules have a regular spherical shape with the main contribution of the size distribution in the range of 34-53μm. The progesterone released was 14% higher when external magnetic field was applied. (author)

  17. DNA Immunization with the Gene Encoding P4 Nuclease of Leishmania amazonensis Protects Mice against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kimberly; Diao, Hong; Ji, Jiaxiang; Soong, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania amazonensis can cause diverse clinical forms of leishmaniasis. Immunization with purified P4 nuclease protein has been shown to elicit a protective response in mice challenged with L. amazonensis and L. pifanoi. To explore the potential of a DNA-based vaccine, we tested the L. amazonensis gene encoding P4 nuclease as well as adjuvant constructs encoding murine interleukin-12 (IL-12) and L. amazonensis HSP70. Susceptible BALB/c mice were immunized with the DNA encoding P4 alone, P4/IL-12, or P4/HSP70 prior to challenge with L. amazonensis promastigotes. Mice given P4/IL-12 exhibited no lesion development and had a 3- to 4-log reduction in tissue parasite burdens compared to controls. This protection corresponded to significant increases in gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha production and a reduction in parasite-specific immunoglobulin G1, suggesting an enhancement in Th1 responses. Moreover, we immunized mice with the L. amazonensis vaccines to determine if this vaccine regimen could provide cross-protection against a genetically diverse species, L. major. While the P4/HSP70 vaccine led to self-healing lesions, the P4/IL-12 vaccine provided negligible protection against L. major infection. This is the first report of successful use of a DNA vaccine to induce protection against L. amazonensis infection. Additionally, our results indicate that different vaccine combinations, including DNA encoding P4, HSP70, or IL-12, can provide significant protection against both Old World and New World cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:14573646

  18. Biosynthesis and characterization of diblock copolymer of p(3-hydroxypropionate)-block-p(4-hydroxybutyrate) from recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Lakshmi; Wu, Lin-Ping; Meng, Dechuan; Chen, Jinchun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2013-03-11

    Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) is a highly elastic polymer, whereas poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a polymer with enormous tensile strength. This study aimed to biosynthesize a block copolymer consisting of soft P4HB block with a strong P3HP block to gain unique and excellent material properties. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain that produces homopolymers of P3HP and P4HB was employed for the block copolymer synthesis. When the strain was grown in the presence of 1,4-butanediol (BDO) as a 4HB precursor, P4HB block was formed. Sequential supplementation of 1,3-propanediol (PDO) as a 3HP precursor allowed the strain to produce P3HP block. Thermal, NMR, fractionation, and mechanical characterizations confirmed the resulting polymer as a block copolymer of P3HP-b-P4HB. Two block copolymers were formed from this study, including the P3HP-b-29% P4HB and P3HP-b-37% P4HB, they showed superior properties over random copolymers P(3HP-co-4HB). The block copolymers had two glass transition temperatures (Tg) and two melting temperatures (Tm). In comparison to the homopolymers P3HP and P4HB, incorporation of block microstructure resulted in the lowering of Tm, block copolymers were revealed with higher Young's modulus, yield strengths, and tension strengths much better than the previously reported random copolymers of similar compositions. Block copolymerization of P3HP and P4HB adds a new vision on PHA polymerization by generation of new polymers with superior properties.

  19. Inverse Relationship between Progesterone Receptor and Myc in Endometrial Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Kavlashvili

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer, the most common gynecologic malignancy, is a hormonally-regulated disease. Response to progestin therapy positively correlates with hormone receptor expression, in particular progesterone receptor (PR. However, many advanced tumors lose PR expression. We recently reported that the efficacy of progestin therapy can be significantly enhanced by combining progestin with epigenetic modulators, which we term "molecularly enhanced progestin therapy." What remained unclear was the mechanism of action and if estrogen receptor α (ERα, the principle inducer of PR, is necessary to restore functional expression of PR via molecularly enhanced progestin therapy. Therefore, we modeled advanced endometrial tumors that have lost both ERα and PR expression by generating ERα-null endometrial cancer cell lines. CRISPR-Cas9 technology was used to delete ERα at the genomic level. Our data demonstrate that treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi was sufficient to restore functional PR expression, even in cells devoid of ERα. Our studies also revealed that HDACi treatment results in marked downregulation of the oncogene Myc. We established that PR is a negative transcriptional regulator of Myc in endometrial cancer in the presence or absence of ERα, which is in contrast to studies in breast cancer cells. First, estrogen stimulation augmented PR expression and decreased Myc in endometrial cancer cell lines. Second, progesterone increased PR activity yet blunted Myc mRNA and protein expression. Finally, overexpression of PR by adenoviral transduction in ERα-null endometrial cancer cells significantly decreased expression of Myc and Myc-regulated genes. Analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA database of endometrial tumors identified an inverse correlation between PR and Myc mRNA levels, with a corresponding inverse correlation between PR and Myc downstream transcriptional targets SRD5A1, CDK2 and CCNB1. Together, these data

  20. A critical period of progesterone withdrawal precedes menstruation in macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayden, Ov D; Brenner, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    Macaques are menstruating nonhuman primates that provide important animal models for studies of hormonal regulation in the uterus. In women and macaques the decline of progesterone (P) at the end of the cycle triggers endometrial expression of a variety of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes that participate in tissue breakdown and menstrual sloughing. To determine the minimal duration of P withdrawal required to induce menses, we assessed the effects of adding P back at various time points after P withdrawal on both frank bleeding patterns and endometrial MMP expression. Artificial menstrual cycles were induced by treating the animals sequentially with implants releasing estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P). To assess bleeding patterns, P implants were removed at the end of a cycle and then added back at 12, 24, 30, 36, 40, 48, 60, or 72 hours (h) after the initial P withdrawal. Observational analysis of frank bleeding patterns showed that P replacement at 12 and 24 h blocked menses, replacement at 36 h reduced menses but replacement after 36 h failed to block menses. These data indicate that in macaques, a critical period of P withdrawal exists and lasts approximately 36 h. In other similarly cycled animals, we withdrew P and then added P back either during (12–24 h) or after (48 h) the critical period, removed the uterus 24 h after P add back and evaluated endometrial MMP expression. Immunocytochemistry showed that replacement of P during the critical period suppressed MMP-1, -2 and -3 expression along with menses, but replacement of P at 48 h, which failed to suppress mense, suppressed MMP-1 and MMP-3 but did not block MMP-2. We concluded that upregulation of MMPs is essential to menses induction, but that after the critical period, menses will occur even if some MMPs are experimentally blocked. PMID:17118170

  1. Intestinal tumorigenesis is not affected by progesterone signaling in rodent models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarom Heijmans

    Full Text Available Clinical data suggest that progestins have chemopreventive properties in the development of colorectal cancer. We set out to examine a potential protective effect of progestins and progesterone signaling on colon cancer development. In normal and neoplastic intestinal tissue, we found that the progesterone receptor (PR is not expressed. Expression was confined to sporadic mesenchymal cells. To analyze the influence of systemic progesterone receptor signaling, we crossed mice that lacked the progesterone receptor (PRKO to the Apc(Min/+ mouse, a model for spontaneous intestinal polyposis. PRKO-Apc(Min/+ mice exhibited no change in polyp number, size or localization compared to Apc(Min/+. To examine effects of progestins on the intestinal epithelium that are independent of the PR, we treated mice with MPA. We found no effects of either progesterone or MPA on gross intestinal morphology or epithelial proliferation. Also, in rats treated with MPA, injection with the carcinogen azoxymethane did not result in a difference in the number or size of aberrant crypt foci, a surrogate end-point for adenoma development. We conclude that expression of the progesterone receptor is limited to cells in the intestinal mesenchyme. We did not observe any effect of progesterone receptor signaling or of progestin treatment in rodent models of intestinal tumorigenesis.

  2. Effects of estradiol and progesterone on the reproduction of the freshwater crayfish Cherax albidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, E; De Lisa, E; Di Cristo, C; Di Cosmo, A; Paolucci, M

    2010-02-01

    In this study we have investigated the role of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone in the reproduction of the crayfish Cherax albidus by using vitellogenin (VTG) as a biomarker. Early-vitellogenic (EV), full-vitellogenic (FV), and non-vitellogenic (NV) females of Cherax albidus were treated with 17beta-estradiol, progesterone, or both for 4 weeks. Levels of VTG mRNA in the hepatopancreas were detected by RT-PCR. The PCR product was sequenced and showed 97% homology with Cherax quadricarinatus VTG. 17beta-estradiol was more effective than progesterone and 17beta-estradiol plus progesterone in increasing the vitellogenin transcript in the hepatopancreas of EV and FV females. On the contrary, progesterone was more effective than 17beta-estradiol and 17beta-estradiol plus progesterone in increasing the vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph of EV and FV females. Hepatopancreas histology and fatty acid composition of females injected with hormones showed major modifications. No effects were registered in NV females. In conclusion, 17beta-estradiol and progesterone influence VTG synthesis, although our data indicate that they act through different pathways and are not effective until the proper hormonal environment is established, as demonstrated by their inefficacy in NV females.

  3. Variability of ovarian structures and plasma progesterone profiles in dairy cows with ovarian cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, D J; Pierson, R A; Hauser, E R; Grummer, R R; Combs, D K

    1990-08-01

    Weekly reproductive health examinations were performed on 46 multiparous Holstein cows from 14 to 100 d post partum. Sixteen cows developed 19 nonsimultaneous ovarian cysts, with a mean day of first detection at 34.3 +/- 4.5 d post partum and a mean duration of 31.0 +/- 4.3 d after first detection. Coccygeal blood was collected three times weekly, and plasma progesterone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Cysts were diagnosed by palpation per rectum or by ultrasonography and classified as follicular or luteal cysts; the cows were not treated. Cows with a mean plasma progesterone concentration of cyst until Day 10 were classified as having a follicular cyst, and those with a mean plasma progesterone concentration of >or= 1 ng/ml from Day 1 to Day 10 were classified as having a luteal cyst. According to this classification, 58% of the cysts were follicular and 42% were luteal. There was an overall 47% agreement between classification by palpation and by ultrasonography on Day 1 with progesterone concentration during Days 1 to 10 after detection of the cyst. Detailed graphs of progesterone concentrations and area of largest follicles or cysts and corpora lutea demonstrate the variability of ovarian structures and progesterone profiles in cystic cows. Detection of a cyst at any one time accompanied by simultaneous measurement of progesterone can lead to different diagnoses of cyst type depending on the method of classification, the presence and age of luteinized tissue in the cyst and undetected corpora lutea.

  4. Effect of a single injection of progesterone on ovarian follicular cysts in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatler, T B; Hayes, S H; Anderson, L H; Silvia, W J

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of a single injection of progesterone on the lifespan of ovarian follicular cysts and to examine the fate of follicles that mature following treatment. Lactating Holstein and Jersey cows with ovarian follicular cysts were identified by rectal palpation. The ovaries of cystic cows were then examined by transrectal ultrasonography three times weekly to monitor formation of new follicular cysts. Cows with newly formed follicular cysts were treated either with a single injection of progesterone (200 mg, IM, n = 11) or corn oil vehicle (n = 7). Venous blood samples were collected daily for quantification of progesterone. Blood sampling and ultrasonography continued until ovulation or a new follicular cyst formed. Treatment reduced the lifespan of the cyst by 12 days, from 29.8 +/- 2.3 days in control cows to 17.2 +/- 1.8 days in progesterone-treated cows (P = 0.01). Progesterone treatment also tended to alter the frequency of subsequent follicular events. Ovulation occurred in 4/11 cows that were treated with progesterone whereas none of the vehicle treated cows ovulated (P = 0.07). In conclusion, a single injection of 200mg of progesterone, administered early in the life of an ovarian follicular cyst, shortened its lifespan and in some cases was followed by ovulation of a new follicle.

  5. Development of a TIRF-based biosensor for sensitive detection of progesterone in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käppel, Nina D; Pröll, Florian; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2007-04-15

    A total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF)-based biosensor for progesterone in bovine milk was developed and tested by measuring the progesterone level in daily milk samples for 25 days, covering a whole estrus cycle. The detection is based on total internal reflectance fluorescence. The assay has been designed as a binding-inhibition test with a progesterone derivative covalently immobilized on the sensor surface and a monoclonal anti-progesterone antibody as biological recognition element. First an existing progesterone assay was optimized by reducing the assay time per measurement, resulting in an assay time of about 5 min and reaching a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.04 ng mL(-1) and a quantification limit (LOQ) of 0.34 ng mL(-1). After calibration the assay was tested by measuring the progesterone level in daily milk samples over several weeks. An estrus cycle of a cow could be measured. As results become available within minutes without any preparation or pre-concentration of the milk samples the fully automated TIRF-based biosensor for progesterone can be used in-line in the milking parlor and thus could be an important tool for reproductive management of dairy cattle detecting heat and predicting pregnancy, which are critical parameters in milk production.

  6. Vastatins have a distinct effect on sterol synthesis and progesterone secretion in human granulosa cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, A.K. van; Thiel, G.C.F. van; Naaktgeboren, N.; Cohen, L.H.

    1996-01-01

    Lovastatin and simvastatin are strong inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in cultured human granulosa cells, as measured within 6 days after isolation, with IC50-values of respectively 27.0 and 18.2 nM obtained after 3.5 hours of incubation with the drugs. Pravastatin is a much weaker inhibitor of

  7. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-kV Transmission Line.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1992-06-01

    Although several kinds of biological effects of electric and magnetic fields have been reported from laboratory studies, few have been independently replicated. When this study was being planned, the suppression of nighttime melatonin in rodents was thought to represent one of the strongest known effects of these fields. The effect had been replicated by a single laboratory for 60-Hz electric fields, and by multiple laboratories for d-c magnetic fields. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of electric and magnetic fields on melatonin would also occur in sheep exposed to a high voltage transmission line. The specific hypothesis tested by this experiment was as follows: The electrical environment produced by a 60-Hz, 500-kV transmission line causes a depression in nocturnal melatonin in chronically exposed female lambs. This may mimic effects of pinealectomy or constant long-day photoperiods, thus delaying the onset of reproductive cycles. Results of the study do not provide evidence to support the hypothesis. Melatonin concentrations in the sheep exposed to the transmission line showed the normal pattern of low daytime and high nighttime serum levels. As compared to the control group, there were no statistically significant group differences in the mean amplitude, phase, or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation.

  8. Inhalation of progesterone inhibits chronic airway inflammation of mice exposed to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xia; Bao, Wuping; Zhang, Pengyu; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhang, Yingying; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Chronic ozone exposure leads to a model of mice with lung inflammation, emphysema and oxidative stress. Progesterone plays an important role in attenuating the neuroinflammation. We assume that progesterone will reduce the chronic airway inflammation exposed to ozone and evaluate whether combination of progesterone with glucocorticoids results in synergistic effects. C57/BL6 mice were exposed to ozone (2.5ppm, 3h) 12 times over 6 weeks, and were administered with progesterone (0.03 or 0.3mg/L; inhaled) alone or combined with budesonide (BUD) (0.2g/L) after each exposure until the tenth week. Mice were studied 24h after final exposure, cells and inflammatory mediators were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs used for evaluation of glucocorticoids receptors (GR), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Exposure to ozone resulted in a marked lung neutrophilia. Moreover, in ozone-exposed group, the levels of oxidative stress-related interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, activated NF-κB and p38MAPK, airway inflammatory cells infiltration density, mean linear intercept (Lm) were greatly increased, FEV25 and glucocorticoids receptors (GR) were markedly decreased. Comparable to BUD, progesterone treatment dose-dependently led to a significant reduction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, activated NF-κB and p38MAPK, and an increase of FEV25 and GR. Progesterone combined with BUD resulted in dramatic changes, compared to monotherapy of BUD or progesterone. Therefore, these results demonstrate that chronic ozone exposure has profound airway inflammatory effects counteracted by progesterone and progesterone acts synergistically with glucocorticoids in attenuating the airway inflammation dose-dependently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Biology of Progesterone Receptor in the Normal Mammary gland and in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obr, Alison; Edwards, Dean P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews work on progesterone and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the mouse mammary gland that has been used extensively as an experimental model. Studies have led to the concept that progesterone controls proliferation and morphogenesis of the luminal epithelium in a tightly orchestrated manner at distinct stages of development by paracrine signaling pathways, including receptor of activated nuclear factor κ ligand (RANKL) as a major paracrine factor. Progesterone also drives expansion of stem cells by paracrine signals to generate progenitors required for alveologenesis. During mid-to-late pregnancy, progesterone has another role to suppress secretory activation until parturition mediated in part by crosstalk between PR and prolactin/Stat5 signaling to inhibit induction of milk protein gene expression, and by inhibiting tight junction closure. In models of hormone-dependent mouse mammary tumors, the progesterone/PR signaling axis enhances pre-neoplastic progression by a switch from a paracrine to an autocrine mode of proliferation and dysregulation of the RANKL signaling pathway. Limited experiments with normal human breast show that progesterone/PR signaling also stimulates epithelial cell proliferation by a paracrine mechanism; however, the signaling pathways and whether RANKL is a major mediator remains unknown. Work with human breast cancer cell lines, patient tumor samples and clinical studies indicates that progesterone is a risk factor for breast cancer and that alteration in progesterone/PR signaling pathways contributes to early stage human breast cancer progression. However, loss of PR expression in primary tumors is associated with a less differentiated more invasive phenotype and worse prognosis, suggesting that PR may limit later stages of tumor progression. PMID:22193050

  10. Secret-key certificates (continued)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Brands (Stefan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA new construction is described for designing secret-key certificate schemes based on signature schemes other than of the Fiat-Shamir type. Also described are practical secret-key certificate issuing protocols that enable the Certification Authority to certify public keys, without being

  11. Endometrial Effects of Prolonged Therapy with the Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulator Ulipristal Acetate: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gary; Elkas, John; Armstrong, Alicia Y; Nieman, Lynnette K

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to a selective progesterone receptor modulator (ulipristal acetate) in a patient with benign metastasizing leiomyoma did not result in endometrial hyperplasia or neoplasia. A woman with history of benign metastasizing leiomyoma underwent medical treatment for 5 years with ulipristal acetate. Endometrial biopsies were performed at established intervals to monitor for intraepithelial neoplasia or progesterone receptor modulator-associated endometrial changes (PAECs). The patient tolerated UPA therapy well; there was no evidence of hyperplasia or proliferative changes associated with progesterone-associated endometrial changes. In this case prolonged exposure to ulipristal acetate did not result in premalignant or malignant endometrial pathology.

  12. Chemical UV filters can affect human sperm function in a progesterone-like manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Anders; Egeberg, Dorte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    Human sperm cell function must be precisely regulated to achieve natural fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca2+-influx into human sperm cells via the CatSper Ca2+-channel and thereby controls sperm function. Multiple chemical UV filters have...... the effect of progesterone on Ca2+-signaling in human sperm cells, can similarly mimic the effect of progesterone on acrosome reaction and sperm penetration. Human exposure to these chemical UV filters may impair fertility by interfering with sperm function, e.g. through induction of premature acrosome...

  13. Artificial induction of lactation in ewes: the involvement of progesterone and prolactin in lactogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, W J; Hooley, R D; McDowell, G H; Fell, L R

    1976-10-01

    An attempt has been made to evaluate the importance of prolactin and 'progesterone withdrawal' for lactogenesis. The experimental model system used was the ovariectomized, non-pregnant ewe induced to lactate artifically by treatment with trigger hormone (either oestrogen, glucocorticoid or oxytocin) alone or in combination with progesterone. It appears from the results that prolactin is important in the lactogenic responses elicited by oestrogen and oxytocin but not as important in the response elicited by glucocorticoid. Moreover, the results suggest that, in the ewe, an appropriate positive hormonal stimulus will overcome the inhibitory influence of progesterone on lactogenesis.

  14. Systematic review of progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Andersson, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    of preterm delivery in women with preterm labor. CONCLUSIONS: In women with a singleton pregnancy and previous preterm delivery, progesterone reduces the rates of preterm delivery before 32 weeks, perinatal death, as well as respiratory distress syndrome and necrotizing enterocolitis in the newborn. Women...... now showed that progesterone supplementation was associated with a significant reduction of delivery before 32 weeks and of perinatal mortality. Furthermore, a third trial showed a positive effect on women with a short cervix at 23 weeks, and a fourth study showed that progesterone reduces the risk...

  15. Analytical methodology for the electro-catalytic determination of estradiol and progesterone based on graphene quantum dots and poly(sulfosalicylic acid) co-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvand, Majid; Hemmati, Shiva

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was to develop an electroanalytical method for the simultaneous determination of steroid hormones for the first time. The key factor in the electrochemical methods is the choice of suitable electrode materials. For this purpose, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) doped poly(sulfosalicylic acid) (PSSA) was immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Apart from exhibition strong and stable electrocatalytic response towards estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), the proposed sensor was able to distinguish two hormone's oxidation peaks clearly. Under the optimal conditions, for selective determination of E2, good linear relationships were obtained in the range of 0.001-6.0μmolL-1, with detection limit of 0.23nmolL-1, and for P4 in the range of 0.001-6.0μmolL-1, with the detection limit of 0.31nmolL-1. The prepared sensor possessed accurate and rapid response toward E2 and P4 with an improved stability, selectivity and repeatability. More importantly, the facile and environment-friendly electrochemical construction strategy provided here, may be open a cost-effective way for setting up nanocomposites or nanohybrid-based sensing platform, which extend the application of electrochemical sensor for the green, facile and sensitive analysis of electroactive compounds in biological systems and pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Progesterone, estrogen, and androgen receptors in the corpus luteum of the domestic cat, Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelkina, Olga; Zschockelt, Lina; Painer, Johanna; Serra, Rodrigo; Villaespesa, Francisco; Krause, Eberhard; Jewgenow, Katarina; Braun, Beate C

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the species studied, the corpus luteum (CL) of Iberian and Eurasian lynx physiologically persists in the ovary for more than 2 years and continues to secrete progesterone. Such persistent CL (perCL) transition into the next cycle and are present in the ovary together with the freshly formed CL (frCL) of a new ovulation. To date, the mechanisms supporting such CL persistence are not known. We analyzed the potential receptivity of feline CL to sex steroids through mRNA measurements of progesterone receptor (PGR), progesterone receptor membrane components (PGRMC) 1 and 2, estrogen receptor (ESR) 1 and ESR2, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1), and androgen receptor (AR). All receptors were present in domestic cat CL during pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase, in frCL and perCL of post-mating Iberian lynx and in perCL of pre-mating Eurasian lynx. Mass spectrometry detected the presence of PGRMC1 protein in frCL and perCL of the Iberian lynx. In both domestic cat and lynx CL, PGR, PGRMC1, and ESR1 proteins were localized in luteal cells by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of PGR, PGRMC1, PGRMC2, ESR1, and AR changed significantly throughout the domestic cat luteal phase. This may indicate involvement of these receptors in the processes of formation, maintenance, and regression of feline CL. In Iberian lynx, expression of PGRMC1, PGRCM2, ESR1, GPER1, and AR was significantly higher in perCL compared with frCL, whereas ESR2 was reversed. High mRNA amounts of these receptors in perCL suggest that physiological persistence of lynx CL may be partly regulated by actions of sex steroids through their nuclear and/or membrane receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Decreased LH pulsatility during initiation of gonadotropin superovulation treatment in the cow: evidence for negative feedback other than estradiol and progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, N; Price, C A; Roy, R; Carrière, P D

    2000-09-01

    LH pulse secretion is suppressed during superovulation of cattle. The objective of this study was to determine how soon after initiation of superovulation treatments this suppressive effect occurs, and to test the hypothesis that decreased LH pulsatility is not related to changes in circulating estradiol or progesterone. Heifers (n = 7/group) were injected with eCG (FOLLIGON: a single injection of 2,500 IU) or twice daily injections of decreasing doses of FOLLTROPIN-V (total equivalent of 280 mg of NIH-FSH-P1) or F.S.H.-P (total equivalent of 28 mg of Armour standard) or saline (time controls), starting on Day 10 (Day 0 = estrus). Blood samples were taken every 10 min for 12 h intervals on the day prior to first injection, at 8 to 20 h and 32 to 44 h after initiation of gonadotropin treatment, and also during prostaglandin (PG)-induced luteolysis. A simple method based on robust statistics and on graphical representations of time series was developed to characterize LH pulses. There was a significant interaction between time and treatment for mean LH, estradiol and progesterone when control and treated groups were analyzed together, and no interaction when only the gonadotropin groups were analyzed together. When compared to pretreatment values, pulse frequency of LH was significantly reduced (Pgonadotropin treatment. Mean LH concentrations were also reduced 32 to 44 h following initiation of treatments (Pcow causes a rapid decrease in pulsatile release of LH and suggests that this effect is not mediated through the negative feedback actions of estradiol and progesterone.

  18. α-Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors Modulate Kisspeptin Effects on Prolactin: Role in Estradiol-Induced Prolactin Surge in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Nayara S S; Araujo-Lopes, Roberta; Henriques, Patricia C; Lopes, Felipe E F; Gusmao, Daniela O; Coimbra, Candido C; Franci, Celso R; Reis, Adelina M; Szawka, Raphael E

    2017-06-01

    Kisspeptin (Kp) regulates prolactin (PRL) in an estradiol-dependent manner. We investigated the interaction between ovarian steroid receptors and Kp in the control of PRL secretion. Intracerebroventricular injections of Kp-10 or Kp-234 were performed in ovariectomized (OVX) rats under different hormonal treatments. Kp-10 increased PRL release and decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the median eminence (ME) of OVX rats treated with estradiol (OVX+E), which was prevented by tamoxifen. Whereas these effects of Kp-10 were absent in OVX rats, they were replicated in OVX rats treated with selective agonist of estrogen receptor (ER)α, propylpyrazole triol, but not of ERβ, diarylpropionitrile. Furthermore, the Kp-10-induced increase in PRL was two times higher in OVX+E rats also treated with progesterone (OVX+EP), which was associated with a reduced expression of both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and Ser40-phosphorylated TH in the ME. Kp-10 also reduced dopamine levels in the ME of OVX+EP rats, an effect blocked by the progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist RU486. We also determined the effect of Kp antagonism with Kp-234 on the estradiol-induced surges of PRL and luteinizing hormone (LH), using tail-tip blood sampling combined with ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kp-234 impaired the early phase of the PRL surge and prevented the LH surge in OVX+E rats. Thus, we provide evidence that Kp stimulation of PRL release requires ERα and is potentiated by progesterone via PR activation. Moreover, alongside its essential role in the LH surge, Kp seems to play a role in the peak phase of the estradiol-induced PRL surge. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  19. Vaginal micronized progesterone and risk of preterm delivery in high-risk twin pregnancies: secondary analysis of a placebo-controlled randomized trial and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, K; Rode, L; Nicolaides, K H

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone treatment reduces the risk of preterm delivery in high-risk singleton pregnancies. Our aim was to evaluate the preventive effect of vaginal progesterone in high-risk twins.......Progesterone treatment reduces the risk of preterm delivery in high-risk singleton pregnancies. Our aim was to evaluate the preventive effect of vaginal progesterone in high-risk twins....

  20. Surface chlorophyll a estimation in the Arabian Sea using IRS-P4 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, P.; Mohan, M.; Sarangi, R.K; Kumari, B.; Nayak, S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    to the concentration of phytoplankton pigments, coloured dissolved organic matter and suspended particulate matter. Remote sensing data obtained from IRS-P4 OCM sensor is processed for the removal of atmospheric effects of Rayleigh and aerosol scattering to derive...

  1. Molecular characterization and phylogenetics of Fennoscandian cowpox virus isolates based on the p4c and atip genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Okoli, Arinze Stanley; Nilssen, Øivind; Moens, Ugo; Tryland, Morten; Bøhn, Thomas; Traavik, Terje

    2014-01-01

    ...) phenotype, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles of atip gene fragment amplicon, and phylogenetic tree topology in conjunction with the patristic and genetic distances based on full length DNA sequence of the atip and p4c genes...

  2. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, P; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    fluid and cells were obtained from patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization for tubal infertility. The concentrations of VIP and PHM in pre-ovulatory human follicular fluid were measured radioimmunochemically. Granulosa/lutein cells isolated from follicular fluid were cultured under serum....../l, respectively. VIP at a concentration of 10 nmol/l caused a significant increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, and at 1000 nmol/l a significant increase in oestradiol secretion was observed. VIP had no effect on progesterone secretion. PHM at the concentrations tested did not influence any of the activities...

  3. Pheochromocytomas and secreting paragangliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenez-Roqueplo Anne-Paule

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Catecholamine-producing tumors may arise in the adrenal medulla (pheochromocytomas or in extraadrenal chromaffin cells (secreting paragangliomas. Their prevalence is about 0.1% in patients with hypertension and 4% in patients with a fortuitously discovered adrenal mass. An increase in the production of catecholamines causes symptoms (mainly headaches, palpitations and excess sweating and signs (mainly hypertension, weight loss and diabetes reflecting the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamine-producing tumors mimic paroxysmal conditions with hypertension and/or cardiac rhythm disorders, including panic attacks, in which sympathetic activation linked to anxiety reproduces the same signs and symptoms. These tumors may be sporadic or part of any of several genetic diseases: familial pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndromes, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis 1 and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Familial cases are diagnosed earlier and are more frequently bilateral and recurring than sporadic cases. The most specific and sensitive diagnostic test for the tumor is the determination of plasma or urinary metanephrines. The tumor can be located by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Treatment requires resection of the tumor, generally by laparoscopic surgery. About 10% of tumors are malignant either at first operation or during follow-up, malignancy being diagnosed by the presence of lymph node, visceral or bone metastases. Recurrences and malignancy are more frequent in cases with large or extraadrenal tumors. Patients, especially those with familial or extraadrenal tumors, should be followed-up indefinitely.

  4. Three-step in vitro maturation culture of bovine oocytes imitating temporal changes of estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations in preovulatory follicular fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matsuo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to evaluate the effect of three-step in vitro maturation (IVM culture system imitating estradiol-17β (E2 and progesterone (P4 concentrations in preovulatory follicles on in vitro bovine embryo production. The cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs were collected from follicles (2 to 8 mm in diameter of bovine ovaries obtained from a local slaughterhouse. For IVM, the COCs were cultured for 22 h in a three-step system: (1 culture in medium 199, containing 700 ng mL−1 E2 and 50 ng mL−1 P4, for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 E2 and 150 ng mL−1 P4 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 20 ng mL−1 E2 and 300 ng mL−1 P4 for 6 h (EP group; (2 culture in the medium containing 700 ng mL−1 E2 for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 E2 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 20 ng mL−1 E2 for 6 h (E group; or (3 culture in the medium containing 50 ng mL−1 P4 for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 P4 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 300 ng mL−1 P4 for 6 h (P group. The COCs were cultured in the medium containing 1000 ng mL−1 E2 for 22 h (control group. After IVM, the COCs were co-incubated with sperm and further cultured. At 48 h after insemination, the cleavage rate of embryos was not different among the groups. At 192 h after insemination, the blastocyst formation rate of EP group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The total cell number of blastocysts did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the three-step IVM culture system of bovine oocytes imitating temporal changes of E2 and P4 concentrations in preovulatory follicular fluid improves the developmental potential of embryos in vitro.

  5. Peripartal progesterone and prolactin have little effect on the rapid transport of immunoglobulin G into colostrum of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J J; Kessler, E C; Bjerre-Harpoth, V; Dechow, C; Baumrucker, C R; Bruckmaier, R M

    2014-05-01

    Colostrum formation and lactogenesis in the mammary gland and the timing of parturition are regulated by endocrine signals. Changes in progesterone (P4) and prolactin (PRL) are considered key events that inhibit colostrum formation, trigger parturition, and signal the onset of lactation. The goal of our study was to determine if colostrum yield and composition and immunoglobulin transfer are affected by prepartum milking relative to the decrease in P4, peak of PRL, or occurrence of parturition. Twenty-three multiparous cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) control with first milking at 4h postcalving (CON, n=11), and (2) treatment group with first milking approximately 1d before calving and second milking at 4h after parturition (APM, n=12). Colostrum yields were recorded and proportional samples were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration. Blood plasma samples for the analyses of P4 and PRL were collected 3 times daily at 8-h intervals for 4d prepartum and again taken at 4h after parturition. Total colostrum mass of APM cows was higher than that of CON cows. Immunoglobulin G concentration and protein content did not differ between antepartum milking in APM cows and postpartum milking in CON cows. Colostrum IgG concentration and protein content in APM cows at the postpartum milking were lower compared with the IgG concentration established at the prepartum (APM) and postpartum milkings of CON cows. Immunoglobulin G mass did not differ in first and second colostrum collection in APM cows but was lower compared with that of CON cows. The sum of IgG mass in APM cows (prepartum + postpartum collections) did not differ from that of CON cows. Lactose and fat in milk (concentration and mass) increased from first to second milking in APM cows. Total mass of lactose and fat in APM cows (prepartum + postpartum collections) was greater compared with that of CON cows. The finding that the time of milking relative to parturition, P4 decrease, and PRL peak

  6. Membrane progesterone receptor beta (mPRβ/Paqr8) promotes progesterone-dependent neurite outgrowth in PC12 neuronal cells via non-G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasubuchi, Mayu; Watanabe, Keita; Hirano, Kanako; Inoue, Daisuke; Li, Xuan; Terasawa, Kazuya; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Ikuo

    2017-07-12

    Recently, sex steroid membrane receptors garnered world-wide attention because they may be related to sex hormone-mediated unknown rapid non-genomic action that cannot be currently explained by their genomic action via nuclear receptors. Progesterone affects cell proliferation and survival via non-genomic effects. In this process, membrane progesterone receptors (mPRα, mPRβ, mPRγ, mPRδ, and mPRε) were identified as putative G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for progesterone. However, the structure, intracellular signaling, and physiological functions of these progesterone receptors are still unclear. Here, we identify a molecular mechanism by which progesterone promotes neurite outgrowth through mPRβ (Paqr8) activation. Mouse mPRβ mRNA was specifically expressed in the central nervous system. It has an incomplete GPCR topology, presenting 6 transmembrane domains and did not exhibit typical GPCR signaling. Progesterone-dependent neurite outgrowth was exhibited by the promotion of ERK phosphorylation via mPRβ, but not via other progesterone receptors such as progesterone membrane receptor 1 (PGRMC-1) and nuclear progesterone receptor in nerve growth factor-induced neuronal PC12 cells. These findings provide new insights of regarding the non-genomic action of progesterone in the central nervous system.

  7. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark....... A total of 346 infertility patients with oligoamenorrhoea undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer after priming with oestradiol and vaginal progesterone gel were included. The vaginal progesterone dose was changed from 90mg (Crinone) once a day to twice a day and the reproductive outcome during the two...... rate (8.7% versus 20.5%, respectively; P=0.002). Doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles decreased the early pregnancy loss rate, resulting in a significantly higher delivery rate. This study evaluated the reproductive outcome of 346 women...

  8. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk; Radioinmunoensayo para progesterona en leche bovina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Miriam [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnologia Nucleares, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: mirian@fctn.isctn.edu.cu; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro [Centro de Isotopos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2002-07-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  9. Safety of treatment of uterine fibroids with the selective progesterone receptor modulator, ulipristal acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnez, Jacques; Donnez, Olivier; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade, there has been increased emphasis on the role of progesterone in the promotion of fibroid growth, as well as heightened interest in modulating progesterone pathways by use of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). Among them, ulipristal acetate (UPA) has proved its efficacy in the management of symptomatic myomas by controlling bleeding and inducing amenorrhea, and reducing the size of myomas in the majority of cases. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize published scientific studies exploring evidence of the safety of SPRMs and particularly UPA, a drug approved for the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids. We focus essentially on endometrial changes induced by UPA, and also evaluate other safety outcomes. Expert opinion: Data from published reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) over 5 years have demonstrated that UPA does indeed induce endometrial changes (known as progesterone receptor modulator-associated endometrial changes), but they have been shown to be both benign and reversible.

  10. Vaginal micronized progesterone and risk of preterm delivery in high-risk twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, K; Rode, L; Nicolaides, K H

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Progesterone treatment reduces the risk of preterm delivery in high-risk singleton pregnancies. Our aim was to evaluate the preventive effect of vaginal progesterone in high-risk twins. METHODS: This was a subanalysis of a Danish-Austrian, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized...... trial (PREDICT study), in which women with twin pregnancies were randomized to daily treatment with progesterone or placebo pessaries from 20-24 weeks until 34 weeks' gestation. This subpopulation consisted of high-risk pregnancies, defined by the finding of cervical length ≤ 10th centile at 20-24 weeks...... (10.6%) of the 677 women participating in the PREDICT study, the pregnancy was considered to be high-risk, including 47 with cervical length ≤ 10th centile, 28 with a history of preterm delivery or late miscarriage and three fulfilling both criteria. Baseline characteristics for progesterone...

  11. Expression of Oestrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67,p53 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of Oestrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67,p53 and bcl-2 proteins, cathepsin D, urokinase plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator-receptors in carcinomas of the female breast in an African population.

  12. Recent advances in structure of progestins and their binding to progesterone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Marisa; Heuze, Yvonne; Sánchez, Araceli; Garrido, Mariana; Bratoeff, Eugene

    2015-02-01

    The role of progesterone in women's cancers as well as the knowledge of the progesterone receptor (PR) structure has prompted the design of different therapies. The aim of this review is to describe the basic structure of PR agonists and antagonists as well as the recent treatments for illness associated with the progesterone receptor. The rational design for potent and effective drugs for the treatment of female cancer must consider the structural changes of the androgen and progestogen skeleton which are an indicator of their activity as progestins or antiprogestins. The presence of a hydroxyl group at C-17 in the progesterone skeleton brings about a loss of progestational activity whereas acetylation induces a progestational effect. The incorporation of an ethynyl functional group to the testosterone framework results in a loss of androgenic activity with a concomitant enhancement of the progestational effect. On the other hand, an ester function at C-3 of dehydroepiandrosterone skeleton induces partial antagonism to the PR.

  13. Cloning and initial characterization of nuclear and membrane progesterone receptors in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both native progestagens and synthetic progestins have important effects on reproduction that are mediated through progesterone receptors (PRs). They regulate gamete maturation and can serve as precursors for other steroid hormones in vertebrates and act as reproductive pheromone...

  14. Control of the Mammary Cell Cycle Clock by Estrogen and Progesterone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinberg, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Both the growth and the development of the mammary gland are controlled by the female hormones estrogen, prolactin and progesterone, and by interactions between the epithelial and stromal compartments of the breast...

  15. Progesterone receptor content in endometrial carcinoma correlates with serum levels of free estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1993-01-01

    cytosol by dextran charcoal-coated assay and immunohistochemically on frozen sections. Serum sex hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays. MAIN FINDINGS. Tumor biochemical progesterone receptor content correlated positively (p

  16. Treatment of postmenopausal women with topical progesterone creams and gels: are they effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk, F Z

    2014-12-01

    Topical progesterone creams and gels can be obtained over the counter and/or by prescription from custom-compounding pharmacies and are used by thousands of postmenopausal women for hormonal treatment. However, the effectiveness of these preparations for protecting the endometrium from unopposed estrogen is controversial, due largely to the very low serum progesterone levels that are achieved. Despite these low serum levels, salivary and capillary blood levels are very high and a protective endometrium has been reported in a limited number of studies. Topical alcohol-based, but not water-based, gels appear to yield luteal-phase serum progesterone levels but studies with these preparations are scant. Long-term studies with percutaneous progesterone creams and gels are likely to provide valuable information for treatment of postmenopausal women with this popular route of administration.

  17. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in endometrial carcinoma: comparison of immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1993-01-01

    In 159 endometrial carcinomas, estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) were determined biochemically by dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) assay and immunohistochemically (ICA) on frozen sections. ICA receptor content was estimated by a total histologic score (HSCORE), including all tissue...

  18. Immunolocalization of progesterone receptors in binucleate trophoblast cells of the buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The binucleate trophoblast cells (CTBs of the water buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis were studied with emphasis on the presence of progesterone receptor. Placentomal tissues from 27 buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy were processed and embedded in paraplast (Paraplast Embedding Media – Paraplast Plus to locate the progesterone receptors using the immunohistochemistry technique. The immunohistochemical reaction for progesterone receptor through monoclonal antibody PgR Ab2 showed staining of CTBs, caruncular epithelial and estromal cells and blood vessel estromal pericitos present in the placentome throughout the entire gestational period analyzed. These results indicate the production of progesterone with autocrine and paracrine action in the placentome growth, differentiation and functional regulation.

  19. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléciton Braga Tavares

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system neoplasm. Astrocytomas are the most prevalent type of glioma and these tumors may be influenced by sex steroid hormones. A literature review for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas was conducted in the PubMed database using the following MeSH terms: “estrogen receptor beta” OR “estrogen receptor alpha” OR “estrogen receptor antagonists” OR “progesterone receptors” OR “astrocytoma” OR “glioma” OR “glioblastoma”. Among the 111 articles identified, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. The majority of reports showed the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas. Overall, higher tumor grades were associated with decreased estrogen receptor expression and increased progesterone receptor expression.

  20. Progesterone receptor-mediated regulation of N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase (NPL in mouse uterine luminal epithelium and nonessential role of NPL in uterine function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Xiao

    Full Text Available N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase (NPL catalyzes N-acetylneuraminic acid, the predominant sialic acid. Microarray analysis of the periimplantation mouse uterine luminal epithelium (LE revealed Npl being the most downregulated (35× gene in the LE upon embryo implantation. In natural pregnant mouse uterus, Npl expression increased 56× from gestation day 0.5 (D0.5 to D2.5. In ovariectomized mouse uterus, Npl was significantly upregulated by progesterone (P4 but downregulated by 17β-estradiol (E2. Progesterone receptor (PR antagonist RU486 blocked the upregulation of Npl in both preimplantation uterus and P4-treated ovariectomized uterus. Npl was specifically localized in the preimplantation D2.5 and D3.5 uterine LE. Since LE is essential for establishing uterine receptivity, it was hypothesized that NPL might play a critical role in uterine function, especially during embryo implantation. This hypothesis was tested in the Npl ((-/- mice. No significant differences were observed in the numbers of implantation sites on D4.5, gestation periods, litter sizes, and postnatal offspring growth between wild type (WT and Npl ((-/- females from mating with WT males. Npl ((-/-xNpl ((-/- crosses produced comparable little sizes as that from WTxWT crosses. Comparable mRNA expression levels of several genes involved in sialic acid metabolism were observed in D3.5 uterus and uterine LE between WT and Npl ((-/-, indicating no compensatory upregulation in the D3.5 Npl ((-/- uterus and LE. This study demonstrates PR-mediated dynamic expression of Npl in the periimplantation uterus and dispensable role of Npl in uterine function and embryo development.

  1. REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY AND PROGESTERONE PROFILE FROM PARTURITION TO PARTURITION IN DW ARF GOAT

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz A. Khanum, M. Hussain, M. Ali, R. Kausar and A.M. Cheema1

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to look into the reproductive performance of female Dwarf goat. The serum progesterone profile was used to monitor various reproductive parameters including length of postpartum period, the resumption of cyclicity, gestation period, pre-partum period, parturition, litter size and kidding interval. Most of the animals conceived within 20-65 days of postpartum period. During gestation period, higher levels of progesterone were maintained with wide variations falling in th...

  2. Plasma Progesterone Concentrations in Dairy Cows with Cystic Ovaries and Clinical Responses Following Treatment with Fenprostalene

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, K. E.; Bosu, W. T. K.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty-two dairy cows diagnosed as having cystic ovarian degeneration were used to study the correlation between rectal palpation findings and plasma progesterone concentrations and the response of cysts to treatment using fenprostalene, a luteolytic agent. Rectal palpation accurately determined the presence of luteal cysts as confirmed by plasma progesterone concentrations of 3 ng/mL or more. Treatment with fenprostalene was very effective for luteal cysts: a high percentage of treated cows e...

  3. The 11alpha and 17alpha-progesterone hydroxylases of Rhizopus nigricans NRRL 1477.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, A M; el-Kady, I A

    1975-01-01

    Differential induction of cultures of Rhizopus nigricans indicated that hydroxylation of progesterone at the 11alpha- and 17alpha-positions is due to two separate enzymes. This is supported by the finding that 11alpha- and 17alpha-hydroxylating activities are separated by differential centrigufation of cell-free extracts. The feasibility of introducing a hydroxyl group at the 11alpha- or 17alpha-position of hydroxylated progesterone derivatives was tested.

  4. Chemical UV Filters Mimic the Effect of Progesterone on Ca(2+) Signaling in Human Sperm Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, A; Dissing, S; Skakkebæk, N E

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone released by cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca(2+) influx into human sperm cells via the cationic channel of sperm (CatSper) Ca(2+) channel and controls multiple Ca(2+)-dependent responses essential for fertilization. We hypothesized that chemical UV filters may mimic...... competitively inhibited progesterone-induced Ca(2+) signals. In vivo exposure studies are needed to investigate whether UV filter exposure affects human fertility....

  5. Evaluation of Progesterone and Ovulation-stimulating Drugs on the Glandular Epithelium and Angiogenesis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human endometrium is a dynamic tissue during the menstrual cycle can be influenced by ovarian hormones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the endometrium angiogenesis under the influence of human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (HMG and HCG that stimulate ovulation and progesterone. Materials and Methods: In this study, thirty adult female mice were randomly divided into three groups as: control, gonadotropin and gonadotropin + progesterone. The mice in the other two groups except the control group received 7.5 IU HMG and later HCG. Subsequently, the mice were placed in a cage for mating. Gonadotropin + progesterone group was administered, 1 mg/mouse progesterone in 24, 48, and 72 h interval, after HMG injection. Ninety-six hours after HMG injection, animals were sacrificed, and their uterine specimens were prepared by immunohistochemistry technique for light microscopic studies, and statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Endometrium angiogenesis in control group showed that mean ± standard deviation was 24.15 ± 11.15, gonadotropin group was 62.50 ± 24.16, and gonadotropin + progesterone group was 41.85 ± 19.54. Significant difference between the control group and gonadotropin group and between the control group and gonadotropin + progesterone was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed in all groups in the endometrial angiogenesis (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Ovarian induction with gonadotropins and gonadotropins + progesterone could not change the morphometrically index of endometrial glandular epithelium in mice. Ovarian stimulation followed by progesterone injection could modify the angiogenesis of mice endometrium.

  6. Loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions induce preterm cellular and structural remodeling of the cervix and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellon, Steven M; Dobyns, Abigail E; Beck, Hailey L; Kurtzman, James T; Garfield, Robert E; Kirby, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    A decline in serum progesterone or antagonism of progesterone receptor function results in preterm labor and birth. Whether characteristics of premature remodeling of the cervix after antiprogestins or ovariectomy are similar to that at term was the focus of the present study. Groups of pregnant rats were treated with vehicle, a progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone or mifepristone), or ovariectomized on day 17 postbreeding. As expected, controls given vehicle delivered at term while rats delivered preterm after progesterone receptor antagonist treatment or ovariectomy. Similar to the cervix before term, the preterm cervix of progesterone receptor antagonist-treated rats was characterized by reduced cell nuclei density, decreased collagen content and structure, as well as a greater presence of macrophages per unit area. Thus, loss of nuclear progesterone receptor-mediated actions promoted structural remodeling of the cervix, increased census of resident macrophages, and preterm birth much like that found in the cervix at term. In contrast to the progesterone receptor antagonist-induced advance in characteristics associated with remodeling, ovariectomy-induced loss of systemic progesterone did not affect hypertrophy, extracellular collagen, or macrophage numbers in the cervix. Thus, the structure and macrophage census in the cervix appear sufficient for premature ripening and birth to occur well before term. With progesterone receptors predominantly localized on cells other than macrophages, the findings suggest that interactions between cells may facilitate the loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions as part of a final common mechanism that remodels the cervix in certain etiologies of preterm and with parturition at term.

  7. Enhanced food intake by progesterone-treated female rats is related to changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmańska, Ewa; Sucajtys-Szulc, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone-treated females eat more food, but the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of progesterone on neuropeptide genes expression in rat hypothalamus. Experiments were carried out on female and male Wistar rats. Animals were treated with progesterone (100 mg per rat) for 28 days. NPY and CART mRNA levels in hypothalamus were quantified by real-time PCR. The serum progesterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Progesterone administration to females caused an increase in food intake, body mass, and white adipose tissue mass. Elevated circulating progesterone concentration up-regulated NPY and down-regulated CART genes expression in hypothalamus of females. In males, elevated blood progesterone concentration had no effect on food intake, body and fat mass and on the neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus. Moreover, administration of progesterone in females resulted in decrease of PR mRNA level in hypothalamus. No effect of progesterone administration on PR mRNA level in hypothalamus of males was found. The changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus may lead to stimulation of appetite and might explain the observed increase in food intake, body and adipose tissue mass in progesterone-treated females.

  8. Does elevated progesterone on day of oocyte maturation play a role in the racial disparities in IVF outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Micah J; Royster, G Donald; Taneja, Mansi; Healy, Mae Wu; Zarek, Shvetha M; Christy, Alicia Y; DeCherney, Alan H; Widra, Eric; Devine, Kate

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if premature progesterone elevation on the last day of assisted reproduction technique stimulation contributes to racial disparities in IVF outcome. A total of 3289 assisted reproduction technique cycles were evaluated in Latino, Asian, African American, and white women. Live birth was more likely in white women (42.6%) compared with Asian (34.8%) and African American women (36.3%), but was similar to Latino women (40.7%). In all racial groups, progesterone was negatively associated with live birth and the negative effect of progesterone persisted when adjusting for confounders. Although the effect of elevated progesterone was similar in all racial groups, the prevalence of elevated progesterone differed. Progesterone > 1.5 ng/ml occurred in only 10.6% of cycles in white women compared with 18.0% in Latino and 20.2% in Asian women. Progesterone > 2 ng/ml occurred in only 2.3% of cycles in white women compared with 6.3% in Latino, 5.9% in Asian and 4.4% in African American women. The increased prevalence of premature elevated progesterone persisted when controlling for IVF stimulation parameters. In conclusion, premature progesterone elevation had a negative effect on live birth in all racial groups studied. The prevalence of elevated progesterone was higher in racial minorities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Plasma oxidative stress biomarkers and progesterone profiles in a dairy cow diagnosed with an ovarian follicular cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, S; Ingenhoff, L; Kerrisk, K L; Celi, P

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the oxidative stress biomarkers in a cow diagnosed with a follicular cyst in her left ovary. Progesterone (P4) and plasma oxidative stress status was measured in 13 Holstein cows after synchronization of oestrus with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandinF2α (PGF2α) protocol. The presence and size of ovarian structures were monitored by transrectal ultrasound at 4 hourly intervals. Of the 13 cows, 12 were monitored until ovulation was detected and recorded, whereas one cow failed to ovulate and developed a follicular cyst. Oxidative stress biomarkers; reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), oxidative stress index (OSI), glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were measured in the cystic cow and compared to those of the 12 ovulated cows and are referred to as higher or lower if they are outside the mean ± standard error of mean of those of ovulated cows. The cystic cow had lower ROMs and OSI between 36 and 84 h after PGF2α injection and at 9 h, from 36 to 60 h after PGF2α injection respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant (BAP and GSH) was higher in the cystic cow compared to her ovulated herd mates. The observed imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant might have disrupted the physiological events for ovulation to occur, leading to cystic ovarian disease.

  10. Plasma progesterone concentrations in dairy cows with cystic ovaries and clinical responses following treatment with fenprostalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, K E; Bosu, W T

    1983-11-01

    Sixty-two dairy cows diagnosed as having cystic ovarian degeneration were used to study the correlation between rectal palpation findings and plasma progesterone concentrations and the response of cysts to treatment using fenprostalene, a luteolytic agent. Rectal palpation accurately determined the presence of luteal cysts as confirmed by plasma progesterone concentrations of 3 ng/mL or more. Treatment with fenprostalene was very effective for luteal cysts: a high percentage of treated cows exhibited estrus within seven days after treatment. The conception rate following artifical insemination during the induced estrus was 87.5% (21/24). Rectal palpation was much less accurate for the diagnosis of follicular cysts. Cows diagnosed as having follicular cysts had wide variations in plasma progesterone concentrations. Response to fenprostalene treatment was poor in cows with nonluteinized cystic follicles associated with low progesterone concentrations. However, cows diagnosed as having follicular cysts, but with progesterone concentrations of 1 ng/mL or more, responded better to fenprostalene treatment than cows with low progesterone concentrations.It was concluded that, if correctly diagnosed, luteal cysts can be successfully treated with fenprostalene, and conception rates following treatment can be expected to be normal.

  11. Cellular Mechanics of Primary Human Cervical Fibroblasts: Influence of Progesterone and a Pro-inflammatory Cytokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vasudha; Barnhouse, Victoria; Ackerman, William E; Summerfield, Taryn L; Powell, Heather M; Leight, Jennifer L; Kniss, Douglas A; Ghadiali, Samir N

    2018-01-01

    The leading cause of neonatal mortality, pre-term birth, is often caused by pre-mature ripening/opening of the uterine cervix. Although cervical fibroblasts play an important role in modulating the cervix's extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanical properties, it is not known how hormones, i.e., progesterone, and pro-inflammatory insults alter fibroblast mechanics, fibroblast-ECM interactions and the resulting changes in tissue mechanics. Here we investigate how progesterone and a pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, alter the biomechanical properties of human cervical fibroblasts and the fibroblast-ECM interactions that govern tissue-scale mechanics. Primary human fibroblasts were isolated from non-pregnant cervix and treated with estrogen/progesterone, IL-1β or both. The resulting changes in ECM gene expression, matrix remodeling, traction force generation, cell-ECM adhesion and tissue contractility were monitored. Results indicate that IL-1β induces a significant reduction in traction force and ECM adhesion independent of pre-treatment with progesterone. These cell level effects altered tissue-scale mechanics where IL-1β inhibited the contraction of a collagen gel over 6 days. Interestingly, progesterone treatment alone did not modulate traction forces or gel contraction but did result in a dramatic increase in cell-ECM adhesion. Therefore, the protective effect of progesterone may be due to altered adhesion dynamics as opposed to altered ECM remodeling.

  12. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in vestibular schwannomas and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Rakesh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective was to determine the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in vestibular schwannomas as well as to determine predictive factors for estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity. Materials and methods The study included 100 cases of vestibular schwannomas operated from January 2006 to June 2009. The clinical details were noted from the medical case files. Formaldehyde-fixed parafiin-embedded archival vestibular schwannomas specimens were used for the immunohistochemical assessment of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Results Neither estrogen nor progesterone receptors could be detected in any of our cases by means of well known immunohistochemical method using well documented monoclonal antibodies. In the control specimens, a strongly positive reaction could be seen. Conclusion No estrogen and progesterone receptor could be found in any of our 100 cases of vestibular schwannomas. Hence our study does not support a causative role of estrogen and progesterone in the growth of vestibular schwannoma as well as hormonal manipulation in the treatment of this tumor.

  13. Metabolic level recognition of progesterone in dairy Holstein cows using probabilistic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila N. Turino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of exogenous progesterone is widely used in hormonal protocols for estrous (resynchronization of dairy cattle without regarding pharmacological issues for dose calculation. This happens because it is difficult to estimate the metabolic level of progesterone for each individual cow before administration. In the present contribution, progesterone pharmacokinetics has been determined in lactating Holstein cows with different milk production yields. A Bayesian approach has been implemented to build two probabilistic progesterone pharmacokinetic models for high and low yield dairy cows. Such models are based on a one-compartment Hill structure. Posterior probabilistic models have been structurally set up and parametric probability density functions have been empirically estimated. Moreover, a global sensitivity analysis has been done to know sensitivity profile of each model. Finally, posterior probabilistic models have adequately recognized cow’s progesterone metabolic level in a validation set when Kullback-Leibler based indices were used. These results suggest that milk yield may be a good index for estimating pharmacokinetic level of progesterone.

  14. The effect of prenatally administered vaginal progesterone on uterine artery Doppler in asymptomatic twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Isabela K R; Brizot, Maria L; Miyadahira, Mariana Y; Carvalho, Mário H B; Francisco, Rossana P V; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of vaginal progesterone on uterine circulation in asymptomatic twin gestations. This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of twin pregnancies exposed to vaginal progesterone or placebo. We included all trial participants who had undergone uterine artery pulsatility index evaluation at the time of randomization. During each ultrasound examination, the uterine artery pulsatility index was evaluated transabdominally. The mean uterine artery pulsatility index between the progesterone and placebo groups were compared for each gestational age, starting between 18 to 34 weeks and 6days and were analyzed at three (Time 1), six (Time 2) and nine (Time 3) weeks after randomization. The final analysis included 128 women in the progesterone group and 122 women in the placebo group. The baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. No difference in the mean uterine artery pulsatility index was observed between the progesterone and placebo groups at each week of gestation or throughout gestation. In twin pregnancies, the use of vaginal progesterone in the second half of pregnancy does not influence uterine circulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Gata2-Dependent Transcription Network Regulates Uterine Progesterone Responsiveness and Endometrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory A. Rubel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Altered progesterone responsiveness leads to female infertility and cancer, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Mice with uterine-specific ablation of GATA binding protein 2 (Gata2 are infertile, showing failures in embryo implantation, endometrial decidualization, and uninhibited estrogen signaling. Gata2 deficiency results in reduced progesterone receptor (PGR expression and attenuated progesterone signaling, as evidenced by genome-wide expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation. GATA2 not only occupies at and promotes expression of the Pgr gene but also regulates downstream progesterone responsive genes in conjunction with the PGR. Additionally, Gata2 knockout uteri exhibit abnormal luminal epithelia with ectopic TRP63 expressing squamous cells and a cancer-related molecular profile in a progesterone-independent manner. Lastly, we found a conserved GATA2-PGR regulatory network in both human and mice based on gene signature and path analyses using gene expression profiles of human endometrial tissues. In conclusion, uterine Gata2 regulates a key regulatory network of gene expression for progesterone signaling at the early pregnancy stage.

  16. The impact of progesterone on memory consolidation of threatening images in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmingham, Kim L; Fong, Wing Chee; Bryant, Richard A

    2012-11-01

    Recent findings suggest that consolidation of emotional memories is influenced by menstrual phase in women. In contrast to other phases, in the mid-luteal phase when progesterone levels are elevated, cortisol levels are increased and correlated with emotional memory. This study examined the impact of progesterone on cortisol and memory consolidation of threatening stimuli under stressful conditions. Thirty women were recruited for the high progesterone group (in the mid-luteal phase) and 26 for the low progesterone group (in non-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle). Women were shown a series of 20 neutral or threatening images followed immediately by either a stressor (cold pressor task) or control condition. Participants returned two days later for a surprise free recall test of the images and salivary cortisol responses were monitored. High progesterone levels were associated with higher baseline and stress-evoked cortisol levels, and enhanced memory of negative images when stress was received. A positive correlation was found between stress-induced cortisol levels and memory recall of threatening images. These findings suggest that progesterone mediates cortisol responses to stress and subsequently predicts memory recall for emotionally arousing stimuli. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex-related differences in effects of progesterone following neonatal hypoxic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bethany L; Won, Soonmi; Geddes, Rastafa I; Sayeed, Iqbal; Stein, Donald G

    2015-06-01

    There is no satisfactory therapeutic intervention for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy. Progesterone is known to be effective in treating traumatic brain injury in adult animals but its effects in neonatal brains have not been reported. Brain injuries were induced by a unilateral common carotid artery ligation plus hypoxia exposure. Progesterone was administered immediately after hypoxia and daily for 5 days at 8 mg/kg, followed by a tapered dose for two days. At six weeks post-injury, lesion size and inflammatory factors were evaluated. Progesterone-treated, HI-injured male animals, but not females, showed significant long-term tissue protection compared to vehicle, suggesting an important sex difference in neuroprotection. Progesterone-treated, HI-injured male rats had fewer activated microglia in the cortex and hippocampus compared to controls. The rats were tested for neurological reflexes, motor asymmetry, and cognitive performance at multiple time points. The injured animals exhibited few detectable motor deficits, suggesting a high level of age- and injury-related neuroplasticity. There were substantial sex differences on several behavioral tests, indicating that immature males and females should be analyzed separately. Progesterone-treated animals showed modest beneficial effects in both sexes compared to vehicle-treated injured animals. Sham animals given progesterone did not behave differently from vehicle-treated sham animals on any measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of interactions between progesterone and prostaglandin on uterine contractility in a perfused swine uterus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Julian; Geisler, Klaudija; Maltaris, Theodoros; Müller, Andreas; Hoffmann, Inge; Schneider, Heike; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dittrich, Ralf; Oppelt, Patricia G

    2014-01-01

    Uterine quiescence at the time of embryo transfer is a prerequisite for successful in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study assessed whether prostaglandin-induced contractions in the perfused swine uterus can be reduced by progesterone. Fifty-eight non-pregnant swine uteri were perfused using an established extracorporeal perfusion model. Intrauterine pressure changes during perfusion with prostaglandin (PG) administration (PGE1, PGE2, PGF2α) and progesterone (1 pg/ml, 10 pg/ml, 25 pg/ml, 50 pg/ml) were assessed using an intrauterine double-chip microcatheter. The contraction-stimulating effect of PGs was clearly reduced by progesterone. Only PGE1 still triggered relevant contractions during continuous perfusion with progesterone solution, up to a concentration of 10 pg/ml. With PGE2 and PGF2α, a clear reduction of uterine contractility was observed even at at a progesterone concentration of 1 pg/ml. The extracorporal perfusion model of swine uteri shows that PG-induced contractions can be reduced in a dose-dependent manner by progesterone. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Specific interactions of steroids, arylhydrocarbons and flavonoids with progesterone receptors from the cytosol of the fungus Rhizopus nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenasi, Helena; Breskvar, Katja

    2004-08-01

    Rhizopus nigricans (R. nigricans) transforms fungitoxic progesterone into the less toxic 11alpha-hydroxyprogesterone which is then able to exit the mycelia into the surrounding water. Hydroxylation of progesterone is an inducible process in which cytosolic progesterone receptors could be involved. In the present study, we characterised receptors with respect to ligand specificity and to their involvement in progesterone induction of hydroxylase. EC(50) values of different ligands (steroids, xenobiotic arylhydrocarbons and natural flavonoids) were determined by competition studies using 40nM ((3)H)progesterone. C21 and C19 3-oxo-4-ene steroids were good competitors (EC(50) of progesterone 2.3 +/- 0.1 x 10(-7)M, EC(50) of androsten-3,17-dione 24 +/- 2 x 10(-7)M). The presence of hydroxyl groups in steroids significantly decreased the affinity for receptors. The arylhydrocarbons alpha-naphthoflavone and ketoconazole exhibited EC(50) values of 0.3 +/- 0.01 x 10(-7)M and 27 +/- 5 x 10(-7)M, respectively, whereas beta-naphthoflavone and benzo(a)pyrene were not able to displace labelled progesterone completely. The competition curves obtained by natural flavonoids also did not reach the bottom level of non-labelled progesterone, indicating the interaction at some allosteric binding site(s) of progesterone receptors. All ligands were examined for their involvement in progesterone-hydroxylase induction. Steroid agonists induced the enzyme in a dose-dependent manner in accordance with their affinity for receptors, whereas arylhydrocarbons and natural flavonoids did not induce the enzyme. The agonistic action of steroids, together with the antagonistic action of alpha-naphthoflavone, strongly suggests the involvement of progesterone receptors in progesterone signalling resulting in the induction of progesterone-hydroxylase.

  20. MECHANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR PROGESTERONE’S PROTECTION AGAINST LORDOSIS-INHIBITING EFFECTS OF RESTRAINT I. ROLE OF PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, James; Miryala, Chandra Suma Johnson; Hiegel, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    Progestins and antiprogestins are widely used therapeutic agents in humans. In many cases, these are indicated for the treatment of reproductive activites. However, progesterone has widespread physiological effects including a reduction of the response to stress. We have reported that 5 min of restraint reduced lordosis behavior of ovariectomized rats hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate. When ovariectomized rats received both estradiol benzoate and progesterone priming, restraint had minimal effects on lordosis. Progesterone influences behavior through classical intracellular progesterone receptor-mediated nuclear events as well as extranuclear events. How these multiple events contribute to the response to stress are unclear. The current project was designed to initiate examination of the mechanisms responsible for progesterone’s ability to protect against the effects of the restraint. In the first experiment, ovariectomized rats, primed with 10 µg estradiol benzoate, received 500 µg progesterone 4 hr, 1 hr, or 30 min before restraint. When progesterone was injected 4 hr before restraint, progesterone eliminated the effects of restraint. In contrast, progesterone 30 min before restraint offered no protection. Effects of progesterone 1 hr before restraint were equivocal allowing the suggestion that less than 4 hr of progesterone priming might be sufficient. In the second experiment, the synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone, was shown to mimic effects of progesterone in preventing effects of restraint. Finally, the progesterone receptor antagonist, RU486, attenuated progesterone’s protection against restraint. These findings offer evidence that ligand-activated progesterone receptor mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of lordosis behavior in the presence of mild stress. PMID:21635894

  1. Effect of GnRH analogue administration on Day 7 after natural mating on formation accessory corpus luteum, progesterone concentration and conception rate in llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Marcos C; Acuña, Francisco; Cancino, Andrea K; Aller, Juan F

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of exogenous GnRH administered 7 days after breeding on the formation of an accessory corpus luteum (ACL), plasma progesterone (P 4 ) concentrations and pregnancy rates. Adult females (n = 71) having a follicle ≥ 7 mm in diameter in the ovary were naturally mated (Day 0). On Day 7, ultrasonic examination was performed to confirm the occurrence of ovulation as evidenced by presence of an induced corpus luteum (ICL). Females with an ICL plus a dominant follicle ≥ 7 mm (n = 56) were treated with saline solution (SS, n = 29) or GnRH analogue (n = 27). On Day 14, the formation of an ACL was observed by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected on Days 7 and 14 to quantify plasma P 4 concentrations. On Day 14, 21 of 27 (77.8%) females in the GnRH group developed an ACL, whereas females in the SS group did not. Progesterone concentrations on Day 7 and 14 in those llamas diagnosed as pregnant on Day 30 were not different (P > 0.05) between groups. In addition, P 4 concentration was similar for GnRH-treated females having two CL to those with a single CL. Pregnancy rates were similar (P > 0.05) between SS and GnRH groups (55.2% compared with 74.1% respectively) and the pregnancy rate for the GnRH group was not affected (P > 0.05) by the number of CL observed at Day 14 (66.6% and 75.6% for females with one and two CL respectively). In conclusion, GnRH administration on Day 7 after breeding leads to ACL formation; however, neither the plasma P 4 concentration nor pregnancy rate was affected by having an ACL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. It also makes precursors that can be converted ... steroids (androgen, estrogen). A different part of the adrenal gland makes adrenaline (epinephrine). When the glands produce ...

  3. VICTORIA'S SECRET Prepares for Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan K Speer

    2007-01-01

      After the upcoming holiday season, Victoria's Secret will take the first steps toward launching its e-commerce business on a cross-channel on-demand platform from partner n2N Commerce, a company...

  4. Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators for contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) are under development to address limitations of current hormonal methods that affect use and effectiveness. This method would be appropriate for use in women with contraindications to, or preferences to avoid, estrogens. A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) also eliminates the need for daily dosing, and therefore might improve the effectiveness of contraception. The principle contraceptive effect of SPRMs is the suppression of ovulation. One limiting factor of chronic SPRM administration is the development of benign endometrial thickening characterized as PRM-associated endometrial changes. Ulipristal acetate is approved for use as an emergency contraceptive pill, but no SPRM is approved for regular contraception. The Population Council is developing an ulipristal acetate CVR for regular contraception. The CVR studied is of a matrix design composed of micronized UPA mixed in a silicone rubber matrix The target product is a ring designed for continuous use over 3 months delivering near steady-state drug levels that will suppress ovulation. Results from Phase 1–2 studies demonstrate that suppression of ovulation occurs with UPA levels above 6–7 ng/mL. PMID:23040126

  5. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O' Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  6. Sensorimotor development in neonatal progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Jari; Wagner, Christine K

    2014-01-01

    Early exposure to steroid hormones can permanently and dramatically alter neural development. This is best understood in the organizational effects of hormones during development of brain regions involved in reproductive behaviors or neuroendocrine function. However, recent evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones play a vital role in shaping brain regions involved in cognitive behavior such as the cerebral cortex. The most abundantly expressed steroid hormone receptor in the developing rodent cortex is the progesterone receptor (PR). In the rat, PR is initially expressed in the developmentally-critical subplate at E18, and subsequently in laminas V and II/III through the first three postnatal weeks (Quadros et al. [2007] J Comp Neurol 504:42-56; Lopez & Wagner [2009]: J Comp Neurol 512:124-139), coinciding with significant periods of dendritic maturation, the arrival of afferents and synaptogenesis. In the present study, we investigated PR expression in the neonatal mouse somatosensory cortex. Additionally, to investigate the potential role of PR in developing cortex, we examined sensorimotor function in the first two postnatal weeks in PR knockout mice and their wildtype (WT) and heterozygous (HZ) counterparts. While the three genotypes were similar in most regards, PRKO and HZ mice lost the rooting reflex 2-3 days earlier than WT mice. These studies represent the first developmental behavioral assessment of PRKO mice and suggest PR expression may play an important role in the maturation of cortical connectivity and sensorimotor integration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, M; Biegner, T; Teriete, P; Hoefert, S; Krimmel, M; Munz, A; Reinert, S

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC.

  8. Concentration of citrate in the mammary secretion of sows during lactogenesis II and established lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M A; Hartmann, P E

    1993-08-01

    The functional significance of citrate in the mammary secretion of six sows was investigated during the second stage of lactogenesis (lactogenesis II) and established lactation. The changes in the concentrations of progesterone and lactose in the maternal blood, and lactose, Na and K in the mammary secretion, suggested that lactogenesis II began during the final day of pregnancy. The concentration of citrate in the mammary secretion of the sows during lactogenesis II was high and varied from 5.4 (SEM 0.5) mM at day 0.5 post partum to 6.8 (SEM 0.4) mM at day 1.5 post partum. There was a decline of approximately 30% in the concentration of citrate in the milk of sows during the first week of lactation. These findings suggest that, in contrast to all other species studied previously, milk citrate is not a harbinger of lactogenesis II in the sow. However, the changes in the concentration of citrate in the mammary secretions of sows may reflect changes in the rate of de novo synthesis of fatty acids that take place in the mammary glands of sows during lactogenesis II and established lactation.

  9. Possible function of carbohydrate on glycoproteins secreted by the pig uterus during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Baumbach, G A; Saunders, P T; Raub, T J; Renegar, R H; Bazer, F W

    1986-01-01

    Uteroferrin is a purple iron-containing acid phosphatase secreted by the porcine uterus under the influence of the hormone, progesterone. It is synthesized by the glandular epithelial cells of the uterine endometrium and during pregnancy is taken up by specialized structures (areolae) opposite each uterine gland. Uteroferrin is then released into the fetal circulation and cleared by the liver or fetal kidney. A major role in iron transport to the fetus has been proposed. Uteroferrin, as purified from uterine secretions of pigs, possesses mainly high mannose (predominantly Man5 and Man6) chains. These oligosaccharide chains of uteroferrin appear to be responsible for its binding and uptake by reticuloendothelial cells of the fetal liver which is the major site of erythropoiesis of the fetus. Uteroferrin, although implicated in transplantal iron transport, also possesses many of the properties of a lysosomal enzyme and, when newly synthesized, carries the so-called lysosomal recognition marker, mannose 6-phosphate. The phosphate group is masked by a covering N-acetylglucosamine residue, a feature which may account for its secretion rather than retention within lysosomes. Evidence is also presented that the oligosaccharide chains of newly synthesized uteroferrin are larger than those of the mature form and are trimmed after secretion. The phosphate group is also removed. It is not clear whether uteroferrin carbohydrate is implicated in the movement of the glycoprotein across the placenta as well as its uptake by the fetal liver.

  10. Antimicrobial activity and resistance selection of different bioglass S53P4 formulations against multidrug resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Lorenzo; De Vecchi, Elena; Bortolin, Monica; Toscano, Marco; Mattina, Roberto; Romanò, Carlo Luca

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of two different formulations of bioglass BAG-S53P4 against multiresistant microorganisms involved in bone infections, and the capability of bioglass to select for resistance. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by means of killing curves. The ability to select for resistant bacteria was evaluated by subculturing microorganisms in serial dilutions of bioglass. Scanning electron microscope acquisitions were conducted to evaluate bioglass-induced morphology changes. BAG-S53P4 formulations display a high antimicrobial activity and do not seem to select for resistance. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed cell shrinkage and membrane damage after exposure to bioglass. BAG-S53P4 has a significant potential as bone substitute for the treatment of infections caused by multiresistant microorganisms.

  11. Au@p4VP core@shell pH-sensitive nanocomposites suitable for drug entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara-Rahola, Joaquim; Moscoso, Ana; Belén Ruiz-Muelle, Ana; Laurenti, Marco; Formanek, Petr; Lopez-Romero, Juan M; Fernández, Ignacio; Diaz, J Fernando; Rubio-Retama, Jorge; Fery, Andreas; Contreras-Cáceres, Rafael

    2017-12-31

    We synthesize and characterize pH-responsive hybrid nanocomposites with SERS and drug loading applications. This colloidal system is structured by spherical 50 nm Au cores individually coated by a pH-sensitive shell of poly4-vinylpyridine (Au@p4VP). The synthesis of these hybrid nanocomposites is performed in two steps, a first one involves the fabrication of vinyl-functionalized Au nanoparticles, and a second one includes the controlled overgrowth of a p4VP shell by free radical polymerization. As a result, Au@p4VP hybrid systems with a mean diameter ranging from 150 to 57 nm are obtained upon varying the monomer concentration at synthesis. Au@p4VP nanocomposite exhibits pH-response capabilities, confirmed by cryo-TEM analysis, Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Zeta Potential (ZP) measurements at different pH conditions. The Au@p4VP particles also display a controllable swelling response, which depends on the cross-linker density within the polymer. This swelling capability is analyzed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), and UV-vis spectroscopy at different pHs. The pH-responsive capability is here exploited for the chemical entrapment of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox) into the polymer network. The presence of this molecule is resolved by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) measurements. The entrapment efficiency of Dox by the Au@p4VP system is determined via NMR spectroscopy of the supernatants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts after induction of estrus with PMSG/hCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitek, Agnieszka; Szymanska, Magdalena; Pieczywek, Marta; Morawska-Pucinska, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether an estrus induction with gonadotropins could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Sixteen prepubertal gilts received 750IU of PMSG and 500IU of hCG 72h later. Prepubertal gilts in the control group (n=17) were observed daily for estrus behavior. All gilts were inseminated in their first estrus. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 10, 12 and 15 of pregnancy and analyzed for (1) the mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP11A1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD); (2) the tissue concentration of P4; and (3) the mRNA expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2). Additionally, P4 concentration was analyzed in blood serum of all animals. PMSG/hCG injections to induce estrus decreased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1 and 3βHSD on day 10 and CYP11A1 on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group, while CYP11A1 and 3βHSD proteins were down-regulated on day 10 in the hormonally-treated gilts. Concentrations of P4 in luteal tissue and blood serum were also lower in animals after gonadotropin-induced estrus. In contrast, LHR and ESR1 mRNA expression was greater in PMSG/hCG-treated than control gilts on day 15 of gestation. In conclusion, induction of estrus with a PMSG/hCG protocol in prepubertal gilts impaired expression of the luteal P4 synthesis system. Low P4 content may, in turn, induce local mechanisms involving LHR and ESR1 expression to support CL function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of progesterone stimulated allopregnanolone on craving and stress response in cocaine dependent men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen C; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Covault, Jonathan; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-03-01

    Fluctuations in progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle have been shown to affect physiological and subjective effects of cocaine. Furthermore, our laboratory has demonstrated that following drug-cue exposure, cocaine dependent women with high levels of circulating progesterone display lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure responses and report lower levels of anxiety and drug craving compared to cocaine dependent women with low levels of progesterone. In the current study we examined the role of the progesterone derived neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) on stress arousal, inhibitory control and drug craving in cocaine dependent subjects. Plasma levels of ALLO were measured using GC/MS in 46 treatment-seeking cocaine dependent men and women on day 5 of a 7-day treatment regimen of micronized progesterone (15M/8F) (400mg/day) or placebo (14M/9F) administered in a double blind, randomized manner. As a control, levels of the testosterone derived neurosteroid androstanediol (ADIOL) were also measured. All subjects participated in laboratory sessions on days 5-7 of progesterone/placebo administration in which they were exposed to a series of 5-min personalized guided imagery of either a stressful situation, cocaine use or of a neutral setting and dependent variables including subjective craving, mood, Stroop task as a measure of inhibitory control performance and plasma cortisol were assessed. Participants were grouped by high or low ALLO level and levels of dependent variables compared between ALLO groups. Progesterone relative to placebo significantly increased ALLO levels with no sex differences. There were no effects of micronized progesterone on the testosterone derived ADIOL. Individuals in the high versus the low ALLO group showed decreased levels of cortisol at baseline, and a higher cortisol response to stress; higher positive mood scores at baseline and improved Stroop performance in the drug-cue and stress conditions, and reduced cocaine

  14. The relationships between transforming growth factors β and free thyroxine and progesterone in the ovarian cysts, preovulatory follicles, and the serum of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stankiewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the relationships between bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15 and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9 concentrations and free thyroxine (FT4 and progesterone (P4 concentrations in follicular cysts, preovulatory follicles, and the serum of sows (cyst-bearing (n = 26 and non-cyst-bearing (n =  26. FT4 and P4 concentrations were higher in the cystic fluid than in the fluid of preovulatory follicles (p <  0.01 and p <  0.05 respectively. BMP-15 and GDF-9 concentrations were higher in the serum of cyst-bearing sows than non-cyst-bearing sows (p <  0.05 and higher in the cystic fluid than in the follicular fluid (p <  0.05. In the cysts and preovulatory follicles, GDF-9 concentration was higher than in serum (p <  0.01. FT4 concentration in the serum of cystic sows was correlated with BMP-15 (r =  0.50, p <  0.05 and GDF-9 (r =  0.62, p <  0.01 concentrations in serum. In the serum of non-cyst-bearing sows, a positive correlation between P4 concentration and BMP-15 concentration (r =  0.60, p <  0.01 was detected. These data will help provide insight into the role of BMP-15, GDF-9, FT4, and P4 during cyst formation in sows.

  15. Optical spectra and structure of CdP4 nanoclusters fabricated by incorporation into zeolite and laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Yeshchenko, O. A.; Dmitruk, I. M.; Koryakov, S. V.; Galak, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    CdP4 nanoclusters were fabricated by incorporation into the pores of zeolite Na-X and by deposition of the clusters onto a quartz substrate using laser ablation-evaporation technique. Absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of CdP4 nanoclusters in zeolite were measured at the temperatures of 4.2, 77 and 293 K. Both absorption and PL spectra consist of two blue shifted bands. We performed DFT calculations to determine the most stable clusters configuration in the size region up to size o...

  16. Progesterone withdrawal effects in the open field test can be predicted by elevated plus maze performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Magnus; Johansson, Inga-Maj; Meyerson, Bengt; Lundgren, Per; Bäckström, Torbjörn

    2006-08-01

    Allopregnanolone (3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-20-one) is a ring-A-reduced metabolite of progesterone, which is naturally produced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, during pregnancy and by stressful events. The steroid hormone inhibits neural functions through increased chloride ion flux through the GABA(A) receptor. The effects and subsequent withdrawal symptoms are similar to those caused by alcohol, benzodiazepines and barbiturates. This study examined the withdrawal effects of progesterone with regards to the influence of individual baseline exploration and risk taking. Rats were tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM) before hormonal treatment, in order to evaluate differences in risk taking and exploration of open and elevated areas. Treatment consisted of ten consecutive once a day progesterone or vehicle s.c. injections. On the last day of treatment, estradiol was injected in addition to progesterone, followed by a 24-h withdrawal before testing in the open field test (OF). Progesterone-treated rats showed a withdrawal effect of open area avoidance in the OF. The vehicle-treated control rats showed strong correlations between the EPM and OF parameters. This relationship was not found for the progesterone group at withdrawal. Rats with greater numbers of open arm entrance in the EPM pretest showed an increased sensitivity to progesterone withdrawal (PWD) compared to rats with low exploration and risk taking. The results indicate that the effects of PWD relate to individual exploration and risk taking. Furthermore, the possible analogy of PWD and PMS/PMDD in relation to individual traits is discussed.

  17. Luteal phase support in assisted reproductive technology treatment: focus on Endometrin® (progesterone vaginal insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H Check

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Jerome H CheckThe University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School at Camden, Cooper Hospital/University Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Camden, New Jersey, USAAbstract: Supplementation of progesterone in the luteal phase and continuance of progesterone therapy during the first trimester has been found in several studies to have benefits in promoting fertility, preventing miscarriages and even preventing pre-term labor. Though it can be administered orally, intramuscularly or even sublingually, a very effective route with fewer side effects can be achieved by an intravaginal route. The first vaginal preparations were not made commercially but were compounded by pharmacies. This had the disadvantage of lack of control by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA ensuring efficacy of the preparations. Furthermore there was a lack of precise dosing leading to batch to batch variation. The first commercially approved vaginal progesterone preparation in the United States was a vaginal gel which has proven very effective. The main side effect was accumulation of a buildup of the vaginal gel sometimes leading to irritation. Natural micronized progesterone for vaginal administration with the brand name of Utrogestan A® had been approved even before the gel in certain European countries. Endometrin® vaginal tablets are the newest natural progesterone approved by the FDA. Comparisons to the vaginal gel and to intramuscular progesterone have shown similar efficacy especially in studies following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte egg retrieval and embryo transfer. Larger studies are needed to compare side effects.Keywords: progesterone vaginal tablets, luteal phase, miscarriage, pregnancy rates

  18. Progesterone for smoking relapse prevention following delivery: A pilot, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forray, Ariadna; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Suppies, Cristine; Bogen, Debra; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Yonkers, Kimberly A

    2017-12-01

    Close to half of women who were smokers prior to conception quit smoking in pregnancy, when endogenous progesterone levels are high. However, at least half resume pre-pregnancy smoking levels within weeks after delivery and when progesterone levels drop. The current pilot study tested the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of postpartum progesterone replacement in preventing relapse to smoking in postpartum women with a history of pre-pregnancy smoking. This was an 8-week, double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of 41 women with a history of pre-pregnancy smoking who achieved abstinence by 32 weeks of gestation. Immediately following delivery women were randomized to oral micronized progesterone (200mg twice daily) or placebo via computerized urn randomization program. The main outcome measures were descriptions of study feasibility: recruitment and retention. Secondary outcomes were 7-day point prevalence of abstinence at week 8, time to relapse and smoking cravings. The trial was feasible with adequate randomization, 64% (41/64) of eligible women, and trial retention, 78% (32/41) completed the trial. Women taking progesterone were 1.8 times more likely to be abstinent during week 8 and took longer to relapse (10 vs. 4 weeks) compared to the placebo group, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. After adjusting for age and pre-quit smoking level, the number needed to treat was 7. There was a 10% greater decline per week in craving ratings in the progesterone group compared to placebo (β=-0.10, 95% CI: -0.15, -0.04, p<0.01). No serious adverse events occurred during the trial. These preliminary findings support the promise of progesterone treatment in postpartum smokers and could constitute a therapeutic breakthrough.If these preliminary findings can be evaluated and replicated in a larger study with sufficient power, this may constitute an acceptable and safe smoking relapse prevention strategy for use

  19. Progesterone attenuates astro- and microgliosis and enhances oligodendrocyte differentiation following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labombarda, Florencia; González, Susana; Lima, Analia; Roig, Paulina; Guennoun, Rachida; Schumacher, Michael; De Nicola, Alejandro F

    2011-09-01

    Reactive gliosis, demyelination and proliferation of NG2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) are common responses to spinal cord injury (SCI). We previously reported that short-term progesterone treatment stimulates OPC proliferation whereas chronic treatment enhances OPC differentiation after SCI. Presently, we further studied the proliferation/differentiation of glial cells involved in inflammation and remyelination in male rats with SCI subjected to acute (3 days) or chronic (21 days) progesterone administration. Rats received several pulses of bromodeoyuridine (BrdU) 48 and 72 h post-SCI, and sacrificed 3 or 21 days post-SCI. Double colocalization of BrdU and specific cell markers showed that 3 days of SCI induced a strong proliferation of S100β+ astrocytes, OX-42+ microglia/macrophages and NG2+ cells. At this stage, the intense GFAP+ astrogliosis was BrdU negative. Twenty one days of SCI enhanced maturation of S100β+ cells into GFAP+ astrocytes, but decreased the number of CC1+ oligodendrocytes. Progesterone treatment inhibited astrocyte and microglia /macrophage proliferation and activation in the 3-day SCI group, and inhibited activation in the 21-day SCI group. BrdU/NG2 double labeled cells were increased by progesterone at 3 days, indicating a proliferation stimulus, but decreased them at 21 days. However, progesterone-enhancement of CC1+/BrdU+ oligodendrocyte density, suggest differentiation of OPC into mature oligondendrocytes. We conclude that progesterone effects after SCI involves: a) inhibition of astrocyte proliferation and activation; b) anti-inflammatory effects by preventing microglial activation and proliferation, and c) early proliferation of NG2+ progenitors and late remyelination. Thus, progesterone behaves as a glioactive factor favoring remyelination and inhibiting reactive gliosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prenatal administration of vaginal progesterone and frequency of uterine contractions in asymptomatic twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lília A M L; Brizot, Maria L; Liao, Adolfo W; Bittar, Roberto E; Francisco, Rossana P V; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    A previous study indicated that progesterone reduces the mean uterine contraction frequency in singleton pregnancy at high risk for preterm birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vaginal progesterone on the frequency of uterine contractions in twin pregnancies. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of twin pregnancies exposed to vaginal progesterone or placebo. Naturally conceived twin pregnancies with no prior history of preterm delivery, asymptomatic regarding preterm labor, who had undergone uterine contraction frequency monitoring from 24 to 34 weeks and 6 days were included in the study. Comparison of the mean frequency of uterine contractions between the treatment groups was performed. We also examined the influence of cervical length and chorionicity on the mean frequency of uterine contractions according to the group. The final analysis included 166 women in the progesterone and 170 in the placebo group. The baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. Overall, no difference in the mean frequency of uterine contractions (p = 0.91) was observed between the progesterone (2.54 ± 3.19) and placebo (2.56 ± 3.59) groups. Also, no difference in the mean frequency of uterine contractions was observed between the groups in each week between 24 and 34 weeks and 6 days of gestation. Cervical length and chorionicity did not influence the frequency of contractions according to the progesterone or placebo treatment. Overall, progesterone does not influence the frequency of uterine contractions in twin pregnancies. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. miR-129-2 mediates down-regulation of progesterone receptor in response to progesterone in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Mukul; Chandrani, Pratik; Gardi, Nilesh; Dhamne, Hemant; Patel, Kuldeep; Yadav, Neelima; Gupta, Sudeep; Badwe, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Hormonal therapy is an important component of first line of treatment for breast cancer. Response to hormonal therapy is influenced by the progesterone receptor (PR)-status of breast cancer patients. However as an early effect, exposure to progesterone decreases expression of PR in breast cancer cells. An understanding of the mechanism underlying down-regulation of PR could help improve response to hormonal therapy. Methods: We performed small RNA sequencing of breast cancer cells for identification of microRNAs targeting PR in response to progesterone treatment. Biochemical approaches were used to validate the findings in breast cancer cells. Results: Analysis of small RNA sequencing of four breast cancer cell lines treated with progesterone revealed an up-regulation of miR-129-2 independent of the PR status of the cells. We show that miR-129-2 targets 3′UTR of PR to down-regulate its expression. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-129-2 expression rescues the down-regulation of PR in breast cancer cells. Also, the expression levels of miR-129-2 was observed to be elevated in patients with low expression of PR in the TCGA cohort (n = 359). Conclusion: miR-129-2 mediates down-regulation of PR in breast cancer cells in response to progesterone, while anti-miR-129-2 could potentiate PR expression levels among patients with inadequate PR levels. Thus, modulation of activity of miR-129-2 could stabilize PR expression and potentially improve response to hormonal therapy under adjuvant or neo-adjuvant settings. PMID:28876975

  2. Characterization of the P4-ATPase ATP8A2: Identification of Key Residues Involved in Catalysis and Lipid Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, Jonathan Allan; Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Molday, Robert S.

    ATP8A2 is a P4-ATPase ("lipid flippase") highly expressed in the retina, brain, and testes. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that ATP8A2 exists as a complex with its β-subunit CDC50A in retinal rod and cone photoreceptor cells and this complex preferentially transports phosphatidylse...

  3. Sediment dispersal during ne monsoon over northern Bay of Bengal: Preliminary results using IRS-P4 OCM data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anuradha, T.; Suneethi, J.; Dash, S.K.; Pradhan, Y.; Prasad, J.S.; Rajawat, A.S.; Nayak, S.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    False Color Composite (FCC) from the sequential satellite images of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS-P4 OCM (bands around 443, 555, and 845 nm) together with sea truth data acquisition at 42 stations along the Orissa coast have been used...

  4. Counting Quadratic Nonresidues in Shifted Subsets of the Set of Quadratic Nonresidues for Primes p=4k+1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Meza-Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Let p=4k+1 be a prime number and Fp the finite field with p elements. For x∈1,n, Nx will denote the set of quadratic nonresidues less than or equal to x. In this work we calculate the number of quadratic nonresidues in the shifted set N(p-1/2+a.

  5. Phase behavior of solvent vapor annealed thin films of PS-b-P4VP(PDP) supramolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoelen, Wendy; Asumaa, Terhi; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ikkala, OlliI; ten Brinke, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    The phase behavior and terrace formation of solvent (chloroform) vapor annealed thin films of asymmetric comb-shaped supramolecules consisting of a polystyrene (PS) block and a supramolecular block of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) hydrogen bonded with pentadecylphenol (PDP) on silicon oxide (SiO2)

  6. In-vitro study of gonadotrophin signaling pathways in human granulosa cells in relation to progesterone receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez, Soledad; Kohen, Paulina; Muñoz, Alex; Godoy, Ana; Orge, Felipe; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    In humans, data on gonadotrophin-activated (LH, HCG and FSH) progesterone receptor expression and signalling pathways involved in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression presumably linked to the follicle rupture, are limited. Our hypothesis is LH, HCG and FSH increase progesterone receptor expression in granulosa cells through different signalling pathways, leading to an increased expression of ADAMTS-1 and MMP3/10, which may mediate follicular rupture through the transcription factor, HIF1A. Human granulosa cells were isolated from follicular aspirates obtained from 22 healthy women participating in our IVF programme for male-factor infertility. Progesterone receptor and HIF1A expression was assessed by immunofluorescence, and PKA-PKC-PI3K- ERK1/2, ADAMTS-1 and MMP3/10 expression by Western blot in pre-ovulatory and in cultured granulosa cells. Results show that HCG, LH and FSH regulate progesterone receptor expression and activate PKA, PKC, PI3K and ERK1/2 signalling pathways in granulosa cells but progesterone receptor expression is only mediated by PKA, PKC and ERK pathways. HCG, FSH and LH regulated MMPs expression through progesterone receptors. Moreover, HCG-progesterone-receptor-dependent HIF1A expression stimulated MMP3/10 expression but not that of ADAMTS-1. These results suggest differential downstream progesterone receptor signalling, as progesterone receptor regulates MMP3/10 expression via HIF1A, which is not involved in ADAMTS-1 expression. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Progesterone co-administration in patients discontinuing long-term benzodiazepine therapy: effects on withdrawal severity and taper outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, E; Case, W G; Garcia-Espana, F; Greenblatt, D J; Rickels, K

    1995-02-01

    Since recent research has suggested that the major metabolites of progesterone are barbiturate-like modulators of GABAergic function, we undertook a pilot study of the efficacy of micronized progesterone in attenuating withdrawal and facilitating discontinuation in benzodiazepine-dependent patients with a minimum of 1 year of continuous daily use. Forty-three patients taking a mean daily dose of 16.2 mg of diazepam (or its equivalent) were assigned, doubleblind, to treatment with either placebo (n = 13) or progesterone (n = 30). Progesterone was titrated to a mean daily dose of 1983 mg, and was co-administered for 3 weeks, after which the benzodiazepine was tapered by 25% per week. Progesterone (or placebo) was then continued for 4 weeks before being discontinued. There was no progesterone versus placebo difference in the severity of taper withdrawal. Withdrawal checklist change scores were 17.3 for progesterone and 16.5 for placebo (F 0.63; df 2.31; n.s.), and the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety change scores were 7.8 for progesterone and 6.3 for placebo (F 0.22; df 2.30; n.s.). There was no difference in ability to remain drug-free at 12 weeks post-taper, with 57% of progesterone-treated patients, and 58% of placebo-treated patients having a successful outcome.

  8. Effect of mifepristone on steroid receptor expression and biotransformation of oestrogen and progesterone in rat uterus and deciduoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Urmila; Kumar, Anand; Sharma, Kanhaiya; Kaushal, Mishi; Mehra, Raj

    2006-01-01

    [corrected] Mifepristone is a synthetic antiprogestin which terminates early pregnancy. Since it interferes with the progesterone maintained decidua, we compared the effect of mifepristone on oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and on the biotransformation of these hormones in normal and deciduous uterus. Ovariectomized rats were treated with an oestrogen-progesterone hormone regimen and deciduoma was induced by trauma in one horn of the rat uterus while the other served as a control under an identical hormonal milieu. Hormone receptor and biotransformation studies were done using radiolabelled oestradiol and progesterone with high specific activity. The artificially formed decidual tissue was comparable with that of early pregnancy. Mifepristone replenished oestrogen and progesterone receptors which were suppressed by progesterone in both the normal and decidualized uterine horns. Inhibition of oestrogen receptors by progesterone correlated with decreased oestradiol levels at the site of action. Metabolism of progesterone to less potent compounds was promoted by mifepristone. The enzymatic activities of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (which metabolizes oestradiol), and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 5alpha-reductase (which metabolize progesterone) were altered by mifepristone. The effect of mifepristone in varying the hormone receptor population and the availability of different levels of active metabolites of ovarian hormones have an Important role in the antiprogestin action of mifepristone.

  9. Molecular characterization and phylogenetics of Fennoscandian cowpox virus isolates based on the p4c and atip genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cowpox virus (CPXV), a rodent-borne Orthopoxvirus (OPV) that is indigenous to Eurasia can infect humans, cattle, felidae and other animals. Molecular characterization of CPXVs isolated from different geographic locations is important for the understanding of their biology, geographic distribution, classification and evolution. Our aim was to characterize CPXVs isolated from Fennoscandia on the basis of A-type inclusion (ATI) phenotype, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles of atip gene fragment amplicon, and phylogenetic tree topology in conjunction with the patristic and genetic distances based on full length DNA sequence of the atip and p4c genes. Methods ATI phenotypes were determined by transmission electron microcopy and RFLP profiles were obtained by restriction enzyme digestion of the atip gene fragment PCR product. A 6.2 kbp region spanning the entire atip and p4c genes of Fennoscandian CPXV isolates was amplified and sequenced. The phylogenetic affinity of Fennoscandian CPXV isolates to OPVs isolated from other geographic regions was determined on the basis of the atip and p4c genes. Results Fennoscandian CPXV isolates encoded full length atip and p4c genes. They produce wild type V+ ATI except for CPXV-No-H2. CPXVs were resolved into six and seven species clusters based on the phylogeny of the atip and p4c genes respectively. The CPXVs isolated from Fennoscandia were grouped into three distinct clusters that corresponded to isolates from Norway, Sweden and Finland. Conclusion CPXV is a polyphyletic assemblage of six or seven distinct clusters and the current classification in which CPXVs are united as one single species should be re-considered. Our results are of significance to the classification and evolution of OPVs. PMID:24972911

  10. Unconventional endocannabinoid signaling governs sperm activation via the sex hormone progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa R; Mannowetz, Nadja; Iavarone, Anthony T; Safavi, Rojin; Gracheva, Elena O; Smith, James F; Hill, Rose Z; Bautista, Diana M; Kirichok, Yuriy; Lishko, Polina V

    2016-04-29

    Steroids regulate cell proliferation, tissue development, and cell signaling via two pathways: a nuclear receptor mechanism and genome-independent signaling. Sperm activation, egg maturation, and steroid-induced anesthesia are executed via the latter pathway, the key components of which remain unknown. Here, we present characterization of the human sperm progesterone receptor that is conveyed by the orphan enzyme α/β hydrolase domain-containing protein 2 (ABHD2). We show that ABHD2 is highly expressed in spermatozoa, binds progesterone, and acts as a progesterone-dependent lipid hydrolase by depleting the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) from plasma membrane. The 2AG inhibits the sperm calcium channel (CatSper), and its removal leads to calcium influx via CatSper and ensures sperm activation. This study reveals that progesterone-activated endocannabinoid depletion by ABHD2 is a general mechanism by which progesterone exerts its genome-independent action and primes sperm for fertilization. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Comparative evaluation of ovarian structures in cattle by palpation per rectum, ultrasonography and plasma progesterone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadu, A Y; Ward, W R; Dobson, H

    1994-11-05

    The aims of this study were to determine the relationship between the ultrasonographic determination of corpora lutea and the plasma progesterone profile of cyclic cows during an oestrous cycle, and to compare the accuracy of detection of normal and abnormal ovarian structures by ultrasonography and palpation per rectum, based on the plasma progesterone profile. The ovaries of six lactating cyclic dairy cows were scanned and blood samples were obtained three times a week for one month. There was a high correlation (r = 0.85) between the diameter of the corpus luteum and the plasma progesterone concentration, but on days -3 and -2 (oestrus = day 0) the diameter was the same as mid-luteal values but it was functionally inactive (plasma progesterone cows by using the plasma progesterone concentration and the dissection of ovaries post mortem as standards. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of palpation for identifying mid-cyclic corpora lutea were 85 per cent, 95.7 per cent and 89.5 per cent, respectively. Ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 95 per cent, a specificity of 100 per cent and a positive predictive value of 100 per cent. Twenty-nine cows were diagnosed by palpation per rectum as having either follicular or luteal cysts. During ultrasonography, an ovarian cyst was defined as a non-echogenic structure at least 5 mm in diameter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Catch it before it kills: progesterone, obesity, and the prevention of endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew J; Thiel, Kristina W; Yang, Shujie; Leslie, Kimberly K

    2012-09-01

    The lifetime risk for developing endometrial cancer, the fourth most common malignancy in women, is approximately 3%. Endometrial cancer is a hormone-driven cancer, with approximately 80% of endometrial cancers arising attributable to either an excess of estrogen or a lack of progesterone. In the normal endometrium, the proliferative effects of estrogen are normally countered by progesterone, but the absence of progesterone allows estrogen to induce oncogenesis, an effect that is amplified in situations of excess estrogen. One of the major emerging causes of the estrogen/progesterone imbalance is obesity. Obesity is associated with several hormonal derangements as well as dysregulation of insulin/insulin-like growth factor activity, which collectively contribute to hyperplasia and carcinogenesis in the endometrium. In this article, we provide an in-depth description of how obesity mechanistically promotes this hormone and growth factor imbalance. Given that endometrial cancer is clearly associated with obesity, we put forth the hypothesis that a large portion of these cancers might be prevented by treatment with progesterone.

  13. Women's attractiveness changes with estradiol and progesterone across the ovulatory cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puts, David A; Bailey, Drew H; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A; Burriss, Robert P; Welling, Lisa L M; Wheatley, John R; Dawood, Khytam

    2013-01-01

    In many species, females are more sexually attractive to males near ovulation. Some evidence suggests a similar pattern in humans, but methodological limitations prohibit firm conclusions at present, and information on physiological mechanisms underlying any such pattern is lacking. In 202 normally-cycling women, we explored whether women's attractiveness changed over the cycle as a function of two likely candidates for mediating these changes: estradiol and progesterone. We scheduled women to attend one session during the late follicular phase and another during the mid-luteal phase. At each session, facial photographs, voice recordings and saliva samples were collected. All photographs and voice recordings were subsequently rated by men for attractiveness and by women for flirtatiousness and attractiveness to men. Saliva samples were assayed for estradiol and progesterone. We found that progesterone and its interaction with estradiol negatively predicted vocal attractiveness and overall (facial plus vocal) attractiveness to men. Progesterone also negatively predicted women's facial attractiveness to men and female-rated facial attractiveness, facial flirtatiousness and vocal attractiveness, but not female-rated vocal flirtatiousness. These results strongly suggest a pattern of increased attractiveness during peak fertility in the menstrual cycle and implicate estradiol and progesterone in driving these changes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioavailability and Fate of Sediment-Associated Progesterone in Aquatic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Jodi L; Ali, Jonathan M; Snow, Daniel D; Kolok, Alan S; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L

    2016-04-05

    The environmental fate and bioavailability of progesterone, a steroid hormone known to cause endocrine-disrupting effects in aquatic organisms, is of growing concern due to its occurrence in the environment in water and sediment influenced by wastewater treatment plant and paper mill effluents, as well as livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of progesterone in two natural sediments and the corresponding alteration of gene expression in three steroid-responsive genes; vitellogenin, androgen receptor and estrogen receptor alpha. When exposed to progesterone-spiked sand, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exhibited significant reductions in the expression of vitellogenin and androgen receptor expression. In contrast, fish exposed to progesterone associated with the silty loam sediment did not show a biological response at 7 days and only realized a significant reduction in vitellogenin. In both sediments, progesterone degradation resulted in the production of androgens including androsteinedione, testosterone, and androstadienedione, as well as the antiestrogen, testolactone. Differences in compound fate resulted in organism exposure to different suites of metabolites either in water or associated with the sediment. Results from this study suggest that environmental progestagens will lead to defeminization at environmentally relevant concentrations, and that exposure is influenced by sediment properties.

  15. Of Plants, and Other Secrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I inquire into the reasons for the all-too-frequent association of plants and secrets. Among various hypotheses explaining this connection from the standpoint of plant morphology and physiology, the one that stands out is the idea that plants are not only objects in the natural environment, but also subjects with a peculiar mode of accessing the world. The core of the “plant enigma” is, therefore, onto-phenomenological. Positively understood, the secret of their subjectivity leaves just enough space for the self-expression and the self-interpretation of vegetal life.

  16. The steroid metabolome in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder during GnRH agonist-induced ovarian suppression: effects of estradiol and progesterone addback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T V; Reuter, J M; Gaikwad, N W; Rotroff, D M; Kucera, H R; Motsinger-Reif, A; Smith, C P; Nieman, L K; Rubinow, D R; Kaddurah-Daouk, R; Schmidt, P J

    2017-08-08

    Clinical evidence suggests that symptoms in premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) reflect abnormal responsivity to ovarian steroids. This differential steroid sensitivity could be underpinned by abnormal processing of the steroid signal. We used a pharmacometabolomics approach in women with prospectively confirmed PMDD (n=15) and controls without menstrual cycle-related affective symptoms (n=15). All were medication-free with normal menstrual cycle lengths. Notably, women with PMDD were required to show hormone sensitivity in an ovarian suppression protocol. Ovarian suppression was induced for 6 months with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-agonist (Lupron); after 3 months all were randomized to 4 weeks of estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4). After a 2-week washout, a crossover was performed. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry measured 49 steroid metabolites in serum. Values were excluded if >40% were below the limit of detectability (n=21). Analyses were performed with Wilcoxon rank-sum tests using false-discovery rate (q<0.2) for multiple comparisons. PMDD and controls had similar basal levels of metabolites during Lupron and P4-derived neurosteroids during Lupron or E2/P4 conditions. Both groups had significant increases in several steroid metabolites compared with the Lupron alone condition after treatment with E2 (that is, estrone-SO4 (q=0.039 and q=0.002, respectively) and estradiol-3-SO4 (q=0.166 and q=0.001, respectively)) and after treatment with P4 (that is, allopregnanolone (q=0.001 for both PMDD and controls), pregnanediol (q=0.077 and q=0.030, respectively) and cortexone (q=0.118 and q=0.157, respectively). Only sulfated steroid metabolites showed significant diagnosis-related differences. During Lupron plus E2 treatment, women with PMDD had a significantly attenuated increase in E2-3-sulfate (q=0.035) compared with control women, and during Lupron plus P4 treatment a decrease in DHEA-sulfate (q=0.07) compared with an increase in

  17. The metabolic clearance of progesterone in the pregnant rat: Absence of a physiological role for the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, B.J.; Bruce, N.W. (Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands)

    1989-06-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of progesterone is among the highest for all steroid hormones studied, yet it is difficult to apportion this high MCR to specific organ contributions. The isolated lung has been shown to metabolize progesterone, and since this tissue receives the entire cardiac output, potentially it could make a major contribution to the overall MCR. This possibility was examined in the present study by measuring lung extraction of (3H)progesterone under steady-state conditions in the intact pregnant rat. Anesthetized rats (n = 6) were infused with (3H)progesterone via a femoral vein for 100 min on Day 16 of pregnancy. After the onset of steady state (40 min), four blood samples were obtained at 20-min intervals from the right ventricle and from the aorta, and the concentrations of (3H)progesterone and its metabolites were determined. Throughout the sampling period, mean arterial pressure and heart rate remained stable (two-way analysis of variance), as did the production rate (3.76 +/- 0.35 mg/day; mean +/- SEM) and the MCR (34.8 +/- 3.5 ml/min) of progesterone. Despite this high rate of clearance, there was no difference between the concentration of (3H)progesterone in arterial and right ventricular blood, indicating no net extraction of progesterone during passage through the lung. Furthermore, there was no change in the concentration of either lipid-soluble or aqueous-soluble (3H)progesterone metabolites during trans-lung passage. These observations demonstrate that the lung does not contribute to the MCR of progesterone when measured under physiological and steady-state conditions. Therefore, the relationship, MCR (ml/min) = whole-body extraction (%) x cardiac output (ml/min), is upheld for progesterone in the rat.

  18. Structural Basis for Agonism and Antagonism for a Set of Chemically Related Progesterone Receptor Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Scott J.; Raaijmakers, Hans C. A.; Vu-Pham, Diep; Dechering, Koen; Lam, Tsang Wai; Brown, Angus R.; Hamilton, Niall M.; Nimz, Olaf; Bosch, Rolien; McGuire, Ross; Oubrie, Arthur; de Vlieg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The progesterone receptor is able to bind to a large number and variety of ligands that elicit a broad range of transcriptional responses ranging from full agonism to full antagonism and numerous mixed profiles inbetween. We describe here two new progesterone receptor ligand binding domain x-ray structures bound to compounds from a structurally related but functionally divergent series, which show different binding modes corresponding to their agonistic or antagonistic nature. In addition, we present a third progesterone receptor ligand binding domain dimer bound to an agonist in monomer A and an antagonist in monomer B, which display binding modes in agreement with the earlier observation that agonists and antagonists from this series adopt different binding modes. PMID:21849509

  19. Progesterone receptor content in endometrial carcinoma correlates with serum levels of free estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1993-01-01

    between estrogen receptor content and any of the serum sex hormones. The progesterone/estrogen receptor ratio, calculated from the biochemical values, correlated positively (p levels of free estradiol. This relation was not affected by tumor histologic grade or stage. Furthermore......OBJECTIVE. To study a possible relationship between serum levels of estrogens and androgens and the tumor content of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors in endometrial cancer. STUDY DESIGN. Fifty postmenopausal patients were included. Receptors were determined biochemically in tissue...... cytosol by dextran charcoal-coated assay and immunohistochemically on frozen sections. Serum sex hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays. MAIN FINDINGS. Tumor biochemical progesterone receptor content correlated positively (p levels. No correlations were observed...

  20. [Cyclic concentration of estradiol and progesterone in hysterectomized women (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso Ron, L; Aznar Ramos, R; Bedolla Tovar, N; Cortés-Gallegos, V

    1975-01-01

    The cyclic concentration of estradiol and progesterone was studied in 6 women, 30 years of age or less, who underwent hysterectomy, 7 to 14 months earlier, because of obstetrical complications. The basal body temperature curve, as well as the daily concentrations of plasma estradiol and progesterone during one cycle, showed a pattern similar to that of the control group, except for 2 women with a luteal phase of 16 days, who had progesterone levels of 5 ng/ml or more. Although these values are indicative of ovulation, they fell in the lower limit of the range considered as ovulatory in the laboratory that conducted the test. It is concluded that hysterectomy, with the interruption of the circulation of the ovaric branch of the uterine artery, does not affect the normal esteroidogenic function of the ovary.

  1. Detection of oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in breast tumors by semiquantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, T; Zickl, M; Dobianer, K; Hruza, C; Czerwenka, K; Spona, J

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of oestrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PgR) by dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) or immunohistochemical methods have become standard practices in the management of breast cancer. A "multiplex" polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was developed for quantitative estimation of ER and PgR mRNA in breast tumour specimens. A statistically significant correlation could be found between the mRNA of the oestrogen and the progesterone receptor (p < or = 0.0001). Protein data defined in classes, compared with mRNA data showed a significant correlation for the oestrogen receptor (p < or = 0.0001) as well as for the progesterone receptor (p < or = 0.046). Messenger RNA could be determined by the present PCR system in tumours assayed as negative by DCC method. Therefore, this sensitive PCR procedure, which requires small amounts of material may be very useful as a diagnostic test to determine the choice of therapy.

  2. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with pregnancy outcome. Progesterone concentration was measured on stimulation day 1 and on the day of HCG administration in 475 patients who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment following ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and recombinant FSH...... of HCG administration and the probability of clinical pregnancy in women undergoing ovarian stimulation with GnRH agonists and gonadotrophins for assisted reproduction treatment.Instead, late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration appears to be governed by the number of preovulatory follicles and LH...

  3. Pengaruh medroksi progesteron asetat terhadap ultrastruktur sel leydig tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahanani Tri Asri

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the effect of medroxy progesterone acetate on the ultrastructure of Leydig cells of Rattus norvegicus. Randomized complete design was applied to study. Treatment consisted of 4 doses medroxy progesterone acetate were 0.4. 8. And 12 mg per rat respectively and 8 replications. Injection were applied perform 4 times per rat within 4 weeks interval. The testicle were examined ultrastructure change on the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and golgy apparatus of the Leydig cells. Results indicated that injections of medroxy progesterone acetate of 8 and 12 mg per rat causes significant untrastructure change of nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgy apparatus and mitocondria of Leydig cells in comparison with doses 0 and 4 mg per rat. In additions there were no significant different in ultrastructure of Leydig cells between doses 8 and 12 mg per rat as well as there were no significant different between doses of 4 and 0 mg per rat.

  4. Microarray Analysis on Gene Regulation by Estrogen, Progesterone and Tamoxifen in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-E Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial stromal cells represent a major cellular component of human uterine endometrium that is subject to tight hormonal regulation. Through cell-cell contacts and/or paracrine mechanisms, stromal cells play a significant role in the malignant transformation of epithelial cells. We isolated stromal cells from normal human endometrium and investigated the morphological and transcriptional changes induced by estrogen, progesterone and tamoxifen. We demonstrated that stromal cells express appreciable levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors and undergo different morphological changes upon hormonal stimulation. Microarray analysis indicated that both estrogen and progesterone induced dramatic alterations in a variety of genes associated with cell structure, transcription, cell cycle, and signaling. However, divergent patterns of changes, and in some genes opposite effects, were observed for the two hormones. A large number of genes are identified as novel targets for hormonal regulation. These hormone-responsive genes may be involved in normal uterine function and the development of endometrial malignancies.

  5. First principles electronic structure and optical properties of the Zintl compound Eu3In2P4

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2011-05-01

    We have performed full-potential calculations of the electronic structure and optical properties of the newly found Zintl compound Eu3In 2P4. Eu3In2P4 turns out to be a small gap semiconductor with an energy gap of 0.42 eV, which is in agreement with the experimental value of 0.452 eV. The peaks of the optical spectra originate mainly from transitions between occupied Eu 4f states in the valence band and unoccupied Eu 5d states in the conduction band. A considerable anisotropy is observed for the parallel and perpendicular components in the frequency dependent optical spectra. The spectral features are explained in terms of the band structure. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of pentapeptidic BACE1 inhibitors with carboxylic acid bioisosteres at P1' and P4 positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagad, Harichandra D; Hamada, Yoshio; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Hamada, Takashi; Abdel-Rahman, Hamdy; Yamani, Abdellah; Nagamine, Ayaka; Ikari, Hayato; Igawa, Naoto; Hidaka, Koushi; Sohma, Youhei; Kimura, Tooru; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2010-05-01

    We previously reported potent BACE1 inhibitors KMI-420 and KMI-570 possessing a hydroxymethylcarbonyl isostere as a substrate transition-state mimic. Acidic moieties at the P(1)(') and P(4) positions of KMI inhibitors are thought to be unfavorable in terms of membrane permeability across the blood-brain barrier. Herein, we replaced acidic moieties at the P(4) position with hydrogen bond accepting groups and acidic moieties at the P(1)(') position with less acidic and similar molecular-size moieties (carboxylic acid or tetrazole bioisosteres). These inhibitors exhibited improved BACE1 inhibitory activities and a thorough quantitative structure-activity relationship study was performed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in weighted P$_{4}$ and extensions of Landau Ginzburg theory

    CERN Document Server

    Candelas, Philip; Katz, Sheldon H.; Candelas, Philip; de la Ossa, Xenia; Katz, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    Recently two groups have listed all sets of weights (k_1,...,k_5) such that the weighted projective space P_4^{(k_1,...,k_5)} admits a transverse Calabi-Yau hypersurface. It was noticed that the corresponding Calabi-Yau manifolds do not form a mirror symmetric set since some 850 of the 7555 manifolds have Hodge numbers (b_{11},b_{21}) whose mirrors do not occur in the list. By means of Batyrev's construction we have checked that each of the 7555 manifolds does indeed have a mirror. The `missing mirrors' are constructed as hypersurfaces in toric varieties. We show that many of these manifolds may be interpreted as non-transverse hypersurfaces in weighted P_4's, ie, hypersurfaces for which dp vanishes at a point other than the origin. This falls outside the usual range of Landau--Ginzburg theory. Nevertheless Batyrev's procedure provides a way of making sense of these theories.

  8. Clinical Applications of S53P4 Bioactive Glass in Bone Healing and Osteomyelitic Treatment: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. P. van Gestel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, S53P4 bioactive glass is indicated as a bone graft substitute in various clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the current published clinical results on indications such as craniofacial procedures, grafting of benign bone tumour defects, instrumental spondylodesis, and the treatment of osteomyelitis. Given the reported results that are based on examinations, such as clinical examinations by the surgeons, radiographs, CT, and MRI images, S53P4 bioactive glass may be beneficial in the various reported applications. Especially in craniofacial reconstructions like mastoid obliteration and orbital floor reconstructions, in grafting bone tumour defects, and in the treatment of osteomyelitis very promising results are obtained. Randomized clinical trials need to be performed in order to determine whether bioactive glass would be able to replace the current golden standard of autologous bone usage or with the use of antibiotic containing PMMA beads (in the case of osteomyelitis.

  9. Histaminergic regulation of prolactin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U P

    1990-01-01

    Histamine (HA), which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, participates in the neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion. HA has a predominant stimulatory effect which is mediated via H2-receptors following central administration and via H1-receptors following...

  10. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  11. Crystal growth and characterization of third order nonlinear optical piperazinium bis(4-hydroxybenzenesulphonate) (P4HBS) single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichan, Karuppasamy; Muthu, Senthil Pandian; Perumalsamy, Ramasamy

    2017-09-01

    The organic single crystal of piperazinium bis(4-hydroxybenzenesulphonate) (P4HBS) was grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) at room temperature. The lattice parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Functional groups of P4HBS crystal were confirmed by FTIR spectrum analysis. The optical quality of the grown crystal was identified by the UV-Vis NIR spectrum analysis. The grown crystal has good optical transmittance in the range of 410-1100 nm. In photoluminescence spectrum, sharp emission peaks are observed, which indicates the ultraviolet (UV) emission. The photoconductivity study reveals that the grown crystal has negative photoconductive nature. The thermal behaviour of the P4HBS crystal was investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The mechanical stability of grown crystal was analyzed and the indentation size effect (ISE) was explained by Hays-Kendall's (HK) approach and proportional specimen resistance model (PSRM). Chemical etching study was carried out and the etch pit density (EPD) was calculated. The dielectric constant (ε‧) and dielectric loss (tan δ) as a function of frequency were measured for the grown crystal. The solid state parameters such as valence electron, plasma energy, Penn gap and Fermi energy were evaluated theoretically for the P4HBS using the empirical relation. The estimated values are used to calculate the electronic polarizability. The third-order nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear refractive index (n2), absorption co-efficient (β) and susceptibility (χ(3)) were studied by Z-scan technique at 632.8 nm using He-Ne laser.

  12. Selectivity in progesterone and androgen receptor binding of progestagens used in oral contraceptives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterboer, H.J.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, C.A.; Turpijn, E.W.

    1988-09-01

    The relative binding affinities (RBAs) of four progestational compounds (norethisterone, levonorgestrel, 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene) for the human progesterone and androgen receptors were measured in MCF-7 cytosol and intact MCF-7 cells. For the binding to the progesterone receptor, both Org 2058 and Org 3236 (or 3-keto-desogestrel) were used as labelled ligands. The following ranking (low to high) for the RBA of the nuclear (intact cells) progesterone receptor irrespective of the ligand used is found: norethisterone much less than levonorgestrel less than 3-keto-destogestrel less than gestodene. The difference between the various progestagens is significant with the exception of that between 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene, when Org 2058 is used as ligand. For the cytosolic progesterone receptor, the same order is found with the exception that similar RBAs are found for gestodene and 3-keto-desogestrel. The four progestagens clearly differ with respect to binding to the androgen receptor using dihydrotestosterone as labelled ligand in intact cells; the ranking (low to high) is: norethisterone less than 3 keto-desogestrel less than levonorgestrel and gestodene. The difference between 3-keto-desogestrel and levonorgestrel or gestodene is significant. The selectivity indices (ratio of the mean RBA for the progesterone receptor to that of androgen receptor) in intact cells are significantly higher for 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene than for levonorgestrel and norethisterone. From these results we conclude that the introduction of the 18-methyl in norethisterone (levonorgestel) increases both the binding to the progesterone and androgen receptors.

  13. Concentrations of estrogen and progesterone in breast milk and their relationship with the mother's diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengqing; Xiao, Hailong; Li, Kelei; Jiang, Jiajing; Wu, Kejian; Li, Duo

    2017-09-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and progesterone in breast milk over different lactation periods, and to assess their relationship with the mother's diet. Ninety-six breast milk samples as well as 24-hour dietary records from 32 lactating mothers were collected on day 1 (colostrum), day 14 (transitional milk) and day 42 (mature milk) after delivery in Hangzhou, China. The concentrations of E2, E3 and progesterone differed significantly through different periods of lactation (p milk and mature milk was 1.60 ± 0.96 μg L -1 , 0.83 ± 0.36 μg L -1 and 1.26 ± 0.48 μg L -1 , respectively. The concentrations of E3 were 2.09 ± 1.66 μg L -1 , 2.23 ± 1.74 μg L -1 and 4.64 ± 2.15 μg L -1 , respectively. The concentrations of progesterone were 6.10 ± 8.30 μg L -1 , 4.25 ± 4.76 μg L -1 and 1.70 ± 2.42 μg L -1 , respectively. The concentration of progesterone in breast milk was significantly negatively correlated with the intake of protein (p = 0.015), fat (p = 0.008), vegetables (p = 0.012), and meat and eggs (p = 0.036), while the concentration of E3 was significantly positively correlated with the intake of soy products (p = 0.025). This information indicates that the concentrations of E2, E3 and progesterone in breast milk varied over the lactating period. Dietary intake will to some extent affect the contents of E3 and progesterone in breast milk.

  14. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  15. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.F. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Couto-Pereira, N.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nin, M.S. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Porto Alegre, Centro Metodista do Sul, Curso de Farmácia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Curso de Farmácia, Centro Metodista do Sul, Instituto Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gomez, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Farmacologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barros, H.M.T. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  16. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J.C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  17. Synthesis and property of polymer nanospheres with Pd/P4VP shells via surface RAFT polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT agent with carbazole as Z-group was immobilized on the surfaces of the cross-linked poly (4-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-styrene (PVBCS nanospheres with a diameter of about 70 nm by the reaction of benzyl chloride groups in the PVBCS between carbazole and carbon sulfide. Then surface RAFT polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP was used to modify the nanospheres to produce a well-defined and covalently tethered P4VP shell. By surface activation in a PdCl2 solution and then reduction by hydrazine hydrate (N2H4•H2O, the P4VP composite shells were obtained containing densely palladium metal nanoparticles. The chemical composition of the nanosphere surfaces at various stages of the surface modification was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to characterize the morphology of the hybrid nanospheres. The Pd/P4VP shell nanospheres were also applied to the catalytic reaction and proved to be efficient and reusable for the Heck reaction.

  18. Influence of H2TOEtPyP4 porphyrin on the stability and conductivity of bilayer lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosyan, Anahit; Arakelyan, Valeri

    2015-12-01

    Many water-soluble cationic porphyrins are known to be prospective chemotherapeutics and photosensitizers for cancer treatment and diagnosis. The physicochemical properties of porphyrins, in particular their interactions with membranes, are important determining factors of their biological activity. The influence of cationic meso-tetra-[4-N-(2'-hydroxyethyl) pyridyl] porphyrin (H2TOEtPyP) on the stability and conductivity of bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) was studied. H2TOEtPyP4 porphyrin was shown to decrease the stability of BLMs made of a mixture of DOPS and DPPE (1:1) in an electric field because of a reduction of line tension of spontaneously formed pore edges in the BLM. The presence of cationic porphyrin was found to reduce BLM surface tension. This effect was enhanced with increasing porphyrin concentration. H2TOEtPyP4 increased the probability of spontaneous pore formation. Further investigating the cyclic current-voltage characteristics of BLMs allowed determining the electrical capacity and conductivity of BLMs in the presence of H2TOEtPyP4 porphyrin. It was shown that in the presence of cationic porphyrin the electrical capacity as well as conductivity of the BLM increases.

  19. Study on prevention effect of Zishen Yutai pill combined with progesterone for threatened abortion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yan, Wei; Ge, Pu-Feng; Li, Yan; Ye, Qian

    2016-06-01

    To observe preventive and therapeutic effects and the mechanism of actions on Zishen Yutai pill combined with progesterone on threatened abortion in rats. After pregnancy, 50 SPF female SD rats were selected and divided into control group, model group, progesterone group, Zishen Yutai pill group, and progesterone plus Zishen Yutai pill group (combination group), with 10 rats in each group. The rats of control group and abortion model group were lavaged with 2 mL/kg normal saline on pregnancy day 1 for continuous 10 days. Rats in Zishen Yutai pill group were given 1.575 g/kg/d of Zishen Yutai pill for intragastric administration for continuous 10 days. Rats in progesterone group were given intramuscular injection treatment of 0.1 mL/d progestin, continuous for 10 days. Rats in combination group were given injection therapy of aqueous solution of Zishen Yutai pill for continuous 10 days, and other treatments were the same as previous two groups. Abortion model were established then and live births, numbers of abortion and average rate of abortion were compared between the five groups. Peripheral blood was collected to detect the estradiol (E2) and progestational hormone (P), and obtain ratio of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-2, INF-γ, IL-4, IL-10). Significant more live births of rats were found in the control group compared with other four groups (P pill group and joint group (P pill group. The serum E2 level of P of rats in the control group, progesterone group, Zishen Yutai pill group and joint group were significant higher than that of abortion model group (P pill group and joint group were not significant different (P > 0.05) but these levels in the control group and Zishen Yutai pill group were significant lower than that of progesterone group and joint group (P pill group and joint group were balanced deviating to Th2, and joint group' deviation was better than progesterone group and Zishen Yutai pill group (P pill combined with progesterone has a

  20. A paracrine role for the epithelial progesterone receptor in mammary gland development

    OpenAIRE

    Brisken, Cathrin; Park, Sissela; Vass, Tibor; Lydon, John P.; O’Malley, Bert W.; Weinberg, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Recently generated progesterone receptor (PR)-negative (PR−/−) mice provide an excellent model for dissecting the role of progesterone in the development of the mammary gland during puberty and pregnancy. However, the full extent of the mammary gland defect in these mice caused by the absence of the PR cannot be assessed, because PR−/− mice do not exhibit estrous cycles and fail to become pregnant. To circumvent this difficulty, we have transplanted PR−/− breasts into wild-type mice, and we h...

  1. Progesterone reduces erectile dysfunction in sleep-deprived spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufik Sergio

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD associated with cocaine has been shown to enhance genital reflexes (penile erection-PE and ejaculation-EJ in Wistar rats. Since hypertension predisposes males to erectile dysfunction, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PSD on genital reflexes in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR compared to the Wistar strain. We also extended our study to examine how PSD affect steroid hormone concentrations involved in genital events in both experimental models. Methods The first experiment investigated the effects of PSD on genital reflexes of Wistar and SHR rats challenged by saline and cocaine (n = 10/group. To further examine the impact of the PSD on concentrations of sexual hormones, we performed a hormonal analysis of testosterone and progesterone in the Wistar and in SHR strains. Since after PSD progesterone concentrations decreased in the SHR compared to the Wistar PSD group we extended our study by investigating whether progesterone (25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg or testosterone (0.5 mg/kg or 1.0 mg/kg administration during PSD would have a facilitator effect on the occurrence of genital reflexes in this hypertensive strain. Results A 4-day period of PSD induced PE in 50% of the Wistar rats against 10% for the SHR. These genital reflexes was potentiated by cocaine in Wistar rats whereas this scenario did not promote significant enhancement in PE and EJ in hypertensive rats, and the percentage of SHR displaying genital reflexes still figured significantly lower than that of the Wistar strain. As for hormone concentrations, both sleep-deprived Wistar and SHR showed lower testosterone concentrations than their respective controls. Sleep deprivation promoted an increase in concentrations of progesterone in Wistar rats, whereas no significant alterations were found after PSD in the SHR strain, which did not present enhancement in erectile responses. In order to explore the role

  2. BfR does not see any association between progesterone levels in milk and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) expresses its opinion on a possible associa-tion between rising milk consumption and the onset of cancer. In particular breast and pros-tate cancer are said to be attributable to the increased consumption of milk and dairy prod-ucts. The reasons given are the natural, hormonal ingredients in milk. Besides carbohy-drates, proteins, vitamins and trace elements, milk also contains hormones like, for instance, progesteroneProgesterone is a fem...

  3. Role of Cervical Cerclage and Vaginal Progesterone in the Treatment of Cervical Incompetence with/without Preterm Birth History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Wei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Cervical cerclage showed more benefits in the maternal and neonatal outcomes than vaginal progesterone therapy for women with an asymptomatic short cervix and prior PTB history, while cervical cerclage and vaginal progesterone therapies showed similar effectiveness for women with an asymptomatic short cervix but without a history of PTB.

  4. Finasteride inhibits the progesterone-induced spike-wave discharges in a genetic model of absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Budziszewska, B.; Tetich, M.; Lason, W.

    2003-01-01

    Previously, it was found that progesterone aggravates spike-wave discharges (SWD) in WAG/Rij rats in a nongenomic way. In order to elucidate whether the regulatory effect of progesterone depends on its conversion to allopregnanolone, the effect of finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, on

  5. Effects of progesterone and vitamin D on outcome of patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury; a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aminmansour, Bahram; Asnaashari, Ali; Rezvani, Majid; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Amin Noorian, Seyed Mohammad; Saboori, Masih; Abdollahzadeh, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    ...) while the role of progesterone and vitamin D remain controversial. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of progesterone and vitamin D on functional outcome of patients with acute traumatic SCI...

  6. Comparison of the administration of progesterone versus progesterone and vitamin D in improvement of outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury: A randomized clinical trial with placebo group

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Aminmansour; Hossein Nikbakht; Abbas Ghorbani; Majid Rezvani; Paiman Rahmani; Mostaffa Torkashvand; Mohammadamin Nourian; Mehran Moradi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Due to the heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI), many of single treatments have not been successful in prevention and cure of these kinds of injuries. The neuroprotective effect of progesterone drug on severe brain injuries has been identified, and recently, the neuroprotective effect of vitamin D has also been studied as the combination of these two drugs has shown better effects on animal samples in some studies. This study was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin...

  7. The miR-124-prolyl hydroxylase P4HA1-MMP1 axis plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni V S K; Pathi, Satya Sreehari; Goswami, Moloy T; Cieślik, Marcin; Zheng, Heng; Nallasivam, Sivakumar; Arekapudi, Subramanyeswara R; Jing, Xiaojun; Siddiqui, Javed; Athanikar, Jyoti; Carskadon, Shannon L; Lonigro, Robert J; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Varambally, Sooryanarayana

    2014-08-30

    Collagen prolyl hydroxylases (C-P4HAs) are a family of enzymes involved in collagen biogenesis. One of the isoforms of P4HA, Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, alpha polypeptide I (P4HA1), catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline that is essential for the proper three-dimensional folding of newly synthesized procollagen chains. Here, we show the overexpression of P4HA1 in aggressive prostate cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarray demonstrated that P4HA1 expression was correlated with prostate cancer progression. Using in vitro studies, we showed that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer cell growth and tumor progression. Expression profiling studies using P4HA1 modulated prostate cells suggested regulation of Matrix metalloproteases 1. The invasive properties of P4HA1 overexpressing cells were reversed by blocking MMP1. Our studies indicate P4HA1 copy number gain in a subset of metastatic prostate tumors and its expression is also regulated by microRNA-124. MiR-124 in turn is negatively regulated by transcriptional repressors EZH2 and CtBP1, both of which are overexpressed in aggressive prostate cancer. Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and mice xenograft investigations show that P4HA1 is required for tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Our observations suggest that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression and could serve as a viable therapeutic target.

  8. Loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions induce preterm cellular and structural remodeling of the cervix and premature birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Yellon

    Full Text Available A decline in serum progesterone or antagonism of progesterone receptor function results in preterm labor and birth. Whether characteristics of premature remodeling of the cervix after antiprogestins or ovariectomy are similar to that at term was the focus of the present study. Groups of pregnant rats were treated with vehicle, a progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone or mifepristone, or ovariectomized on day 17 postbreeding. As expected, controls given vehicle delivered at term while rats delivered preterm after progesterone receptor antagonist treatment or ovariectomy. Similar to the cervix before term, the preterm cervix of progesterone receptor antagonist-treated rats was characterized by reduced cell nuclei density, decreased collagen content and structure, as well as a greater presence of macrophages per unit area. Thus, loss of nuclear progesterone receptor-mediated actions promoted structural remodeling of the cervix, increased census of resident macrophages, and preterm birth much like that found in the cervix at term. In contrast to the progesterone receptor antagonist-induced advance in characteristics associated with remodeling, ovariectomy-induced loss of systemic progesterone did not affect hypertrophy, extracellular collagen, or macrophage numbers in the cervix. Thus, the structure and macrophage census in the cervix appear sufficient for premature ripening and birth to occur well before term. With progesterone receptors predominantly localized on cells other than macrophages, the findings suggest that interactions between cells may facilitate the loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions as part of a final common mechanism that remodels the cervix in certain etiologies of preterm and with parturition at term.

  9. Influence of opioids on LH secretion in gilts during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrasa, S; Kalamarz, H; Tilton, J E; Ziecik, A J

    1992-12-01

    The effect of endogenous opioid peptides (EOP) on LH secretion is variable during different physiological states. A series of experiments concerning the role of EOP on LH secretion in cyclic gilts was performed. They were comprised of (1) an administration of an opioid antagonist or agonist in gilts during the estrous cycle and in ovariectomized (OVX) gilts in which the LH surge was induced with estradiol benzoate (EB) and (2) in vitro studies on GnRH release from the stalk median eminence (SME) of cyclic gilts and OVX estrogen and progesterone primed gilts in response to naloxone (NAL). Naloxone and met-enkephalin analogue (FK 33-824) administration as a single independent injections did not affect LH secretion during the early (Day 16) or late (Day 19 or 20) follicular phase. However, continuous infusion of FK 33-824 for 4 h decreased LH secretion during the infusion period on Day 19 of the estrous cycle. Morphine also exerts an inhibitory effect on the EB-induced LH surge during the positive feedback phase (60-64 h after EB administration) in OVX gilts. On the contrary, NAL infusion in OVX gilts during the negative feedback phase (30-34 h after EB administration) did not alter LH secretion. A single injection of FK 33-824 in luteal phase gilts decreased the number of LH pulses for a 3 h period. This allows to hypothesize that EOP participates in the regulation of pulsatile LH secretion in pigs during the luteal phase. In vitro studies indicate that influence of EOP on LH secretion also takes place at the SME level. GnRH efflux from the SME of gilts during the luteal and late follicular phases was augmented in the presence of NAL. Unexpectedly, the priming of OVX gilts with estrogens caused the highest increase in GnRH release from the SME in vitro in response to NAL. These results confirm the variety of functional links between the opioid system and LH secretion in gilts during different stages of the estrous cycle.

  10. Stimulation of incretin secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Ramona; Gribble, Fiona M; Reimann, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted from enteroendocrine cells in the gut and regulate physiological and homeostatic functions related to glucose control, metabolism and food intake. This review provides a systematic summary of the molecular mechanisms underlying secretion from incretin cells, and an understanding of how they sense and interact with lumen and vascular factors and the enteric nervous system through transporters and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) present on their surface to ultimately culminate in hormone release. Some of the molecules described below such as sodium coupled glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) 119 and GPR40 are targets of novel therapeutics designed to enhance endogenous gut hormone release. Synthetic ligands at these receptors aimed at treating obesity and type 2 diabetes are currently under investigation.

  11. [Insulin secretion: mechanisms of regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljević, Tatjana; Todorović, Vera; Sikić, Branka

    2004-01-01

    REGULATION OF INSULIN SECRETION: Beta cells are unique endocrine cells. They respond positively, in terms of insulin secretion, not only to changes in the extracellular glucose concentration, but also to activators of the phospholipase C (cholecystokinin or acetylcholine), and to activators of adenylate cyclase (glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, or gastric inhibitory polypeptide). Major messengers which mediate glucose action for insulin release are Ca2+, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and diacylglycerol (DAG). MAJOR PATHWAYS OF INSULIN RELEASE STIMULATION: There are four major pathways involved in stimulation of insulin release. The first pathway is KATP channel-dependent pathway in which increased blood glucose concentrations and increased b-cell metabolism result in a change in intracellular ATP/ADP ratio. This is a contributory factor in closure of ATP-dependent K+ channels, depolarization of b-cell membrane, in increased voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channel activity. Increased Ca2+ influx results in increased intracellular Ca2+ and stimulated insulin release. KATP channel-independent pathway augments Ca(2+) -stimulated insulin secretion of KATP channel-dependent pathway. Major potentiation of release results from hormonal and peptidergic activation of receptors linked to adenylyl cyclase. Adenylyl cyclase activity is stimulated by hormones such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and so on. These hormones, acting via G protein, stimulate adenylyl cyclase, thus causing a rise in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Increased activity of PKA results in potentiation of insulin secretion.

  12. Partager ses secrets en public

    OpenAIRE

    Merzeau, Louise

    2013-01-01

    National audience; We can be tempted to interpret the evolution of the Web and especially of social networks as a victory of an ideology of visibility, denying the right to withhold, withdraw and disconnect. Does this dictatorship of transparency, which is threatening even State secrets, means the end opacities, gray areas and moving frontiers between what is shown et whant is hidden ? We want to show that the digital environment is characterized instead by a regime of ambivalent visibility, ...

  13. Sec-mediated secretion by Coxiella burnetii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterial pathogen that replicates within a phagolysosome-like parasitophorous vacuole (PV) of macrophages. PV formation requires delivery of effector proteins directly into the host cell cytoplasm by a type IVB secretion system. However, additional secretion systems are likely responsible for modification of the PV lumen microenvironment that promote pathogen replication. Results To assess the potential of C. burnetii to secrete proteins into the PV, we analyzed the protein content of modified acidified citrate cysteine medium for the presence of C. burnetii proteins following axenic (host cell-free) growth. Mass spectrometry generated a list of 105 C. burnetii proteins that could be secreted. Based on bioinformatic analysis, 55 proteins were selected for further study by expressing them in C. burnetii with a C-terminal 3xFLAG-tag. Secretion of 27 proteins by C. burnetii transformants was confirmed by immunoblotting culture supernatants. Tagged proteins expressed by C. burnetii transformants were also found in the soluble fraction of infected Vero cells, indicating secretion occurs ex vivo. All secreted proteins contained a signal sequence, and deletion of this sequence from selected proteins abolished secretion. These data indicate protein secretion initially requires translocation across the inner-membrane into the periplasm via the activity of the Sec translocase. Conclusions C. burnetii secretes multiple proteins, in vitro and ex vivo, in a Sec-dependent manner. Possible roles for secreted proteins and secretion mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24093460

  14. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-07

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance.

  15. Multiculturalism, extreme poverty, and teaching p4c in Juchitán: a short report on research

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid, María Elena; Universidad Pedagógica Nacional

    2009-01-01

    Most of the Latin American population, including in places like Mexico and Brazil, is becoming extremely poor, slipping in the last ten years from poverty to extreme poverty. Native communities are in this condition: to live only to survive, lacking any opportunity to improve or at least meet their basics needs of food and shelter. I practiced P4C in the multicultural community of Juchitán, Oaxaca, to inquire whether the program could overcome the limitations of extreme poverty, and respect c...

  16. Micro-dose hCG as luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C Yding; Fischer, R; Giorgione, V

    2016-01-01

    For the last two decades, exogenous progesterone administration has been used as luteal phase support (LPS) in connection with controlled ovarian stimulation combined with use of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger for the final maturation of follicles. The introduction of the GnRHa tr...

  17. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    of HCG administration and the probability of clinical pregnancy in women undergoing ovarian stimulation with GnRH agonists and gonadotrophins for assisted reproduction treatment.Instead, late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration appears to be governed by the number of preovulatory follicles and LH...

  18. Endogenous progesterone and its cellular binding sites in wheat exposed to drought stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeczko, A.; Oklešťková, Jana; Siwek, A.; Dziurka, M.; Pociecha, E.; Kocurek, M.; Novák, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 2013 (2013), s. 384-394 ISSN 0960-0760 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Plants * Wheat * Progesterone Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.049, year: 2013

  19. Reproductive responses and progesterone levels of postpartum oestrus synchronization in goats with different body reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana V. Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty adult goats were classified at parturition into two body condition score (BCS groups: BCI (n=16 with a score of 2.7 and BCII (n=14 with a score of 2.0. On the fiftieth day postpartum, oestrus was synchronized by CIDR for 5 days. Upon CIDR removal (Day 0, they received 1 mL of PGF2α IM and mated for 72 hours. Kids were kept with does and weaned at 40 days of age. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 21 days after CIDR removal for progesterone assay. The BCI group showed a greater weight loss compared to the BCII group, and BCS before synchronization was 1.9±0.08 and 1.6±0.07 for the BCI and BCII groups, respectively (Pvs 36%; Pvs 1.25; Pvs 0.25; P<0.05. Progesterone concentration was higher in pregnant does in BCI. A positive relationship was found between progesterone level at CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.57; P<0.01, also between progesterone level at 21 days after CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.47; P<0.05, or BCS before synchronization (0.51; P<0.05. We conclude that oestrus response to postpartum CIDR synchronization appeared to be slightly dependent on BCS. However, goats with low BCS at oestrus synchronization exhibited a reduction in pregnancy rate.

  20. Dielectric relaxation and crystallization of ultraviscous melt and glassy states of aspirin, ibuprofen, progesterone, and quinidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, G P; Kim, S; Shanker, Ravi M

    2007-05-01

    Molecular relaxation in ultraviscous melt and glassy states of aspirin, ibuprofen, progesterone, and quinidine has been studied by dielectric spectroscopy. The asymmetric relaxation spectra is characterized by the Kohlrausch distribution parameter of 0.46 +/- 0.02 for aspirin to 0.67 +/- 0.02 for progesterone. The dielectric relaxation time varies with the temperature, T, according to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann Equation, log(10)(tau(0)) = A(VFT) + [B(VFT)/(T - T(0))], where A(VFT), B(VFT), and T(0) are empirical constants. The extrapolated tau(0) at calorimetric glass-softening temperature is close to the value expected. The equilibrium permittivity, epsilon(0), is lowest for ibuprofen which indicates an antiparallel orientation of dipoles in its liquid's hydrogen-bonded structure. A decrease in epsilon(0) with time shows that ultraviscous aspirin, progesterone, and quinidine begin to cold-crystallize at a relatively lower temperature than ibuprofen. epsilon(0) of the cold-crystallized phases are, 4.7 for aspirin at 290 K, 2.55 for ibuprofen at 287 K, 2.6 for progesterone at 320 K, and 3.2 for quinidine at 375 K. It is argued that hydrogen-bonding, the Kohlrausch parameter, extent of localized motions and the long-range diffusion times all determine the physical and chemical stability of an amorphous pharmaceutical during storage. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Combining Cattle Activity and Progesterone Measurements Using Hidden Semi-Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Jared Michael; Tøgersen, Frede Aakmann; Friggens, Nic

    2011-01-01

    Hourly pedometer counts and irregularly measured concentration of the hormone progesterone were available for a large number of dairy cattle. A hidden semi-Markov was applied to this bivariate time-series data for the purposes of monitoring the reproductive status of cattle. In particular, the ab...

  2. Genetic analysis of atypical progesterone profiles in Holstein-Friesian cows from experimental research herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyman, S.; Johansson, K.; Koning, de C.J.A.M.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Wall, E.; Berglund, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic variation in normal and atypical progesterone profiles and investigate if this information could be useful in an improved genetic evaluation for fertility for dairy cows. The phenotypes derived from normal profiles included cycle length traits,

  3. Progesterone and Related Compounds in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Basic and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC accounts for 85% to 90% of primary liver cancers. Major risk factors for HCC include infection with HBV or HCV, alcoholic liver disease, and most probably nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In general, men are two to four times more often associated with HCC than women. It can be suggested that sex hormones including progesterone may play some roles in HCC. Rather, very limited information discusses its potential involvement in HCC. This paper thus collects some recent studies of the potential involvement of progesterone and related compounds in HCC from basic and clinical aspects. In addition, two synthetic progestins, megestrol acetate (MA and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, will be discussed thoroughly. It is noted that progesterone can also serve as the precursor for androgens and estrogens produced by the gonadal and adrenal cortical tissues, while men have a higher incidence of HCC than women might be due to the stimulatory effects of androgen and the protective effects of estrogen. Eventually, this paper suggests a new insight on the associations of progesterone and related compounds with HCC development and treatment.

  4. Development of a competitive lateral flow immunoassay for progesterone: influence of coating conjugates and buffer components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    2008-11-01

    Several aspects of the development of competitive lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are described. The quantitation of progesterone is taken as an example. The LFIA format consisted of a nitrocellulose membrane spotted with various progesterone conjugates as the test line. A mixture of primary antibody and secondary antibody adsorbed to colloidal carbon was used for signal generation. A digital scanner and dedicated software were used to quantitate the response. A reappraisal of the checkerboard titration, often used in the optimisation of immunoassays, is discussed. Surprisingly, the highest sensitivity of the LFIA format (IC(50) of 0.6 microg L(-1) progesterone in buffer) was achieved by using a high coating concentration of the analyte-protein conjugate and a high dilution of the antibody solution. Immediate addition of all reagents in LFIA was superior to premixing the components and allowing prereaction. Of several blocking agents tested bovine serum albumin was superior in performance, whereas the combination of ovalbumin and progesterone substantially influenced test results.

  5. Influence of the reuse of progesterone implants in a fixed-time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of reusing progesterone intravaginal implants using a fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocol on the conception rates of 593 primiparous and multiparous lactating cows during two different seasons. The cows were divided into two categories: multiparous and primiparous.

  6. Mammary gland lactose, plasma progesterone and lactogenesis in the marsupial Macropus eugenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, L; Ward, K L; Renfree, M B

    1983-06-01

    Mammary gland lactose concentrations in pregnant tammar wallabies remained low at 115 +/- 24 (S.E.M.) micrograms/g wet weight of tissue until immediately before parturition, then increased to 1274 +/- 262 micrograms/g after birth. Concentrations in non-pregnant cyclic animals were generally low (143 +/- 36 micrograms/g), but were raised in three animals around the time of oestrus. Removal of the corpus luteum on day 18 of pregnancy or the oestrous cycle caused an increase in lactose concentrations in both lutectomized and sham-operated animals. This occurred despite a significant lowering of peripheral plasma progesterone concentration in only the lutectomized group. Plasma cortisol concentrations were high in some of these animals, but showed no consistent relationships with the raised lactose concentrations. The increased peripartum lactose concentration normally coincides with a sharp fall in peripheral plasma progesterone concentration, but artificial maintenance of high progesterone levels had no effect on the increase of mammary gland lactose at parturition. Mammary gland lactose concentrations in tammar wallabies are therefore a useful indicator of biosynthetic activity and as an index of lactogenesis but the role, if any, of progesterone withdrawal in lactogenesis remains unclear.

  7. Artificial cryopreserved embryo transfer cycle success depends on blastocyst developmental rate and progesterone timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozgur, Kemal; Bulut, Hasan; Berkkanoglu, Murat

    2018-01-01

    This retrospective cohort analysis compared the developmental competence of cryopreserved day-4 and 5 blastocysts, and investigated the effect of progesterone administration duration on the success of artificial frozen embryo transfers. Between October 2015 and March 2016, 868 intracytoplasmic....... The retrospective analysis and lack of adjustment for all known confounding variables limit the study....

  8. Plasma prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations around parturition in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, M.; Willemse, A.H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Bevers, M.

    Plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples taken from 2–15 days before until 1–4 days after spontaneous parturition in four sows and in one sow around prostaglandin F2α-induced parturition. Between Days −15 and −2 (Day 0 =

  9. The relationship between fat and progesterone, estradiol, and chorionic gonadotropin levels in Quebec cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, A R; Buckett, W; Son, W Y; Lefebvre, J; Mahfoudh, A M; Dahan, M H

    2017-11-01

    The majority of milk in industrialized countries is obtained from pregnant cows, which contains increased levels of estrogen and progesterone compared to non-pregnant cows. The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of hormones present in milk with different fat content because previous studies on humans have shown potential effects of increased milk consumption on serum and urine hormone levels as well as on sperm parameters. However, it is unclear whether consumption of milk at the currently recommended levels would lead to systemic effects. Samples of cow's milk of varying fat concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3.25, 10, and 35%) were analyzed via competitive ELISA assays. Progesterone concentrations were significantly correlated to increasing fat content of milk (r = 0.8251, p = 0.04). Research on conditions in which additional progesterone may have an effect on human health should consider inclusion of limitation of milk intake and its effects. Further studies are needed to determine the concentration of progesterone in milk of different fat content in other regions and countries and to quantify the potential pathophysiologic role.

  10. Membrane-bound progesterone receptors coupled to G proteins in the fungus Rhizopus nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenasi, Helena; Bavec, Aljosa; Zorko, Matjaz

    2002-07-16

    Steroid binding sites with high affinity for progesterone (Kd=40+/-14 nM determined by binding, and Kd=71+/-22 nM determined by displacement studies) and lower affinity for 21-hydroxyprogesterone and for testosterone, but no affinity for estradiol-17beta, onapristone and alpha-naphthoflavone were detected in the enriched plasma membrane fraction of the fungus Rhizopus nigricans. The amount of steroid binding sites is in accordance with the value of B(max)=744+/-151 fmol (mg protein)(-1). In the membrane fraction, progesterone induced about 30% activation of G proteins over basal level, as determined by GTPase activity (EC50=32+/-8 nM) and by the guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS) binding rate (EC50=61+/-21 nM). The affinity of receptors for progesterone was substantially decreased in the presence of GTPgammaS and of cholera toxin. Our results suggest the existence of progesterone receptors in the membrane of Rhizopus nigricans and their coupling to G proteins.

  11. G-protein coupled progesterone receptors in the plasma membrane of fungus Rhizopus nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavec, A; Slajpah, M; Lenasi, H; Yorko, M; Breskvar, K

    2000-01-01

    We have demonstrated simultaneous existence of progesterone receptors and GTPase activity in the membranes prepared from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans. The results obtained with pertussis toxin treated fungal mycelium suggest that these receptors do not couple to Gi-Go-proteins and play a role in the induction of steroid hydroxylating enzyme system by steroid substrates in the fungus.

  12. Progesterone side-chain degradation beside hydroxylation with Rhizopus nigricans depends on the presence of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorná, J; Kasal, A

    1990-01-01

    In the absence of nutrients, Rhizopus nigricans transforms progesterone into a mixture of 11 alpha-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione and 11 alpha-hydroxy-1,4-adrostadiene-3,17-dione. The same mixture is obtained by the transformation of testosterone and its acetate.

  13. Plasma progesterone profile and ovarian activity of forced-moult layers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    treatments in a completely randomized design, as follows: natural day length with feed and water ad libitum, natural day length with water but no feed, natural ... kept below 0oC in a freezer until required for assay of progesterone. Blood samples collected from birds of the same treatment group on each sampling day were.

  14. Progesterone as a neuroprotective factor in traumatic and ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeed, Iqbal; Stein, Donald G

    2009-01-01

    The search for a "magic bullet" drug targeting a single receptor for the treatment of stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has failed thus far for a variety of reasons. The pathophysiology of ischemic brain injury and TBI involves a number of mechanisms leading to neuronal injury, including excitotoxicity, free radical damage, inflammation, necrosis, and apoptosis. Brain injury also triggers auto-protective mechanisms, including the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines and endogenous antioxidants. In these conditions an agent with pleiotropic consequences is more likely to provide effective neuroprotection and repair than one operating primarily on a single, or a small number of, injury mechanisms. There is growing evidence, including recently published clinical trials, that progesterone and perhaps its metabolite allopregnanolone exert neuroprotective effects on the injured central nervous system (CNS). Laboratories around the world have shown that progesterone and allopregnanolone act through numerous metabolic and physiological pathways that can affect the injury response in many different tissues and organ systems. Furthermore, progesterone is a natural hormone, synthesized in both males and females, that can act as a pro-drug for other metabolites with their own distinct mode of action in CNS repair. These properties make progesterone a unique and compelling natural agent to consider for testing in clinical trial for CNS injuries including TBI and stroke.

  15. Prognostic Value of Estrogen Receptor alpha and Progesterone Receptor Conversion in Distant Breast Cancer Metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, Laurien D. C.; Moelans, Cathy B.; Meijer, S. L.; van Slooten, Henk-Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Wesseling, Jelle; Westenend, Pieter J.; Bart, Joost; Seldenrijk, Cornelis A.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Oudejans, Joost; van der Valk, Paul; van Gils, Carla H.; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in the receptor profile of primary breast cancers to their metastases (receptor conversion) have been described for the estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and progesterone receptor (PR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of receptor conversion for ER alpha and

  16. Relationship between progesterone concentrations in milk and blood and time of ovulation in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.B.; Eerdenburg, van F.J.C.M.; Hazeleger, W.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether monitoring progesterone concentrations in milk and blood plasma can be used to predict time of ovulation in dairy cattle. Whole milk was sampled twice daily and blood samples were collected once a day before the morning milking. Ovulation was

  17. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  18. Serum progesterone as an indicator of cyclic activity in post-partum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this trial was to assess post-partum ovarian activity of the does of two South African goat breeds from their serum progesterone concentrations. Between seven and 100 days post-partum, does from the Boer goat breed and an indigenous rural goat type were allocated to two nutritional treatments within breed.

  19. Evaluation of secretion prediction highlights differing approaches needed for oomycete and fungal effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eSperschneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The steadily increasing number of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes has enabled detailed studies of how these eukaryotic microbes infect plants and cause devastating losses in food crops. During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the pathogen’s advantage. Proteinaceous effectors are synthesised intracellularly and must be externalised to interact with host cells. Computational prediction of secreted proteins from genomic sequences is an important technique to narrow down the candidate effector repertoire for subsequent experimental validation. In this study, we benchmark secretion prediction tools on experimentally validated fungal and oomycete effectors. We observe that for a set of fungal SwissProt protein sequences, SignalP 4 and the neural network predictors of SignalP 3 (D-score and SignalP 2 perform best. For effector prediction in particular, the use of a sensitive method can be desirable to obtain the most complete candidate effector set. We show that the neural network predictors of SignalP 2 and 3, as well as TargetP were the most sensitive tools for fungal effector secretion prediction, whereas the hidden Markov model predictors of SignalP 2 and 3 were the most sensitive tools for oomycete effectors. Thus, previous versions of SignalP retain value for oomycete effector prediction, as the current version, SignalP 4, was unable to reliably predict the signal peptide of the oomycete Crinkler effectors in the test set. Our assessment of subcellular localisation predictors shows that cytoplasmic effectors are often predicted as not extracellular. This limits the reliability of secretion predictions that depend on these tools. We present our assessment with a view to informing future pathogenomics studies and suggest revised pipelines for secretion prediction to obtain optimal effector predictions in fungi and oomycetes.

  20. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF PROSTATIC SECRETION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Charles; Clark, Philip Johnson

    1940-01-01

    Cystic hyperplasia of the prostate occurs spontaneously in senile dogs only when they possess physiologically effective amounts of androgenic hormone. The cysts are closely grouped and radially arranged in a conical manner with the base of the cone at the periphery of the gland. Flattened and columnar epithelium, varying from about 5 to 25µ are seen in each cyst. The cysts communicate with the urethra by way of ducts. Both normal and cystic prostates undergo marked atrophy when the testes are removed, the chief difference 3 months after orchiectomy being the persistence of slightly dilated clefts and spaces at the site of the former cysts in the senile state. In the castrate dog whose prostate gland is being reconstructed as result of the influence of daily injections of androgen, certain doses of estrogen prevent increase of secretion and still larger doses greatly depress the output of the gland. In dogs so treated by daily injections of testosterone propionate, 10 mg., the amount of secretion is maintained from day to day at a level by daily injections of stilbestrol, 0.4 to 0.6 mg. and greatly depressed by doses of 1 to 1.5 mg. When the larger amounts of estrogen are used, together with androgen, squamous metaplasia occurs in the posterior lobe of the prostate while the epithelium of the acini decreases in height to cuboidal or low columnar form; these histological signs of activity of both androgen and estrogen on the prostate show that inhibition of the male hormone by stilbestrol is incomplete at these ratios. In dogs with either normal or cystic prostate glands, the prostate decreases in size when estrogen is injected in amounts to depress prostatic secretion profoundly. The gland is maintained in an atrophic state and overdosage avoided by controlled periodic injections of stilbestrol until secretion is reduced to the minimum, followed by free intervals, the estrogen being again administered when secretion measurably increases. The shrinkage is related to

  1. COUP-TFII mediates progesterone regulation of uterine implantation by controlling ER activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Kurihara

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone and estrogen are critical regulators of uterine receptivity. To facilitate uterine remodeling for embryo attachment, estrogen activity in the uterine epithelia is attenuated by progesterone; however, the molecular mechanism by which this occurs is poorly defined. COUP-TFII (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II; also known as NR2F2, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is highly expressed in the uterine stroma and its expression is regulated by the progesterone-Indian hedgehog-Patched signaling axis that emanates from the epithelium. To further assess COUP-TFII uterine function, a conditional COUP-TFII knockout mouse was generated. This mutant mouse is infertile due to implantation failure, in which both embryo attachment and uterine decidualization are impaired. Using this animal model, we have identified a novel genetic pathway in which BMP2 lies downstream of COUP-TFII. Epithelial progesterone-induced Indian hedgehog regulates stromal COUP-TFII, which in turn controls BMP2 to allow decidualization to manifest in vivo. Interestingly, enhanced epithelial estrogen activity, which impedes maturation of the receptive uterus, was clearly observed in the absence of stromal-derived COUP-TFII. This finding is consistent with the notion that progesterone exerts its control of implantation through uterine epithelial-stromal cross-talk and reveals that stromal-derived COUP-TFII is an essential mediator of this complex cross-communication pathway. This finding also provides a new signaling paradigm for steroid hormone regulation in female reproductive biology, with attendant implications for furthering our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie dysregulation of hormonal signaling in such human reproductive disorders as endometriosis and endometrial cancer.

  2. Biomechanical properties of osteoporotic rat femurs after different hormonal treatments: genistein, estradiol, and estradiol/progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azboy İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the study is to compare the effects of genistein, estradiol, estradiol/progesterone combination on the bone mineral density and biomechanical properties of ovariectomized rats’ bone. Methods: 50 female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Bilaterally ovaeriectomy were performed in all groups except the sham-operated group. Groups were a sham-operated group and a control group (water was given, estradiol treated group (17-β estradiol 0.015 mg/kg per day, genistein treated group (genistein 10 mg/kg per day, and an estradiol/progesterone combination group (17-β estradiol 0.015 mg/kg plus drosperinone 0.028 mg/kg per day. The water or hormones were implemented in relevant groups for eight weeks by orogasthric catheter. The bone mineral density and biomechanical properties of the femur were analyzed. Results: Genistein, estradiol, and estradiol/progesterone groups increased bone mineral density significantly compared to the control group. In diaphysis and metaphysis bending test, all groups had higher peak load values than the control group. There were statistically significant differences between the estrogen/progesterone group and control group in diaphysis bending with regard to peak load. There were statistically significant differences between the estradiol and control groups in metaphysis bending with regard to peak load. In axial rotation test, all groups had higher peak torque values than the control groups. Conclusions: Genistein, estradiol and estrogen/progesterone combination improved the biomechanical properties of the ovariectomized rat bone. Genistein which has less side effects may be considered as an alternative in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  3. Estradiol implants in the arcuate nucleus induce lactogenesis in virgin rats. Role of progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carón, R W; Deis, R P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the centrally administered estradiol, and the effects of the consequent hypersecretion of prolactin (PRL) and progesterone, on lactogenesis as evaluated by mammary accumulation of casein and lactose. Bilateral cannulae containing 17beta-estradiol or cholesterol were implanted in the arcuate nucleus of virgin rats on the day of estrus (Day 0). In the first experiment different groups of rats were killed on Days 6, 9, 15, 17, or 19. Trunk blood was collected and abdominal mammary glands were taken. In the second experiment, estradiol-implanted rats received the progesterone antagonist mifepristone or vehicle at 14.00 h on Day 8 or 16 post-implant, and were killed 28 or 48 h later. Serum PRL and progesterone and mammary casein were measured by RIA and lactose was determined by an enzymatic assay. Estradiol-implanted rats showed a significant increase in both milk components at all time points after implant compared to controls. On Day 9 after estradiol implant, mifepristone had no effect on mammary content of casein or lactose. By contrast, on Day 16, mifepristone markedly increased both casein and lactose contents without modifying serum PRL and progesterone concentrations. In conclusion, 17beta-estradiol implants in the arcuate nucleus of virgin rats results in hyperprolactinaemia and stimulates mammary accumulation of casein and lactose in the absence of feto-placental units. Despite the prolonged luteal activation, the sustained high levels of circulating progesterone become inhibitory to lactogenesis after a relatively long period after implant.

  4. Respiratory responses to progesterone and allopregnanolone following chronic caffeine treatment in newborn female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppari, Naga Praveena; Joseph, Vincent; Bairam, Aida

    2017-06-01

    We recently showed that in 12-day-old male rats exposed to caffeine for 10 consecutive days, progesterone inhibits the respiratory response to hypoxia and increases apnea frequency (Uppari et al., 2016). This was partly due to a higher inhibitory response of GABAa receptor to allopregnanolone, the neuroactive metabolite of progesterone. In the present study, we addressed whether similar effects occur in females. We used newborn female rats daily gavaged with water (control) or caffeine (15mg/kg) between the postnatal (P) days 3-12. At P12, we recorded ventilation, metabolic rate, and apnea frequency and duration in normoxia and in response to moderate hypoxia, following an intraperitonial injection of progesterone (4mg/kg) or allopregnanolone (10mg/kg). In control rats, progesterone had no effect on breathing in normoxia and in hypoxia, and in rats treated with caffeine it decreased the initial increase in respiratory frequency in hypoxia. In both groups, allopregnalone decreased breathing frequency in normoxia and in hypoxia and increased the frequency of apnea in normoxia in control rats and in rats treated with caffeine. Injection of bicuculline (a specific GABAa receptor antagonist) prevented the inhibitory effects of allopregnanolone on breathing in both groups. These data indicate that chronic caffeine treatment unmasked an inhibitory effect of progesterone on the hypoxic response but this was weaker than in males, and contrasting to what was observed in male rats (Uppari et al., 2016), GABAa receptors are not significantly affected by chronic caffeine treatment in newborn female rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cutaneous and Labyrinthine Tolerance of Bioactive Glass S53P4 in Mastoid and Epitympanic Obliteration Surgery: Prospective Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bernardeschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the cutaneous and the inner ear tolerance of bioactive glass S53P4 when used in the mastoid and epitympanic obliteration for chronic otitis surgery. Material and Methods. Forty-one cases have been included in this prospective study. Cutaneous tolerance was clinically evaluated 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery with a physical examination of the retroauricular and external auditory canal (EAC skin and the presence of otalgia; the inner ear tolerance was assessed by bone-conduction hearing threshold 1 day after surgery and by the presence of vertigo or imbalance. Results. All surgeries but 1 were uneventful: all patients maintained the preoperative bone-conduction hearing threshold except for one case in which the round window membrane was opened during the dissection of the cholesteatoma in the hypotympanum and this led to a dead ear. No dizziness or vertigo was reported. Three months after surgery, healing was achieved in all cases with a healthy painless skin. No cases of revision surgery for removal of the granules occurred in this study. Conclusion. The bioactive glass S53P4 is a well-tolerated biomaterial for primary or revision chronic otitis surgery, as shown by the local skin reaction which lasted less than 3 months and by the absence of labyrinthine complications.

  6. Membrane progesterone receptor beta (mPR?/Paqr8) promotes progesterone-dependent neurite outgrowth in PC12 neuronal cells via non-G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Kasubuchi, Mayu; Watanabe, Keita; Hirano, Kanako; Inoue, Daisuke; Li, Xuan; Terasawa, Kazuya; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Ikuo

    2017-01-01

    Recently, sex steroid membrane receptors garnered world-wide attention because they may be related to sex hormone-mediated unknown rapid non-genomic action that cannot be currently explained by their genomic action via nuclear receptors. Progesterone affects cell proliferation and survival via non-genomic effects. In this process, membrane progesterone receptors (mPRα, mPRβ, mPRγ, mPRδ, and mPRε) were identified as putative G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for progesterone. However, the st...

  7. Effect of Progesterone Therapy on TNF-α and iNOS Gene Expression in Spinal Cord Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Farahabadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI as a destructive crash result in neurons degeneration. The SCI lead to the onset of biochemical and molecular cascades such as inflammation that in turn has a key role in neurodegeneration development. The previous studies demonstrated the role of TNF-α and iNOS genes in intensifying the process after SCI. As a consequence, these genes overexpression intensify the inflammation and neuron degeneration process. In the present study, 32 male Wistar rats were chased and divided into four groups of eight. The SCI were induced in three groups and another group used as a sham. The progesterone hormone used as a therapeutic agent in rats with SCI. The results showed that injection of 10 μg/kg/12h progesterone hormone reduced the TNF-α and iNOS gene expression significantly and confirmed the role of progesterone in the reduction of inflammation. Also, the numbers of intact neurons in progesterone group were higher than other groups that demonstrated the protective effects of progesterone on neuron death. The BBB test was performed and demonstrated that progesterone is an effective factor to the improvement of locomotor response. These results of the study confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of progesterone hormone and suggested that it can be used as a therapeutic factor for SCI.

  8. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    . Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established...... that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies......, although some studies have demonstrated reduced incretin hormone secretion in type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes our knowledge on regulation of incretin hormone secretion and its potential changes in disease states....

  9. Progesterone-induced stimulation of mammary tumorigenesis is due to the progesterone metabolite, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) and can be suppressed by the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, John P; Rivas, Martin A; Mercogliano, Maria F; Elizalde, Patricia V; Schillaci, Roxana

    2015-05-01

    Progesterone has long been linked to breast cancer but its actual role as a cancer promoter has remained in dispute. Previous in vitro studies have shown that progesterone is converted to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) in breast tissue and human breast cell lines by the action of 5α-reductase, and that 5αP acts as a cancer-promoter hormone. Also studies with human breast cell lines in which the conversion of progesterone to 5αP is blocked by a 5α-reductase inhibitor, have shown that the in vitro stimulation in cell proliferation with progesterone treatments are not due to progesterone itself but to the metabolite 5αP. No similar in vivo study has been previously reported. The objective of the current studies was to determine in an in vivo mouse model if the presumptive progesterone-induced mammary tumorigenesis is due to the progesterone metabolite, 5αP. BALB/c mice were challenged with C4HD murine mammary cells, which have been shown to form tumors when treated with progesterone or the progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate. Cells and mice were treated with various doses and combinations of progesterone, 5αP and/or the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, and the effects on cell proliferation and induction and growth of tumors were monitored. Hormone levels in serum and tumors were measured by specific RIA and ELISA tests. Proliferation of C4HD cells and induction and growth of tumors was stimulated by treatment with either progesterone or 5αP. The progesterone-induced stimulation was blocked by finasteride and reinstated by concomitant treatment with 5αP. The 5αP-induced tumors expressed high levels of ER, PR and ErbB-2. Hormone measurements showed significantly higher levels of 5αP in serum from mice with tumors than from mice without tumors, regardless of treatments, and 5αP levels were significantly higher (about 4-fold) in tumors than in respective sera, while progesterone levels did not differ between the compartments. The results indicate that

  10. The effects of intrahippocampus injection of progesterone on passive avoidance learning and memory in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmoores Shahrivar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone as a reproductive hormone is studied in the brain structure. New studies are mainly about systemic injection and have shown that the progesterone has different effects on memory. But it is not clear if hippocampus is mediator of progesterone in reinforcement of memory and learning. So, the effects of intra-hippocampal injection of progesterone on passive avoidance memory and learning was studied in male Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Animals were divided in eightgroups as a control, saline, almond oil (as a vehicle and progesterone groups (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3µg/Kg. body weight. All groups except the control were cannulated in left CA1 area by stereotaxic device. One week after recovery, all groups were trained by shuttle box and immediately after training different doses of progesterone in the volume of 0.5μL were injected through the cannula in CA1 of hippocampus and control groups received saline and almond oil at the same volume and condition respectively. After 48 hours passive avoidance memory and learning was evaluated. Results: Statistical analysis showed that 0.5, 1.5, 2 µg/µl progesterone groups had significantly improved passive avoidance learning and memory compared with saline group (p <0.001, but 1 and 3 µg/µl progesterone groups did not show significant effect on passive avoidance learning and memory compared with saline group. Also almond oil increased passive avoidance learning and memory compared with saline group (p <0.001. Conclusion: It seems that effects of progesterone as a neurosteroid on memory and learning depend on its dose. Also almond oil contains vitamin E, omega 3 and oleic acid that has beneficial effects on learning and memory.

  11. Progesterone amplifies oxidative stress signal and promotes NO production via H2O2 in mouse kidney arterial endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao-Hua; Fan, Yang-Yang; Yang, Chun-Rong; Gao, Xiao-Rui; Zhang, Li-Li; Hu, Ying; Wang, Ya-Qin; Jun, Hu

    2016-01-01

    The role of progesterone on the cardiovascular system is controversial. Our present research is to specify the effect of progesterone on arterial endothelial cells in response to oxidative stress. Our result showed that H2O2 (150 μM and 300 μM) induced cellular antioxidant response. Glutathione (GSH) production and the activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased in H2O2-treated group. The expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) was induced in response to H2O2. However, progesterone absolutely abolished the antioxidant response through increasing ROS level, inhibiting the activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), decreasing GSH level and reducing expression of GClC and GCLM. In our study, H2O2 induced nitrogen monoxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, and progesterone promoted H2O2-induced NO production. Progesterone increased H2O2-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIFα) which in turn regulated eNOS expression and NO synthesis. Further study demonstrated that progesterone increased H2O2 concentration of culture medium which may contribute to NO synthesis. Exogenous GSH decreased the content of H2O2 of culture medium pretreated by progesterone combined with H2O2 or progesterone alone. GSH also inhibited expression of HIFα and eNOS, and abolished NO synthesis. Collectively, our study demonstrated for the first time that progesterone inhibited cellular antioxidant effect and increased oxidative stress, promoted NO production of arterial endothelial cells, which may be due to the increasing H2O2 concentration and amplified oxidative stress signal. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. LcrG secretion is not required for blocking of Yops secretion in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matson Jyl S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LcrG, a negative regulator of the Yersinia type III secretion apparatus has been shown to be primarily a cytoplasmic protein, but is secreted at least in Y. pestis. LcrG secretion has not been functionally analyzed and the relevance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function is unknown. Results An LcrG-GAL4AD chimera, originally constructed for two-hybrid analyses to analyze LcrG protein interactions, appeared to be not secreted but the LcrG-GAL4AD chimera retained the ability to regulate Yops secretion. This result led to further investigation to determine the significance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function. Additional analyses including deletion and substitution mutations of amino acids 2–6 in the N-terminus of LcrG were constructed to analyze LcrG secretion and LcrG's ability to control secretion. Some changes to the N-terminus of LcrG were found to not affect LcrG's secretion or LcrG's secretion-controlling activity. However, substitution of poly-isoleucine in the N-terminus of LcrG did eliminate LcrG secretion but did not affect LcrG's secretion controlling activity. Conclusion These results indicate that secretion of LcrG, while observable and T3SS mediated, is not relevant for LcrG's ability to control secretion.

  13. CO2 electroreduction on P4VP modified copper deposited gas diffusion layer electrode: pH effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Alper Tapan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Copper-based electrodes have high potential to convert CO2 to valuable chemicals with satisfactory faradaic efficiency and selectivity. To improve these criteria, we have utilized the idea of copper deposited gas diffusion electrode and pH sensitive polymer membrane, poly(4-vinylpyridine (P4VP. At pH 3.87, in contrast to pH 6.7, both faradaic efficiency and formic acid concentration increased after P4VP loading. Distinct behavior of P4VP at pH 3.87 indicates that P4VP could actively participate in formic acid production route by decoupled proton–electron transfer.

  14. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  15. A State Space Model Exhibiting a Cyclic Structure with an Application to Progesterone Concentration in Cow Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Højsgaard, Søren

    Progesterone is a hormone linked to the reproductive status of dairy cows. Hence, with the increasing availability of on-line records of the concentration of progesterone in cow milk, there is a need for new tools to analyse such data. The aim is to find techniques for better determination...... of the time when cows are in oestrus to increase the rate of succesful inseminations. In this paper we propose a state space model for data with a continuous and cyclic trend in the mean. Furthermore a matching Kalman filter is developed. The model is tested on progesterone data from 112 cow...

  16. Effect of progesterone pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in male Fischer (F344/NCr) and Wistar (WF/NCr) rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, N.; Barter, R. A.; Uno, H.; Waalkes, M P

    1994-01-01

    A previous report indicated that progesterone pretreatment can markedly reduce cadmium (Cd) toxicity in male NAW mice. Therefore we examined the effects of progesterone pretreatment on Cd toxicity in male Fischer (F344) and Wistar (WF) rats. A single subcutaneous injection of 10 or 30 mumole (CdCl2)/kg proved nonlethal over 24 hr but caused the typical spectrum of testicular lesions in these rats. Moreover, when F344 rats were pretreated with progesterone (100 mg/kg, sc, at -48, -24, and 0 hr...

  17. Weegee’s City Secrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan TRACHTENBERG

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En tant que photographe indépendant de meurtres, d’accidents, d’incendies, mais aussi de moments de loisirs dans la ville — de scènes de violence et de plaisir — Weegee travaillait essentiellement la nuit et utilisait un flash puissant associé à son appareil-photo de presse. Ses « secrets pour réaliser des photographies avec un flash » consistent à donner des conseils pratiques et techniques pour débutants. Mais au cœur de la rhétorique de ses « secrets » se trouvent des réflexions subtiles et convaincantes révélant la relation entre la lumière et l’obscurité, et plus particulièrement la manière dont la lumière du flash permet de rendre visible l’obscurité. Dans le récit de Weegee, le flash confère à la photographie le pouvoir d’écrire — d’écrire avec la lumière, un mode de représentation singulièrement approprié pour enregistrer des instants de vie dans les rues nocturnes de la ville.As a freelance photographer of crime, accidents, fires, and also of the recreational life of the city—scenes of violence and of pleasure—Weegee worked mainly at night and employed a powerful photoflash attachment to his press camera. His "secrets of shooting with photoflash" consist of practical technical advice for beginners. But within the rhetoric of his "secrets" there lie cogent and subtle reflections on the relation of light to darkness, especially on the way the flash of light makes darkness visible. In Weegee’s account, the photoflash gives photography the power of writing—writing with light, a mode of picturing uniquely suited to recording instants of life on city streets at night.

  18. Britain's nuclear secrets: inside Sellafield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Antigone

    2017-11-01

    Lying on the remote north west coast of England, Sellafield is one of the most secret places in UK, and even one of the most controversial nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning sites in Britain. The film director Tim Usborne let us enter into the world's first nuclear power station, revealing Britain's attempts to harness the almost limitless power of the atom. It is precisely the simplicity and the scientific rigor used in the film to speak of nuclear, which led this documentary to win the Physics Prize supported by the European Physical Society at the European Science TV and New Media Festival and Awards 2016.

  19. Coordination Behavior of [Cp''2Zr(η1:1-P4)] towards Different Lewis Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Andreas E; Vogel, Ulf; Eberl, Miriam; Eckhardt, Maria; Balázs, Gábor; Peresypkina, Eugenia V; Bodensteiner, Michael; Zabel, Manfred; Scheer, Manfred

    2017-08-01

    A detailed method for the preparation of [Cp'' 2 Zr(η 1:1 -P 4 )] (1) is presented. The coordination behavior of 1 towards Lewis acidic transition metal complexes of tungsten, manganese, and iron, respectively, and main group compounds (AlMe 3 , AlEt 3 ) was investigated in detail by computational and experimental studies. In doing so, a series of unprecedented complexes with different coordination modes and multiple coordination numbers of the tetraphosphabicyclo[1.1.0]butane framework were synthesized. All products, as well as the starting materials, were comprehensively characterized by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and single crystal X-ray structural analysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Oscillator strengths and branching fractions of 4d75p-4d75s Rh II transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Safa

    2017-01-01

    This work reports semi-empirical determination of oscillator strengths, transition probabilities and branching fractions for Rh II 4d75p-4d75s transitions in a wide wavelength range. The angular coefficients of the transition matrix, beforehand obtained in pure SL coupling with help of Racah algebra are transformed into intermediate coupling using eigenvector amplitudes of these two configurat