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Sample records for progesterone concentrations based

  1. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late......-follicular-phase LH concentration also showed a significant positive association with progesterone concentration (P = 0.018). Administration of rLH during ovarian stimulation did not affect progesterone concentration. The present study does not support an association between progesterone concentration on the day...

  2. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late...

  3. Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone content of milk. Part 1. ... best overall classification of dairy cows into pregnant and non-pregnant groups (confirmed by rectal palpation). Progesterone levels ... Teen 'n diskriminante progesteroonwaarde van 5 ng/ml melk het hierdie funksie 98,0% van alle ...

  4. Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakumari K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemia in luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined the relationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and insulin during the luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesterone levels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle and throughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOS women and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample and luteal (3 samples phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r. The endocrine study showed low progesterone level (4.9 ng/ml during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml. A significant negative correlation was observed between insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01 and between progesterone and LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05 concentrations, and a positive correlation (r = 0.83; P < 0.001 was observed between LH and insulin. The study further demonstrated a significant enhancement in luteal progesterone concentration (16.97 ng/ml in PCOS women treated with metformin. The results suggest that hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance may be responsible for low progesterone levels during the luteal phase in PCOS. The luteal progesterone level may be enhanced in PCOS by decreasing insulin secretion with metformin.

  5. Serum concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol during the ovarian cycle of Syrian Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2005-01-01

    It was possible, for the first time, to characterise hormonally and precisely the oestrous cycle of the Syrian Awassi ewes, and to determine normal progesterone and oestradiol concentrations during the different phases of oestrous cycle. It is concluded that progesterone and oestradiol concentrations showed a cyclic pattern during the oestrous cycle, in addition, a negative and significant correlation between the concentrations of the two hormones was found. (author)

  6. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  7. Thyroxin and progesterone concentrations in pregnant, nonpregnant bitches, and bitches during abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuróczy, Julianna; Müller, Linda; Kollár, Eszter; Balogh, Lajos

    2016-04-01

    Serum progesterone and thyroxin concentrations were measured weekly until 61 to 62 days after ovulation in 24 pregnant bitches and in the control group of nine nonpregnant bitches in the luteal phase. Fourteen of the 24 dogs had a normal pregnancy and parturition. Ten of the 24 dogs showed mucinous or colored vaginal discharge, decreased appetite, or lethargy. These initial signs of abortion or fetal resorption were noted during the fourth week of pregnancy, and the process occurred over the next 2 weeks. Progesterone and thyroxin concentrations were measured by quantitative ELISAs validated to dog serum. The serum progesterone concentrations of the group going through abortions differed significantly from the third week until the end of the eighth week. The mean serum thyroxin concentrations of healthy pregnant and nonpregnant groups significantly exceeded the reference range (20-45 nmol/L). The serum thyroxin concentrations in the abortion group were between 16.15 ± 3.17 and 40.78 ± 8.97 nmol/L. The values in this group were significantly different from the other two groups at the third week of the luteal phase. Clinical signs of abortion or fetus resorption manifested in midpregnancy. The clinical signs of abortion coincided in each case with a low serum progesterone concentration (<10 ng/mL). This phenomenon indicated, in contrast with other studies, that the decrease of serum progesterone below 10 ng/mL at the fourth week of pregnancy may signal impending abortion. In the second half of pregnancy, the thyroid gland was not able to respond adequately to the elevated requirement in thyroid hormone, although in other periods of the ovarian cycle, there were no clinical signs of hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential effects of exogenous progesterone administration at different stages of the luteal phase on endogenous oestradiol concentration in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, G R; Mann, G E

    2010-04-01

    We have investigated the effects administering exogenous progesterone, via insertion of a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) for 4 days, from either day 5 or day 12 of the oestrous cycle on plasma oestradiol concentrations. In study 1, in which progesterone was administered from day 5, measurement of plasma oestradiol in daily samples revealed a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in peripheral oestradiol concentration. In contrast, in study 2, similar administration of progesterone from day 12 had no effect on plasma oestradiol concentration. In study 3, collection of hourly samples following progesterone treatment on day 5 revealed peak progesterone concentrations within 1 h of CIDR insertion and nadir oestradiol concentrations within 4 h. The results demonstrate that treatment with progesterone early in the luteal phase causes a rapid inhibition of oestradiol secretion, while later treatment does not. While improvements in pregnancy rate following progesterone treatment at this time have traditionally been attributed to increases in progesterone, the potential involvement of decreased oestradiol secretion has often been overlooked.

  9. Radioimmunological determination of apparent free progesterone concentration in plasma samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Strigini, F.; Melis, G.B.; Paoletti, A.M.; Mariani, G.; Fioretti, P.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of free steroids would be preferable with respect to total hormone plasma content, since it yields more reliable information about the most biologically active form of circulating steroids. The authors report a method for the determination of apparent free progesterone concentration (AFPC) in plasma, by means of direct radioimmunoassay of dialyzed progesterone after equilibrium dialysis. (Auth.)

  10. Progesterone and estradiol-17β concentrations in blood plasma of buffaloes during different reproductive disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Harjit; Arora, S.P.; Sawhney, Ajay

    1982-01-01

    Six Murrah buffaloes in group I were fed as per NRC requirements and the same number in group II were kept at low level of nutrition. Blood samples were collected from all the buffaloes during estrus, anoestrus or even pregnancy, for estimation of progesterone and estradiol-17β. Progesterone levels were consistently low during anoestrus period (<1.0 ng/ml), but, peak occurred on day minus 10 of the next following estrus indicating that luteal activity preceded the first estrus after a prolonged anoestrum. The estradiol-17β levels did not show any distinct trend during anoestrus and subsequent estrous cycles. Underfed buffaloes required more services per conception. The mean progesterone concentrations during early pregnancy were 6.12 +- 0.21 and 5.31 +- 0.29 ng/ml in groups I and II, respectively, which were persistent. Plasma progesterone drop was recorded in buffaloes which aborted or showed foetal resorption, abrupt in the former case and at a slow rate in the latter case. (author)

  11. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  12. Accuracy of Ultrasonography and Rectal Palpation in the Diagnosis of Silent Heat in Cows Compared to Plasma Progesterone Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdunczyk, S.; Janowski, T.; Ras, A.; Baranski, W.

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out on five dairy herds in the North-East Poland. The cows, which showed no visible oestrus signs until day 60 postpartum, were examined by ultrasonography and rectal palpation twice, at a 10-d interval. A real-time, B-mode scanner with a 5 MHz probe was used. The plasma progesterone concentration was determined using RIA. A high progesterone level on the first examination, but low on the second, or low on the first and high on the second examination were interpreted as a silent heat. Based on the progesterone values, silent heat was diagnosed in 145 anoestrous cows, whereas ultrasonographically, 106 cows were found to have silent heat. The accuracy of the ultrasonography and rectal palpation in the diagnosis of silent heat in cows was 89.0 % and 69.7 %, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). For the diagnosis of the corpus luteum, the sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasonography was 94.7 % and 84.0 %, and for rectal palpation 86.2 % and 70.3 %, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Our results showed that ultrasonography is a useful tool in the diagnosis of silent heat in cows. (authors)

  13. Circulating progesterone concentrations in nonlactating Holstein cows during reuse of intravaginal progesterone implants sanitized by autoclave or chemical disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, L F; Monteiro, P L J; Oliveira, L H; Guardieiro, M M; Drum, J N; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations in nonlactating, multiparous Holstein cows (n = 24) treated with 2 types of intravaginal implants containing either 1.0 or 1.9 g of P4 either at the first use or during reuse of the implants after sanitizing the implant by autoclave or chemical disinfection. In a completely randomized design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement and 2 replicates, every cow underwent 2 of 6 treatments. Two sources of P4 [controlled internal drug release (1.9 g of P4) from Zoetis (São Paulo, Brazil), and Sincrogest (1.0 g of P4) from Ourofino (Cravinhos, Brazil)] and 3 types of processing, new (N), reused after autoclave (RA), and reused after chemical disinfection (RC), were used. After inducing luteolysis to avoid endogenous circulating P4, the cows were randomized in 1 of 6 treatments (1.9 g of N, 1.9 g of RA, 1.9 g of RC, 1.0 g of N, 1.0 g of RA, and 1.0 g RC). Cows were treated with the implants for 8 d and during this period blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 h. Statistical analyses were performed using Proc-Mixed and the mean ± standard error of the mean P4 concentrations were calculated using the Proc-Means procedures of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). No interaction between treatments was observed. Comparing types of implant, average P4 concentrations during treatments were greater for 1.9 g than 1.0 g (1.46 vs. 1.14 ± 0.04 ng/mL). When types of processing were compared, average P4 concentrations did not differ between autoclaved and new inserts (1.46 vs. 1.37 ± 0.05 ng/mL; respectively), but both were greater than chemically disinfected implants (1.09 ± 0.04 ng/mL). Within 1.9-g P4 inserts, P4 concentrations from autoclaved implants were greater than new, which were greater than chemically disinfected (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 1.49 ± 0.07 vs. 1.21 ± 0.05 ng/mL; respectively). For 1.0-g P4 implants, P4 concentrations from autoclaved did not differ

  14. A State Space Model Exhibiting a Cyclic Structure with an Application to Progesterone Concentration in Cow Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Højsgaard, Søren

    Progesterone is a hormone linked to the reproductive status of dairy cows. Hence, with the increasing availability of on-line records of the concentration of progesterone in cow milk, there is a need for new tools to analyse such data. The aim is to find techniques for better determination...... of the time when cows are in oestrus to increase the rate of succesful inseminations. In this paper we propose a state space model for data with a continuous and cyclic trend in the mean. Furthermore a matching Kalman filter is developed. The model is tested on progesterone data from 112 cow...

  15. Effect of progesterone concentration and duration of proestrus on fertility in beef cattle after fixed-time artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadarwal, D; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P; Pfeifer, L F M; Creelman, C; Singh, J

    2013-03-15

    The objective was to determine the effect of plasma progesterone concentration and the duration of proestrus during growth of the ovulatory follicle on fertility in beef cattle. Heifers (N = 61) and postpartum cows (N = 79) were assigned randomly to four groups in a two-by-two design involving luteal-phase versus subluteal-phase plasma progesterone concentrations and normal versus short proestrus. To synchronize follicular wave emergence, estradiol-17β was given im during the midluteal phase (Day 0) and concurrently, a once-used controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was placed intravaginally. In the subluteal-phase progesterone groups, a luteolytic dose of PGF(2α) was given on Day 0 and again 12 hours later. In the luteal-phase progesterone groups, PGF(2α) was not given (so as to retain a functional CL). The controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was removed and PGF(2α) was given on Days 7 or 8 in the normal- and short-proestrus groups, respectively. Cattle were given lutropin im 12 or 36 hours later in the short- and normal-proestrus groups, respectively, with AI at 12 hours after lutropin treatment. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian response during treatments and to diagnose pregnancy 60 days after AI. Cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups had a larger follicle at the time of AI, and a larger CL that secreted more progesterone 9 days after AI than cattle with luteal-phase progesterone concentrations or those with short proestrus (P < 0.03). There was a higher incidence of ovulation (P < 0.01) the day after AI in heifers (55/61; 90%) than in cows (44/79; 56%). Pregnancy rates ranged from 11% to 54%, and were higher in cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups than in the luteal-phase progesterone or short proestrus groups, respectively, (P < 0.02). In conclusion, a short

  16. Clean copy association of production diseases with motor activity-sensing devices and milk progesterone concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Ntallaris, T; Routly, J E; Jones, D N; Cameron, J; Holman-Coates, A; Smith, R F; Humblot, P; Dobson, H

    2018-05-31

    We have previously established that the efficiency of identifying oestrus with activity-sensing devices can be compromised by common production diseases; the present study was undertaken to determine how these diseases may affect device readings. A total of 67 Holstein-Friesian cows, >20 days postpartum, were equipped with activity-sensing neck collars and pedometers, and simultaneous milk progesterone profiles were also monitored twice a week. The influences of common production stressors on maximum activity and progesterone values were analysed. Approximately 30% potential oestrus events (low progesterone value between two high values) remained unrecognised by both activity methods, and progesterone values in these animals were higher on the potential day of oestrus when both activity methods did not detect an event (0.043 ± 0.004 versus 0.029 ± 0.004 ng/mL; P = 0.03). Data from a subset of 45 cows (two events each) were subjected to mixed models and multiple regression modelling to investigate associations with production diseases. Cow motor activity was lower in lame cows. Maximum progesterone concentrations prior to oestrus increased as time postpartum and body condition score (BCS) increased. There were also fewer days of low progesterone prior to oestrus associated with increases in BCS and maximum progesterone concentrations prior to oestrus. In conclusion, lameness was associated with lower activity values, but this suppression was insufficient to account for lowered oestrus detection efficiency of either device. However, associations were identified between production diseases and progesterone profiles. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Plasma concentration of progesterone and 17β-estradiol of black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) during the estrous cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Diva Anelie; Ramos, Rosemar Luz; Ohashi, Otavio Mitio; Garcia, Gary Wayne; Gomes Vale, William

    2011-01-01

    The hormonal profile of progesterone and 17 β-estradiol has been evaluated during the estrous cycle of the agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha). The hormones were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Blood samples were collected without sedation twice a week. The concentrations of progesterone were as follows: proestrus 0.78±0.39 ng/ml, estrus 2.83±2.34 ng/ml, metestrus 1.49±1.24 ng/ml, diestrus 3.71±1.48 ng/ml. An increase in the progesterone level was observed during a period of 24 h in the estrous phase. The average 17 β-estradiol levels were as follows: proestrus 2 030.98±961.00 pg/ml, estrus 1 910.56±650.54 pg/ml, metestrus 1 724.83±767.28 pg/ml, diestrus 1 939.94±725.29 pg/ml. The current results have suggested that the progesterone plasma concentration during the estrous cycle in the agouti has a similar increasing, stabilizing and decreasing pattern, as in domestic mammals. Agoutis have two phases of follicular development, as two periods of 17β-estradiol peaks were observed, the first one in the metestrus and the second during the proestrus. Spontaneous ovulation seems to occur after the progesterone peak, indicating that this hormone has been associated with the ovulatory process. A more detailed investigation is needed for better understanding of how progesterone influenced ovulation. Studies on the involvement of progesterone in follicular rupture can be carried out, using steroid biosynthesis inhibitors and observing the effect of this hormone on ovarian activity of proteolytic enzymes in the follicular wall. (author)

  18. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogan, P. T.; Henning, H.; Stout, T. A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships

  19. Setting-up and validation of two radioimmunoassay methods for determination of plasma progesterone concentration in mares, cows and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa e Silva, A.A.M.; Caldas, M.C.S.; Campos, L.M.A.; Gradela, A.

    1993-01-01

    Two reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods which permits the measurement of progesterone (P 4 ) in plasma of equine, bovine and rats are described. After extraction of plasma with diethylic ether the RIA methods were performed. The first one utilizes 125 I progesterone (double antibody method) and the other 1,2,6,7,16, 17 3 H progesterone (adsorption in charcoal/dextran). Both two methods were suitable in the valuation of plasma P 4 concentration in different physiological reproductive conditions. The method of the double antibody showed higher sensibility beyond to be less expensive than the other method. Despite it, the two RIA methods were much less expensive than available commercial Kits in the market. (author)

  20. The relationship of maternal characteristics and circulating progesterone concentrations with reproductive outcome in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) after artificial insemination, with and without ovulation induction, and natural breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Robeck, T R

    2012-08-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) undergoing natural breeding and artificial insemination (AI) were examined to characterize serum progesterone concentrations and determine relationships among age, parity, and reproductive outcome. Progesterone profiles of five cycle types (n = 119 total cycles from 54 animals) were characterized as follows: (i) conception and production of a live term calf (conceptive-term, n = 73); (ii) conception and abortion after Day 60 (conceptive-abortion, n = 12); (iii) unknown conception status with prolonged, elevated progesterone and absence of a fetus (conceptive-unknown, n = 14); (iv) conception failure with normal luteal phase progesterone concentrations (non-conceptive, n = 14, AI cycles only); and (v) conception failure with progesterone insufficiency occuring after spontaneous ovulation or owing to premature ovulation induction using GnRH (non-conceptive-PI, n = 6, AI cycles only). By Day 21 post-insemination (PI), progesterone concentrations were similar (P > 0.05) among conceptive-term, conceptive-abortion and conceptive-unknown, and higher (P 0.05) progesterone concentrations than conceptive-abortion and unknown conception status cycles. Parity was not associated with reproductive outcome based on cycle type (P > 0.05). Age of females in conceptive-unknown (26.5 ± 10.1 yrs) and conceptive-abortion (22.1 ± 9.4 yrs) groups was higher (P < 0.05) than in conceptive-term (15.7 ± 7.2 yrs). The conceptive-unknown cycle type possibly represents undetected early embryonic loss occurring before Day 60 PI. Length of gestation using known conception dates was 376.1 ± 11.0 days and the range of this parameter (355-395 days) has implications for peri-parturient management procedures for the species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Do high progesterone concentrations decrease pregnancy rates in embryo recipients synchronized with PGF2alpha and eCG?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marcelo F Gouveia; Melo, Danilas S; Carvalho, Luciano M; Fuck, Egon J; Trinca, Luzia A; Barros, Ciro Moraes

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment on the number of induced accessory corpora lutea (CL), plasma progesterone concentrations and pregnancy rate in cross-bred heifers after transfer of frozen-thawed (1.5M ethylene glycol) embryos. All recipients received 500 microg PGF2alpha (dl-cloprostenol, i.m.) at random stages of the estrous cycle (Day 0) and were observed for estrus for 7 days. On Day 14, heifers detected in estrus between 2 and 7 days after PGF2alpha treatment were randomly allocated to four groups ( n=83 per group) and given 0 (control), 200, 400, or 600 IU of eCG. Two days later (Day 16), these recipients were given PGF2alpha and observed for estrus. Six to eight days after detection of estrus, plasma samples were collected to determine progesterone concentration and ultrasonography was performed to observe ovarian structures. Heifers with multiple CL or a single CL >15 mm in diameter received an embryo by direct transfer. Embryos of excellent and good quality were thawed and transferred to the recipients by the same veterinarian. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and confirmed by transrectal palpation 21 and 83 days after embryo transfer (ET), respectively. Plasma progesterone concentrations on the day of transfer (Day 7 of the estrous cycle) were 3.9+/-0.7, 4.2+/-0.4,6.0+/-0.4 and 7.8+/-0.6 ng/ml for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (Control versus treated groups P=0.009; 200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0001; and 400 versus 600 P=0.012 ). Conception rates 83 days after ET were 41.9, 50.0, 25.0, and 20.9% for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0036 ). In conclusion, an increase in progesterone concentration, induced by eCG treatment, did not improve pregnancy rates in ET recipients. Conversely, there was a decline in conception rates in the animals with the highest plasma progesterone concentrations.

  2. Genetics of Fertility Indicators Based on Behaviour and Progesterone in Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, P; Chagunda, M; O'Connell, J

    2009-01-01

    Genetic selection for female is diffecult because current records based on AI information are biased from farmer's decisions and have low heritablity (h2 = 0.03). Automated on-farm progesterone based heat detection methods are becoming commercially available, as has eqipment based on behaviour...... oestrus and would enable improved genetic selection for fertility traits....

  3. Effects of various forms of mastitis, in the progesterone concentrations of cow milk and milk fat, as determined by RIA and EIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedemaker, M.

    1982-01-01

    The progesterone concentration in milk fat was determined in milk samples taken from 39 cows with a corpus luteum and an average blood plasma progesterone concentration of 15.35 ± 6.26 nmole/l. The samples were collected mornings and evenings from each of the four quarters at the end of milking. 29 animals had healthy as well as diseased udder quarters. In 10 animals all four quarters were affected. There was no statistically significant difference in the progesterone concentration in the milk and in the milk fat, between the normal and affected secretion. There was also no correlation between the various forms of mastitis, causative agent, secretion findings or leucocyte content and the clinical finding in the udder quarter. Of a total of 156 samples investigated with the milk progesterone test (normal as well as affected secretion), 9 samples contained less than 5 ng progesterone/ml milk, which was set as the lower limit for evidence of the presence of an active corpus luteum. Using this lower limit, 5.8% were false negative results when compared with the actual status of the ovary. Eight of the nine secretion samples with less than 5 ng progesterone/ml milk from cows with an active corpus luteum, were from udder quarters affected with mastitis. It is probable that there is a causal relationship between the mastitis and the low progesterone content in the milk. The milk fat progesterone determination was carried out by means of the RIA and EIA. A comparison of the progesterone concentration in the milk fat and in the milk from the milk samples taken in the morning and evening demonstrated no statistically significant differences. (orig.) [de

  4. Sensor and instrumentation for progesterone detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2012-05-01

    The reported research work uses a real time and noninvasive method to detect progesterone hormone concentration in purified water using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (E.I.S.) technique. Planar capacitive sensor, consisting of inter-digitated microelectrodes, is designed and fabricated on silicon substrate using thin-film Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based semiconductor device fabrication technology. The sensor in conjunction with EIS is used to evaluate conductivity, permeability and dielectric properties of reproductive hormone progesterone and its concentration quantification in purified water. Impedance spectrums are obtained with various concentrations of the hormone in purified water by using an electric circuit in order to extract sample conductance. Relationship of sample conductance with progesterone concentration level is studied in this research work. The ability of E.I.S. to detect progesterone concentration is aimed to be used in dairy farming industry in order to obtain better reproductive performance of the dairy cattle. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Sensor and instrumentation for progesterone detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.; Mohd. Syaifudin, A. R.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Yu, Paklam; Al-Bahadly, Ibrahim H.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2012-01-01

    The reported research work uses a real time and noninvasive method to detect progesterone hormone concentration in purified water using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (E.I.S.) technique. Planar capacitive sensor, consisting of inter-digitated microelectrodes, is designed and fabricated on silicon substrate using thin-film Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based semiconductor device fabrication technology. The sensor in conjunction with EIS is used to evaluate conductivity, permeability and dielectric properties of reproductive hormone progesterone and its concentration quantification in purified water. Impedance spectrums are obtained with various concentrations of the hormone in purified water by using an electric circuit in order to extract sample conductance. Relationship of sample conductance with progesterone concentration level is studied in this research work. The ability of E.I.S. to detect progesterone concentration is aimed to be used in dairy farming industry in order to obtain better reproductive performance of the dairy cattle. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Changes in serum progesterone concentrations in Bernese mountain dogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll Kirchhoff, K; Goericke-Pesch, S

    2016-10-15

    Progesterone (P4) concentrations during canine pregnancy follow a specific pattern. Although the general pattern is similar, it is likely that breed-specific differences exist. Detailed knowledge about the physiological range of P4 concentrations may be helpful in cases of suspected hypoluteoidism. The aim of this study was to investigate P4 changes during pregnancy in a small and a large breed, to obtain reference values for specific intervals during pregnancy and to test for breed- or body weight-specific differences. We studied P4 concentrations in pregnancies from healthy Bernese mountain dogs (BMDs, n = 6) and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs, n = 6) with a normal reproductive history. Blood samples for P4 were taken to determine the day of ovulation and after confirmation of pregnancy in regular intervals from Days 23 to 29 to Days 60 to 64. Bernese mountain dogs delivered 6.2 ± 2.6 puppies (range: 3-9) 63.4 ± 1.5 (range: 61-65) days after ovulation (excluding data from one BMD with elective c-section) and CKCS delivered 3.3 ± 1.9 puppies (range: 1-5) 63.5 ± 1.1 (range: 62-65) days after ovulation. In general, the P4 concentrations of individual dogs continuously decreased from the first to the last sampling during pregnancy. Respective mean concentrations were Days 23 to 29: 19.2 ± 4.3/22.2 ± 3.9 ng/mL (BMD/CKCS), Days 30 to 34: 15.6 ± 2.3/17.7 ± 5.8 ng/mL, Days 35 to 39: 12.5 ± 2.8/14.1 ± 3.4 ng/mL, Days 40 to 44: 8.9 ± 1.4/11.8 ± 3.7 ng/mL, Days 45 to 49: 7.7 ± 1.6/8.9 ± 1.9 ng/mL, Days 50 to 54: 6.0 ± 1.3/8.7 ± 7.1 ng/mL, Days 55 to 59: 4.7 ± 1.2/5.3 ± 2.8 ng/mL, and Days 60 to 64: 3.69 ± 1.86/2.62 ± 0.42 ng/mL. ANOVA indicated significant differences over time within each breed when considered individually (P parturition). Other than expected, we failed to proof significant differences in P4 between CKCS and BMD. Further studies are required to confirm the results on a larger

  7. Concentrations of progesterone and insulin in serum of nonlactating dairy cows in response to carbohydrate source and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Scatena, T S; Sá Filho, O G; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2008-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of carbohydrate source and processing on serum progesterone (P4) and insulin concentrations of nonlactating dairy cows. In experiment 1, 12 ovariectomized grazing Gir x Holstein cows were stratified by body weight and body condition score, and randomly assigned to receive a supplement containing either finely ground corn or citrus pulp in a Latin square crossover design. Diets were fed individually, twice daily at a rate of 10.9 kg of dry matter per cow. Cows received a controlled intravaginal P4-releasing insert before the beginning of the study, and inserts were replaced every 7 d. During the first experimental period, cows were adapted to treatments from d 0 to 13 and blood was collected on d 14, whereas during the second experimental period cows were adapted to treatments from d 0 to 6 and blood samples were collected on d 7. In both periods, blood samples were collected immediately before and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first supplement feeding of the collection day. In experiment 2, the cows utilized in experiment 1 were randomly assigned to receive a supplement based on finely ground corn, coarsely ground corn, or high-moisture corn in a Latin square crossover design. Cows were fed and received the controlled intravaginal P4-releasing insert as in experiment 1. Within each of the 3 experimental periods, cows were adapted to diets from d 0 to 6, and blood samples were collected on d 7 as in experiment 1. Time effects were detected in experiments 1 and 2 because insulin concentrations increased by 1 h (4.6 +/- 0.90 vs. 7.4 +/- 0.91 microIU/mL for 0 and 1 h, respectively) and P4 concentrations decreased by 3 h (1.8 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.11 ng/mL for 0 and 3 h, respectively) after supplements were offered. In experiment 2, insulin concentrations were greater in cows fed high-moisture corn compared with those fed coarsely or finely ground corn (8.8 +/- 1.05, 5.7 +/- 1.05, and 6.1 +/- 1.05 micro

  8. Ovarian dynamics and milk progesterone concentrations in cycling and non-cycling buffalo-cows (Bubalus bubalis) during Ovsynch program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Fahmy, S

    2007-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate ovarian dynamics and progesterone concentrations in cyclic (CYC, n=10) and non-cyclic (NCY, n=8) buffalo-cows during Ovsynch program. All cows received GnRH on day 0, PGF2alpha on day 7, and GnRH on day 9, and AI 14 h later. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasound and milk samples were collected for progesterone (P4) analysis. The first GnRH resulted in ovulation in CYC (90%) and NCY (62.5%) cows. By day 7, almost all cows had large follicle and lutein tissue. Luteolytic responses to PGF2alpha were 80 and 87.5% for CYC and NCY cows, respectively. Following second GnRH, ovulation occurred in 80% of CYC and 100% of NCY cows. Ovulation began earlier (12 h following second GnRH) and extended for longer (36 h) in NCY cows, when compared to CYC cows (36 and 12 h, respectively). The mean P4 levels increased from days 0 through 7 in CYC and NCY cows and levels were higher in CYC group. Conception rates were 60 and 37.5% in CYC and NYC cows, respectively. Early and asynchronous ovulation and luteal sub-function seemed to be a problem in NCY cows. Inseminating NCY cows twice, at 0 and 24 h of the second GnRH is recommended.

  9. Estrus, ovulation, and serum progesterone, estradiol, and LH concentrations in mares after an increased photoperiod during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxender, W D; Noden, P A; Hafs, H D

    1977-02-01

    On December 11, 1974, 15 seasonally anestrous mares were assigned at random to 1 of 3 experimental groups: outdoor-control, indoor-control, or indoor light-treated (a 16-hour photo-period). This experiment was terminated on April 21, 1975. The five mares in the indoor light-treated group ovulated 59.0+/-6.9 days later, which was 74 days earlier (P less than 0.01) than 2 of the 5 outdoor-controls (the other 3 ovulated after April 21 during a subsequent experiment) and 50 days earlier (P less than 0.05) than the indoor-controls. Durations of the 1st estrus for the 3 groups of mares were 13.3+/-3.6, 8.4+/-2.0, and 6.0+/-1.0 days for the indoor light-treated, indoor-control, and outdoor-control groups, respectively. The indoor light-treated mares averaged 4.2 estrous cycles before April 21, the indoor-control mares averaged 1.4 estrous cycles, and 2 of 5 outdoor-control mares ovulated 1 time during the experiment. The peripheral blood luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were minimal during winter anestrous. The hormone changes normally associated with estrous cycle activity in mares--maximal estradiol and luteinizing hormone concentrations near ovulation and maximal progesterone concentration during diestrus--were observed in all mares beginning at the 1st estrus. Hair loss was observed earlier in the light-treated mares, than in either of the other groups. In conclusion, a 16-hour photo-period initiated in early December for anestrous brood mares caused endocrinologically normal estrous cycles to begin within 2 months. This may allow breeding and foaling considerably earlier than normally expected.

  10. Nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor based on imidazole-functionalized graphene oxide for progesterone detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaerd, Ava; Blaskievicz, Sirlon F; Zarbin, Aldo J G; Orth, Elisa S; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H

    2018-07-30

    The modification of electrode surfaces has been the target of study for many researchers in order to improve the analytical performance of electrochemical sensors. Herein, the use of an imidazole-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-IMZ) as an artificial enzymatic active site for voltammetric determination of progesterone (P4) is described for the first time. The morphology and electrochemical performance of electrode modified with GO-IMZ were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the proposed sensor showed a synergistic effect of the GO sheets and the imidazole groups anchored on its backbone, which promoted a significant enhancement on electrochemical reduction of P4. Figures of merits such as linear dynamic response for P4 concentration ranging from 0.22 to 14.0 μmol L -1 , limit of detection of 68 nmol L -1 and limit of quantification and 210 nmol L -1 were found. In addition, presented a higher sensitivity, 426 nA L µmol -1 , when compared to the unmodified electrode. Overall, the proposed device showed to be a promising platform for a simple, rapid, and direct analysis of progesterone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A label-free colorimetric progesterone aptasensor based on the aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Gaoshang; Xu, Lurong; Zhan, Shenshan; Ni, Xuan; Zhou, Xiaotong; Wang, Lumei; Zhang, Dongwei; Xia, Bing; Wu, Shijian

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe an aptasensor for the detection of the gonadal hormone progesterone (P4) in aqueous solution. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were coated with a P4-specific aptamer, and such particles do not aggregate in presence of NaCl due to the presence of the aptamer coating. If, however, progesterone is added, it will bind to the aptamer and release it from the surface. The uncoated AuNPs, on addition of NaCl, will aggregate and a color change from red (520 nm) to blue (650 nm) can be visually detected or photometrically quantified. The ratio of the absorbances at 650 and 520 nm is linearly related to the P4 concentration in the range from 2.6 to 800 nM. The complete detection range extends from 2.6 to 1400 nM, and the detection limit is 2.6 nM. Water containing various potential interferents, as well as tap water and urine, were spiked with P4 and the recoveries of P4 are in the range of 89.7–117.5%, 84.4–115.0% and 94.7–118.8%, respectively. This assay has a large potential with respect to the visual and instrumental determination of P4 in aquatic environment and urine. (author)

  12. Progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.M.; Redshaw, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claims a radioimmunoassay for progesterone, which comprises contacting, in an acidic medium a sample of liquid with a predetermined amount of antibodies raised against a progesterone-protein complex, the protein being attached to the 11-position of progesterone by means of a bridging group and with a predetermined amount of a progesterone derivative having an iodinatable group attached to its 3-position by means of a bridging group, the iodinatable group being iodinated with one or more atom(s) of a radioisotope of iodine, separating the steroid bound in the resulting antibody-antigen complex from the free steroid and measuring the radioactivity of the free steroid component or of the antibody-antigen complex. Sufficient sensitivity has been achieved to enable a progesterone assay to be carried out directly on a sample of biological fluid, such as serum, plasma, urine or milk. (U.K.)

  13. DNA sequence of 15 base pairs is sufficient to mediate both glucocorticoid and progesterone induction of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straehle, U.; Klock, G.; Schuetz, G.

    1987-01-01

    To define the recognition sequence of the glucocorticoid receptor and its relationship with that of the progesterone receptor, oligonucleotides derived from the glucocorticoid response element of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene were tested upstream of a heterologous promoter for their capacity to mediate effects of these two steroids. The authors show that a 15-base-pair sequence with partial symmetry is sufficient to confer glucocorticoid inducibility on the promoter of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. The same 15-base-pair sequence mediates induction by progesterone. Point mutations in the recognition sequence affect inducibility by glucocorticoids and progesterone similarly. Together with the strong conservation of the sequence of the DNA-binding domain of the two receptors, these data suggest that both proteins recognize a sequence that is similar, if not the same

  14. Progesterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement therapy, or help diagnose the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding When To Get Tested? At specific times during ... receiving progesterone replacement therapy; when a woman has abnormal uterine bleeding Sample Required? A blood sample drawn from a ...

  15. Elective caesarean operation in the bitch using aglepristone before the pre-partum decline in peripheral progesterone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, X; Fontaine, E; Segalini, V; Fontbonne, A

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate caesarean operation (CO) undertaken before the pre-partum decrease of progesterone but following administration of a progesterone receptor antagonist and to evaluate the innocuity of this procedure for the dam and pups. Thirty seven bitches of 15 different breeds, received an injection of 15 mg/kg aglepristone 59 or 60 days after the estimated day of ovulation, determined by progesterone quantitative assays, and caesarean section (CS) was performed between 20 and 24 h after administration. Progesterone remained above 6 nmol/l at the time of CS (mean = 15.75, SD = 3.84). No post-operative clinical complications were reported in any of the bitches. All bitches were able to nurse and feed their puppies in the first 24 h following surgery. No pups showed any signs of prematurity and 5 out of 188 pups (2.6) died in the first 2 weeks after delivery. This small study demonstrates that a CS may be safely and successfully performed an average of 2 days before the expected date of parturition following the administration of aglepristone, without any harmful consequence for the dam and her neonates.

  16. Progesterone lipid nanoparticles: Scaling up and in vivo human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Sguizzato, Maddalena; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Carducci, Federica; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Cortesi, Rita

    2017-10-01

    This investigation describes a scaling up study aimed at producing progesterone containing nanoparticles in a pilot scale. Particularly hot homogenization techniques based on ultrasound homogenization or high pressure homogenization have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles constituted of tristearin or tristearin in association with caprylic-capric triglyceride. It was found that the high pressure homogenization method enabled to obtain nanoparticles without agglomerates and smaller mean diameters with respect to ultrasound homogenization method. X-ray characterization suggested a lamellar structural organization of both type of nanoparticles. Progesterone encapsulation efficiency was almost 100% in the case of high pressure homogenization method. Shelf life study indicated a double fold stability of progesterone when encapsulated in nanoparticles produced by the high pressure homogenization method. Dialysis and Franz cell methods were performed to mimic subcutaneous and skin administration. Nanoparticles constituted of tristearin in mixture with caprylic/capric triglyceride display a slower release of progesterone with respect to nanoparticles constituted of pure tristearin. Franz cell evidenced a higher progesterone skin uptake in the case of pure tristearin nanoparticles. A human in vivo study, based on tape stripping, was conducted to investigate the performance of nanoparticles as progesterone skin delivery systems. Tape stripping results indicated a decrease of progesterone concentration in stratum corneum within six hours, suggesting an interaction between nanoparticle material and skin lipids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  18. Effects of varying doses of β-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2015-11-01

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL(-1). To measure the effects of varying doses of β-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg β-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg β-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg β-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg β-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg β-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ≤0.1mg, β-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation.

  19. Progesterone for preterm birth prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Lucovnik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone is important in maintaining pregnancy. Progesterone supplementation may reduce risk of preterm birth in certain populations of pregnant women. The objective of this review was to develop evidence-based clinical recommendation for progesterone treatment in the prevention of preterm birth.Methods: A search in the Medline database was performed using keywords: progesterone, pregnancy, preterm birth, preterm labour, preterm delivery, randomized trial, and randomized controlled trial. We only included studies of vaginal progesterone treatments for the prevention of preterm birth and excluded studies on 17-α-hydroksiprogesterone caproate.Results: We report findings from twelve randomized trials conducted since 2003. These trials differ regarding inclusion criteria, progesterone dose, vehicle used, and duration of treatment. Inclusion criteria were: short uterine cervix (two trials, history of previous preterm birth (two trials, signs and symptoms of preterm labour (three trials, twin pregnancies (three trials, and multiple risk factors (among these history of previous preterm birth was the most common (two trials. Six of these twelve trials showed a significant reduction in preterm birth in the progesterone groups.Conclusions: Based on current evidence we recommend treatment with 200 mg of micronized progesterone daily, administered vaginally, in pregnant women found to have a short cervix (≤ 25 mm at 19-24 weeks. The treatment should be continued until 37 weeks.

  20. Altrenogest and progesterone therapy during pregnancy in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with progesterone insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, Todd R; Gill, Claudia; Doescher, Bethany M; Sweeney, Jay; De Laender, Piet; Van Elk, Cornelis E; O'Brien, Justine K

    2012-06-01

    Progesterone production is essential for growth and development of the conceptus during pregnancy. Abnormal development of the corpus luteum (CL) after conception can result in early embryonic loss or fetal abortion. Routine monitoring of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) pregnancy after artificial insemination or natural conception with ultrasonography and serum progesterone determination has allowed for the establishment of expected fetal growth rates and hormone concentrations. Using these monitoring techniques, we revealed four pregnant dolphins (12-24 yr old) with abnormally low progesterone production indicative of luteal insufficiency. Once diagnosed, animals were placed on altrenogest (0.044-0.088 mg/kg once daily) alone or with oral progesterone (50-200 mg twice daily). Doses of hormone were increased or decreased in each animal based on how fetal skull biparietal and thoracic growth rates compared with published normal values. Hormones were withdrawn starting from day 358 of gestation in animals 1 and 2, with labor occurring 6 and 7 days after withdrawal and at 376 and 373 days of gestation, respectively. Both deliveries were dystocic, with each calf requiring manual extraction and fetotomy for calf 1. The fetuses in animals 3 and 4 died at 348 and 390 days of gestation, respectively. Induction of labor was attempted in both animals, after fetal death, by using a combination of rapid progesterone withdrawal and steroid and prostaglandin F2alpha administration. The calf of animal 4 had to be removed with manual cervical dilation and fetotomy All adult females survived the procedures. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that the CL is the primary source of progesterone throughout pregnancy in the bottlenose dolphin. Until further characterization of hormones required during pregnancy and at parturition has been accomplished, the exogenous progestagen supplementation protocol described here cannot be recommended for treatment of progesterone

  1. Relationship of oestrus synchronization method, circulating hormones, luteinizing hormone and prostaglandin F-2 alpha receptors and luteal progesterone concentration to premature luteal regression in superovulated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Fitz, T A; Brown, J L; Stuart, L D; Wildt, D E

    1991-09-01

    Ewes were treated with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and oestrus was synchronized using either a dual prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF-2 alpha) injection regimen or pessaries impregnated with medroxy progesterone acetate (MAP). Natural cycling ewes served as controls. After oestrus or AI (Day 0), corpora lutea (CL) were enucleated surgically from the left and right ovaries on Days 3 and 6, respectively. The incidence of premature luteolysis was related (P less than 0.05) to PGF-2 alpha treatment and occurred in 7 of 8 ewes compared with 0 of 4 controls and 1 of 8 MAP-exposed females. Sheep with regressing CL had lower circulating and intraluteal progesterone concentrations and fewer total and small dissociated luteal cells on Day 3 than gonadotrophin-treated counterparts with normal CL. Progesterone concentration in the serum and luteal tissue was higher (P less than 0.05) in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL than in the controls; but luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors/cell were not different on Days 3 and 6. There were no apparent differences in the temporal patterns of circulating oestradiol-17 beta, FSH and LH. High progesterone in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL coincided with an increase in total luteal mass and numbers of cells, which were primarily reflected in more small luteal cells than in control ewes. Gonadotrophin-treated ewes with regressing CL on Day 3 tended (P less than 0.10) to have fewer small luteal cells and fewer (P less than 0.05) low-affinity PGF-2 alpha binding sites than sheep with normal CL. By Day 6, luteal integrity and cell viability was absent in ewes with prematurely regressed CL. These data demonstrate that (i) the incidence of premature luteal regression is highly correlated with the use of PGF-2 alpha; (ii) this abnormal luteal tissue is functionally competent for 2-3 days after ovulation, but deteriorates rapidly thereafter and (iii) luteal-dysfunctioning ewes experience a reduction in numbers of

  2. Effects of catecholamines on ovary morphology, blood concentrations of estradiol-17beta, progesterone, zinc, triglycerides and rate of ovulation in domestic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeid, T A; Eid, Y Z; El-Abd, E A; El-Habbak, M M

    2008-04-15

    The present study is an attempt to shed more light on the role of epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE) in regulating ovarian follicular development, folliculogenesis and ovulation in laying hens. Sixty Egyptian local cross females (Mandarah), 50 weeks old, were individually housed and equally divided into three treatments: control (saline, 0.9% NaCl), EP (0.15 mg epinephrine/hen/day) and NE (0.75 mg norepinephrine/hen/day) (n=20). Animals were injected intramuscularly once a day for 15 successive days. At the end of the experimental period, 10 females from each treatment were randomly chosen, weighed and killed by decapitation. Ovaries and oviducts and ovarian follicles were examined. Plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta, progesterone, zinc and triglyceride were determined. Results indicated that the ovaries of NE- and EP-treated hens were more developed than those of control hens being heavier and containing more yellow yolk-filled follicles. EP or NE significantly increased the ovulation rate and plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta, progesterone, zinc and triglyceride compared with control treatment. It could be concluded that catecholamines may have a part in promoting ovarian follicular development and in stimulating ovulation in laying hens at the end of their reproductive lives.

  3. Effects of long-term, near-term, and real-time energy balance, and blood progesterone concentrations, on the pregnancy rate of contemporary dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, N A; Conley, A J; Robinson, P H

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to contribute to understanding the interface between reproductive and nutritional energetic physiology in contemporary dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32) between 70 and 180 days in milk were used in a study starting 10 d prior to the artificial insemination (AI) date and were estrous synchronized using a hormonal regimen. Fourteen cows were determined pregnant on day 39 post-AI. Coccygeal blood samples of all cows were collected on d -10 and -3 prior to AI to determine estrous cyclicity, as well as at AI and at 6, 13 and 20 d post-AI. Milk progesterone was measured 20 d post-AI, and body condition was scored (BCS; 1-5 scale) on days -10, 0, 13 and 27 relative to AI. Blood non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, measured on the same days as BCS, and changes of BCS from d -10 to AI were not predictive of pregnancy outcome. The BCS of cows on the day of AI was greater (P = 0.02) for pregnant cows with an approximate minimum BCS for a high probability of conception being 2.50. Serum progesterone concentrations of pregnant cows were greater (P commercial high-producing multiparous dairy cattle may be partly due to breeding cows that have insufficient BCS to support pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effects of intravenous glucose infusion and nutritional balance on serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and progesterone in nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F V R; Lopes, C N; Cappellozza, B I; Scarpa, A B; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and progesterone in nonlactating dairy cows according to nutritional balance and glucose infusion. Ten nonlactating, ovariectomized Gir x Holstein cows were stratified by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) on d -28 of the study, and randomly assigned to 1) negative nutrient balance (NB) or 2) positive nutrient balance (PB). From d -28 to d 0, cows were allocated according to nutritional treatment (5 cows/treatment) into 2 low-quality pastures with reduced forage availability. However, PB cows individually received, on average, 3 kg/cow per day (as-fed) of a concentrate during the study. All cows had an intravaginal progesterone releasing device inserted on d -14, which remained in cows until the end of the study. Cow BW and BCS were assessed again on d 0. On d 0, cows within nutritional treatment were randomly assigned to receive, in a crossover design containing 2 periods of 24h each, 1) intravenous glucose infusion (GLU; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW, as a 5% glucose solution administered, on average, at 32 mL/min over a 3-h period), or 2) intravenous saline infusion (SAL; 0.9% solution infused on average at 32 mL/min over a 3-h period). Prior to the beginning of each period, all cows were fasted for 12h. Blood samples were collected, relative to the beginning of the infusion, at -12 and -11.5h (beginning of fasting), and at -0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6h. Following the last blood collection of period 1, cows received (PB) or not (NB) concentrate and were returned to their respective pastures. Changes in BCS and BW were greater in NB cows compared with PB cows (-0.60 and -0.25+/-0.090 for BCS, respectively; -22.4 and 1.2+/-6.58 kg for BW, respectively). Cows receiving GLUC had greater glucose concentrations from 0.5 to 3h relative to infusion compared with SAL cows. Insulin concentrations were greater in PB cows assigned to GLUC compared

  5. Progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroufova, A.; Kozlova, J.

    1976-01-01

    RIA methods of determining progestorone using the SORIN kit made in Italy and the NEN kit made in Great Britain were compared. Plasma extraction, the initial sample size for examination and recovery, the range of calibration curves of the two kits, the variation coefficient, the values of the blank sample and the values of progesterone determined in the normal menstrual cycle are discussed in detail. Variation coefficient: Sorin (calibration curve 9 to 11%, biological material 9.2%), NEN (calibration curve 12%, biological material 27.8%); determinations of progesterone levels during a normal menstrual cycle were 10 to 15% higher with the NEN kit; tritiated samples were measured with a 30 to 37% efficiency using the SORIN kit and 15 to 18% efficiency using the NEN kit. The turbidity and later sediment which formed during the determination of steroid hormones in biological materials after the addition of the scintillation solution did not reduce the efficiency of measurement. Priority is given to the SORIN kit. (L.O.)

  6. Additive effects of low concentrations of estradiol-17β and progesterone on nitric oxide production by human vascular endothelial cells through shared signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yefei; Thomas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Potential cardiovascular benefits of low-dose formulations of estrogens and progesterone (P4) for treating climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women remain unclear because information is lacking on their combined vascular effects. Protective effects of low concentrations (5nM) of P4 and estradiol-17β (E2), alone and in combination (P4+E2), were investigated in a nongenomic model of vascular protection which measured acute increases in nitric oxide (NO) production by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with 5nM P4+E2 for twenty minutes significantly increased NO production and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, whereas 5nM treatments with either steroid alone were ineffective. The 5nM P4+E2 treatment also increased phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, mimicking the effects of higher concentrations of P4 and E2 alone. Pre-treatment with inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin), Akt (ML-9), and MAP kinase (AZD6244 and U0126) completely blocked the NO response to 5nM P4+E2. Combined 5nM treatments with specific estrogen and progesterone receptor agonists showed an involvement of membrane progesterone receptor alpha (mPRα, also known as PAQR7), G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), but not ERβ, in P4+E2 stimulation of NO production. P4+E2 also exerted genomic actions, increasing mPRα, GPER, cyclooxygenase-1, and prostacyclin-synthase mRNA levels. Taken together, the results show that a low concentration of P4+E2 rapidly increases NO production in HUVECs through mPRα, ERα, and GPER and involves common signaling pathways, PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase. These in vitro findings suggest that low doses of E2 and P4 may also have some beneficial cardiovascular effects in vivo when administered as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post-menopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decidual tissue growth and regression in the guinea pig: regulation by uterine blood flow and relation to circulating progesterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, D R

    1984-05-01

    The role of uterine blood flow (UBF) in the modulation of experimentally induced decidua formation was assessed in mature guinea pigs. The response to endometrial trauma, as indexed by uterine weight changes, was dependent upon the type of stimulus used, with deciduogenic effectiveness as follows: saline = oil = knife scratch less than scissor cut. Both the knife scratch and scissor cut techniques induced elevations in UBF compared with control values. Neither uterine weight nor UBF increased when trauma was applied to unresponsive uteri, indicating that inflammation was not the cause of uterine hyperemia. Uterine weight increased from basal levels on the day of trauma (i.e. day 5 of the estrous cycle) to a maximal weight between days 10 and 12 posttrauma. Maximal growth of the induced decidua occurred under conditions of elevated UBF. Subsequently, UBF declined between days 10 and 15 posttrauma, preceding the associate resorption of the induced decidua. During the period of decidua growth, serum progesterone levels were elevated compared with those in control animals. These data indicate that experimentally induced decidua formation in the guinea pig is associated with uterine hyperemia and increased corpus luteum activity, both of which are necessary for proper endometrial differentiation. It is hypothesized that these events mimic the uterine hyperemia associated with blastocyst implanplantation and early placentation in this species.

  8. Plasma concentrations of progesterone and estradiol and the relation to reproduction in Galápagos land iguanas, Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus (Squamata, Iguanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Michela; Sancesario, Giulia; Pastore, Donatella; Bernardini, Sergio; Carrión, Jorge E; Carosi, Monica; Vignoli, Leonardo; Lauro, Davide; Gentile, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    In a combined approach, endocrine and ultrasonic analyses were performed to assess reproduction of two syntopic populations of terrestrial Galápagos iguanas the Conolophus marthae (the Galápagos Pink Land Iguana) and C. subcristatus on the Volcán Wolf (Isabela Island). The ELISA methods (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were used to measure plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and 17β-estradiol (E2) from samples collected over the course of three different seasons: July 2010, June 2012-2014. As for C. subcristatus, the large number of females with eggs in 2012 and 2014 were associated with increased plasma P4 concentrations and the corresponding absence of females with eggs in July 2010 when concentrations of both hormones levels were basal indicating reproduction was still ongoing in June and had ended in July. In C. marthae, even though there was a positive relationship between egg-development stages and hormone concentrations, P4 concentrations were basal through the three years that samples were collected, with some females having a lesser number of eggs compared with C. subcristatus. In C. marthae P4 and E2 patterns did not allow for defining a specific breeding season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in unextracted serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, S.P.; Corcoran, J.M.; Eastman, C.J.; Doy, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid, precise radioimmunoassay for progesterone in 25 μL of unextracted serum is described. Progesterone is released from its binding protein by adding an optimal amount of cortisol, which binds to the same protein (cortisol binding globulin) as progesterone. The amount of cortisol required does not cross react with the specific progesterone antibody used. This approach considerably shortens assay time and removes a tedious and imprecise stage in the conventional assay of serum progesterone. Results correlated well (r = 0.97) with a method involving organic solvent extraction of progesterone from serum. During the two years we have used this mehod in a busy diagnostic endocrine laboratory, the between-assay precision (CV) for low-, medium-, and high-concentration quality control sera was 12, 7, and 9%, respectively. Data from participation in an independent external quality-control program verified the adequacies of the method

  10. The use of the milk progesterone assay in cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, E.; Choi, H.S.; Moestl, E.

    1981-01-01

    The progesterone concentration in milk-fat was determined in samples from 167 cows in 51 herds taken on day 0, 6 and 20 after artificial insemination. The rectal palpation verified pregnancy in 85% of the cows classified on their milk-progesterone concentration as ''probably pregnant''. According to the milk progesterone concentration it was possible already three weeks after artificial insemination to classify 25% of all examined cows as ''non pregnant''. Seven cows were inseminated at an inappropriate time as revealed by a high progesterone concentration in milk-fat on the day of insemination. The relevance of milk progesterone determinations as an aid for veterinary surgeons is briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Progesterone concentration and lambing rate of Karakul ewes treated with prostaglandin and GnRH combined with the ram effect during breeding and non-breeding seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, A; Mohebbi-Fani, M; Omidi, A; Boostani, A; Nazifi, S; Mahmoodian-Fard, H R; Chahardahcherik, M

    2017-09-15

    The combination of ram effect with two injections of PGF 2α 10-days apart and the same protocol plus an additional injection of GnRH prior to the first injection of PGF 2α were examined in Karakul ewes during breeding and non-breeding seasons, respectively. Plasma progesterone (P 4 ) concentrations (to detect the presence of active corpus luteum), twin lambing, litter size and synchronization of lambing were evaluated. In each study 70 ewes (2-4 years old) were divided to a treatment (n = 40) and a control (n = 30) group. During the breeding season, on days -10 and 0 before ram release, the treatment group was injected intramuscularly with PGF 2α (D-Cloprostenol; 0.15 mg). During the non-breeding season, on day -15 before ram release the treatment group was injected with GnRH (buserelin; 4.2 μg) intramuscularly followed by two injections of PGF 2α on days -10 and 0. In both studies, the rams were released into the ewe flock after the second prostaglandin injection (day 0). Blood samples of ewes were collected on days -10, 0, 20 and 70 of the study in breeding season and on days -15, -10, 0, 20 and 70 during non-breeding season. The treatment group had higher P 4 concentrations compared to the control ewes on day 0 in the breeding season (5.80 ± 0.61 vs. 5.0 ± 0.93 ng/mL) and day -10 in the non-breeding season (3.50 ± 0.33 vs. 2.70 ± 0.35 ng/mL) though the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Based on plasma P 4 concentrations (>1 ng/mL) on day 70, in the breeding season all control ewes (100%) and 91.9% of the treatment ewes were detected to have active corpus luteum (P = 0.09). An almost inverse result (90% vs. 97.5%; P = 0.2) was detected in the non-breeding season. The lambing rate was higher (P = 0.03) in the treatment group compared to the control ewes during the non-breeding season (90% vs. 70%), but tended to be lower (P = 0.07) in the breeding season (73% vs. 90%). Twin lambing rate was higher in the

  12. Ovarian stimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone under increasing or minimal concentration of progesterone in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherry, T M; Matsui, M; Kida, K; Miyamoto, A; Megahed, G A; Shehata, S H; Miyake, Y-I

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence or absence of Corpus luteum (CL) on the follicular population during superstimulation in dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cattle). Animals were divided into two groups as follows: (1) Growing CL group (G1): Cows (n=7) received a total dose of 28 Armour units (AU) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) through the first 4 d (twice daily) after spontaneous ovulation (Day 0). (2) CL Absence group (G2): Cows (n=10) received prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) at 9 or 10 d after ovulation. After 36h, all the follicles (larger than 5mm) were aspirated (Day 0). The FSH treatment started 24h after aspiration and continued for 4 d. The number of small (3 to or = 8mm) follicles was examined on Days 1, 3, and 5 in all groups. Blood samples were collected daily for 5 d, and progesterone (P(4)), estradiol (E(2)), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH) in plasma were measured by enzyme immunoassays. The results showed that in G1, the P(4) level increased gradually from 0.5 ng/mL at Day 1 to 2 ng/mL at Day 5, whereas in G2, the P(4) level was completely below 0.5 ng/mL. All cows of the G2 group showed an increase of E(2) at Day 3 or Day 4 followed by an increase of IGF-1 within 24h, while GH increased concomitantly with the E(2) increase in 8 of 10 trials. On the other hand, cows of the G1 group showed neither E(2) nor IGF-1 increase. Moreover, at the end of the treatment, the number of follicles in the G2 group was significantly increased compared with that of the G1 group (22.8+/-2.0 vs. 11.6+/-2.0). In conclusion, low P(4) level during FSH treatment enhanced multiple follicular growth and E(2) secretion, which was followed by increase of IGF-1 and GH. Therefore, the absence of the CL may play a critical role in the superovulation response by controlling the number of growing follicles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood periovulatory progesterone quantification using different techniques in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Robbe, Domenico

    2018-05-01

    Blood progesterone concentration is used in several procedures related to the reproduction in the bitch, such as ovulation monitoring, estimating time of parturition, or hypo-luteoidism management. Several techniques are available to evaluate blood progesterone concentration, such as the radioimmunoassay (RIA), the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The aim of this study was to compare the blood progesterone concentration using these three methods during the periovulatory period of 23 bitches. Vaginal cytology was used to classify cytologic estrus (CE) and cytologic diestrus (CD), and blood samples were collected once during proestrus and every other day between CE and CD. The samples were retrospectively classified in the different phases of the estrus based on CD. Pregnancy rate and gestational length were also recorded. A significant increase of the circulating progesterone during the progression of the estrus was recorded, and there were significant differences in the values when using the different methods, with lesser, intermediate, and greatest values with use of the RIA, CLIA, and ELISA, respectively. There was a high correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.978) and substantial strength-of-agreement (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient = 0.966) between values obtained when using CLIA and RIA, while there was a high correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.955) but poor strength-of-agreement (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient = 0.866) with use of the ELISA and RIA. The data reported in this study provide evidence that the method used for measuring the blood progesterone concentration during the periovulatory phase of the bitch significantly affected the progesterone values. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A strategy for establishing diagnostic and related services to dairy farmers in developing countries based on radioimmunoassay of progesterone in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, D.B.; Perera, B.M.A.O.; Manar, S.

    2001-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for progesterone in milk samples collected from cattle has been used for monitoring ovarian activity, diagnosis of pregnancy and non-pregnancy, assessment of the accuracy of oestrus detection and for surveying efficiency of artificial insemination services. The establishment of a service to dairy farmers in developing countries based on this technique has not been previously reported but there are clear potential benefits in such a service. A strategy was therefore developed for the establishment of diagnostic and related services to dairy farmers in Morocco on a pilot basis, using RIA of progesterone in milk for possible adoption as a model for other developing countries. (author)

  15. Effects of a progesterone-based oestrous synchronization protocol in 51- to 57-day postpartum high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F; Bech-Sàbat, G; Yániz, J L; Angulo, E; Maris, C; Floc'h, S; Martino, A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of applying a progesterone-based oestrous synchronization protocol at 51-57 days postpartum in high-producing dairy cows. The data analysed were derived from 1345 lactating cows. Cows between 51 and 57 days postpartum were assigned to the groups: control, PRID (receiving a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device for 9 days, and prostaglandin F(2α) 24 h before PRID removal) or GnRH-PRID (the same as the PRID group plus GnRH at PRID insertion). Oestrus was detected by using pedometers and confirmed by examination of the genital tract at AI. Oestrous and conception rates before days 71-77 postpartum, pregnancy loss in early pregnant cows or the cumulative conception rate registered on day 120 postpartum were considered as the dependent variables in four consecutive logistic regression analyses. Based on the odds ratios, the oestrous rate increased by a factor of 1.73 in cows showing oestrus before treatment for each unit increase in the number of previous oestruses; decreased by a factor of 0.44 in the control group with respect to the treatment groups; and by a factor of 0.61 in cows without luteal structures at treatment with respect to cows with corpora lutea. The conception rates of cows inseminated before days 71-77 postpartum remained similar across the groups, whereas the likelihood of pregnancy loss for cows becoming pregnant during this period was 0.11 times lower in the PRID group than in the control. Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of a higher cumulative conception rate on day 120 postpartum: increased in cows showing oestrus before treatment by a factor of 1.41 for each unit increase in the number of previous oestruses, was reduced 0.56-fold in control cows compared with treated cows, and was also reduced by a factor of 0.98 for each kilogram of milk production increase recorded at treatment. In conclusion, although oestrous synchronization programmes performed in this study did not improve

  16. Assessing the usefulness of B-mode and colour Doppler sonography, and measurements of circulating progesterone concentrations for determining ovarian responses in superovulated ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mef; Ribeiro, I F; Rodriguez, Mgk; Maciel, G S; Fonseca, J F; Brandão, F Z; Bartlewski, P M

    2018-06-01

    The main goal of this study was to assess the usefulness of two imaging modalities, namely the B-mode and colour Doppler sonography, and serum progesterone (P 4 ) concentrations for determining the ovarian response in superovulated ewes. Twenty-four sexually mature Santa Inês ewes underwent the superovulatory treatment consisting of eight injections of porcine FSH (total dose of 200 or 133 or 100 mg; n = 8 ewes/total dose) given at 12-hr intervals and initiated 48 hr before CIDR ® (Pfizer Inc., Auckland, New Zealand) removal. Six days after natural mating, the ovaries of all donor ewes were visualized and examined with transrectal ultrasonography and then with videolaparoscopy to identify and enumerate corpora lutea (CL) and luteinized unovulated follicles (LUFs). Jugular blood samples were collected just prior to ovarian examinations. The total number of CL (r = .78 and 0.83, p ewes. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Progesterone binding nano-carriers based on hydrophobically modified hyperbranched polyglycerols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Noghani, M.; Brooks, D. E.

    2016-02-01

    Progesterone (Pro) is a potent neurosteroid and promotes recovery from moderate Traumatic Brain Injury but its clinical application is severely impeded by its poor water solubility. Here we demonstrate that reversibly binding Pro within hydrophobically modified hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-Cn-MPEG) enhances its solubility, stability and bioavailability. Synthesis, characterization and Pro loading into HPG-Cn-MPEG is described. The release kinetics are correlated with structural properties and the results of Differential Scanning Calorimetry studies of a family of HPG-Cn-MPEGs of varying molecular weight and alkylation. While the maximum amount of Pro bound correlates well with the amount of alkyl carbon per molecule contributing to its hydrophobicity, the dominant first order rate constant for Pro release correlates strongly with the amount of structured or bound water in the dendritic domain of the polymer. The results provide evidence to justify more detailed studies of interactions with biological systems, both single cells and in animal models.Progesterone (Pro) is a potent neurosteroid and promotes recovery from moderate Traumatic Brain Injury but its clinical application is severely impeded by its poor water solubility. Here we demonstrate that reversibly binding Pro within hydrophobically modified hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-Cn-MPEG) enhances its solubility, stability and bioavailability. Synthesis, characterization and Pro loading into HPG-Cn-MPEG is described. The release kinetics are correlated with structural properties and the results of Differential Scanning Calorimetry studies of a family of HPG-Cn-MPEGs of varying molecular weight and alkylation. While the maximum amount of Pro bound correlates well with the amount of alkyl carbon per molecule contributing to its hydrophobicity, the dominant first order rate constant for Pro release correlates strongly with the amount of structured or bound water in the dendritic domain of the polymer. The

  18. PLASMA PROGESTERONE LEVELS TN LACTATING EWES AFTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oestrus, ovulation and perrpheral plasma progesterone concentrations were recorded in ... progestagen and PMS were srmilar to those reported for spontaneous oesttous cycles in ..... involved could perhaps cast some light on the problem.

  19. Plasma progesterone levels in progesterone treated cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosskopf, J.F.W.; Van Niekerk, C.H.; Morgenthal, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for the radioimmunoassay of progesterone in plasma is described. In one trial the oestrous cycles of four cycling cows and in another trial of one non-cycling cow and two cycling heifers were synchronized by the administration of progesterone. Each female received either 50 mg or 0,1 mg/kg of progesterone intramuscularly on alternate days in two courses of four and six injections respectively. Blood samples of the animals were collected either daily or two-daily before, over the entire period of treatment and for eight days after the last progesterone injection. The results of the progesterone assays are represented graphically for each individual cow or heifer. The plasma progesterone levels during treatment were maintained reasonably well at levels corresponding to those normally encountered during the luteal phase of the cycle. The progesterone levels, however, did not drop as rapidly as desired after the last injection but might have been influenced by a residual corpus luteum from a previous ovulation

  20. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blavy, P.; Derks, M.; Martin, O.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the variability in shape and features of all progesterone profiles during oestrus cycles in cows, and to create templates for cycle shapes and features as a base for further research. Milk progesterone data from 1418 oestrus cycles, coming...

  1. Effect of ELISA kit manufacturing process and incubation time on progesterone concentration measured in dog serum for ovulation diagnosis - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuróczy, Julianna; Reiczigel, Jenő; Balogh, Lajos

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-two serum samples of healthy bitches were tested with the frozen and lyophilised version of the same ELISA kit (Quanticheck, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Budapest, Hungary). Samples were chosen on the basis of their progesterone (P4) concentrations, which were between 1.00 and 20.00 ng/mL. As it is well known, this range has the highest clinical relevance in ovulation diagnosis. Both types of microplates were read at 15-min intervals from the 15th until the 90th minute (min) of incubation, and the results were compared with those of frozen plates at 60 min of incubation as 100 percent. Lyophilised microplates gave on average 18 percent higher results than the frozen version at equal incubation times. The highest difference between lyophilised and frozen samples was observed at 45 and 60 min of incubation. Ninety-four percent of the reaction in the frozen microplate occurred in the first 15 min, and during the subsequent 30 min the reaction seemingly stopped. After the 45th min of incubation, this 94 percent increased to 108 percent in the subsequent 30 min, which remained the final approximate result at the end of the 90 min of incubation. In contrast to the frozen microplate, the measured concentration increased continuously in the lyophilised version and reached the highest level at the 60th min. The results of the lyophilised microplate reached the same level at 30 min of incubation as those of the frozen version at 60 min. In conclusion, a mechanical increase or decrease of the incubation time does not generate a linear change in the test results. This study demonstrated that the results of a series of samples collected from the same bitch cannot be compared if they are measured with different laboratory methods or different ELISA kits.

  2. Low Prolactin and High 20-α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Levels Contribute to Lower Progesterone Levels in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Exposed to Protease Inhibitor-Based Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Balogun, Kayode; Banko, Nicole; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona; Yudin, Mark H; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Murphy, Kellie E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2016-05-15

    It has been reported that pregnant women receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have lower levels of progesterone, which put them at risk of adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight. We sought to understand the mechanisms involved in this decline in progesterone level. We assessed plasma levels of progesterone, prolactin, and lipids and placental expression of genes involved in progesterone metabolism in 42 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 31 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. In vitro studies and a mouse pregnancy model were used to delineate the effect of HIV from that of PI-based cART on progesterone metabolism. HIV-infected pregnant women receiving PI-based cART showed a reduction in plasma progesterone levels (P= .026) and an elevation in placental expression of the progesterone inactivating enzyme 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD; median, 2.5 arbitrary units [AU]; interquartile range [IQR], 1.00-4.10 AU), compared with controls (median, 0.89 AU; IQR, 0.66-1.26 AU;P= .002). Prolactin, a key regulator of 20α-HSD, was lower (P= .012) in HIV-infected pregnant women. We observed similar data in pregnant mice exposed to PI-based cART. In vitro inhibition of 20α-HSD activity in trophoblast cells reversed PI-based cART-induced decreases in progesterone levels. Our data suggest that the decrease in progesterone levels observed in HIV-infected pregnant women exposed to PI-based cART is caused, at least in part, by an increase in placental expression of 20α-HSD, which may be due to lower prolactin levels observed in these women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Three-step in vitro maturation culture of bovine oocytes imitating temporal changes of estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations in preovulatory follicular fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matsuo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to evaluate the effect of three-step in vitro maturation (IVM culture system imitating estradiol-17β (E2 and progesterone (P4 concentrations in preovulatory follicles on in vitro bovine embryo production. The cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs were collected from follicles (2 to 8 mm in diameter of bovine ovaries obtained from a local slaughterhouse. For IVM, the COCs were cultured for 22 h in a three-step system: (1 culture in medium 199, containing 700 ng mL−1 E2 and 50 ng mL−1 P4, for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 E2 and 150 ng mL−1 P4 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 20 ng mL−1 E2 and 300 ng mL−1 P4 for 6 h (EP group; (2 culture in the medium containing 700 ng mL−1 E2 for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 E2 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 20 ng mL−1 E2 for 6 h (E group; or (3 culture in the medium containing 50 ng mL−1 P4 for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 P4 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 300 ng mL−1 P4 for 6 h (P group. The COCs were cultured in the medium containing 1000 ng mL−1 E2 for 22 h (control group. After IVM, the COCs were co-incubated with sperm and further cultured. At 48 h after insemination, the cleavage rate of embryos was not different among the groups. At 192 h after insemination, the blastocyst formation rate of EP group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The total cell number of blastocysts did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the three-step IVM culture system of bovine oocytes imitating temporal changes of E2 and P4 concentrations in preovulatory follicular fluid improves the developmental potential of embryos in vitro.

  4. Concentração sérica de progesterona em bezerras da raça nelore e mestiças tratadas com progesterona em veículo de liberação lenta Serum progesterone concentration in Nelore and crossbreed heifers treated with long-acting progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P.C. Lima

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a eliminação da progesterona em veículo de liberação lenta (P4LA em animais zebus e mestiços e sua potencial aplicabilidade em programas de sincronização de estro, utilizando-se 60 bezerras, 30 da raça Nelore e 30 mestiças (Gir x Holandês, entre 120 e 150 dias de idade e peso médio de 150kg. Em cada grupo experimental as bezerras foram divididas em três subgrupos (G de 10 animais, sendo GI = controle (tratado com 5ml de solução fisiológica por via intramuscular; GII = tratado com 450mg P4LA (3ml IM; e GIII = tratado com 750mg P4LA (5ml IM. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas no dia zero, 7 e 13 (D0, D7 e D13 e procedeu-se à análise hormonal por radioimunoensaio de fase sólida. A progesterona de ação prolongada (P4LA, administrada por via intramuscular, manteve-se por 13 dias na corrente sangüínea em concentrações superiores a 1ng/ml. As doses de 450mg e 750mg de P4LA não ocasionaram efeitos adversos sistêmicos clinicamente perceptíveis, e o metabolismo da P4LA foi mais lento nas bezerras Nelore, cuja concentração de progesterona foi maior na corrente sangüínea do que nas bezerras mestiças.The clearance of long-acting progesterone in microspheres (P4LA in zebu animals and its potential for use in estrus synchronization were evaluated using 30 Nelore and 30 crossbreed (Holstein x zebu heifers, with aging between 120 to 150-day-old and weighting 150kg in average. For each breed the animals were divided into three groups of ten animals each, GI= control group treated with saline; GII= treated with 450mg of P4LA; and GIII= treated with 750mg of long-acting progesterone (P4LA. Blood samples were colleted on days 0, 7 and 13 and analysed for progesterone using radioimmunoassay in solid phase. The serum concentration of progesterone was different on days 0, 7 and 13 in relation to the dose of P4LA given. All treated animals presented basal values for progesterone on day 0, increased on day 7 and decreased on

  5. Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, Olive; Lethaby, Anne; Roberts, Helen; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 5% of women experience severe symptoms called premenstrual syndrome (PMS), only in the two weeks before their menstrual periods. Treatment with progesterone may restore a deficiency, balance menstrual hormone levels or reduce effects of falling progesterone levels on the brain or

  6. Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, Olive; Lethaby, Anne; Roberts, Helen; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2012-01-01

    Background About 5% of women experience severe symptoms called premenstrual syndrome (PMS), only in the two weeks before their menstrual periods. Treatment with progesterone may restore a deficiency, balance menstrual hormone levels or reduce effects of falling progesterone levels on the brain or on

  7. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women...... with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment...... renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone resistant state...

  8. 1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol inhibits progesterone production through the expression of steroidogenic enzymes and cAMP concentration in Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianxia; Bai, Shun; Bai, Weibin; Zou, Feiyan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Guoqiang; Hu, Yunfeng; Li, Mingwei; Yan, Rian; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong

    2014-07-01

    1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) is a well-known food processing contaminant that has been shown to impede male reproductive function. However, its mechanism of action remains elusive. In this study, the effects of 1,3-DCP on progesterone production were investigated using the R2C Leydig cell model. 1,3-DCP significantly reduced cell viability from 7.48% to 97.4% at doses comprised between 0.5 and 6mM. Single cell gel/comet assays and atomic force microscopy assays showed that 1,3-DCP induced early phase cell apoptosis. In addition, 1,3-DCP significantly reduced progesterone production detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results from quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were significantly down-regulated in R2C cells. Particularly, the change rhythm of Star expression was highly consistent with progesterone production. Furthermore, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the mitochondrial membrane potential mediated by ROS, which are involved in regulating progesterone synthesis were also decreased in response to the 1,3-DCP treatment. Overall, the data presented here suggested that 1,3-DCP interferes with the male steroidogenic capacity mainly by down-regulating the level of cAMP and the key enzymes involved in the androgen synthesis pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. COMPARISON OF TWO 4.7-MILLIGRAM TO ONE 9.4-MILLIGRAM DESLORELIN ACETATE IMPLANTS ON EGG PRODUCTION AND PLASMA PROGESTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritz, Olivia A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Hawkins, Michelle G; Kass, Philip H; Conley, Alan J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive disease in captive avian species is common, and medical management is often chosen over surgical removal of the reproductive tract. In a previous study with Japanese quail, a single 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant reversibly decreased egg production in 6 out 10 birds for 70 days. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of two 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implants versus one 9.4-mg implant on egg production and plasma progesterone concentrations in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica). Following a 10-day period of consistent egg laying, 30 adult female Japanese quail were anesthetized and received two 4.7-mg deslorelin implants (n = 10), one 9.4-mg deslorelin implant (n = 10), or a single, identical placebo implant (n = 10) s.c. between the scapulae. Egg production was monitored daily, and plasma progesterone concentrations were measured on days 0, 14, 29, 120, 148, and 182 via enzyme-linked immunoassay. All birds were weighed periodically and euthanized at day 182, after which their reproductive tracts were evaluated at gross necropsy. Seven out of 10 birds treated with two 4.7-mg implants ceased egg laying 1 wk after implantation and remained nonovulatory for approximately 100 days. Cessation of egg laying for the 9.4-mg treatment group occurred in 7 out of 10 birds; onset was variable (weeks 5-12) and continued for the remainder of the study period. Plasma progesterone concentrations for deslorelin treatment groups were not significantly different compared to the placebo group at any time point. In conclusion, the two 4.7-mg and the one 9.4-mg implant treatments ceased egg laying in a similar number of birds, but the 9.4-mg implant had a slower onset of action and the effects on egg laying were inconsistent throughout the study period. Further studies evaluating use of deslorelin acetate in other avian species are needed.

  10. Comparison of 2 protocols to increase circulating progesterone concentration before timed artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows with or without elevated body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Guida, T G; Lopes, F R; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-10-01

    Two treatments designed to increase circulating progesterone concentration (P4) during preovulatory follicle development were compared. One treatment used 2 intravaginal P4 implants (controlled internal drug-releasing inserts; CIDR) and the other used a GnRH treatment at beginning of the protocol. Lactating Holstein cows that had been diagnosed as nonpregnant were randomly assigned to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) following 1 of 2 treatments (n = 1,638 breedings): (1) GnRH: CIDR+ 2 mg of estradiol (E2) benzoate + 100 µg of GnRH on d -11, PGF 2α on d -4, CIDR withdrawal + 1.0 mg of E2-cypionate + PGF 2α ) on d -2, and TAI on d 0; or (2) 2CIDR: 2 CIDR + 2 mg of E2-benzoate on d -11, 1 CIDR withdrawn + PGF 2α on d -4, second CIDR withdrawn + 1.0 mg of E2-cypionate + PGF 2α on d -2, and TAI on d 0. Milk yield was measured daily between d 0 and d 7. Rectal temperature was measured using a digital thermometer at d 0 and 7, and elevated body temperature was defined as an average rectal temperature ≥39.1°C. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 32 and 60 after TAI. We detected no effect of treatments on pregnancy per AI or pregnancy loss regardless of elevated body temperature, body condition score, parity, milk yield, or presence or absence of a corpus luteum (CL) on d -11 or d -4. Pregnancy per AI at 60 d was reduced [elevated body temperature = 22.8% (162/709), no elevated body temperature 34.1% (279/817)] and pregnancy loss tended to increase [elevated body temperature = 20.2% (41/203), no elevated body temperature 14.4% (47/326)] in cows with elevated body temperature. Various physiological measurements associated with greater fertility were also reduced in cows with elevated body temperature, such as percentage of cows with a CL at PGF 2α (decreased 7.9%), ovulatory follicle diameter (decreased 0.51 mm), expression of estrus (decreased 5.1%), and ovulation near TAI (decreased 2.8%) compared with cows without elevated body temperature. A

  11. Microarray-Based Determination of Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor, and HER2 Receptor Status in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roepman, Paul; Horlings, Hugo M.; Krijgsman, Oscar; Kok, Marleen; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M.; Bender, Richard; Linn, Sabine C.; Glas, Annuska M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The level of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 aids in the determination of prognosis and treatment of breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry is currently the predominant method for assessment, but differences in methods and interpretation can substantially affect

  12. Radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, L; Veleminsky, J [Institute of Clinical Endocrinology, Lubochna (Czechoslovakia); Hampl, R; Starka, L [Vyzkumny Ustav Endokrinologicky, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Holan, J [Comenius Univ., School of Medicine, Martin (Czechoslovakia). Dept. of Physics and Nuclear Medicine

    1978-06-30

    A simple modification of plasma progesterone radioimmunoassay is described. 11..cap alpha..-Hydroxyprogesterone hemisuccinate - BSA conjugate was used as an immunogen. (1,2,6,7-H-3) Progesterone specific radioactivity 82 Ci.mmol/sup -1/ was purchased from Radiochemical Centre Amersham (England). The method has been applied for the analysis of more than 2000 plasma samples. The typical fluctuation of progesterone in plasma during the menstrual cycle, using data obtained with this method is illustrated. The reliability criteria of the method are given.

  13. New RIA kit for determination of progesterone in cow milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byszewska-Szpocinska, E.; Markiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of progesterone concentration in whole and fat-free milk 19-24 days after conception enables to distinguish fertile and non-fertile insemination, which is important in cattle breeding. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and quick radioimmunoassay test for the determination of progesterone in cow milk. Two types of solid-phase tubes coated with specific polyclonal anti-progesterone antibody from ORION Diagnostica and BIOSOURCE International, two different progesterone derivatives viz. progesterone-3- carboxymethyl oxime (CMO) and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate (HS) conjugated to 125 I-histamine and the HPLC system with Lichrospher RP-18 column along with 65% acetonitrile/water as eluent to purify the tracers were used to carry out this work. Progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 13.2 min and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 7.8 min. Two kinds of kits (kit I and kit II) were prepared, first with progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit of ORION Diagnostica and the second with progesterone-11αHS- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit from BIOSOURCE International. Progesterone from Sigma and selected fat-free cow's milk without progesterone as zero progesterone milk matrix were used for standard preparation. The optimal assay procedure was as follows: 50μL standards, controls and fat-free milk samples were pipetted into coated tubes followed by addition of 500μL of diluted tracer. The tubes were incubated for 2h in case of kit I and 3h for kit II at RT. After the incubation, the tubes were decanted and counted. The assay range was 0 to 270 nmol/L for kit I and 0 to 300 nmol/L for kit II. The sensitivity of the kit with ORION coated tubes was better (0.8 nmol/L) than that of BIOSOURCE tubes which was 1.5 nmol/L. Validation of these assays in terms of specificity, accuracy

  14. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of the follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials should document the cause and origin...... phase in ovarian stimulation. The databases of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials...

  15. Progesterone reduces erectile dysfunction in sleep-deprived spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufik Sergio

    2007-03-01

    of progesterone in the occurrence of genital reflexes, SHR were treated daily during the sleep deprivation period with progesterone; after the administration of this hormone and challenge with cocaine, we observed a significant increase in erectile events compared with the vehicle PSD SHR+cocaine group. Conclusion Our data showed that the low frequency of genital reflexes found in SHR sleep deprived rats may be attributed to the lower concentrations of progesterone in these rats, based on the observation that progesterone replacement increased genital reflexes in this strain.

  16. Use of milk progesterone for determining the reproductive status of cross-bred swamp buffaloes and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuong Le Xuan; Tan Luu Van; Trieu Cao Van; Dung Chung Anh; Canh Tran Tich; Quynh Vuong Dac

    1990-01-01

    Eighteen cross-bred buffaloes (F 1 , local breed x Murrah) and 19 cross-bred cows (F 1 , local breed x Holstein Friesian), 4-6 years of age, were used in the study to determine the potential of milk progesterone measurement as an aid in characterizing the onset of postpartum ovarian activity and for early pregnancy diagnosis. The first oestrous cycle, based on milk progesterone, commenced between days 40-50 postpartum in 17% of the buffaloes but between days 25-35 postpartum in 21% of the cows. At days 61-100 postpartum, 33% of the buffaloes had cycling ovaries with progesterone concentrations of 3.23-4.02 ng/mL, while 53% of the cows had cycling ovaries during the same period with progesterone concentrations of 3.52-4.16 ng/mL. During the oestrous cycle, the progesterone level showed peak elevations on day 15 in buffaloes and on day 9 in cows. The milk progesterone profiles of the buffalo took longer to reach peak levels, but declined faster than those in the cow. The accuracy of positive pregnancy diagnosis was 78% in buffaloes and 83.3% in cows, but the accuracy of diagnosing non-pregnancy was 100% in both species. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  17. Chemical Kinetics of Progesterone Radioimmunoassay System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Moustsfs, K.A.; El-Kolally, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    Progesterone is one of the steroids secreted by the corpus Iuteum in females during the menstrual cycle, and in a much higher amount by the placenta during pregnancy. It is also secreted in a minor quantities by the adrenal cortex in both males and females. Measurement of serum progesterone represents one of diagnostic values in menstrual disorders and infertility. The progesterone radioimmunoassay is based on the competition between unlabelled progesterone and a fixed quantity of 125 I-labeled progesterone for a limited number of binding sites on progesterone specific antibody. Allowing for a fixed amount of magnetizable immunosorbent to react, the antigen-antibody complex is bound on solid particles which are then separated by magnetic rack, and the radioactivity of the solid phase was counted using gamma counter. In this work, the chemical kinetics of the assay was followed, where the specific rate constant (K) was calculated at 4 degree and 37 degree and the activation energy (E act ) were calculated and the reaction rate was deduced

  18. Effects of different five-day progesterone-based fixed-time AI protocols on follicular/luteal dynamics and fertility in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARCIA-ISPIERTO, Irina; LÓPEZ-GATIUS, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study compares in two experiments the responses of lactating dairy cows to four different progesterone-based protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in terms of their effects on follicular/luteal dynamics and fertility. The protocols consisted of a progesterone intravaginal device fitted for five days, along with the administration of different combinations of gonadotropin releasing hormone, equine chorionic gonadotropin and a single or double dose (24 h apart) of prostaglandin F2α. In Experiment I, the data were derived from 232 lactating cows. Binary logistic regression identified no effects of treatment on ovulation failure or multiple ovulation 10 days post artificial insemination (AI). Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of ovulation failure was lower (by a factor of 0.1) in cows showing at least one corpus luteum (CL) upon treatment than in cows lacking a CL; repeat breeders (> 3 AI) and cows with multiple CLs at treatment showed lower (by a factor of 0.44) and higher (by a factor of 9.0) risks of multiple ovulation, respectively, than the remaining animals. In Experiment II, the data were derived from 5173 AIs. The independent variable treatment failed to affect the conception rate 28–34 days post AI, twin pregnancy or early fetal loss 58–64 days post AI. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of 5-day progesterone-based protocols for FTAI. All four protocols examined were able to induce ovulation in both cyclic and non-cyclic animals so that FTAI returned a similar pregnancy rate to spontaneous estrus. Our results suggest that the ovarian response and fertility resulting from each treatment are due more to the effect of ovarian structures at treatment than to the different combinations of hormones investigated. PMID:25196275

  19. Milk progesterone on day 5 following insemination in the dairy cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the importance of progesterone on the fertility of lactating dairy cows, the factors that affect post ovulatory progesterone concentration are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the post ovulatory progesterone rise following 1st insemination in lactating dairy cows.

  20. PROGESTERONE INCREASES BDNF EXPRESSION AND PROTECTS AGAINST GLUTAMATE TOXICITY IN A MAPK- AND PI3-K - DEPENDENT MANNER IN CEREBRAL CORTICAL EXPLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Jodhka, Parmeet K.; Underwood, Wendy A.; Bowles, Courtney A.; de Fiebre, NancyEllen C.; de Fiebre, Christopher M.; Singh, Meharvan

    2009-01-01

    The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer’s disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occur in women following the menopause. While considerable attention has focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus, estrogen’s neuroprotective potential, it is important to recognize that the menopause results in a precipitous decline in progesterone levels as well. In fact, progesterone is neuroprotective, although the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. Based on our previous observation that progesterone elicits the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, key effectors of the neuroprotective MAPK and PI3-K pathways, respectively, we determined if activation of either of these pathways was necessary for progesterone-induced protection. Using organotypic explants (slice culture) of the cerebral cortex, we found that progesterone protected against glutamate-induced toxicity. Further, these protective effects were inhibited by either the MEK1/2 inhibitor, UO126, or the PI-3K inhibitor, LY294002, supporting the requirement of both the MAPK and PI-3K pathways in progesterone-induced protection. In addition, at a concentration and duration of treatment consistent with our neuroprotection data, progesterone also increased the expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), at the level of both protein and mRNA. This induction of BDNF may be relevant to the protective effects of progesterone since inhibition of Trk signaling, using K252a, inhibited the protective effects of progesterone. Collectively, these data suggest that progesterone is protective via multiple and potentially related mechanisms. PMID:17549730

  1. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...

  2. Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Oestrogen Receptor-Positive/Progesterone Receptor-Negative/Her2-Negative Breast Cancer According to a Novel Definition of Negative Progesterone Receptor Status: A Large Population-Based Study from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-qi Li

    Full Text Available A lack of progesterone receptor (PgR expression in oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+ tumours is associated with worse survival. PgR status is usually defined as positive or negative using 1% positive nuclei as a cut-off point. In this study, we aimed to assess the clinicopathologic characteristics of ER+/PgR-/HER2- tumours by comparing them with ER+/PgR+/HER2- tumours using a PgR cut-off point of 20% as a divisive criterion.We analysed 1,522 patients with primary breast cancer who had undergone surgery at the Cancer Center of Fudan University between 2012 and 2014. Age, grade, tumour size, lymph node status and lymphovascular invasion were assessed. Multinomial logistic regression, linear regression and chi-square test models were applied to assess associations between ER, PR and clinical features.ER+/PgR-/HER2- tumours showed poorer clinicopathologic characteristics relative to ER+/PgR+/HER2- tumours using a PgR threshold of 20% instead of 1%. The clinicopathologic characteristics did not differ between tumours with purely negative PgR expression and tumours with a PgR percentage ranging from 1% to 19%. The prognostic significance of PR expression appeared more pronounced in patients under a high Ki-67 status than those under a low Ki-67 status.Based on these findings, we propose the use of a novel threshold of 20% to define PgR status. Nevertheless, the impact of this new criterion on patient management and clinical treatment requires additional study.

  3. Validation of a serum immunoassay to measure progesterone and diagnose pregnancy in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, K.M.; Verstegen, J.P.; Deutsch, C.J.; Bonde, R.K.; Rodriguez, M.; Morales, B.; Schmitt, D.L.; Harr, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to validate a high-sensitivity chemiluminescent assay of serum progesterone concentrations for pregnancy diagnosis in manatees. Assay analytical sensitivity was 0.1 ng/mL, with mean intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 9.7 and 9.2%, respectively, and accuracy had a mean adjusted R2 of 0.98. Methods comparison (relative to Siemen's Coat-A-Count RIA) demonstrated r = 0.98, Deming regression slope of 0.95, and an intercept of 0.01. Based on ROC analysis, a progesterone concentration ???0.4 ng/mL was indicative of pregnancy. Assay results were not significantly altered by two freeze-thaw cycles of samples. Characteristic progesterone concentrations during pregnancy were Months 1-4 (1.7-4.7 ng/mL), 5-8 (???1.0 ng/mL), and 10 and 11 (0.3-0.5 ng/mL), whereas two late-pregnant females with impending abortion had progesterone concentrations of 0.1 ng/mL. Among pregnant females, maximum progesterone concentrations occurred in autumn (3.9 ?? 1.8 ng/mL), and were greater during all seasons than concentrations in non-pregnant females (0.1-0.2 ng/mL). Progesterone concentrations were also significantly higher in pregnant females than in non-pregnant females and males. This highly sensitive, specific, and diagnostic assay will be valuable for monitoring pregnancy and abortion in manatees. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Progesterone concentration, pregnancy and calving rate in Simmental dairy cows after oestrus synchronisation and hCG treatment during the early luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuluburić, Adam; Milanović, Svetlana; Vranješ-Đurić, Sanja; Jovanović, Ivan B; Barna, Tomislav; Stojić, Milica; Fratrić, Natalija; Szenci, Ottó; Gvozdić, Dragan

    2017-09-01

    Early embryonic development may be negatively affected by insufficient progesterone (P4) production. Therefore, the aim of our study was to increase P4 by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments after inducing oestrus by prostaglandin (PG) treatment. Lactating Simmental dairy cows (n = 110), between 1 to 5 lactations, with an average milk production of 6,500 1/305 days, at 40-80 days postpartum were used and grouped as follows: (1) PG + GnRH treatment at AI (GnRH group), (2) PG + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (hCG group), (3) PG + GnRH at AI + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (GnRH/hCG group), and (4) spontaneous oestrus (C: control group). All animals were double inseminated (at the time of oestrus detection and 12 ± 2 h thereafter). Blood serum and milk samples were collected at the day of observed oestrus (day 0), and 14, 21 and 28 days after AI. Serum P4 was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) test (INEP, Zemun), and milk P4 was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test (NIV Novi Sad). Pregnancy status was confirmed by ultrasonography between days 28 and 35 after AI. Differences of serum or milk P4 medians, pregnancy (and calving) rate were determined using Dunn's Multiple Comparison Tests and Z test, respectively. Serum P4 medians were significantly higher at days 14, 21 and 28 after AI in the hCG-treated animals, indicating increased luteal activity, with a similar tendency in whole milk P4 values. Treatment with hCG during the early luteal phase significantly contributed to the maintenance of gestation at days 28-35 after AI, and also increased the calving rate in Simmental dairy cows.

  5. Setting-up and validation of two radioimmunoassay methods for determination of plasma progesterone concentration in mares, cows and rats; Padronizacao e validacao de dois metodos de radioimunoensaio (RIE) para dosagem da progesterona (P{sub 4}) no plasma de equinos, bovinos e ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa e Silva, A A.M.; Caldas, M C.S.; Campos, L M.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Fisiologia; Gradela, A [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    1993-06-01

    Two reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods which permits the measurement of progesterone (P{sub 4}) in plasma of equine, bovine and rats are described. After extraction of plasma with diethylic ether the RIA methods were performed. The first one utilizes {sup 125} I progesterone (double antibody method) and the other 1,2,6,7,16, 17 {sup 3} H progesterone (adsorption in charcoal/dextran). Both two methods were suitable in the valuation of plasma P{sub 4} concentration in different physiological reproductive conditions. The method of the double antibody showed higher sensibility beyond to be less expensive than the other method. Despite it, the two RIA methods were much less expensive than available commercial Kits in the market. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Progesterone radioimmunoassay with the use of progesterone derivative substituted at 12α position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kula, E.; Stupnicka, R.

    1981-01-01

    A direct (non-extraction) radioimmunoassay method for progesterone determination in blood plasma has been presented. A new progesterone derivative substituted at 12α position was used as antigen for production of antibody. Cheap and easily accessible substrate -deoxycholic acid - was used as starting material for 9 step degradation procedure yielding 12α-hydroxy-progesterone. The latter compound was subsequently esterified with succinic anhydrine and conjugated with bovine serum albumin. The conjugate was then used for the immunization of rabbits to obtain immune antisera. After the detailed characterization, the obtained antibodies have been used for the determination of progesterone in human and cattle blood plasma. Transcortin present in samples used for the determinations was saturated with the excess of cortisol. The sensitivity of the method was found to be 5 pg in a sample, which corresponds to the concentration of about 0.25 ng/ml in blood plasma, in as much as the volume of plasma used for analysis was 20 ml. The within-series error was 7% when progesterone concentration in plasma samples was higher than 2.5 ng/ml. (author)

  7. The Effect of Soybean-Derived Phytoestrogens on Concentrations of Plasma Isoflavones, 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin F2α and Progesterone in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Watzková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of soybean-derived phytoestrogens and their metabolites on the activity of sex hormones during the oestrous cycle in multiparous lactating dairy cows. The experiment was carried out on 4 multiparous lactating Holstein cows in the form of replicated Latin square in double reversal design. The experiment in the total length of 168 days was divided into 4 periods of 42 days, each consisting of a 21-day preliminary period and a 21-day collecting period. Cows were divided into 2 groups of 2 cows. The control group (C was fed a diet based on extruded rapeseed cake while the experimental group (S was fed a diet containing extruded full-fat soya. The intake of total isoflavones was 3297 mg/d in S and 58.0 mg/d in C (P P P > 0.05. Plasma concentration of prostaglandine PGFM throughout the oestrous cycle in the experimental group (S tended to be higher (P = 0.095 than in the control group (C. No differences in the length of the oestrous cycle between the cows fed different diets were observed.

  8. COLPOCITOLOGY AND SERUM CONCENTRATIONS OF PROGESTERONE IN NULIPAROUS GOATS SUBMMITED TO ARTIFICIAL PHOTOPERIODS COLPOCITOLOGIA E CONCENTRAÇÕES SÉRICAS DE PROGESTERONA EM CABRAS NULÍPARAS SUBMETIDAS AO FOTOPERÍODO ARTIFICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rocha de Oliveira Lima

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work was to evaluate the changes of cervico-vaginal epithelial cells and progesterone levels of nuliparous goats submitted to artificial photoperiod, in Middle-West of Brazil. Seventh Alpine and six crossbreed nuliparous goats were used, distributed in two groups: control (GC, maintained at isolated stall and submitted to natural light for the time of the year, and treated (GT, submitted to an alternate regime among natural and artificial light, for 24 hours and 35 uninterrupted days. Cérvico-vaginal content was collected, prepared on glass slides and differential cellular counts were carried out on Papanicolau smears. The progesterone concentration in blood serum was measurement by ELISA. Parabasal were the most frequent cell type present, followed by intermediate cells, mainly in the end of metaestrus and diestrus. Superficial cornified cells were present during proestrus and estrus. The cellular profile and progesterone concentrations oscillated in agreement with estrus cycle phase in control animals, but confuse on the begin of experimental period for treated animals. Cytological evaluation of cervico-vaginal content could be of value for a hormonal bioassay of estrus cycle of goats submitted to artificial photoperiod just after the adaptation period.

     

    KEY WORDS: Artificial photoperiod, caprine, hormone, vaginal cytology.

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as alterações celulares do epitélio cérvico-vaginal e as concentrações de progesterona sérica em cabras nulíparas expostas ao fotoperíodo artificial, na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Dezessete cabras da raça Alpina e seis mestiças, nulíparas, foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em grupo-controle (GC, mantido em galpão isolado e submetido ao regime de luz natural para a época do ano, e grupo tratado (GT, submetido ao regime alternado entre luz natural e

  9. Progesterone increases brain-derived neuroptrophic factor expression and protects against glutamate toxicity in a mitogen-activated protein kinase- and phosphoinositide-3 kinase-dependent manner in cerebral cortical explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Jodhka, Parmeet K; Underwood, Wendy A; Bowles, Courtney A; de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M; Singh, Meharvan

    2007-08-15

    The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occurs in women following the menopause. Although considerable attention has been focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus estrogen's neuroprotective potential, it is important to recognize that the menopause results in a precipitous decline in progesterone levels as well. In fact, progesterone is neuroprotective, although the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. Based on our previous observation that progesterone elicits the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, key effectors of the neuroprotective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3-K) pathways, respectively, we determined whether activation of either of these pathways was necessary for progesterone-induced protection. With organotypic explants (slice culture) of the cerebral cortex, we found that progesterone protected against glutamate-induced toxicity. Furthermore, these protective effects were inhibited by either the MEK1/2 inhibitor UO126 or the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002, supporting the requirement for both the MAPK and PI3-K pathways in progesterone-induced protection. In addition, at a concentration and duration of treatment consistent with our neuroprotection data, progesterone also increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), at the level of both protein and mRNA. This induction of BDNF may be relevant to the protective effects of progesterone, in that inhibition of Trk signaling, with K252a, inhibited the protective effects of progesterone. Collectively, these data suggest that progesterone is protective via multiple and potentially related mechanisms. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies specific for Progesterone

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCEL, Fatıma

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone levels in milk and serum are indicators of pregnancy in cattle. The progesterone level reaches a peak on the 21 st and 22 nd days of pregnancy. Monoclonal antibodies specific to progesterone could be used for the immunodetection of milk and serum progesterone levels. We report here the development of hybrid cells prdoducing monoclonal antibodies specific for progesterone using hybridoma technology. Hybridoma cells secreting monoclonal antibodies against progesterone (MAM 2H1...

  11. Effects of supplementation of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on serum concentrations of progesterone and insulin of pregnant dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipe Moriel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five non-lactating, pregnant Holstein animals (18 heifers and 27 multiparous cows; BW = 561±114 kg; BCS = 2.9±0.3; days pregnant = 110±56 d were stratified by initial BW and BCS, and randomly assigned to receive daily (as-fed basis 0.50 kg of ground corn plus 0.22 kg of kaolin (CON, calcium salts of saturated fatty acids (SFA or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PF for 14 d. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 14, immediately prior to (0 h and 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after feeding, to determine the serum concentrations of P4 and insulin. No treatment effects were detected for serum concentrations of P4 (5.52, 6.13 and 5.63±0.41 ng/mL for CON, SFA and PF, respectively. No treatment effects were detected for serum concentrations of insulin (11.5, 10.5 and 10.1±1.43 µIU/mL for CON, SFA and PF, respectively. Heifers had greater serum concentrations of P4 than multiparous cows (6.35 vs. 5.16±0.42 ng/mL, but lower serum concentrations of insulin (7.0 vs. 14.4±1.49 µIU/mL. Feeding 0.22 kg of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids is not sufficient to increase the serum concentrations of P4 and insulin of non-lactating, pregnant dairy cows.

  12. Does the conceptus of the viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata participates in the regulation of progesterone production and the control of luteolysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Martín; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Carmen; Cárdenas-León, Mario; Luis, Juana; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2014-08-01

    It is generally accepted that progesterone is necessary to maintain gestation; however, the mechanisms that control the production of this steroid remain unknown. The corpus luteum has been assigned a central role in the maintenance of gestation based on its capacity to produce progesterone. A pseudopregnancy model was performed in a viviparous lizard, Barisia imbricata imbricata, to determine whether the absence of embryos would affect the pattern of progesterone production or the corpus luteum histology. Blood samples were obtained prior to ovulation and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant and pregnant lizards), as well as one day after parturition (pregnant lizards) or 32 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant lizards). The corpus luteum was surgically removed one day after blood samples were obtained. Blood aliquots from nongravid females were obtained at similar timepoints. We found a significant reduction in plasma progesterone concentrations at 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation in pseudopregnant lizards compared with those observed at similar times in intact pregnant lizards, whereas the progesterone levels in non-gestant lizards remained significantly lower than in either pseudopregnant or pregnant lizards. Moreover, we observed that the histological appearance of the corpus luteum from pseudogestational females (obtained 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation) differed from the corpora lutea from lizards in late gestation and intact parturient lizards. These observations suggest that the conceptus participates in the regulation of progesterone production in late gestation and also in luteolysis control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Abnormal pathways in endometriosis in relation to progesterone resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lode, Lise; Sveen, Magnhild Often; Rudnicki, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disorder, and recent studies suggest that progesterone resistance may contribute to the development and pathophysiology of the disorder. Based on this, identification of genetic and molecular perturbations in the endometrium of women...

  14. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... 30 control subjects (15 men and 15 women) of comparable age. There were ... estrogens and progestins makes the brain more vulnerable to acute insults ... estrogen or ratio of progesterone to estrogen is different in ischemia ...

  15. Effects of the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor trilostane on luteal progesterone production in the dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, J.; Wolthers, C.H.; Galac, S.; Schaefers-Okkens, A.C.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Interference with the pregnancy-maintaining influence of progesterone is the basis of most methods for termination of unwanted pregnancy in dogs. The currently available methods are based on induction of luteolysis or blocking of the progesterone receptor. Inhibition of progesterone

  16. Protective role of melatonin in progesterone production by human luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Toshiaki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Lee, Lifa; Kizuka, Fumie; Tamura, Isao; Taniguchi, Ken; Maekawa, Ryo; Asada, Hiromi; Shimamura, Katsunori; Reiter, Russel J; Sugino, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated whether melatonin protects luteinized granulosa cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an antioxidant to enhance progesterone production in the follicle during ovulation. Follicular fluid was sampled at the time of oocyte retrieval in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Melatonin concentrations in the follicular fluid were positively correlated with progesterone concentrations (r = 0.342, P progesterone and 8-OHdG concentrations were negatively correlated (r = -0.246, P Progesterone production by luteinized granulosa cells was significantly inhibited by H(2)O(2). Melatonin treatment overcame the inhibitory effect of H(2) O(2) . Twenty-five patients who had luteal phase defect (serum progesterone concentrations progesterone concentrations (>10 ng/mL during the mid-luteal phase) in nine of 14 women (64.3%), whereas only two of 11 women (18.1%) showed normal serum progesterone levels in the control group. In conclusion, melatonin protects granulosa cells undergoing luteinization from ROS in the follicle and contributes to luteinization for progesterone production during ovulation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of ...

  18. Use Of Progesterone Radioimmunoassay for The Monitoring Reproductive status of Cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuh, Ratnawati; Tjiptosumirat, Totti; Tuasikal, Boky Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    The artificial insemination (AI) has been widely applied for the rapid improvements of genetic and reproductive efficiency, especially in the developing countries. In Indonesia it was introduced for a long time ago, but the fertility rate of insemination cows, however, is still low. Due to the limitation or relying on visual observation and rectal palpation far determining reproductive status, monitoring milk progesterone can help to improve reproductive efficiency and economic benefits. To analyse progesterone concentration, milk samples were collected in vials containing sodium azide tablets.The milk samples were collected twice a week for about six weeks long, and stored at 4 o C in the refrigerator until analysed. Progesterone concentration in milk samples was determined by using solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit with 125 I labelled progesterone as tracer. The progesterone standards were prepared in skim milk and range from 0 to 40 nmol/I. The results of progesterone assay on samples of milk collected from five cows indicated that two cows with low progesterone, signifies that these cows had inactive ovaries (anoestrus), three other cows with post calving catalytic progesterone interpretation, and after subsequent insemination two cows getting pregnant. The accurate determination of progesterone levels can be used to confirm oestrus and diagnose non-pregnancy as well as to moriitor postpartum ovarian activity, early embryonic death and ovarian disorder

  19. Performance of the fully automated progesterone assays on the Abbott AxSYM and the Technicon Immuno 1 Analyser compared with the radioimmunoassay progesterone MAIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsberg, J.; Jost, E.; Van der Ven, H.

    1997-01-01

    Test performance of two automated progesterone assays available on the immunoassay analysers Abbott AxSYM and Technicon Immuno 1, respectively, was evaluated in comparison with the radioimmunoassay Progesterone MAIA. For assessment of test performance imprecision, functional sensitivity and linearity of dilution was examined. Correlation with the manual radioimmunoassay was assessed using 122 serum samples over the range 0-110 nmol/L. Imprecision studies revealed for the AxSYM Progesterone within-run CV's of 1.8-6.4% and day-to-day CV's of 3.5-9.7% (concentration range 2.3-75 nmol/L); Immuno 1 Progesterone: within-run CV's 1.0-7.3%, day-to-day CV's 2.3-7.7% (concentration range 1.2-60 nmol/L). The functional sensitivity was <1.7 nmol/L for the AxSYM Progesterone and <1.1 nmol/L for the Immuno 1 Progesterone. With the AxSYM Progesterone the mean recovery after dilution from five samples was 102% (89-107%), from one sample only 69-80% was recovered; with the Immuno 1 Progesterone the mean recovery was 95% (80-105%). Despite of a quite good overall correlation (coefficients 0.972 and 0.981) the relationship of both assays to the Progesterone MAIA significantly deviate from linearity with a considerably higher slope within the lower concentration range. The relationship between the automated assays was linear over the entire concentration range (Immuno = 1.207 * AxSYM + 1; r = 0.986). The time to first result was 20 min for the AxSYM Progesterone, 45 min for the Immuno 1 Progesterone and 90 min for the Progesterone MAIA. The evaluated progesterone assays both exhibit an excellent precision and a high degree of sensitivity. They offer a rapid and flexible method for progesterone determination which may be especially useful for the monitoring of ovarian stimulation during in-vitro fertilization. (author)

  20. The relationship between embryo quality assessed using routine embryology or time–lapse videography and serum progesterone concentration on the day of ovulatory trigger in in vitro fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Liu

    2015-06-01

    Results: In cycles using conventional culture, serum progesterone per follicle ≥14 mm (median 0.42 nmol/L/follicle, range 0.05-3.50 nmol/L/follicle was a significant negative predictor of live-birth (ROC AUC = 0.395, 95% CI 0.345-0.445; P=0.000 as were progesterone/estradiol ratio (0.442, 0.391-0.494; P=0.027 and progesterone per oocyte (0.374, 0.326-0.421; P=0.000 but not progesterone alone (0.470, 0.419-0.521; P>0.05. Women with an EP/follicle (>0.42 nmol/L/follicle had reduced live birth rates if they were ≥35 yrs (14.4% vs. 24.2%, P0.42 nmol/L/follicle adversely affects embryo implantation in women aged ≥35 years, but not <35 yrs. However, no adverse features were seen in the embryos from these affected cycles in terms of morphological appearance, abnormal patterns of cleavage, or morphokinetic timings.

  1. Use of milk progesterone RIA for the monitoring of artificial insemination in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Zhenghua; Lu Yangping; Shang Zhaorong; Cheng Jinhua; Xian Baihua; Wang Yunheng

    2001-01-01

    Milk samples were collected on day 0, day 10-12 and day 22-24 after artificial insemination (AI) from 2349 dairy cows in 5 dairy farms. Progesterone concentration was measured by RIA. Based on the progesterone concentration in the three milk samples, the reproductive status of the cows could be identified and they were classified as pregnant (50.9%), non-fertilisation (25.8%), inactive ovary (6.1%), persistent corpus luteum (3.5%), AI at inappropriate time (during luteal phase or luteal cyst, 6.2%) and abnormal oestrous cycles (7.5%). The results and interpretation were sent back to AI technician and veterinarians in the dairy farms as soon as possible. They in turn used this information, together with their findings from rectal palpation, to arrive at a reliable diagnosis of the reproductive status in each cow and, where necessary, to adopt appropriate remedial measures in order to ensure pregnancy at subsequent service. So far, 3477 oestrus cycles have been monitored. For establishing a routine system of milk progesterone monitoring in these dairy farms, an ELISA method would be more practical. (author)

  2. Structure-based engineering of steroidogenic CYP260A1 for stereo- and regioselective hydroxylation of progesterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatri, Yogan; Jóźwik, Ilona K; Ringle, Michael; Ionescu, Irina Alexandra; Litzenburger, Martin; Hutter, Michael Christopher; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H; Bernhardt, Rita

    The production of regio- and stereoselectively hydroxylated steroids is of high pharmaceutical interest and can be achieved by cytochrome P450-based biocatalysts. CYP260A1 from Sorangium cellulosum strain So ce56 catalyzes hydroxylation of C19 or C21 steroids at the very unique 1-position. However,

  3. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma progesterone levels following breeding in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, G.C.; Arora, R.C.; Pahwa, G.S.; Batra, S.K.; Pandey, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Progesterone concentration in the peripheral blood plasma of ten lactating goats of mixed breeds following breeding were determined by radioimmunoassay to diagnose early pregnancy. The mean concentration was very low (0.25 +- 0.15 ng/ml) on the day of oestrus and reached at peak level on day 13 (1.30 +- 0.07 ng/ml) and on day 19 (2.77 +- 1.18 ng/ml) in non-pregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The level sharply declined on day 19 (0.40 +- 0.07 ng/ml) of oestrous cycle in non-pregnant goats. However, the level remained below 1.5 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15 and 17 and 3 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 23 in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The progesterone concentration continued to increase to 2.94 +- 0.70, 4.42 +- 0.92 and 6.2 +- 0.61 ng/ml on day 45, 60 and 75 of gestation, respectively. (auth.)

  5. Milk progesterone to monitor reproductive performance in Holstein Fries ian cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubbadeh, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor reproductive of lactating Holstein Fries ian cows by measuring milk progesterone levels. Sequential post-partum milk samples were collected weekly throughout 20 weeks after pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations were determined by solid phase RIA. Lactating cows required an average of 5.2 weeks to resume luteal activity; 48% of the cows conceived after first insemination and had significantly high progesterone concentrations during the first 5 weeks after insemination than cows which returned to heat 5-8 weeks after insemination> Results also revealed that adequate level of progesterone, which varied between 4.2 and 9.1 nmol/l, is required to maintain early pregnancy and progesterone level remains high in pregnant cows. (Author) 17 refs., 3 Tabs

  6. Progesterone supplementation postinsemination improves fertility of cooled dairy cows during the summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E; Roth, Z; Voet, H; Lavon, Y; Wolfenson, D

    2012-06-01

    Reduced fertility of dairy cows during periods of elevated temperature, humidity, or both might be associated with low plasma progesterone concentration. Alleviation of thermal stress by efficient cooling is a prerequisite for improving fertility by hormonal treatment. We examined whether insertion of a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing (CIDR) insert containing progesterone following artificial insemination (AI) would improve summer conception rate. Control (n = 195) and treated (CIDR; n=165) cows, yielding on average 42.3 kg milk/d, were inseminated following estrus detection during the summer (July to October) in 2 commercial dairy herds in Israel. Mean maximal air temperature and relative humidity during the study were 30.2°C and 86%, respectively. All experimental cows were efficiently cooled throughout the study, as confirmed by measuring the body temperature of random cows. Treated cows received a CIDR insert on d 5 ± 1 post-AI for 13 d and pregnancy was confirmed by palpation 45 d post-AI. Plasma progesterone concentration in treated cows was elevated by approximately 1.5 ng/mL. Multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze conception rate. Treatment did not alter the overall conception rate; however, probability of conception increased in CIDR-treated cows with low body condition score (BCS) compared with their control counterparts (53 vs. 27%, respectively). A pronounced increase in probability of conception was recorded in CIDR-treated cows exhibiting both low BCS and postpartum reproductive disorders, compared with their control counterparts (58 vs. 14%, respectively). Exogenous progesterone supplementation on d 5 post-AI for 13 d improves summer fertility of subpopulations of cows exhibiting low BCS and postpartum reproductive disorders. Reproductive management based on specific hormonal treatment of designated subgroups of cows known to derive beneficial effects from it might improve treatment efficiency and reduce expenses. Copyright

  7. Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in Tunisian cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimane, Naceur; Haffar, M.A.; Chetoui, C.; Bahri, M.

    2005-01-01

    Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in tunisian and pregnancy in tunisian cattle Results saved during field application in four Tunisian farms from 924 dairy cows. A total of 2830 milk samples were collected from these cows at 3 fixed intervals to evaluate the level of Progesterone: at Artificial Insemination (AI) time (1034), 12th day (948) and at 22nd to 24th days after AI (848). Progesterone concentrations in samples done at AI moment (n=1034) revealed that 10.1% of cows was inseminated at improper moment (progesterone level higher or equal to 1nmol/l). In the second category (samples collected 12 days after AI, n=948), allowed distinguishing between two different situations: (1)- Cycling cows: progesterone concentration was higher or equal to 3nmol/l (69.4%). (2)- Non cycling cows: progesterone level was strictly lower than 3nmol/l (30.6%). The aim of progesterone assay of samples collected in the third category (22 to 24 days after AI) is to establish the Early Non Pregnancy Diagnosis (ENPD). Recorded data allow distinguishing: (1)- Non pregnant females: progesterone concentration is strictly less than 2nmol/l. The confirmation of this situation was carried out by rectal palpation. The gathered information indicated that ENPD accuracy is equal to 96.6%. (2)- Pregnant females: progesterone level is to be higher than or equal to 3.5nmol/l. The ENPD accuracy is 73.3% after confirmation using rectal palpation. (3)- Doubtful females: progesterone concentration is to be between (2 and 3.5nmol/l). Fertility and fecundity criteria were determined by using AIDA software, the analysis considered some variation factors such as cow parity, body score condition, number of services, inseminator, and milk production

  8. Detection of estrus in dairy cows by electrical measurements of vaginal mucus and by milk progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, P; Schiavo, J; Hall, C E; Foote, R H; Scott, N R

    1976-05-01

    Electrical resistance (ohms) of mucus were analyzed in 20 postpartum Holstein cows by use of a probe inserted into the anterior vagina every other day for 30 days. Composite milk samples were taken on the same day, and progesterone was determined by radioimmunoassay. Cows were observed twice daily for standing estrus and reproductive organs palpated weekly per rectum (rectal palpation). Fifteen cows which were cycling showed increasing progesterone 6 to 7 days after the onset of estrus with values of 8.1 to 10.0 ng progesterone/ml milk on days 10 to 17. Concentrations had declined rapidly 2 days before onset of the next estrus. Progesterone in milk was affected by cow and by day of the cycle. Electrical resistance followed a similar cyclical pattern, but variability was large and only cows differed. The correlation between milk progesterone and mucus resistance was .22. Progesterone concentrations for four cows with follicular cysts fluctuated randomly with a mean of 2.6 ng/ml. Mean resistance of vaginal mucus was 44 omega for both cycling and cystic cows, indicating that a single measurement of electrical resistance every 2nd day was unreliable in distinguishing physiological states. One cow had high progesterone in milk on days 19 to 25 and was diagnosed pregnant by rectal palpation 3 wk later. Cows were not seen in estrus 28% of the time when milk progesterone and rectal palpation indicated they were in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle and were cycling.

  9. Evaluation of reproductive performance using milk progesterone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimers, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Dairy herds (472) in the northeastern United States of America were surveyed to evaluate reproductive performance. Error of oestrus detection (>> 1 ng/mL of milk progesterone) on the day of insemination was 5.1% for 4558 cows. 'Standing' and 'riding other cows' were the most accurate signs of oestrus. Of cows in or near oestrus when inseminated, 28.1% were open three weeks later, 12.9% were probably open, and 59% were probably pregnant according to milk progesterone analysis. Post-partum days to first insemination and conception rates showed positive correlation. Concentrations of progesterone in milk samples collected 21 to 24 days after service allowed prediction with 88.6% accuracy that a cow was pregnant and with 93.9% accuracy that she was not. By rectal palpation, veterinarians predicted with 92.5% accuracy that a cow was pregnant. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Intrahippocampal administration of Vitamin C and progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin C and progesterone alone improved spatial memory in comparison to lesion group. Effective doses of vitamin C + effective dose of progesterone had more improving effect on memory. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurosteroid, Antioxidant, Demylination, Progesterone, Learning and memory impairments, Multiple ...

  11. The multifaceted nature of access to compounded progesterone: a cross-sectional study from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, M Joy; Willis, Jon; Byrne, Graeme; Iacono, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    To explore the influences on accessibility of compounded progesterone therapy for Australian women. A cross-sectional survey of a stratified sample of Australian women who use progesterone only products using the 'Perspectives on Progesterone' questionnaire. Principle components analysis (PCA) to determine components of access to progesterone treatment and multi-way analysis of variance to compare groups. Women using compounded progesterone were likely to have made at least one lifestyle adaptation (73%), and to have tried and stopped using at least one complementary and alternative medicine therapy (63%) or conventional hormone therapy (41%). PCA revealed six components of access to progesterone treatment: affordable, values natural treatments and is concerned about other treatments, conventionally available, perceived knowledge, values information gathered from a variety of sources, and rural & disadvantaged. The multifaceted nature of progesterone use illustrates that there are multiple aspects to use of non-conventional medicines. Women looking for non-conventional treatment are neither stupid nor uninformed, their understandings, based on experience and research, need to be addressed by health professionals while assessing their condition prior to discussing the risks and benefits of non-conventional medicines. Access to compounded progesterone is multifaceted, and many of the women who use it have tried other treatments first. Despite the clinical ambivalence towards progesterone as an alternative for women who may have tried and rejected other treatments, including conventional hormone therapy, the women described in this paper are using it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cattle: Relationship of Ultrasound, Blood Pregnancy-Specific Protein B, Progesterone and Production Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Abonyi-Tóth, Z; Gábor, P; Endrődi, T; Balogh, O G

    2016-08-01

    Objectives were to determine associations between percentage pregnancy loss (PPL) in dairy cattle and: (i) pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography; (ii) pregnancy diagnosis by serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations, with or without serum progesterone concentrations; and (iii) production and environmental factors. This study included 149 822 pregnancy diagnoses conducted over 13 years in Holstein-Friesian cows in Hungarian dairy herds. The following were determined: PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by transrectal ultrasonography 29-42 days after artificial insemination (AI; n = 11 457); PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by serum PSPB 29-35 days after AI (n = 138 365); and PPL and its association with serum progesterone concentrations, PSPB and production/environmental variables. The definition of PPL was percentage of cows initially diagnosed pregnant based on ultrasonography or PSPB, but not pregnant when examined by transrectal palpation 60 -70 days after AI. The PPL was lower (p 1.1 ng/ml) was lowest (15.0%), whereas cows with low concentrations of both PSPB and progesterone (0.6-1.1 and production, when ambient temperatures were high, although body condition score (BCS) had no effect on PPL. Finally, there were no significant associations between serum PSPB and environmental temperatures or number of post-partum uterine treatments. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Selective suppression of endothelial cytokine production by progesterone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Lauren M; Ton, Amy N; Org, Tõnis; Mikkola, Hanna K A; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones are well-recognized suppressors of the inflammatory response, however, their cell- and tissue-specific effects in the regulation of inflammation are far less understood, particularly for the sex-related steroids. To determine the contribution of progesterone in the endothelium, we have characterized and validated an in vitro culture system in which human umbilical vein endothelial cells constitutively express human progesterone receptor (PR). Using next generation RNA-sequencing, we identified a selective group of cytokines that are suppressed by progesterone both under physiological conditions and during pathological activation by lipopolysaccharide. In particular, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL2/3, and CXCL1 were found to be direct targets of PR, as determined by ChIP-sequencing. Regulation of these cytokines by progesterone was also confirmed by bead-based multiplex cytokine assays and quantitative PCR. These findings provide a novel role for PR in the direct regulation of cytokine levels secreted by the endothelium. They also suggest that progesterone-PR signaling in the endothelium directly impacts leukocyte trafficking in PR-expressing tissues. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The comparison of microdose flare-up and multiple dose antagonist protocols based on hCG day estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and P/E2 ratio among poor responder patients in ICSI-ET cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, M N; Kahyaoglu, I; Kahyaoglu, S

    2015-02-01

    Elevated progesterone levels surpassing exact treshold values impede endometrial receptivity and decrease clinical pregnancy rates in different responder patients during assisted reproductive techniques. A progesterone (P): estradiol (E2) ratio of > 1 on the day of hCG administration has also been suggested to be a manifestation of low ovarian reserve. The clinical significance of P/E2 ratio on the day of hCG administration was investigated among poor responder patients. Based on the ESHRE Bologna consensus criteria related to poor ovarian response diagnosis, 48 poor responder patients were treated with the microdose flare-up regimen and 34 patients were treated with the multiple-dose GnRH antagonist protocol. All patients were destined to perform a ICSI-ET procedure at the end of the stimulation protocols. Progesterone levels and P/E2 ratios have been detected during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. In the microdose flare-up group; the duration of stimulation, total gonadotropin dose used and hCG day E2 levels were significantly higher than the multiple dose antagonist group. However, the mean hCG day P/E2 rate in the microdose flare-up group was less than that in the multiple-dose antagonist group. The clinical pregnancy rates were non significantly higher in the multiple dose antagonist protocol group than in microdose flare-up group. Impaired endometrial receptivity caused by elevated P levels results with lower pregnancy rates. Regardless of the selected stimulation protocol, poor responder patients are not prone to exhibit high P and E2 secretion. Increased P/E2 ratio of > 1 on hCG day has limited value to predict cycle outcomes in poor responder patients because of ovarian follicle depletion.

  15. [Sustained-release progesterone vaginal suppositories 3-development and clinical feasibility testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Naho; Ohno, Yukiko; Miyata, Chihiro; Kondo, Haruomi; Sunada, Hisakazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

      Although progesterone vaginal suppositories (hospital-formulated) are used for the treatment of infertility, their half-life is so short that multiple doses are required. In this study, we aimed to develop sustained-release vaginal suppositories suitable for clinical use which maintain an effective blood concentration by once-a-day treatment, and prepared 7 types of suppository containing the sustained-release progesterone tablets to characterize their sustained-release performance. We selected one candidate suppository among them, taking recovery rate, reproducibility, and hardness, as well as the sustained-release performance into consideration. The shell of the selected suppository is composed of VOSCO S-55 and progesterone for rapid release. The molded progesterone tablets for sustained release were embedded inside. The distribution of the weight and content of the suppository was limited, and the release rate of progesterone was significantly slower than that of a conventional progesterone suppository prepared in our hospital. The single-dose administration of the selected suppository to five healthy volunteers led to significant extension of the blood concentration. We also confirmed the rise of the basic value by multiple administration. The simulation comparison suggested that the blood progesterone concentration is controlled by once-a-day administration of the selected suppository better than twice-a-day administration of the conventional suppository. In conclusion, the sustained-release vaginal suppository prepared in this study was considered to be useful for clinical treatment.

  16. Role of sex steroids in progesterone and corticosterone response to acute restraint stress in rats: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, B; Leite, C M; Carvalho-Lima, M; Anselmo-Franci, J A

    2013-07-01

    Adrenal progesterone secretion increases along with corticosterone in response to stress in male and female rats to modulate some stress responses. Here we investigated the role of sex steroids in sex differences in the progesterone response to 60 min of restraint stress in adult male and female rats. Comparisons between males and females in the progesterone response were evaluated in parallel with corticosterone responses. From day 5 to 7 after gonadectomy, female and male rats were treated with estradiol or testosterone, respectively (OVX-E and ORCH-T groups), or oil (OVX and ORCH groups). Female rats in proestrus, intact and 7 d adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats were also studied. At 10:00 h, blood samples were withdrawn via an implanted jugular cannula before (-5 min), during (15, 30, 45, 60 min) and after (90 and 120 min) restraint stress to measure plasma progesterone and corticosterone concentrations by radioimmunoassay. Intact male and proestrus female rats exhibited similar progesterone responses to stress. Gonadectomy did not alter the amount of progesterone secreted during stress in female rats but decreased secretion in male rats. Unlike corticosterone, the progesterone response to stress in females was not influenced by estradiol. In males, testosterone replacement attenuated the progesterone and corticosterone responses to stress. Basal secretion of progesterone among intact, ORCH and ADX males was similar, but ADX-stressed rats secreted little progesterone. Hence, the gonads differently modulate adrenal progesterone and corticosterone responses to stress in female and male rats. The ovaries enhance corticosterone but not progesterone secretion, while the testes stimulate progesterone but not corticosterone secretion.

  17. Milk samples collected with filter paper for progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiahua, Zhang; Guoxia, Geng; Huaiyu, Zhang

    1985-09-01

    The cow milk was collected with filter paper treated with ethanol during eastrus-day (0 day) and 22th and 24th day after mating. Then it was dried and stored in room temprature until analysis for progesterone by means of radioimmunoassay. The sensitivity is 13.62 pg/bule (n = 4), the coefficients of variation within a group and between groups are 8.8% (n = 10) and 16.65% (n = 8) respectively, and the recovery is 91.23% (n = 4). The average progesterone level for 22th and 24th day in the pregnant cows (6.28 +- 1.28 ng/ml) was much higher than that in the non-pregnant cow (2.00 +- 1.18 ng/ml), the difference being significant (P < 0.001). The judgement based on progesterone level (5 pregnant and 5 non-pregnant cows) faily agreed with the clinical diagnosis.

  18. The past, present, and future of selective progesterone receptor modulators in the management of uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhbir S; Belland, Liane; Leyland, Nicholas; von Riedemann, Sarah; Murji, Ally

    2017-12-21

    Uterine fibroids are common in women of reproductive age and can have a significant impact on quality of life and fertility. Although a number of international obstetrics/gynecology societies have issued evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids, many of these guidelines do not yet reflect the most recent clinical evidence and approved indication for one of the key medical management options: the selective progesterone receptor modulator class. This article aims to share the clinical experience gained with selective progesterone receptor modulators in Europe and Canada by reviewing the historical development of selective progesterone receptor modulators, current best practices for selective progesterone receptor modulator use based on available data, and potential future uses for selective progesterone receptor modulators in uterine fibroids and other gynecologic conditions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fertility after implementation of long- and short-term progesterone-based ovulation synchronization protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Schroeder, S; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2015-04-15

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of long-term (LT; a 14-day controlled internal drug release insert [CIDR]-PGF2α [PGF]-GnRH) and short-term (ST; 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR) progesterone-based protocols on pregnancy rate to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef heifers. In experiment 1, Angus cross beef heifers (N = 1887) at nine locations received a body condition score and a reproductive tract score (RTS). Within the herd, heifers were randomly assigned to LT-72 and ST-56 protocol groups. Heifers in the LT-72 group received a CIDR from Days 0 to 14, followed by 25 mg of PGF 16 days later (Day 30). Heifers in the ST-56 group received a CIDR and 100 μg of gonadorelin hydrochloride (GnRH) on Day 25 followed by 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 30 and a second dose of PGF 6 hours later (Day 30). Artificial insemination was performed at 56 hours (Day 32) after CIDR removal for the ST-56 group and at 72 hours (Day 33) after CIDR removal for the LT-72 group, and all heifers were given GnRH (100 μg, intramuscular) at the time of AI. In experiment 2, Angus cross beef heifers (N = 718) at four locations received a body condition score and an RTS. Within the herd, heifers were randomly assigned to LT-72 and ST-72 protocol groups. The protocol was similar to experiment 1 except that AI was performed at 72 hours after CIDR removal for both LT-72 and ST-72 groups. In experiment 1, no difference in AI pregnancy rates between the LT-72 and ST-56 groups was observed (54.5% [489 of 897] and 55.5% [549 of 990], respectively; P = 0.92) after accounting for the RTS. The AI pregnancy rates for heifers with RTS 3 or less, 4, and 5 were 52.6%, 53.6%, and 59.9%, respectively (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, controlling for the RTS, no difference in AI pregnancy rates was observed between the LT-72 and ST-72 groups, 56.9% (198 of 347) and 57.8% (214 of 371), respectively (P = 0.87). The AI pregnancy rates for heifers with RTS 3 or less, 4, and 5 were 49.3%, 58

  20. Disturbances in production of progesterone and their implications in plant studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Anna; Oklestkova, Jana; Novak, Ondrej; Śniegowska-Świerk, Katarzyna; Snaczke, Zuzanna; Pociecha, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Progesterone is a mammalian hormone that has also been discovered in plants but its physiological function in plants is not explained. Experiments using inhibitors of progesterone synthesis and binding would be useful in studies on the significance of this compound in plants. Until now, trilostane and mifepristone have been used in medical sciences as progesterone biosynthesis and binding inhibitors, respectively. We tested these synthetic steroids for the first time in plants and found that they reduced the content of progesterone in wheat. The aim of further experiments was to answer whether the potential disturbances in the production/binding of progesterone, influence resistance to environmental stress (drought) and the development of wheat. Inhibitors and progesterone were applied to plants via roots in a concentration of 0.25-0.5mg/l water. Both inhibitors lowered the activity of CO2 binding enzyme (Rubisco) in wheat exposed to drought stress and trilostane additionally lowered the chlorophyll content. However, trilostane-treated plants were rescued by treatment with exogenous progesterone. The inhibitors also modulated the development of winter wheat, which indicated the significance of steroid regulators and their receptors in this process. In this study, in addition to progesterone and its inhibitors, brassinosteroid (24-epibrassinolide) and an inhibitor of biosynthesis of brassinosteroids were also applied. Mifepristone inhibited the generative development of wheat (like 24-epibrassinolide), while trilostane (like progesterone and an inhibitor of biosynthesis of brassinosteroids) stimulated the development. We propose a model of steroid-induced regulation of the development of winter wheat, where brassinosteroids act as inhibitors of generative development, while progesterone or other pregnane derivatives act as stimulators. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictive value of uterine contractility and the serum levels of progesterone and oestrogens with regard to preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, D A; Essed, G G; de Haan, J

    1984-01-01

    A longitudinal investigation regarding the serum concentrations of oestradiol, oestriol and progesterone in relation to uterine activity has been performed in 80 healthy primigravid women during the course of pregnancy up to the 37th week of pregnancy. The frequency of uterine contractions was quantitatively objectivated by means of external toco-dynamometry; simultaneously the uterine activity has been recorded by the pregnant women qualitatively. It appears that there is a gradual increase of all the three mentioned hormones during the course of pregnancy. However, there is a large interindividual spread. There exists no relation between the hormonal serum levels and uterine activity (quantitatively as well as qualitatively recorded). Between these two latter there is a poor relation. It is impossible to predict the occurrence of preterm birth based on hormonal serum changes. This holds for the progesterone-oestradiol ratio.

  2. Solids-based concentrated solar power receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2018-04-10

    A concentrated solar power (CSP) system includes channels arranged to convey a flowing solids medium descending under gravity. The channels form a light-absorbing surface configured to absorb solar flux from a heliostat field. The channels may be independently supported, for example by suspension, and gaps between the channels are sized to accommodate thermal expansion. The light absorbing surface may be sloped so that the inside surfaces of the channels proximate to the light absorbing surface define downward-slanting channel floors, and the flowing solids medium flows along these floors. Baffles may be disposed inside the channels and oriented across the direction of descent of the flowing solids medium. The channels may include wedge-shaped walls forming the light-absorbing surface and defining multiple-reflection light paths for solar flux from the heliostat field incident on the light-absorbing surface.

  3. Effect of progesterone supplementation in the first week post conception on embryo survival in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Lonergan, P; Diskin, M G; Roche, J F; Crowe, M A

    2009-04-15

    Progesterone is essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of elevating progesterone during the different physiological stages of early embryo development on embryo survival. Estrus was synchronized in cross-bred beef heifers (n=197, approximately 2-years old) and they were inseminated 12-18h after estrus onset (=Day 0). Inseminated heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) Control, n=69; (2) progesterone supplementation using a Controlled Internal Drug Release Device (CIDR) from Day 3 to 6.5, n=64; or (3) progesterone supplementation using a CIDR from Day 4.5 to 8, n=64. Body condition (BCS) and locomotion scores (scale of 1-5) were recorded for all animals. Animals with a locomotion score >/=4 (very lame) were excluded. Embryo survival rate was determined at slaughter on Day 25. Conceptus length and weight were recorded and the corpus luteum (CL) of all pregnant animals was dissected and weighed. Supplementation with exogenous progesterone increased (Prate compared with controls. Mean CL weight, conceptus length and conceptus weight were not different between treatments. There was a positive relationship (Prate in treated heifers and a similar trend existed between the increase from Days 4.5 to 8 (Prate in treated heifers. A direct correlation was seen between locomotion score and embryo survival rate, with higher (Prates in heifers with a lower locomotion score. In conclusion, supplementation with progesterone at different stages of early embryo development increased peripheral progesterone concentration and resulted in a positive association between changes in progesterone concentration during the early luteal phase and embryo survival rate. Supplementation with progesterone had no effect on either CL weight or conceptus size in pregnant animals. Lameness had a significant negative effect on early embryo survival.

  4. Versatile action of picomolar gradients of progesterone on different sperm subpopulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rafael Uñates

    Full Text Available High step concentrations of progesterone may stimulate various sperm physiological processes, such as priming and the acrosome reaction. However, approaching the egg, spermatozoa face increasing concentrations of the hormone, as it is secreted by the cumulus cells and then passively diffuses along the cumulus matrix and beyond. In this context, several questions arise: are spermatozoa sensitive to the steroid gradients as they undergo priming and the acrosome reaction? If so, what are the functional gradual concentrations of progesterone? Do spermatozoa in different physiological states respond differentially to steroid gradients? To answer these questions, spermatozoa were confronted with progesterone gradients generated by different hormone concentrations (1 pM to 100 µM. Brief exposure to a 10 pM progesterone gradient stimulated priming for the acrosome reaction in one sperm subpopulation, and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction in a different sperm subpopulation. This effect was not observed in non-capacitated cells or when progesterone was homogeneously distributed. The results suggest a versatile role of the gradual distribution of very low doses of progesterone, which selectively stimulate the priming and the acrosome reaction in different sperm subpopulations.

  5. Efeito da aplicação de hCG ou GnRH sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona e eficiência reprodutiva em porcas Effect of injection of hCG or GnRH on progesterone serum concentration and reproductive efficiency of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.R. Carvalho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação de diferentes hormônios no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona e sobre as características reprodutivas, em 103 porcas entre o terceirro e sexto parto. As matrizes foram divididas em: grupo-controle (n=35, não tratado, grupo GnRH (n=34, animais submetidos à aplicação intramuscular (IM de 50mcg de um análogo-GnRH no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação, e grupo hCG (n=34, animais submetidos à aplicação IM de 500UI de hCG no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação. A aplicação dos hormônios não influenciou as características reprodutivas taxa de parto, número total de nascidos, número de nascidos vivos e peso da leitegada (P>0,05. Cinco animais de cada grupo foram submetidos a coletas de sangue da veia cava nos dias 3, 5, 8, 12, 21 e 28 após a primeira inseminação para avaliação da concentração sérica de progesterona (ng/ml, utilizando a técnica de radioimunoensaio. Não houve diferença significativa quanto à concentração sérica de progesterona entre os grupos.Two different hormones were administered on the fifth day after the first insemination to evaluate their influence on serum progesterone concentrations and on reproductive efficiency, in multiparous sows between the third and the sixth parturition. The reproductive performance was evaluated in 103 sows distributed into three groups: 1-Control (n=35; 2-GnRH, 50m g of GnRH-analogue, administered IM on the fifth day after the first insemination (n=34; and 3-hCG, 500 IU of hCG administered IM in the fifth day after the first insemination (n=34. No effect (P>0.05 of hormone treatments on farrowing rate, litter size, live born and litter weight was observed. Five sows of each group were blood sampled on days 3, 5, 8, 12, 21, 28, after the first insemination, to evaluate serum progesterone concentrations (ng/ml. Serum progesterone concentrations were not affected (P>0.05 by

  6. Progesterone as a bone-trophic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, J C

    1990-05-01

    Experimental, epidemiological, and clinical data indicate that progesterone is active in bone metabolism. Progesterone appears to act directly on bone by engaging an osteoblast receptor or indirectly through competition for a glucocorticoid osteoblast receptor. Progesterone seems to promote bone formation and/or increase bone turnover. It is possible, through estrogen-stimulated increased progesterone binding to the osteoblast receptor, that progesterone plays a role in the coupling of bone resorption with bone formation. A model of the interdependent actions of progesterone and estrogen on appropriately-"ready" cells in each bone multicellular unit can be tied into the integrated secretions of these hormones within the ovulatory cycle. Figure 5 is an illustration of this concept. It shows the phases of the bone remodeling cycle in parallel with temporal changes in gonadal steroids across a stylized ovulatory cycle. Increasing estrogen production before ovulation may reverse the resorption occurring in a "sensitive" bone multicellular unit while gonadal steroid levels are low at the time of menstrual flow. The bone remodeling unit would then be ready to begin a phase of formation as progesterone levels peaked in the midluteal phase. From this perspective, the normal ovulatory cycle looks like a natural bone-activating, coherence cycle. Critical analysis of the reviewed data indicate that progesterone meets the necessary criteria to play a causal role in mineral metabolism. This review provides the preliminary basis for further molecular, genetic, experimental, and clinical investigation of the role(s) of progesterone in bone remodeling. Much further data are needed about the interrelationships between gonadal steroids and the "life cycle" of bone. Feldman et al., however, may have been prophetic when he commented; "If this anti-glucocorticoid effect of progesterone also holds true in bone, then postmenopausal osteoporosis may be, in part, a progesterone deficiency

  7. Binding of (/sup 3/H) progesterone to normal and neoplastic tissue samples from tumour bearing breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollow, K; Sinnecker, R; Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M; Boquoi, E; Pollow, B [Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Biochemie, Frauenklinik Charlottenburg der Freien Universitat, Berlin (G.F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    Macromolecular components of normal human mammary cytosol (obtained from 'non-malignant tissue samples' from cancer bearing breasts) which bind (/sup 3/H)progesterone in vitro were characterized by sucrose gradient centrifugation, gel filtration on Agarose, ion exchange chromatography, isoelectric focusing, competition studies and kinetic parameters. The size of the cytoplasmic binding components vary with the concentration of KCl. In the absence of KCl, the major components are characterized by sedimentation coefficients of about 4 S and 8 S. In solutions containing 0.3M KCl, the cytoplasmic components sediment at 4 S in sucrose gradient. The corticosteroid-binding component of normal human mammary cytosol both sediment at about the same rate in the presence of 0.3M KCl and chromatograph as a single component on Agarose. The isoelectric point of the progesterone-binding component of normal human mammary cytosol was located around pH 5.0. The progesterone-binding component was more thermo-labile than serum CBG. CBG was inactivated at temperatures above 45 deg C but temperature above 20 deg C destroyed specific progesterone receptor binding. Progesterone receptor concentrations in normal mammary cytosol of premenopausal women depended on the menstrual cycle. The binding of progesterone was highest around the time of ovulation. In breast tumor tissue samples the progesterone receptor concentration was lower than in the normal mammary cytosol (obtained in each case from the same tumor-bearing breast). In 5 out of 37 breast tumor samples progesterone binding activity could not be detected.

  8. Ovarian dynamics in response to two modified intravaginal progesterone releasing device and oestradiol benzoate based ovulation synchronisation protocols designed for use in Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Atkinson, P C; Satake, N; Boe-Hansen, G; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The objective was to investigate the ovarian response of Brahman heifers to two modified ovulation synchronisation protocols developed to increase the proportion of normal synchronous ovulations. Experiment 1 characterised the growth of the ovulatory follicle in heifers (n=19) treated with an intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD) and oestradiol benzoate (ODB), to determine the optimal time to induce ovulation. Using the findings from Experiment 1, Experiment 2 investigated the effect of reducing the duration of IPRD insertion and increasing the interval from IPRD removal to ODB treatment (modified protocol 1 - OPO-6; n=20), and omitting ODB treatment at the time of IPRD insertion (modified protocol 2 - PO-6; n=20). An IPRD (0.78 g progesterone) was inserted at Day 0 (OPO-8) or Day 2 (OPO-6 and PO-6) and all heifers also received 1 mg ODB i.m. Day 8: IPRD removed + 500 μg cloprostenol i.m. At 24 h (OPO-8) and 36 h (OPO-6 and PO-6) post IPRD removal: 1 mg ODB i.m. Fixed-time AI (FTAI) occurred at 54 h for OPO-8 and 72 h for OPO-6 and PO-6, post IPRD removal. After IPRD treatment all OPO-6 and OPO-8 heifers initiated a new follicular wave whereas 25% of PO-6 heifers failed. Diameter of the dominant follicle was larger at FTAI in the PO-6 (11.34 ± 0.50 mm) compared to the OPO-8 protocol (9.74 ± 0.51 mm; P<0.05), but similar to the OPO-6 protocol (10.52 ± 0.51 mm). Proportion of ovulations occurring 12 h prior and 24 h post FTAI was similar for the PO-6 (80%) and OPO-6 (75%) protocols but numerically lower in the OPO-8 heifers (60%). The apparent improvement in ovarian response in heifers treated with the modified protocols needs to be confirmed in larger field studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physiology, production and action of progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraborrelli, Stefania

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article is to review the physiology of progesterone and focus on its physiological actions on tissues such as endometrium, uterus, mammary gland, cardiovascular system, central nervous system and bones. In the last decades, the interest of researchers has focused on the role of progesterone in genomic and non-genomic receptor mechanisms. We searched PubMed up to December 2014 for publications on progesterone/steroidogenesis. A better understanding of the biological genomic and non-genomic receptor mechanisms could enable us in the near future to obtain a more comprehensive knowledge of the safety and efficacy of this agent during hormone replacement therapy (natural progesterone), in vitro fertilization (water-soluble subcutaneous progesterone), in traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and diabetic neuropathy, even though further clinical studies are needed to prove its usefulness. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Chronic potassium depletion increases adrenal progesterone production that is necessary for efficient renal retention of potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabida, Boutaïna; Edwards, Aurélie; Salhi, Amel; Azroyan, Anie; Fodstad, Heidi; Meneton, Pierre; Doucet, Alain; Bloch-Faure, May; Crambert, Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Modern dietary habits are characterized by high-sodium and low-potassium intakes, each of which was correlated with a higher risk for hypertension. In this study, we examined whether long-term variations in the intake of sodium and potassium induce lasting changes in the plasma concentration of circulating steroids by developing a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in mice. One finding of this model was that mice increase their plasma progesterone levels specifically in response to potassium depletion. This prediction was confirmed by measurements in both male mice and men. Further investigation showed that progesterone regulates renal potassium handling both in males and females under potassium restriction, independent of its role in reproduction. The increase in progesterone production by male mice was time dependent and correlated with decreased urinary potassium content. The progesterone-dependent ability to efficiently retain potassium was because of an RU486 (a progesterone receptor antagonist)-sensitive stimulation of the colonic hydrogen, potassium-ATPase (known as the non-gastric or hydrogen, potassium-ATPase type 2) in the kidney. Thus, in males, a specific progesterone concentration profile induced by chronic potassium restriction regulates potassium balance.

  11. Follicle vascularity coordinates corpus luteum blood flow and progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tarso, S G S; Gastal, G D A; Bashir, S T; Gastal, M O; Apgar, G A; Gastal, E L

    2017-03-01

    Colour Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare the ability of preovulatory follicle (POF) blood flow and its dimensions to predict the size, blood flow and progesterone production capability of the subsequent corpus luteum (CL). Cows (n=30) were submitted to a synchronisation protocol. Follicles ≥7mm were measured and follicular wall blood flow evaluated every 12h for approximately 3.5 days until ovulation. After ovulation, cows were scanned daily for 8 days and similar parameters were evaluated for the CL. Blood samples were collected and plasma progesterone concentrations quantified. All parameters were positively correlated. Correlation values ranged from 0.26 to 0.74 on data normalised to ovulation and from 0.31 to 0.74 on data normalised to maximum values. Correlations between calculated ratios of both POF and CL in data normalised to ovulation and to maximum values ranged from moderate (0.57) to strong (0.87). Significant (Pprogesterone concentrations of the resultant CL. These findings indicate that follicle vascularity coordinates CL blood flow and progesterone production in synchronised beef cows.

  12. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-10-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SAREF) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SAPSD) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SAINV1) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SAINV2) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SAPSD was 0.7-1.8 times higher and SAINV1 and SAINV2 were 2.2-8 times higher than SAREF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SAREF. However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SAREF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SAPSD) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  13. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SA REF ) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SA PSD ) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SA INV1 ) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SA INV2 ) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SA PSD was 0.7–1.8 times higher and SA INV1 and SA INV2 were 2.2–8 times higher than SA REF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SA REF . However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SA REF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SA PSD ) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of milk progesterone to monitor reproductive performance in smallholder dairy herds in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaputra, L.; Hariadi, M.; Hardjopranjoto, S.

    1990-01-01

    Studies involving 260 Friesian cows from three different locations were conducted to monitor the reproductive performance in small dairy herds in Indonesia by using milk progesterone RIA. In the first study 90 post-partum cows at three locations (Surabaya, Grati and Puspo) were used to investigate post-partum ovarian function. The highest incidence of cows not showing oestrus up to 80 days post-partum, with progesterone profiles less than 0.75 ng/mL, was found in Puspo (63.3%), compared with 10% in Surabaya and 20% in Grati. The incidence of cows with silent heat and oestrus without ovulation was 13.3 and 3.3% in Surabaya, 16.7 and 6.7% in Grati, and 23.3 and 0% in Puspo. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the lengths of oestrous cycles at the three different locations. In the second study, using 120 cows for investigating confirmation of oestrus at AI, 69.7% of cows inseminated during the follicular phase had become pregnant, compared with 16.1% of cows inseminated during the luteal phase. The incidence of long luteal phases which included embryonic death was 13.4%. The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis based on progesterone concentrations at day 22 was 77% and was lower than that at day 29 (88%). In the third study, cows in Subgroups 3A and 3B had cystic ovaries and were treated with prostaglandin F 2α by either intramuscular (3A) or intrauterine (3B) routes. Pregnancy rates were 50 and 40%, respectively. Cows in Subgroups 3C, 3D and 3E had inactive ovaries and were treated with intravaginal application of MPA sponges (3C), PRID (3D) or PRID followed by LH injection (3E). The pregnancy rates were 30, 40 and 60%, respectively. (author). 10 refs, 6 tabs

  15. Possibilities of implementing progesterone EIA test in the control of reproduction in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna S. Tomislav,

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to implement the progesterone EIA test, developed in our laboratory by using an anti-progesterone antibody (Yamaguchi University, Japan, in order to determine the optimal moment for artificial insemination (AI and to detect pregnancy in Holstein-Friesian cows according to the progesterone concentration in the whole milk. Also, the influence of β-carotene, applied at the day of insemination and human chorionic gonadotrophin applied on day 7 after AI on the progesterone level and the pregnancy rate were evaluated.For the accuracy of oestrus detection, the milk samples from 70 cows were collected on the day of insemination. Milk samples from 148 cows were collected 19-22 days following insemination for pregnancy check.After detection of naturally occurring oestrus (day 0 and AI, cows were divided into the following groups: group A (n = 19 was treated with 200 mg β-carotene (20 ml Carofertin® i.m. Alvetra u. Werfft Gmbh, Austria, group B (n = 17 was treated with 1 500 IU hCG i.m. (Schering-Plough, the Netherlands and control (non treated group C (n = 18. The milk samples for EIA progesterone concentration analysis were collected on the day of AI, the 14th and the 20th day of the oestrus cycle. Oestrus detection errors and inappropriate moments of insemination according to the progesterone concentration were detected in 22.86% animals (16/70. The test accuracy for non-pregnant cows was 90.48% (76/84. The accuracy of the progesterone test in pregnant cows was 75% (48/64. False positive results (high progesterone level, but the cows were not pregnant was detected in 25% of cows (16/64 as a result of a prolonged oestrus cycles, embrional mortality and endomethritis (10/16 cases. The treatment of cows with 1500 IU of hCG, on the day 7 of the oestrus cycle, resulted in statistically significant increase of progesterone concentration in the dioestrus (P 0.05.The EIA test developed in our laboratory could be used for accurate

  16. HIV Protease Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy Is Associated With Decreased Progesterone Levels, Suggesting a Potential Mechanism Contributing to Fetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R.; Yudin, Mark H.; Murphy, Kellie E.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Background. Protease inhibitor (PI)–based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. Methods. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Results. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Conclusions. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. PMID:25030058

  17. HIV protease inhibitor use during pregnancy is associated with decreased progesterone levels, suggesting a potential mechanism contributing to fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R; Yudin, Mark H; Murphy, Kellie E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. A Twitter-based survey on marijuana concentrate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Zatreh, Mussa Y; Lamy, Francois R; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Martins, Silvia S; Sheth, Amit; Carlson, Robert G

    2018-04-11

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze characteristics of marijuana concentrate users, describe patterns and reasons of use, and identify factors associated with daily use of concentrates among U.S.-based cannabis users recruited via a Twitter-based online survey. An anonymous Web-based survey was conducted in June 2017 with 687 U.S.-based cannabis users recruited via Twitter-based ads. The survey included questions about state of residence, socio-demographic characteristics, and cannabis use including marijuana concentrates. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify characteristics associated with lifetime and daily use of marijuana concentrates. Almost 60% of respondents were male, 86% were white, and the mean age was 43.0 years. About 48% reported marijuana concentrate use. After adjusting for multiple testing, significant predictors of concentrate use included: living in "recreational" (AOR = 2.04; adj. p = .042) or "medical, less restrictive" (AOR = 1.74; adj. p = .030) states, being younger (AOR = 0.97, adj. p = .008), and daily herbal cannabis use (AOR = 2.57, adj. p = .008). Out of 329 marijuana concentrate users, about 13% (n = 44) reported daily/near daily use. Significant predictors of daily concentrate use included: living in recreational states (AOR = 3.59, adj. p = .020) and using concentrates for therapeutic purposes (AOR = 4.34, adj. p = .020). Living in states with more liberal marijuana policies is associated with greater likelihood of marijuana concentrate use and with more frequent use. Characteristics of daily users, in particular, patterns of therapeutic use warrant further research with community-recruited samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of uterine progesterone receptors by the nonsteroidal anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, Y.; Armstrong, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have recently reported that the anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide causes delayed implantation and exhibits antideciduogenic activity in the rat. The present experiments were conducted to examine whether hydroxyflutamide binds to the uterine progesterone receptors and/or alters the progesterone binding sites in the uterus. Cytosol and nuclear fractions from decidualized rat uterus were incubated with [3H]-R5020 without or with increasing concentrations of radioinert R5020, RU486, dihydrotestosterone, or hydroxyflutamide. From the log-dose inhibition curves, the relative binding affinity of both hydroxyflutamide and dihydrotestosterone was less than 0.1% and 2%, compared with R5020 (100%) for displacing [3H]-R5020 bound to uterine cytosol and nuclear fractions, respectively. Injection of estradiol-17 beta (1 microgram/rat) to ovariectomized prepubertal rats induced a 1.85-fold increase in uterine weight by 24 h. Hydroxyflutamide at 2.5 or 5.0 mg did not significantly alter the estrogen-induced increase in uterine weight. Compared to vehicle alone, estrogen induced an approximately 5-fold increase in uterine cytosolic progesterone binding sites. Hydroxyflutamide at both 2.5- and 5.0-mg doses significantly attenuated the estrogen-induced elevation in uterine progesterone binding sites. These studies demonstrate that hydroxyflutamide does not bind with high affinity to progesterone receptors, but suppresses the estrogen-induced elevation in progesterone receptor levels in the uterus

  20. Milk progesterone profiles and the effect of the buck during the anoestrous period in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dazhi; Liu Xianyi; Chen Faju; Song Xuehua; Wang Kairong; Liu Xiangmo; Xu Gongyi

    1991-01-01

    Milk progesterone profiles in Chengdu Mah (CM), Saanen (S) and crossbred (CM x S, F1) goats were determined using radioimmunoassay throughout the period from kidding to the beginning of the next breeding season. Different patterns of progesterone profiles were recorded in these does. When milk progesterone concentrations were elevated above 6 ng/mL for at least 6 days they were regarded as signs of ovarian activity. The frequencies of such rises during anoestrus were 4.0, 1.8 and 2.5 per animal in CM, S and F1 goats respectively. The frequencies of progesterone rise were higher than that of behavioural oestrus in the does. After exposing the does to the buck three times during the anoestrus period, no significant 'male effect' was observed on the milk progesterone level or behavioural oestrus during the first six months after kidding. The male effect on behavioural oestrus became apparent only in the seventh month after kidding, while milk progesterone levels did not change markedly compared with those of the control does. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  1. Progesterone Metabolites Produced by Cytochrome P450 3A Modulate Uterine Contractility in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Avinash S.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Murtha, Amy P.; Heine, R. Phillips; Zheng, Xiaomei; Grotegut, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to characterize the effect of progesterone metabolites on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced uterine contractility. Study Design: Spontaneous contractility was studied in mouse uterine horns after treatment with progesterone, 2α-hydroxyprogesterone, 6β-hydroxyprogesterone (6β-OHP), 16α-hydroxyprogesterone (16α-OHP), or 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) at 10−9 to 10−6 mol/L. Uterine horns were exposed to progestins (10−6 mol/L), followed by increasing concentrations of oxytocin (1-100 nmol/L) to study oxytocin-induced contractility. Contraction parameters were compared for each progestin and matched vehicle control using repeated measures 2-way analysis of variance. In vitro metabolism of progesterone by recombinant cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) microsomes (3A5, 3A5, and 3A7) identified major metabolites. Results: Oxytocin-induced contractile frequency was decreased by 16α-OHP (P = .03) and increased by 6β-OHP (P = .05). Progesterone and 17-OHPC decreased oxytocin-induced contractile force (P = .02 and P = .04, respectively) and frequency (P = .02 and P = .03, respectively). Only progesterone decreased spontaneous contractile force (P = .02). Production of 16α-OHP and 6β-OHP metabolites were confirmed in all CYP3A isoforms tested. Conclusion: Progesterone metabolites produced by maternal or fetal CYP3A enzymes influence uterine contractility. PMID:26037300

  2. Inhibition of Progesterone Metabolism Mimics the Effect of Progesterone Withdrawal on Forced Swim Test Immobility

    OpenAIRE

    Beckley, Ethan H.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Withdrawal from high levels of progesterone in rodents has been proposed as a model for premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Forced swim test (FST) immobility, used to model depression, was assessed in intact female DBA/2J mice following progesterone withdrawal (PWD) or treatment with the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Following 5 daily progesterone injections (5 mg/kg IP) FST immobility increased only in mice withdrawn for 3 days (p < .05). In another experiment, 3 days of PW...

  3. A Concentrator Photovoltaic System Based on a Combination of Prism-Compound Parabolic Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a cost-effective concentrating photovoltaic system composed of a prism and a compound parabolic concentrator (P-CPC. In this approach, the primary collector consists of a prism, a solid compound parabolic concentrator (CPC, and a slab waveguide. The prism, which is placed on the input aperture of CPC, directs the incoming sunlight beam to be parallel with the main axes of parabolic rims of CPC. Then, the sunlight is reflected at the parabolic rims and concentrated at the focal point of these parabolas. A slab waveguide is coupled at the output aperture of the CPC to collect focused sunlight beams and to guide them to the solar cell. The optical system was modeled and simulated with commercial ray tracing software (LightTools™. Simulation results show that the optical efficiency of a P-CPC can achieve up to 89%. when the concentration ratio of the P-CPC is fixed at 50. We also determine an optimal geometric structure of P-CPC based on simulation. Because of the simplicity of the P-CPC structure, a lower-cost mass production process is possible. A simulation based on optimal structure of P-CPC was performed and the results also shown that P-CPC has high angular tolerance for input sunlight. The high tolerance of the input angle of sunlight allows P-CPC solar concentrator utilize a single sun tracking system instead of a highly precise dual suntracking system as cost effective solution.

  4. Characterizing marijuana concentrate users: A web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Lamy, Francois R; Barratt, Monica; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Sheth, Amit; Carlson, Robert G

    2017-09-01

    The study seeks to characterize marijuana concentrate users, describe reasons and patterns of use, perceived risk, and identify predictors of daily/near daily use. An anonymous web-based survey was conducted (April-June 2016) with 673 US-based cannabis users recruited via the Bluelight.org web-forum and included questions about marijuana concentrate use, other drugs, and socio-demographics. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify characteristics associated with greater odds of lifetime and daily use of marijuana concentrates. About 66% of respondents reported marijuana concentrate use. The sample was 76% male, and 87% white. Marijuana concentrate use was viewed as riskier than flower cannabis. Greater odds of marijuana concentrate use was associated with living in states with "recreational" (AOR=4.91; p=0.001) or "medical, less restrictive" marijuana policies (AOR=1.87; p=0.014), being male (AOR=2.21, p=0.002), younger (AOR=0.95, pmarijuana concentrate users reported daily/near daily use. Greater odds of daily concentrate use was associated with being male (AOR=9.29, p=0.033), using concentrates for therapeutic purposes (AOR=7.61, p=0.001), using vape pens for marijuana concentrate administration (AOR=4.58, p=0.007), and lower perceived risk of marijuana concentrate use (AOR=0.92, p=0.017). Marijuana concentrate use was more common among male, younger and more experienced users, and those living in states with more liberal marijuana policies. Characteristics of daily users, in particular patterns of therapeutic use and utilization of different vaporization devices, warrant further research with community-recruited samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Estradiol and Progesterone Strongly Inhibit the Innate Immune Response of Mononuclear Cells in Newborns ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Eric; Guignard, Laurence; Knaup Reymond, Marlies; Perreau, Matthieu; Roth-Kleiner, Matthias; Calandra, Thierry; Roger, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Newborns are particularly susceptible to bacterial infections due to qualitative and quantitative deficiencies of the neonatal innate immune system. However, the mechanisms underlying these deficiencies are poorly understood. Given that fetuses are exposed to high concentrations of estradiol and progesterone during gestation and at time of delivery, we analyzed the effects of these hormones on the response of neonatal innate immune cells to endotoxin, bacterial lipopeptide, and Escherichia coli and group B Streptococcus, the two most common causes of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Here we show that at concentrations present in umbilical cord blood, estradiol and progesterone are as powerful as hydrocortisone for inhibition of cytokine production by cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and newborn monocytes. Interestingly, CBMCs and newborn monocytes are more sensitive to the effects of estradiol and progesterone than adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes. This increased sensitivity is associated with higher expression levels of estrogen and membrane progesterone receptors but is independent of a downregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in newborn cells. Estradiol and progesterone mediate their anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway but not the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in CBMCs. Altogether, these results suggest that elevated umbilical cord blood concentrations of estradiol and progesterone acting on mononuclear cells expressing high levels of steroid receptors contribute to impair innate immune responses in newborns. Therefore, intrauterine exposure to estradiol and progesterone may participate in increasing susceptibility to infection during the neonatal period. PMID:21518785

  6. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Miriam; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro

    2002-01-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  7. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  8. Concentrations of steroid hormones, estrous, ovarian and reproductive responses in sheep estrous synchronized with different prostaglandin-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, S; Viñoles, C; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2016-04-01

    To determine estrous, ovarian and reproductive responses after different prostaglandin (PG)-based protocols, ewes were assigned to groups PG10, PG12, PG14 or PG16 (twoPG injections administered 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart; respectively). Experiment I (n=132) was conducted to evaluate the estrous response, ovulation rate (OR), conception and fertility. Experiment II (n=24) was conducted to evaluate ovarian follicle growth, steroid concentrations and the interval from the second PG injection to estrus (PG-estrus) and ovulation (PG-ovulation). Estrous response was less with the PG16 (P0.05). From 8 to 4 days before estrus, progesterone (P4) concentrations were greater for the PG14 and PG16 than for the PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) groups. There were more days where concentrations of P4 were above 3.18 nmol/L with the PG14 and PG16 than PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) treatments. Use of the PG14 and PG16 treatments resulted in greater estradiol (E2) at estrus and 12h later than use of the PG10 and PG12 treatments. A positive correlation was observed between the duration of the luteal phase and maximum E2 concentrations, and between duration of the luteal phase and days with E2 concentrations above 10 pmol/L. Conception and fertility were greater with use of the PG14 compared with PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) treatments. The administration of two PG injections 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart resulted in different durations of the luteal phase that were positively associated with E2 concentrations and the reproductive outcome. The shorter luteal phases were associated with greater synchrony in time of estrus. The intervals for the variables PG-estrus, PG-ovulation and OR were similar among groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous effects of endocrine disruptor bisphenol A and flavonoid fisetin on progesterone production by granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujnakova Mlynarcikova, Alzbeta; Scsukova, Sona

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine effects of different concentrations of the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA; 1 nM, 1 μM, 100 μM) and the flavonoid fisetin (1, 10, 25, 50 μM), individually and in combinations, on steroidogenic function of porcine ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) represented by progesterone production. We confirmed that BPA inhibited progesterone production by GCs at the highest concentration. Fisetin reduced gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone synthesis dose-dependently, and in this manner, fisetin impaired progesterone production when added to BPA-treated GCs. The mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of the combinations included a significant down-regulation of the key steroidogenesis-related genes (STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B). Our findings suggest for the first time that fisetin might interfere with ovarian steroidogenesis, and might not have beneficial but rather aggravating effects in terms of modulating progesterone synthesis altered by high concentrations of BPA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efeitos do estresse térmico nas concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona (P4 e estradiol 17-b (E2 e temperatura retal em cabras da raça Pardo Alpina Effects of heat stress on progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17b plasma concentrations and rectal temperature of Alpine Brown goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras lactantes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em um delineamento experimental em "crossover", em dois grupos: sob condições termoneutras e estresse térmico. Um período de adaptação de 28 dias foi seguido por quatro períodos de 14 dias cada, quando os animais sob estresse térmico foram expostos à temperatura média de 33,84ºC; THI de 86,20; BGT de 36,18 e BT de 32,11ºC das 8 às 17 horas, incluindo radiação solar simulada das 10 às 15 horas. Não houve diferença entre as concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona, mas as fêmeas submetidas ao estresse térmico apresentaram diminuição nas concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol, quando comparados ao grupo termoneutro. A temperatura retal dos animais sob estresse térmico foi mais elevada quando foi comparada à do grupo de animais em condições de termoneutralidade. As cabras mantiveram as concentrações plasmáticas da progesterona, com diminuição na secreção de estradiol, quando expostas a um estresse repetido e intermitente, a despeito de ocorrer hipertermia durante o estresse pelo calor.Six lactating goats were randomly assigned to a crossover experimental design in two groups, under thermoneutral and heat stress conditions. An adaptation period of 28 days were followed by 4-periods of 14 days each, when the animals under heat stress were exposed to an average temperature of 33.34ºC; THI of 86.20; BGT of 36.18 and BT of 32.11ºC from 8 to 17 hours, including simulated solar radiation from 10 to 15 hours. There was no difference for progesterone plasma concentrations but the animals under heat stress showed a reduction of estradiol plasma concentrations as compared to the thermoneutral group. The rectal temperature of the animals under heat stress was higher when compared to the animals under thermoneutral conditions. The goats maintained progesterone plasma concentrations with reduction of estradiol secretion when exposed to repeat stress and intermittent

  11. Progesterone promotes maternal–fetal tolerance by reducing human maternal T‐cell polyfunctionality and inducing a specific cytokine profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldershaw, Suzy A.; Inman, Charlotte F.; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Moss, Paul A. H.; Kilby, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone is a steroid hormone essential for the maintenance of human pregnancy, and its actions are thought to include promoting maternal immune tolerance of the semiallogenic fetus. We report that exposure of maternal T cells to progesterone at physiological doses induced a unique skewing of the cytokine production profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, with reductions not only in potentially deleterious IFN‐γ and TNF‐α production but also in IL‐10 and IL‐5. Conversely, production of IL‐4 was increased. Maternal T cells also became less polyfunctional, focussing cytokine production toward profiles including IL‐4. This was accompanied by reduced T‐cell proliferation. Using fetal and viral antigen‐specific CD8+ T‐cell clones, we confirmed that this as a direct, nonantigen‐specific effect. Yet human T cells lacked conventional nuclear progesterone receptors, implicating a membrane progesterone receptor. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells responded to progesterone in a dose‐dependent manner, with subtle effects at concentrations comparable to those in maternal blood, but profound effects at concentrations similar to those at the maternal–fetal interface. This characterization of how progesterone modulates T‐cell function is important in understanding the normal biology of pregnancy and informing the rational use of progesterone therapy in pregnancies at risk of fetal loss. PMID:26249148

  12. Progesterone promotes maternal-fetal tolerance by reducing human maternal T-cell polyfunctionality and inducing a specific cytokine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, David; Eldershaw, Suzy A; Inman, Charlotte F; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Moss, Paul A H; Kilby, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    Progesterone is a steroid hormone essential for the maintenance of human pregnancy, and its actions are thought to include promoting maternal immune tolerance of the semiallogenic fetus. We report that exposure of maternal T cells to progesterone at physiological doses induced a unique skewing of the cytokine production profile of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, with reductions not only in potentially deleterious IFN-γ and TNF-α production but also in IL-10 and IL-5. Conversely, production of IL-4 was increased. Maternal T cells also became less polyfunctional, focussing cytokine production toward profiles including IL-4. This was accompanied by reduced T-cell proliferation. Using fetal and viral antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell clones, we confirmed that this as a direct, nonantigen-specific effect. Yet human T cells lacked conventional nuclear progesterone receptors, implicating a membrane progesterone receptor. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells responded to progesterone in a dose-dependent manner, with subtle effects at concentrations comparable to those in maternal blood, but profound effects at concentrations similar to those at the maternal-fetal interface. This characterization of how progesterone modulates T-cell function is important in understanding the normal biology of pregnancy and informing the rational use of progesterone therapy in pregnancies at risk of fetal loss. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Metabolic level recognition of progesterone in dairy Holstein cows using probabilistic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila N. Turino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of exogenous progesterone is widely used in hormonal protocols for estrous (resynchronization of dairy cattle without regarding pharmacological issues for dose calculation. This happens because it is difficult to estimate the metabolic level of progesterone for each individual cow before administration. In the present contribution, progesterone pharmacokinetics has been determined in lactating Holstein cows with different milk production yields. A Bayesian approach has been implemented to build two probabilistic progesterone pharmacokinetic models for high and low yield dairy cows. Such models are based on a one-compartment Hill structure. Posterior probabilistic models have been structurally set up and parametric probability density functions have been empirically estimated. Moreover, a global sensitivity analysis has been done to know sensitivity profile of each model. Finally, posterior probabilistic models have adequately recognized cow’s progesterone metabolic level in a validation set when Kullback-Leibler based indices were used. These results suggest that milk yield may be a good index for estimating pharmacokinetic level of progesterone.

  14. Gonadorelin at the outset and/or end of an ovulation synchronization progesterone estradiol benzoate-based protocol in Nellore females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristian Campos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of gonadorelin (GnRH, used both at the outset of a timed artificial insemination (TAI protocol to synchronize follicular wave recruitment and at the end to synchronize ovulation, on the conception rate (CR in Nellore cows. The experiment was conducted on two beef cattle farms in the Vale do Araguaia, MT. The body condition score (BCS evaluation and ultrasound examination to determine ovarian status [follicle diameter < 10 mm, ? 10 mm or presence of corpus luteum (CL] were performed at the beginning (Day 0 of the TAI protocol. Multiparous cows (n = 494 were subjected to the following protocol: Day 0 – insertion of intravaginal progesterone device (P4 DIB®, MSD previously used for 8 or 16 days and IM administration of 2.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB, Gonadiol®, MSD; Day 8 – P4 device withdrawal, IM injection of 300 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, Folligon®, MSD, 1.0 mg of estradiol cypionate (ECP®, Zoetis and 0.265 mg of Sodium cloprostenol (PGF2?, Ciosin®, MSD; Day 10 – TAI, performed by a single inseminator. Animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control (n = 126, GnRH D0 (n = 123, GnRH D10 (n = 123 and GnRH D0 + D10 (n = 122. Animals treated with GnRH received 50 mcg of gonadorelin (GnRH, Cystorelin®, Merial. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 39 ± 10 days after TAI. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS program (P < 0.05. The overall CR was 42.71%. Effect of treatment was not detected (P = 0.2482 on CR, which was 36.89% ± 0.19 (47/126 for the control group, 46.08% ± 0.19 (56/123 for GnRH D0, 48.30% ± 0.18 (61/123 for GnRH D10 and 38.48% ± 0.19 (47/122 for GnRH D0 + D10. An effect of farm was detected; the CR was 47.32% ± 0.13 at Farm A and was 38.24% ± 0.13 at Farm B (P = 0.0249. No effects of the interaction between farm and treatment were observed (P = 0.7662, nor of those among ovarian condition and treatment (P = 0.1225 on CR. Cows with

  15. Population PK modelling and simulation based on fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentrations in milk: a milk concentration-based prediction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoshima, Reo; Bournissen, Facundo Garcia; Tanigawara, Yusuke; Kristensen, Judith H; Taddio, Anna; Ilett, Kenneth F; Begg, Evan J; Wallach, Izhar; Ito, Shinya

    2014-10-01

    Population pharmacokinetic (pop PK) modelling can be used for PK assessment of drugs in breast milk. However, complex mechanistic modelling of a parent and an active metabolite using both blood and milk samples is challenging. We aimed to develop a simple predictive pop PK model for milk concentration-time profiles of a parent and a metabolite, using data on fluoxetine (FX) and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine (NFX), in milk. Using a previously published data set of drug concentrations in milk from 25 women treated with FX, a pop PK model predictive of milk concentration-time profiles of FX and NFX was developed. Simulation was performed with the model to generate FX and NFX concentration-time profiles in milk of 1000 mothers. This milk concentration-based pop PK model was compared with the previously validated plasma/milk concentration-based pop PK model of FX. Milk FX and NFX concentration-time profiles were described reasonably well by a one compartment model with a FX-to-NFX conversion coefficient. Median values of the simulated relative infant dose on a weight basis (sRID: weight-adjusted daily doses of FX and NFX through breastmilk to the infant, expressed as a fraction of therapeutic FX daily dose per body weight) were 0.028 for FX and 0.029 for NFX. The FX sRID estimates were consistent with those of the plasma/milk-based pop PK model. A predictive pop PK model based on only milk concentrations can be developed for simultaneous estimation of milk concentration-time profiles of a parent (FX) and an active metabolite (NFX). © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Evaluation of Progesterone Utilization and Birth Outcomes in a State Medicaid Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydery, Tasmina; Price, Mylissa K; Greenwood, Bonnie C; Takeshita, Mito; Kunte, Parag S; Mauro, Rose P; Lenz, Kimberly; Jeffrey, Paul L

    2017-10-01

    Progesterone (hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection and vaginal progesterone) has been shown to reduce preterm birth (PTB) rates by a third among pregnant women at high risk. The purpose of this analysis is to report birth outcomes and medication adherence among Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth) members receiving progesterone, evaluate the association between member characteristics and birth outcomes and medication adherence, and compare cost of care with a prior preterm pregnancy. This retrospective cohort study used medical claims, pharmacy claims, and prior authorization (PA) request data for MassHealth members who had a PA submitted for progesterone between January 1, 2011, and March 31, 2015. Members were excluded due to breaks in coverage, progesterone was not indicated for prevention of PTB, and if current gestational week or date of delivery was unavailable. A total of 418 members were screened for inclusion of whom 190 met criteria and 169 filled progesterone. Mean age was 29.2 years (SD = 5.23), and clinical comorbidities were identified in 90.5% of members. Consistent with clinical trials on progesterone effectiveness, 62.1% of members had a term delivery (37 wks of gestation). Among members with prior gestational age at delivery available, the average difference in gestational age between pregnancies was 8.25 weeks (SD = 6.11). In addition, 66.3% of members were adherent to progesterone based on proportion of days covered (PDC) of 0.8 or higher. The overall mean PDC was 0.79 (SD = 0.26). Despite similar birth outcomes in clinical trials and national trends, medication adherence is low in this state Medicaid program. Therefore, members may benefit from adherence support. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  17. A Gata2-Dependent Transcription Network Regulates Uterine Progesterone Responsiveness and Endometrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory A. Rubel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Altered progesterone responsiveness leads to female infertility and cancer, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Mice with uterine-specific ablation of GATA binding protein 2 (Gata2 are infertile, showing failures in embryo implantation, endometrial decidualization, and uninhibited estrogen signaling. Gata2 deficiency results in reduced progesterone receptor (PGR expression and attenuated progesterone signaling, as evidenced by genome-wide expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation. GATA2 not only occupies at and promotes expression of the Pgr gene but also regulates downstream progesterone responsive genes in conjunction with the PGR. Additionally, Gata2 knockout uteri exhibit abnormal luminal epithelia with ectopic TRP63 expressing squamous cells and a cancer-related molecular profile in a progesterone-independent manner. Lastly, we found a conserved GATA2-PGR regulatory network in both human and mice based on gene signature and path analyses using gene expression profiles of human endometrial tissues. In conclusion, uterine Gata2 regulates a key regulatory network of gene expression for progesterone signaling at the early pregnancy stage.

  18. Liquid phase radioimmunoassay system for determination of progesterone in human serum using different radiolabeled tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehany, N.L.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Sallam, Kh.M.; EI-Hashash, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The preparation and development of primary reagents of progesterone radioimmunoassay (R1A) technique with low cost is considered to be the main objective of the present study . The preparation of 125 l-progesterone radiotracers was carried out using chloramine-T, iodogen and lactoperoxidase oxidation methods and they were purified using high perfomance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Tyramine hydrochloride was conjugated with activated progesterone 11α-hemisuccinate and then iodinated using Na 125 I.The tracers obtained were investigated in terms of radiochemical purity, radiochemical yield and immunoreactivity. The production of polyclonal antibodies was undertaken by immunizing six New-Zealand rabbits subcutaneously through primary injection and four booster doses.The preparation of progesterone standards were carried out by preparing stock standard solution of progesterone in ethanol. After evaporation of ethanol, the steroid assay buffer was used as a standard matrix to prepare the working standards required. Optimization and validation of the assay were carried out. The results obtained provide a highly sensitive, specific and accurate RIA system of progesterone based on liquid phase separation. In conclusion, this assay could be used in evaluating corpus luteum insufficiency among women in child bearing period

  19. Riparian zone controls on base cation concentrations in boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, J. L. J.; Grabs, T.; Futter, M. N.; Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.; Köhler, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Forest riparian zones are a major in control of surface water quality. Base cation (BC) concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the riparian zone merit attention because of increasing concern of negative consequences for re-acidification of surface waters from future climate and forest harvesting scenarios. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si) flow-weighted concentrations from 13 riparian zones and 14 streams in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM) was used to estimate riparian zone flow-weighted concentrations and tested to predict the stream flow-weighted concentrations. Spatial variation in BC and Si concentrations as well as in flow-weighted concentrations was related to differences in Quaternary deposits, with the largest contribution from lower lying silty sediments and the lowest contribution from wetland areas higher up in the catchment. Temporal stability in the concentrations of most elements, a remarkably stable Mg / Ca ratio in the soil water and a homogeneous mineralogy suggest that the stable patterns found in the riparian zones are a result of distinct mineralogical upslope groundwater signals integrating the chemical signals of biological and chemical weathering. Stream water Mg / Ca ratio indicates that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. RIM gave good predictions of Ca, Mg, and Na flow-weighted concentrations in headwater streams. The difficulty in modelling K and Si suggests a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements. The observed chemical dilution effect with flow in the streams was related to variation in groundwater levels and element concentration profiles in the riparian zones. This study provides a first step toward specific investigations of the vulnerability of riparian zones to changes induced by forest management or climate change, with focus on BC or other compounds.

  20. Progesterone amplifies oxidative stress signal and promotes NO production via H2O2 in mouse kidney arterial endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao-Hua; Fan, Yang-Yang; Yang, Chun-Rong; Gao, Xiao-Rui; Zhang, Li-Li; Hu, Ying; Wang, Ya-Qin; Jun, Hu

    2016-01-01

    The role of progesterone on the cardiovascular system is controversial. Our present research is to specify the effect of progesterone on arterial endothelial cells in response to oxidative stress. Our result showed that H2O2 (150 μM and 300 μM) induced cellular antioxidant response. Glutathione (GSH) production and the activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased in H2O2-treated group. The expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) was induced in response to H2O2. However, progesterone absolutely abolished the antioxidant response through increasing ROS level, inhibiting the activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), decreasing GSH level and reducing expression of GClC and GCLM. In our study, H2O2 induced nitrogen monoxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, and progesterone promoted H2O2-induced NO production. Progesterone increased H2O2-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIFα) which in turn regulated eNOS expression and NO synthesis. Further study demonstrated that progesterone increased H2O2 concentration of culture medium which may contribute to NO synthesis. Exogenous GSH decreased the content of H2O2 of culture medium pretreated by progesterone combined with H2O2 or progesterone alone. GSH also inhibited expression of HIFα and eNOS, and abolished NO synthesis. Collectively, our study demonstrated for the first time that progesterone inhibited cellular antioxidant effect and increased oxidative stress, promoted NO production of arterial endothelial cells, which may be due to the increasing H2O2 concentration and amplified oxidative stress signal. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Inhibition effects of perfluoroalkyl acids on progesterone production in mLTC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Cui, Ruina; Wang, Jianshe; Dai, Jiayin

    2017-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of fluorine substituted carboxylic acid, sulfonic acid and alcohol, structurally similar to their corresponding parent compounds. Previous study demonstrated the potential endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid, two dominant PFASs in animals and humans. We explored the relationship between eleven perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) with different carbon chain length and their ability to inhibit progesterone production in mouse Leydig tumor cells (mLTC-1). We found an obvious dose-response relationship between progesterone inhibition rate and PFAA exposure concentration in mLTC-1. The relative inhibition rate of progesterone by PFAAs was linearly related to the carbon chain length and molar refractivity of PFAAs. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decreased after PFAA exposure at the half-maximal inhibitory effect concentration (IC 50 ) of progesterone production in mLTC-1, while the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content increased significantly. These results imply that the inhibition effect of PFAAs on progesterone production might be due, in part, to ROS damage and the decrease in MMP in mLTC-1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Progesterone modulates the LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone-receptor independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Schander, Julieta Aylen; Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Franchi, Ana María

    2015-12-15

    Genital tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria induce miscarriage and are one of the most common complications of human pregnancy. LPS administration to 7-day pregnant mice induces embryo resorption after 24h, with nitric oxide playing a fundamental role in this process. We have previously shown that progesterone exerts protective effects on the embryo by modulating the inflammatory reaction triggered by LPS. Here we sought to investigate whether the in vivo administration of progesterone modulated the LPS-induced nitric oxide production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pregnant and non-pregnant mice. We found that progesterone downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone receptor-independent mechanism. Moreover, our results suggest a possible participation of glucocorticoid receptors in at least some of the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High dose progesterone effects the growth of early chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.; Qamar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effect of high dose progesterone on the development of early chick embryo. Study Design: Lab based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of study: This study was carried out in Army Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Poultry Sciences, Rawalpindi from June 2010 - December 2010. Material and Methods: Forty five specific pathogen free, fertile, eggs of Fyoumi species of chick were selected at zero hour of incubation. They were incubated at 37.5oC and 75% relative humidity for 26 hrs until the embryos reached stage 8 of the development. Then on stage 8 the eggs were divided into three groups consisting of 15 eggs per group. The first group (GI) was incubated without any operation. The second (G2) and third groups (G3) were injected with two and twenty times more than physiologic does of progesterone respectively. After 48 hours of incvbation, all embryos were examined for their development under light microscopy. Results: All the embryos of G1 and G2 showed normal development according to their stage of development, while 4 out of 11 embryos of G3 were under developed and their survival rate was also less. Conclusion: Exogenous progesterone at levels twenty times above its physiologic range effects the development of chick embryos. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of this effect. (author)

  4. Sustained-release progesterone nanosuspension following intramuscular injection in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba F Salem

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Heba F SalemFaculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, EgyptAbstract: The production of an intramuscular (IM injection of natural progesterone would provide a safer solution than using semi synthetic progesterone. However, disadvantages such as low solubility and a short half life prevent the use of natural progesterone. In this study, we formulated a sustained release form of natural progesterone to be given as IM injection. A progesterone nanosuspension (PNS was first developed and then dispersed in a thermosensitive gel matrix. The selected nanoparticles showed an average particle size of 267 nm and a zeta potential approaching-41 mV. The in vitro release profile of PNS from the F127 plus methyl cellulose gel followed zero order kinetics and correlated linearly with the weight percentage of gel dissolved, demonstrating that the overall rate of release of PNS is controlled by dissolution of the pluronic F127/methyl cellulose (MC gel (r2 > 0.99. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the PNS (6 mg/mL in pluronic F127/MC gel were evaluated in comparison with the control progesterone suspension. After the administration of PNS in F127/MC gel into the rats, a maximum serum concentration of 22.1 ± 1.9 ng/mL was reached at a Tmax of 4.05 ± 0.1 h. The terminal half life was 12.7 ± 0.8 h. The area under the curve AUC0-∞ of the injected formula was 452.75 ± 42.8 ng•h/mL and the total mean residence time was 18.57 ± 1.44 h. The PNS in gel was significantly different from the control in rate and extent at P < 0.001. The natural progesterone which was nanosized and formulated in a thermosensitive gel significantly sustained the action of natural progesterone so that it could be injected every 36 h instead of every day. Moreover, this formula is expected to provide a much safer choice than the use of semi-synthetic progesterone.Keywords: progesterone, nanosuspension, thermosensitive gel, ovariectomized female rats

  5. Use of radioimmunoassay for quantitative determination of progesterone in milk samples from dairy cows in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymark, P.J.; McCabe, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    A maximum 90-day service interval is an important economic factor in dairying. The determination of pregnancy at 21 to 26 days post-insemination can ensure that particular attention is paid to non-pregnant cows at subsequent heats, and thus help reduce this interval. In Zimbabwe a radioimmunoassay for milk progesterone using an iodinated tracer was developed in 1982 from a previously established assay for plasma progesterone. Progesterone antiserum is produced locally and the assay is used as an early pregnancy diagnosis test in dairy cattle. During 1983 two pilot schemes were instituted to investigate breed differences, logistics, and feasibility under the local conditions, and to identify constraints. Milk samples taken 24 days post-insemination were found to differentiate best between pregnant and non-pregnant cows for both major breeds in the country (Friesian/Holstein and Jersey). Pregnant cows had an average of 13.76 ng/mL (+-1.06) progesterone on day 24 while non-pregnant cows averaged 0.34 ng/mL (+-0.13) of progesterone. Apparently 12.2% of cows subsequently lost their embryos after day 24, and these cows averaged 9.98 ng/mL (+-1.52). Milk samples were also taken on the day of insemination; the results showed that 11% of cows were incorrectly inseminated when progesterone concentrations were high (2.59 ng/mL+-0.80). A National Early Pregnancy Diagnosis Scheme using milk progesterone was implemented in December 1984 and results to date are discussed in the paper. (author)

  6. Alumina Concentration Detection Based on the Kernel Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen; Zhang, Tao; Yin, Yixin; Xiao, Wendong

    2017-09-01

    The concentration of alumina in the electrolyte is of great significance during the production of aluminum. The amount of the alumina concentration may lead to unbalanced material distribution and low production efficiency and affect the stability of the aluminum reduction cell and current efficiency. The existing methods cannot meet the needs for online measurement because industrial aluminum electrolysis has the characteristics of high temperature, strong magnetic field, coupled parameters, and high nonlinearity. Currently, there are no sensors or equipment that can detect the alumina concentration on line. Most companies acquire the alumina concentration from the electrolyte samples which are analyzed through an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. To solve the problem, the paper proposes a soft sensing model based on a kernel extreme learning machine algorithm that takes the kernel function into the extreme learning machine. K-fold cross validation is used to estimate the generalization error. The proposed soft sensing algorithm can detect alumina concentration by the electrical signals such as voltages and currents of the anode rods. The predicted results show that the proposed approach can give more accurate estimations of alumina concentration with faster learning speed compared with the other methods such as the basic ELM, BP, and SVM.

  7. YOGYAKARTA AIR BORNE QUALITY BASED ON THE LEAD PARTICULATE CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Abidin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Yogyakarta air quality based on concentration of lead particulate using Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA method has been done. The sample was taken 3 times in 16 strategic locations of Yogyakarta city using Hi-Vol air sampler that equipped with cellulose filter TFA 2133. The sample irradiated for 30 min with 14 MeV fast neutron and then counted using gamma spectroscopy (AccuSpec. The result indicated that concentration of Pb-208 along Diponegoro street up to Janti street respectively are minimally (0.689 - 0.775 mg/m3, and maximally:  (1.598 - 1.785 mg/m3. According to DIY governor decree No. 153/2002 about the limited toxicity ambient on Yogyakarta area it is concentration that Pb. The concentration of Pb-208 are still below the permitted value of 2 mg/m3, but in certain areas, the Pb concentration is almost equal to upper limit of permitted concentration of Pb.   Keywords: air borne, neutron generator, FNAA

  8. [Assessment of progesterone levels on the day of the hCG administration as a predictor of success of antagonist stimulation protocols for IVF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably-Ambe, Alberta; Roque-Sánchez, Armando Miguel; Soriano-Ortega, Karla Patricia; Carballo-Mondragón, Esperanza; Durán-Monterrosas, Leonor

    2015-03-01

    There are reports of deleterious effect when progesterone concentration is high during the follicular phase in cycles of in vitro fertilization. In our environment has not carried out a study to evaluate the pregnancy rate compared with progesterone concentration on the day of application of hCG. To evaluate the pregnancy rate and outcome of in vitro fertilization cycle according to serum progesterone concentration on the day of application of hCG. A retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study of 486 cycles of in vitro fertilization was done in the Centro Mexicano de Fertilidad of CEPAM (Hospital Angeles de las Lomas) from January 2009 to February 2014. We included all cases where it was used a stimulation protocol GnRH antagonist flexible scheme. When levels of progesterone are high, those of estradiol are also high and the number of retrieved oocytes and oocyte quality are lower. There was no difference in the percentage of fertilization, but at higher concentration of progesterone lower percentage of embryonic segmentation. Difference was recorded in the pregnancy rate only when progesterone concentration on the day of hCG application was > 4 ng/mL. Pregnancy rate decreases when the concentration of progesterone on the day of hCG application is ≥ 4 ng/mL.

  9. Radioimmunological studies on the level of progesterone in the peripheral blood of pregnant rabbits with special respect to season and number of living newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enbergs, H.

    1979-01-01

    The progesterone concentrations in the peripheral blood have been measured radioimmunologically in 12 white Newzealand rabbits 10 times during pregnancy. The results were examined especially in respect to season and number of living newborn. The progesterone concentrations reached their peak values at the 7th (7.0 ng/ml) resp. 11th day (7.4 ng/ml). The progesterone niveau was in October only a little lower than in May. The progesterone levels of 5 rabbits with diameter 10 newborn were nearly identical with those of 5 rabbits with only diameter 6.2 newborn. This shows, that the progesterone niveau does not depend mainly on the number of the newborn in the observed range. (orig.) [de

  10. 4-Aminopyridine Decreases Progesterone Production by Porcine Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Brianna M

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ion channels occur as large families of related genes with cell-specific expression patterns. Granulosa cells have been shown to express voltage-gated potassium channels from more than one family. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, an antagonist of KCNA but not KCNQ channels. Methods Granulosa cells were isolated from pig follicles and cultured with 4-AP, alone or in combination with FSH, 8-CPT-cAMP, estradiol 17β, and DIDS. Complimentary experiments determined the effects of 4-AP on the spontaneously established pig granulosa cell line PGC-2. Granulosa cell or PGC-2 function was assessed by radio-immunoassay of media progesterone accumulation. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Drug-induced changes in cell membrane potential and intracellular potassium concentration were documented by spectrophotometric determination of DiBAC4(3 and PBFI fluorescence, respectively. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR was assessed by immunoblotting. Flow cytometry was also used to examine granulosa cell viability and size. Results 4-AP (2 mM decreased progesterone accumulation in the media of serum-supplemented and serum-free granulosa cultures, but inhibited cell proliferation only under serum-free conditions. 4-AP decreased the expression of StAR, the production of cAMP and the synthesis of estradiol by PGC-2. Addition of either 8-CPT-cAMP or estradiol 17β to serum-supplemented primary cultures reduced the inhibitory effects of 4-AP. 4-AP treatment was also associated with increased cell size, increased intracellular potassium concentration, and hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential. The drug-induced hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential was prevented either by decreasing extracellular chloride or by adding DIDS to the media. DIDS also prevented 4-AP inhibition of progesterone production

  11. Radioimmunological progesteron determination in peripheral bovine blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ender, M.

    1974-01-01

    A radioimmunological method of determination of the progesterone level in peripheral bovine blood is described which enables a monitoring of the corpus luteum function under varying conditions. There is no dependence of the corpus luteum function on the pituitary gland after endogenous prolactin inhibition with a synthetic prolactin inhibitor in the oestrus cycle and in the end-phase of gravidity. In hysterectomized animals, however, the inhibition of endogenous LH leads to luteolysis. The release of endogenous LH, induced by the administration of an LH release hormone, causes a short increase in progesterone production in the middle phase of the cycle only. The administration of exogenous glucocorticoids during the oestrus cycle did not influence the corpus luteum function. The method described is used in a field test to determine the right time for artificial insemination. There is a significant difference between the progesterone values of impregnated and non-pregnant animals at 16-18 days after insemination. (BSC/AK) [de

  12. A prospective randomized multicentre study comparing vaginal progesterone gel and vaginal micronized progesterone tablets for luteal support after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Christina; Lindenberg, Svend; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2012-01-01

    fertility centres in Denmark and Sweden between March 2006 and January 2010. A web-based randomization program was used with concealed allocation of patients. Patients were randomized to one of two groups: vaginal progesterone gel or vaginal micronized progesterone tablets. There was no blinding of patients....... PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 2057 women ≤ 40 years of age were included and down-regulated, using the long agonist protocol and rFSH for stimulation. Luteal support was given for 19 days after embryo transfer or until a negative pregnancy test Day 14 after embryo transfer. Patient convenience...... (pregnancy) is robust, blinding would have been unlikely to affect the results. Unfortunately, owing to an error in the randomization, the intended age distribution allocated older women to the micronized progesterone tablet group. In the analysis of results, adjustments were made for age and number...

  13. Neuroprotection by Progesterone Through Simulation of Mitochondrial Gene Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiskum, Gary

    2002-01-01

    .... The most important experimental results were as follows: I Determined that low, physiological levels of plasma progesterone inhibited seizures produced by kainic acid while high levels of progesterone had no effect. 2...

  14. Effects of estradiol and progesterone on the variability of the micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, Ans; Vandersickel, Veerle; Thierens, Hubert; Ridder, Leo De; Vral, Anne

    2005-01-01

    To investigate chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes the micronucleus (MN) assay has been used for many years. The results of these studies suggest the use of the MN assay as a biomarker for cancer predisposition. However, the MN assay has still some limitations associated with the reproducibility and sensitivity. Especially a high intra-individual variability has been observed. An explanation for this high intra-individual variability is not yet available. In literature it is suggested that the high variability among females is attributable to hormonal status. In this study we investigated if the high intra-individual variability in micronucleus formation in lymphocytes of females after in vitro exposure to ionising radiation is caused by variations in hormone levels of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PROG). For this, the MN assay was performed on blood samples of 18 healthy women during 7 consecutive weeks while the estradiol and progesterone levels were determined at the same time. The MN assay was also examined in cultures of isolated blood lymphocytes with estradiol or progesterone levels added in vitro. The results demonstrated that estradiol and progesterone levels have no influence on the variations in radiation-induced MN yields observed in blood samples of healthy women. These conclusions were confirmed by the 'in vitro' experiments as no correlation between the MN yields and the concentrations of hormones (estradiol or progesterone) added in vitro to isolated lymphocytes cultures was observed

  15. Serum progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay during the oestrous cycle of indigenous Damascus does

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2000-11-01

    An experiment was conducted on Damascus does to characterize the oestrous cycle, the activity of the corpus luteum and to determine normal progesterone profiles during different phases of the oestrous cycle using radioimmunoassay. Fifteen indigenous cycling Damascus does were used during the normal breeding season for two consecutive oestrous cycles. Average length of the oestrous cycles was 21.2 ± 1.5 days (range: 19 - 26 days), divided into: 2.9 ± 0.8 days (2 - 5 days), where progesterone level was low averaging 0.69 ± 0.85 nmol l -1 (range: 0.00 - 3.08 nmol l -1 , followed by a sharp increase in progesterone secretion, i.e. presence of active corpora lutea, lasted on average for 15.3 ± 1.4 days (range: 13 - 20 days), with an average progesterone level of 13.4 nmol l -1 (range: 3.26 - 27.98 nmol l -1 ), followed by a sharp decline in progesterone level, i.e. inactive corpora lutea, lasted on average for 3.1 ± 0.6 days (range: 2 - 5 days), with an average progesterone level of 0.68 nmol l -1 (range: 0.00 - 2.81 nmol l -1 ). Maximum progesterone level during the luteal phase averaged 18.67 ± 3.15 nmol l -1 (range: 14.00 - 27.98 nmol l -1 ), occurred on average on 12.2 ± 3.2 days of the oestrous cycle. It was possible, for the first time, to characterize the oestrous cycle of the Damascus doe, and to determine normal progesterone profiles during different phases of oestrous cycle. Based on the results reported above, it is also concluded that progesterone levels under 3.18 nmol l -1 were found on average during 2.9 days at the start of the oestrous cycle and during 3.1 days at the end of the oestrous cycle (follicular phase), and that progesterone levels above 3.18 nmol l -1 were found during the luteal phase lasting on average 15.3 days. (Author)

  16. Determination of estradiol, estrone and progesterone in serum and human endometrium in correlation to the content of steroid receptors and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity during menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M.; Eiletz, J.; Pachaly, J.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been carried out to compare the influence of estradiol estrone and progesterone on the estradiol and progesterone receptor levels and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity in human endometrium. The steroid hormone concentrations were measured simultaneously in both serum and endometrial tissue. The estradiol receptor levels were highest during the early proliferative phase and were inversely correlated to the endometrial tissue and serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone. The highest progesterone binding capacity was found in endometrical cytosol during the late proliferative phase (midcycle) of the menstrual cycle. The midcycle peak of the progesterone receptor level correlated well with the first peak of the serum and tissue concentrations of estradiol. During,the luteal phase, in contrast to the proliferative phase, the progesterone receptor level decreased whereas serum progesterone concentrations were high. Estrone concentrations were higher in secretory than proliferative endometrium and were correlated to the increase of progesterone receptor content and 17β-HSD activity during early secretory phase. The 17β-HSD activity was approximately 10-fold higher during the early secretory than during the proliferative phase. The progesterone receptor level was highly correlated to the specific 17β-HSD activity of the microsomal fraction whereas a significant inverse correlation between the enzyme activity and the estradiol receptor level was observed. (orig.) [de

  17. Combining Cattle Activity and Progesterone Measurements Using Hidden Semi-Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Jared Michael; Tøgersen, Frede Aakmann; Friggens, Nic

    2011-01-01

    , the ability to identify oestrus is investigated as this is of great importance to farm management. Progesterone concentration is a more accurate but more expensive method than pedometer counts, and we evaluate the added benefits of a model that includes this variable. The resulting model is biologically...

  18. Effect of exogenous progesterone on oestrus response of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four (24) healthy, parous West African dwarf (WAD) does aged 2 – 3 years were used to study the effects of varying doses of progesterone on oestrus synchronization and plasma progesterone levels. The does were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups consisting of 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 mg progesterone ...

  19. Nanostructured progesterone immunosensor using a tyrosinase-colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon biosensor as amperometric transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carralero, Veronica [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: yseo@quim.ucm.es; Pingarron, Jose M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-16

    A novel progesterone immunosensor using a colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon-tyrosinase composite biosensor as amperometric transducer is reported. A sequential competitive configuration between the analyte and progesterone labelled with alkaline phosphatase (AP) was used. Phenyl phosphate was employed as the AP-substrate and the enzyme reaction product, phenol, was oxidized by tyrosinase to o-quinone, which is subsequently reduced at -0.1 V at the biocomposite electrode. Variables such as the concentration of phenyl phosphate, the amount of antibody attached to the electrode surface, immersion time in a 2% BSA solution, working pH and incubation times in progesterone and AP conjugate were optimized. A linear calibration graph for progesterone was obtained between 0 and 40 ng mL{sup -1} with a slope value of -82.3 nA ng{sup -1} mL, and a detection limit of 0.43 ng mL{sup -1}. The time needed to reach the steady-state current from the addition of phenyl phosphate was 30-40 s. These analytical characteristics improve substantially those reported for other progesterone immunosensors. A lifetime of 14 days with no need to apply any regeneration procedure was also achieved. The usefulness of the immunosensor was evaluated by determining progesterone in milk samples spiked with the analyte at 5.0 and 1.5 ng mL{sup -1} concentration levels. Following a very simple procedure, involving only sample dilution, mean recoveries (n = 7) of 98 {+-} 3% and 99 {+-} 3%, respectively, were obtained.

  20. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Organotin compounds cause structure-dependent induction of progesterone in human choriocarcinoma Jar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromori, Youhei; Yui, Hiroki; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Nagase, Hisamitsu; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals because they cause masculinization in female mollusks. In addition, previous studies have suggested that the endocrine disruption by organotin compounds leads to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and retinoid X receptor (RXR). However, whether organotin compounds cause crucial toxicities in human development and reproduction is unclear. We here investigated the structure-dependent effect of 12 tin compounds on mRNA transcription of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (3β-HSD I) and progesterone production in human choriocarcinoma Jar cells. TBT, TPT, dibutyltin, monophenyltin, tripropyltin, and tricyclohexyltin enhanced progesterone production in a dose-dependent fashion. Although tetraalkyltin compounds such as tetrabutyltin increased progesterone production, the concentrations necessary for activation were 30-100 times greater than those for trialkyltins. All tested active organotins increased 3β-HSD I mRNA transcription. We further investigated the correlation between the agonistic activity of organotin compounds on PPARγ and their ability to promote progesterone production. Except for DBTCl2, the active organotins significantly induced the transactivation function of PPARγ. In addition, PPARγ knockdown significantly suppressed the induction of mRNA transcription of 3β-HSD I by all active organotins except DBTCl2. These results suggest that some organotin compounds promote progesterone biosynthesis in vitro by inducing 3β-HSD I mRNA transcription via the PPARγ signaling pathway. The placenta represents a potential target organ for these compounds, whose endocrine-disrupting effects might cause local changes in progesterone concentration in pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanostructured progesterone immunosensor using a tyrosinase-colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon biosensor as amperometric transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carralero, Veronica; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Pingarron, Jose M.

    2007-01-01

    A novel progesterone immunosensor using a colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon-tyrosinase composite biosensor as amperometric transducer is reported. A sequential competitive configuration between the analyte and progesterone labelled with alkaline phosphatase (AP) was used. Phenyl phosphate was employed as the AP-substrate and the enzyme reaction product, phenol, was oxidized by tyrosinase to o-quinone, which is subsequently reduced at -0.1 V at the biocomposite electrode. Variables such as the concentration of phenyl phosphate, the amount of antibody attached to the electrode surface, immersion time in a 2% BSA solution, working pH and incubation times in progesterone and AP conjugate were optimized. A linear calibration graph for progesterone was obtained between 0 and 40 ng mL -1 with a slope value of -82.3 nA ng -1 mL, and a detection limit of 0.43 ng mL -1 . The time needed to reach the steady-state current from the addition of phenyl phosphate was 30-40 s. These analytical characteristics improve substantially those reported for other progesterone immunosensors. A lifetime of 14 days with no need to apply any regeneration procedure was also achieved. The usefulness of the immunosensor was evaluated by determining progesterone in milk samples spiked with the analyte at 5.0 and 1.5 ng mL -1 concentration levels. Following a very simple procedure, involving only sample dilution, mean recoveries (n = 7) of 98 ± 3% and 99 ± 3%, respectively, were obtained

  3. Relationship between time post-ovulation and progesterone on oocyte maturation and pregnancy in canine cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joung Joo; Park, Kang Bae; Choi, Eun Ji; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2017-10-01

    Canine oocytes ovulated at prophase complete meiosis and continue to develop in presence of a high progesterone concentration in the oviduct. Considering that meiotic competence of canine oocyte is accomplished in the oviductal environment, we postulate that hormonal milieu resulting from the circulating progesterone concentration may affect oocyte maturation and early development of embryos. From 237 oocyte donors, 2620 oocytes were collected and their meiotic status and morphology were determined. To determine optimal characteristics of the mature oocytes subjected to nuclear transfer, a proportion of the meiotic status of the oocytes were classified in reference to time post-ovulation as well as progesterone (P4) level. A high proportion of matured oocytes were collected from >126h (55.5%) post-ovulation or 40-50ngmL -1 (46.4%) group compared to the other groups. Of the oocyte donors that provided mature oocytes in vivo, there was no correlation between serum progesterone of donors and time post ovulation, however, time post-ovulation were significantly shorter for cloned embryos were reconstructed and transferred into 77 surrogates. In order to determine the relationship between pregnancy performance and serum progesterone level, embryos were transferred into surrogates showing various P4 serum levels. The highest pregnancy (31.8%) and live birth cloning efficacy (2.2%) rates were observed when the embryos were transferred into surrogates with circulating P4 levels were from 40 to 50ngmL -1 . In conclusion, measurement of circulating progesterone of female dog could be a suitable an indicator of the optimal time to collect quality oocyte and to select surrogates for cloning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustained-release progesterone nanosuspension following intramuscular injection in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Heba F

    2010-11-10

    The production of an intramuscular (IM) injection of natural progesterone would provide a safer solution than using semi synthetic progesterone. However, disadvantages such as low solubility and a short half life prevent the use of natural progesterone. In this study, we formulated a sustained release form of natural progesterone to be given as IM injection. A progesterone nanosuspension (PNS) was first developed and then dispersed in a thermosensitive gel matrix. The selected nanoparticles showed an average particle size of 267 nm and a zeta potential approaching-41 mV. The in vitro release profile of PNS from the F127 plus methyl cellulose gel followed zero order kinetics and correlated linearly with the weight percentage of gel dissolved, demonstrating that the overall rate of release of PNS is controlled by dissolution of the pluronic F127/methyl cellulose (MC) gel (r² > 0.99). The pharmacokinetic parameters of the PNS (6 mg/mL) in pluronic F127/MC gel were evaluated in comparison with the control progesterone suspension. After the administration of PNS in F127/MC gel into the rats, a maximum serum concentration of 22.1 ± 1.9 ng/mL was reached at a T(max) of 4.05 ± 0.1 h. The terminal half life was 12.7 ± 0.8 h. The area under the curve AUC₀₋∞ of the injected formula was 452.75 ± 42.8 ng·h/mL and the total mean residence time was 18.57 ± 1.44 h. The PNS in gel was significantly different from the control in rate and extent at P < 0.001. The natural progesterone which was nanosized and formulated in a thermosensitive gel significantly sustained the action of natural progesterone so that it could be injected every 36 h instead of every day. Moreover, this formula is expected to provide a much safer choice than the use of semi-synthetic progesterone.

  5. Mathematical characterization of the milk progesterone profile as a leg up to individualized monitoring of reproduction status in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Ines; Huybrechts, Tjebbe; Geerinckx, Katleen; Daems, Devin; Lammertyn, Jeroen; De Ketelaere, Bart; Saeys, Wouter; Aernouts, Ben

    2017-11-01

    Reproductive performance is an important factor affecting the profitability of dairy farms. Optimal fertility results are often confined by the time-consuming nature of classical heat detection, the fact that high-producing dairy cows show estrous symptoms shorter and less clearly, and the occurrence of ovarian problems. Today's commercially available solutions for automatic estrus detection include monitoring of activity, temperature and progesterone. The latter has the advantage that, besides estrus, it also allows to detect pregnancy and ovarian problems. Due to the large variation in progesterone profiles, even between cycles within the same cow, the use of general thresholds is suboptimal. To this end, an intelligent and individual interpretation of the progesterone measurements is required. Therefore, an alternative solution is proposed, which takes individual and complete cycle progesterone profiles into account for reproduction monitoring. In this way, profile characteristics can be translated into specific attentions for the farmers, based on individual rather than general guidelines. To enable the use of the profile and cycle characteristics, an appropriate model to describe the milk progesterone profile was developed. The proposed model describes the basal adrenal progesterone production and the growing and regressing cyclic corpus luteum. To identify the most appropriate way to describe the increasing and decreasing part of each cycle, three mathematical candidate functions were evaluated on the increasing and decreasing parts of the progesterone cycle separately: the Hill function, the logistic growth curve and the Gompertz growth curve. These functions differ in the way they describe the sigmoidal shape of each profile. The increasing and decreasing parts of the P4 cycles were described best by the model based on respectively the Hill and Gompertz function. Combining these two functions, a full mathematical model to characterize the progesterone cycle

  6. Ammonia concentration modeling based on retained gas sampler data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrones, G.; Palmer, B.J.; Cuta, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    The vertical ammonia concentration distributions determined by the retained gas sampler (RGS) apparatus were modeled for double-shell tanks (DSTs) AW-101, AN-103, AN-104, and AN-105 and single-shell tanks (SSTs) A-101, S-106, and U-103. One the vertical transport of ammonia in the tanks were used for the modeling. Transport in the non-convective settled solids and floating solids layers is assumed to occur primarily via some type of diffusion process, while transport in the convective liquid layers is incorporated into the model via mass transfer coefficients based on empirical correlations. Mass transfer between the top of the waste and the tank headspace and the effects of ventilation of the headspace are also included in the models. The resulting models contain a large number of parameters, but many of them can be determined from known properties of the waste configuration or can be estimated within reasonable bounds from data on the waste samples themselves. The models are used to extract effective diffusion coefficients for transport in the nonconvective layers based on the measured values of ammonia from the RGS apparatus. The modeling indicates that the higher concentrations of ammonia seen in bubbles trapped inside the waste relative to the ammonia concentrations in the tank headspace can be explained by a combination of slow transport of ammonia via diffusion in the nonconvective layers and ventilation of the tank headspace by either passive or active means. Slow transport by diffusion causes a higher concentration of ammonia to build up deep within the waste until the concentration gradients between the interior and top of the waste are sufficient to allow ammonia to escape at the same rate at which it is being generated in the waste

  7. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K63.a,b: Non-peptide hormones in serum: cortisol and progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    S-C Tai, Susan; Duewer, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate many life functions. Deviations from normal hormone levels can have serious health consequences. Accurate measurement of hormone levels in serum can be beneficial in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating a number of diseases. Two steroid hormones, cortisol and progesterone, were selected by the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) to evaluate its member Institutes' measurement capabilities for this important class of measurand. Serum concentrations of cortisol range from 30 ng/mL to 230 ng/mL. Serum concentrations of progesterone in adult females range from 0.15 ng/mL to 25 ng/mL but can rise to approx230 ng/mL during pregnancy. The ability to measure cortisol is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones at concentration levels similar to cortisol. The ability to measure progesterone is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones with similar functional groups and concentration levels, such as testosterone. Pilot studies CCQM-P77.a and CCQM-P77.b on the determination of cortisol and progesterone in human serum were completed in 2006. There was good agreement among the results reported by participants who used isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (ID/MS) with either gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC). In 2007 the OAWG decided to proceed with key comparison (KC) CCQM-K63.a, cortisol in human serum, and CCQM-K63.b, progesterone in human serum. Thus, following established OAWG procedure, only results from participants that (1) used an ID/MS-based method, (2) participated in the relevant pilot study, and (3) used a metrologically traceable primary standard were to be eligible for use in calculating the key comparison reference value (KCRV) for each measurand. Six laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.a and eight laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.b. The same pooled frozen female serum material was used in both of the KCs. The mean value for the six ID/MS-based

  8. Development of solid phase radioimmunoassay using antibody coupled magnetizable particles for measurement of progesterone in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehany, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) reagents. Development as well as optimization and validation of RIA system using solid phase magnetic particles for the measurement of progesterone in human serum are described. The production of polyclonal antibodies was carried out by immunizing five white New-Zealand rabbits subcutaneously. Low density magnetizable cellulose iron oxide particles have been used to couple covalently to the IgG fraction of polyclonal anti-progesterone using carbonyl diimidazole activation method and applied as a solid phase separating agent for RIA of serum progesterone. 125 I-progesterone tracer was prepared using chloramine-T and iodogen oxidation methods and purified using high performance liquid chromatography. The progesterone standards were prepared using highly purified progesterone powder with hormone free serum as standard matrix. Optimization and validation of the assay were carried out. The results obtained provide a low cost, simple, sensitive, specific and accurate RIA system of progesterone based on magnetizable solid phase separation. This may be extremely helpful in diagnosis and proper management of ovulation during childbearing years

  9. Concentrações de FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterona e histamina no soro, no fluido peritoneal e no fluido folicular de mulheres com e sem endometriose FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, and histamine concentrations in serum, peritoneal fluid and follicular fluid of women with and without endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pereira de Lima

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: relatos da literatura mostram que não há dados conclusivos sobre a associação entre a endometriose e as concentrações de hormônios envolvidos no controle da reprodução. Este estudo foi realizado para determinar as concentrações de FSH, LH, estradiol (E, progesterona (P e histamina (Hi no soro, no fluido peritoneal e no fluido folicular de mulheres com e sem endometriose. MÉTODOS: a extensão da doença foi estadiada de acordo com a American Fertility Society classification (1997. Para a coleta de soro e de fluido peritoneal foram selecionadas 28 mulheres com endometriose submetidas à laparoscopia diagnóstica (18 mulheres inférteis com endometriose I-II e dez mulheres inférteis com endometriose III-IV. Para o grupo controle, foram selecionadas 21 mulheres férteis submetidas à laparoscopia para esterilização tubárea. O fluido folicular foi obtido de 39 mulheres inférteis submetidas a fertilização in vitro (21 mulheres com endometriose e 18 mulheres sem endometriose. RESULTADOS: as concentrações de FSH e LH no soro, no fluido peritoneal e no fluido folicular não diferiram significativamente entre os grupos. As concentrações de E e P no fluido peritoneal foram significativamente mais baixas em mulheres inférteis com endometriose (E: 154,2±15,3 para estágios I-II e 89,3±9,8 ng/mL para estágios III-IV; P: 11,2±1,5 para estágios I-II e 7,6±0,8 ng/mL para estágios III-IV em comparação com mulheres controle (E: 289,1±30,1; P: 32,8±4,1 ng/mL (Testes de Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn; pPURPOSE: literature reports show that there are no conclusive data about the association between endometriosis and the concentrations of hormones involved in the control of reproduction. Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine FSH, LH, estradiol (E, progesterone (P, and histamine (Hi concentrations in serum, peritoneal fluid and follicular fluid of women with and without endometriosis. METHODS: the extent of the disease

  10. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    leiomyoma cells in response to RU486 revealed little overlap [101]. PR-A and PR-B are most often co-expressed in the same tissues, and cells that... leiomyoma cells. PLoS One 7 (2012) e29021. [102]P.A. Mote, S. Bartow, N. Tran, C.L. Clarke, Loss of co-ordinate expression of progesterone receptors

  11. Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study design: This is a descriptive study to detect the level of Estrogen (ER) and Progesterone (PR) receptors in a sample of biopsies from Sudanese women with breast cancer presented at Khartoum teaching Hospital Material and Methods: Forty biopsies from breast cancer patients were examined with immunostaining

  12. Effects of ionizing irradiation on the estradiol and progesterone receptors in rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, J.P.; Wittevrongel, C.; Van Dam, J.; Goddeeris, P.; Lauwerijns, J.M.; De Loecker, W.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of estradiol and progesterone receptor concentrations in mammary tumors is useful in predicting the hormone responsiveness. As this assay is carried out on tumor tissue which may have been subjected to radiotherapy, the possibility of an ionizing irradiation affecting the steroid receptor levels in neoplastic tissue should be taken into account. The steroid receptor concentrations are examined in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced tumors os Sprague-Dawley rats. The estradiol and the progesterone receptor titers become reduced significantly after treatment with 20 Gray while an application with 7 Gray does not affect the titer values. After treatment of the tumor with 20 Gray, the steroid receptor concentrations decrease progressively, reaching a maximal reduction 20 to 30 days after exposure. As radiation treatment affects the receptor concentrations, this should be kept in mind when interpreting the steroid receptor concentrations

  13. Vasopressin infusion into the lateral septum of adult male rats rescues progesterone-induced impairment in social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, M E; Mena, J D; Auger, C J

    2013-08-29

    It is well established that social recognition memory is mediated, in part, by arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP cells within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial amygdala (MeA) send AVP-ergic projections to the lateral septum (LS). We have demonstrated that progesterone treatment decreases AVP immunoreactivity within the BST, the MeA and the LS, and that progesterone treatment impairs social recognition. These data suggested that progesterone may impair social recognition memory by decreasing AVP. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that infusions of AVP into the LS would rescue the progesterone-induced impairment in social recognition within adult male rats. One week after adult male rats underwent cannula surgery, they were given systemic injections of either a physiological dose of progesterone or oil control for 3 days. Four hours after the last injection, we tested social recognition memory using the social discrimination paradigm, a two-trial test that is based on the natural propensity for rats to be highly motivated to investigate novel conspecifics. Immediately after the first exposure to a juvenile, each animal received bilateral infusions of either AVP or artificial cerebrospinal fluid into the LS. Our results show that, as expected, control animals exhibited normal social discrimination. In corroboration with our previous results, animals given progesterone have impaired social discrimination. Interestingly, animals treated with progesterone and AVP exhibited normal social discrimination, suggesting that AVP treatment rescued the impairment in social recognition caused by progesterone. These data also further support a role for progesterone in modulating vasopressin-dependent behavior within the male brain. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vasopressin infusion into the lateral septum of adult male rats rescues progesterone induced impairment in social recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E.; Mena, Jesus D.; Auger, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that social recognition memory is mediated, in part, by arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP cells within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial amygdala (MeA) send AVP-ergic projections to the lateral septum (LS). We have demonstrated that progesterone treatment decreases AVP immunoreactivity within the BST, the MeA and the LS, and that progesterone treatment impairs social recognition. These data suggested that progesterone may impair social recognition memory by decreasing AVP. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that infusions of AVP into the LS would rescue the progesterone induced impairment in social recognition within adult male rats. One week after adult male rats underwent cannula surgery, they were given systemic injections of either a physiological dose of progesterone or oil control for three days. Four hours after the last injection, we tested social recognition memory using the social discrimination paradigm, a two-trial test that is based on the natural propensity for rats to be highly motivated to investigate novel conspecifics. Immediately after the first exposure to a juvenile, each animal received bilateral infusions of either AVP or artificial CSF (aCSF) into the LS. Our results show that, as expected, control animals exhibited normal social discrimination. In corroboration with our previous results, animals given progesterone have impaired social discrimination. Interestingly, animals treated with progesterone and AVP exhibited normal social discrimination, suggesting that AVP treatment rescued the impairment in social recognition caused by progesterone. These data also further support a role for progesterone in modulating vasopressin dependent behavior within the male brain. PMID:23639881

  15. Bioaerosol collection and concentration for microseparations-based detectors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, Eric B. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ellis, C. R. Bowe (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Kanouff, Michael P. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Rader, Daniel John; Wally, Karl (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-03-01

    The ability to detect Weapons of Mass Destruction biological agents rapidly and sensitively is vital to homeland security, spurring development of compact detection systems at Sandia and elsewhere. One such system is Sandia's microseparations-based pChemLab. Many bio-agents are serious health threats even at extremely low concentrations. Therefore, a universal challenge for detection systems is the efficient collection and selective transport of highly diffuse bio-agents against the enormous background of benign particles and species ever present in the ambient environment. We have investigated development of a ''front end'' system for the collection, preconcentration, and selective transport of aerosolized biological agents from dilute (1-10 active particles per liter of air) atmospheric samples, to ultimate concentrations of {approx}20 active particles per microliter of liquid, for interface with microfluidic-based analyses and detection systems. Our approach employs a Sandia-developed aerosol particle-focusing microseparator array to focus size-selected particles into a mating microimpinger array of open microfluidic transport channels. Upon collection (i.e., impingement, submergence, and liquid suspension), microfluidic dielectrophoretic particle concentrators and sorters can be employed to further concentrate and selectively transport bio-agent particles to the sample preparation stages of microfluidic analyses and detection systems. This report documents results in experimental testing, modeling and analysis, component design, and materials fabrication critical to establishing proof-of-principle for this collection ''front end''. Outstanding results have been achieved for the aerodynamic microseparator, and for the post-collection dielectrophoretic concentrator and sorter. Results have been obtained for the microimpinger, too, but issues of particle-trapping by surface tension in liquid surfaces have proven

  16. β Absorption dust concentration monitor system based on the PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Dexing; Zhou Xiuliang; Liu Liyan; Li Zonglun; Cao Guanghui; Mao Wanchong

    2011-01-01

    To provide an on-line automatic system for dust concentration monitor is the purpose of this design.The system based on β-ray-absorption-method,employing PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control technology, is presented. The user input parameter setup,the data acquisition and processing, and the communication with computer can be effectively regulated using the advanced PLC control technology. It has the features of high reliability, easy operation and easy maintenance, and the ability to monitor remotely. Measurement range: 0.1-1500 mg/m 3 , Accuracy: ±9%. The structure,working principle, electric circuit and software development of the system are introduced in detail. (authors)

  17. Astaxanthin increases progesterone production in cultured bovine luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Hachiro; Akagi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shinya

    2017-06-29

    Although astaxanthin (AST) is known to be a strong antioxidant, its effects on reproductive function in domestic animals have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we investigated the effects of AST on luteal cells, which produce progesterone (P4), an important hormone for maintaining pregnancy. Luteal cells were prepared by collagenase dispersion of the corpus luteum (CL). The addition of racemic AST at a low concentration (production than RR-AST. When 1 mg/kg·body weight of SS-AST derived from green algae was fed to cows for 2 weeks, its concentration in blood plasma was 10.9 nM on average, which was sufficient to expect an in vitro effect on the production of P4 in cows. These results suggested the potential of SS-AST supplements for cows to elevate luteal function.

  18. Production of antiserum and development of radioimmunoassay for progesterone measurement in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O.M; Abbas, S.H.

    2004-03-01

    The anti progesterone antibody was obtained by injection of local sudanese sheep (bevies arias) intramuscularly and subcutaneously using 11-a-hydroxy progesterone conjugated with bovine serum albumin and emulsified in friend's adjuvant. The blood samples collected one week after the 3 rd injection was tested for anti-progesterone antibodies. Different dilutions of antisera in Pbs containing 0.0.1 % BSA and 0.1 % Na N 3 (Ph 7.4) were made. Using these dilutions, polystyrene balls of 6.4 mm diameter were coated with a coating volume of 500 μ1/bead.The antibody dilution of 1/200000 was selected and used for assembling a kit to measure progesterone level in serum. Optimization of the assay condition resulted in the following recipes: Fifty μ1 of standard or Qc (Low, normal and high) from Bio Rad for 2 hours. The reaction medium aspirated, washed twice and read for 100 seconds in gamma counter. Assay validation tests including Linearity, recovery, reproducibility and comparability were done. In regards to linearity, the measured concentrations of progesterone in serum samples were plotted against the expected values. The correlation coefficient was 0.997 and a linear regression equation was Y=1.1019+0.9895 X. The mean recovery was 96.86% of the sample replicates ranged from 0.2% to 6%. between assay reproducibility was assessed fro the results obtained from 3 samples which were used for quality control in different assays. The results obtained were in the reference range and were close to each other. Comparison between local and American Dpc reagents for progesterone determination in serum showed high correlation high correlation where r 0.9492.(Author)

  19. Milk and hair progesterone contents during the oestrous cycle and gestation in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dazhi; Zeng Xianyin; Liu Xianyi; Chen Faju; Song Xuehua

    1991-01-01

    Milk and hair progesterone contents were determined during the oestrous cycle and gestation in Saanen, F1 crosses (Saanen x Chengdu Mah) and F2 (Saanen x (Saanen x Chengdu Mah)) goats using the radioimmunoassay kits provided by the IAEA. Hair samples were collected from the back of the goats every day from day 1 (after oestrus) to day 28 and every 5 days from day 30 to parturition. Foremilk samples were also collected daily from day 1 to day 20. The results showed that there were significant differences in milk progesterone concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant goats during days 19 to 22 after oestrus. Progesterone in goat hair could be detected using the RIA kits. Hair progesterone content was correlated with the milk progesterone profile during the first 20 days of pregnancy in non-pregnant goats; a similar correlation was observed during the oestrous cycle. When milk samples were collected on day 22 post-oestrus and 3.9 ng/mL was taken as the discriminatory level, the accuracy of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis was 82.4% and 100% respectively. When hair samples were collected on day 22 and 3.7 ng/50 mg hair was taken as the discriminatory level, the accuracy of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis was 77.8% and 100% respectively. During gestation, hair progesterone contents increased gradually from day 30 to day 120 and decreased rapidly from day -8 before parturition to parturition. 6 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Effects of phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein on progesterone and estrogen (estradiol) production of human term trophoblast cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dagmar Ulrike; Mylonas, Ioannis; Toth, Bettina; Scholz, Christoph; Briese, Volker; Friese, Klaus; Jeschke, Udo

    2009-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are a diverse group of nonsteroidal plant compounds that occur naturally in many plants. Because they possess a ring system similar to estrogens they are able to bind on estrogen receptors alpha and beta in humans. The effects of the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein on the production of progesterone and estrogen in isolated human term trophoblast cells in vitro were tested in this study. Cytotrophoblast cells were isolated from human term placentas. Phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein were incubated in different concentrations with trophoblast cells. Untreated cells were used as controls. After 24 h aliquots were removed and tested for progesterone and estrogen production. The production of the steroid hormones progesterone and estrogen are influenced by phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein in human term trophoblast cells. A strong inhibition effect of both phytoestrogens tested in the production of progesterone was demonstrated. In addition, a significant stimulating effect on estrogen production by genistein and daidzein was observed. Results obtained with this study show that phytoestrogens (genistein and daidzein) sufficiently reduce progesterone production in human term trophoblast cells. Because blockade of progesterone is a possible mechanism involved in initiation of labor, we may speculate that high doses of phytoestrogens at the feto-maternal interphase could play a negative role in maintenance of pregnancy. Stimulation of estrogen production by genistein and daidzein in trophoblast cells is probably due to estrogen receptor blocking effects of both phytoestrogens. Trophoblast cells seem to compensate blocking of its estrogen receptors by higher estrogen production.

  1. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Saki; Inoue, Manami; Saito, Eiko; Abe, Sarah K; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shibuya, Kenji; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk while the results have been inconsistent. Our study aimed to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk and to explore whether this association is modified by reproductive factors and hormone receptor status of the tumor. A total of 44,444 women aged 45 to 74 years from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were included in analyses. Dietary intake assessment was performed using a validated 138-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer incidence were calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 624,423 person-years of follow-up period, 681 breast cancer cases were identified. After adjusting for major confounders for breast cancer risk, inverse trends were observed but statistically non-significant. Extremely high intake of fiber was associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but this should be interpreted with caution due to limited statistical power. In stratified analyses by menopausal and hormone receptor status, null associations were observed except for ER-PR- status. Our findings suggest that extreme high fiber intake may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but the level of dietary fiber intake among Japanese population might not be sufficient to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk.

  2. Development of poly(lactic acid) nanostructured membranes for the controlled delivery of progesterone to livestock animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Juliano Elvis [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Eliton Souto [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais (DEMAT), Cidade Universitaria, 58.051-900, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Cardozo, Lucio; Voll, Fernando [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), 87.020, 900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Madureira, Ed Hoffmann [Departamento de Reproducao Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia (FMVZ), Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga-SP (Brazil); Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli, E-mail: mattoso@cnpdia.embrapa.br [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Assis, Odilio Benedito Garrido [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    Solution blow spinning (SBS) is a novel technology feasible to produce nanostructured polymeric membranes loaded with active agents. In the present study, nanofibrous mats of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) loaded with progesterone (P4) were produced by SBS at different P4 concentrations. The spun membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The in vitro releasing of P4 was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Interactions between progesterone and PLA were confirmed by rheological measurements of the PLA/P4 solutions and in the spun mats by microscopy (SEM), thermal (DSC) and spectral (FTIR) analyses. SEM micrographs provided evidences of a smooth and homogeneous structure for nanostructured membranes without progesterone crystals on fiber surface. FTIR spectroscopy indicated miscibility and interaction between the ester of PLA and the ketone groups of the P4 in the nanofibers. X-ray analysis indicated that the size of PLA crystallites increased with progesterone content. Finally, by in vitro release experiments it was possible to observe that the progesterone releasing follows nearly first-order kinetics, probably due to the diffusion of hormone into PLA nanofibers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofibers of PLA loading with progesterone were prepared via solution blow spinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their morphology, FTIR, and XRD and DSC characterization were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibers of PLA/progesterone with diameters from 280 to 440 nm were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of progesterone content in fiber properties was studied.

  3. Development of poly(lactic acid) nanostructured membranes for the controlled delivery of progesterone to livestock animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Cardozo, Lucio; Voll, Fernando; Madureira, Ed Hoffmann; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli; Assis, Odilio Benedito Garrido

    2013-01-01

    Solution blow spinning (SBS) is a novel technology feasible to produce nanostructured polymeric membranes loaded with active agents. In the present study, nanofibrous mats of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) loaded with progesterone (P4) were produced by SBS at different P4 concentrations. The spun membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The in vitro releasing of P4 was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Interactions between progesterone and PLA were confirmed by rheological measurements of the PLA/P4 solutions and in the spun mats by microscopy (SEM), thermal (DSC) and spectral (FTIR) analyses. SEM micrographs provided evidences of a smooth and homogeneous structure for nanostructured membranes without progesterone crystals on fiber surface. FTIR spectroscopy indicated miscibility and interaction between the ester of PLA and the ketone groups of the P4 in the nanofibers. X-ray analysis indicated that the size of PLA crystallites increased with progesterone content. Finally, by in vitro release experiments it was possible to observe that the progesterone releasing follows nearly first-order kinetics, probably due to the diffusion of hormone into PLA nanofibers. - Highlights: ► Nanofibers of PLA loading with progesterone were prepared via solution blow spinning. ► Their morphology, FTIR, and XRD and DSC characterization were analyzed. ► Fibers of PLA/progesterone with diameters from 280 to 440 nm were obtained. ► The effect of progesterone content in fiber properties was studied.

  4. Progesterone profiles and post-partum fertility in dairy cattle in southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, J.E.; Gatica, R.; Tapia, P.

    1990-01-01

    Milk samples were taken at weekly intervals from 77 dairy cows on days 23, 30, 37, 43 and 50 post-partum (pp) in order to monitor ovarian activity through progesterone concentration measurement. Skim milk samples were assayed for progesterone by radioimmunoassay using kits provided through the FAO and IAEA. Oestrus, clinical examinations, treatments, artificial insemination and pregnancy diagnosis were recorded. The profiles of progesterone concentration and oestrus occurrence combined with behavioural and clinical data indicated that the study cows were in the following reproductive states: I - normal, 38%; II - 'silent' oestrus, 12%; III - prolonged luteal activity, 13%; IV - irregular cyclic activity, 23%; and V - anoestrus, 13%. After artificial insemination, 89% (25/28) of normal, 77% (7/9) of silent oestrus, 50% (5/10) of prolonged luteal activity, 82% (14/17) of irregular cyclic activity and 80% (8/10) of anoestrous cows eventually became pregnant either with or without hormone treatment. With the exception of the anoestrous group, these results seem to support the idea that once a week sampling for progesterone over a seven week period pp is sufficient to monitor the ovarian activity and predict the fertility of a dairy herd. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Use of radioimmunoassay to measure progesterone levels during different reproductive stages in female Damascus goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Al-masri, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    Jugular serum progesterone concentrations were measured in female Damascus goats using radioimmunoassay (RIA) during prepubertal, puberty, pregnancy and parturition stages, to monitor the reproductive performance. Age at puberty ranged between 266 - 653 days with an average of 475 days, while average weight at puberty was 35.6 kg. Progesterone level rose from around zero ng/ml at prepubertal stage to 2.14 ng/ml at the onset of puberty ranging from 1.12 to 5.38 ng/ml. Average maximum progesterone concentration during pregnancy was 13.84 ng/ml, occurring on day 115 post-mating, and dropped sharply to 0.29 ng/ml soon after kidding. Average overall duration of pregnancy was 149 days. The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis on day 21 post-mating using RIA was 100%. The results also indicate that the breeding season of the experimental Damascus goats started in September. It could be concluded that the assessment of progesterone levels in serum is considered to be a vital tool in monitoring the reproductive performance in the indigenous Damascus goat breed. (author)

  6. Progesterone increases nitric oxide synthesis in human vascular endothelial cells through activation of membrane progesterone receptor-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Progesterone exerts beneficial effects on the human cardiovascular system by inducing rapid increases in nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelial cells, but the receptors mediating these nongenomic progesterone actions remain unclear. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we show that progesterone binds to plasma membranes of HUVECs with the characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs). The selective mPR agonist Org OD 02-0 had high binding affinity for the progesterone receptor on HUVEC membranes, whereas nuclear PR (nPR) agonists R5020 and medroxyprogesterone acetate displayed low binding affinities. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses confirmed that mPRs are expressed in HUVECs and are localized on their plasma membranes. NO levels increased rapidly after treatment with 20 nM progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and a progesterone-BSA conjugate but not with R5020, suggesting that this progesterone action is at the cell surface and initiated through mPRs. Progesterone and Org OD 02-0 (20 nM) also significantly increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and eNOS phosphorylation. Knockdown of mPRα expression by treatment with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked the stimulatory effects of 20 nM progesterone on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of nPR was ineffective. Treatment with PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase inhibitors blocked the stimulatory effects of progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and progesterone-BSA on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and also prevented progesterone- and Org OD 02-0-induced increases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation. The results suggest that progesterone stimulation of NO production in HUVECs is mediated by mPRα and involves signaling through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Quantification of fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolites in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelini M.O.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to the utilization of laboratory animal blood and its by-products are particularly attractive, especially regarding hamsters due to their small size and difficulties in obtaining serial blood samples. Steroid hormone metabolite quantification in feces, widely used in studies of free-ranging or intractable animals, is a non-invasive, non-stressor, economical, and animal saving technique which allows longitudinal studies by permitting frequent sampling of the same individual. The present study was undertaken to determine the suitability of this method for laboratory animals. Estradiol and progesterone metabolites were quantified by radioimmunoassay in feces of intact, sexually mature female Syrian hamsters during the estrous cycle (control and in feces of superovulated females. Metabolites were extracted by fecal dilution in ethanol and quantified by solid phase radioimmunoassay. Median estrogen and progesterone concentrations were 9.703 and 180.74 ng/g feces in the control group, respectively. Peaks of estrogen (22.44 ± 4.54 ng/g feces and progesterone (655.95 ± 129.93 ng/g feces mean fecal concentrations respectively occurred 12 h before and immediately after ovulation, which is easily detected in this species by observation of a characteristic vaginal postovulatory discharge. Median estrogen and progesterone concentrations (28.159 and 586.57 ng/g feces, respectively were significantly higher in superovulated animal feces (P < 0.0001. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to monitor ovarian activity in Syrian hamsters non-invasively by measuring fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolites. This technique appears to be a quite encouraging method for the development of new endocrinologic studies on laboratory animals.

  8. Progesterone and women's anxiety across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tania A; Makhanova, Anastasia; Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Jasienska, Grazyna; McNulty, James K; Eckel, Lisa A; Nikonova, Larissa; Maner, Jon K

    2018-04-24

    Animal models and a few human investigations suggest progesterone may be associated with anxiety. Progesterone naturally fluctuates across the menstrual cycle, offering an opportunity to understand how within-person increases in progesterone and average progesterone levels across the cycle correspond to women's anxiety. Across two longitudinal studies, we simultaneously modeled the between- and within-person associations between progesterone and anxiety using multilevel modeling. In Study 1, 100 Polish women provided saliva samples and reported their anxiety at three phases of the menstrual cycle: follicular, peri-ovulatory, and luteal. A significant between-person effect emerged, revealing that women with higher average progesterone levels across their cycles reported higher levels of anxiety than women with lower progesterone cycles. This effect held controlling for estradiol. In Study 2, 61 American women provided saliva samples and reported their attachment anxiety during laboratory sessions during the same three cycle phases. A significant between-person and within-person association emerged: women with higher average progesterone levels reported higher levels of attachment anxiety, and as women's progesterone levels increased across their cycles, so too did their attachment anxiety. These effects held controlling for cortisol. In sum, both studies provide support for a link between menstrual cycle progesterone levels and subjective anxiety. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Antibody against progesterone in local rabbit following low dose of progesterone injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyadi Suyadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Antibody against progesgerone was produced from serum of local rabbit following low dose of progesterone injection: While a control group (Control; n=5 was injected with Freund's adjuvant solution in aquadest, the treatment groups were either firstly injected with progesterone conjugated to Freund's Adjuvant (P--CFA, 150 p.l : 150 pl or progesterone conjugated to Freund's Adjuvant and bovine serum albumin (P-CFA-BSA; 135 p;l : 150 tt1 : 15 gl. Twice boostering injections were adminstered using incomplete Freund's Adjuvant on day 14 and 52 after first immunization. Weekly bleeding for serum collection were done from 1 week following first booster immunization to week 10, Using ELISA technique it was shown that the antibody titer to progesterone after first and second booster immunization in the P-CFA groug was higher than Control- and P-CFA-BSA groups. The antibody titer in the P-CFA-BSA remained low similar in the Control group: Key words: antibody; progesterone; rabbit

  10. Progesterone receptor modulators in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    WIEHLE, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has been treated successfully with selective estrogen receptor antagonists (SERMs) such as tamoxifen, receptor-depleting agents such as fulvestrant, and aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs or PRMs) have not been studied as much and are currently under investigation for inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis in animal models and breast cancer prevention trials in women. They might follow tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors in t...

  11. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  12. Estrogen, Progesterone and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Shuk-Mei

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian carcinoma (OCa continues to be the leading cause of death due to gynecologic malignancies and the vast majority of OCa is derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE and its cystic derivatives. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones, primarily estrogens and progesterone, are implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, it has proved difficult to fully understand their mechanisms of action on the tumorigenic process. New convincing data have indicated that estrogens favor neoplastic transformation of the OSE while progesterone offers protection against OCa development. Specifically, estrogens, particularly those present in ovulatory follicles, are both genotoxic and mitogenic to OSE cells. In contrast, pregnancy-equivalent levels progesterone are highly effective as apoptosis inducers for OSE and OCa cells. In this regard, high-dose progestin may exert an exfoliation effect and rid an aged OSE of pre-malignant cells. A limited number of clinical studies has demonstrated efficacies of antiestrogens, aromatase inhibitors, and progestins alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of OCa. As a result of increased life expectancy in most countries, the number of women taking hormone replacement therapies (HRT continues to grow. Thus, knowledge of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones on the OSE and OCa is of paramount significance to HRT risk assessment and to the development of novel therapies for the prevention and treatment of OCa.

  13. A compact spectrum splitting concentrator for high concentration photovoltaics based on the dispersion of a lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J.; Flowers, C. A.; Yao, Y.; Atwater, H. A.; Rockett, A. A.; Nuzzo, R. G.

    2018-06-01

    Photovoltaic devices used in conjunction with functional optical elements for light concentration and spectrum splitting are known to be a viable approach for highly efficient photovoltaics. Conventional designs employ discrete optical elements, each with the task of either performing optical concentration or separating the solar spectrum. In the present work, we examine the performance of a compact photovoltaic architecture in which a single lens plays a dual role as both a concentrator and a spectrum splitter, the latter made possible by exploiting its intrinsic dispersion. A four-terminal two-junction InGaP/GaAs device is prepared to validate the concept and illustrates pathways for improvements. A spectral separation in the visible range is demonstrated at the focal point of a plano-convex lens with a geometric concentration ratio of 1104X with respect to the InGaP subcell.

  14. Inhibition of progesterone metabolism mimics the effect of progesterone withdrawal on forced swim test immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Ethan H; Finn, Deborah A

    2007-10-01

    Withdrawal from high levels of progesterone in rodents has been proposed as a model for premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Forced swim test (FST) immobility, used to model depression, was assessed in intact female DBA/2J mice following progesterone withdrawal (PWD) or treatment with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Following 5 daily progesterone injections (5 mg/kg IP) FST immobility increased only in mice withdrawn for 3 days (pimmobility. PWD and finasteride treatment, both of which reduce allopregnanolone levels, were associated with increased FST immobility in female DBA/2J mice. These findings suggest that decreased levels of the GABAergic neurosteroid allopregnanolone contribute to symptoms of PWD. Future studies of PWD may provide information about human conditions that are associated with hormone changes such as premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression.

  15. Childhood conditions influence adult progesterone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Núñez-de la Mora

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Average profiles of salivary progesterone in women vary significantly at the inter- and intrapopulation level as a function of age and acute energetic conditions related to energy intake, energy expenditure, or a combination of both. In addition to acute stressors, baseline progesterone levels differ among populations. The causes of such chronic differences are not well understood, but it has been hypothesised that they may result from varying tempos of growth and maturation and, by implication, from diverse environmental conditions encountered during childhood and adolescence.To test this hypothesis, we conducted a migrant study among first- and second-generation Bangladeshi women aged 19-39 who migrated to London, UK at different points in the life-course, women still resident in Bangladesh, and women of European descent living in neighbourhoods similar to those of the migrants in London (total n = 227. Data collected included saliva samples for radioimmunoassay of progesterone, anthropometrics, and information from questionnaires on diet, lifestyle, and health. Results from multiple linear regression, controlled for anthropometric and reproductive variables, show that women who spend their childhood in conditions of low energy expenditure, stable energy intake, good sanitation, low immune challenges, and good health care in the UK have up to 103% higher levels of salivary progesterone and an earlier maturation than women who develop in less optimal conditions in Sylhet, Bangladesh (F9,178 = 5.05, p < 0.001, standard error of the mean = 0.32; adjusted R(2 = 0.16. Our results point to the period prior to puberty as a sensitive phase when changes in environmental conditions positively impact developmental tempos such as menarcheal age (F2,81 = 3.21, p = 0.03 and patterns of ovarian function as measured using salivary progesterone (F2,81 = 3.14, p = 0.04.This research demonstrates that human females use an extended period of the life cycle prior

  16. Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis Presenting as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayer, Sara M; Laufer, Larry R; Farrell, Maureen E

    2017-10-01

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is an uncommon disease presenting with cyclical skin eruptions corresponding with the menstrual cycle luteal phase. Because symptoms are precipitated by rising progesterone levels, treatment relies on hormone suppression. A 22-year-old nulligravid woman presented with symptoms mistaken for Stevens-Johnson syndrome. A cyclic recurrence of her symptoms was noted, and the diagnosis of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis was made by an intradermal progesterone challenge. After 48 months, she remained refractory to medical management and definitive surgical treatment with bilateral oophorectomy was performed. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is a challenging diagnosis owing to its rarity and variety of clinical presentations. Treatment centers on suppression of endogenous progesterone and avoidance of exogenous triggers. When these modalities fail, surgical management must be undertaken.

  17. Reproductive responses and progesterone levels of postpartum oestrus synchronization in goats with different body reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana V. Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty adult goats were classified at parturition into two body condition score (BCS groups: BCI (n=16 with a score of 2.7 and BCII (n=14 with a score of 2.0. On the fiftieth day postpartum, oestrus was synchronized by CIDR for 5 days. Upon CIDR removal (Day 0, they received 1 mL of PGF2α IM and mated for 72 hours. Kids were kept with does and weaned at 40 days of age. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 21 days after CIDR removal for progesterone assay. The BCI group showed a greater weight loss compared to the BCII group, and BCS before synchronization was 1.9±0.08 and 1.6±0.07 for the BCI and BCII groups, respectively (Pvs 36%; Pvs 1.25; Pvs 0.25; P<0.05. Progesterone concentration was higher in pregnant does in BCI. A positive relationship was found between progesterone level at CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.57; P<0.01, also between progesterone level at 21 days after CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.47; P<0.05, or BCS before synchronization (0.51; P<0.05. We conclude that oestrus response to postpartum CIDR synchronization appeared to be slightly dependent on BCS. However, goats with low BCS at oestrus synchronization exhibited a reduction in pregnancy rate.

  18. Diagnostic Efficacy of a Single Progesterone Determination to Assess Full-Term Pregnancy in the Bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, A; Charles, C; Starvaggi Cucuzza, A; Pregel, P

    2015-12-01

    In clinical settings, when the reproductive history of a near-term bitch is limited to mating dates, the possibility to accurately assess whether pregnancy is at term could be very useful in order to be able to plan a correct management of parturition or to safely perform an elective Caesarean section. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of a single progesterone determination, measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), in predicting the occurrence of parturition on the following day. At least one blood sample was collected from 51 pre-partum bitches during the 3 days before parturition and on day of parturition. The efficacy of progesterone as a marker of the end of pregnancy was tested using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Youden's index was calculated to select the optimal cut-off value (with 95% confidence interval), aiming at maximizing the correct identification of negative events, so not to risk to diagnose as full term a bitch which is not. Progesterone concentration lower than 3.4 ng/ml correctly identified the bitches whelping the following day; however, because of the obliged prudential approach, sensitivity was low (46.88%), and 17 of 32 full-term bitches were missed. Due to a very large individual variation, a single progesterone determination has low diagnostic efficacy, although it can represent a useful first screening. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Relationship between Length of Estrous Cycle and all of Progesterone Level and Milk Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.E.; Farghaly, H.A.M.; Osman, K.T.; Regulaty, H.A.; Eboul-Ela, H.B.

    2010-01-01

    Ten non-pregnant and ten pregnant buffaloes were used in the present study and were milked twice daily (7 a.m. and 3 p.m.) whereas milk samples (15 ml) were collected at the morning every 4 days throughout the period from May 2007 to July 2007. At the same time blood samples (10 ml) were collected from every buffalo by puncture of the jugural vein into evacuated tubes. Blood and milk samples were placed immediately on ice and arrived at the laboratory immediately after collection. Blood and milk tubes were centrifuged at 1500 for 15 min in a centrifuge for serum and fat less milk separation. Serum and milk samples were frozen at -25 degree C and later analyzed for progesterone by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Progesterone concentrations in the first 2 samples were used to determine whether buffaloes were cycling or not. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≥1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples were considered cycling, and those with both serum samples containing 1.0 ng/ml were considered as anovulatory /anestrous. Regression of the corpus luteum was considered if serum progesterone was 1.0 ng/ml. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≤1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples considered pregnant. The data were statistically analyzed The data revealed that pregnant buffaloes had higher (P< 0.01) mean values of serum P4 and milk P4 than non-pregnant buffaloes. At the same time, milk P4 profile was higher (P< 0.01) than serum P4 and the ratio between milk P4 and serum P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes. However, milk P4 was 2.4 2nd International Conference on Radiation Sciences and Applications, 28/3 - 1/4/2010 34 times higher than that of serum P4 in pregnant buffaloes ; while milk P4 was 2.9 times higher than that of serum P4 in nonpregnant buffaloes. Total daily milk yield had higher (P< 0.01) mean values than both morning and after milk yield. Morning milk yield had higher (P< 0.01) mean values than after milk yield. Step-wise regression

  20. Data Based Prediction of Blood Glucose Concentrations Using Evolutionary Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, J Ignacio; Colmenar, J Manuel; Kronberger, Gabriel; Winkler, Stephan M; Garnica, Oscar; Lanchares, Juan

    2017-08-08

    Predicting glucose values on the basis of insulin and food intakes is a difficult task that people with diabetes need to do daily. This is necessary as it is important to maintain glucose levels at appropriate values to avoid not only short-term, but also long-term complications of the illness. Artificial intelligence in general and machine learning techniques in particular have already lead to promising results in modeling and predicting glucose concentrations. In this work, several machine learning techniques are used for the modeling and prediction of glucose concentrations using as inputs the values measured by a continuous monitoring glucose system as well as also previous and estimated future carbohydrate intakes and insulin injections. In particular, we use the following four techniques: genetic programming, random forests, k-nearest neighbors, and grammatical evolution. We propose two new enhanced modeling algorithms for glucose prediction, namely (i) a variant of grammatical evolution which uses an optimized grammar, and (ii) a variant of tree-based genetic programming which uses a three-compartment model for carbohydrate and insulin dynamics. The predictors were trained and tested using data of ten patients from a public hospital in Spain. We analyze our experimental results using the Clarke error grid metric and see that 90% of the forecasts are correct (i.e., Clarke error categories A and B), but still even the best methods produce 5 to 10% of serious errors (category D) and approximately 0.5% of very serious errors (category E). We also propose an enhanced genetic programming algorithm that incorporates a three-compartment model into symbolic regression models to create smoothed time series of the original carbohydrate and insulin time series.

  1. Determination of serum progesterone by radioimmunoassay (RIA) on fertility control and early pregnancy diagnosis in angora goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsar, S.; Guven, B.; Ozekin, N.; Noyan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on diagnosis of cyclicity, confirmation of estrus so that mating timing and confirmation of return on non-return (pregnancy diagnosis) in Angora goats by using progesterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum as well as observing the sexual behaviours of the goats. The cyclic reproductive activity of 20 mature Angora goat does with normal previous reproductive function, 5 does which had never become pregnant in the previous breeding seasons, and 10 does which were old for breeding was investigated. Circulating progesterone was relatively low (0.45 ng/ml) at estrus (day 0) and increased progressively to 3.45 ng/ml during the subsequent luteal phase. This high level was maintained until day-3 of the succeding estrus cycle, when it decreased abruptly. Pregnancy diagnosis based on the levels of progesterone in serum was confirmed by kidding. 1.5 ng/ml or more progesterone was used as an indication of pregnancy (within 21 days after mating). The accuracy of pregnancy by progesterone assay was 100%. It was concluded that the use of progesterone RIA in serum is a reliable and convenient means of monitoring ovarian activity and early pregnancy. (author)

  2. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis: origins, consequences and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie; Shu, Yimin; Taylor, Robert N

    2017-06-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone-resistant state. Repetitive retrograde endometrial shedding begets chronic peritoneal inflammation, which further exacerbates progesterone resistance. Genetic causes of progesterone resistance include progesterone receptor gene polymorphisms, altered microRNA expression, and epigenetic modifications to progesterone receptors and their targets. Environmental toxins such as dioxin play a possible role in the genesis of endometriosis by permitting an inflammatory milieu. A consequence of impaired progesterone action is that hormonal therapy is rendered ineffective for a subset of women with endometriosis. Synthetic progestins, such as dienogest, may overcome this phenomenon by increasing progesterone receptor expression and decreasing proinflammatory cytokines. Other modalities include high dose depot formulations of progestins, medicated intrauterine devices and the likely advent of oral GnRH antagonists. Unearthing root causes of progesterone inaction in endometriosis will aid in the development of novel therapeutics geared toward prevention and treatment. © 2017 Nordic Federation of

  3. Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

  4. The benefits of progesterone therapy in imminent abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of imminent abortion are multi-factorial. The biggest causal factor is the low level of serum progesterone level. The lowest critical level of serum progesterone for survivability of pregnancy is 10 ng/ml. Eighty percent of patients experiencing abortion showed that their progesterone level was < 10 ng/ml. Patients who realized that their pregnancy would experience hemorrhage generally would suffer from depression. Stress was one of the factors responsible for the occurence of abortion. Administration of natural progesterone substitution (not  progestogen accelerates the disappearance of uterine contractions, and speeds up the stoppage of bleeding. In addition, progesterone has the effect of anti-anxiety. Adminstration of oral progesterone would result in metabolism in the intestine and liver, such that physiological level of serum progesterone could not be reached, while administration of suppositoria progesterone would result in physiological level of serum, such that it was effective to prevent imminent abortion. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:258-62Keywords: progesterone, imminent abortion

  5. Plasma levels of progesterone in cycling and pregnant ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.P.; Rao, P.N.; Reddy, B.B.; Murthy, A.S.N.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma progesterone profile of six cycling and three pregnant Nellore ewes was estimated by radioimmunoassay. The progesterone level of cycling ewes started rising from undetectable level on the day of oestrus to a mean peak value of 0.41 ± 0.09ng/ml during post oestrus day 10 to 14 and then declined to undetectable levels 1 to 2 days before subsequent oestrus. But the progesterone levels of pregnant ewes exhibited further raise from the post oestrus day 14 to the day 40. However, no correlation between oestrous cycle length and the total progesterone produced during the oestrous cycle was observed. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs

  6. Effects of progesterone and its metabolites on human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowski, D; Gong, Y; Mairhofer, M; Gessele, R; Sator, M

    2014-02-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is under control of gonadotrophic hormones and produces progesterone, which is necessary for endometrial receptivity. Recent studies have shown that progesterone and its metabolites are involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells. Here weanalyzed the role of progesterone and its meta-bolites on luteinized granulosa cells (LGC) by FACS analysis and quantitative Real-Time PCR. We detected the mRNA of the progesterone metabolizing genes SRD5A1, AKR1C1, and AKR1C2 in LGC. The stimulation of LGC with progesterone or progesterone metabolites did not show any effect on the mRNA expression of these genes. However, a downregulation of Fas expression was found to be accomplished by progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin. Our findings do not support the concept of an effect of progesterone metabolites on LGCs. However, it suggests an antiapoptotic effect of hCG and progesterone during corpus luteum development by downregulation of Fas. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Preparation and characterization of 125I labeled progesterone derivatives for the development of a radioimmunoassay for progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, K.; Pillai, M.R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Preparation and purification of radioiodinated progesterone derivatives for the development of a radioimmunoassay of progesterone is described. Two procedures have been standardized for preparing radioiodinated progesterone conjugate. In the first procedure 125 I labeled histamine was conjugated to progesterone 11 α hemisuccinate by the mixed anhydride method. In the second procedure, tyrosyl methyl ester was conjugated to progesterone 11 α hemisuccinate and iodination of the conjugate was carried out. Purification of the iodinated products was carried out by solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography techniques. The radiochemical purity of the tracers prepared by both methods were more than 95%. Labeled progesterone derivatives prepared were used for developing a radioimmunoassay procedure. The non-specific binding of the tracer was about 2-3%, while up to 80% binding could be obtained in the presence of excess antibody. The radioiodinated tracer could be used up to four months in the assay. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. Progesterone for Symptomatic Perimenopause Treatment - Progesterone politics, physiology and potential for perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, J C

    2011-01-01

    Perimenopause, women's normal midlife reproductive transition, is highly symptomatic for about 20% of women who are currently inaccurately counseled and inappropriately treated with oral contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy or hysterectomy. About 80% of perimenopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms (VMS), 25% have menorrhagia, and about 10% experience mastalgia. The majority of women describe varying intensities of sleep, -coping or mood difficulties. Women are more symptomatic because common knowledge inaccurately says that estradiol (E2) levels are dropping/deficient. Evidence shows that with disturbed brain-ovary feedbacks, E2 levels average 26% higher and soar erratically - some women describe feeling pregnant! Also, ovulation and progesterone (P4) levels become insufficient or absent. The most symptomatic women have higher E2 and lower P4 levels. Because P4 and E2 complement/counterbalance each other's tissue effects, oral micronized P4 (OMP4 300 mg at -bedtime) is a physiological therapy for treatment-seeking, symptomatic perimenopausal women. Given cyclically (cycle d 14-27, or 14 on/off) in menstruating midlife women, OMP4 decreases cyclic VMS, improves sleep and premenstrual mastalgia. Menorrhagia is treated with ibuprofen 200mg/6h plus OMP4 cycle d 4-28. For insulin resistance, metformin plus cyclic or daily OMP4 decreases insulin resistance and weight gain. Non-responsive migraines need daily OMP4 plus usual therapies. VMS and insomnia in late perimenopause respond to daily OMP4. In summary, OMP4 is a physiology-based therapy that improves sleep, treats VMS, does not increase breast proliferation or cancer risk, increases bone formation and has beneficial cardiovascular effects. A controlled trial is testing OMP4 for perimenopausal VMS - more evidence-based data are needed.

  9. Feeding concentrate in early lactation based on rumination time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, M.V.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Markussen, B.

    2015-01-01

    herds with Holstein cows, where daily RT was recorded by rumination sensors (Qwes HRTM). Cows were fed a partially mixed ration and concentrate at the milking robot. Concentrate was stepped up over the first 28 and 17 days in milk for primiparous and multiparous cows. Cows were assigned to either...

  10. Quadro citológico vaginal, concentração plasmática de progesterona durante a gestação e medidas fetais em paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 Vaginal citology, serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and fetal measurements in paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 objetivou-se descrever aos 30, 60 e 90 dias (D de prenhez diagnosticada por ultrassonografia (US, os tipos celulares do epitélio vaginal em esfregaços vaginais, relatar as condições de abertura da vulva e as características do muco vaginal, determinar a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio, e ainda, mensurar por ultrassonografia (US o diâmetro biparietal (DBP fetal aos 60 e 90 dias de prenhez. No D30, 40% das amostras exibiram células (com características estrogênicas superficiais e presença de núcleos nus. Nos D60 e D90, células parabasais, intermediárias, superficiais e naviculares estavam presentes nas mesmas proporções, mas células endocervicais foram descritas em apenas 73,9% e 69% das amostras daqueles dias, respectivamente. No D30 a maior proporção de células naviculares e superficiais diferiu (p The objective of this work was to describe in 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 at 30, 60 and 90 days (D of pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography (U.S. the cell types of the vaginal epithelium by vaginal smears, to report the vulva opening condition and the characteristics of vaginal mucus, to determine the progesterone (P4 serum concentration by radioimmunoassay, and also measure by ultrasound (U.S. the fetuses biparietal diameter (BPD at 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. At D30, 40% of the smears exhibited surface cells (with estrogenic characteristics and of naked nuclei. At D60 and D90, parabasal, intermediate, superficial, and navicular cells were present in the same proportions, but endocervical cells were described in only 73.9% and 69% of those day's smears, respectively. At D30 the highest proportion of navicular and surface cells differed (p < 0.05 compared with other cell types. The vaginal mucus was crystalline and fluid in 100% and 70% of females at D30 and D60, respectively. It was observed the vaginal vestibule open in around 50% of

  11. Radioimmunoassay kit formulation and its validation for serum progesterone using progesterone radiotracer purified by gel filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karir, T.; Pal, N.; Sivaprasad, N.

    2003-01-01

    Purification of the radioiodinated progesterone tyrosine methyl ester conjugate by gel filtration and the development, optimization and clinical validation of a direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of progesterone using this radiotracer are described. High purity radiotracer is essential for the error free performance of any RIA. Progesterone 11α hemisuccinate was conjugated to tyrosine methyl ester (TME) by the mixed anhydride method and this conjugate was then radioiodinated by the chloramine-T method. Purification of the radioiodinated product was carried out by gel filtration. About 12 batches of the radiotracer were prepared and purified. The purification by gel filtration gave reproducible elution pattern and purity. The radiotracer thus purified was found to have consistent quality as compared to that of any other purification methods. Non-specific binding of the radiotracer was found to be 95% as checked by paper electrophoresis. The stability (retention of the immunoreactivity) of the radiotracer was two to three months. No appreciable changes in the assay characteristics were observed during this period. The assay involved 3 hours incubation of progesterone antibody with individual standards or sample and radiotracer at room temperature. The optimized assay was then validated for internal and external quality control parameters. A RIA kit was then formulated with this radiotracer for estimation of progesterone in serum. The assay kit consisted of lyophilized individual standards ranging from 0.25 to 50 ng/ml. The clinical performance of the developed kit was compared with that of a commercial ELISA kit and a correlation of 0.94 was observed. (author)

  12. Correlation of breast cancer subtypes, based on estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2, with functional imaging parameters from {sup 68}Ga-RGD PET/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook; Jeong, Jae Min; Chung, June-Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, In Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chuncheon, Kangwon-Do (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seock-Ah [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Sunjoo [Dankook University, Department of Molecular Biology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Song [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyeong Cheon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Imaging biomarkers from functional imaging modalities were assessed as potential surrogate markers of disease status. Specifically, in this prospective study, we investigated the relationships between functional imaging parameters and histological prognostic factors and breast cancer subtypes. In total, 43 patients with large or locally advanced invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) were analyzed (47.6 ± 7.5 years old). {sup 68}Ga-Labeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were performed. The maximum and average standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub avg}) from RGD PET/CT and SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub avg} from FDG PET/CT were the imaging parameters used. For histological prognostic factors, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression was identified using immunohistochemistry (IHC) or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Four breast cancer subtypes, based on ER/PR and HER2 expression (ER/PR+,Her2-, ER/PR+,Her2+, ER/PR-,Her2+, and ER/PR-,Her2-), were considered. Quantitative FDG PET parameters were significantly higher in the ER-negative group (15.88 ± 8.73 vs 10.48 ± 6.01, p = 0.02 for SUV{sub max}; 9.40 ± 5.19 vs 5.92 ± 4.09, p = 0.02 for SUV{sub avg}) and the PR-negative group (8.37 ± 4.94 vs 4.79 ± 3.93, p = 0.03 for SUV{sub avg}). Quantitative RGD PET parameters were significantly higher in the HER2-positive group (2.42 ± 0.59 vs 2.90 ± 0.75, p = 0.04 for SUV{sub max}; 1.60 ± 0.38 vs 1.95 ± 0.53, p = 0.04 for SUV{sub avg}) and showed a significant positive correlation with the HER2/CEP17 ratio (r = 0.38, p = 0.03 for SUV{sub max} and r = 0.46, p < 0.01 for SUV{sub avg}). FDG PET parameters showed significantly higher values in the ER/PR-,Her2- subgroup versus the ER/PR+,Her2- or ER/PR+,Her2+ subgroups, while RGD PET parameters showed significantly lower values in the ER

  13. Illumination uniformity issue explored via two-stage solar concentrator system based on Fresnel lens and compound flat concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Naichia

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates details about the solar radiation distribution on the target of a two-stage solar concentrator that combines the Fresnel lens (FL) and the compound flat concentrator (CFC). The paper starts with a review of some FL development milestones such as the two-stage systems and the comparisons of flat vs. curved lenses in addition to the most noteworthy FL-based solar energy application, concentration photovoltaic (CPV). Through the review of the FL based CPV and two-stage concentrators, this study leads to the development of an algorithm to explore the spectrum distribution insight on the receiver of a two-stage (FL plus CFC) solar concentration system. It established the potential for using a correctly positioned 2nd stage reflector of right dimension to selectively redirect the desired spectrum on the target area so as to enhance the concentration flux intensity and uniformity at the same time. The study also helped to chart out the approximate locations of certain spectrum segments on the FL's target area, which is useful for exploring the spectrum control mechanism via the Fresnel lenses. - Highlights: • Map out the approximate locations of spectrum segments on FL's focal area. • Use the 2nd stage reflector to selectively reflect the desired spectrum on target. • Explore the spectrum distribution insight on FL solar concentrators' target area.

  14. Effect Of Exogenous Progesterone On Blood Chemistry Of Large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exogenous hormones are major economic factors in swine production. This study evaluate the effects of exogenous administration of progesterone on the blood chemistry of pigs.Experiment involved weekly injections of progesterone to 24 pigs (12 males and 12 females)from day old to 24 weeks and only corn oil to another ...

  15. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: Case report with history of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is a rare autoimmune response to raised endogenous progesterone levels that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Cutaneous, mucosal lesions and other systemic manifestations develop cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when ...

  16. The history of natural progesterone, the never-ending story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, P

    2018-05-28

    The term progesterone should only be used for the natural hormone produced by the ovaries or included in a registered drug. The modern history of progesterone begins with the first book-length description of the female reproductive system including the corpus luteum and later with the Nobel Prize winner, Adolf Butenandt who took a crucial step when he succeeded in converting pregnanediol into a chemically pure form of progesterone, the corpus luteum hormone. The deficient production of progesterone was shown first to be the cause of the luteal-phase deficiency responsible for infertility and early pregnancy loss due to inadequate secretory transformation of the endometrium. Later, progesterone was confirmed to be the best and safest method of providing luteal-phase support in assisted reproductive technology. Progesterone provides adequate endometrial protection and is suggested to be the optimal progestagen in menopausal hormone therapy in terms of cardiovascular effects, venous thromboembolism, probably stroke and even breast cancer risk. Neuroprotective effects of progesterone have also been demonstrated in several of experimental models including cerebral ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Vaginal progesterone was shown to decrease the risk of preterm birth in women with a mid-trimester sonographic short cervix and to improve perinatal outcomes in singleton and twin gestations.

  17. Hair progesterone contents during oestrus cycle and pregnancy in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xianyin; Guo Dazhi; Liu Xianyi

    1991-01-01

    Hair progesterone contents during gestasion and milk progesterone levels during oestrus cycle in Saanen(S), crosses F 1 (SXChengdu Mah) and F 2 (SX(SXChengdu Mah)) goats were determined using the RIA kit. The results showed that progesterone in goats hair could be detected using the RIA kit. In pregnant goats, hair progesterone contents was correlated with the milk progesterone profile during 1-28 days after oestrus (r=0.5458, p<0.01). In non-pregnant goats, similar correlation was observed (r=7832, p<0.01). After milk samples were collected 22 days, 3.9ng/ml of progesterone was taken as the discriminatory level, and precision of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis were 82.4% and 100% respectively. After hair samples were collected 22 days, 3.7ng/50mg of progesterone was taken as discriminatory level, and precision of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis were 77.8% and 100% respectively. During gestation, hair progesterone content increased gradually from day 30(5.67±0.98ng/50mg hair)to day 120 (9.85±1.20ng/50mg) and decreased rapidly from -8(before parturition, 7.73±1.91ng/50mg) to day 0(parturition, 4.93±0.25ng/50mg)

  18. Ovarian responses and pregnancy rate with previously used intravaginal progesterone releasing devices for fixed-time artificial insemination in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilariño, M; Rubianes, E; Menchaca, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine serum progesterone concentrations, ovarian responses, and pregnancy rate in sheep inseminated following a short-term protocol (6 days of treatment) with a previously used controlled internal drug release-G (CIDR-G) device. In experiment 1, 30 ewes were put on a short-term protocol using a CIDR-G of first use (new devices, N = 10), second use (previously used for 6 days, N = 10), or third use (previously used twice for 6 days, N = 10). All ewes were given prostaglandin F(2α) (10 mg dinoprost) and eCG (300 IU) im at device withdrawal. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were greater for ewes treated with new versus reused devices (P synchronization and ovulation, with lower serum progesterone concentrations for reused devices. Three times used CIDR-G yielded a pregnancy rate >70%, which tended to be lower than that obtained with new devices, adding evidence of the detrimental effect of low serum progesterone concentrations on fertility in sheep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of progesterone mechanisms in radio-induced apoptosis prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vares, G.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the modulation of radiation-induced cell death of human mammary tumoral cells by progesterone. On the one hand, we observed that progesterone protects cells against radiation-induced apoptosis and increases the proportion of surviving and proliferating damaged cells. On the other hand, a transcriptome analysis was undertaken in irradiated cells treated by progesterone, using DNA micro-arrays. This let us highlight several transcriptional dis-regulations that are likely to explain the protective effect of the hormone; in particular, we showed that progesterone regulates the expression of genes implicated in apoptosis signaling by death receptors. Knowing the crucial role of hormonal control and of apoptosis regulation in breast cancer initiation, our results may help to achieve a better understanding of the implication of progesterone in mammary carcinogenesis. (author)

  20. Monitoring the reproductive performance in awassi ewes using progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Jugular serum progesterone (P-4) concentrations were assessed using radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits for about 1 year in 16 local Awassi ewes aged about 1 year and weighing on average 37.4 ±4.9 (range 29.5-44.0 kg). Average pre-mating live weight of animals was different (P 0.05) between animals in average basal pre-mating P-4 concentration, maximum P-4 concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes and in the length of the gestation period average basal pre-mating P-4 concentration was 0.62±0.44 (range 0-1.7 nmol l -1 ). Average maximum P-4 concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes was 11.0±3.3 (range 5.8-18 nmol l -1 ). Length of gestation period varied from 149 to 155 days with an average of 152±2.3 days. Maximum P-4 concentration during gestation was different (P -1 ). The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis at around 21 days pot-mating using RIA was 100%. It was concluded that Awassi sheep in Syria have a long breeding season that could start as early as April and last through September. Therefore, ewes might be included in oestrous synchronisation programmes to give three lambs in 2 years. It was also concluded that P-4 concentration under 3.18 nmol l -1 is indicative of either anoestrous or follicular and early luteal phase of the oestrous cycle in Awassi ewes kept in Syria and that RIA could be used for P-4 determination and successful early diagnosis of pregnancy in Awassi sheep. (author)

  1. Ratio-based vs. model-based methods to correct for urinary creatinine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-08-01

    Creatinine-corrected urinary analyte concentration is usually computed as the ratio of the observed level of analyte concentration divided by the observed level of the urinary creatinine concentration (UCR). This ratio-based method is flawed since it implicitly assumes that hydration is the only factor that affects urinary creatinine concentrations. On the contrary, it has been shown in the literature, that age, gender, race/ethnicity, and other factors also affect UCR. Consequently, an optimal method to correct for UCR should correct for hydration as well as other factors like age, gender, and race/ethnicity that affect UCR. Model-based creatinine correction in which observed UCRs are used as an independent variable in regression models has been proposed. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of ratio-based and model-based creatinine correction methods when the effects of gender, age, and race/ethnicity are evaluated one factor at a time for selected urinary analytes and metabolites. It was observed that ratio-based method leads to statistically significant pairwise differences, for example, between males and females or between non-Hispanic whites (NHW) and non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), more often than the model-based method. However, depending upon the analyte of interest, the reverse is also possible. The estimated ratios of geometric means (GM), for example, male to female or NHW to NHB, were also compared for the two methods. When estimated UCRs were higher for the group (for example, males) in the numerator of this ratio, these ratios were higher for the model-based method, for example, male to female ratio of GMs. When estimated UCR were lower for the group (for example, NHW) in the numerator of this ratio, these ratios were higher for the ratio-based method, for example, NHW to NHB ratio of GMs. Model-based method is the method of choice if all factors that affect UCR are to be accounted for.

  2. Feeding concentrate in early lactation based on rumination time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, M.V.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Markussen, B.

    2015-01-01

    an experimental group (EXP) or a control group (CON) immediately after calving. In addition, all cows in the EXP and CON were assigned to either a high, medial or low rumination group according to their individual RT. Cows in the EXP assigned to the high (EH), medial (EM) or low (EL) rumination group were stepped...... up to 6, 4 or 3 kg concentrate during the experimental period. Concentrate was stepped up to 4 kg during the experimental period for all cows in the CON, regardless of whether the cows were assigned to the high (CH), medial (CM) or low (CL) rumination group. In total, 40 and 41 primiparous cows...

  3. Correlation among foetal number, corpora lutea and plasma progesterone in rockland-swiss mice. [Progesterone determination by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N G; Bridges, R S; Gandelmann, R [Rutgers - the State Univ., New Brunswick. NJ (USA). Dept. of Psychology; Rutgers - the State Univ., Newark, NJ (USA). Inst. of Animal Behavior)

    1978-01-01

    The relationship among plasma progesterone, number of corpora lutea, and foetal number was assessed in Rockland-Swiss albino mice. While number of corpora lutea and foetal number were significantly correlated, neither was related to plasma progesterone level. This finding in the mouse is similar to results reported in the rabbit.

  4. Relationship between length of estrous cycle and progesterone levels and milk production in Egyptian buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ten non-pregnant and ten pregnant buffaloes were used in the present study and were milked twice daily (7 a.m. and 3 p.m.) whereas milk samples (20 ml) were collected at the morning every 4 days throughout the period from May 2010 to July 2010. At the same time blood samples (15 ml) were collected from every buffalo by puncture of the jugular vein into evacuated tubes. Progesterone concentrations in the first 2 samples were used to determine whether buffaloes were cycling or not. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≥1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples were considered cycling, and those with both serum samples containing 1.0 ng/ml were considered as an ovulatory /anestrous. Regression of the corpus luteum was considered if serum progesterone was 1.0 ng/ml. Buffaloes with serum progesterone >1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples considered pregnant. The data were statistically analyzed The data revealed that pregnant buffaloes had higher (P<0.01) mean values of serum P4 and milk P4 than non-pregnant buffaloes. At the same time, milk P4 profile was higher (P<0.01) than serum P4 and the ratio between milk P4 and serum P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes. However, milk P4 was 2.4 times higher than that of serum P4 in pregnant buffaloes; while milk P4 was 2.9 times higher than that of serum P4 in non-pregnant buffaloes. Total daily milk yield had higher (P<0.01) mean values than both morning and after milk yield. Morning milk yield had higher (P<0.01) mean values than after milk yield. Step-wise regression analysis show that both serum P4 and milk P4 profiles depended on each other. Either serum P4 or milk P4 profiles can be accurately used for pregnancy detection in buffaloes. In addition, the close correlation between progesterone concentrations in milk and blood plasma suggests that it may be useful to measure milk progesterone in clinical cases of reproductive abnormalities in buffalo.

  5. Efficacy and Safety Profile of Diclofenac/Cyclodextrin and Progesterone/Cyclodextrin Formulations: A Review of the Literature Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavone, Cristina; Bonagura, Angela Colomba; Fiorentino, Sonia; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Cenami, Rosina; Torella, Marco; Fossati, Tiziano; Rossi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    According to health technology assessment, patients deserve the best medicine. The development of drugs associated with solubility enhancers, such as cyclodextrins, represents a measure taken in order to improve the management of patients. Different drugs, such as estradiol, testosterone, dexamethasone, opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs; i.e. diclofenac), and progesterone are associated with cyclodextrins. Products containing the association of diclofenac/cyclodextrins are available for subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous administration in doses that range from 25 to 75 mg. Medicinal products containing the association of progesterone/cyclodextrins are indicated for intramuscular and subcutaneous injection at a dose equal to 25 mg. The effects of cyclodextrins have been discussed in the solubility profile and permeability through biological membranes of drug molecules. A literature search was performed in order to give an overview of the pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy and safety profiles of diclofenac/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and progesterone/HPβCD associations. The results of more than 20 clinical studies were reviewed. It was suggested that the new diclofenac/HPβCD formulation gives a rapid and effective response to acute pain and, furthermore, has pharmacokinetic and efficacy/safety profiles comparable to other medicinal products not containing cyclodextrins. One of the principal aspects of these new diclofenac formulations is that in lowering the dose (lower than 50 mg) the drugs could be more tolerable, especially in patients with comorbid conditions. Moreover, results of studies investigating the characteristics of progesterone and cyclodextrins showed that the new formulation (progesterone/HPβCD 25 mg solution) has the same bioavailability as other products containing progesterone. It is more rapidly absorbed and allows the achievement of peak plasma concentrations in a shorter time. Finally, the

  6. Office-based sperm concentration: A simplified method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Semen samples from 51 sperm donors were used. Following swim-up separation, the sperm concentration of the retrieved motile fraction was counted, as well as progressive motile sperm using a standardised wet preparation. The number of sperm in a 10 μL droplet covered with a 22 × 22 mm coverslip was ...

  7. MODELLING OF CONCENTRATION LIMITS BASED ON NEURAL NETWORKS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Osipov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the forecasting model with the concentration limits is-the use of neural network technology. The software for the implementation of these models. It is shown that the efficiency of the system in the experimental material.

  8. Effect of incremental levels of crude degummed canola oil on milk progesterone, plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of lactating cows with fat can alter the profiles of key reproductive hormones and boost postpartum energy balance. However, published data under Australian pasture-based dairy production conditions are scanty and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether dietary inclusion of crude degummed canola oil (CDCO at incremental levels for eight-weeks will have significant influence on progesterone (P4, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows grazing pastures. We tested the hypothesis that postpartum supplementation of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with dietary CDCO in a pasture-based system will alter the concentrations of P4, LH and FSH reproductive hormones. A random allocation of twenty primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows into four treatment groups that consisted of a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with no supplemental CDCO (control, or a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with CDCO added at 25 ml/kg (low, 35 ml/kg (medium and 50 ml/kg (high was employed in an eight-week feeding trial after two weeks of adjustment. Supplementation levels of CDCO and week of data collection were significant sources of variation (P  0.05. It was apparent that cows in the high (0.459 ng/ml, medium (0.367 ng/ml and low (0.251 ng/ml levels of oil treatments had higher mean plasma FSH concentrations compared to the control (0.172 ng/ml cows. It was concluded that the current levels of CDCO can be used in pasture-based dairy systems to increase FSH, but not LH and P4.

  9. Rapidly disintegrating vagina retentive cream suppositories of progesterone: development, patient satisfaction and in vitro/in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendas, Ehab Rasmy; Basalious, Emad B

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to develop novel vagina retentive cream suppositories (VRCS) of progesterone having rapid disintegration and good vaginal retention. VRCS of progesterone were prepared using oil in water (o/w) emulsion of mineral oil or theobroma oil in hard fat and compared with conventional vaginal suppositories (CVS) prepared by hard fat. VRCS formulations were tested for content uniformity, disintegration, melting range, in vitro release and stability studies. The most stable formulation (VRCS I) was subjected to scaling-up manufacturing and patients' satisfaction test. The rapid disintegration, good retentive properties are applicable through the inclusion of emulsified theobroma oil rather than hydrophilic surfactant into the hard fat bases. The release profile of progesterone from VRCS I showed a biphasic pattern due to the formation of progesterone reservoir in the emulsified theobroma oil. All volunteers involved in patients' satisfaction test showed high satisfactory response to the tested formulation (VRCS). The in vivo pharmacokinetic study suggests that VRCS of progesterone provided higher rate and extent of absorption compared to hard fat based suppositories. Our results proposed that emulsified theobroma oil could be promising to solve the problems of poor patients' satisfaction and variability of drug absorption associated with hard fat suppositories.

  10. 125I-labeled radioimmunoassay kits for progesterone evaluated for use in an in vitro fertilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blight, L.F.; White, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated two commercially available 125 I radioimmunoassay kits (Diagnostic Products Corp., DPC; and Radioassay Systems Laboratories, RSL) for measurement of serum or plasma progesterone, to determine their suitability for use in in vitro fertilization programs. Both kits were suitably rapid for program requirements. Results by both were linear with concentration up to 60 nmol/L, and both had acceptable lower detection limits of 0.3 nmol/L. Kit-determined progesterone concentrations (y) for 100 patients' samples correlated well with results by our existing 3H radioimmunoassay method (y . 1.11x + 0.2, r . 0.965 for the DPC kit; y . 1.01x + 1.4, r . 0.974 for the RSL kit). Mean analytical recovery for the RSL kit was 116%, that for the DPC kit, 202%. Within-batch precision, expressed as the mean CV for three concentrations of progesterone, was 6.5% for the RSL kit, and 16.4% for the DPC kit; between-day CV was 8.1% for the RSL kit, 17.7% for the DPC kit. We conclude that the RSL kit provides a rapid, precise, and accurate assay for serum progesterone, suitable for use in a fertilization program, but do not recommend the DPC kit for either this purpose or the more general purpose of tracking menstrual cycles

  11. Feeding different levels of a barley based concentrate to Jersey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maryna

    there was no further increase when feeding the high level of concentrate. Live weight ... 33º 58′ 38″ S, 22º 25′ 16 ″E and at an altitude of 210 m. The milk ... detergent fibre was determined by heating a 0.5 g sample to boiling point in 100 mL of neutral detergent plus. 50 µL of heat ... of bags in cold water for 10 minutes.

  12. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in human saliva during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luisi, M.; Franchi, F.; Kicovic, P.M.; Silvestri, D.; Cossu, G.; Catarsi, A.L.; Barletta, D.; Gasperi, M. (Pisa Univ. (Italy))

    1981-10-01

    A sensitive, specific and accurate radioimmunoassay of progesterone in human saliva is described, using /sup 3/H. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.2 and 9.4%, respectively. The mean recovery from 60 samples was 93.2 +- 6.3%. Results obtained from nine healthy, normally menstruating women showed that salivary progesterone rose from the 4th day before ovulation to a mean peak (+- SD) of 1.14 +- 0.17 ng/ml on the 8th day after ovulation, followed by a gradual decline. Correlation of salivary and simultaneously obtained plasma progesterone levels was good (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), although the maximum percent increase in salivary progesterone was more than 10 times greater than that of plasma progesterone. Salivary progesterone is thought to reflect the unbound fraction of plasma progesterone and this non-invasive technique can be used for serial investigations in which frequent samplings are required.

  13. Contraceptive applications of progesterone receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Ouzounian, Sophie; Kairis, Axelle Pintiaux; Bouchard, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    Currently developed progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) are steroid-derived compounds with mild or potent antiprogestin activity. PRMs may exert a contraceptive activity by different mechanisms such as blockade of ovulation and endometrial desynchronization. Their potential clinical applications are manifold and are very promising in major public health areas, including emergency contraception, long term oestrogen-free contraception (administered alone, or in association with a progestin-only pill to improve bleeding patterns), endometriosis and myoma treatment. The mechanisms of their anti-ovulatory effects and of the endometrial modifications elicited during long term PRM treatment are still not fully elucidated. In future clinical applications, PRMs will be administered orally, via intrauterine systems or vaginal rings.

  14. Ozone concentrations in the Brazilian Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzer, A.W.; Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H.; Pereira, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment--Amazonia, thermal images of fires were made with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board meteorological NOAA series satellites. The results of ozone measurements made on board the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) airplane during September of 1989 are presented and analyzed in relation to the temporal and geographical location of fires detected before and during the sampling. Results show that on a synoptic scale, concentrations of ozone rise sharply in regions of more intense burning

  15. The impact of body condition after calving on metabolism and milk progesterone profiles in two breeds of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lisa A; Båge, Renée; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-10-20

    Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and Swedish Holstein (SH). Multiparous dairy cows (n = 73) of SR and SH breeds were selected and divided into three groups based on their body condition score (BCS) after parturition. Selected plasma metabolites were determined, milk progesterone profiles were identified and body condition was scored. Over-conditioned cows and atypical progesterone profiles were more common among SR cows. Insulin sensitivity was lower and IGF 1 higher among SR cows. Insulin was positively related to body condition, but not related to breed. Atypical progesterone profiles were more common and insulin sensitivity lower in SR than in SH cows, but the SR breed had a higher proportion of over-conditioned SR cows. It is reasonable to assume that breed differences in body condition contributed to these results.

  16. Nuclear progesterone receptors are up-regulated by estrogens in neurons and radial glial progenitors in the brain of zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Diotel

    Full Text Available In rodents, there is increasing evidence that nuclear progesterone receptors are transiently expressed in many regions of the developing brain, notably outside the hypothalamus. This suggests that progesterone and/or its metabolites could be involved in functions not related to reproduction, particularly in neurodevelopment. In this context, the adult fish brain is of particular interest, as it exhibits constant growth and high neurogenic activity that is supported by radial glia progenitors. However, although synthesis of neuroprogestagens has been documented recently in the brain of zebrafish, information on the presence of progesterone receptors is very limited. In zebrafish, a single nuclear progesterone receptor (pgr has been cloned and characterized. Here, we demonstrate that this pgr is widely distributed in all regions of the zebrafish brain. Interestingly, we show that Pgr is strongly expressed in radial glial cells and more weakly in neurons. Finally, we present evidence, based on quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, that nuclear progesterone receptor mRNA and proteins are upregulated by estrogens in the brain of adult zebrafish. These data document for the first time the finding that radial glial cells are preferential targets for peripheral progestagens and/or neuroprogestagens. Given the crucial roles of radial glial cells in adult neurogenesis, the potential effects of progestagens on their activity and the fate of daughter cells require thorough investigation.

  17. Basic study on solar heat storage based on concentration difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Ishine; Higuchi, Akon; Ohashi, Yoshiaki

    1986-12-01

    An experimental study is performed for water solution of calcium chloride, a suitable solution for the captioned subject, and the condensation of the solution using hydrophobic film comparing to the semipermeable membrane. The relationship between saturated steam pressure and temperature, in regard to a water solution of 30-50 wt percent is clarified after testing the effect of solution concentration to the increase of boiling point. Next, the state of precipitated solute is examined as a possible problem to encounter during film condensation. The experiment reveals that solidification heat is instantaneously evolved when the solute is precipitated. Performance characteristics of the hydrophobic film are tested with a cylindrical water solution tank in which a PTFE porous film of 0.6 Mum hole diameter is sandwitched at one end. Test result reveals relationships between solution temperature, surface temperature in the steam side of the cooling plate and the quantity of condensed liquid in transmitted steam. (5 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs)

  18. Radioimmunological determination of 5a-pregnane-3, 20-dione and progesterone in the serum in the case of abortus imminens in early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedsam, E.

    1986-01-01

    The standardised method of radioimmunological hormone determination of the progesterone concentration in the mother's serum between the sixth and eighteenth week of pregnancy allows for a reliable prognosis in the case of abortus imminens (Knapstein, 1980). Permanently low or declining values with living fetuses indicate an unfavourable ending of the pregnancy. In this work it shall be clarified to what extent the two hormones, progesterone and 5a-DHP, can be used as prognostic parameters. The hormones were retrospectively determined in 83 women with normally progressing pregnancies and 57 women with abortus imminens symptomatology. In the women with abortus imminens symptomatology and with an abortion within a week the progesterone as well as the 5a-DHP median values lay statistically significantly below the values of the normal ones. In the corresponding women with premature births, respectively full term births, the values do not differentiate so clearly. In the abortus imminens group 61% of the women showed progesterone values which lay below the 10th percentile of the normal group, 44% aborted within a week, 10% after a several week long latency, 5% carried full term. 46% of the women had 5a-DHP values which lay below the 10th percentile of the normal group, 35% aborted within a week, 7% after a several week long latency, there was one premature birth and one full term birth. 30% of the women had progesterone values which lay within the 80th interpercentile level of the normal group, 5% aborted within a week. 28% of the women had 5a-DHP values within this same level and 14% aborted within a week. In the normal and abortus imminens groups there is an association between serum progesterone and 5a-MHP. Specificity: 95% for progesterone and 5a-DHP. Sensitivity: 58% (progesterone) and 44% (5a-DHP). (TRV) [de

  19. Effects of cholesterol and cAMP on progesterone production in cultured luteal cells isolated from pseudopregnant cat ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Sevket; Yigit, Ayse Arzu

    2009-10-01

    The present study was designed to incubate luteal cells isolated from pseudopregnant cats and to investigate the effects of cholesterol and cAMP on luteal progesterone production. Corpora lutea were collected from the cats on days 10 and 15 of pseudopregnancy. Luteal cells were isolated from the ovaries by collagenase digestion. Steroidogenic luteal cells were stained for 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) activity. Cells (2 x 10(4)) staining positive for 3beta-HSD were cultured for up to 7 days. The cells were treated with 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) on days 1, 3 and 7. Treatment of cells with 22R-HC resulted in a dose-dependent increase (pprogesterone production. When 22R-HC was used at a concentration of 10 microg/ml, it resulted in 2.7- and 5.1-fold increases in progesterone production on days 3 and 5, respectively. When the dose was doubled (20 microg/ml), treated cells produced four times more progesterone on days 3 and 7, and three times more on day 5. By day 7, progesterone production increased up to 9.1 times more than the control. Incubation of cells with both concentrations of dbcAMP (0.1 mM and 1 mM) resulted in significant stimulations of progesterone on days 5 and 7 (pProgesterone production was increased up to 2- and 2.9-fold of the control when cells were treated with lower concentration of dbcAMP (0.1 mM) on days 5 and 7, respectively. Incubation of cells with 1 mM concentrations of dbcAMP induced a 3.2-fold increase on day 5 and a 5-fold increase on day 7. In conclusion, a successful incubation was performed for long-life culturing of luteal cells collected from pseudopregnant cats. The method works well and allows for optimal growth and development of cells in the culture. The present study also demonstrated that incubating cat luteal cells with 22R-HC and dbcAMP induces a significant increase in luteal progesterone synthesis.

  20. Changes in uptake of 3H-progesterone by female rat brain and pituitary from birth to sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presl, J.; Figarova, V.; Herzmann, J.; Roehling, S.

    1975-01-01

    3 H-progesterone uptake by various parts of the brain, pituitary and skeletal muscle was compared in newborn, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25-and 50-day-old female rats at 1 hr after a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 μCi/100 g body weight. High uptake values in newborn animals and in those aged 5 days were found in all tissues investigated. A sharp decrease in accumulation was observed from birth and/or 5th day of life. The uptake by the pituitary was higher than those by other tissues investigated. The ratio of radioactivity concentration between the tissues and the cerebellar cortex increased significantly only in the posterior hypothalamus of adult females (at the age of 50 days). In the pituitary the ratio tissue/cortex was already significantly higher in newborns. The high level of brain radioactivity in the youngest animals probably was a manifestation of high plasma concentrations of the tritiated progesterone. The striking decrease in the uptake of radioactivity by the brain and pituitary during the first two weeks of life most likely reflected a decreased level of plasma radioactivity, as shown indirectly by the concomitant decrease in the labelled progesterone uptake by the skeletal muscle. The increase in the tissue/cortex ratio in the posterior hypothalamus with the attainment of sexual maturity suggested the first appearance of a specific binding capacity for the progesterone which is present in the pituitary since birth. (author) assumed to be

  1. Microfluidic paper-based biomolecule preconcentrator based on ion concentration polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung Il; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Kwak, Rhokyun; Lee, Jeong Hoon

    2016-06-21

    Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for molecular detection have great potential in the field of point-of-care diagnostics. Currently, a critical problem being faced by μPADs is improving their detection sensitivity. Various preconcentration processes have been developed, but they still have complicated structures and fabrication processes to integrate into μPADs. To address this issue, we have developed a novel paper-based preconcentrator utilizing ion concentration polarization (ICP) with minimal addition on lateral-flow paper. The cation selective membrane (i.e., Nafion) is patterned on adhesive tape, and this tape is then attached to paper-based channels. When an electric field is applied across the Nafion, ICP is initiated to preconcentrate the biomolecules in the paper channel. Departing from previous paper-based preconcentrators, we maintain steady lateral fluid flow with the separated Nafion layer; as a result, fluorescent dyes and proteins (FITC-albumin and bovine serum albumin) are continuously delivered to the preconcentration zone, achieving high preconcentration performance up to 1000-fold. In addition, we demonstrate that the Nafion-patterned tape can be integrated with various geometries (multiplexed preconcentrator) and platforms (string and polymer microfluidic channel). This work would facilitate integration of various ICP devices, including preconcentrators, pH/concentration modulators, and micro mixers, with steady lateral flows in paper-based platforms.

  2. Sustained-release progesterone nanosuspension following intramuscular injection in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kharshoum, rasha

    2010-01-01

    Heba F SalemFaculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, EgyptAbstract: The production of an intramuscular (IM) injection of natural progesterone would provide a safer solution than using semi synthetic progesterone. However, disadvantages such as low solubility and a short half life prevent the use of natural progesterone. In this study, we formulated a sustained release form of natural progesterone to be given as IM injection. A progesterone nanosuspension (PNS) was first developed...

  3. Growth of a progesterone receptor-positive meningioma in a female patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T; Crowley, R K; Farrell, M; MacNally, S; Govender, P; Feeney, J; Gibney, J; Sherlock, M

    2016-01-01

    Meningioma growth has been previously described in patients receiving oestrogen/progestogen therapy. We describe the clinical, radiological, biochemical and pathologic findings in a 45-year-old woman with congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to a defect in the 21-hydroxylase enzyme who had chronic poor adherence to glucocorticoid therapy with consequent virilisation. The patient presented with a frontal headache and marked right-sided proptosis. Laboratory findings demonstrated androgen excess with a testosterone of 18.1 nmol/L (0-1.5 nmol) and 17-Hydroxyprogesterone >180 nmol/L (transsexual patients undergoing therapy with high-dose oestrogen and progestogens. Progesterone receptor positivity has been described previously in meningiomas. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone is elevated in CAH and has affinity and biological activity at the progesterone receptor. Therefore, we hypothesise that patients who have long-standing increased adrenal androgen precursor concentrations may be at risk of meningioma growth. Patients with long-standing CAH (particularly if not optimally controlled) may present with other complications, which may be related to long-standing elevated androgen or decreased glucocorticoid levels.Chronic poor control of CAH is associated with adrenal myelolipoma and adrenal rest tissue tumours.Meningiomas are sensitive to endocrine stimuli including progesterone, oestrogen and androgens as they express the relevant receptors.

  4. Progesterone--specific binding sites in the kidney of the female baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaker, F.J.; Herbert, D.C.; Sheridan, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake and retention of a radiolabeled synthetic progestin, ORG 2058, was studied in the urinary tract of the female baboon. Four estrogen-primed baboons were injected intravenously with 2.5 micrograms./kg. body weight of 3H-ORG 2058. One animal, which served as a control, received an additional injection of 2.5 mg./kg. body weight of unlabeled progesterone. One hour after the injections, the animals were killed and the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder were removed and processed for autoradiography. Localization of progestin was observed in the nuclei of the convoluted and straight segments of the distal tubule, the ascending thick limb of the loop of Henle and both cortical and medullary collecting tubules. Connective tissue cells were also labeled in the medulla and cortex of the kidney. An absence of silver grains was noted in the renal corpuscle, all segments of the proximal tubule and the thin loop of Henle. Concentration of the tritiated steroid was not observed in either the ureter or bladder or in any portions of the urinary tract of the control animal. This study suggests that progesterone has a direct effect via a progesterone specific receptor on the various target cells that sequestered the 3H-ORG 2058

  5. High estradiol and low progesterone are associated with high assertiveness in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Khandis R; Bastian, Brock; O'Dean, Siobhan M; Denson, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that women are more selective than men are when choosing a mate. This evolutionary theory suggests that "choosiness" increases during the fertile window because the costs and benefits of mate selection are highest when women are likely to conceive. Little research has directly investigated reproductive correlates of choice assertion. To address this gap, in the present research we investigated whether fertility, estradiol, and progesterone influenced general assertiveness in women. We recruited 98 naturally cycling, ethnically diverse women. Using a within-subjects design and ovarian hormone concentrations at fertile and non-fertile menstrual cycle phases, we measured implicit assertiveness and self-reported assertive behavior. To see if fertility-induced high assertiveness was related to increased sexual motivation, we also measured women's implicit sexual availability and interest in buying sexy clothes. Results showed that high estradiol and low progesterone predicted higher assertiveness. Sexual availability increased during periods of high fertility. Low progesterone combined with high estradiol predicted greater interest in buying sexy clothes. Results held when controlling for individual differences in mate value and sociosexual orientation. Our findings support the role of fluctuating ovarian hormones in the expression and magnitude of women's assertiveness. High assertiveness during the fertile window may be a psychological adaptation that promotes mate selectivity and safeguards against indiscriminate mate choice when conception risk is highest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a homologous iodine-125 labelled progesterone radioimmunoassay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbanna, I.M.; El-Asrag, H.A.; Gado, M.S.; Gamal, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed procedure description of an iodinated progesterone radioimmunoassay system development is reported. Immunization regime with progesterone 11 α-hemisuccinate: BSA gave 1:6000 antibody titre within a period of 6 months. Minimal amount of the immunogen was spent to obtain a stock of the antiserum. Conjugation of progesterone 11 α-hemisuccinate to tyrosine methyl ester using the isobutyl-chloroformate reaction gave a product with less patch to patch variations in tracer characteristics. At home radioiodination with 125 I reduced the expenses drastically and resulted in extended tracer shelf life (up to 3 months). The use of the second antibody method of separating bound from free hormone proved to be more convenient and brought the progesterone radioimmunoassay system to routine work

  7. PROGESTERONE AND ESTRADIOL PROFILES DURING ESTROUS CYCLE AND GESTATION IN DWARF GOATS (CAPRA HIRCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. KHANUM, M. HUSSAIN AND R. KAUSAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum progesterone and estradiol profiles during estrous cycle, gestation and parturition in four Dwarf goat females (Capra hircus were monitored. Blood sampling was carried out daily during estrous cycle and on alternate days during gestation till parturition. Observations regarding length of estrous cycle, gestation length, litter size and birth weight of kids were recorded. With the initiation of cyclicity, estradiol attained higher levels (7.7 ± 1.7 pg/ml at estrus phase and dropped down to the lower levels within 3 to 4 days post-estrus. Concomitantly, progesterone started to increase from the mean basal value of 0.1 ± 0.03 ng/ml on day-0 to 3.0 ± 0.9 ng/ml on day-6 of estrous cycle and reached the peak value of 7.7 ± 0.6 ng/ml on day-12. From day-15, a decline was observed in progesterone values till the end of the cycle. A second estradiol rise of 14.0 ± 1.2pg/ml was observed on day-18 of the cycle. The mean estrous cycle length was 18.2 ± 2.1 days. During gestation, higher progesterone levels were maintained in the range of 4.3–11.0 ng/ml. Estradiol remained at lower concentrations for 30-50 days of gestation, then gradually increased and reached 270 ± 13.0 pg/ml a few days before parturition. It dropped again to basal values within 1-2 days postpartum. The mean gestation length in Dwarf goats was 144.8 ± 3.9 days and the litter size was 1.8 ± 0.5. It was concluded that Dwarf goat is a prolific breed, having a short gestation length with multiple births being common.

  8. Progesterone improves the maturation of male-induced preovulatory follicles in anoestrous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Achraf; Freret, Sandrine; Touze, Jean-Luc; Lomet, Didier; Lardic, Lionel; Chesneau, Didier; Estienne, Anthony; Papillier, Pascal; Monniaux, Danielle; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa

    2014-10-01

    The first ovulation induced by male effect in sheep during seasonal anoestrus usually results in the development of a short cycle that can be avoided by progesterone priming before ram introduction. In elucidating the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the occurrence of short cycles, the effects of progesterone and the time of anoestrus on the development of male-induced preovulatory follicles were investigated in anoestrous ewes using morphological, endocrine and molecular approaches. Ewes were primed with progesterone for 2 (CIDR2) or 12 days (CIDR12) and untreated ewes used as controls during early (April) and late (June) anoestrus. The duration of follicular growth and the lifespan of the male-induced preovulatory follicles were prolonged by ∼1.6 days in CIDR12 ewes compared with the controls. These changes were accompanied by a delay in the preovulatory LH and FSH surges and ovulation. Intra-follicular oestradiol concentration and mRNA levels of LHCGR and STAR in the granulosa and theca cells of the preovulatory follicles were higher in CIDR12 ewes than the control ewes. The expression of mRNA levels of CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 also increased in theca cells of CIDR12 ewes. CIDR2 ewes gave intermediate results. Moreover, ewes ovulated earlier in June than in April, without changes in the duration of follicular growth, but these effects were unrelated to the lifespan of corpus luteum. Our results give the first evidence supporting the positive effect of progesterone priming on the completion of growth and maturation of preovulatory follicles induced by male effect in seasonal anoestrous ewes, thereby preventing short cycles. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  9. The relationship between postpartum vaginal discharge symptoms and progesterone profile characteristics in lactating dairy cows in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorzecka, Justyna; Callesen, Henrik; Pedersen, Kurt Myrup

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of clinical symptoms of uterine inflammation on progesterone profile characteristics was quantified in dairy cows. A continuous scale based on visual observation of vaginal discharge (the previously developed D-index) was used to describe the clinical symptoms....... Progesterone profiles in milk were used to describe the ovarian cycles, and to determine the distinguishing features of these profiles, a multivariate statistical procedure (principal component analysis) was performed. Significant negative effects of the D-index were seen during the first and second postpartum...

  10. Selective suppression of endothelial cytokine production by progesterone receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Lauren M.; Ton, Amy N.; Org, Tõnis; Mikkola, Hanna K.A.; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones are well-recognized suppressors of the inflammatory response, however, their cell- and tissue-specific effects in the regulation of inflammation are far less understood, particularly for the sex-related steroids. To determine the contribution of progesterone in the endothelium, we have characterized and validated an in vitro culture system in which human umbilical vein endothelial cells constitutively express human progesterone receptor (PR). Using next generation RNA-sequenc...

  11. A dynamical systems model of progesterone receptor interactions with inflammation in human parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Douglas; Barbaro, Alethea; R Chance, Mark; Mesiano, Sam

    2016-08-19

    Progesterone promotes uterine relaxation and is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. Withdrawal of progesterone activity and increased inflammation within the uterine tissues are key triggers for parturition. Progesterone actions in myometrial cells are mediated by two progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, that function as ligand-activated transcription factors. PR-B mediates relaxatory actions of progesterone, in part, by decreasing myometrial cell responsiveness to pro-inflammatory stimuli. These same pro-inflammatory stimuli promote the expression of PR-A which inhibits the anti-inflammatory activity of PR-B. Competitive interaction between the progesterone receptors then augments myometrial responsiveness to pro-inflammatory stimuli. The interaction between PR-B transcriptional activity and inflammation in the pregnancy myometrium is examined using a dynamical systems model in which quiescence and labor are represented as phase-space equilibrium points. Our model shows that PR-B transcriptional activity and the inflammatory load determine the stability of the quiescent and laboring phenotypes. The model is tested using published transcriptome datasets describing the mRNA abundances in the myometrium before and after the onset of labor at term. Surrogate transcripts were selected to reflect PR-B transcriptional activity and inflammation status. The model coupling PR-B activity and inflammation predicts contractile status (i.e., laboring or quiescent) with high precision and recall and outperforms uncoupled single and two-gene classifiers. Linear stability analysis shows that phase space bifurcations exist in our model that may reflect the phenotypic states of the pregnancy uterus. The model describes a possible tipping point for the transition of the quiescent to the contractile laboring phenotype. Our model describes the functional interaction between the PR-A:PR-B hypothesis and tissue level inflammation in the pregnancy uterus and is a

  12. The methoxychlor metabolite, HPTE, inhibits rat luteal cell progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Yucel; Derk, Raymond C; Meighan, Terence; Rao, K Murali Krishna; Murono, Eisuke P

    2011-07-01

    The methoxychlor metabolite, HPTE, was shown to inhibit P450-cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) activity resulting in decreased progesterone production by cultured ovarian follicular cells in previous studies. It is not known whether HPTE has any effect on progesterone formation by the corpus luteum. Exposure to 100 nM HPTE reduced progesterone production by luteal cells with progressive declines to progesterone formation and P450scc catalytic activity of hCG- or 8 Br-cAMP-stimulated luteal cells. However, HPTE did not alter mRNA and protein levels of P450scc. Compounds acting as estrogen (17 β-estradiol, bisphenol-A or octylphenol), antiestrogen (ICI) or antiandrogen (monobutyl phthalate, flutamide or M-2) added alone to luteal cells did not mimic the action of HPTE on progesterone and P450scc activity. These results suggest that HPTE directly inhibits P450scc catalytic activity resulting in reduced progesterone formation, and this action was not mediated through estrogen or androgen receptors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The role of progesterone in prevention of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Dodd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Jodie M Dodd, Caroline A CrowtherDiscipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Preterm birth continues to provide an enormous challenge in the delivery of perinatal health care, and is associated with considerable short and long-term health consequences for surviving infants. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by suppression of the calcium–calmodulin–myosin light chain kinase system. Additionally, progesterone has recognized anti-inflammatory properties, raising a possible link between inflammatory processes, alterations in progesterone receptor expression and the onset of preterm labor. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth have been published, with primary outcomes of perinatal death, preterm birth <34 weeks, and neurodevelopmental handicap in childhood. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, involving 2714 women and 3452 infants, with results presented according to the reason women were considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth. While there is a potential beneficial effect in the use of progesterone for some women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth, primarily in the reduction in the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks gestation, it remains unclear if the observed prolongation of pregnancy translates into improved health outcomes for the infant.Keywords: progesterone, preterm birth, systematic review, randomized trial

  14. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Santin Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P<0.0001; 2.39 times, P=0.01; 1.58 times, P=0.0003; and 1.87 times, P<0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P<0.0001; 1.75 times, P=0.037; and 1.95 times, P<0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P=0.069. These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth.

  15. Systemic progesterone for modulating electrocautery-induced secondary brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Un, Ka Chun; Wang, Yue Chun; Wu, Wutian; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit

    2013-09-01

    Bipolar electrocautery is an effective and commonly used haemostatic technique but it may also cause iatrogenic brain trauma due to thermal injury and secondary inflammatory reactions. Progesterone has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions in traumatic brain injury. However, its potential use in preventing iatrogenic brain trauma has not been explored. We conducted a pilot animal study to investigate the effect of systemic progesterone on brain cellular responses to electrocautery-induced injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received standardized bipolar electrocautery (40 W for 2 seconds) over the right cerebral cortex. The treatment group received progesterone intraperitoneally 2 hours prior to surgery; the control group received the drug vehicle only. Immunohistochemical studies showed that progesterone could significantly reduce astrocytic hypertrophy on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7, as well as macrophage infiltration on day 3. The number of astrocytes, however, was unaffected. Our findings suggest that progesterone should be further explored as a neuroprotective agent against electrocautery-induced or other forms of iatrogenic trauma during routine neurosurgical procedures. Future studies may focus on different dosing regimens, neuronal survival, functional outcome, and to compare progesterone with other agents such as dexamethasone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive sensor-based ultra-high accuracy solar concentrator tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Jordyn; Hassanzadeh, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Conventional solar trackers use information of the sun's position, either by direct sensing or by GPS. Our method uses the shading of the receiver. This, coupled with nonimaging optics design allows us to achieve ultra-high concentration. Incorporating a sensor based shadow tracking method with a two stage concentration solar hybrid parabolic trough allows the system to maintain high concentration with acute accuracy.

  17. Process intensification on membrane-based process for blackcurrant juice concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud Villy

    Juice concentrate production is a field where process intensification and novel concentration processes need to be implemented. The paper presents a systematic approach for process synthesis based on membrane processes for the concentration of blackcurrant juice, exemplified by the aroma recovery...... using combinations of vacuum membrane distillation and traditional distillation. Furthermore, the paper further suggests a novel method for the combination of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and membrane distillation for the concentration of the dearomatized juice....

  18. A field study of postpartum period of dairy cows by rectal palpation and progesterone profiles in the milk by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozicki, Luis Ernandes; Silva, Marcelo Alves da; Woellner, Luis Carlos; Shibata, Flavia Kazumi

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out on 18 calved dairy cows, near the town of Curitiba-PR-Brazil. The animals were submitted weekly to a rectal palpation of the genital tract and the uterine involution and ovarian activity were considered. The rectal palpations began from the 7 th day postpartum till the 49 th day. at the same milk samples the first morning milk were taken on the 9 th week. The progesterone (P 4 ) level determination of the milk was established by radioimmunoassay. The findings of the research showed: the postpartum oestrus was observed at the 28.5 th day and the corpus luteum was detected on the 34.5 th day. The period from oestrus to the first high progesterone level post partum was 5.5 days. The uterine involution period was carried on the 24.1 th day. The progesterone dominant period was shorter and had duration of 11.5 days on the first oestrus cycle post partum. The progesterone concentration from the first Corpus luteum post partum was low (1.9 ng/ml milk). The anoestrus rate until 49 th day postpartum was 33.3% and the silent heat rate reached 61.1%. (author)

  19. Randomised clinical trial evaluating the effect of different timing and number of fixed timed artificial inseminations, following a seven-day progesterone-based protocol, on pregnancy outcomes in UK dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John Paul; Coates, Amy; Lima, Fabio; Smith, Rob; Oikonomou, Georgios

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect on pregnancy outcome of either inseminating heifers twice (at 48 and 72 hours after withdrawal of a controlled internal drug release insert (CIDR) containing progesterone) or once (56 hours after CIDR withdrawal) following a seven-day CIDR synchronisation protocol. Dairy heifers (n=267) from five farms, with an age range of 388-736 days, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (group A heifers were inseminated twice; group B heifers were inseminated once). Both groups received a CIDR on day (D) 0 and an intramuscular injection of d-cloprostenol on D6; the CIDR was withdrawn on D7. Measurements of withers height, body condition score and hearth girth (used to estimate weight) were taken on D0. The diameter of the largest follicles and corpora lutea was recorded on both D0 and D6. Data were analysed with the use of multivariable logistic regression modelling. Treatment group and farm were not statistically significantly associated with pregnancy per treatment (P/T). Age and dominant follicle size on D6 were significantly associated with P/T. Heifers with the largest dominant follicle sizes (16-22 mm) were 5.54 times less likely to be pregnant than those heifers with the smallest dominant follicles (8-10 mm) on D6. It was shown that the cost associated with inseminating heifers twice after a seven-day CIDR synchronisation protocol is not justified. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For...

  1. Preparation of TPP-crosslinked chitosan microparticles by spray drying for the controlled delivery of progesterone intended for estrus synchronization in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, Ignacio M; Busatto, Carlos A; Fioramonti, Silvana A; Pesoa, Juan I; Santiago, Liliana; Estenoz, Diana A; Luna, Julio A

    2018-02-20

    Planned reproduction in cattle involves regulation of estrous cycle and the use of artificial insemination. Cycle control includes the administration of exogenous progesterone during 5-8 days in a controlled manner allowing females to synchronize their ovulation. Several progesterone delivery systems are commercially available but they have several drawbacks. The aim of the present contribution was to evaluate chitosan microparticles entrapping progesterone as an alternative system. Microparticles were prepared by spray drying. The effect of formulation parameters and experimental conditions on particle features and delivery was studied. A mathematical model to predict progesterone plasma concentration in animals was developed and validated with experimental data. Microparticle size was not affected by formulation parameters but sphericity enhances as Tween 80 content increases and it impairs as TPP content rises. Z potential decreases as phosphate content rises. Particles remain stable in acidic solution but the addition of surfactant is required to stabilize dispersions in neutral medium. Encapsulation efficiencies was 69-75%. In vitro delivery studies showed burst and diffusion-controlled phases, being progesterone released faster at low pH. In addition, delivery extend in cows was affected mainly by particle size and hormone initial content, while the amount injected altered plasma concentration. Theoretical predictions with excellent accuracy were obtained. The mathematical model developed can help to find proper particle features to reach specific delivery rates in the animals. This not only save time, money and effort but also minimized experimentation with animals which is desired from an ethical point of view.

  2. Progesterone-associated proteins PP12 and PP14 in the human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutanen, E M; Koistinen, R; Seppälä, M; Julkunen, M; Suikkari, A M; Huhtala, M L

    1987-01-01

    Two proteins, designated as PP12 and PP14 were originally isolated from soluble extracts of the human placenta and its adjacent membranes. We have shown that they are synthesized by decidualized/secretory endometrium and not by placenta. Both proteins occur at high concentrations in human amniotic fluid, which is therefore an excellent source for purification. PP12 is a 34-kDa glycoprotein, which has an N-terminal amino acid sequence of Ala-Pro-Trp-Gln-Cys-Ala-Pro-Cys-Ser-Ala. This is identical with that of somatomedin-binding protein purified from the amniotic fluid. PP12 too binds somatomedin-C, or IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I). Human secretory endometrium synthesizes and secretes PP12, and progesterone stimulates its secretion. PP14 is a 28-kDa glycoprotein. Its N-terminal sequence shows homology to that of beta-lactoglobulins from various species. We have found PP14 in the human endometrium, serum and milk. Immunologically, PP14 is related to progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PEP), alpha-2 pregnancy-associated endometrial protein (alpha-2, PEG), endometrial protein 15 (EP15), alpha-uterine protein (AUP) and chorionic alpha-2 microglobulin (CAG-2). In ovulatory menstrual cycles, the concentration of PP14 increases in endometrial tissue as the secretory changes advance. In serum, the PP14 concentration begins to rise later than the progesterone levels, and high serum PP14 levels are maintained for the first days of the next cycle. By contrast, no elevation of serum PP14 level is seen in anovulatory cycles. Our results show that progesterone-associated proteins are synthesized by the human endometrium and appear in the peripheral circulation, where they can be quantitatively measured using immunochemical techniques.

  3. Photoaffinity labeling of the progesterone receptor from human endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.L.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    A nude mouse model for the growth of human endometrial carcinoma and hormonal modulation of the progesterone receptor (PR) was established previously. This study describes the effect of 17 beta-estradiol and tamoxifen (TAM) on growth rate and PR concentration in a hormonally responsive human endometrial tumor (EnCa 101) grown in this experimental system and presents the first characterization of human endometrial carcinoma PR. EnCa 101 was transplanted subcutaneously into ovariectomized, BALB/c, nu/nu athymic mice and grown under 17 beta-estradiol-stimulated, TAM-stimulated, and control conditions. Both 17 beta-estradiol and TAM increased the growth rate of EnCa 101 in nude mice, and a parallel increase in the cytosol PR concentration was observed. PR was partially purified by phosphocellulose and DEAE cellulose chromatography, and the DEAE eluate was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and photoaffinity labeling with [17 alpha-methyl- 3 H]promegestone ([ 3 H]R5020). Two PR-negative tumors (EnCa K and EnCa V) were also examined in parallel. Photolabeling and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of EnCa 101 grown in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol or TAM revealed incorporation of [3H]R5020 into proteins of molecular weight approximately 116,000 and 85,000. Labeled proteins of molecular weight 66,000, 45,000, and 35,000 were also observed. No incorporation of [ 3 H]R5020 was observed in EnCa 101 grown in the absence of estrogen, nor was any observed in EnCa K or EnCa V

  4. Milk and serum progesterone assay for evaluation of reproductive performance of dairy herds in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraraksa, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Cross-bred dairy cows (n=202) were used to study the milk progesterone profiles 0, 5, 7, 12, 20, 28, 35 and 45 days after artificial insemination. It was found that 57% (115/202) of the cows had a normal oestrous cycle and conceived, but in 13% (15/115) of cows that conceived the embryos died between 28 and 35 days of gestation. A total of 43% (87/202) of the cows did not become pregnant and these could be classified into four groups: 15% (31/202) had normal oestrous cycles; 7% (15/202) were inseminated during the luteal phase, i.e. when progesterone concentrations were elevated; 14% (29/202) had irregular cycles; and 6% (12/202) were acyclic. In another study milk samples were collected every 3 days from 90 cross-bred dairy cows, commencing 15 days after parturition and continuing until each animal had been inseminated. The milk progesterone profiles of each cow were collated with the records of oestrus and insemination. The average post-partum anoestrous periods of primiparous and multiparous cows were 35.0 ± 16.4 and 34.9 ± 14.5 days, respectively. In 68% of the primiparous cows and 65% of the multiparous cows oestrus occurred between days 20 and 40 of the post-partum period. Sequential serum samples from 42 repeat breeder cows and 8 infertile heifers were analysed for progesterone, and their ovaries were examined weekly by rectal palpation. They were treated with either human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) or prostaglandin F 2α . As a result, 23 cows and 5 heifers re-established oestrous cycles and became pregnant after AI. Progesterone profiles and rectal palpation revealed various causes of infertility, including ovarian cysts, irregular oestrous cycles, inactive ovaries and abnormal oviducts. Fifty-six per cent of repeat breeder cows and infertile heifers responded to hormone treatment in terms of resumed ovarian function. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Facilitating wider application of progesterone RIA for improving livestock production in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswin Perera, B.M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Research and development programmes supported by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on improving livestock production in developing countries have identified three major biological constraints: feeding, breeding management and diseases. Proper breeding management is important in order to achieve optimum economic benefits (through products such as milk, meat and offspring) from an animal during its lifespan. This requires early attainment of puberty, short intervals from calving to conception, high conception rates and low number of matings or artificial inseminations (Als) per conception. The use of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring progesterone in milk of dairy animals or in blood of meat animals, together with recording of data on reproductive events and production parameters, is an indispensable tool that provides information both on problems in breeding management by farmers as well as deficiencies in the Al services provided to them by government, co-operative or private organizations. This allows appropriate strategies and interventions to be adopted to overcome these limitations. Progesterone RIA can also detect animals that have not conceived by Al within 21 days after mating (early non-pregnancy diagnosis or N-PD), and alert farmers to the need to have these animals closely observed for oestrus and re-inseminated at the appropriate time. In order to ensure the sustained use of RIA technology for progesterone measurement in developing Member States, the IAEA has been engaged in the development and transfer of simple, robust and cheap methods of RIA. The system currently being used is based on a direct (non-extraction) method, using a 125 I-progesterone tracer and a solid-phase separation method (antibody coated tubes). In order to ensure wider availability (and lower cost) of the two key reagents required for the assay, the IAEA has initiated a programme to assist Member States to develop the capability to produce these in selected regional or

  6. Immunohistochemical Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Epulis Fissuratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Seyedmajidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epulis Fissuratum (Epulis Fissuratum (EF or Denture Epulis or inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia is a common hyperplastic tumor-like lesion with reactive nature, related to loose and ill-fitting, full or partial removable dentures and it is more common in women than men. For this reason, hormonal influences may also play role in its creation. The effect of steroid hormones especially sex hormones (Estrogen and progesterone on oral mucosa is identified in some studies. In the present study, the distribution pattern and presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in epithelial, stromal, endothelial and inflammatory cells in Epulis Fissuratum was investigated. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 samples of paraffin blocks with Epulis Fissuratum diagnosis and 30 samples of normal mucosal tissues as a control group who have had surgery as a margin beside the above lesions and had been obtained from the oral and maxillofacial pathology departement of Babol Dental School since 2003 up to 2010. Intensity of staining and immunoreactivity were evaluated using subjective index and considering the positive control group (breast carcinoma.Results: Epithelial, stromal, endothelial and inflammatory cells didn’t show reaction with monoclonal antibodies against estrogen and progesterone in none of the samples. Conclusion: It seems that the hypothesis of the existence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in epulis fissuratum and normal oral mucosa is ruled out. The possibility of direct effect of estrogen and progesterone in occurring of epulis fissuratum is rejected.

  7. Effects of cholesterol on progesterone production by goat luteal cell subpopulations at two different stages of the luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Ş; Kalender, H; Simsek, O

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on progesterone production during long-term culturing of luteal cell subpopulations at early and late luteal stages of the goat corpora lutea. Corpora lutea were collected from Angora goats on days 5 and 15 of the oestrous cycle. Luteal cells were isolated by collagenase digestion. The cells were separated into two distinct subpopulations by Percoll density-gradient centrifugation. Both subpopulations of luteal cells staining positively for 3β-HSD activities (5 × 10(4)  cell/well) were cultured with or without 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC) in serum-free culture medium for periods of up to 7 days. Cells were incubated with serum (10%) for the first 18 h of incubation followed by serum-free medium. Cell treatment (10 and 20 μg/ml) was performed on days 1, 3 and 5. Treatment of cells with both concentrations of 22R-HC resulted in significant (p  0.05) on progesterone production in both fractions of cells throughout 7 days of incubation. Treatment of the cells with cholesterol resulted in 2.5- and 9.0-fold increases in progesterone accumulation on day 3 of incubation. Steroid production was maintained throughout the incubations when cells are incubated in serum-free media treated with cholesterol and ITS premix. Cells collected from higher density of percoll layers produced 2.82 and 2.32 times more progesterone, in comparison to the lover density percoll layer, on days 5 and 15 of the oestrous cycle in untreated cell groups, respectively. Progesterone accumulation was decreased as incubation time advanced in all groups of untreated cells. These results demonstrated that goat luteal cell subpopulations secrete substantial amounts of progesterone in response to cholesterol treatment at least for 7 days, and cholesterol is required as progesterone precursor for maintaining a high-level steroidogenesis during long-life culturing of both cell subpopulations. © 2010 Blackwell

  8. In vitro progesterone modulation on bacterial endotoxin-induced production of IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1α, and MMP-9 in pre-labor human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ruíz, G; Flores-Espinosa, P; Preciado-Martínez, E; Bermejo-Martínez, L; Espejel-Nuñez, A; Estrada-Gutierrez, G; Maida-Claros, R; Flores-Pliego, A; Zaga-Clavellina, Veronica

    2015-10-07

    During human pregnancy, infection/inflammation represents an important factor that increases the risk of developing preterm labor. The purpose of this study was to determine if pre-treatment with progesterone has an immunomodulatory effect on human placenta production of endotoxin-induced inflammation and degradation of extracellular matrix markers. Placentas were obtained under sterile conditions from pregnancies delivered at term before the onset of labor by cesarean section. Explants from central cotyledons of 10 human placentas were pre-treated with different concentrations of progesterone (0.01, 01, 1.0 μM) and then stimulated with 1000 ng/mL of LPS of Escherichia coli. Cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, IL-10 concentrations in the culture medium were then measured by specific ELISA. Secretion profile of MMP-9 was evaluated by ELISA and zymogram. Statistical differences were determined by one-way ANOVA followed by the appropriate ad hoc test; P progesterone significantly blunted (73, 56, 56, 75, 25, 48 %) the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, IL-10, respectively. The MMP-9 induced by LPS treatment was inhibited only with the highest concentration of progesterone. Mifepristone (RU486) blocked the immunosuppressive effect of progesterone. The present results support the concept that progesterone could be part of the compensatory mechanism that limits the inflammation-induced cytotoxic effects associated with an infection process during gestation.

  9. Biotransformation of Progesterone by the Ascomycete Aspergillus niger N402.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinova, O S; Solyev, P N; Vasina, D V; Tyazhelova, T V; Fedorova, T V; Savinova, T S

    2018-01-01

    The ability of the ascomycete Aspergillus niger N402 to transform exogenous progesterone was investigated. We found that this strain has steroid-hydroxylating activity and can introduce a hydroxyl group into the progesterone molecule mainly at positions C11(α) and C21 with predominant formation of 21-hydroxyprogesterone (deoxycortone). In addition, formation of 6β,11α-dihydroxyprogesterone was also observed. Studying the effects of the growth medium composition and temperature on progesterone conversion by A. niger N402 showed that the most intense accumulation of 21-hydroxyprogesterone occurred in minimal synthetic medium at 28°C. Increasing the cultivation temperature to 37°C resulted in almost complete inhibition of the hydroxylase activity in the minimal medium. In the complete medium, a similar increase in temperature inhibited 11α-hydroxylase activity and completely suppressed 6β-hydroxylase activity, but it produced no effect on 21-hydroxylating activity.

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C 21 H 30 O 2 ; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  11. Lithography-free nanofluidic concentrator based on droplets-on-demand system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Zhou, Hongbo; Yao, Shuhuai

    2013-11-01

    Biomarkers are usually low-abundance proteins in biofluids and below detection limit of conventional biosensors. Nanofluidic concentration devices allow efficient biomolecules trapping by utilizing ion concentration polarization near nanochannels. However, once the electric field is turned off, the electrokinetic concentration plug cannot maintain its concentration status and starts to diffuse. In order to maintain the high concentration and extract the concentrated sample for further analysis, a good approach is to encapsulate these plugs into water-in-oil droplets. Here we developed a nanofluidic concentrator based on droplet-on-demand generator to encapsulate concentrated sample in nL droplets. The lithography-free nanochannels were patterned by thermal cracking on the surface of PS Petri-dish. The resulting nanochannel arrays were 30 nm in depth. In combination with microchannels on PDMS, the micro-nano hybrid chip was developed. We used FITC solution to demonstrate that the chip significantly increased the sample concentration for more than 100 folds within 5 minutes. By tuning the pulsed pressure imposed by the solenoid valve connected to the concentration channel, the system can generate a desired volume of droplet with a target sample concentration at a prescribed time. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong under General Research Fund (Grant No. 621110).

  12. Antibody bond to the microcrystalline cellulose in progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krnavek, B.

    1992-01-01

    A suspension of microcrystalline cellulose with bonded globulin fraction of the polyclonal antibody against progesterone was prepared and applied to the radioimmunoanalysis of progesterone in full milk and in blood serum. The results were compared with those obtained using RETRO-test kits; the comparison gave evidence that the novel technique can fully replace the RETRO-test, the elimination of the separating medium (activated carbon, polyethylene glycol) being an asset. The obtained correlation coefficient and regression equation for a simultaneous determination of 120 samples by the two methods were r = 0.964 and y = 1.113x - 0.939, respectively

  13. Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin does not increase progesterone production by luteinized granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, John R; Shah, Anish A; Schomberg, David W; Price, Thomas M

    2012-09-01

    Trophoblast-derived human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) promotes corpus luteum progesterone (P4) production, and wide ranges of serum P4 levels are noted in various pregnancy outcomes, despite similar hCG concentrations. There are five unique biologically active hCG variants in human pregnancy urine, and previous studies of P4 production in response to hCG have used only preparations containing all isoforms. Understanding exactly which hCG variant is primarily responsible for stimulating corpus luteum steroidogenesis may have great clinical and diagnostic implications, including in the setting of ectopic pregnancy. Our objective was to delineate the role of the standard and hyperglycosylated (H)-hCG isoforms in stimulating P4 production by luteinized granulosa cells. Cell culture, ELISA, and fluorometric-based protein assays were done at Duke University Medical Center. Patients were anonymous oocyte donors. Cultured luteinized granulosa cells were treated with 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ng/ml total hCG, which contains all isoforms, purified standard hCG (37.1 kDa), and purified H-hCG (42.8 kDa). P4 produced per total cellular protein (nanograms per microgram) was measured via ELISA and fluorometric protein determination kits. Both total hCG (P = 0.0003) and purified standard hCG (P production. Purified H-hCG did not change the P4 produced per total cellular protein response (P value not significant). Standard hCG stimulated P4 production by cultured granulosa cells and likely supports corpus luteum function via interactions with the LH/hCG receptor. In contrast, H-hCG did not increase P4 production, which indicates a nonsteroidogenic role for this protein during early gestation.

  14. Whispering Gallery Mode Based Optical Fiber Sensor for Measuring Concentration of Salt Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optical fiber solution-concentration sensor based on whispering gallery mode (WGM is proposed in this paper. The WGM solution-concentration sensors were used to measure salt solutions, in which the concentrations ranged from 1% to 25% and the wavelength drifted from the left to the right. The experimental results showed an average sensitivity of approximately 0.372 nm/% and an R2 linearity of 0.8835. The proposed WGM sensors are of low cost, feasible for mass production, and durable for solution-concentration sensing.

  15. Method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenberg, H.R.; Willemsen, J.H.A.; Starmans, D.A.J.; Hoving, H.D.; Winters, M.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Described is a method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material, such as coffee or tea, and in particular cocoa, at least comprising the steps of: introducing the food base material into an aqueous extractant and incubating the food base material

  16. EFFECT OF POST-MATING GNRH TREATMET ON SERUM PROGESTERONE, LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS, DURATION OF ESTROUS CYCLE AND PREGNANCY RATES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. YILDIZ, E. KAYGUSUZOĞLU, M. KAYA1 AND M. ÇENESIZ1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rate, estrous cycle lenght, serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations were determined in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 10.5 μg synthetic gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist, receptal administered cows on day 12 post-mating (n=9 compared to control cows (n=8. Their oestrous cycles were synchronised by intramuscular administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (its analog, cloprostenol twice at 11 days interval. Estrous exhibited cows were mated naturally. Blood samples were collected every two days from all animals. Serum progesterone and LH concentrations were measured by ELISA method. GnRH administration significantly increased serum LH concentration which reached peak levels 2-3 h after treatment. However, serum progesterone concentration was not affected. There were no differences in mean progesterone concentrations on days 12 to 24 post-mating between GnRH administrated and control pregnant cows. However, in non pregnant animals, progesterone concentrations on days 16 in the treated group were lower than control group (P<0.01. Pregnancy diagnosis in animals made by B-mode ultrasonography between the 30th and 35th day showed that 77.7% of treated cows were pregnant compared to 50% in control group. Duration of the estrous cycle in the non-pregnant animals was not affected by the treatment (control, 21.3 ± 0.8 days; treated, 22.5 ± 0.5 days. In conclusion, this study supports the use of GnRH on day 12 post-mating as a method for enhancing pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cattle.

  17. Compact high-flux two-stage solar collectors based on tailored edge-ray concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert P.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Ries, Harald

    1995-08-01

    Using the recently-invented tailored edge-ray concentrator (TERC) approach for the design of compact two-stage high-flux solar collectors--a focusing primary reflector and a nonimaging TERC secondary reflector--we present: 1) a new primary reflector shape based on the TERC approach and a secondary TERC tailored to its particular flux map, such that more compact concentrators emerge at flux concentration levels in excess of 90% of the thermodynamic limit; and 2) calculations and raytrace simulations result which demonstrate the V-cone approximations to a wide variety of TERCs attain the concentration of the TERC to within a few percent, and hence represent practical secondary concentrators that may be superior to corresponding compound parabolic concentrator or trumpet secondaries.

  18. Reproductive performance of postpartum ewes treated with insulin or progesterone hormones in association with ram effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Silva, J C; Basto, Srl; Tenório Filho, F; Moura, M T; Silva Filho, M L; Oliveira, Mal

    2017-08-01

    The reproductive performance of postpartum Santa Inês (SI) and Morada Nova (MN) ewes treated with insulin or progesterone hormones in association with ram effect was evaluated. Ewes from SI (n = 69) and MN (n = 69) breeds were randomly allocated to three groups of each breed (T1-ram effect only; T2-ram effect + insulin; T3-ram effect + progesterone). Progesterone concentrations (ηg/ml; mean ± SD) before and after introduction of rams (n = 6) were 0.51 ± 0.22 and 3.78 ± 0.68 (T1), 0.65 ± 0.21 and 3.77 ± 0.78 (T2) and 0.52 ± 0.21 and 3.84 ± 0.84 (T3) in SI ewes and 0.74 ± 0.19 and 3.71 ± 0.56 (T1), 0.70 ± 0.21 and 3.79 ± 0.75 (T2) and 0.81 ± 0.14 and 3.87 ± 0.80 (T3) in MN ewes, respectively. Thus, lower progesterone concentrations were found before the introduction of rams (p ewes and at 64 (T1), 40 (T2) and 44 (T3) hr in MN ewes. The mean number of ovulations was similar between groups (p > .05), was 1.3 ± 0.51 (T1), 1.5 ± 0.54 (T2) and 1.6 ± 0.51 (T3) in SI ewes and 1.3 ± 0.51 (T1), 1.6 ± 0.51 (T2) and 1.6 ± 0.51 (T3) in MN ewes. In conclusion, the ram effect alone is effective at inducing and synchronizing oestrus in sheep under postpartum anoestrus, irrespective of hormone treatments. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graceli, J.B.; Cicilini, M.A.; Bissoli, N.S.; Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of extracellular Na + and Cl - concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na + and Cl - reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 , sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 , sc). We assessed Na + and Cl - fractional excretion (FE Na + and FE Cl - , respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FE Na + , FE Cl - , water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FE Na + , FE Cl - , water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen, and progesterone in the modulation of renal function

  20. Use of Progesterone Treatment for the Prevention of Recurrent Preterm Birth: Identification of Obstacles to Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Arianne C.; Goossens, Astrid; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Boer, Kees; Bruinse, Hein W.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone treatment has proven to be effective in preventing recurrent preterm birth. The use of progesterone varies widely between different obstetric clinics in the Netherlands. The study aimed to identify factors that hamper or facilitate the use of progesterone to create an implementation

  1. Implications of progesterone metabolism in MA-10 cells for accurate measurement of the rate of steroidogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.F.G. Rommerts (Focko); S.R. King (Steven); P.N. Span (Paul)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn virtually all studies with MA-10 cells, progesterone RIAs have been used to measure steroid synthesis. To test whether progesterone is a stable end product, we investigated the metabolism of added tritiated progesterone and pregnenolone in MA-10 cells over a period

  2. A functional polymorphism in the promoter of the progesterone receptor gene associated with endometrial cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vivo, Immaculata; Huggins, Gordon S; Hankinson, Susan E; Lescault, Pamela J; Boezen, Hendrika; Colditz, Graham A; Hunter, David J

    2002-01-01

    Excessive estrogen stimulation unopposed by progesterone strongly predisposes to endometrial cancer. Because the antiproliferative effect of progesterone requires the progesterone receptor (PR), which exists in two isoforms, PR-A and -B, we reasoned that variants in the PR gene may predispose to

  3. Implications of progesterone metabolism in MA-10 cells for accurate measurement of the rate of steroidogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommerts, F.F.; King, S.R.; Span, P.N.

    2001-01-01

    In virtually all studies with MA-10 cells, progesterone RIAs have been used to measure steroid synthesis. To test whether progesterone is a stable end product, we investigated the metabolism of added tritiated progesterone and pregnenolone in MA-10 cells over a period of 3 h. Steroids were then

  4. Determination of progesterone for reproduction control in cows using a 3H radioimmunoassay. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubert, H.; Barth, T.; Hempel, G.; Graeser, K.

    1984-01-01

    For verification of cow fertility a 3 H radioimmunoassay of progesterone in milk and blood plasma was developed. It is of high specificity and accuracy as well. Extraction of progesterone from milk was facilitated by application of alcohol. Suggested differences in milk and plasma progesterone levels between pregnant and nonpregnant cows could be revealed

  5. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Three Forms of Vaginal Progesterone Administered in Either Single Or Multiple Dose Regimen in Healthy Post-menopausal Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Shentu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A generic vaginal progesterone gel has recently been developed in China. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties in Chinese subjects. The purpose of our study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of three forms of vaginal progesterone gel (test formulations at 4 and 8% strength vs. a reference formulation: Crinone 8% in Chinese healthy post-menopausal women.Methods: This study consisted of two parts study. The part 1 study was a single-center, open-label, 3-period study. Twelve healthy post-menopausal women were to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of 45 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 4% following single dose and multiple doses administered once every other day (q.o.d. for six times or once daily (q.d. for 6 days. The part 2 study was a randomized, open-label, 3-stage crossover study. Twelve post-menopausal women received 90 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 8% or 90 mg Crinone (Reference 8% following single dose and multiple doses (q.o.d. or q.d.. Plasma concentrations of progesterone were measured up to 72 h by using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞ were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data.Results: Totally 24 subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Following single dose, The geometric mean Cmax values for Test 4%, Test 8%, and Crinone 8% were 6.35, 10.34, 10.45 ng/mL, and their geometric mean AUC0-t (AUC0-∞ were 113.73 (118.00, 169.39 (173.98, and 190.07 (201.13 ng⋅h/mL, respectively. The mean T1/2 values of progesterone were 11.00, 10.92, and 11.40 h, respectively. For 8% test formulation vs. reference, the 90% CIs of the least squares mean test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 78.32–124

  6. Use of a radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone for predicting litter size and subsequent adaptation of feeding level in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiel, D.F.M. van de; Visscher, A.H.; Dekker, T.P.

    1976-01-01

    Litter sizes in ewes were predicted using the plasma progesterone concentration at 80-110 days after mating, with or without multiplication by bodyweight, as well as a priori probabilities and expected economic losses caused by incorrect classifications. Progesterone was assayed using a fluorimetric method and radioimmunoassay, and the results of both methods were compared in the Texel breed. Ewes were allotted to three feeding classes, according to the predicted litter sizes of 0-1, 2-3 and >=4 lambs. Using these classes the fluorimetric method gave 82.9% correct classifications, and the radioimmunoassay 80.0% correct. When calculated on the total of 194 ewes of the Finnish Landrace, Ile de France and Texel breeds, the fluorimetric method showed an accuracy of 65.0% correct classifications. (author)

  7. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary

  8. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary.

  9. Multiple sclerosis: Neuroprotective alliance of estrogen-progesterone and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kipp, M.; Amor, S.; Kraut, R.; Beyer, C.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of 17β-estradiol and progesterone as neuroprotective factors is well-recognized. Persuasive data comes from in vitro and animal models reflecting a wide range of CNS disorders. These studies have endeavored to translate findings into human therapies. Nonetheless, few human studies show

  10. Molecular profiles of progesterone receptor loss in human breast tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creighton, Chad J.; Kent Osborne, C.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Foekens, John A.; Klijn, Jan G.; Horlings, Hugo M.; Nuyten, Dimitry; Wang, Yixin; Zhang, Yi; Chamness, Gary C.; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Lee, Adrian V.; Schiff, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Background Patient prognosis and response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer correlate with protein expression of both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), with poorer outcome in patients with ER+/PR- compared to ER+/PR+ tumors. Methods To better understand the underlying

  11. Rodent Models of Non-classical Progesterone Action Regulating Ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A. Mittelman-Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that steroid hormones act not only by binding to nuclear receptors that associate with specific response elements in the nucleus but also by binding to receptors on the cell membrane. In this newly discovered manner, steroid hormones can initiate intracellular signaling cascades which elicit rapid effects such as release of internal calcium stores and activation of kinases. We have learned much about the translocation and signaling of steroid hormone receptors from investigations into estrogen receptor α, which can be trafficked to, and signal from, the cell membrane. It is now clear that progesterone (P4 can also elicit effects that cannot be exclusively explained by transcriptional changes. Similar to E2 and its receptors, P4 can initiate signaling at the cell membrane, both through progesterone receptor and via a host of newly discovered membrane receptors (e.g., membrane progesterone receptors, progesterone receptor membrane components. This review discusses the parallels between neurotransmitter-like E2 action and the more recently investigated non-classical P4 signaling, in the context of reproductive behaviors in the rodent.

  12. Radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone. Methods - Results - Indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonon-Estrangin, Chantal.

    1978-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone carried out at the hormonology Laboratory of the Grenoble University Hospital Centre (Professor E. Chambaz), to compare our results with those of the literature and to present the main clinical indications of this analysis. The measurement method has proved reproducible, specific (the steroid purification stage is unnecessary) and sensitive (detection: 10 picograms of progesterone per tube). In seven normally menstruating women our results agree with published values: (in nanograms per millilitre: ng/ml) 0.07 ng/ml to 0.9 ng/ml in the follicular phase, from the start of menstruation until ovulation, then rapid increase at ovulation with a maximum in the middle of the luteal phase (our values for this maximum range from 7.9 ng/ml to 21.7 ng/ml) and gradual drop in progesterone secretion until the next menstrual period. In gynecology the radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone is valuable for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes: - to diagnosis the absence of corpus luteum, - to judge the effectiveness of an ovulation induction treatment [fr

  13. Effect of Progesterone Therapy versus Diet Modification on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progesterone therapy) compared to Group A (diet modification) (54% [154/281] and 62.98% [177/281] vs. 89.76% [614/684] and 91.08% [623/684], respectively) (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). Straining during defecation and manual maneuvers ...

  14. Influence of Dexamethasone on Some Reproductive Hormones and Uterine Progesterone Receptor Localization in Pregnant Yankasa Sheep in Semiarid Zones of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahi, Dauda; Ojo, Nicholas Adetayo; Mshelia, Gideon Dauda

    2017-01-01

    Dexamethasone is widely used in both veterinary and human medical practices. However, it seems to cause some deleterious effects on pregnancy probably by causing changes in the reproductive hormone levels and their corresponding receptor concentrations. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone on these parameters. Twenty healthy adult Yankasa sheep comprising 18 ewes and 2 rams were used for this study. Pregnancies were achieved by natural mating after estrus synchronization. Dexamethasone was administered at 0.25 mg/kg body weight on days 1, 3, and 5 during first trimester; days 51, 53, and 55 during second trimester; and days 101, 103, and 105 during the third trimester. Blood samples were collected biweekly for hormonal assay. Uterine biopsies were harvested through caesarean section for immunohistochemical analysis. Results showed that dexamethasone significantly ( p progesterone concentrations and caused abortion in Yankasa sheep but had no significant ( p > 0.05) effect on estrogen, while progesterone receptors (PR) were upregulated. The abortion could probably be due to decreased progesterone concentrations as a consequence of the adverse effects on placenta. The PR upregulation may be a compensatory mechanism to increase progesterone sensitivity. It was concluded that dexamethasone should not be used in advanced pregnancy in Yankasa sheep.

  15. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Et

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26 were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7th day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6 received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10 received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10 received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Results: Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05. No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Conclusion: Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  16. Templates to classify progesterone profiles, built using real-time milk progesterone measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derks, M.; Blavy, Pierre; Höglund, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Modern dairy herds resemble factories. Cows, organized in production units, are manufacturing milk from many components (e.g. concentrates, silage). However, both production units and components can greatly differ between each other. Therefore, production optimization based on general...... recommendations might be inefficient. Instead, as in manufacturing industry, decision support could be based on systematic experimentation within ongoing production system. This concept, known as Evolutionary Operations (EVOP), is based on small changes to the production system. However, a challenge here is lack...... of a tool which would allow a farmer to assess how small changes, for example in feeding, influence productivity. The objective of this study was to construct a multivariate dynamic linear model (DLM) to assess the intervention effect on milk production.The DLM was built to account for intervention...

  17. Hair cortisol and progesterone detection in dairy cattle: interrelation with physiological status and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo-Parra, O; Carbajal, A; Monclús, L; Manteca, X; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2018-07-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) and hair progesterone concentrations (HPCs) allow monitoring long-term retrospective steroid levels. However, there are still gaps in the knowledge of the mechanisms of steroid deposition in hair and its potential application in dairy cattle research. This study aimed to evaluate the potential uses of hair steroid determinations by studying the interrelations between HCC, HPC, physiological data from cows, and their milk production and quality. Cortisol and progesterone concentrations were analyzed in hair from 101 milking Holstein Friesian cows in a commercial farm. Physiological data were obtained from the 60 d prior to hair collection. Moreover, productive data from the month when hair was collected and the previous one were also obtained as well as at 124 d after hair sampling. Significant but weak correlations were found between HCC and HPC (r = 0.25, P < 0.0001) and between HPC and age (r = 0.06, P = 0.0133). High HCC were associated with low milk yields from the 2 previous months to hair sampling (P = 0.0396) and during the whole lactation (P < 0.0001). High HCC were also related to high somatic cell count (P = 0.0241). No effect of HCC on fat or protein content was detected. No significant correlations were detected between hair steroid concentrations and pregnancy status, days of gestation, parturition category (primiparous vs multiparous), number of lactations or days in milk. The relationship between physiological variables and HCC or HPC could depend on the duration of the time period over which hair accumulates hormones. Steroid concentrations in hair present high variability between individuals but are a potential tool for dairy cattle welfare and production research by providing a useful and practical tool for long-term steroid monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Basal progesterone level as the main determinant of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG triggering in controlled ovarian stimulation cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Enrico; Corti, Laura; Vanni, Valeria Stella; Pagliardini, Luca; Ottolina, Jessica; De Michele, Francesca; La Marca, Antonio; Viganò, Paola; Candiani, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    Modest increases of serum progesterone at human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) cycles have been shown to have a negative impact on pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify early predictors of progesterone elevation at hCG. Pregnancy outcome of 303 consecutive patients undergoing COH and fresh day-3 embryo transfer was analysed. Considering the non-linear relationship between progesterone at hCG triggering and pregnancy outcomes, partial area under the curve (pAUC) analysis was used to implement marker identification potential of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Multivariate logistic analysis was then performed to identify predictors of progesterone rise. Pregnancy outcomes could be predicted by pAUC analysis (pAUC = 0.58, 95 % CI 0.51-0.66, p = 0.02) and a significant detrimental cut-off could be calculated (progesterone at hCG > 1.35 ng/ml). Total dose of rFSH administered, E2 level at hCG but mostly basal progesterone level (OR = 12.21, 95 % CI 1.82-81.70) were predictors of progesterone rise above the cut-off. Basal progesterone is shown to be the main prognostic factor for progesterone elevation. This observation should be taken into consideration in the clinical management of IVF/ICSI cycles to improve pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Endocrine correlates of reproduction in the wolf. I. Serum progesterone, estradiol and LH during the estrous cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.; Packard, J.M.; Mech, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    The estrous cycle of 10 intact female wolves, aged 8 months-8 years at the initiation of the study, was characterized in terms of vaginal smears, behavioral observations and serum concentrations of estradiol-17β, progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) from January through June. No estrous cycles occurred in these animals between June and December. All were housed with male wolves. Two pups and 1 adult remained anestrous during this interval. One pup and 2 adults produced litters between May 4-6. Four adults exhibited endocrine changes similar to those of the pregnant animals but no litters or signs of abortion were observed. The duration of proestrus was 15.7 ± 1.6 days (X ± SEM, n = 6), of estrus 9.0 ± 1.2 days (n = 4) and of the luteal phase 63 ± 2 days (n = 6). The duration of pregnancy was between 60-65 days. The anestrous females (86 blood samples) had 6 progesterone values between 1-2 ng/ml and the remainder below 1 ng/ml. Their estradiol-17β concentrations varied between 5-20 pg/ml. Values for LH varied between 0.1-2 ng/ml, except for 1 value above 15 ng/ml for each of the 2 anestrous pups on 12 January.The 7 estrous animals (260 samples) included 1 pup and 2 adults that delivered litters. Estradiol-17β varied between 10-20 pg/ml during proestrus, peaked at 30-70 pg/ml late in proestrus and fluctuated between 10-30 pg/ml during pregnancy or the duration of luteal activity in the nonpregnant animals. The preovulatory LH rise, 5-15 ng/ml, extended over 3 days during and immediately following the peak estradiol-17β values. An earlier elevation in LH was observed in 3 of the estrous animals. Progesterone began increasing during the LH surge and peaked 11-14 days later at 22-40 ng/ml. Progesterone concentrations greater than 3 ng/ml were maintained for 56-68 days in 6 of the 7 animals exhibiting estrus. Progesterone concentrations declined at parturition but continued to fluctuate between 0.2-3 ng/ml for 3-6 weeks.

  20. Polymer Optical Fiber Compound Parabolic Concentrator fiber tip based glucose sensor: In-Vitro Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Janting, Jakob; Aasmul, Soren

    2016-01-01

    We present in-vitro sensing of glucose using a newly developed efficient optical fiber glucose sensor based on a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) tipped polymer optical fiber (POF). A batch of 9 CPC tipped POF sensors with a 35 mm fiber length is shown to have an enhanced fluorescence pickup...... efficiency with an average increment factor of 1.7 as compared to standard POF sensors with a plane cut fiber tip. Invitro measurements for two glucose concentrations (40 and 400 mg/dL) confirm that the CPC tipped sensors efficiently can detect both glucose concentrations. it sets the footnote at the bottom...

  1. Gas Concentration Prediction Based on the Measured Data of a Coal Mine Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coal mine environment is complex and dangerous after gas accident; then a timely and effective rescue and relief work is necessary. Hence prediction of gas concentration in front of coal mine rescue robot is an important significance to ensure that the coal mine rescue robot carries out the exploration and search and rescue mission. In this paper, a gray neural network is proposed to predict the gas concentration 10 meters in front of the coal mine rescue robot based on the gas concentration, temperature, and wind speed of the current position and 1 meter in front. Subsequently the quantum genetic algorithm optimization gray neural network parameters of the gas concentration prediction method are proposed to get more accurate prediction of the gas concentration in the roadway. Experimental results show that a gray neural network optimized by the quantum genetic algorithm is more accurate for predicting the gas concentration. The overall prediction error is 9.12%, and the largest forecasting error is 11.36%; compared with gray neural network, the gas concentration prediction error increases by 55.23%. This means that the proposed method can better allow the coal mine rescue robot to accurately predict the gas concentration in the coal mine roadway.

  2. Spatio-temporal Analysis of suspended sediment Concentration in the Yongjiang Estuary Based on GOCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanyan; Dong, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The concentration and spatio-temporal variation of suspended sediment concentration in the estuary area are of great significance to the nearshore engineering, port construction and coastal evolution. Based on multi-period GOCI images and corresponding measured suspended sediment concentration (SSC) data, three inversion models (the linear regression model, the power exponent model and the neural network model) were established after rapid atmospheric correction. The results show that the absolute error of the three models is 0.20, 0.16 and 0.10kg/m3 respectively, and the relative errors are 38%, 23% and 18% respectively. The accuracy of the neural network (8-17-17-1) is the best. The SSC distribution diagrams in an ebb and flow cycle are obtained using this ANN model. The results show that with Yongjiang estuary for segmentation, the high concentration area is located in the north and the lower is in the south around Jintang Island deeper water area. When the tide rises, the water flow disturbs a large amount of sediment, and then the sediment concentration increases and high area high concentrations water body moves along the SE-NW. When the tide falls, flow rate decreases and the sediment concentration decreases. However, with the falling tide, the concentration of suspended sediment in the northern sea areas gradually increases, and is higher than 1kg/m3, and gradually moves along the NW-SE until to the estuary.

  3. Estimation of local concentration from measurements of stochastic adsorption dynamics using carbon nanotube-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hong; Lee, Jay H.; Braatz, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method for estimating time varying local concentration of the target molecule proximate to the sensor from the time profile of monomolecular adsorption and desorption on the surface of the sensor at nanoscale. Recently, several carbon nanotube sensors have been developed that can selectively detect target molecules at a trace concentration level. These sensors use light intensity changes mediated by adsorption or desorption phenomena on their surfaces. The molecular events occurring at trace concentration levels are inherently stochastic, posing a challenge for optimal estimation. The stochastic behavior is modeled by the chemical master equation (CME), composed of a set of ordinary differential equations describing the time evolution of probabilities for the possible adsorption states. Given the significant stochastic nature of the underlying phenomena, rigorous stochastic estimation based on the CME should lead to an improved accuracy over than deterministic estimation formulated based on the continuum model. Motivated by this expectation, we formulate the MLE based on an analytical solution of the relevant CME, both for the constant and the time-varying local concentrations, with the objective of estimating the analyte concentration field in real time from the adsorption readings of the sensor array. The performances of the MLE and the deterministic least squares are compared using data generated by kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the stochastic process. Some future challenges are described for estimating and controlling the concentration field in a distributed domain using the sensor technology.

  4. Progesterone and progesterone receptor modulators in the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaulikar, Vikram Sinai; Manyonda, Isaac

    2012-12-01

    The majority of symptomatic uterine fibroids are currently treated by surgical interventions (myomectomy or hysterectomy) or radiological treatments (uterine artery embolisation or focussed ultrasound surgery). None of these treatments is a panacea, and what is conspicuous is the lack of an effective long-term medical therapy for a disorder so common among women of reproductive age. It has been known for some time that progesterone and its receptors enhance proliferative activity in fibroids and this has raised the possibility that anti-progestins and (PRMs) could be useful in the medical management of fibroids. Some of the compounds which have produced promising results in recent clinical trials or research studies include mifepristone, CDB-4124 (telapristone), CP-8947, J-867 (asoprisnil) and CDB-2914 (ulipristal acetate or UA). UA has recently completed Phase III clinical trials with very encouraging results, and has now acquired a licence for clinical use in Europe. While considerable research has yet to be done on the long-term safety and efficacy of UA there is nevertheless good reason for optimism on the emergence of effective medical therapy in the form of UA and possibly other PRMs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The classification of PM10 concentrations in Johor Based on Seasonal Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Hazrul Abdul; Hanafi Rahmat, Muhamad; Aisyah Sapani, Siti

    2018-04-01

    Air is the most important living resource in life. Contaminated air could adversely affect human health and the environment, especially during the monsoon season. Contamination occurs as a result of human action and haze. There are several pollutants present in the air where one of them is PM10. Secondary data was obtained from the Department of Environment from 2010 until 2014 and was analyzed using the hourly average of PM10 concentrations. This paper examined the relation between PM10 concentrations and the monsoon seasons (Northeast Monsoon and Southwest Monsoon) in Larkin and Pasir Gudang. It was expected that the concentration of PM10 would be higher during the Southwest Monsoon as it is a dry season. The data revealed that the highest PM10 concentrations were recorded between 2010 to 2014 during this particular monsoon season. The characteristics of PM10 concentration were compared using descriptive statistics based on the monsoon seasons and classified using the hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward Methods). The annual average of PM10 concentration during the Southwest Monsoon had exceeded the standard set by the Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (50 μg/m3) while the PM10 concentration during the Northeast Monsoon was below the acceptable level for both stations. The dendrogram displayed showed two clusters for each monsoon season for both stations excepted for the PM10 concentration during the Northeast Monsoon in Larkin which was classified into three clusters due to the haze in 2010. Overall, the concentration of PM10 in 2013 was higher based on the clustering shown for every monsoon season at both stations according to the characteristics in the descriptive statistics.

  6. Progesterone pretreatment increases the stress response to social isolation in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Melo, Aline; Damián, Juan Pablo; Hötzel, Maria José; Banchero, Georgget; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, progesterone (P4) pretreatment increases anxiety and response to stressors. Social isolation is a stressor that generates physiological and behavioural stress responses in sheep. The aim of the study was to compare the stress response of anoestrous ewes previously treated or not with P4 to the social isolation test. Ten ewes received P4 treatment during 13 d (group P4-W) and another 10 remained untreated as controls (group Con). The ewes were individually isolated in a novel place during 10 min, 24 h after the end of P4 pretreatment and their behaviours were recorded. Cortisol and P4 concentrations as well as body surface temperature were recorded before and after the test. Ewes of the P4-W group presented higher cortisol levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after the social isolation and had greater area under the curve of cortisol compared to Con ewes (41,785%±4,156% vs. 25,682%±4,565% during 75 min). Progesterone and body surface temperature increased after social isolation, with no differences between P4-W and Con ewes. There were no differences in behavioural responses to social isolation. P4 pretreatment appears to augment the stress response to social isolation in anoestrous ewes.

  7. Screening for strains with 11α-hydroxylase activity for 17α-hydroxy progesterone biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Qiao, Yuqian; Shen, Yanbing; Wang, Min; Wang, Xibo; Liu, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Various corticosteroids are prepared by using 11α,17α-diOH-progesterone (11α,17α-diOH-PROG) as an important intermediate and raw material. Hence, strains that can improve the yields of 11α,17α-diOH-PROG should be screened. Cunninghamella elegans CICC40250 was singled out from five common 11α hydroxylation strains. The reaction parameters of 11α,17α-diOH-PROG production were also investigated. C. elegans CICC40250 could efficiently catalyze the hydroxylation of 17α-hydroxy progesterone (17α-OH-PROG) at C-11α position. This strain could also effectively convert 11α,17α-diOH-PROG at high substrate concentrations (up to 30g/L). After the coenzyme precursor glucose was added, the rate of 11α,17α-diOH-PROG formation reached 84.2%, which was 11.4% higher than that of the control group. Our study established a simple and feasible mechanism to increase 11α,17α-diOH-PROG production levels. This mechanism involves C. elegans CICC40250 that can be efficiently applied to induce the biotransformation of 17α-OH-PROG with a hydroxylation biocatalytic ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Dosing strategy based on prevailing aminoglycoside minimum inhibitory concentration in India: Evidence and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Veeraraghavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoglycosides are important agents used for treating drug-resistant infections. The current dosing regimen of aminoglycosides does not achieve sufficient serum level concentration for the infected bacterial pathogen interpreted as susceptible based on laboratory testing. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for nearly 2000 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by broth microdilution method. Results were interpreted based on CLSI and EUCAST interpretative criteria and the inconsistencies in the susceptibility profile were noted. This study provides insights into the inconsistencies existing in the laboratory interpretation and the corresponding clinical success rates. This urges the need for revising clinical breakpoints for amikacin, to resolve under dosing leading to clinical failure.

  9. Model methodology for estimating pesticide concentration extremes based on sparse monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2018-03-22

    This report describes a new methodology for using sparse (weekly or less frequent observations) and potentially highly censored pesticide monitoring data to simulate daily pesticide concentrations and associated quantities used for acute and chronic exposure assessments, such as the annual maximum daily concentration. The new methodology is based on a statistical model that expresses log-transformed daily pesticide concentration in terms of a seasonal wave, flow-related variability, long-term trend, and serially correlated errors. Methods are described for estimating the model parameters, generating conditional simulations of daily pesticide concentration given sparse (weekly or less frequent) and potentially highly censored observations, and estimating concentration extremes based on the conditional simulations. The model can be applied to datasets with as few as 3 years of record, as few as 30 total observations, and as few as 10 uncensored observations. The model was applied to atrazine, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and fipronil data for U.S. Geological Survey pesticide sampling sites with sufficient data for applying the model. A total of 112 sites were analyzed for atrazine, 38 for carbaryl, 34 for chlorpyrifos, and 33 for fipronil. The results are summarized in this report; and, R functions, described in this report and provided in an accompanying model archive, can be used to fit the model parameters and generate conditional simulations of daily concentrations for use in investigations involving pesticide exposure risk and uncertainty.

  10. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  11. Prediction of indoor radon concentration based on residence location and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, I.; Voutilainen, A.; Castren, O.

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a model for assessing indoor radon concentrations in houses where measurements cannot be performed. It has been used in an epidemiological study and to determine the radon potential of new building sites. The model is based on data from about 10,000 buildings. Integrated radon measurements were made during the cold season in all the houses; their geographic coordinates were also known. The 2-mo measurement results were corrected to annual average concentrations. Construction data were collected from questionnaires completed by residents; geological data were determined from geological maps. Data were classified according to geographical, geological, and construction factors. In order to describe different radon production levels, the country was divided into four zones. We assumed that the factors were multiplicative, and a linear concentration-prediction model was used. The most significant factor in determining radon concentration was the geographical region, followed by soil type, year of construction, and type of foundation. The predicted indoor radon concentrations given by the model varied from 50 to 440 Bq m -3 . The lower figure represents a house with a basement, built in the 1950s on clay soil, in the region with the lowest radon concentration levels. The higher value represents a house with a concrete slab in contact with the ground, built in the 1980s, on gravel, in the region with the highest average radon concentration

  12. Progesterone mediates brain functional connectivity changes during the menstrual cycle - A pilot resting state MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eArelin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in intrinsic brain organization has sparked various innovative approaches to generating comprehensive connectivity-based maps of the human brain. Prior reports point to a sexual dimorphism of the structural and functional human connectome. However, it is uncertain whether subtle changes in sex hormones, as occur during the monthly menstrual cycle, substantially impact the functional architecture of the female brain. Here, we performed eigenvector centrality (EC mapping in 32 longitudinal resting state fMRI scans of a single healthy subject without oral contraceptive use, across four menstrual cycles, and assessed estrogen and progesterone levels. To investigate associations between cycle-dependent hormones and brain connectivity, we performed correlation analyses between the EC maps and the respective hormone levels. On the whole brain level, we found a significant positive correlation between progesterone and EC in the bilateral DLPFC and bilateral sensorimotor cortex. In a secondary region-of-interest analysis, we detected a progesterone-modulated increase in functional connectivity of both bilateral DLPFC and bilateral sensorimotor cortex with the hippocampus. Our results suggest that the menstrual cycle substantially impacts intrinsic functional connectivity, particularly in brain areas associated with contextual memory-regulation, such as the hippocampus. These findings are the first to link the subtle hormonal fluctuations that occur during the menstrual cycle, to significant changes in regional functional connectivity in the hippocampus in a longitudinal design, given the limitation of data acquisition in a single subject. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of such a longitudinal rs-fMRI design and illustrates a means of creating a personalized map of the human brain by integrating potential mediators of brain states, such as menstrual cycle phase.

  13. Evanescent Wave Absorption Based Fiber Sensor for Measuring Glucose Solution Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ahmad; Candra Pratiwi, Arni; Suryanti, Venty

    2018-03-01

    An optical fiber sensor based on evanescent wave absorption designed for measuring glucose solution consentration was proposed. The sensor was made to detect absorbance of various wavelength in the glucose solution. The sensing element was fabricated by side polishing of multimode polymer optical fiber to form a D-shape. The sensing element was immersed in different concentration of glucoce solution. As light propagated through the optical fiber, the evanescent wave interacted with the glucose solution. Light was absorbed by the glucose solution. The larger concentration the glucose solution has, the more the evanescent wave was absorbed in particular wavelenght. Here in this paper, light absorbtion as function of glucose concentration was measured as function of wavelength (the color of LED). We have shown that the proposed sensor can demonstrated an increase of light absorption as function of glucose concentration.

  14. Effects of ammonia concentration on the thermodynamic performances of ammonia–water based power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Han, Chul Ho; Kim, Kyoungjin

    2012-01-01

    The power generation systems using a binary working fluid such as ammonia–water mixture are proven to be the feasible method for utilizing a low-temperature waste heat source. In this work, ammonia–water based Rankine (AWR) regenerative Rankine (AWRR) power generation cycles are comparatively analyzed by investigating the effects of ammonia mass concentration in the working fluid on the thermodynamic performances of systems. Temperature distributions of fluid streams in the heat exchanging devices are closely examined at different levels of ammonia concentration and they might be the most important design consideration in optimizing the power systems using a binary working fluid. The analysis shows that the lower limit of workable ammonia concentration decreases with increasing turbine inlet pressure. Results also show that both the thermal and exergy efficiencies of AWRR system are generally better than those of AWR system, and can have peaks at the minimum allowable ammonia concentrations in the working range of system operation.

  15. Comparative evaluation of various solid phases for the development of coated tube assays for the estimation of progesterone in human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karir, Tarveen; Samuel, Grace; Sivaprasad, N.; Venkatesh, Meera

    2009-01-01

    Immobilization of progesterone antibody using three polystyrene surfaces and two progesterone radiotracers for use in the development of a coated tube assay for the evaluation of progesterone levels in human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk was studied. The selection of the solid phase and the tracers were based on the maximum binding, non-specific binding, sensitivity and percentage recovery. Amongst the polystyrene tubes studied, streptavidin coated tubes showed the acceptable assay features such as low non-specific binding (0.5-1.0%), adequate sensitivity (0.13-0.16 ng/ml) and recovery (85-115%) for all the three sample matrices, human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk.

  16. Comparative study of radio gas-chromatography and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry coupling in the identification of metabolites of estrogens and progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adessi, G.; Nhuan, T.Q.; Jayle, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    Radio-gas chromatography (RGC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to identify estrogen and progesterone metabolites. The RGC enables the identification of metabolites of labelled precursors ( 3 H)-estradiol-17β and ( 14 C)-progesterone were used as precursors. The GC-MS analytical technique with mass fragmentography, offers the interest of using unlabelled precursors at physiological levels. The identification of metabolites was based on obtaining the mass spectrum or the compiled fragmentogram on the basis of the most characteristic fragment ions. More over, several metabolites can be quantified on the same fragmentogram. Results on the metabolism of estradiol-17β and progesterone by the hepatic tissue of guinea pigs are given. (Auth.)

  17. Toxic mechanisms of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol on progesterone production in R2C rat leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianxia; Bai, Shun; Bai, Weibin; Zou, Feiyan; Zhang, Lei; Su, Zhijian; Zhang, Qihao; Ou, Shiyi; Huang, Yadong

    2013-10-16

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a well-known food processing contaminant that has been shown to impede the male reproductive function. However, its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. In this study, the effects of 3-MCPD on progesterone production were investigated using R2C Leydig cells. 3-MCPD caused concentration-dependent inhibition of cell viability at the IC25, IC50, and IC75 levels of 1.027, 1.802, and 3.160 mM, respectively. Single cell gel/comet assay and atomic force microscopy assay showed that 3-MCPD significantly induced early apoptosis. In addition, 3-MCPD significantly reduced progesterone production by reducing the expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in R2C cells. The change in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression was highly consistent with progesterone production. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential and cAMP significantly decreased.

  18. Androgen deficiency during mid- and late pregnancy alters progesterone production and metabolism in the porcine corpus luteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Malgorzata; Knapczyk-Stwora, Katarzyna; Ciereszko, Renata E; Golas, Aniela; Wieciech, Iwona; Slomczynska, Maria

    2014-06-01

    We determined whether androgen deficiency induced by flutamide treatment during mid- and late pregnancy affects the functions of the porcine corpus luteum (CL). Pregnant gilts were injected with flutamide between days 43 and 49 (gestation day [GD] 50F), days 83 and 89 (GD90F), or days 101 and 107 (GD108F) of gestation. Antiandrogen treatment increased the luteal progesterone concentration in the GD50F group and decreased progesterone content in the GD90F and GD108F groups. Luteal levels of side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated in the GD90F and GD108F groups as compared with the respective controls. The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (HSD3B) mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced only in the GD108F group as compared with the control. Decreased luteal 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C1) mRNA and protein levels were observed in the GD50F group. Thus, androgen deficiency during pregnancy in pigs led to CL dysfunction that is marked by decreased progesterone production. Furthermore, exposure to flutamide during late pregnancy downregulated steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1 and HSD3B) in pigs. We conclude that androgens are important regulators of CL function during pregnancy.

  19. Provision of a simplified methodology for determining estradiol and progesterone receptors in human breast tumours. Internal and external quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinate, Z.

    1990-10-01

    A simplified assay for the detection of progesterone receptors (PR) in human breast tissue is described. Tissue storage is at -20 deg. C rather than -70 deg. C and a centrifugation speed of 20,000 rpm avoids requirement of an ultracentrifuge. Cytosol preparations obtained from homogenized oestradiol benzoate primed wistar rat uteri performed satisfactorily as positive controls with stability of two months in liquid nitrogen. The use of iodinated tracer (progesterone 11 alpha glucuronide 125 I iodotyramine) proved disappointing in the progesterone receptor assay in contrast to 125 I oestradiol which worked well in a oestrogen receptor assay, previously developed. Hydroxyl-apatite was a better separating agent than dextran coated charcoal in both assays and yielded better sensitivity, particularly when protein concentrations were low. Five breast cancer specimens assayed yielded, by Scatchard analysis, Kd values between 12 to 22x10 -9 m|h, comparable to the positive controls. However, two of these had binding site capacity of less than 5 fmol/mg cytosol as compared to the three others and the positive controls where values ranged from 47-196 fmol/mg cytosol. 28 refs, 6 figs, 14 tabs

  20. Follicular dynamics, interval to ovulation and fertility after AI in short-term progesterone and PGF2α oestrous synchronization protocol in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J F; Allende, R; Lara, E; Leiva, A; Díaz, T; Dorado, J; Saravia, F

    2012-12-01

    The study was aimed to assess the influence that short-term progesterone treatments have on follicular dynamics, oestrus and ovulation in sheep. The treatment was tested thereafter in a field trial to assess its fertility after AI with fresh semen. In a first experiment, 12 ewes without CL were grouped to receive a new (n = 6) or used CIDR (n = 6) for 7 days and blood samples were obtained to follow plasma progesterone profiles. In a second experiment, 39 cycling ewes were synchronized by a 7-day P4+PGF2α protocol using a new (n = 20) or a 7-day used CIDR (n = 19). Half of both groups received 400 IU eCG and half remained untreated as controls. Ultrasound ovarian examination and oestrous detection were used to compare follicular dynamics, oestrus and ovulation in both groups. In a third experiment, 288 ewes in 3 farms were synchronized by the short-term P4+PGF2α+eCG protocol and ewes were AI with fresh semen 24 h after oestrous detection. Lambing performance was used to test the fertility of the treatment. In Experiment 1, ewes with new inserts presented higher P4 concentration than ewes with used inserts throughout the sampling period (p 0.10). However, ewes treated with eCG show shorter interval to oestrus (p = 0.004) and tend to have larger mature CL (p = 0.06). In Experiment 3, oestrous presentation and lambing performance after AI with fresh semen was considered normal compared to published results. Results suggest that the oestrous synchronization protocol based on P4+PGF2α allows little control of follicular dynamics without compromising fertility after AI with fresh semen provided that eCG is added at the end of the treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Cation effect on small phosphonium based ionic liquid electrolytes with high concentrations of lithium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Kerr, Robert; Forsyth, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquid electrolytes with high alkali salt concentrations have displayed some excellent electrochemical properties, thus opening up the field for further improvements to liquid electrolytes for lithium or sodium batteries. Fundamental computational investigations into these high concentration systems are required in order to gain a better understanding of these systems, yet they remain lacking. Small phosphonium-based ionic liquids with high concentrations of alkali metal ions have recently shown many promising results in experimental studies, thereby prompting us to conduct further theoretical exploration of these materials. Here, we conducted a molecular dynamics simulation on four small phosphonium-based ionic liquids with 50 mol. % LiFSI salt, focusing on the effect of cation structure on local structuring and ion diffusional and rotational dynamics—which are closely related to the electrochemical properties of these materials.

  2. Knockdown of Progesterone Receptor (PGR) in Macaque Granulosa Cells Disrupts Ovulation and Progesterone Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Cecily V; Hennebold, Jon D; Kahl, Christoph A; Stouffer, Richard L

    2016-05-01

    Adenoviral vectors (vectors) expressing short-hairpin RNAs complementary to macaque nuclear progesterone (P) receptor PGR mRNA (shPGR) or a nontargeting scrambled control (shScram) were used to determine the role PGR plays in ovulation/luteinization in rhesus monkeys. Nonluteinized granulosa cells collected from monkeys (n = 4) undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation protocols were exposed to either shPGR, shScram, or no virus for 24 h; human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was then added to half of the wells to induce luteinization (luteinized granulosa cells [LGCs]; n = 4-6 wells/treatment/monkey). Cells/media were collected 48, 72, and 120 h postvector for evaluation of PGR mRNA and P levels. Addition of hCG increased (P < 0.05) PGR mRNA and medium P levels in controls. However, a time-dependent decline (P < 0.05) in PGR mRNA and P occurred in shPGR vector groups. Injection of shPGR, but not shScram, vector into the preovulatory follicle 20 h before hCG administration during controlled ovulation protocols prevented follicle rupture in five of six monkeys as determined by laparoscopic evaluation, with a trapped oocyte confirmed in three of four follicles of excised ovaries. Injection of shPGR also prevented the rise in serum P levels following the hCG bolus compared to shScram (P < 0.05). Nuclear PGR immunostaining was undetectable in granulosa cells from shPGR-injected follicles, compared to intense staining in shScram controls. Thus, the nuclear PGR appears to mediate P action in the dominant follicle promoting ovulation in primates. In vitro and in vivo effects of PGR knockdown in LGCs also support the hypothesis that P enhances its own synthesis in the primate corpus luteum by promoting luteinization. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  3. The PROGINS polymorphism of the human progesterone receptor diminishes the response to progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Andrea; Delvoux, Bert; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Groothuis, Patrick

    2007-02-01

    The human progesterone receptor (PR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor and two isoforms, (PRA and PRB), can be distinguished. PROGINS, a PR polymorphic variant, affects PRA and PRB and acts as a risk-modulating factor in several gynaecological disorders. Little is known about the functional consequences of this variant. Here, we characterise the properties of PROGINS with respect to transcription, mRNA maturation, protein activity and proliferation. PROGINS is characterised by a 320 bp PV/HS-1 Alu insertion in intron G and two point mutations, V660L in exon 4 and H770H (silent substitution) in exon 5. The Alu element contains a half oestrogen-response element/Sp1-binding site (Alu-ERE/Sp1), which acts as an in-cis intronic enhancer leading to increased transcription of the PROGINS allele in response to 17beta-oestradiol. Moreover, Alu insertions in the human genome are frequently methylated. Our data indicate that the PROGINS-Alu does not affect gene transcription due to DNA methylation. However, the Alu element reduced the stability of the PROGINS transcript compared with the CP allele and does not generate splice variants. The amino acid substitution (V600L) in exon 4 leads to differences in PR phosphorylation and degradation in the two PR variants upon ligand binding, most likely as a result of differences in the three-dimensional structures of the two PR variants. As a consequence, the PR-L660 (PROGINS) variant (1) displays decreased transactivation activity in a luciferase reporter system and (2) is less efficient in opposing cell proliferation in hamster ovarian cells expressing human PRA, when compared with the PR-V660 (most common variant). Taken together, our results indicate that the PROGINS variant of PR is less responsive to progestin compared with the most common PR because of (i) reduced amounts of gene transcript and (ii) decreased protein activity.

  4. Every photon counts : understanding and optimizing photon paths in luminescent solar concentrator-based photomicroreactors (LSCPMs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambié, D.; Zhao, F.; Hessel, V.; Debije, M.G.; Noël, T.

    2017-01-01

    Luminescent solar concentrator-based photomicroreactors (LSC-PMs) have been recently proposed for sustainable and energy-efficient photochemical reactions. Herein, a Monte Carlo ray tracing algorithm to simulate photon paths within LSC-PMs was developed and experimentally validated. The simulation

  5. Change of progesterone level in the uterine venous plasma of pregnant guinea-pigs and progesterone biosynthesis by the placenta in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawasaki, Toru

    1977-01-01

    Placental tissue slices of guinea-pigs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing NAD and glucose using pregnenolone-4- 14 C as a substrate. The amount of progesterone converted from pregnenolone by the placenta at 50 days after mating was significantly larger than that of 64-65 days after mating (0.205 and 0.159 μg/100 mg/hr., P < 0.05). The 3 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity of the placenta seems to decrease at the last stage of pregnancy. Progesterone levels in the systemic and uterine venous plasma of the pregnant guinea-pigs were measured. There was no significant difference between them at the middle and later stages of pregnancy. This suggested that uterine venous plasma progesterone level was not affected by the placental progesterone. The progesterone levels in both systemic and uterine venous plasma were high in middle stage and low at the end of pregnancy, but rapid decrease of progesterone reflecting initiation of parturition, as seen in many other species, was not observed. In this species, the relationship between progesterone level and initiation of parturition is seemed to be specific, being complicated by the local effect of placental progesterone on the fetus or the uterus. (auth.)

  6. Detecting and Identifying Industrial Gases by a Method Based on Olfactory Machine at Different Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yunlong; Luo, Dehan; Li, Hui; Zhu, Chuchu; Xu, Ou; Gholam Hosseini, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Gas sensors have been widely reported for industrial gas detection and monitoring. However, the rapid detection and identification of industrial gases are still a challenge. In this work, we measure four typical industrial gases including CO2, CH4, NH3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on electronic nose (EN) at different concentrations. To solve the problem of effective classification and identification of different industrial gases, we propose an algorithm based on the selective ...

  7. Long-term effects of prenatal progesterone exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, C.; Larsen, H.; Holmskov, Anni

    2016-01-01

    children from 498 twin pregnancies, were followed-up. PREDICT was a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial examining the effect of progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in unselected twin pregnancies. Medical histories of the children were reviewed and neurophysiological development...... does not seem to have long-term harmful effects during childhood, but future studies should focus on cardiac disease in the child. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.......OBJECTIVES: To perform a neurophysiological follow-up at 48 or 60 months of age in children exposed prenatally to progesterone compared with a placebo and evaluate their medical histories up to 8 years of age. METHODS: In this study, Danish participants of the PREDICT study, including 989 surviving...

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, June M.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males...... and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case–control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; MW: 314.46) and no other hormonal...... preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual...

  9. Estimation of Alcohol Concentration of Red Wine Based on Cole-Cole Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    To evaluate the quality of wine, we previously measured the complex relative permittivity of wine in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 6 GHz with a network analyzer, and suggested a possibility that the maturity and alcohol concentration of wine can simultaneously be estimated from the Cole-Cole plot. Although the absolute accuracy has not been examined yet, this method will enable one to estimate the alcohol concentration of alcoholic beverages without any distillation equipment simply. In this study, to investigate the estimation accuracy of the alcohol concentration of wine by its Cole-Cole plots, we measured the complex relative permittivity of pure water and diluted ethanol solution from 100 MHz to 40 GHz, and obtained the dependence of the Cole-Cole plot parameters on alcohol concentration and temperature. By using these results as calibration data, we estimated the alcohol concentration of red wine from the Cole-Cole plots, which was compared with the measured one based on a distillation method. As a result, we have confirmed that the estimated alcohol concentration of red wine agrees with the measured results in an absolute error by less than 1 %.

  10. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is associated with increased uric acid concentrations: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Iftach; Salman, Amjad Abu; Kezerle, Louise; Erez, Offer; Yoel, Idan; Barski, Leonid

    Peri-partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a clinical heart failure that usually develops during the final stage of pregnancy or the first months following delivery. High maternal serum uric acid concentrations have been previous associated with heart failure and preeclampsia. 1) To explored the clinical characteristics of PPCM patients; and 2) to determine the association between maternal serum uric acid concentrations and PPCM. This is a retrospective population based case control study. Cases and controls were matched 1:4 (for gestational age, medical history of cardiac conditions and creatinine); conditional logistic regression was used to identify clinical parameters that were associated with PPCM. The prevalence of peripartum cardiomyopathy at our institution was 1-3832 deliveries (42/160,964). In a matched multivariate analysis high maternal serum uric acid concentrations were associated with PPCM (O.R 1.336, 95% C.I 1.003-1.778). Uric acid concentrations were higher within the Non-Jewish patients and mothers of male infant with PPCM in compare to those without PPCM (p value 0.003 and 0.01 respectively). PPCM patients had increased maternal serum uric acid concentrations. This observation aligns with previous report regarding the increased uric acid concentration in women with preeclampsia and congestive heart failure, suggestive of a common underlying mechanism that mediates the myocardial damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Çetinözman Aksoy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune progesteron dermatitis (AIPD is a rare disorder which is characterized by cyclical premenstrual flares of cutaneous or mucocutaneous manifestations. We present a 36-year-old woman with a 2-year history of oral ulcers and a rash which presents a week before every menstruation. She also had a history of recurrent herpes labialis infection; however herpes simplex virus could not be detected by PCR in oral lesions. Routine laboratory investigations, as well as serum complement levels were normal, except for elevated ANA titer (1/160. Histopathological examination of one of the papules was consistent with erythema multiforme and immunobullous diseases were ruled out by negative immunofluorescence studies. Based on the history and the clinical features, AIPD was suspected and the diagnosis was confirmed by flare of the lesions after progesterone challenge test. Subsequently, oral tamoxifen was started which controlled her flares significantly and no major side effects except amenorrhea was observed during treatment. Next she was given spironolactone which did not control her symptoms, therefore oral prednisolone had to be introduced. Due to its rare occurence, clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnostic and treatment alternatives of AIPD are discussed in this study based on the review of the medical literature.

  12. An ELM Based Online Soft Sensing Approach for Alumina Concentration Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of alumina in the electrolyte is of great significance during the production of aluminum; it may affect the stability of aluminum reduction cell and the current efficiency. However, the concentration of alumina is hard to be detected online because of the special circumstance in the aluminum reduction cell. At present, there is lack of fast and accurate soft sensing methods for alumina concentration and existing methods can not meet the needs for online measurement. In this paper, a novel soft sensing method based on a modified extreme learning machine (MELM for online measurement of the alumina concentration is proposed. The modified ELM algorithm is based on the enhanced random search which is called incremental extreme learning machine in some references. It randomly chooses the input weights and analytically determines the output weights without manual intervention. The simulation results show that the approach can give more accurate estimations of alumina concentration with faster learning speed compared with other methods such as BP and SVM.

  13. Sensitive Capacitive-type Hydrogen Sensor Based on Ni Thin Film in Different Hydrogen Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Ghobad Behzadi; Aval, Leila Fekri; Eslami, Shahnaz

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen sensors are micro/nano-structure that are used to locate hydrogen leaks. They are considered to have fast response/recovery time and long lifetime as compared to conventional gas sensors. In this paper, fabrication of sensitive capacitive-type hydrogen gas sensor based on Ni thin film has been investigated. The C-V curves of the sensor in different hydrogen concentrations have been reported. Dry oxidation was done in thermal chemical vapor deposition furnace (TCVD). For oxidation time of 5 min, the oxide thickness was 15 nm and for oxidation time 10 min, it was 20 nm. The Ni thin film as a catalytic metal was deposited on the oxide film using electron gun deposition. Two MOS sensors were compared with different oxide film thickness and different hydrogen concentrations. The highest response of the two MOS sensors with 15 nm and 20 nm oxide film thickness in 4% hydrogen concentration was 87.5% and 65.4% respectively. The fast response times for MOS sensors with 15 nm and 20 nm oxide film thickness in 4% hydrogen concentration was 8 s and 21 s, respectively. By increasing the hydrogen concentration from 1% to 4%, the response time for MOS sensor (20nm oxide thickness), was decreased from 28s to 21s. The recovery time was inversely increased from 237s to 360s. The experimental results showed that the MOS sensor based on Ni thin film had a quick response and a high sensitivity.

  14. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Frazee, James S.; Stoy, Patrick; Johnson, Latisha; Lu, Qing; Hammond, Marlys; Barton, Linda S.; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Madauss, Kevin P.; Williams, Shawn P.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Xu, Xiaoping; Laping, Nicholas J.; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Scott K. (GSKPA)

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  15. Transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Ishikane, Shin; Kawabe, Shinya; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol in various tissues, mainly in the adrenal glands and gonads. Because these lipid-soluble steroid hormones immediately diffuse through the cells in which they are produced, their secretion directly reflects the activity of the genes related to their production. Progesterone is important not only for luteinization and maintenance of pregnancy, but also as a substrate for most other steroids. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase (3β-HSD) are well-known proteins essential for progesterone production. In addition to them, glutathione S-transferase A1-1 and A3-3 are shown to exert Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerization activity to produce progesterone in a cooperative fashion with 3β-HSD. 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase 1, ferredoxin 1, and ferredoxin reductase also play a role in steroidogenesis as accessory factors. Members of the nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family (steroidogenic factor 1 and liver receptor homolog 1) play a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The NR5A family activates these genes by binding to NR5A responsive elements present within their promoter regions, as well as to the elements far from their promoters. In addition, various NR5A-interacting proteins including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (DAX-1), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) are involved in the transcription of NR5A target genes and regulate the transcription either positively or negatively under both basal and tropic hormone-stimulated conditions. In this review, we describe the transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production.

  16. A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Myung-Gi; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new sensor-less methanol control algorithm based on feedback from the stack temperature is developed. • Feasibility of the algorithm is tested using a DMFC system with a recirculating fuel loop. • The algorithm precisely controls the methanol concentration without the use of methanol sensors. • The sensor-less controller shortens the time that the DMFC system requires to go from start-up to steady-state. • This controller is effective in handling unexpected changes in the methanol concentration and stack temperature. - Abstract: A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature (SLCCF) has been developed. The SLCCF algorithm is embedded into an in-house LabVIEW program that has been developed to control the methanol concentration in the feed of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This control method utilizes the close correlation between the stack temperature and the methanol concentration in the feed. Basically, the amounts of methanol to be supplied to the re-circulating feed stream are determined by estimating the methanol consumption rates under given operating conditions, which are then adjusted by a proportional–integral controller and supplied into the feed stream to maintain the stack temperature at a set value. The algorithm is designed to control the methanol concentration and the stack temperature for both start-up and normal operation processes. Feasibility tests with a 200 W-class DMFC system under various operating conditions confirm that the algorithm successfully maintains the methanol concentration in the feed as well as the stack temperature at set values, and the start-up time required for the DMFC system to reach steady-state operating conditions is reduced significantly compared with conventional sensor-less methods

  17. Microfluidic acoustophoretic force based low-concentration oil separation and detection from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Liu, Zhongzheng; Kim, Sungman; Koo, Chiwan; Cho, Younghak; Jang, Dong-Young; Kim, Yong-Joe; Han, Arum

    2014-03-07

    Detecting and quantifying extremely low concentrations of oil from the environment have broad applications in oil spill monitoring in ocean and coastal areas as well as in oil leakage monitoring on land. Currently available methods for low-concentration oil detection are bulky or costly with limited sensitivities. Thus they are difficult to be used as portable and field-deployable detectors in the case of oil spills or for monitoring the long-term effects of dispersed oil on marine and coastal ecosystems. Here, we present a low-concentration oil droplet trapping and detection microfluidic system based on the acoustophoresis phenomenon where oil droplets in water having a negative acoustic contrast factor move towards acoustic pressure anti-nodes. By trapping oil droplets from water samples flowing through a microfluidic channel, even very low concentrations of oil droplets can be concentrated to a detectable level for further analyses, which is a significant improvement over currently available oil detection systems. Oil droplets in water were successfully trapped and accumulated in a circular acoustophoretic trapping chamber of the microfluidic device and detected using a custom-built compact fluorescent detector based on the natural fluorescence of the trapped crude oil droplets. After the on-line detection, crude oil droplets released from the trapping chamber were successfully separated into a collection outlet by acoustophoretic force for further off-chip analyses. The developed microfluidic system provides a new way of trapping, detecting, and separating low-concentration crude oil from environmental water samples and holds promise as a low-cost field-deployable oil detector with extremely high sensitivity. The microfluidic system and operation principle are expected to be utilized in a wide range of applications where separating, concentrating, and detecting small particles having a negative acoustic contrast factor are required.

  18. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment on the altered progesterone and bile acid homeostasis in the mother-placenta-foetus trio during cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiú, Maria C; Monte, Maria J; Rivas, Laura; Moirón, Maria; Gomez-Rodriguez, Laura; Rodriguez-Bravo, Tomas; Marin, Jose J G; Macias, Rocio I R

    2015-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterized by pruritus and elevated bile acid concentrations in maternal serum. This is accompanied by an enhanced risk of intra-uterine and perinatal complications. High concentrations of sulphated progesterone metabolites (PMS) have been suggested to be involved in the multifactorial aetiopathogenesis of ICP. The aim of this study was to investigate further the mechanism accounting for the beneficial effect of oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which is the standard treatment, regarding bile acid and PMS homeostasis in the mother-placenta-foetus trio. Using HPLC-MS/MS bile acids and PMS were determined in maternal and foetal serum and placenta. The expression of ABC proteins in placenta was determined by real time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) and immunofluorescence. In ICP, markedly increased concentrations of bile acids (tauroconjugates > glycoconjugates > unconjugated), progesterone and PMS in placenta and maternal serum were accompanied by enhanced concentrations in foetal serum of bile acids, but not of PMS. UDCA treatment reduced bile acid accumulation in the mother-placenta-foetus trio, but had no significant effect on progesterone and PMS concentrations. ABCG2 mRNA abundance was increased in placentas from ICP patients vs. controls and remained stable following UDCA treatment, despite an apparent further increase in ABCG2. UDCA administration partially reduces ICP-induced bile acid accumulation in mothers and foetuses despite the lack of effect on concentrations of progesterone and PMS in maternal serum. Up-regulation of placental ABCG2 may play an important role in protecting the foetus from high concentrations of bile acids and PMS during ICP. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Study of progesterone mechanisms in radio-induced apoptosis prevention; Etude des mecanismes de prevention de l'apoptose radioinduite par la progesterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vares, G.

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this work was to study the modulation of radiation-induced cell death of human mammary tumoral cells by progesterone. On the one hand, we observed that progesterone protects cells against radiation-induced apoptosis and increases the proportion of surviving and proliferating damaged cells. On the other hand, a transcriptome analysis was undertaken in irradiated cells treated by progesterone, using DNA micro-arrays. This let us highlight several transcriptional dis-regulations that are likely to explain the protective effect of the hormone; in particular, we showed that progesterone regulates the expression of genes implicated in apoptosis signaling by death receptors. Knowing the crucial role of hormonal control and of apoptosis regulation in breast cancer initiation, our results may help to achieve a better understanding of the implication of progesterone in mammary carcinogenesis. (author)

  20. Progesterone transfer among cohabitating female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greville, Lucas J; Pollock, Tyler; Salter, Joseph C; Faure, Paul A; deCatanzaro, Denys

    2017-06-01

    Experiments using female mice and bats have demonstrated that tritium-labeled 17β-estradiol ( 3 H-E 2 ) can be absorbed via cutaneous and intranasal routes and distributed to reproductive and neural tissues. Radioactivity has also been measured in tissues of untreated females after 48h cohabitation with 3 H-E 2 injected males. The present study was designed to quantify steroid transfer among female bats. Radioactive quantification via liquid scintillation counting revealed absorption of tritium-labeled progesterone ( 3 H-P 4 ) in adult females 1h after cutaneous and intranasal application (10μCi). Subsequently, pairs of mature females were each housed for 48h with a single mature female that had been administered 3 H-P 4 (50μCi) via intraperitoneal injection. Radioactivity was observed in all collected tissues of all non-injected females at levels significantly greater than the control group. Following the same paradigm, radioactivity was not observed in the tissues of untreated female bats that were housed with stimulus females treated with 3 H-E 2 (50μCi). Enzyme immunoassays revealed measurable levels of unconjugated progesterone and estradiol in the urine of female bats, suggesting urine as a vector for steroid transfer. Given that bats of this species live in predominantly female roosts in very close contact, progesterone transfer among individuals is likely to occur in natural roosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction of glucocorticoids and progesterone derivatives with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Rola; Akil, Mohammad; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2017-10-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) and progesterone derivatives (PGDs) are steroid hormones with well-known biological activities. Their interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) may control their distribution. Their binding to albumin is poorly studied in literature. This paper deals with the interaction of a series of GCs (cortisol, cortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, 6-methylprednisolone and 9-fluorocortisol acetate) and PGDs (progesterone, hydroxylated PGDs, methylated PGDs and dydrogesterone) with HSA solution (pH 7.4) at molar ratios steroid to HSA varying from 0 to 10. Similar titrations were conducted using Trp aqueous solution. Fluorescence titration method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used. PGDs (except dydrogesterone), cortisone and 9-fluorocortisol acetate affected weakly the fluorescence of Trp in buffer solution while they decreased in a dose-dependent manner that of HSA. Their binding constants to HSA were then calculated. Moreover, displacement experiment was performed using bilirubin as a site marker. The binding constant of bilirubin to albumin was determined in the absence and presence of a steroid at a molar ratio steroid to HSA of 1. The results indicate that the steroids bind to HSA at site I in a pocket different from that of bilirubin. Furthermore, the peak positions of amide I and amide II bands of HSA were shifted in the presence of progesterone, dydrogesterone and GCs. Also a variation was observed in amide I region indicating the formation of hydrogen bonding between albumin and steroids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Calibrating passive sampling and passive dosing techniques to lipid based concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Annika, A.

    2011-01-01

    Equilibrium sampling into various formats of the silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is increasingly used to measure the exposure of hydrophobic organic chemicals in environmental matrices, and passive dosing from silicone is increasingly used to control and maintain their exposure in laboratory...... coated vials and with Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) yielded lipid based concentrations that were in good agreement with each other, but about a factor of two higher than measured lipid-normalized concentrations in the organisms. Passive dosing was applied to bioconcentration...

  3. Progesterone is essential for protecting against LPS-induced pregnancy loss. LIF as a potential mediator of the anti-inflammatory effect of progesterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Aisemberg

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration to mice on day 7 of gestation led to 100% embryonic resorption after 24 h. In this model, nitric oxide is fundamental for the resorption process. Progesterone may be responsible, at least in part, for a Th2 switch in the feto-maternal interface, inducing active immune tolerance against fetal antigens. Th2 cells promote the development of T cells, producing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, which seems to be important due to its immunomodulatory action during early pregnancy. Our aim was to evaluate the involvement of progesterone in the mechanism of LPS-induced embryonic resorption, and whether LIF can mediate hormonal action. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we provide evidence that circulating progesterone is an important component of the process by which infection causes embryonic resorption in mice. Also, LIF seems to be a mediator of the progesterone effect under inflammatory conditions. We found that serum progesterone fell to very low levels after 24 h of LPS exposure. Moreover, progesterone supplementation prevented embryonic resorption and LPS-induced increase of uterine nitric oxide levels in vivo. Results show that LPS diminished the expression of the nuclear progesterone receptor in the uterus after 6 and 12 h of treatment. We investigated the expression of LIF in uterine tissue from pregnant mice and found that progesterone up-regulates LIF mRNA expression in vitro. We observed that LIF was able to modulate the levels of nitric oxide induced by LPS in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential mediator of the inflammatory action of progesterone. Our observations support the view that progesterone plays a critical role in a successful pregnancy as an anti-inflammatory agent, and that it could have possible therapeutic applications in the prevention of early reproductive failure associated with inflammatory disorders.

  4. Tailored Algorithm for Sensitivity Enhancement of Gas Concentration Sensors Based on Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Everardo; Guzman-Chavez, Ana Dinora; Baeza-Serrato, Roberto

    2018-06-04

    In this work, a novel tailored algorithm to enhance the overall sensitivity of gas concentration sensors based on the Direct Absorption Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (DA-ATLAS) method is presented. By using this algorithm, the sensor sensitivity can be custom-designed to be quasi constant over a much larger dynamic range compared with that obtained by typical methods based on a single statistics feature of the sensor signal output (peak amplitude, area under the curve, mean or RMS). Additionally, it is shown that with our algorithm, an optimal function can be tailored to get a quasi linear relationship between the concentration and some specific statistics features over a wider dynamic range. In order to test the viability of our algorithm, a basic C 2 H 2 sensor based on DA-ATLAS was implemented, and its experimental measurements support the simulated results provided by our algorithm.

  5. TwinFocus, a concentrated photovoltaic module based on mature technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among solar power generation, concentrated photovoltaics (CPV based on multijunction (MJ solar cells, is one of the most promising technology for hot climates. The fact that multijunction solar cells based on direct band gap semiconductors demonstrate lower dependence on temperature than silicon solar cells boosted their use in concentrated photovoltaics modules. Departing from the mainstream design of Fresnel lenses, the CPV module based on TwinFocus design with off-axis quasi parabolic mirrors differentiates itself for its compactness and the possibility of easy integration also in roof-top applications. A detailed description of the module and of the systems will be given together with measured performances, and expectations for the next release.

  6. Corrosion in low dielectric constant Si-O based thin films: Buffer concentration effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, F. W.; Lane, M. W.; Gates, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Organosilicate glass (OSG) is often used as an interlayer dielectric (ILD) in high performance integrated circuits. OSG is a brittle material and prone to stress-corrosion cracking reminiscent of that observed in bulk glasses. Of particular concern are chemical-mechanical planarization techniques and wet cleans involving solvents commonly encountered in microelectronics fabrication where the organosilicate film is exposed to aqueous environments. Previous work has focused on the effect of pH, surfactant, and peroxide concentration on the subcritical crack growth of these films. However, little or no attention has focused on the effect of the conjugate acid/base concentration in a buffer. Accordingly, this work examines the “strength” of the buffer solution in both acidic and basic environments. The concentration of the buffer components is varied keeping the ratio of acid/base and therefore pH constant. In addition, the pH was varied by altering the acid/base ratio to ascertain any additional effect of pH. Corrosion tests were conducted with double-cantilever beam fracture mechanics specimens and fracture paths were verified with ATR-FTIR. Shifts in the threshold fracture energy, the lowest energy required for bond rupture in the given environment, G TH , were found to shift to lower values as the concentration of the base in the buffer increased. This effect was found to be much larger than the effect of the hydroxide ion concentration in unbuffered solutions. The results are rationalized in terms of the salient chemical bond breaking process occurring at the crack tip and modeled in terms of the chemical potential of the reactive species

  7. Differential roles of MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 in insulin or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling pathways for progesterone production in human ovarian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto-Young, D; Avtanski, D; Varadinova, M; Park, A; Suwandhi, P; Leiser, A; Parikh, G; Poretsky, L

    2011-06-01

    Insulin and insulin like-growth factor-I (IGF-I) participate in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis. In insulin resistant states ovaries remain sensitive to insulin because insulin can activate alternative signaling pathways, such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3 kinase) and mitogen-activated protein-kinase (MAPK) pathways, as well as insulin receptors and type 1 IGF receptors. We investigated the roles of MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 in insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways for progesterone production in human ovarian cells. Human ovarian cells were cultured in tissue culture medium in the presence of varying concentrations of insulin or IGF-I, with or without PD98059, a specific MAPK-Erk1/2 inhibitor, with or without SB203580, a specific MAPK-p38 inhibitor or with or without a specific PI-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. PD98059 alone stimulated progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner by up to 65% (pprogesterone production by 13-18% (pprogesterone production by 17-20% (pprogesterone production by 20-30% (pprogesterone production by 40-60% (pprogesterone synthesis while SB203580 abolished insulin-induced progesterone production. Either PD98059 or SB203580 abolished IGF-I-induced progesterone production. Both MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 participate in IGF-I-induced signaling pathways for progesterone production, while insulin-induced progesterone production requires MAPK-p38, but not MAPK-Erk1/2. These studies provide further evidence for divergence of insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways for human ovarian cell steroidogenesis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Detection of ultra-low oxygen concentration based on the fluorescence blinking dynamics of single molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruixiang; Chen, Ruiyun; Zhou, Haitao; Qin, Yaqiang; Zhang, Guofeng; Qin, Chengbing; Gao, Yan; Gao, Yajun; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2018-01-01

    We present a sensitive method for detection of ultra-low oxygen concentrations based on the fluorescence blinking dynamics of single molecules. The relationship between the oxygen concentration and the fraction of time spent in the off-state, stemming from the population and depopulation of triplet states and radical cationic states, can be fitted with a two-site quenching model in the Stern-Volmer plot. The oxygen sensitivity is up to 43.42 kPa-1 in the oxygen partial pressure region as low as 0.01-0.25 kPa, which is seven times higher than that of the fluorescence intensity indicator. This method avoids the limitation of the sharp and non-ignorable fluctuations that occur during the measurement of fluorescence intensity, providing potential applications in the field of low oxygen-concentration monitoring in life science and industry.

  9. High-dimensional orbital angular momentum entanglement concentration based on Laguerre–Gaussian mode selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wuhong; Su, Ming; Wu, Ziwen; Lu, Meng; Huang, Bingwei; Chen, Lixiang

    2013-01-01

    Twisted photons enable the definition of a Hilbert space beyond two dimensions by orbital angular momentum (OAM) eigenstates. Here we propose a feasible entanglement concentration experiment, to enhance the quality of high-dimensional entanglement shared by twisted photon pairs. Our approach is started from the full characterization of entangled spiral bandwidth, and is then based on the careful selection of the Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) modes with specific radial and azimuthal indices p and ℓ. In particular, we demonstrate the possibility of high-dimensional entanglement concentration residing in the OAM subspace of up to 21 dimensions. By means of LabVIEW simulations with spatial light modulators, we show that the Shannon dimensionality could be employed to quantify the quality of the present concentration. Our scheme holds promise in quantum information applications defined in high-dimensional Hilbert space. (letter)

  10. Development of Fresnel-based Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV System with Uniform Irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ullah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different designs have been presented to achieve high concentration and uniformity for the concentrated photovoltaic (CPV system. Most of the designs have issues of low efficiency in terms of irradiance uniformity. To this end, we present a design methodology to increase irradiance uniformity over solar cell. The system consists of an eight-fold Fresnel lens as a primary optical element (POE and an optical lens, which consists of eight parts, as a secondary optical element (SOE. Sunlight is focused through the POE and then light is spread over cell through the SOE. In the design, maximum sunlight is passed over cell by minimizing losses. Results have shown that the proposed CPV design gives good irradiance uniformity. The concentration module based on this novel design is a promising option for the development of a cost-effective photovoltaic solar energy generation.

  11. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Turgish A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers’ inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Methods Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding, Days 10–12 and Days 22–24. Defatted milk was preserved at −80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70–90. Results Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate. Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17 and 83 to 135 (n = 13 days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (P P  Conclusions Milk progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in water buffalo.

  12. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Turgish A; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Bhattacharjee, Jayonta; Islam, Mohammad F; Khan, Saiful I; Ahmed, Jalal U

    2012-05-03

    Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers' inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS) and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding), Days 10-12 and Days 22-24. Defatted milk was preserved at -80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70-90. Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate). Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17) and 83 to 135 (n = 13) days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in water buffalo.

  13. Progesterone inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H van der Horst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Every year approximately 74,000 women die of endometrial cancer, mainly due to recurrent or metastatic disease. The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs as well as progesterone receptor (PR positivity has been correlated with improved prognosis. This study describes two mechanisms by which progesterone inhibits metastatic spread of endometrial cancer: by stimulating T-cell infiltration and by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Paraffin sections from patients with (n = 9 or without (n = 9 progressive endometrial cancer (recurrent or metastatic disease were assessed for the presence of CD4+ (helper, CD8+ (cytotoxic and Foxp3+ (regulatory T-lymphocytes and PR expression. Progressive disease was observed to be associated with significant loss of TILs and loss of PR expression. Frozen tumor samples, used for genome-wide expression analysis, showed significant regulation of pathways involved in immunesurveillance, EMT and metastasis. For a number of genes, such as CXCL14, DKK1, DKK4, PEG10 and WIF1, quantitive RT-PCR was performed to verify up- or downregulation in progressive disease. To corroborate the role of progesterone in regulating invasion, Ishikawa (IK endometrial cancer cell lines stably transfected with PRA (IKPRA, PRB (IKPRB and PRA+PRB (IKPRAB were cultured in presence/absence of progesterone (MPA and used for genome-wide expression analysis, Boyden- and wound healing migration assays, and IHC for known EMT markers. IKPRB and IKPRAB cell lines showed MPA induced inhibition of migration and loss of the mesenchymal marker vimentin at the invasive front of the wound healing assay. Furthermore, pathway analysis of significantly MPA regulated genes showed significant down regulation of important pathways involved in EMT, immunesuppression and metastasis: such as IL6-, TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. CONCLUSION: Intact progesterone signaling in non

  14. Influence of diurnal variation and fasting on serum iron concentrations in a community-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Leonard T; Buse, Joshua D; Baskin, Leland; Sadrzadeh, S M Hossein; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Serum iron is an important clinical test to help identify cases of iron deficiency or overload. Fluctuations caused by diurnal variation and diet are thought to influence test results, which may affect clinical patient management. We examined the impact of these preanalytical factors on iron concentrations in a large community-based cohort. Serum iron concentration, blood collection time, fasting duration, patient age and sex were obtained for community-based clinical testing from the Laboratory Information Service at Calgary Laboratory Services for the period of January 2011 to December 2015. A total of 276,307 individual test results were obtained. Iron levels were relatively high over a long period from 8:00 to 15:00. Mean concentrations were highest at blood collection times of 11:00 for adult men and 12:00 for adult women and children, however iron levels peaked as late as 15:00 in teenagers. With regard to fasting, iron levels required approximately 5h post-prandial time to return to a baseline, except for children and teenage females where no significant variation was seen until after 11h fasting. After 10h fasting, iron concentrations in all patient groups gradually increased to higher levels compared to earlier fasting times. Serum iron concentrations remain reasonably stable during most daytime hours for testing purposes. In adults, blood collection after 5 to 9h fasting provides a representative estimate of a patient's iron levels. For patients who have fasted overnight, i.e. ≥12h fasting, clinicians should be aware that iron concentrations may be elevated beyond otherwise usual levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The Determinations of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor in Breast Cancer Cell by Radioimmunoassay Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chi Yeul

    1981-01-01

    The estrogen and progesterone receptors which are bound to the cytoplasmic protein of cancer cells were measured in 20 patients with the early breast cancer by means of radioimmunoassay using charcoal. 1) The patients with estrogen receptor positive were 13 (65%) of 20 cases and with progestrone receptor positive were 7 cases (35%) in the early breast cancer. 2) Coexistence of estrogen and progesterone receptor positive was noted in 7 cases (35%). The cases of estrogen receptor positive and progesterone receptor negative were 6 cases (33.3%), while there were no cases of estrogen receptor negative with progesterone receptor positive. 3) Coincidence of estrogen and progesterone negative was noticed in 7 cases (35%). Conclusively it is considered that the measurement of estrogen and progesterone receptors has relevance as predictive value, in the response to hormonal manipulations and chemotherapy for breast cancer patients.

  16. Role of Estrogen and Progesterone in the Survival of Ovarian Tumors — A Study of the Human Ovarian Adenocarcinoma Cell Line OC-117-VGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Chong Chao

    2005-08-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of decreased survival and/or growth in OC-117-VGH ovarian adenocarcinoma cells treated with either estrogen or progesterone, we suspect that both hormones act effectively against ER-negative and PR-negative ovarian cancer cells. These findings should lead to a reassessment of hormone therapy for ovarian cancers.

  17. Role of female sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, in mast cell behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eZierau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Female sex hormones have long been suspected to have an effect on mast cell (MC behaviour. This assumption is based on the expression of hormone receptors in MCs as well as on the fact that many MC-related pathophysiological alterations have a different prevalence in females than in males. Further, serum IgE levels are much higher in allergic female mice compared to male mice. Ovariectomized rats developed less airway inflammation compared to sham controls. Following estrogen replacement ovariectomized rats re-established airway inflammation levels’ found in intact females. In humans, a much higher asthma prevalence was found in women at reproductive age as compared to men. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone have been directly correlated with the clinical and functional features of asthma. Around 30 to 40% of women who have asthma experienced worsening of their symptoms during the perimenstrual phase, the so-called perimenstrual asthma. Postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy have an increased risk of new onset of asthma. Beside, estrus cycle dependent changes on female sex hormones are related to changes on MC number in mouse uterine tissue and estradiol and progesterone were shown to induce uterine MC maturation and degranulation. We will discuss here the currently available information concerning the role of these female sex hormones on MC behavior.

  18. An isotherm-based thermodynamic model of multicomponent aqueous solutions, applicable over the entire concentration range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Cari S; Ge, Xinlei; Wexler, Anthony S; Clegg, Simon L

    2013-04-18

    In previous studies (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 16474-16487; 2012, 116, 1850-1864), we derived equations for the Gibbs energy, solvent and solute activities, and solute concentrations in multicomponent liquid mixtures, based upon expressions for adsorption isotherms that include arbitrary numbers of hydration layers on each solute. In this work, the long-range electrostatic interactions that dominate in dilute solutions are added to the Gibbs energy expression, thus extending the range of concentrations for which the model can be used from pure liquid solute(s) to infinite dilution in the solvent, water. An equation for the conversion of the reference state for solute activity coefficients to infinite dilution in water has been derived. A number of simplifications are identified, notably the equivalence of the sorption site parameters r and the stoichiometric coefficients of the solutes, resulting in a reduction in the number of model parameters. Solute concentrations in mixtures conform to a modified Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson mixing rule, and solute activity coefficients to a modified McKay-Perring relation, when the effects of the long-range (Debye-Hückel) term in the equations are taken into account. Practical applications of the equations to osmotic and activity coefficients of pure aqueous electrolyte solutions and mixtures show both satisfactory accuracy from low to high concentrations, together with a thermodynamically reasonable extrapolation (beyond the range of measurements) to extreme concentration and to the pure liquid solute(s).

  19. Electron concentration and phase stability in NbCr2-based Laves phase alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.H.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-05-12

    Phase stability in NbCr{sub 2}-based transition-metal Laves phases was studied, based on the data reported for binary X-Cr, Nb-X, and ternary Nb-Cr-X phase diagrams. It was shown that when the atomic size ratios are kept identical, the average electron concentration factor, e/a, is the dominating factor in controlling the phase stability of NbCr{sub 2}-based transition-metal Laves phases. The e/a ratios for different Laves polytypes were determined as followed: with e/a < 5.76, the C15 structure is stabilized; at an e/a range of 5.88--7.53, the C14 structure is stabilized; with e/a > 7.65, the C15 structure is stabilized again. A further increase in the electron concentration factor (e/a > 8) leads to the disordering of the alloy. The electron concentration effect on the phase stability of Mg-based Laves phases and transition-metal A{sub 3}B intermetallic compounds is also reviewed and compared with the present observations in transition-metal Laves phases. In order to verify the e/a/phase stability relationship experimentally, additions of Cu (with e/a = 11) were selected to replace Cr in the NbCr{sub 2} Laves phase. Experimental results for the ternary Nb-Cr-Cu system are reported and discussed in terms of the correlation between the e/a ratio and phase stability in NbCr{sub 2}-based Laves phases. A new phase was found, which has an average composition of Nb-47Cr-3Cu. Within the solubility limit, the electron concentration and phase stability relationship is obeyed in the Nb-Cr-Cu system.

  20. Simultaneous extraction and concentration of water pollution tracers using ionic-liquid-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, Teresa B V; Passos, Helena; Lima, Diana L D; Sousa, Ana C A; Coutinho, João A P; Esteves, Valdemar I; Freire, Mara G

    2017-07-29

    Human activities are responsible for the release of innumerous substances into the aquatic environment. Some of these substances can be used as pollution tracers to identify contamination sources and to prioritize monitoring and remediation actions. Thus, their identification and quantification are of high priority. However, due to their presence in complex matrices and at significantly low concentrations, a pre-treatment/concentration step is always required. As an alternative to the currently used pre-treatment methods, mainly based on solid-phase extractions, aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of ionic liquids (ILs) and K 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 are here proposed for the simultaneous extraction and concentration of mixtures of two important pollution tracers, caffeine (CAF) and carbamazepine (CBZ). An initial screening of the IL chemical structure was carried out, with extraction efficiencies of both tracers to the IL-rich phase ranging between 95 and 100%, obtained in a single-step. These systems were then optimized in order to simultaneously concentrate CAF and CBZ from water samples followed by HPLC-UV analysis, for which no interferences of the ABS phase-forming components and other interferents present in a wastewater effluent sample have been found. Based on the saturation solubility data of both pollution tracers in the IL-rich phase, the maximum estimated concentration factors of CAF and CBZ are 28595- and 8259-fold. IL-based ABS can be thus envisioned as effective pre-treatment techniques of environmentally-related aqueous samples for a more accurate monitoring of mixtures of pollution tracers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping of trophic states based on nutrients concentration and phytoplankton abundance in Jatibarang Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiyanti, Siti; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Rahman, Arif

    2018-02-01

    Jatibarang Reservoir is one of the Indonesian Reservoirs, which used for human activities such as tourism and agriculture. These activities will provide input of organic matter and nutrients into the water. These materials will impact water quality and eutrophication process. Eutrophication is the water enrichment by nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus which can promote the growth of phytoplankton. Some indicators of eutrophication are increasing nutrients, trophic states, and change of phytoplankton composition. The relationship between water quality and phytoplankton community can be used as an indicator of trophic states in Jatibarang Reservoir. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of nutrients concentration and phytoplankton abundance to the trophic states and mapping trophic states based on nutrients concentration and phytoplankton in Jatibarang Reservoir. This study was conducted in June and July 2017 at 9 stations around Jatibarang Reservoir. The results showed that average concentration of nitrate, phosphate, and chlorophyll-a in Jatibarang Reservoir was 0.69 mg/L, 0.27 mg/L, and 1.66 mg/m3, respectively. The phytoplankton abundance ranged 16-62,200 cells/L, consists of 21 genera of four classes, i.e. Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Dinophyceae. Cyanophyceae was a dominant phytoplankton group based on the composition of abundance (>80%). High nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton dominated by Anabaena (Cyanophyceae) which indicated that the waters in Jatibarang Reservoir were eutrophic.

  2. The first estimates of global nucleation mode aerosol concentrations based on satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in the Earth's climate system by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. Satellites are increasingly used to obtain information on properties of aerosol particles with a diameter larger than about 100 nm. However, new aerosol particles formed by nucleation are initially much smaller and grow into the optically active size range on time scales of many hours. In this paper we derive proxies, based on process understanding and ground-based observations, to determine the concentrations of these new particles and their spatial distribution using satellite data. The results are applied to provide seasonal variation of nucleation mode concentration. The proxies describe the concentration of nucleation mode particles over continents. The source rates are related to both regional nucleation and nucleation associated with more restricted sources. The global pattern of nucleation mode particle number concentration predicted by satellite data using our proxies is compared qualitatively against both observations and global model simulations.

  3. Production of progesterone antibodies and their use in studying reproductive functions in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seren, E.; Bacci, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of antisera raised in six rabbits by immunization with progesterone-3-0-carboxymethyloxime-BSA are described. The performance of a progesterone RIA involving the use of the best antiserum is described. This progesterone RIA, carried out in sheep and goat plasma samples collected throughout the different stages of the reproductive life cycle turned out to be a reliable method to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Immune Aspects and Myometrial Actions of Progesterone and CRH in Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Malamas, Fotodotis M.; Sifakis, Stavros; Tsikouras, Panayiotis; Iliodromiti, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) have a critical role in pregnancy and labor, as changes related to these hormones are crucial for the transition from myometrial quiescence to contractility. The mechanisms related to their effect differ between humans and other species, thus, despite extensive research, many questions remain to be answered regarding their mediation in human labor. Immune responses to progesterone and CRH are important for labor. Progesterone acts as an i...

  5. Results of applications of DISKOT system and of RIA determination of progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranek, J.

    1989-01-01

    Milk for progesterone determination was taken from cows picked out for insemination, cows following insemination and cows with reproduction disorders. The samples were taken in test tubes containing potassium dichromate. Progesterone was determined by RIA of skimmed milk and the results were transmitted to the DISKOT system in the data processing centre. The use of the DISKOT system output and the monitoring of progesterone in milk by the RIA laboratory improved reproduction indexes of the herd under study. (E.J.). 2 tabs

  6. Adiponectin influences progesterone production from MA-10 Leydig cells in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, David; Paré, Aurélie; Jean, Stéphanie; Martin, Luc J

    2015-04-01

    Obesity in men is associated with lower testosterone levels, related to reduced sperm concentration and the development of various diseases with aging. Hormones produced by the adipose tissue may have influences on both metabolism and reproductive function. Among them, the production and secretion of adiponectin is inversely correlated to total body fat. Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) have been found to be expressed in testicular Leydig cells (producing testosterone). Since StAR and Cyp11a1 are essential for testosterone synthesis and adiponectin has been shown to regulate StAR mRNA in swine granulosa cells, we hypothesized that adiponectin might also regulate these genes in Leydig cells. Our objective was to determine whether adiponectin regulates StAR and Cyp11a1 genes in Leydig cells and to better define its mechanisms of action. Methods used in the current study are qPCR for the mRNA levels, transfections for promoter activities, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the progesterone concentration. We have found that adiponectin cooperates with cAMP-dependent stimulation to activate StAR and Cyp11a1 mRNA expressions in a dose-dependent manner in MA-10 Leydig cells as demonstrated by transfection of a luciferase reporter plasmid. These results led to a significant increase in progesterone production from MA-10 cells. Thus, our data suggest that high doses of adiponectin typical of normal body weight may promote testosterone production from Leydig cells.

  7. Effect of concentration of Curcuma longa L. on chitosan-starch based edible coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N. M.; Jai, J.; Hamzah, F.; Yahya, A.; Pinijsuwan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The ability of chitosan-starch based coating to extend shelf life of strawberry were studied. The main objectives of this paper is to study the effects of different concentrations (20, 15, 10 and 5 µL) of Curcuma longa L. (CUR) essential oil into chitosan-based edible coating on surface tension in order to increase the effectiveness of the coating. CUR or turmeric is one of the commercially planted herbs in Malaysia for its phytochemical benefits. Application of edible coating using dipping technique has been analysed and evaluated for their effectiveness in extending shelf life of fruits. Surface tension was analysed to investigate the adhesion properties. The best CUR concentration was 15 µL with the optimum surface tension was found to be 31.92 dynes/cm.

  8. Performance study of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Ji, Xu; Li, Guoliang; Wei, Shengxian; Li, YingFeng; Shi, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied. → The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were studied by experiments. → The influences between the solar cell's performance and the series resistances, the working temperature, solar irradiation intensity were explored. - Abstract: The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied via both experiment and theoretical calculation. The I-V characteristics of the solar cell arrays and the output performances of the TCPV/T system demonstrated that among the investigated four types of solar cell arrays, the triple junction GaAs cells possessed good performance characteristics and the polysilicon cells exhibited poor performance characteristics under concentrating conditions. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were also studied by experiments. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cells and Super cells were 4.23 and 8.46 respectively, and the triple junction GaAs cells could work well at higher concentration ratio. Besides, some theoretical calculations and experiments were performed to explore the influences of the series resistances and the working temperature. When the series resistances R s changed from 0 Ω to 1 Ω, the maximum power P m of the single crystalline silicon, the polycrystalline silicon, the Super cell and the GaAs cell arrays decreased by 67.78%, 74.93%, 77.30% and 58.07% respectively. When the cell temperature increased by 1 K, the short circuit current of the four types of solar cell arrays decreased by 0.11818 A, 0.05364 A, 0.01387 A and 0.00215 A respectively. The research results demonstrated that the output performance of the solar cell arrays with lower

  9. Enhancing of progesterone transformation by cochliobolus spicifer fungus using different environmental conditions and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, L.A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Five isolates belonging to five species of the genus Cochliobolus were tested for their ability to transform progesterone. Two species namely C. australiensis and C. tuberculates failed to transform progesterone, C. pallescens produced 11B-hydroxy and 6 (3, 11a-dihydroxy progesterone, while the isolate of C. lunatus produced 11B-hydroxy and 17a-hydroxy progesterone. The isolate of C. spicifer produced four mono hydroxylated products (11a-, 11B- -17a dihydroxy progesterone and dihydro-xylated product 11 a, 17a-dihydroxy progesterone) with the addition of two trihydroxy products namely 11 a, 17a,21-trihydroxy progesterone (epicortisol) and 11/3, 17a, 21-trihydroxy progesterone (cortisol). The transformation pattern of progesterone by C. spicifer was markedly affected by the composition of culture medium, pH value of culture medium and gamma irradiation of the tested isolate. The different transformation products were resolved chromatographically. The identity of each product was established through the determination of m.p, optical rotation and ultraviolet as well as infrared absorption spectra. A comparison of the Rf -values of each product with that of the corresponding reference, using different solvent systems as well as their colours with two spray reagents, was used as a further proof for the identity of the isolated products

  10. Progesterone production requires activation of caspase-3 in preovulatory granulosa cells in a serum starvation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Li-Sha; Yuan, Xiao-Hua; Hu, Ying; Shi, Zi-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Qin, Li; Wu, Gui-Qing; Han, Wei; Wang, Ya-Qin; Ma, Xu

    2012-11-01

    Granulosa cells proliferate, differentiate, and undergo apoptosis throughout follicular development. Previous studies have demonstrated that stimulation of progesterone production is accompanied by caspase-3 activation. Moreover, we previously reported that arsenic enhanced caspase-3 activity coupled with progesterone production. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity can significantly inhibit progesterone production induced by arsenic or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Here, we report that serum starvation induces caspase-3 activation coupled with augmentation of progesterone production. Serum starvation also increased the levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, both of which may contribute to progesterone synthesis in preovulatory granulosa cells. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity resulted in a decrease in progesterone production. Deactivation of caspase-3 activity by caspase-3 specific inhibitor also resulted in decreases in P450scc and StAR expression, which may partly contribute to the observed decrease in progesterone production. Our study demonstrates for the first time that progesterone production in preovulatory granulosa cells is required for caspase-3 activation in a serum starvation model. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity can result in decreased expression of the steroidogenic proteins P450scc and StAR. Our work provides further details on the relationship between caspase-3 activation and steroidogenesis and indicates that caspase-3 plays a critical role in progesterone production by granulosa cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 increases depression-like behavior in mice without affecting locomotor ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Ethan H; Scibelli, Angela C; Finn, Deborah A

    2011-07-01

    Progesterone withdrawal has been proposed as an underlying factor in premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression. Progesterone withdrawal induces forced swim test (FST) immobility in mice, a depression-like behavior, but the contribution of specific receptors to this effect is unclear. The role of progesterone's GABA(A) receptor-modulating metabolite allopregnanolone in depression- and anxiety-related behaviors has been extensively documented, but little attention has been paid to the role of progesterone receptors. We administered the classic progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU-38486) and the specific progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 to mice that had been primed with progesterone for five days, and found that both compounds induced FST immobility reliably, robustly, and in a dose-dependent fashion. Although CDB-4124 increased FST immobility, it did not suppress initial activity in a locomotor test. These findings suggest that decreased progesterone receptor activity contributes to depression-like behavior in mice, consistent with the hypothesis that progesterone withdrawal may contribute to the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of CO concentrations based on a hybrid Partial Least Square and Support Vector Machine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, B.; Motlagh, M. Shafie Pour; Rashidi, Y.; Kamalan, H.

    2012-08-01

    Due to the health impacts caused by exposures to air pollutants in urban areas, monitoring and forecasting of air quality parameters have become popular as an important topic in atmospheric and environmental research today. The knowledge on the dynamics and complexity of air pollutants behavior has made artificial intelligence models as a useful tool for a more accurate pollutant concentration prediction. This paper focuses on an innovative method of daily air pollution prediction using combination of Support Vector Machine (SVM) as predictor and Partial Least Square (PLS) as a data selection tool based on the measured values of CO concentrations. The CO concentrations of Rey monitoring station in the south of Tehran, from Jan. 2007 to Feb. 2011, have been used to test the effectiveness of this method. The hourly CO concentrations have been predicted using the SVM and the hybrid PLS-SVM models. Similarly, daily CO concentrations have been predicted based on the aforementioned four years measured data. Results demonstrated that both models have good prediction ability; however the hybrid PLS-SVM has better accuracy. In the analysis presented in this paper, statistic estimators including relative mean errors, root mean squared errors and the mean absolute relative error have been employed to compare performances of the models. It has been concluded that the errors decrease after size reduction and coefficients of determination increase from 56 to 81% for SVM model to 65-85% for hybrid PLS-SVM model respectively. Also it was found that the hybrid PLS-SVM model required lower computational time than SVM model as expected, hence supporting the more accurate and faster prediction ability of hybrid PLS-SVM model.

  13. Temperature Compensation in Determining of Remazol Black B Concentrations Using Plastic Optical Fiber Based Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Su Sin; Aziz, A.R. Abdul; Harun, Sulaiman W.; Arof, Hamzah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the construction and test of tapered plastic optical fiber (POF) sensors, based on an intensity modulation approach are described. Tapered fiber sensors with different diameters of 0.65 mm, 0.45 mm, and 0.35 mm, were used to measure various concentrations of Remazol black B (RBB) dye aqueous solutions at room temperature. The concentrations of the RBB solutions were varied from 0 ppm to 70 ppm. In addition, the effect of varying the temperature of the RBB solution was also investigated. In this case, the output of the sensor was measured at four different temperatures of 27 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, and 40 °C, while its concentration was fixed at 50 ppm and 100 ppm. The experimental results show that the tapered POF with d = 0.45 mm achieves the best performance with a reasonably good sensitivity of 61 × 10−4 and a linearity of more than 99%. It also maintains a sufficient and stable signal when heat was applied to the solution with a linearity of more than 97%. Since the transmitted intensity is dependent on both the concentration and temperature of the analyte, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to combine the two independent variables into a single equation. The resulting equation was then validated experimentally and the best agreement between the calculated and experimental results was achieved by the sensor with d = 0.45 mm, where the minimum discrepancy is less than 5%. The authors conclude that POF-based sensors are suitable for RBB dye concentration sensing and, with refinement in fabrication, better results could be achieved. Their low fabrication cost, simple configuration, accuracy, and high sensitivity would attract many potential applications in chemical and biological sensing. PMID:25166498

  14. Developing the remote sensing-based early warning system for monitoring TSS concentrations in Lake Mead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imen, Sanaz; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Adjustment of the water treatment process to changes in water quality is a focus area for engineers and managers of water treatment plants. The desired and preferred capability depends on timely and quantitative knowledge of water quality monitoring in terms of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations. This paper presents the development of a suite of nowcasting and forecasting methods by using high-resolution remote-sensing-based monitoring techniques on a daily basis. First, the integrated data fusion and mining (IDFM) technique was applied to develop a near real-time monitoring system for daily nowcasting of the TSS concentrations. Then a nonlinear autoregressive neural network with external input (NARXNET) model was selected and applied for forecasting analysis of the changes in TSS concentrations over time on a rolling basis onward using the IDFM technique. The implementation of such an integrated forecasting and nowcasting approach was assessed by a case study at Lake Mead hosting the water intake for Las Vegas, Nevada, in the water-stressed western U.S. Long-term monthly averaged results showed no simultaneous impact from forest fire events on accelerating the rise of TSS concentration. However, the results showed a probable impact of a decade of drought on increasing TSS concentration in the Colorado River Arm and Overton Arm. Results of the forecasting model highlight the reservoir water level as a significant parameter in predicting TSS in Lake Mead. In addition, the R-squared value of 0.98 and the root mean square error of 0.5 between the observed and predicted TSS values demonstrates the reliability and application potential of this remote sensing-based early warning system in terms of TSS projections at a drinking water intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperature Compensation in Determining of Remazol Black B Concentrations Using Plastic Optical Fiber Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Sin Chong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the construction and test of tapered plastic optical fiber (POF sensors, based on an intensity modulation approach are described. Tapered fiber sensors with different diameters of 0.65 mm, 0.45 mm, and 0.35 mm, were used to measure various concentrations of Remazol black B (RBB dye aqueous solutions at room temperature. The concentrations of the RBB solutions were varied from 0 ppm to 70 ppm. In addition, the effect of varying the temperature of the RBB solution was also investigated. In this case, the output of the sensor was measured at four different temperatures of 27 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, and 40 °C, while its concentration was fixed at 50 ppm and 100 ppm. The experimental results show that the tapered POF with d = 0.45 mm achieves the best performance with a reasonably good sensitivity of 61 × 10−4 and a linearity of more than 99%. It also maintains a sufficient and stable signal when heat was applied to the solution with a linearity of more than 97%. Since the transmitted intensity is dependent on both the concentration and temperature of the analyte, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to combine the two independent variables into a single equation. The resulting equation was then validated experimentally and the best agreement between the calculated and experimental results was achieved by the sensor with d = 0.45 mm, where the minimum discrepancy is less than 5%. The authors conclude that POF-based sensors are suitable for RBB dye concentration sensing and, with refinement in fabrication, better results could be achieved. Their low fabrication cost, simple configuration, accuracy, and high sensitivity would attract many potential applications in chemical and biological sensing.

  16. The experimental study of a two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lijun; Ji, Xu; Li, Ming; Leng, Congbin; Luo, Xi; Li, Haili

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration. • Maximum cell efficiency of 5.21% with the mirror opening width of 57 cm. • With single cycle, maximum temperatures rise in the heating stage is 12.06 °C. • With 30 min multiple cycles, working medium temperature 62.8 °C, increased 28.7 °C. - Abstract: A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration is proposed, in which the metal cavity heating stage is added on the basis of the PV/T stage, and thermal energy with higher temperature is output while electric energy is output. With the 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T system, the characteristic parameters of the space solar cell under non-concentrating solar radiation and concentrating solar radiation are respectively tested experimentally, and the solar cell output characteristics at different opening widths of concentrating mirror of the PV/T stage under condensation are also tested experimentally. When the mirror opening width was 57 cm, the solar cell efficiency reached maximum value of 5.21%. The experimental platform of the two-stage photovoltaic thermal system was established, with a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 15 m 2 mirror heating stage, or a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 30 m 2 mirror heating stage. The results showed that with single cycle, the long metal cavity heating stage would bring lower thermal efficiency, but temperature rise of the working medium is higher, up to 12.06 °C with only single cycle. With 30 min closed multiple cycles, the temperature of the working medium in the water tank was 62.8 °C, with an increase of 28.7 °C, and thermal energy with higher temperature could be output

  17. The Role of Progesterone and a Novel Progesterone Receptor, Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1, in the Inflammatory Response of Fetal Membranes to Ureaplasma parvum Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Feng

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma parvum (U. parvum is gaining recognition as an important pathogen for chorioamnionitis and preterm premature rupture of membranes. We aimed to investigate the roles of progesterone (P4 and a novel progesterone receptor, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, in the response of fetal membranes to U. parvum. Fetal membrane cells (amnion, chorion and decidua were isolated and confirmed to be free of Mycoplasmataceae. Cells were treated with U. parvum (5x106 CFU, and adherence was quantified by qPCR. Amnion and chorion cells were transfected with scrambled siRNA or validated PGRMC1 siRNA for 72h. Cells were then treated with U. parvum for 4h with or without pretreatment with P4 (10-7 M or ethanol for 1h. Interleukin-8 (IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 mRNA expression were quantified by qRT-PCR. Culture medium was harvested and analyzed for IL-8 and prostaglandin (PGE2 secretion by ELISA and MMP9 activity by zymography. U. parvum had a mean adherence of 15.0±0.6%, 16.9± 3.7% and 4.7±0.3% in cultured amnion, chorion and decidua cells, respectively. Exposure to U. parvum elicited significant inflammatory responses including induction of IL-8, COX-2, PGE2 and MMP9. A possible role of PGRMC1 was identified in the inhibition of U. parvum-stimulated COX-2 and MMP9 mRNA expression in chorion cells and MMP9 activity in amnion cells. On the other hand, it might enhance the U. parvum-stimulated IL-8 protein secretion in amnion cells. P4, mediated through PGRMC1, significantly inhibited U. Parvum-induced MMP9 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA expression in chorion cells. P4 appeared to attenuate U. parvum induced IL-8 mRNA expression in chorion cells, but this P4 effect might not mediated through PGRMC1. In summary, U. parvum preferentially adheres to and induces inflammatory responses in chorion and amnion cells. P4 and PGRMC1 appear to differentially modulate the inflammatory responses induced by U. parvum among

  18. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangshe Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed. The major sources of air pollutants in Hong Kong are mobile, stationary, and from trans-boundary sources. We propose predicting the concentration of air pollutants by the use of trained extreme learning machines based on the data obtained from eight air quality parameters in two monitoring stations, including Sham Shui Po and Tap Mun in Hong Kong for six years. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better on the Hong Kong data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, our algorithm shows better predictive ability, with R 2 increased and root mean square error values decreased respectively.

  19. Probability of foliar injury for Acer sp. based on foliar fluoride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Andrew M; Dixon, Murray J; Terry, Debbie T; Todd, Aaron K; Luciani, Michael A; Williamson, Michele L; Roszak, Danuta S; Farias, Kim A

    2016-12-01

    Fluoride is considered one of the most phytotoxic elements to plants, and indicative fluoride injury has been associated over a wide range of foliar fluoride concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine the probability of indicative foliar fluoride injury based on Acer sp. foliar fluoride concentrations using a logistic regression model. Foliage from Acer nedundo, Acer saccharinum, Acer saccharum and Acer platanoides was collected along a distance gradient from three separate brick manufacturing facilities in southern Ontario as part of a long-term monitoring programme between 1995 and 2014. Hydrogen fluoride is the major emission source associated with the manufacturing facilities resulting with highly elevated foliar fluoride close to the facilities and decreasing with distance. Consistent with other studies, indicative fluoride injury was observed over a wide range of foliar concentrations (9.9-480.0 μg F -  g -1 ). The logistic regression model was statistically significant for the Acer sp. group, A. negundo and A. saccharinum; consequently, A. negundo being the most sensitive species among the group. In addition, A. saccharum and A. platanoides were not statistically significant within the model. We are unaware of published foliar fluoride values for Acer sp. within Canada, and this research provides policy maker and scientist with probabilities of indicative foliar injury for common urban Acer sp. trees that can help guide decisions about emissions controls. Further research should focus on mechanisms driving indicative fluoride injury over wide ranging foliar fluoride concentrations and help determine foliar fluoride thresholds for damage.

  20. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangshe; Ding, Weifu

    2017-01-24

    With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed. The major sources of air pollutants in Hong Kong are mobile, stationary, and from trans-boundary sources. We propose predicting the concentration of air pollutants by the use of trained extreme learning machines based on the data obtained from eight air quality parameters in two monitoring stations, including Sham Shui Po and Tap Mun in Hong Kong for six years. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better on the Hong Kong data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, our algorithm shows better predictive ability, with R 2 increased and root mean square error values decreased respectively.

  1. Prediction of Dissolved Gas Concentrations in Transformer Oil Based on the KPCA-FFOA-GRNN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of analyzing the dissolved gas in transformer oil is to determine the transformer’s operating status and is an important basis for fault diagnosis. Accurate prediction of the concentration of dissolved gas in oil can provide an important reference for the evaluation of the state of the transformer. A combined predicting model is proposed based on kernel principal component analysis (KPCA and a generalized regression neural network (GRNN using an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (FFOA to select the smooth factor. Firstly, based on the idea of using the dissolved gas ratio of oil to diagnose the transformer fault, gas concentration ratios are also used as characteristic parameters. Secondly, the main parameters are selected from the feature parameters using the KPCA method, and the GRNN is then used to predict the gas concentration in the transformer oil. In the training process of the network, the FFOA is used to select the smooth factor of the neural network. Through a concrete example, it is shown that the method proposed in this paper has better data fitting ability and more accurate prediction ability compared with the support vector machine (SVM and gray model (GM methods.

  2. Quantitative kinetics of proteolytic enzymes determined by a surface concentration-based assay using peptide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se-Hui; Kong, Deok-Hoon; Park, Seoung-Woo; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo

    2012-08-21

    Peptide arrays have emerged as a key technology for drug discovery, diagnosis, and cell biology. Despite the promise of these arrays, applications of peptide arrays to quantitative analysis of enzyme kinetics have been limited due to the difficulty in obtaining quantitative information of enzymatic reaction products. In this study, we developed a new approach for the quantitative kinetics analysis of proteases using fluorescence-conjugated peptide arrays, a surface concentration-based assay with solid-phase peptide standards using dry-off measurements, and compared it with an applied concentration-based assay. For fabrication of the peptide arrays, substrate peptides of cMMP-3, caspase-3, caspase-9, and calpain-1 were functionalized with TAMRA and cysteine, and were immobilized onto amine-functionalized arrays using a heterobifunctional linker, N-[γ-maleimidobutyloxy]succinimide ester. The proteolytic activities of the four enzymes were quantitatively analyzed by calculating changes induced by enzymatic reactions in the concentrations of peptides bound to array surfaces. In addition, this assay was successfully applied for calculating the Michaelis constant (K(m,surf)) for the four enzymes. Thus, this new assay has a strong potential for use in the quantitative evaluation of proteases, and for drug discovery through kinetics studies including the determination of K(m) and V(max).

  3. Photo-thermal characteristics of hybrid nanofluids based on Therminol-55 oil for concentrating solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Ovais; Qayoum, Adnan; Gupta, Rajat

    2018-03-01

    Hybrid nanofluids are the new generation efficient heat transfer fluids allowing greater control over the properties of base fluid as compared to mono-nanofluids. In this study, attempt has been made for increasing the efficiency for photo-thermal conversion by heat transfer fluid for high temperature solar collectors. Therminol-55, a high temperature heat transfer fluid is doped with Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles with an aim to improve the thermal and optical properties. Effects of concentration and type of nanoparticle on photo-thermal conversion properties and absorbance in Therminol-55 have been studied. Spectrophotometric analysis has been carried for all nanofluids, namely, Al2O3-Therminol-55, TiO2-Therminol-55 and hybrid (Al2O3-TiO2)-Therminol-55 nanofluids with varying concentrations of 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 wt%. It was found that TiO2 nanofluids possess the maximum absorbance with minimal effect of nanoparticle concentration above 0.1 wt% followed by hybrid (Al2O3-TiO2) nanofluid (HNF) with strong dependence of concentration. Al2O3-Therminol-55 nanofluids exhibited least absorbance. The peak values of absorbance are 0.47, 2.15 and 2.144 in the visible region for Al2O3-Therminol-55, TiO2-Therminol-55 and hybrid (Al2O3-TiO2)-Therminol-55 nanofluids, respectively. It was observed that hybrid nanofluids show both bathochromic and hyperchromic shifts. Further, performance testing has been carried out using artificial source of light and it has been observed that hybrid nanofluids provide efficient photo-thermal conversion as compared to TiO2 and Al2O3-Therminol-55 nanofluids. Maximum temperatures of 152.9, 149.6, 158.6 °C were observed for 0.5 wt% Al2O3-Therminol-55, 0.1 wt% TiO2-Therminol-55, and 0.5 wt% hybrid (Al2O3-TiO2) nanofluid, respectively, against 125.8 °C of Therminol-55. Hybrid nanofluids based on Therminol-55 could be a potential candidate for high temperature concentrating collectors based on the superior properties over mono-nanofluids and

  4. Sensory and rheological characteristics of thickened liquids differing concentrations of a xanthan gum-based thickener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeri; Hwang, Han-Im; Song, Ki-Won; Lee, Jeehyun

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and compare sensory characteristics of beverages and soups thickened with different concentrations of a xanthan gum-based thickener, and to examine, using rheological measurement, whether the viscosity of the thickened liquids conformed to the recommendations of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) Task Force. Beverages tested included water, apple juice, orange juice, soymilk, and Yakult. The thickening agent was added to samples at concentrations of 1, 2, or 3%. Addition of the thickening agent had a significant effect on the appearance, texture, and starchy flavor, which were evaluated by descriptive sensory evaluation. The reference standards of viscosity used in sensory descriptive analysis could be useful to practitioners who have to make dysphagia diets and need to learn to make them properly. In rheological measurement, viscosity of thickened liquids in stationary state would be perceived as higher compared to that while swallowing, because of the shear thinning property. This could lead to noncompliance of the medical advice or malnutrition. It is necessary to determine optimal proportion of xanthan gum-based thickener or uncover alternatives, which have shear thinning properties lower than those of xanthan gum, for the acceptance of dysphagia patients. There was no pudding-like viscosity as classified by NDD, when prepared following instructions. Future studies should include higher concentrations of thickener to find out the concentration of the thickener resulting in pudding-like viscosity as recommended by NDD. When a manufacturer modifies or develops a xanthan gum-based thickener, findings from this study can be utilized to understand sensory and rheological characteristics of thickened liquid. For practitioners who have to make dysphagia diets, the reference standards of viscosity used in sensory descriptive analysis could be helpful for deciding the viscosity level of thickened liquids based only on visual

  5. The influence of aging and estradiol to progesterone ratio on rat macrophage phenotypic profile and NO and TNF-α production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Stanojević, Stanislava; Kuštrimović, Nataša; Mitić, Katarina; Vujić, Vesna; Aleksić, Iva; Radojević, Katarina; Leposavić, Gordana

    2013-11-01

    The phenotype and function of tissue macrophages substantially depend on the cellular milieu and biological effector molecules, such as steroid hormones, to which they are exposed. Furthermore, in female rats, aging is associated with the altered macrophage functioning and the increased estrogen level is followed by a decrease in that of progesterone. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of estradiol/progesterone balance on rat macrophage function and phenotype throughout whole adult lifespan. We ovariectomized rats at the late prepubertal age or at the very end of reproductive lifespan, and examined the expression of ED2 (CD163, a marker of mature resident macrophages related to secretion of inflammatory mediators) on peritoneal macrophages and their ability to produce TNF-α and NO upon LPS-stimulation at different age points. In addition, to delineate direct and indirect effects of estrogen, we assessed the in vitro influence of different concentrations of 17β-estradiol on LPS-induced macrophage TNF-α and NO production. Results showed that: (a) the low frequency of ED2(high) cells amongst peritoneal macrophages of aged rats was accompanied with the reduced TNF-α, but not NO production; (b) estradiol level gradually increased following ovariectomy; (c) macrophage ED2 expression and TNF-α production were dependent on estradiol/progesterone balance and they changed in the same direction; (d) changes in estradiol/progesterone balance differentially affected macrophages TNF-α and NO production; and (e) estradiol exerted pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Overall, our study discloses that estradiol/progesterone balance contributes to the fine-tuning of rat macrophage secretory capacity, and adds to a better understanding of the ovarian steroid hormone role in the regulation of macrophage function, and its significance for the age-associated changes in innate immunity.

  6. Effect of exogenous progesterone on cumulus characteristics of buffalo oocytes by allowing passage of more number of sperm through cumulus but not essentially fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusmita Panda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the level of progesterone (P4 in different quality of buffalo cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs and further to evaluate the effect of exogenous P4 supplementation on maturation and subsequent developmental ability of poor quality brilliant cresyl blue (BCB- COCs. Methods: Progesterone secreted by different quality of buffalo oocytes was estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and the concentration differences were translated into P4 doses to be incorporated in the maturation medium of BCB-ve COCs followed by expression analysis of genes involved in the cumulus expansion, extracellular matrix disintegration and progesterone receptor signalling. In addition, the study also evaluated the effect of exogenous P4 on sperm-cumulus interaction. Results: More than 10-fold upregulated expression of progesterone receptor in P4 supplemented oocytes signified that P4 might be acting predominantly through this receptor. Also, exogenous P4 supplementation had significant effect on transcatheter arterial chemoembolization protease regulated by P4- progesterone receptor pathway which in turn had an important role in extracellular matrix disintegration. On the contrary, cumulus expansion genes HAS2, TNFAIP6, AREG were not altered upon P4 supplementation. Also, it was observed that P4 addition did facilitate passage of significantly more number of spermatozoa through P4 treated cumulus cells. Further, incorporation of different doses of P4 did not improve significantly the cleavage and blastocyst rates of BCB-ve COCs. Conclusions: Different qualities of buffalo COCs secrete substantially diverse levels of P4, and its supplementation has a role in oocyte maturation via modulation of cumulus characteristics but perhaps not fertilization.

  7. The reproductive performance in female Damascus goats using progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Al-Masri, M. R.

    1998-12-01

    An experiment was conducted on Damascus goats' female kids and does to study the reproductive performance by identifying some reproductive parameters such as age and weight at puberty, start of the breeding season, duration of pregnancy and other related parameters. The above objectives were met by means of the measurement of progesterone levels in blood sera using radioimmunoassay. The results could be summarized as follows: 1- Average weight of female kids at age of 7-8 months was 30.2 kg, at puberty was 35.6 ky and at mating was 41.6 kg. 2- There were individual differences in the age at puberty ranging from 266 to 653 days. 3- At age of 7-8 months, progesterone level was 0 n mol/1 in 8, and 0.1 and 0.2 n mol/1 in the 2 remaining female kids. This level increased to an average of 6.81 n mol/1 at puberty. 4- Average duration of pregnancy was 149.0 days, overall kids' birth weight was 3.73 kg, for singles was 4.43 kg, whereas for twins was 3.21 kg, for the kids produced by the female kids. Average kids' birth weight produced by the does was: overall 4.63 kg, singles 4.02 kg and for twins was. 4.18 kg. 5- Average progesterone e level on day 21 post-mating was 23.02 n mol/1. Therefore, the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. 6- The breeding season for the experimental does started in September. (author)

  8. The effect of progesterone and 17-β estradiol on membrane-bound HLA-G in adipose derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Akram; Hashemi-Beni, Batool; Moslehi, Azam; Akbari, Maryam Ali; Adib, Minoo

    2016-07-01

    Membrane-bound HLA-G (mHLA-G) discovery on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) as a tolerogenic and immunosuppressive molecule was very important. Many documents have shown that HLA-G expression can be controlled via some hormones such as progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2). Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate progesterone and estradiol effects on mHLA-G in ADSCs at restricted and combination concentrations. Three independent cell lines were cultured in complete free phenol red DMEM and subcultured to achieve suffi cient cells. These cells were treated with P4, E2 and P4 plus E2 at physiologic and pregnancy concentrations for 3 days in cell culture conditions. The HLA-G positive ADSCs was measured via monoclonal anti HLA-G-FITC/MEMG-09 by means of flow cytometry in nine groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. There were no signifi cant values of the mean percentage of HLA-G positive cells in E2-treated and the combination of P4 plus E2-treated ADSCs compared to control cells (p value>0.05) but P4 had a signifi cant increase on mHLA-G in ADSCs (p value<0.05). High P4 concentration increased mHLA-G but E2 and the combination of P4 plus E2 could not change mHLA-G on ADSCs.

  9. Assessing breeding potential of peregrine falcons based on chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.E. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR no. 1, Delta, British Columbia, V4K 3N2 (Canada)]. E-mail: john.elliott@ec.gc.ca; Miller, M.J. [Iolaire Ecological Consulting, 7899 Thrasher St., Mission, British Columbia, V2V 5H3 (Canada); Wilson, L.K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR no. 1, Delta, British Columbia, V4K 3N2 (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) now breed successfully in most areas of North America from which they were previously extirpated. The loss during the mid-part of the last century of many of the world's peregrine populations was largely a consequence of impaired reproduction caused by the effects of DDE on eggshell quality and embryo hatchability. Population recovery has been attributed to re-introduction efforts, coupled with regulatory restrictions on the use of organochlorine pesticides. Peregrines have not returned to breed in some areas, such as the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. That region has been extensively planted in fruit orchards which were treated annually with DDT during the early 1950s to the 1970s. Ongoing contamination of avian species, including potential peregrine prey, inhabiting orchards has been documented. In response to an initiative to release peregrines around the city of Kelowna in the Okanagan Valley, we collected potential peregrine prey species and analyzed whole bodies for chlorinated hydrocarbon residues. We used a simple bioaccumulation model to predict concentrations of DDE in peregrine eggs using concentrations in prey and estimates of dietary makeup as input. Peregrines would be expected to breed successfully only if they fed on a diet primarily of doves. Feeding on as little as 10% of other species such as starlings, robins, gulls and magpies would produce DDE concentrations in peregrine eggs greater than the threshold of 15 mg/kg. We also estimated the critical concentration of DDE in total prey to be about 0.5 mg/kg, one half of the previous most conservative criterion for peregrine prey. Concentrations of dieldrin and PCBs in peregrine prey are less than suggested critical levels. - Based on the level of DDE contamination of prey items, it seems unlikely that peregrine falcons could breed successfully throughout most of the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia.

  10. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states-based blind quantum computation with entanglement concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Weng, Jian; Lu, Wei; Li, Xiaochun; Luo, Weiqi; Tan, Xiaoqing

    2017-09-11

    In blind quantum computation (BQC) protocol, the quantum computability of servers are complicated and powerful, while the clients are not. It is still a challenge for clients to delegate quantum computation to servers and keep the clients' inputs, outputs and algorithms private. Unfortunately, quantum channel noise is unavoidable in the practical transmission. In this paper, a novel BQC protocol based on maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states is proposed which doesn't need a trusted center. The protocol includes a client and two servers, where the client only needs to own quantum channels with two servers who have full-advantage quantum computers. Two servers perform entanglement concentration used to remove the noise, where the success probability can almost reach 100% in theory. But they learn nothing in the process of concentration because of the no-signaling principle, so this BQC protocol is secure and feasible.

  11. On the feasibility of a CENTA-based biosensor to measure antibiotics concentration in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luca; Rovati, Luigi; Costi, Maria Paola; Venturelli, Alberto; Luciani, Rosaria; Cattini, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    In veterinary practice antibiotics are used and abused all over the world both to treat diseases and prevent infections and, to increase feed efficiency thus promoting growth in food producing animals. With more than 30 years history, β-lactam antibiotics are nowadays one of the most important group of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. In this paper we investigate the possibility to realize a measurement method suitable for field testing and we propose a competitive biosensor based on a relatively low-cost chromogenic cephalosporin (CENTA) for the quantitative analysis of β-lactams concentration in milk. In particular, the reported preliminary study has been focused on cloxacillin and the reported results indicates that the method is potentially able to detect cloxacillin at a concentration of about one order of magnitude lower than the maximal residue limits (MRL) set by the European Commission.

  12. Design and Implementation of PLC-Based Automatic Sun tracking System for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sun-tracking system for parabolic trough solar concentrators (PTCs is a control system used to orient the concentrator toward the sun always, so that the maximum energy can be collected. The work presented here is a design and development of PLC based sun tracking control system for PTC. Sun tracking control system consists of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and a single axis hydraulic drives tracking control system. Hydraulic drives and the necessary tracking angle algorithm have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PTC and to collect and store data related to the tracking angle of PTC. It is found that the tracking error of the system is less than 0.6°. Field experience shows that tracking algorithm act stable and reliable and suit for PTCs.

  13. Simultaneous pre-concentration and separation on simple paper-based analytical device for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, Ting; Niu, Li-Li; Xie, Zhen-Sheng; Fang, Fang; Yang, Fu-Quan; Wu, Zhi-Yong

    2018-02-01

    In this work, fast isoelectric focusing (IEF) was successfully implemented on an open paper fluidic channel for simultaneous concentration and separation of proteins from complex matrix. With this simple device, IEF can be finished in 10 min with a resolution of 0.03 pH units and concentration factor of 10, as estimated by color model proteins by smartphone-based colorimetric detection. Fast detection of albumin from human serum and glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c) from blood cell was demonstrated. In addition, off-line identification of the model proteins from the IEF fractions with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was also shown. This PAD IEF is potentially useful either for point of care test (POCT) or biomarker analysis as a cost-effective sample pretreatment method.

  14. Regionalization based on spatial and seasonal variation in ground-level ozone concentrations across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Linjun; Wang, Shuai; Gong, Zhengyu; Li, Hong; Yang, Qi; Wang, Yeyao

    2018-05-01

    Owing to the vast territory of China and strong regional characteristic of ozone pollution, it's desirable for policy makers to have a targeted and prioritized regulation and ozone pollution control strategy in China based on scientific evidences. It's important to assess its current pollution status as well as spatial and temporal variation patterns across China. Recent advances of national monitoring networks provide an opportunity to insight the actions of ozone pollution. Here, we present rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis that was used on studying the spatiotemporal characteristics of daily ozone concentrations. Based on results of REOF analysis in pollution seasons for 3years' observations, twelve regions with clear patterns were identified in China. The patterns of temporal variation of ozone in each region were separated well and different from each other, reflecting local meteorological, photochemical or pollution features. A rising trend in annual averaged Eight-hour Average Ozone Concentrations (O 3 -8hr) from 2014 to 2016 was observed for all regions, except for the Tibetan Plateau. The mean values of annual and 90 percentile concentrations for all 338 cities were 82.6±14.6 and 133.9±25.8μg/m 3 , respectively, in 2015. The regionalization results of ozone were found to be influenced greatly by terrain features, indicating significant terrain and landform effects on ozone spatial correlations. Among 12 regions, North China Plain, Huanghuai Plain, Central Yangtze River Plain, Pearl River Delta and Sichuan Basin were realized as priority regions for mitigation strategies, due to their higher ozone concentrations and dense population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The presence of a membrane-bound progesterone receptor sensitizes the estradiol-induced effect on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Hans; Yang, Yang; Seeger, Harald; Fehm, Tanja; Cahill, Michael A; Tong, Xiaowen; Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer risk is still an important topic regarding hormone therapy as well as oral contraception. Evidence that progestogens may play a crucial role is accumulating. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) expressed in breast cancer may be important in tumorigenesis and thus may increase breast cancer risk. The aim of this project was to investigate the influence of different estradiol (E2) concentrations and the addition of two progestogens on MCF-7 breast cancer cells overexpressing PGRMC1. MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with PGRMC1 expression plasmid (MCF-7/PGRMC1-3HA [WT-12]). To test the effects of E2 and progestogens on cell proliferation, MCF-7 and WT-12 cells were stimulated with different concentrations of E2 (10 and 10 M) alone and in combination with progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate (each 10 M). E2 elicited a concentration-dependent proliferative effect on both cell lines, which was much more pronounced in WT-12 cells (50% vs 200%). This effect could be completely abrogated by the addition of the E2 antagonist fulvestrant. Addition of progesterone had no influence on the E2-induced effect, whereas medroxy-progesterone acetate enhanced the E2-induced effect at a low E2 concentration, which was, again, more pronounced in the WT-12 cells. The figures were between 20% and 40% in MCF-7 and between 60% and 250% in WT-12 cells. Overexpression of PGRMC1 sensitizes the proliferative response of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line to estradiol. The effect of progestogens on breast cancer tumorigenesis may depend on the specific progestogen used for hormone therapy or oral contraception.

  16. Use of progesterone radioimmunoassay for assessing the response of the female Damascus Goats to the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1999-12-01

    An experiment was carried out to assess the effectiveness of the synthetic prostaglandin, Prosolvin, on oestrous synchronization in the Damascus does inside the breeding season, in addition to other related parameters. Ten female Damascus goats aged around 3.5 years, with an average live-weight of 56.3 kg were used. The does were injected intramuscularly with 7.5 mg of Prosolvin twice, with an interval of 12 days. A fertile Damascus buck was introduced into all does 18 hours after the second injection of Prosolvin for oestrus detection and natural mating. Progesterone levels were measured in the sera of the does' blood using radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits. The results indicate that oestrus appeared in the does on average in 83.3 hours (range: 51-196 hours; 3.47 days, range: 2.13-8.17 days) after the second injection of Prosolvin. Average concentration of progesterone at mating was 0.23 n mol/l. The treatment, using a dose level at 7.5 mg of Prosolvin, had no clear effect on synchronizing the oestrous cycle of Damascus does inside the breeding season, nor resulted in formation of active corpora lutea in the ovaries of most does, However, the treatment had a luteolytic effect on the active corpora lutea present in the ovaries, where progesterone concentration dropped sharply within 24 hours after the second Prosolvin injection. The treatment had no effect on the duration of pregnancy or birth weight. it could be concluded that the dose level at 7.5 mg of Prosolvin, had no clear effect on synchronizing the oestrous cycle of Damascus does inside the breeding season and other doses of Prosolvin could be tested on Damascus does to achieve the optimal dose. (author)

  17. Accuracy of serum markers, progesterone and vitamins measurements for early screening of abortions in the eastern region of Algeria (Batna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mouffouk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous abortion is an involuntary interruption of pregnancy before 22 weeks of gestation. According to the Algerian National Institute of Public Health the percentage of women suffering from permanent complications during pregnancy is approximately 15%. The aim of this study is the determination of some biochemical analytes, including folic acid, vitamin B12, alphafoetoproteine, beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG, progesterone and oestradiol (uE3, which are involved in the detection of pregnancy failures. This case-control study was carried out on women in the process of abortion and a control group with viable pregnancies in the East region of Algeria (Batna during the year 2015. In the present investigation, 69 pregnant women during the first and second trimester were recruited during the first and second trimesters as cases (with miscarriages and the control group (n=69 was constituted of women who had normal ultrasound. The average concentration of alpha-fetoprotein is significantly low during the first trimester, but it is very high during the second trimester between cases and controls. The median values of β- hCG, uE3 and progesterone decrease very significantly. The mean concentration of serum folate and vitamin B12 did not change significantly between cases and controls in the first and second trimesters. The results of this study revealed that, spontaneous abortions are associated with changes in serum markers and progesterone, which could form an important part in the early diagnosis of non-viable pregnancies. However, vitamins levels have no significant effects on these pregnancies.

  18. A novel diagnosis method for a Hall plates-based rotary encoder with a magnetic concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bumin; Wang, Yaonan; Sun, Wei; Yuan, Xiaofang

    2014-07-31

    In the last few years, rotary encoders based on two-dimensional complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) Hall plates with a magnetic concentrator have been developed to measure contactless absolute angle. There are various error factors influencing the measuring accuracy, which are difficult to locate after the assembly of encoder. In this paper, a model-based rapid diagnosis method is presented. Based on an analysis of the error mechanism, an error model is built to compare minimum residual angle error and to quantify the error factors. Additionally, a modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to reduce the calculated amount. The simulation and experimental results show that this diagnosis method is feasible to quantify the causes of the error and to reduce iteration significantly.

  19. Medroxyprogesterone acetate or long-acting progesterone in the biostimulation of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C.O. Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of prepubertal ewe lambs to exogenous administration of either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP or long-acting progesterone (LAP together with biostimulation. Two Pool Dorset adult males and 75 mixed-breed prepubertal ewe lambs (average of 179 days-old and 30.0kg were used. The females were randomly assigned to three different groups. In the first group the females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for 12 days and were then biostimulated for eight weeks. In the second group the females were submitted to a single injection of LAP (225 mg and then to biostimulation for eight weeks. In the last group, the females were only submitted to biostimulation for eight weeks. Animals were considered cyclic when plasma progesterone (P4 concentration exceeded 1.0 ng/mL in at least one of two consecutive blood samples taken within a 7-day interval in three distinct experimental moments. After treatments 93.3% of the females disregarding their group started their cyclicity and most of them (92.0%, continued to be cyclic after 63 days of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation under both male and female effect. We conclude that prepubertal ewe lambs when submitted to protocols of either MAP or LAP followed by biostimulation result in puberty at the 7 month of age. It can be deducted that some ewe lambs submitted to the administration of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation promoted a multiplier effect upon the other young females that were then stimulated to start cyclicity.

  20. Induction of parturition in the bitch with the progesterone-receptor blocker aglépristone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baan, M; Taverne, M A M; Kooistra, H S; de Gier, J; Dieleman, S J; Okkens, A C

    2005-04-15

    The triggering mechanism for parturition in the bitch remains unclear. Consequently, the development of drugs to successfully induce parturition in the dog has been difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the progesterone-receptor blocker aglépristone for the induction of parturition in beagle bitches. The course of parturition was therefore investigated in six parturitions induced by aglépristone and in six spontaneous parturitions. In addition, data were collected on pup survival and growth rates. Aglépristone was administered twice with a 9h interval on day 58 of pregnancy. If parturition did not proceed a standard intervention protocol was applied. Expulsion of the first pup occurred between 32 and 56 h after the first treatment with aglépristone, at which time the plasma progesterone concentration was still elevated. Accordingly, the gestation length of the bitches in the induced group (59.5+/-0.2 days) was significantly shorter than that of the spontaneously whelping bitches (62.2+/-0.5 days). The expulsion phase length, the inter-pup interval, the number of puppies born dead, and the number of clinical interventions needed during parturition did not significantly differ between the spontaneously whelping and the induced group. Pup survival and mean birth weights in the two groups did not differ significantly and aglépristone treatment had no significant influence on the growth rates. The results of this study show that aglépristone is an effective drug which can be used safely for the induction of parturition in the dog.

  1. Estrogen, progesterone, and genistein differentially regulate levels of expression of α-, β-, and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and α-sodium potassium pump (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase) in the uteri of sex steroid-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinigarzadeh, Asma; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2015-10-01

    Estrogen, progesterone, and genistein could induce changes in uterine fluid volume and Na(+) concentration. Progesterone upregulates expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase which contributed toward these changes. However, effects of estrogen and genistein were unknown. This study therefore investigated changes in expression of these proteins in the uterus under estrogen, progesterone, and genistein influences to further understand mechanisms underlying sex steroids and phytoestrogen effects on uterine fluid Na(+) regulation. In this study, uteri of ovariectomized female rats receiving 7-day treatment with genistein (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen (0.8 × 10(-4) mg/kg/day), or progesterone (4 mg/kg/day) were harvested, and expression levels of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC proteins and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein were determined by Western blotting (proteins) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRNA). Meanwhile, distribution of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase proteins in the uterus was identified by immunohistochemistry. Our findings indicated that expression of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNAs and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein were enhanced under progesterone influence. Lower expressions were noted under estrogen and genistein influences compared to progesterone. Under estrogen, progesterone, and genistein influences, α- and β-ENaC were distributed at apical membrane and γ-ENaC was distributed at apical and basolateral membranes of uterine luminal epithelia. Under progesterone influence, α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was highly expressed at basolateral membrane. In conclusion, high expression of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase under progesterone influence would contribute toward increased uterine fluid Na(+) reabsorption, whereas lesser expression of these proteins under estrogen and genistein influences would contribute toward lower reabsorption of uterine fluid Na

  2. A Corpus Luteum Is Not a Prerequisite for the Expression of Progesterone Induced Blocking Factor by T-Lymphocytes a Week After Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Check, Jerome H.; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Nazari, Parvin; Katz, Youval; Check, Matthew L.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if production of the immunomodulatory protein, progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF), requires merely progesterone or whether other factors made by the corpus luteum are required.

  3. Information Management of Web Application Based Environmental Performance Management in Concentrating Division of PTFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanto Arif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of environmental management system standards into the latest version, i.e. ISO 14001:2015, may cause a change on a data and information need in decision making and achieving the objectives in the organization coverage. Information management is the organization’s responsibility to ensure that effectiveness and efficiency start from its creating, storing, processing and distribution processes to support operations and effective decision making activity in environmental performance management. The objective of this research was to set up an information management program and to adopt the technology as the supporting component of the program which was done by PTFI Concentrating Division so that it could be in line with the desirable organization objective in environmental management based on ISO 14001:2015 environmental management system standards. Materials and methods used covered technical aspects in information management, i.e. with web-based application development by using usage centered design. The result of this research showed that the use of Single Sign On gave ease to its user to interact further on the use of the environmental management system. Developing a web-based through creating entity relationship diagram (ERD and information extraction by conducting information extraction which focuses on attributes, keys, determination of constraints. While creating ERD is obtained from relational database scheme from a number of database from environmental performances in Concentrating Division.

  4. Electro-encephalogram based brain-computer interface: improved performance by mental practice and concentration skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Babak; Erfanian, Abbas

    2006-11-01

    Mental imagination is the essential part of the most EEG-based communication systems. Thus, the quality of mental rehearsal, the degree of imagined effort, and mind controllability should have a major effect on the performance of electro-encephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI). It is now well established that mental practice using motor imagery improves motor skills. The effects of mental practice on motor skill learning are the result of practice on central motor programming. According to this view, it seems logical that mental practice should modify the neuronal activity in the primary sensorimotor areas and consequently change the performance of EEG-based BCI. For developing a practical BCI system, recognizing the resting state with eyes opened and the imagined voluntary movement is important. For this purpose, the mind should be able to focus on a single goal for a period of time, without deviation to another context. In this work, we are going to examine the role of mental practice and concentration skills on the EEG control during imaginative hand movements. The results show that the mental practice and concentration can generally improve the classification accuracy of the EEG patterns. It is found that mental training has a significant effect on the classification accuracy over the primary motor cortex and frontal area.

  5. Information Management of Web Application Based Environmental Performance Management in Concentrating Division of PTFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Arif; Mulyono, Nur Budi

    2018-02-01

    The changes of environmental management system standards into the latest version, i.e. ISO 14001:2015, may cause a change on a data and information need in decision making and achieving the objectives in the organization coverage. Information management is the organization's responsibility to ensure that effectiveness and efficiency start from its creating, storing, processing and distribution processes to support operations and effective decision making activity in environmental performance management. The objective of this research was to set up an information management program and to adopt the technology as the supporting component of the program which was done by PTFI Concentrating Division so that it could be in line with the desirable organization objective in environmental management based on ISO 14001:2015 environmental management system standards. Materials and methods used covered technical aspects in information management, i.e. with web-based application development by using usage centered design. The result of this research showed that the use of Single Sign On gave ease to its user to interact further on the use of the environmental management system. Developing a web-based through creating entity relationship diagram (ERD) and information extraction by conducting information extraction which focuses on attributes, keys, determination of constraints. While creating ERD is obtained from relational database scheme from a number of database from environmental performances in Concentrating Division.

  6. A laser-based FAIMS detector for detection of ultra-low concentrations of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmalov, Artem E.; Chistyakov, Alexander A.; Kotkovskii, Gennadii E.; Sychev, Alexey V.; Tugaenko, Anton V.; Bogdanov, Artem S.; Perederiy, Anatoly N.; Spitsyn, Eugene M.

    2014-06-01

    A non-contact method for analyzing of explosives traces from surfaces was developed. The method is based on the laser desorption of analyzed molecules from the surveyed surfaces followed by the laser ionization of air sample combined with the field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS). The pulsed radiation of the fourth harmonic of a portable GSGG: Cr3+ :Nd3+ laser (λ = 266 nm) is used. The laser desorption FAIMS analyzer have been developed. The detection limit of the analyzer equals 40 pg for TNT. The results of detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) are presented. It is shown that laser desorption of nitro-compounds from metals is accompanied by their surface decomposition. A method for detecting and analyzing of small concentrations of explosives in air based on the laser ionization and the FAIMS was developed. The method includes a highly efficient multipass optical scheme of the intracavity fourthharmonic generation of pulsed laser radiation (λ = 266 nm) and the field asymmetric ion mobility (FAIM) spectrometer disposed within a resonator. The ions formation and detection proceed inside a resonant cavity. The laser ion source based on the multi-passage of radiation at λ = 266 nm through the ionization region was elaborated. On the basis of the method the laser FAIMS analyzer has been created. The analyzer provides efficient detection of low concentrations of nitro-compounds in air and shows a detection limit of 10-14 - 10-15 g/cm3 both for RDX and TNT.

  7. Perturbation based Monte Carlo criticality search in density, enrichment and concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zeguang; Wang, Kan; Deng, Jingkang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new perturbation based Monte Carlo criticality search method is proposed. • The method could get accurate results with only one individual criticality run. • The method is used to solve density, enrichment and concentration search problems. • Results show the feasibility and good performances of this method. • The relationship between results’ accuracy and perturbation order is discussed. - Abstract: Criticality search is a very important aspect in reactor physics analysis. Due to the advantages of Monte Carlo method and the development of computer technologies, Monte Carlo criticality search is becoming more and more necessary and feasible. Existing Monte Carlo criticality search methods need large amount of individual criticality runs and may have unstable results because of the uncertainties of criticality results. In this paper, a new perturbation based Monte Carlo criticality search method is proposed and discussed. This method only needs one individual criticality calculation with perturbation tallies to estimate k eff changing function using initial k eff and differential coefficients results, and solves polynomial equations to get the criticality search results. The new perturbation based Monte Carlo criticality search method is implemented in the Monte Carlo code RMC, and criticality search problems in density, enrichment and concentration are taken out. Results show that this method is quite inspiring in accuracy and efficiency, and has advantages compared with other criticality search methods

  8. Radioimmunological determination of 5a-pregnane-3,20-dione and progesterone in arterial and venous blood from the umbilical cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannich, E.

    1985-01-01

    Radioimmunological investigations of arterial and venous blood from the umbilical cord for 5a-DHP and progesterone were carried out in 60 newly delivered infants using 3 H as a tracer substance. The following findings were revealed: 1) The correlation between progesterone and 5a-DHP was better in the venous blood than in the arterial blood from the umbilical cord and the concentrations measured for the two hormones were higher in the vein. 2) Both the umbilical vein and artery showed more elevated hormone levels in male infants as compared to female infants. 3) The duration of gestation, the concentration of hydrogen ions in the fetal plasma and various other maternal and fetal factors have an influence on the height of the 5a-DHP and progesterone levels in the umbilical blood. This was also concluded from the fact that the (arterial and venous) hormone concentrations measured in infants from primiparae were higher than those in infants from multiparae. The metabolisation of 5a-DHP varies between the sexes, which does not hold true for progosterone. (TRV) [de

  9. Manganese mediated oxidation of progesterone in alkaline medium: Mechanism study and quantitative determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Pashabadi, Afshin; Taherpour, Avat; Bahrami, Kiumars; Sharghi, Hashem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This is first report on oxidation of progesterone in alkaline medium using a new manganese (III) Schiff base complex. • Utilizing QM and MM, we modelled and interpreted the observed electrochemical behavior of complex on carbon and gold materials as platform. • The long term stability of proposed sensor is improved relative to previously reported immunosensors for P4. • A detailed mechanism was developed for the oxidation of P4. • The proposed sensor was applied to quantify P4 in cow’s milk. - Abstract: We report here a non-immunosensing approach for the electrocatalytic oxidation of progesterone (P4) in alkaline medium using a salen-type manganese Schiff base complex (Mn(III)-SB) as a suitable electrocatalyst. We explored the role of carbon surface at glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and gold surface at glassy carbon/gold nanoparticles modified electrode (GCE/AuNPs) on immobilization of the Mn(III)-SB complex using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The GCE/Mn(III)-SB displayed a pair of small redox peaks attributed to Mn(II) ⇄ Mn(III) with a small peak-to-peak separation (ΔE p ), while GCE/AuNP/Mn(III)-SB displayed redox peaks with larger densities, but with a wider ΔE p . A combined molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanics (QM) study were carried out to investigate the variation of surface configuration and energy barrier, when the Mn(III)-SB immobilization was modeled on GCE and GCE/Au surface. Cyclic voltammetry and hydrodynamic amperometry were used for the quantitative determination of P4. A limit of detection (LOD) of 11.4 nM was obtained using amperometry. The sensor retained 91% of its original response after 3 months, which is improved compared to previously reported P4 immunosensors. For the first time, a detailed mechanism for oxidation of P4 in alkaline medium was suggested. The proposed sensor was utilized to determine progesterone in milk samples.

  10. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bunsen [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  11. FPGA-based multichannel optical concentrator SIMCON 4.0 for TESLA cavities LLRF control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkuszewski, Karol; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Koprek, Waldemar; Szewinski, Jaroslaw; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Simrock, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    The paper presents an idea, design and realization of a gigabit, optoelectronic synchronous massive data concentrator for the LLRF control system for FLASH and XFEL superconducting accelerators and lasers. The design bases on a central, large, programmable FPGA VirtexIIPro circuit by Xilinx and on eight commercial optoelectronic transceivers. There were implemented peripheral devices for embedded PowerPC block like: memory and Ethernet. The SIMCON 4.0 module was realized as a single, standard EURO-6HE board with VXI/VME-bus. Hardware implementation was described for the most important functional blocks. Construction solutions were presented.

  12. Compound parabolic concentrator optical fiber tip for FRET-based fluorescent sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Nielsen, Kristian; Aasmul, Soren

    2015-01-01

    The Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) optical fiber tip shape has been proposed for intensity based fluorescent sensors working on the principle of FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer). A simple numerical Zemax model has been used to optimize the CPC tip geometry for a step-index multimode...... polymer optical fiber for an excitation and emission wavelength of 550 nm and 650nm, respectively. The model suggests an increase of a factor of 1.6 to 4 in the collected fluorescent power for an ideal CPC tip, as compared to the plane-cut fiber tip for fiber lengths between 5 and 45mm...

  13. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with LQR resulted in a 17% better efficiency of ME use for gain (P energy retention as fat (P < 0.01). This increased nutritional

  14. FPGA based multichannel optical concentrator SIMCON 4.0 for TESLA cavities LLRF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkuszewski, K.; Pozniak, K.T.; Jalmuzna, W.; Koprek, W.; Szewinski, J.; Romaniuk, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an idea, design and realization of a gigabit, optoelectronic synchronous massive data concentrator for the LLRF control system for FLASH and XFEL superconducting accelerators and lasers. The design bases on a central, large, programmable FPGA VirtexIIPro circuit by Xilinx and on eight commercial optoelectronic transceivers. There were implemented peripheral devices for embedded PowerPC block like: memory and Ethernet. The SIMCON 4.0 module was realized as a single, standard EURO-6HE board with VXI/VME-bus. Hardware implementation was described for the most important functional blocks. Construction solutions were presented. (orig.)

  15. FPGA based multichannel optical concentrator SIMCON 4.0 for TESLA cavities LLRF control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkuszewski, K.; Pozniak, K.T.; Jalmuzna, W.; Koprek, W.; Szewinski, J.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Electronic Systems; Simrock, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents an idea, design and realization of a gigabit, optoelectronic synchronous massive data concentrator for the LLRF control system for FLASH and XFEL superconducting accelerators and lasers. The design bases on a central, large, programmable FPGA VirtexIIPro circuit by Xilinx and on eight commercial optoelectronic transceivers. There were implemented peripheral devices for embedded PowerPC block like: memory and Ethernet. The SIMCON 4.0 module was realized as a single, standard EURO-6HE board with VXI/VME-bus. Hardware implementation was described for the most important functional blocks. Construction solutions were presented. (orig.)

  16. FAILURE OF PROGESTERONE TO PRODUCE HIGH BLOOD-PRESSURE IN RABBITS AND RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.; Veldhuyzen, B.; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    1972-01-01

    Contrary to earlier claims, daily Summary administration of 50 mg. progesterone over ten days did not increase the blood-pressure of 6 rabbits. Daily injection of 10 mg. progesterone had no influence on the blood-pressure of rats. The weight-gain of female rats was significantly increased by this

  17. Direct 125I-radioligand assays for serum progesterone compared with assays involving extraction of serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, W.A.; Corrie, J.E.T.; Dalziel, A.H.; Macpherson, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two direct radioimmunoassays for progesterone in 50 μL of unextracted serum or plasma with assays involving extraction of serum were compared. The direct assays include the use of either danazol at pH 7.4 or 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid at pH 4.0 to displace progesterone from serum binding-proteins. Progesterone is then assayed by using an antiserum to a progesterone 11α-hemisuccinyl conjugate and the radioligand 125 I-labeled progesterone 11α-glucuronyl tyramine, with separation by double-antibody techniques. Direct assays with either displacing agent gave good analytical recovery of progesterone added to human serum, and progesterone values for patients' specimens correlated well (r > 0.96) with results of assays involving extraction of serum. Precision was similar with each displacing agent over the working range 2.5-100 nmol/L and superior to that of extraction assays. We conclude that these direct assays of progesterone are analytically valid and more robust, precise, and technically convenient than many conventional methods involving extraction of serum

  18. Progesterone-specific stimulation of triglyceride biosynthesis in a breast cancer cell line (T-47D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Chatterton, R.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the lactogenic response of human mammary cancer cell lines to hormones in vitro. Progesterone was found to stimulate the incorporation of 14C from [14C]acetate into triglycerides (TG) and to promote accumulation of TG with a fatty acid composition similar to that of human milk fat in T-47D cells. Lipid droplets were observed in larger numbers without concomitant accumulation of casein granules in cells incubated with progesterone, but secretion of lipid into the medium did not occur. An effect of progesterone on TG accumulation was detectable after 12 hr and was maximal at 72 hr. Increasing doses of progesterone (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) caused a progressive increase in TG accumulation. The presence of cortisol and/or prolactin did not alter TG formation nor the dose response of the cells to progesterone. The growth rate of T-47D cells was not altered by the presence of progesterone in the medium. Neither of the human mammary cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HBL-100, nor the human fibroblast cell lines, 28 and 857, responded to progesterone. The data indicate that, while the normally lactogenic hormones do not stimulate milk product biosynthesis in the cell lines tested, progesterone specifically stimulated synthesis and accumulation of TG in the T-47D cells

  19. Progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 increases depression-like behavior in mice without affecting locomotor ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Ethan H.; Scibelli, Angela C.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal has been proposed as an underlying factor in premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression. Progesterone withdrawal induces forced swim test (FST) immobility in mice, a depression-like behavior, but the contribution of specific receptors to this effect is unclear. The role of progesterone’s GABAA receptor-modulating metabolite allopregnanolone in depression- and anxiety-related behaviors has been extensively documented, but little attention has been paid to the role of progesterone receptors. We administered the classic progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU-38486) and the specific progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 to mice that had been primed with progesterone for five days, and found that both compounds induced FST immobility reliably, robustly, and in a dose-dependent fashion. Although CDB-4124 increased FST immobility, it did not suppress initial activity in a locomotor test. These findings suggest that decreased progesterone receptor activity contributes to depression-like behavior in mice, consistent with the hypothesis that progesterone withdrawal may contribute to the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. PMID:21163582

  20. Modelling of marine base cation emissions, concentrations and deposition in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Werner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Base cations exert a large impact on various geochemical and geophysical processes both in the atmosphere and at the Earth surface. One of the essential roles of these compounds is impact on surface pH causing an increase in alkalinity and neutralizing the effects of acidity generated by sulphur and nitrogen deposition. During recent years anthropogenic emissions of base cations in the UK have decreased substantially, by about 70%, 78%, 75% and 48% for Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and K+, respectively, over the period 1990–2006. For the island regions, such as the UK, the main source of base cation particles is the aerosol produced from the sea surface. Here, the sea salt aerosol (SSA emissions are calculated with parameterisations proposed by Mårtensson et al. (2003 for ultra fine particles, Monahan et al. (1986 for fine particles and Smith and Harisson (1998 for coarse particles continuously with a 0.1 μm size step using WRF-modelled wind speed data at a 5 km × 5 km grid square resolution with a 3 h time step for two selected years 2003 and 2006. SSA production has been converted into base cation emissions, with the assumption that the chemical composition of the particle emitted from the sea surface is equal to the chemical composition of sea water, and used as input data in the Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange Model (FRAME. FRAME model annual mean concentrations and total wet deposition at a 5 km × 5 km grid resolution, are compared with concentrations in air and wet deposition from the National Monitoring Network and measurements based estimates of UK deposition budget. The correlation coefficient for wet deposition achieves high values (R = 0.8 for Na+ and Mg2+, whereas for Ca2+ the correlation is poor (R < 0.3. Base cation concentrations are also represented well, with some overestimations on the west coast and underestimations in the

  1. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  2. Reproductive Disorder Studies Using Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Progesterone Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuasikal, Boky Jeanne; Totti Tjiptosumirat; Ratnawati Kukuh

    2004-01-01

    Five dairy cattle, cattle A: 6 th parity; cattle B: 7 th parity; cattle C: 2 nd parity; cattle D and F: 3 rd parity, were used in this study. According to Health Extension and Artificial Insemination Technicians anamneses and according to farmers who own the animals, these cattle were showing reproductive failure, and RIA technique was used to study the symptoms. For this purpose, milk progesterone sample were collected twice a week for five weeks to follow the biological reproductive status of every animal. Result from the analysis were plotted for each individual animal and shows that cattle A and B were acyclic, which indicated that no reproductive activity post partum have occurred in both animals; cattle C in the status of prolonged oestrus cycle post partum; and cattle D and F were in the status of recovery of oestrus cycle post partum. With the availability of historical record of the cattle and confirmation of biological status by Health Technicians, the reproductive disorder, which leads to the failure of AI in dairy cattle, can be monitored by RIA Progesterone technique. (author)

  3. The role of progesterone signaling in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. Julie; Sefton, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors that originate from the myometrium. Evidence points to ovarian steroid hormones, in particular, progesterone as major promoters of leiomyoma development and growth. While progesterone action in leiomyomas involves the classical nuclear receptor effects on gene regulation, there is growing evidence that signaling pathways are directly activated by the progesterone receptor (PR) and that PR can interact with growth factor signaling systems to promote proliferation and survival of leiomyomas. Studies investigating the genomic and non-genomic actions of PR and its role in leiomyoma growth are summarized here. Studies testing various selective progesterone receptor modulators for the treatment of leiomyomas are also highlighted. An increased understanding of the mechanisms associated with progesterone-driven growth of leiomyomas is critical in order to develop more efficient and targeted therapies for this prevalent disease. PMID:21672608

  4. Effects of GnRH, a progesterone-releasing device, and energy balance on an oestrus synchronisation program in anoestrous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S K; Cockrem, J F; Parkinson, T J; Laven, R A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research was to study the roles of the day 0 energy balance and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and progesterone levels on dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) development during the first 7 days of a gonadotrophin-prostaglandin-gonadotrophin (GPG) + progesterone (P4) program in anoestrous dairy cows. Cows (n = 81) were allocated to one of the three treatments: (1) GPG + P4 (days 0 and 9, 100 µg GnRH; day 0-7, intravaginal P4 device; day 7, 500 µg PGF 2α ); (2) GPG (as for treatment 1 but excluding the P4 device) and (3) prostaglandin + GnRH + P4 (as for treatment 1, but excluding day 0 GnRH). DF and CL size, plasma concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were measured on days 0 and 7. The proportion of cows with a CL on day 7 was significantly different between groups (GPG: 78%, GPG+P4: 69%, PGF 2α + GnRH + P4: 42%, P = 0.02). The CL volume on day 7 was significantly associated with treatment, treatment by time postpartum and plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and NEFA. In cows without a CL present on day 0 of an oestrus synchronisation program, removal of the day 0 GnRH treatment led to reduced CL development; however, no effect of adding progesterone was found. In contrast, in cows with a CL present on day 0 inclusion of a progesterone device led to a higher CL volume, but removal of the first GnRH injection had no effect. Response to the treatment was affected by plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and NEFA. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Mice: progesterone and the regulation of strain differences in pregnancy-induced nest building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Svare, B

    1983-12-01

    Pregnant DBA/2J females built significantly larger and more completely enclosed nests than did pregnant C57BL/6J mice. This strain difference was restricted to the last half of gestation and was not observed during either the virgin state or lactation. Genotype-based differences in pregnancy-induced nest building were not related to circulating levels of progesterone (P), core temperature, or body weight. Exposure to supplemented P during pregnancy elevated nest building exhibited by pregnant C57BL females but did not induce DBA-like levels of the behavior. Also, virgin DBA females built larger nests in response to P than did C57BL females. These findings suggest that differences in the sensitivity of central neural tissue to steroid hormones may account for genotypically determined variation in patterns of pregnancy-induced nest building.

  6. The leaching of base minerals from the calcines produced by the roasting of pyrite concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, M.J.; Filmer, A.O.

    1985-01-01

    A number of gold and uranium plants in South Africa concentrate the pyrite in the ore residue by flotation and roast the concentrate for the production of sulphuric acid. The calcine produced, which is predominantly hematite, is generally subjected to cyanidation for the recovery of gold and silver. The calcines often contain economically significant quantities of copper, nickel , cobalt and uranium. Prior treatment of the calcine for the recovery of these metals would be desirable in terms of the value of the products. Several processes for the leaching of the base metals from plant calcines have been investigated, and an important general conclusion is that an adequate recovery of the base metals requires that a large proportion of the iron should also be extracted. This observation led to a more extensive investigation of the kinetics of leaching of various iron oxides. The application of electrochemical theory and techniques resulted in a fuller understanding of the various factors that govern the rate of leaching of iron oxides. As a result of this fundamental work, alternative treatment schemes that should yield more efficient extraction from calcines were suggested. Several of these possibilities were investigated, and the most promising were found to require reducing conditions during the leach, or prior partial reduction of the calcine to magnetite or wustite

  7. Separation and concentration of water-borne contaminants utilizing insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca Hazalia; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen J.; Ceremuga, Joseph T.; Fintschenko, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on and presents the capabilities of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) microdevices for the concentration and removal of water-borne bacteria, spores and inert particles. The dielectrophoretic behavior exhibited by the different particles of interest (both biological and inert) in each of these systems was observed to be a function of both the applied electric field and the characteristics of the particle, such as size, shape, and conductivity. The results obtained illustrate the potential of glass and polymer-based iDEP devices to act as a concentrator for a front-end device with significant homeland security and industrial applications for the threat analysis of bacteria, spores, and viruses. We observed that the polymeric devices exhibit the same iDEP behavior and efficacy in the field of use as their glass counterparts, but with the added benefit of being easily mass fabricated and developed in a variety of multi-scale formats that will allow for the realization of a truly high-throughput device. These results also demonstrate that the operating characteristics of the device can be tailored through the device fabrication technique utilized and the magnitude of the electric field gradient created within the insulating structures. We have developed systems capable of handling numerous flow rates and sample volume requirements, and have produced a deployable system suitable for use in any laboratory, industrial, or clinical setting.

  8. pH buffers for sea water media based on the total hydrogen ion concentration scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Andrew G.

    1993-01-01

    Published e.m.f. values measured using the cell ? where p° = 101.325 kPa, and BH + and B are the conjugate acid-base pairs of 2-aminopyridine, 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol (tris), tetrahydro-1,4-isoxazine (morpholine), and 2-amino-2-methyl-1, 3-propanediol (bis), have been re-evaluated to assign pH values based on the "total" hydrogen ion concentration scale to equimolal ( m =0.04 mol kg -1) buffer solutions based on these compounds. These pH values are consistent with the best available equilibrium constants for acid-base processes in sea water and such pH buffers can be used as pH calibration standards to measure accurate values for oceanic pH on the "total" hydrogen ion pH scale. In addition, the published e.m.f. results for these various amine bases have been used to calculate their respective acidity constants on this pH scale.

  9. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-08-01

    Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin causes virilization of females and alteration of progesterone receptor expression in vivo: an experimental study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jill; Willingham, Emily; Agras, Koray; Baskin, Laurence S

    2006-02-21

    vinclozolin virilizes females and directly or indirectly affects progesterone receptor expression. It also affects estrogen receptor expression in a sex-based manner. We found no in vivo effect of vinclozolin on androgen receptor expression. We propose that vinclozolin, which has been designated an anti-androgen, may also exert its effects by involving additional steroid-signaling pathways.

  11. Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin causes virilization of females and alteration of progesterone receptor expression in vivo: an experimental study in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskin Laurence S

    2006-02-01

    estradiol. Conclusion The results suggest that vinclozolin virilizes females and directly or indirectly affects progesterone receptor expression. It also affects estrogen receptor expression in a sex-based manner. We found no in vivo effect of vinclozolin on androgen receptor expression. We propose that vinclozolin, which has been designated an anti-androgen, may also exert its effects by involving additional steroid-signaling pathways.

  12. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  13. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccinato Carla A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Methods Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. Results GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose–response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (−7 M resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone productio n was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (−8 M, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  14. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinato, Carla A; Montrezor, Luis H; Collares, Cristhianna A V; Vireque, Alessandra A; Rosa e Silva, Alzira A M

    2012-11-22

    Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC) culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose-response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (-7) M) resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone production was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (-8) M), a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  15. The Association Between Progesterone, Estradiol, and Oxytocin and Heat Pain Measures in Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Michael A; Banks, Catiffaney; Warren, William; Robbins, Meredith; Ness, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    Hormonal action has been implicated as a possible mechanism for pregnancy-induced analgesia. Previous investigators have reported an increase in heat pain tolerance during labor compared with nonpregnant controls and postulated it was because of the hormonal changes during pregnancy. However, these previous reports did not include measurement of hormonal values. The purpose of our study was to quantitatively test if changes in pregnancy hormone concentrations correlated with changes in temperature ratings. This was a prospective cohort study consisting of 32 women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery at term between July 2010 and January 2013. Heat pain threshold and tolerance, estrogen, progesterone, and oxytocin levels were measured twice in each patient at term and again 4 to 8 weeks postpartum. All hormone levels decreased significantly between term pregnancy and the postpartum visit (all P values heat pain measurements. The mean baseline heat pain threshold was 40.9°C at term compared with 40.3°C °postpartum (P = 0.47; mean change, -0.6°C; 95% confidence interval of change, -1.8°C to +0.7°C). The mean baseline heat pain tolerance was 46.1°C at term and 46.0°C postpartum (P = 0.59; mean change, -0.1°C; 95% confidence interval of change, -0.8°C° to +0.6°C). Our findings show that amounts of estradiol and progesterone changed significantly between the term and the postpartum visit; however, the thermal pain tolerance did not significantly change. In summary, we did not observe an association between hormonal changes and changes in pain threshold measures. This finding argues against the concept of simple progesterone- or estrogen-induced analgesia in humans.

  16. Development of an aptamer-based concentration method for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Nagarkatti

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, a blood-borne parasite, is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. T. cruzi trypomastigotes, the infectious life cycle stage, can be detected in blood of infected individuals using PCR-based methods. However, soon after a natural infection, or during the chronic phase of Chagas disease, the number of parasites in blood may be very low and thus difficult to detect by PCR. To facilitate PCR-based detection methods, a parasite concentration approach was explored. A whole cell SELEX strategy was utilized to develop serum stable RNA aptamers that bind to live T. cruzi trypomastigotes. These aptamers bound to the parasite with high affinities (8-25 nM range. The highest affinity aptamer, Apt68, also demonstrated high specificity as it did not interact with the insect stage epimastigotes of T. cruzi nor with other related trypanosomatid parasites, L. donovani and T. brucei, suggesting that the target of Apt68 was expressed only on T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Biotinylated Apt68, immobilized on a solid phase, was able to capture live parasites. These captured parasites were visible microscopically, as large motile aggregates, formed when the aptamer coated paramagnetic beads bound to the surface of the trypomastigotes. Additionally, Apt68 was also able to capture and aggregate trypomastigotes from several isolates of the two major genotypes of the parasite. Using a magnet, these parasite-bead aggregates could be purified from parasite-spiked whole blood samples, even at concentrations as low as 5 parasites in 15 ml of whole blood, as detected by a real-time PCR assay. Our results show that aptamers can be used as pathogen specific ligands to capture and facilitate PCR-based detection of T. cruzi in blood.

  17. Prevention of preterm delivery with vaginal progesterone in women with preterm labour (4P): randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Tejada, B; Karolinski, A; Ocampo, M C; Laterra, C; Hösli, I; Fernández, D; Surbek, D; Huespe, M; Drack, G; Bunader, A; Rouillier, S; López de Degani, G; Seidenstein, E; Prentl, E; Antón, J; Krähenmann, F; Nowacki, D; Poncelas, M; Nassif, J C; Papera, R; Tuma, C; Espoile, R; Tiberio, O; Breccia, G; Messina, A; Peker, B; Schinner, E; Mol, B W; Kanterewicz, L; Wainer, V; Boulvain, M; Othenin-Girard, V; Bertolino, M V; Irion, O

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of 200 mg of daily vaginal natural progesterone to prevent preterm birth in women with preterm labour. Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Twenty-nine centres in Switzerland and Argentina. A total of 385 women with preterm labour (24(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks of gestation) treated with acute tocolysis. Participants were randomly allocated to either 200 mg daily of self-administered vaginal progesterone or placebo within 48 hours of starting acute tocolysis. Primary outcome was delivery before 37 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes were delivery before 32 and 34 weeks, adverse effects, duration of tocolysis, re-admissions for preterm labour, length of hospital stay, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The study was ended prematurely based on results of the intermediate analysis. Preterm birth occurred in 42.5% of women in the progesterone group versus 35.5% in the placebo group (relative risk [RR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.93-1.5). Delivery at <32 and <34 weeks did not differ between the two groups (12.9 versus 9.7%; [RR 1.3; 95% CI 0.7-2.5] and 19.7 versus 12.9% [RR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9-2.4], respectively). The duration of tocolysis, hospitalisation, and recurrence of preterm labour were comparable between groups. Neonatal morbidity occurred in 44 (22.8%) cases on progesterone versus 35 (18.8%) cases on placebo (RR: 1.2; 95% CI 0.82-1.8), whereas there were 4 (2%) neonatal deaths in each study group. There is no evidence that the daily administration of 200 mg vaginal progesterone decreases preterm birth or improves neonatal outcome in women with preterm labour. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Effects of RU486 and indomethacin on meiotic maturation, formation of extracellular matrix, and progesterone production by porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagyova, E; Scsukova, S; Kalous, J; Mlynarcikova, A

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of either cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by indomethacin or progesterone receptor (PR) by PR antagonist, RU486, affects oocyte maturation, progesterone production, and covalent binding between hyaluronan (HA) and heavy chains of inter-α trypsin inhibitor, as well as expression of cumulus expansion-associated proteins (HA-binding protein, tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 6, pentraxin 3) in oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs). The experiments were based on freshly isolated porcine OCC cultures in which the consequences of PR and COX-2 inhibition on the final processes of oocyte maturation were determined. Granulosa cells (GCs) and OCCs were cultured in medium supplemented with FSH/LH (both 100 ng/mL) in the presence/absence of RU486 or indomethacin. Western blot analysis, (3)H-glucosamine hydrochloride assay, immunofluorescence, and radioimmunoassay were performed. Only treatment with RU486 (25 μM) caused a decrease in the number of oocytes that reached germinal vesicle breakdown and metaphase II stage compared with indomethacin (100 μM) or FSH/LH treatment alone after 44 h. All treated OCCs synthesized an almost equal amount of HA. Heavy chains (of inter-α trypsin inhibitor)-HA covalent complexes were formed during in vitro FSH/LH-stimulated expansion in RU486- or indomethacin-treated OCCs. Follicle-stimulating hormone/LH-induced progesterone production by OCCs was increased in the presence of RU486 after 44 h. In contrast, a decrease of FSH/LH-stimulated progesterone production by GCs was detected in the presence of either RU486 or indomethacin after 72 h. We suggest that the PR-dependent pathway may be involved in the regulation of oocyte maturation. Both PR and COX-2 regulate FSH/LH-stimulated progesterone production by OCCs and GCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Longitudinal study of alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shue; Li, Junjuan; Shearer, Gregory C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Zheng, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuntao; Jin, Cheng; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-04-01

    Background: In cross-sectional studies and short-term clinical trials, it has been suggested that there is a positive dose-response relation between alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations. However, prospective data have been limited. Objective: We sought to determine the association between total alcohol intake, the type of alcohol-containing beverage, and the 6-y (2006-2012) longitudinal change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations in a community-based cohort. Design: A total of 71,379 Chinese adults (mean age: 50 y) who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and did not use cholesterol-lowering agents during follow-up were included in the study. Alcohol intake was assessed via a questionnaire in 2006 (baseline), and participants were classified into the following categories of alcohol consumption: never, past, light (women: 0-0.4 servings/d; men: 0-0.9 servings/d), moderate (women: 0.5-1.0 servings/d; men: 1-2 servings/d), and heavy (women: >1.0 servings/d; men: >2 servings/d). HDL-cholesterol concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine the associations between baseline alcohol intake and the change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, liver function, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Results: An umbrella-shaped association was observed between total alcohol consumption and changes in HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Compared with never drinkers, past, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers experienced slower decreases in HDL cholesterol of 0.012 mmol · L -1 · y -1 (95% CI: 0.008, 0.016 mmol · L -1 · y -1 ), 0.013 mmol · L -1 · y -1 (95% CI: 0.010, 0.016 mmol · L -1 · y -1 ), 0.017 mmol · L -1 · y -1 (95% CI: 0.009, 0.025 mmol · L -1 · y -1 ), and 0.008 mmol · L -1 · y -1 (95% CI: 0.005, 0.011 mmol · L -1 · y -1 ), respectively ( P alcohol consumption was associated with the

  20. Influence of Dexamethasone on Some Reproductive Hormones and Uterine Progesterone Receptor Localization in Pregnant Yankasa Sheep in Semiarid Zones of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Yahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dexamethasone is widely used in both veterinary and human medical practices. However, it seems to cause some deleterious effects on pregnancy probably by causing changes in the reproductive hormone levels and their corresponding receptor concentrations. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone on these parameters. Twenty healthy adult Yankasa sheep comprising 18 ewes and 2 rams were used for this study. Pregnancies were achieved by natural mating after estrus synchronization. Dexamethasone was administered at 0.25 mg/kg body weight on days 1, 3, and 5 during first trimester; days 51, 53, and 55 during second trimester; and days 101, 103, and 105 during the third trimester. Blood samples were collected biweekly for hormonal assay. Uterine biopsies were harvested through caesarean section for immunohistochemical analysis. Results showed that dexamethasone significantly (p0.05 effect on estrogen, while progesterone receptors (PR were upregulated. The abortion could probably be due to decreased progesterone concentrations as a consequence of the adverse effects on placenta. The PR upregulation may be a compensatory mechanism to increase progesterone sensitivity. It was concluded that dexamethasone should not be used in advanced pregnancy in Yankasa sheep.

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator

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    Guoying Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of solar collectors for hot water supply, space heating, and cooling plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption. For conventional solar collectors, solar radiation is absorbed by spectral selective coating on the collectors’ tube/plate wall. The poor durability of the coating can lead to an increased manufacturing cost and unreliability for a solar collector operated at a higher temperature. Therefore, a novel nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector (NDASC employing uncoated collector tubes has been proposed, and its operating characteristics for medium-temperature solar collection were theoretically and experimentally studied in this paper. CuO/oil nanofluid was prepared and used as working fluid of the NDASC. The heat-transfer mechanism of the NDASC with parabolic trough concentrator was theoretically evaluated and compared with a conventional indirect absorption solar collector (IASC. The theoretical analysis results suggested that the fluid’s temperature distribution in the NDASC was much more uniform than that in the IASC, and an enhanced collection efficiency could be achieved for the NDASC operated within a preferred working temperature range. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed NDASC, experimental performances of an NDASC and an IASC with the same parabolic trough concentrator were furthermore evaluated and comparatively discussed.

  2. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector wit