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Sample records for progerin elicits disease

  1. Promotion of tumor development in prostate cancer by progerin

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    Nie Daotai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progerin is a truncated form of lamin A. It is identified in patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, a disease characterized by accelerated aging. The contribution of progerin toward aging has been shown to be related to increased DNA damages. Since aging is one major risk factor for carcinogenesis, and genomic instability is a hallmark of malignant cancers, we investigated the expression of progerin in human cancer cells, and whether its expression contributes to carcinogenesis. Using RT-PCR and Western blotting, we detected the expression of progerin in prostate PC-3, DU145 and LNCaP cells at mRNA and protein levels. Ectopic progerin expression did not cause cellular senescence in PC-3 or MCF7 cells. PC-3 cells progerin transfectants were sensitized to DNA damage agent camptothecin (CPT; and persistent DNA damage responses were observed, which might be caused by progerin induced defective DNA damage repair. In addition, progerin transfectants were more tumorigenic in vivo than vector control cells. Our study for the first time describes the expression of progerin in a number of human cancer cell lines and its contributory role in tumorigenesis.

  2. Antisense oligonucleotide induction of progerin in human myogenic cells.

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    Yue-Bei Luo

    Full Text Available We sought to use splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides to produce a model of accelerated ageing by enhancing expression of progerin, translated from a mis-spliced lamin A gene (LMNA transcript in human myogenic cells. The progerin transcript (LMNA Δ150 lacks the last 150 bases of exon 11, and is translated into a truncated protein associated with the severe premature ageing disease, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS. HGPS arises from de novo mutations that activate a cryptic splice site in exon 11 of LMNA and result in progerin accumulation in tissues of mesodermal origin. Progerin has also been proposed to play a role in the 'natural' ageing process in tissues. We sought to test this hypothesis by producing a model of accelerated muscle ageing in human myogenic cells. A panel of splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides were designed to anneal across exon 11 of the LMNA pre-mRNA, and these compounds were transfected into primary human myogenic cells. RT-PCR showed that the majority of oligonucleotides were able to modify LMNA transcript processing. Oligonucleotides that annealed within the 150 base region of exon 11 that is missing in the progerin transcript, as well as those that targeted the normal exon 11 donor site induced the LMNA Δ150 transcript, but most oligonucleotides also generated variable levels of LMNA transcript missing the entire exon 11. Upon evaluation of different oligomer chemistries, the morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligonucleotides were found to be more efficient than the equivalent sequences prepared as oligonucleotides with 2'-O-methyl modified bases on a phosphorothioate backbone. The morpholino oligonucleotides induced nuclear localised progerin, demonstrated by immunostaining, and morphological nuclear changes typical of HGPS cells. We show that it is possible to induce progerin expression in myogenic cells using splice-switching oligonucleotides to redirect splicing of LMNA. This may offer a model

  3. Longwave UV light induces the aging-associated progerin.

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    Takeuchi, Hirotaka; Rünger, Thomas M

    2013-07-01

    Premature aging in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is caused by a mutation of the LMNA gene that activates a cryptic splice site. This results in expression of a truncated form of Lamin A, called progerin. Accumulation of progerin in the nuclei of HGPS cells impairs nuclear functions and causes abnormal nuclear morphology. Progerin accumulation has not only been described in HGPS, but also during normal intrinsic aging. We hypothesized that accumulation of progerin with abnormal nuclear shapes may also be accelerated by UV and with that contribute to photoaging of the skin. We exposed neonatal or aged cultured fibroblasts to single or repeated doses of longwave or shortwave UV (UVA or UVB) and found that UVA, but not UVB, induces progerin expression and HGPS-like abnormal nuclear shapes in all cells, but more in aged cells. The induction of progerin is mediated by UVA-induced oxidative damage and subsequent alternative splicing of the LMNA transcript, as progerin induction was suppressed by the singlet oxygen quencher sodium azide, and as mRNA expression of LMNA was not induced by UVA. These data suggest a previously unreported pathway of photoaging and support the concept that photoaging is at least in part a process of damage-accelerated intrinsic aging.

  4. Eliciting Disease Data from Wikipedia Articles.

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    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Del Valle, Sara Y; De Silva, Lalindra; Segre, Alberto M

    2015-05-01

    Traditional disease surveillance systems suffer from several disadvantages, including reporting lags and antiquated technology, that have caused a movement towards internet-based disease surveillance systems. Internet systems are particularly attractive for disease outbreaks because they can provide data in near real-time and can be verified by individuals around the globe. However, most existing systems have focused on disease monitoring and do not provide a data repository for policy makers or researchers. In order to fill this gap, we analyzed Wikipedia article content. We demonstrate how a named-entity recognizer can be trained to tag case counts, death counts, and hospitalization counts in the article narrative that achieves an F1 score of 0.753. We also show, using the 2014 West African Ebola virus disease epidemic article as a case study, that there are detailed time series data that are consistently updated that closely align with ground truth data. We argue that Wikipedia can be used to create the first community-driven open-source emerging disease detection, monitoring, and repository system.

  5. New look at the role of progerin in skin aging

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    Anna Skoczyńska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current literature data indicate that progerin, which is a mutant of lamin A, may be one of several previously known physiological biomarkers of the aging process which begins at the age of 30. Lamins belong to the family of intermediate filaments type V and are an important component of the nuclear envelope (NE. The physiological processes of an alternative splicing of LMNA (lamin A/C gene and posttranslational processing result in the formation of different variants of this gene. Prelamin A is generated in cytosol and modified by respective enzymes. In the final step, 15-aa peptide is released at the C-terminus, resulting in mature lamin A. Point mutation of cytosine to thymine at position 1824 in exon 11 of LMNA gene causes a truncated form of lamin A, which is defined as progerin. In the course of time, progerin is mainly found in skin fibroblasts and reticular layers of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Changes take place in the nucleus and they are similar to those observed in patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and refer mainly to an increase in the amount of reactive oxygen species which reduce the level of antioxidant enzymes, DNA damage and histone modification. There are still pending studies on working out new anti-aging strategies and the skin is the main area of research. Biomimetic peptides (analogues of elafin are used in cosmetics to reduce the formation of progerin.

  6. New look at the role of progerin in skin aging

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    Budzisz, Elżbieta; Dana, Agnieszka; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Current literature data indicate that progerin, which is a mutant of lamin A, may be one of several previously known physiological biomarkers of the aging process which begins at the age of 30. Lamins belong to the family of intermediate filaments type V and are an important component of the nuclear envelope (NE). The physiological processes of an alternative splicing of LMNA (lamin A/C) gene and posttranslational processing result in the formation of different variants of this gene. Prelamin A is generated in cytosol and modified by respective enzymes. In the final step, 15-aa peptide is released at the C-terminus, resulting in mature lamin A. Point mutation of cytosine to thymine at position 1824 in exon 11 of LMNA gene causes a truncated form of lamin A, which is defined as progerin. In the course of time, progerin is mainly found in skin fibroblasts and reticular layers of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Changes take place in the nucleus and they are similar to those observed in patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and refer mainly to an increase in the amount of reactive oxygen species which reduce the level of antioxidant enzymes, DNA damage and histone modification. There are still pending studies on working out new anti-aging strategies and the skin is the main area of research. Biomimetic peptides (analogues of elafin) are used in cosmetics to reduce the formation of progerin. PMID:26327889

  7. Antisense-Based Progerin Downregulation in HGPS-Like Patients’ Cells

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    Karim Harhouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progeroid laminopathies, including Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS, OMIM #176670, are premature and accelerated aging diseases caused by defects in nuclear A-type Lamins. Most HGPS patients carry a de novo point mutation within exon 11 of the LMNA gene encoding A-type Lamins. This mutation activates a cryptic splice site leading to the deletion of 50 amino acids at its carboxy-terminal domain, resulting in a truncated and permanently farnesylated Prelamin A called Prelamin A Δ50 or Progerin. Some patients carry other LMNA mutations affecting exon 11 splicing and are named “HGPS-like” patients. They also produce Progerin and/or other truncated Prelamin A isoforms (Δ35 and Δ90 at the transcriptional and/or protein level. The results we present show that morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (AON prevent pathogenic LMNA splicing, markedly reducing the accumulation of Progerin and/or other truncated Prelamin A isoforms (Prelamin A Δ35, Prelamin A Δ90 in HGPS-like patients’ cells. Finally, a patient affected with Mandibuloacral Dysplasia type B (MAD-B, carrying a homozygous mutation in ZMPSTE24, encoding an enzyme involved in Prelamin A maturation, leading to accumulation of wild type farnesylated Prelamin A, was also included in this study. These results provide preclinical proof of principle for the use of a personalized antisense approach in HGPS-like and MAD-B patients, who may therefore be eligible for inclusion in a therapeutic trial based on this approach, together with classical HGPS patients.

  8. Neonatal progeria: increased ratio of progerin to lamin A leads to progeria of the newborn.

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    Reunert, Janine; Wentzell, Rüdiger; Walter, Michael; Jakubiczka, Sibylle; Zenker, Martin; Brune, Thomas; Rust, Stephan; Marquardt, Thorsten

    2012-09-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an important model disease for premature ageing. Affected children appear healthy at birth, but develop the first symptoms during their first year of life. They die at an average age of 13 years, mostly because of myocardial infarction or stroke. Classical progeria is caused by the heterozygous point mutation c.1824C>T in the LMNA gene, which activates a cryptic splice site. The affected protein cannot be processed correctly to mature lamin A, but is modified into a farnesylated protein truncated by 50 amino acids (progerin). Three more variations in LMNA result in the same mutant protein, but different grades of disease severity. We describe a patient with the heterozygous LMNA mutation c.1821G>A, leading to neonatal progeria with death in the first year of life. Intracellular lamin A was downregulated in the patient's fibroblasts and the ratio of progerin to lamin A was increased when compared with HGPS. It is suggestive that the ratio of farnesylated protein to mature lamin A determines the disease severity in progeria.

  9. Novel LMNA mutations cause an aggressive atypical neonatal progeria without progerin accumulation

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    Soria-Valles, Clara; Carrero, Dido; Gabau, Elisabeth; Velasco, Gloria; Quesada, Víctor; Bárcena, Clea; Moens, Marleen; Fieggen, Karen; Möhrcken, Silvia; Owens, Martina; Puente, Diana A.; Asensio, Óscar; Loeys, Bart; Pérez, Ana; Benoit, Valerie; Wuyts, Wim; Lévy, Nicolas; Hennekam, Raoul C.; de Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; López-Otín, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Progeroid syndromes are genetic disorders that recapitulate some phenotypes of physiological ageing. Classical progerias, such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), are generally caused by mutations in LMNA leading to accumulation of the toxic protein progerin and consequently,

  10. Naïve adult stem cells from patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome express low levels of progerin in vivo

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    Vera Wenzel

    2012-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670 is a rare disorder characterized by segmental accelerated aging and early death from coronary artery disease or stroke. Nearly 90% of HGPS sufferers carry a G608G mutation within exon 11 of LMNA, producing a truncated form of prelamin A, referred to as “progerin”. Here, we report the isolation of naïve multipotent skin-derived precursor (SKP cells from dermal fibroblast cultures from HGPS donors. These cells form spheres and express the neural crest marker, nestin, in addition to the multipotent markers, OCT4, Sox2, Nanog and TG30; these cells can self-renew and differentiate into smooth muscle cells (SMCs and fibroblasts. The SMCs derived from the HGPS-SKPs accumulate nuclear progerin with increasing passages. A subset of the HGPS-naïve SKPs express progerin in vitro and in situ in HGPS skin sections. This is the first in vivo evidence that progerin is produced in adult stem cells, and implies that this protein could induce stem cells exhaustion as a mechanism contributing to aging. Our study provides a basis on which to explore therapeutic applications for HGPS stem cells and opens avenues for investigating the pathogenesis of other genetic diseases.

  11. Differential temporal and spatial progerin expression during closure of the ductus arteriosus in neonates.

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    Regina Bökenkamp

    Full Text Available Closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA at birth is essential for the transition from fetal to postnatal life. Before birth the DA bypasses the uninflated lungs by shunting blood from the pulmonary trunk into the systemic circulation. The molecular mechanism underlying DA closure and degeneration has not been fully elucidated, but is associated with apoptosis and cytolytic necrosis in the inner media and intima. We detected features of histology during DA degeneration that are comparable to Hutchinson Gilford Progeria syndrome and ageing. Immunohistochemistry on human fetal and neonatal DA, and aorta showed that lamin A/C was expressed in all layers of the vessel wall. As a novel finding we report that progerin, a splicing variant of lamin A/C was expressed almost selectively in the normal closing neonatal DA, from which we hypothesized that progerin is involved in DA closure. Progerin was detected in 16.2%±7.2 cells of the DA. Progerin-expressing cells were predominantly located in intima and inner media where cytolytic necrosis accompanied by apoptosis will develop. Concomitantly we found loss of α-smooth muscle actin as well as reduced lamin A/C expression compared to the fetal and non-closing DA. In cells of the adjacent aorta, that remains patent, progerin expression was only sporadically detected in 2.5%±1.5 of the cells. Data were substantiated by the detection of mRNA of progerin in the neonatal DA but not in the aorta, by PCR and sequencing analysis. The fetal DA and the non-closing persistent DA did not present with progerin expressing cells. Our analysis revealed that the spatiotemporal expression of lamin A/C and progerin in the neonatal DA was mutually exclusive. We suggest that activation of LMNA alternative splicing is involved in vascular remodeling in the circulatory system during normal neonatal DA closure.

  12. Differential temporal and spatial progerin expression during closure of the ductus arteriosus in neonates.

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    Bökenkamp, Regina; Raz, Vered; Venema, Andrea; DeRuiter, Marco C; van Munsteren, Conny; Olive, Michelle; Nabel, Elizabeth G; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C

    2011-01-01

    Closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) at birth is essential for the transition from fetal to postnatal life. Before birth the DA bypasses the uninflated lungs by shunting blood from the pulmonary trunk into the systemic circulation. The molecular mechanism underlying DA closure and degeneration has not been fully elucidated, but is associated with apoptosis and cytolytic necrosis in the inner media and intima. We detected features of histology during DA degeneration that are comparable to Hutchinson Gilford Progeria syndrome and ageing. Immunohistochemistry on human fetal and neonatal DA, and aorta showed that lamin A/C was expressed in all layers of the vessel wall. As a novel finding we report that progerin, a splicing variant of lamin A/C was expressed almost selectively in the normal closing neonatal DA, from which we hypothesized that progerin is involved in DA closure. Progerin was detected in 16.2%±7.2 cells of the DA. Progerin-expressing cells were predominantly located in intima and inner media where cytolytic necrosis accompanied by apoptosis will develop. Concomitantly we found loss of α-smooth muscle actin as well as reduced lamin A/C expression compared to the fetal and non-closing DA. In cells of the adjacent aorta, that remains patent, progerin expression was only sporadically detected in 2.5%±1.5 of the cells. Data were substantiated by the detection of mRNA of progerin in the neonatal DA but not in the aorta, by PCR and sequencing analysis. The fetal DA and the non-closing persistent DA did not present with progerin expressing cells. Our analysis revealed that the spatiotemporal expression of lamin A/C and progerin in the neonatal DA was mutually exclusive. We suggest that activation of LMNA alternative splicing is involved in vascular remodeling in the circulatory system during normal neonatal DA closure.

  13. Autoimmune thyroid disease elicited by NY-ESO-1 vaccination.

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    Vita, Roberto; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Agah, Ravin; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2014-02-01

    Immunotherapies and targeted therapies are frequently associated with thyroid dysfunction, which is in contrast with the rare thyroid abnormalities induced by cytotoxic agents. Immunotherapy with NY-ESO-1, a tumor-associated antigen expressed by a number of malignancies, was reported to trigger hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism in two HLA-A2 patients with ovarian cancer. We describe now a case of Graves' disease triggered by NY-ESO-1 in a HLA-A2-negative woman. A 32-year-old woman with a synovial sarcoma received radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and finally NY-ESO-1 vaccine. The patient was found to have HLA A11/A33(19), B13/B56(22), Cw3/-. One month after the beginning of immunotherapy, thyroid dysfunction was clinically suspected and Graves' disease was biochemically confirmed. Fearful of the antithyroid drugs' side effects, the patient was treated with a beta-blocker (propranolol, 80-20 mg/day). As hyperthyroidism progressively worsened, the patient underwent total thyroidectomy. We hypothesized that NY-ESO-1 shared partial homology with thyroid autoantigens (the so-called molecular mimicry mechanism) and that at least one pair of homologous sequences contained amino acid sequence binding motifs to a restricted number of HLA molecules. We used BLAST software to search amino acid sequence homologies between NY-ESO-1 and thyroid autoantigens (thyrotropin receptor [TSH-R], thyroperoxidase, and thyroglobulin), and the HLA ligand/motif database to look for HLA/T-cell receptor binding motifs in the regions of NY-ESO-1 and thyroid autoantigens that were homologous. We found 15 epitopic regions of NY-ESO-1 homologous to 15 regions of thyroid autoantigens, some of which epitopic: 5 of TSH-R, 8 of thyroglobulin, and 2 of thyroperoxidase. These homologous sequences contain binding motifs belonging to several HLA class I antigens, including HLA A2 and the patient's A11 and A33. Genetically predisposed patients who receive NY-ESO-1 vaccination are at risk to develop thyroid

  14. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks: Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation

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    Hald, Tine; Angulo, Fred; Bin Hamzah, Wan Mansor

    2016-01-01

    it draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps...... for Research Synthesis: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach held at the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis on October 13, 2013....

  15. Analysis of High-Frequency Electroencephalographic-Electromyographic Coherence Elicited by Speech and Oral Nonspeech Tasks in Parkinson's Disease

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    Caviness, John N.; Liss, Julie M.; Adler, Charles; Evidente, Virgilio

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Corticomuscular electroencephalographic-electromyographic (EEG-EMG) coherence elicited by speech and nonspeech oromotor tasks in healthy participants and those with Parkinson's disease (PD) was examined. Hypotheses were the following: (a) corticomuscular coherence is demonstrable between orbicularis oris (OO) muscles' EMG and scalp EEG…

  16. Novel LMNA mutations cause an aggressive atypical neonatal progeria without progerin accumulation.

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    Soria-Valles, Clara; Carrero, Dido; Gabau, Elisabeth; Velasco, Gloria; Quesada, Víctor; Bárcena, Clea; Moens, Marleen; Fieggen, Karen; Möhrcken, Silvia; Owens, Martina; Puente, Diana A; Asensio, Óscar; Loeys, Bart; Pérez, Ana; Benoit, Valerie; Wuyts, Wim; Lévy, Nicolas; Hennekam, Raoul C; De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; López-Otín, Carlos

    2016-06-22

    Progeroid syndromes are genetic disorders that recapitulate some phenotypes of physiological ageing. Classical progerias, such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), are generally caused by mutations in LMNA leading to accumulation of the toxic protein progerin and consequently, to nuclear envelope alterations. In this work, we describe a novel phenotypic feature of the progeria spectrum affecting three unrelated newborns and identify its genetic cause. Patients reported herein present an extremely homogeneous phenotype that somewhat recapitulates those of patients with HGPS and mandibuloacral dysplasia. However, pathological signs appear earlier, are more aggressive and present distinctive features including episodes of severe upper airway obstruction. Exome and Sanger sequencing allowed the identification of heterozygous de novo c.163G>A, p.E55K and c.164A>G, p.E55G mutations in LMNA as the alterations responsible for this disorder. Functional analyses demonstrated that fibroblasts from these patients suffer important dysfunctions in nuclear lamina, which generate profound nuclear envelope abnormalities but without progerin accumulation. These nuclear alterations found in patients' dermal fibroblasts were also induced by ectopic expression of the corresponding site-specific LMNA mutants in control human fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate the causal role of p.E55K and p.E55G lamin A mutations in a disorder which manifests novel phenotypic features of the progeria spectrum characterised by neonatal presentation and aggressive clinical evolution, despite being caused by lamin A/C missense mutations with effective prelamin A processing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

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    Sandra Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions.We used Cooke's Classical Model to elicit and aggregate judgments of 73 international experts. Judgments were elicited from each expert individually and aggregated using both equal and performance weights. Performance weighted results are reported as they increased the informativeness of estimates, while retaining accuracy. We report measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food source attribution research. As in prior food source attribution research, we find relatively wide uncertainty bounds around our median estimates.We present the first worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific foodborne diseases attributable to specific food exposure routes. While we find substantial uncertainty around central tendency estimates, we believe these estimates provide the best currently available basis on which to link FBDs and specific foods in many parts of the world

  18. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aspinall, Willy

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as expos......Background Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods...... as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions. Methods and findings We used Cooke’s Classical Model...... measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork...

  19. Probability elicitation to inform early health economic evaluations of new medical technologies: a case study in heart failure disease management.

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    Cao, Qi; Postmus, Douwe; Hillege, Hans L; Buskens, Erik

    2013-06-01

    Early estimates of the commercial headroom available to a new medical device can assist producers of health technology in making appropriate product investment decisions. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how this quantity can be captured probabilistically by combining probability elicitation with early health economic modeling. The technology considered was a novel point-of-care testing device in heart failure disease management. First, we developed a continuous-time Markov model to represent the patients' disease progression under the current care setting. Next, we identified the model parameters that are likely to change after the introduction of the new device and interviewed three cardiologists to capture the probability distributions of these parameters. Finally, we obtained the probability distribution of the commercial headroom available per measurement by propagating the uncertainty in the model inputs to uncertainty in modeled outcomes. For a willingness-to-pay value of €10,000 per life-year, the median headroom available per measurement was €1.64 (interquartile range €0.05-€3.16) when the measurement frequency was assumed to be daily. In the subsequently conducted sensitivity analysis, this median value increased to a maximum of €57.70 for different combinations of the willingness-to-pay threshold and the measurement frequency. Probability elicitation can successfully be combined with early health economic modeling to obtain the probability distribution of the headroom available to a new medical technology. Subsequently feeding this distribution into a product investment evaluation method enables stakeholders to make more informed decisions regarding to which markets a currently available product prototype should be targeted. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Central syntropic effects elicited by trigeminal proprioceptive equilibrium in Alzheimer’s disease: a case report

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    De Cicco Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The presented patient, affected by Alzheimer’s disease, underwent neuropsychological evaluation and functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation under occlusal proprioceptive un-balance and re-balance conditions. Saccadic and pupillometric video-oculographic examinations were performed in order to detect connected trigeminal proprioceptive motor patterns able to interfere with reticular formation cerebellum functions linked to visual and procedural processes prematurely altered in Alzheimer’s disease. Case presentation A 66-year-old Caucasian man, affected by Alzheimer’s disease and with a neuropsychological evaluation issued by the Alzheimer’s Evaluation Unit, underwent an electromyographic investigation of the masseter muscles in order to assess their functional balance. The patient showed a bilateral lack of all inferior molars. The extreme myoelectric asymmetry in dental occlusion suggested the rebalancing of masseter muscular functions through concurrent transcutaneous stimulation of the trigeminal nerve supramandibular and submandibular motor branches. The above-mentioned method allows detection of symmetric craniomandibular muscular relation that can be kept constant through the use of a cusp bite modeled on the inferior dental arch, called orthotic-syntropic bite. A few days later, the patient underwent a new neuropsychological investigation, together with a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, and saccadic, pupillometric video-oculographic examinations in occlusal un-balance and re-balance conditions. Conclusions Comparative data analysis has shown that a re-balanced occlusal condition can improve a patient’s cognitive-attentive functions. Moreover, the saccadic and pupillometric video-oculographic investigations have proven useful both in analyzing reticulo-cerebellar subcortical systems, prematurely altered in Alzheimer’s disease, and in implementing neurological evaluations.

  1. Evaluation of a Performance-Based Expert Elicitation: WHO Global Attribution of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspinall, W. P.; Cooke, R. M.; Havelaar, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    languages. Performance-based weighted solutions for target questions of interest were formed for each panel. These weights were based on individual expert's statistical accuracy and informativeness, determined using between ten and fifteen calibration variables from the experts' field with known values....... Equal weights combinations were also calculated. The main conclusions on expert performance are: (1) SEJ does provide a science-based method for attribution of the global burden of foodborne diseases; (2) equal weighting of experts per panel increased statistical accuracy to acceptable levels...

  2. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks : Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Hald, Tine; Angulo, Fred; Hamzah, Wan Mansor Bin; Bellinger, David; Black, Robert; de Silva, Nilanthi; Döpfer, Dörte; Havelaar, Arie; Gibb, Herman; Kasuga, Fumiko; Lake, Rob; Rokni, Muhammad B.; Speybroeck, Niko; Aspinall, Willy; Cooke, Roger; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Pires, Sara M.

    2016-01-01

    We live in an age that increasingly calls for national or regional management of global risks. This article discusses the contributions that expert elicitation can bring to efforts to manage global risks and identifies challenges faced in conducting expert elicitation at this scale. In doing so it

  3. Eliciting the mitochondrial unfolded protein response by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide repletion reverses fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariani, Karim; Menzies, Keir J; Ryu, Dongryeol; Wegner, Casey J; Wang, Xu; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Moullan, Norman; Zhang, Hongbo; Perino, Alessia; Lemos, Vera; Kim, Bohkyung; Park, Young-Ki; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Pham, Tho X; Yang, Yue; Ku, Chai Siah; Koo, Sung I; Fomitchova, Anna; Cantó, Carlos; Schoonjans, Kristina; Sauve, Anthony A; Lee, Ji-Young; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-04-01

    With no approved pharmacological treatment, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries and its worldwide prevalence continues to increase along with the growing obesity epidemic. Here, we show that a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet, eliciting chronic hepatosteatosis resembling human fatty liver, lowers hepatic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) levels driving reductions in hepatic mitochondrial content, function, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, in conjunction with robust increases in hepatic weight, lipid content, and peroxidation in C57BL/6J mice. To assess the effect of NAD(+) repletion on the development of steatosis in mice, nicotinamide riboside, a precursor of NAD(+) biosynthesis, was added to the HFHS diet, either as a preventive strategy or as a therapeutic intervention. We demonstrate that NR prevents and reverts NAFLD by inducing a sirtuin (SIRT)1- and SIRT3-dependent mitochondrial unfolded protein response, triggering an adaptive mitohormetic pathway to increase hepatic β-oxidation and mitochondrial complex content and activity. The cell-autonomous beneficial component of NR treatment was revealed in liver-specific Sirt1 knockout mice (Sirt1(hep-/-) ), whereas apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (Apoe(-/-) ) challenged with a high-fat high-cholesterol diet affirmed the use of NR in other independent models of NAFLD. Our data warrant the future evaluation of NAD(+) boosting strategies to manage the development or progression of NAFLD. © 2015 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Heat treatment in combination with antagonistic yeast reduces diseases and elicits the active defense responses in harvested cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Tu, Kang; Su, Jing; Tu, Sicong; Hou, Yuepeng; Liu, Fengjuan; Zou, Xiurong

    2009-08-26

    This study investigated the effects of heat treatment (hot air at 38 degrees C) and antagonistic yeast (Pichia guilliermondii) alone or in combination against postharvest diseases (Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus nigricans) on cherry tomato fruit, and evaluated the elicitation of active defense responses. Results showed that heat treatment at 38 degrees C for 24 h in combination with P. guilliermondii at 1 x 10(8) CFU mL(-1) was the most effective approach to reduce various infections on cherry tomato fruit's wounds. Moreover, the combined heat and P. guilliermondii treatment stimulated a rapid increase of H(2)O(2) and higher lignin deposition in cherry tomato fruit showing that the oxidative burst and biological synthesis of lignin might play important roles in the fruit's active defense responses. In addition, the reduction of the fruit's susceptibility to pathogens by the combined treatment was positively correlated with higher activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and beta-1,3-glucanase in cherry tomato fruits, both of which are associated with plant defense responses.

  5. Development of a tool for eliciting patient priority from among competing cardiovascular disease, medication-symptoms, and fall injury outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Mary E; McAvay, Gail J; Fried, Terri R; Foody, JoAnne M; Bianco, Luann; Ginter, Sandra; Fraenkel, Liana

    2008-04-01

    To develop a choice task for eliciting priorities in the face of competing cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, medication-related symptoms, and fall injuries. Conjoint analysis. Senior housing site. Convenience sample of 15 senior housing residents for the pretest, 13 residents for the pilot test. The final task included 11 sets of choices. In each, one option optimized the risk of one or two of the three outcomes at the expense of the other(s); the second option did the reverse. Relative importance scores for CVD, fall injury, and medication-symptom outcomes were calculated. Reliability was assessed for two administrations using intraclass correlations (ICCs). Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to evaluate order effects. The ICCs between choice task administrations were 0.70 for fall injuries, 0.73 for medication symptoms, and 0.56 for CVD outcomes. The ICCs with removal of two outliers were 0.84, 0.72, and 0.84, respectively. Whether CVD or fall injuries appeared first had no effect on scores. Preliminary evidence of comprehensibility and reliability supports using the choice task to determine whether individuals' priorities differ in the face of competing outcomes.

  6. Ectopic expression of the striatal-enriched GTPase Rhes elicits cerebellar degeneration and an ataxia phenotype in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnkar, Supriya; Chen, Youjun; Pryor, William M; Shahani, Neelam; Page, Damon T; Subramaniam, Srinivasa

    2015-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expansion of glutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein (mHtt) that invokes early and prominent damage of the striatum, a region that controls motor behaviors. Despite its ubiquitous expression, why certain brain regions, such as the cerebellum, are relatively spared from neuronal loss by mHtt remains unclear. Previously, we implicated the striatal-enriched GTPase, Rhes (Ras homolog enriched in the striatum), which binds and SUMOylates mHtt and increases its solubility and cellular cytotoxicity, as the cause for striatal toxicity in HD. Here, we report that Rhes deletion in HD mice (N171-82Q), which express the N-terminal fragment of human Htt with 82 glutamines (Rhes(-/-)/N171-82Q), display markedly reduced HD-related behavioral deficits, and absence of lateral ventricle dilatation (secondary to striatal atrophy), compared to control HD mice (N171-82Q). To further validate the role of GTPase Rhes in HD, we tested whether ectopic Rhes expression would elicit a pathology in a brain region normally less affected in HD. Remarkably, ectopic expression of Rhes in the cerebellum of N171-82Q mice, during the asymptomatic period led to an exacerbation of motor deficits, including loss of balance and motor incoordination with ataxia-like features, not apparent in control-injected N171-82Q mice or Rhes injected wild-type mice. Pathological and biochemical analysis of Rhes-injected N171-82Q mice revealed a cerebellar lesion with marked loss of Purkinje neuron layer parvalbumin-immunoreactivity, induction of caspase 3 activation, and enhanced soluble forms of mHtt. Similarly reintroducing Rhes into the striatum of Rhes deleted Rhes(-/-)Hdh(150Q/150Q) knock-in mice, elicited a progressive HD-associated rotarod deficit. Overall, these studies establish that Rhes plays a pivotal role in vivo for the selective toxicity of mHtt in HD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells...... also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation...... of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues...

  8. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aspinall, Willy; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie; Angulo, Frederick; Gibb, Herman; Kirk, Martyn; Lake, Robin; Speybroeck, Niko; Torgerson, Paul; Hald, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for

  9. Neonatal progeria: increased ratio of progerin to lamin A leads to progeria of the newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Reunert, Janine; Wentzell, Rüdiger; Walter, Michael; Jakubiczka, Sibylle; Zenker, Martin; Brune, Thomas; Rust, Stephan; Marquardt, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an important model disease for premature ageing. Affected children appear healthy at birth, but develop the first symptoms during their first year of life. They die at an average age of 13 years, mostly because of myocardial infarction or stroke. Classical progeria is caused by the heterozygous point mutation c.1824C>T in the LMNA gene, which activates a cryptic splice site. The affected protein cannot be processed correctly to mature lamin A, bu...

  10. Evaluation of genetic and non-genetic factors on foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus vaccine-elicited immune response in Hardhenu (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjeet; Pander, B L; Sharma, R; Dhaka, S S; Magotra, Ankit; Dev, Kapil

    2017-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is the most contagious disease of mammals and a major threat to animal husbandry sector. In India, vaccination with the inactivated trivalent (O, A and Asia1) vaccine is one proven way for protecting the livestock from FMD. However, many outbreaks have been reported in different parts of the country. Therefore, present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on FMD viral vaccine-elicited immune response in Hardhenu cattle. The effect of season of vaccination was not consistent. The effect of status of animal was significant for all the pre and post AB titres except for pre AB titre of serotype O and post AB titre of Asia1.The estimates of heritability for response to vaccination were low to high ranging from 0.11 to 0.45. The highest heritability estimate was obtained for serotype O and the lowest for Asia1. The heritability estimates for pre and post AB titres ranged from 0.15 to 0.33. All the pre and post AB titres and responses to vaccination had genetic correlations ranged from high negative to high positive among them. Results of this study highlight the variation in vaccine response which needs to be further exploited on large-scale animal data for better immunization and protection against highly contagious viral vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals.

  11. Ranking the disease burden of 14 pathogens in food sources in the United States using attribution data from outbreak investigations and expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batz, Michael B; Hoffmann, Sandra; Morris, J Glenn

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the relative public health impact of major microbiological hazards across the food supply is critical for a risk-based national food safety system. This study was conducted to estimate the U.S. health burden of 14 major pathogens in 12 broad categories of food and to then rank the resulting 168 pathogen-food combinations. These pathogens examined were Campylobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, norovirus, Salmonella enterica, Toxoplasma gondii, and all other FoodNet pathogens. The health burden associated with each pathogen was measured using new estimates of the cost of illness and loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from acute and chronic illness and mortality. A new method for attributing illness to foods was developed that relies on both outbreak data and expert elicitation. This method assumes that empirical data are generally preferable to expert judgment; thus, outbreak data were used for attribution except where evidence suggests that these data are considered not representative of food attribution. Based on evaluation of outbreak data, expert elicitation, and published scientific literature, outbreak-based attribution estimates for Campylobacter, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Yersinia were determined not representative; therefore, expert-based attribution were included for these four pathogens. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the effect of attribution data assumptions on rankings. Disease burden was concentrated among a relatively small number of pathogen-food combinations. The top 10 pairs were responsible for losses of over $8 billion and 36,000 QALYs, or more than 50 % of the total across all pairs. Across all 14 pathogens, poultry, pork, produce, and complex foods were responsible for nearly 60 % of the total cost of illness and loss of QALYs.

  12. An attenuated Lassa vaccine in SIV-infected rhesus macaques does not persist or cause arenavirus disease but does elicit Lassa virus-specific immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Juan C; Poonia, Bhawna; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Ateh, Eugene; George, Lanea; Crasta, Oswald; Zhang, Yan; Slezak, Tom; Jaing, Crystal; Pauza, C David; Goicochea, Marco; Moshkoff, Dmitry; Lukashevich, Igor S; Salvato, Maria S

    2013-02-12

    Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF) is a rodent-borne viral disease that can be fatal for human beings. In this study, an attenuated Lassa vaccine candidate, ML29, was tested in SIV-infected rhesus macaques for its ability to elicit immune responses without instigating signs pathognomonic for arenavirus disease. ML29 is a reassortant between Lassa and Mopeia viruses that causes a transient infection in non-human primates and confers sterilizing protection from lethal Lassa viral challenge. However, since the LHF endemic area of West Africa also has high HIV seroprevalence, it is important to determine whether vaccination could be safe in the context of HIV infection. SIV-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques were vaccinated with the ML29 virus and monitored for specific humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as for classical and non-classical signs of arenavirus disease. Classical disease signs included viremia, rash, respiratory distress, malaise, high liver enzyme levels, and virus invasion of the central nervous system. Non-classical signs, derived from profiling the blood transcriptome of virulent and non-virulent arenavirus infections, included increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) and decreased expression of COX2, IL-1β, coagulation intermediates and nuclear receptors needed for stress signaling. All vaccinated monkeys showed ML29-specific antibody responses and ML29-specific cell-mediated immunity. SIV-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques responded similarly to ML29 vaccination, and none developed chronic arenavirus infection. Importantly, none of the macaques developed signs, classical or non-classical, of arenavirus disease.

  13. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria.

  14. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasa, B P; Mohapatra, J K; Pauszek, S J; Koster, M; Dhanya, V C; Tamil Selvan, R P; Hosamani, M; Saravanan, P; Basagoudanavar, Suresh H; de Los Santos, T; Venkataramanan, R; Rodriguez, L L; Grubman, M J

    2017-05-01

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O, A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutralizing antibody response in indigenous cattle (Bos indicus). Purified Ad5-FMD viruses were inoculated in cattle as monovalent (5×109 pfu/animal) or trivalent (5×109 pfu/animal per serotype) vaccines. Animals vaccinated with monovalent Ad5-FMD vaccines were boosted 63days later with the same dose. After primary immunization, virus neutralization tests (VNT) showed seroconversion in 83, 67 and 33% of animals vaccinated with Ad5-FMD O, A and Asia 1, respectively. Booster immunization elicited seroconversion in all of the animals (100%) in the monovalent groups. When used in a trivalent form, the Ad5-FMD vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in only 33, 50 and 16% of animals against serotypes O, A and Asia 1, respectively on primo-vaccination, and titers were significantly lower than when the same vectors were used in monovalent form. Neutralizing antibody titers differed by serotype for both Ad5-FMD monovalent and trivalent vaccines, with Asia 1 serotype inducing the lowest titers. Antibody response to Ad5 vector in immunized cattle was also assessed by VNT. It appeared that the vector immunity did not impact the recall responses to expressed FMDV antigens on booster immunization. In summary, the study suggested that the recombinant Ad5-FMD vaccine has a potential use in monovalent form, while its application in multivalent form is not currently encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    relevance of hedging effects in the lab. We find no evidence for hedging, comparing the standard 'hedging-prone' belief elicitation treatment to a 'hedging-proof' design in a sequential prisoners' dilemma game. Our findings are strengthened by the absence of hedging even in an additional non...

  16. Issues in Requirements Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    oriented domain analysis ( FODA ) continues that the re- quirements analyst uses the products of domain analysis when implementing a new system [Kang 90, p...5]. Therefore, FODA does have applicability to requirements elicitation, and will be overviewed in this section. All requirements originate with the...information. For example, with FODA both an entity relationship model and features model are created. The entity relationship model is particularly useful

  17. Complexity of Terminating Preference Elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    Complexity theory is a useful tool to study computational issues surrounding the elicitation of preferences, as well as the strategic manipulation of elections aggregating together preferences of multiple agents. We study here the complexity of determining when we can terminate eliciting preferences, and prove that the complexity depends on the elicitation strategy. We show, for instance, that it may be better from a computational perspective to elicit all preferences from one agent at a time...

  18. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O,A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutral...

  19. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer (grade 5 of 5 in the guinea-pig maximization test) that is used in various industrial and consumer applications. To prevent sensitization to cobalt and elicitation of allergic cobalt dermatitis, information about the elicitation threshold level...... of cobalt is important. OBJECTIVE: To identify the dermatitis elicitation threshold levels in cobalt-allergic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Published patch test dose-response studies were reviewed to determine the elicitation dose (ED) levels in dermatitis patients with a previous positive patch test...... reaction to cobalt. A logistic dose-response model was applied to data collected from the published literature to estimate ED values. The 95% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of mean doses that can elicit a reaction in 10% (ED(10)) of a population was calculated with Fieller's method. RESULTS...

  20. Synthetic RNAs Mimicking Structural Domains in the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Genome Elicit a Broad Innate Immune Response in Porcine Cells Triggered by RIG-I and TLR Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Miguel; Revilla, Concepción; Álvarez, Belén; Sobrino, Francisco; Domínguez, Javier; Sáiz, Margarita

    2015-07-17

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. We have previously described, the ability of small in vitro RNA transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome (ncRNAs), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. These synthetic non-infectious molecules have proved to have a broad-range antiviral activity and to enhance the immunogenicity of an FMD inactivated vaccine in mice. Here, we have studied the involvement of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) in the ncRNA-induced innate response and analyzed the antiviral and cytokine profiles elicited in swine cultured cells, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

  1. Quaternized chitosan nanoparticles loaded with the combined attenuated live vaccine against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis elicit immune response in chicken after intranasal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Li, Shanshan; Li, Wei; Yu, Lu; Duan, Xutong; Han, Jinyu; Wang, Xiaohua; Jin, Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB) are important diseases, which cause respiratory diseases in chickens, resulting in severely economic losses in the poultry industry. In this study, N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (N-2-HACC) and N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) were synthesized as adjuvant and delivery carrier for vaccine antigens. N-2-HACC-CMC/NDV/IBV nanoparticles (NPs) (NDV/La Sota and IBV/H120 encapsulated in N-2-HACC-CMC NPs) and N-2-HACC-CMC/NDV-IBV NPs (the mixing of N-2-HACC-CMC/NDV NPs and N-2-HACC-CMC/IBV NPs in a ratio of 1:1) were prepared by the polyelectrolyte composite method, respectively. Both nanoparticles exhibited lower cytotoxicity and higher stability. Their bioactivities were maintained when they were stored at 37 °C for three weeks. Release assay in vitro showed that both NDV and IBV could be sustainably released from the nanoparticles after an initial burst release. In vivo immunization of chickens showed that N-2-HACC-CMC/NDV/IBV NPs or N-2-HACC-CMC/NDV-IBV NPs intranasally induced higher titers of IgG and IgA antibodies, significantly promoted proliferation of lymphocytes and induced higher levels of interleukine-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) than the commercially combined attenuated live vaccine did. This is the first study in the field of animal vaccines demonstrating that intranasal administration of chickens with antigens (NDV and IBV) encapsulated with chitosan derivative could induce humoral, cellular, and mucosal immune responses, which protected chickens from the infection of highly virulent NDV and IBV. This study indicated that N-2-HACC-CMC could be used as an efficient adjuvant and delivery carrier for further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs and could have an immense application potential in medicine.

  2. Internet Searching About Disease Elicits a Positive Perception of Own Health When Severity of Illness Is High: A Longitudinal Questionnaire Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassenberg, Kai; Greving, Hannah

    2016-03-04

    The Internet is one of the primary sources for health information. However, in research, the effects of Internet use on the perception of one's own health have not received much attention so far. This study tested how Internet use for acquiring health information and severity of illness influence patients with a chronic disease with regard to the perception of their own health. Negative psychological states are known to lead to preferential processing of positive information. In particular, the self-directed nature of Internet use provides room for such biases. Therefore, we predicted that patients experiencing negative health states more frequently, due to more frequent episodes of a chronic illness, will gain a more positive perception of their health if they use the Internet frequently to gain health information, but not if they use the Internet rarely. This effect was not expected for other sources of information. A longitudinal questionnaire study with two measurement points-with a 7-month time lag-tested the hypothesis in a sample of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (n=208). This study assessed patients' frequency of Internet use, their participation in online social support groups, their use of other sources of health information, and several indicators of the participants' perceptions of their own health. A structure equation model (SEM) was used to test the predictions separately for Internet searches and other sources of information. Data analysis supported the prediction; the interaction between frequency of health-related information searches and frequency of episodes at the first measurement point (T1) was related to participants' positive perceptions of their own health at the second measurement point (T2) (B=.10, SE=.04, P=.02) above and beyond the perceptions of their own health at T1. When participants used the Internet relatively rarely (-1 SD), there was no relationship between frequency of episodes and positive perceptions of

  3. Despite sequence homologies to gluten, salivary proline-rich proteins do not elicit immune responses central to the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciaran P; Hansen, Joshua; Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A; Schuppan, Detlef; Helmerhorst, Eva J

    2015-12-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder triggered by ingested gluten, causing immune-mediated damage to the small-intestinal mucosa. Gluten proteins are strikingly similar in amino acid composition and sequence to proline-rich proteins (PRPs) in human saliva. On the basis of this feature and their shared destination in the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that salivary PRPs may modulate gluten-mediated immune responses in CD. Parotid salivary secretions were collected from CD patients, refractory CD patients, non-CD patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, and healthy controls. Structural similarities of PRPs with gluten were probed with anti-gliadin antibodies. Immune responses to PRPs were investigated toward CD patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in a humanized transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model for CD. Anti-gliadin antibodies weakly cross-reacted with the abundant salivary amylase but not with PRPs. Likewise, the R5 antibody, recognizing potential antigenic gluten epitopes, showed negligible reactivity to salivary proteins from all groups. Inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were provoked by gliadins whereas responses to PRPs were similar to control levels, and PRPs did not compete with gliadins in immune stimulation. In vivo, PRP peptides were well tolerated and nonimmunogenic in the transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model. Collectively, although structurally similar to dietary gluten, salivary PRPs were nonimmunogenic in CD patients and in a transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model for CD. It is possible that salivary PRPs play a role in tolerance induction to gluten early in life. Deciphering the structural basis for the lack of immunogenicity of salivary PRPs may further our understanding of the toxicity of gluten. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery. Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements...... in stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements...... in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...

  5. Similar odorants elicit different behavioral and physiological responses, some supersustained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Shelby A; Mathew, Dennis; Carlson, John R

    2011-05-25

    An intriguing question in the field of olfaction is how animals distinguish among structurally similar odorants. We systematically analyzed olfactory responses elicited by a panel of 25 pyrazines. We found that structurally similar pyrazines elicit a wide range of behavioral responses from Drosophila larvae. Each pyrazine was tested against all functional receptors of the larval Odor receptor (Or) repertoire, yielding 525 odorant-receptor combinations. Different pyrazines vary markedly in the responses they elicit from the Or repertoire, with most strong responses deriving from two receptors, Or33b and Or59a. Surprisingly, 2-ethylpyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine, which elicit strikingly similar physiological responses across the receptor repertoire, elicit dramatically different behavioral responses. A small fraction of odorant-receptor combinations elicit remarkably long responses. These responses, which we term "supersustained" responses, are receptor specific and odorant specific, and can last for minutes. Such supersustained responses may prevent olfactory neurons from reporting contemporaneous information about the local odor environment. Odors that elicit such responses could provide a novel means of controlling insect pests and vectors of human disease by impairing the location of human hosts, food sources, and mates.

  6. Investigating information needs - elicitation guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Groß, Anne; Doerr, Joerg (Ed.)

    2012-01-01

    This report captures elicitation guidelines that were used to investigate infor-mation needs regarding requirements specifications. The guidelines include questionnaires that were used in an eye tracking study, a retrospective evaluation in a software engineering course as well as an evaluation conducted within a tutorial.

  7. Survey Based Reviewof Elicitation Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Sidra Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Any software development process is the combination of multiple development activities and each activity has a vital role in the software development cycle. Requirement Engineering is the main and basic branch of Software Engineering, it has many phases but the most initial phase is Requirement Elicitation. In this phase requirements are gathered for system development. This paper provides a literature review of the requirements engineering processes performed in traditional and ...

  8. Plant-based chimeric HPV-virus-like particles bearing amyloid-β epitopes elicit antibodies able to recognize amyloid plaques in APP-tg mouse and Alzheimer's disease brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Castro, R; Acero Galindo, G; García Salcedo, Y; Uribe Campero, L; Vazquez Perez, V; Carrillo-Tripp, M; Gevorkian, G; Gomez Lim, M A

    2017-11-01

    The main amyloid-beta (Aβ) variants detected in the human brain are full-length Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 peptides; however, a significant proportion of AD brain Aβ consists also of N-terminal truncated/modified species. The majority of the previous immunotherapeutic strategies targeted the N-terminal immunodominant epitope of the full-length Aβ; however, most of the pathological N-truncated forms of Aβ lack this critical B cell epitope. Recently, virus-like particles (VLPs), self-assembled structures with highly ordered repetitive patterns on their surface and capable of inducing robust immune responses, were applied as a promising platform for various antigen expressions. In this study, we expressed in plants two chimeric HPV16 L1 capsid proteins obtained by introduction of the β-amyloid 11-28 epitope (Aβ 11-28) into the h4 helix or into the coil regions of the L1 protein. The Aβ 11-28 epitope was chosen because it is present in the full-length Aβ 1-42 as well as in the truncated/modified amyloid peptide species. After expression, we assembled the chimerical L1/Aβ 11-28 into a VLP in which the Aβ 11-28 epitope is exposed at very high density (360 times) on the surface of the VLP. The chimeric VLPs elicited in mice Aβ-specific antibodies binding to β-amyloid plaques in APP-tg mouse and AD brains. Our study is the first to demonstrate a successful production in plants and immunogenic properties in mice of chimeric HPV16 L1 VLPs bearing Aβ epitope that may be of potential relevance for the development of multivalent vaccines for a multifactorial disease such as AD.

  9. Effect of elicitation on picrotin and picrotoxinin production from in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royel ex. Benth. is an important medicinal plant of Himalayan region and a good source of iridoid glycosides. Picrotin and picrotoxinin are compounds produced by P. kurrooa which are widely used in treatment of hepatic diseases. Elicitation is one of the best effective methods which enhance secondary ...

  10. Stimulus ambiguity elicits response conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmalec, Arnaud; Verbruggen, Frederick; Vandierendonck, André; De Baene, Wouter; Verguts, Tom; Notebaert, Wim

    2008-04-18

    Conflict monitoring theory [M.M. Botvinick, T. Braver, D. Barch, C. Carter, J.D. Cohen, Conflict monitoring and cognitive control, Psychol. Rev. 108 (2001) 625-652] assumes that perceptual ambiguity among choice stimuli elicits response conflict in choice reaction. It hence predicts that response conflict is also involved in elementary variants of choice reaction time (RT) tasks, i.e., those variants that, by contrast with the Stroop task or the Go/No-Go task for instance, are rarely associated with cognitive control. In order to test this prediction, an experiment was designed in which participants performed a simple RT task and a regular between-hand 2-choice RT task under three different levels of stimulus ambiguity. The data show that response conflict, as measured by the N2 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP), was elicited in the 2-choice RT task but not in the simple RT task and that the degree of response conflict in the 2-choice RT task was a function of stimulus ambiguity. These results show that response conflict is also present in a regular choice RT task which is traditionally not considered to be a measure of cognitive conflict.

  11. Eliciting expert knowledge in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tara G; Burgman, Mark A; Fidler, Fiona; Kuhnert, Petra M; Low-Choy, Samantha; McBride, Marissa; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-02-01

    Expert knowledge is used widely in the science and practice of conservation because of the complexity of problems, relative lack of data, and the imminent nature of many conservation decisions. Expert knowledge is substantive information on a particular topic that is not widely known by others. An expert is someone who holds this knowledge and who is often deferred to in its interpretation. We refer to predictions by experts of what may happen in a particular context as expert judgments. In general, an expert-elicitation approach consists of five steps: deciding how information will be used, determining what to elicit, designing the elicitation process, performing the elicitation, and translating the elicited information into quantitative statements that can be used in a model or directly to make decisions. This last step is known as encoding. Some of the considerations in eliciting expert knowledge include determining how to work with multiple experts and how to combine multiple judgments, minimizing bias in the elicited information, and verifying the accuracy of expert information. We highlight structured elicitation techniques that, if adopted, will improve the accuracy and information content of expert judgment and ensure uncertainty is captured accurately. We suggest four aspects of an expert elicitation exercise be examined to determine its comprehensiveness and effectiveness: study design and context, elicitation design, elicitation method, and elicitation output. Just as the reliability of empirical data depends on the rigor with which it was acquired so too does that of expert knowledge. ©2011 Australian Governmemt Conservation Biology©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Eliciting conceptual models to support interdisciplinary research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, P.J.; Bots, P.G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Constructing interdisciplinary knowledge is particularly difficult because scientific knowledge is situated in its discipline. Researchers must find common ground to share, and this causes high transaction costs. This article reports a method of conceptual analysis to elicit, analyse and compare

  13. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Hakala

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants’ gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15–65 mm base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions.

  14. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...

  15. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout [2013] found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over...... objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  16. Eliciting Information on Sensitive Matters Without Inviting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ences, history of induced abortions, etc. Attempts to elicit direct information on such sensitive, personal or stigmatizing features invariably end up in nonresponse or evasive untruthful response. The college campus men- tioned in the first paragraph is a case in point. Therefore ingenious methods are required to collect data ...

  17. Eliciting illegal migration rates through list randomization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, D.; Siegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most migration surveys do not ask about the legal status of migrants due to concerns about the sensitivity of this question. List randomization is a technique that has been used in a number of other social science applications to elicit sensitive information. We trial this technique by adding it to

  18. Learning from Expert Elicitation in Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1990's the author has been involved in the design and execution of six detailed expert elicitations that, among other things, have obtained subjective judgments from experts that reflect their best judgment in the form of subjective probability density functions, about the value of key climate variables, climate impacts and a technology for mitigation (Morgan and Keith, 1995; Morgan Pitelka and Shevliakova, 2001; Morgan, Adams and Keith, 2006; Zickfeld et al, 2007; Curtright, Morgan and Keith, 2008; Zickfeld, Morgan Keith and Frame, in review). This paper builds on that experience to draw insights about the design and use of expert elicitation in the assessment and analysis of climate change and its impacts. Several trends in responses will be noted. Methodological pitfalls will be discussed. Comparisons will be drawn with the consensus-based methods employed by IPCC, which appear to have produced tighter uncertainty bounds than individual elicitation. The paper will close with thoughts on the possible use of expert elicitation in future IPCC assessments. Support for this work is from the Climate Decision Making Center through a cooperative agreement between the National Science Foundation (SES-0345798) and Carnegie Mellon University. References: M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Subjective Judgments by Climate Experts," Environmental Science & Technology, 29(10), 468A-476A, October 1995. M. Granger Morgan, Louis F. Pitelka and Elena Shevliakova, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems," Climatic Change, 49, 279-307, 2001. M. Granger Morgan, Peter Adams, and David W. Keith, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Aerosol Forcing," Climatic Change, 75, 195-214, 2006. Kirsten Zickfeld, Anders Levermann, Till Kuhlbrodt. Stefan Rahmstorf, M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Expert Judgements on the Response on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to Climate Change," Climatic Change, 82, 235-265, 2007

  19. Health Coaching and Genomics—Potential Avenues to Elicit Behavior Change in Those at Risk for Chronic Disease: Protocol for Personalized Medicine Effectiveness Study in Air Force Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorderstrasse, Allison A.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Kraus, William E.; Maldonado, Maj Carlos J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD) are prevalent chronic diseases from which military personnel are not exempt. While many genetic markers for these diseases have been identified, the clinical utility of genetic risk testing for multifactorial diseases such as these has not been established. The need for a behavioral intervention such as health coaching following a risk counseling intervention for T2D or CHD also has not been explored. Here we present the rationale, design, and protocol for evaluating the clinical utility of genetic risk testing and health coaching for active duty US Air Force (AF) retirees and beneficiaries. Primary Study Objectives: Determine the direct and interactive effects of health coaching and providing genetic risk information when added to standard risk counseling for CHD and T2D on health behaviors and clinical risk markers. Design: Four-group (2 X 2 factorial) randomized controlled trial. Setting: Two AF primary care clinical settings on the west coast of the United States. Participants: Adult AF primary care patients. Intervention: All participants will have a risk counseling visit with a clinic provider to discuss personal risk factors for T2D and CHD. Half of the participants (two groups) will also learn of their genetic risk testing results for T2D and CHD in this risk counseling session. Participants randomized to the two groups receiving health coaching will then receive telephonic health coaching over 6 months. Main Outcome Measures: Behavioral measures (self-reported dietary intake, physical activity, smoking cessation, medication adherence); clinical outcomes (AF composite fitness scores, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids, T2D/CHD risk scores) and psychosocial measures (self-efficacy, worry, perceived risk) will be collected at baseline and 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months. Conclusion: This study tests novel strategies deployed within existing AF primary care to

  20. Health coaching and genomics-potential avenues to elicit behavior change in those at risk for chronic disease: protocol for personalized medicine effectiveness study in air force primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Kraus, William E; Maldonado, Maj Carlos J; Wolever, Ruth Q

    2013-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD) are prevalent chronic diseases from which military personnel are not exempt. While many genetic markers for these diseases have been identified, the clinical utility of genetic risk testing for multifactorial diseases such as these has not been established. The need for a behavioral intervention such as health coaching following a risk counseling intervention for T2D or CHD also has not been explored. Here we present the rationale, design, and protocol for evaluating the clinical utility of genetic risk testing and health coaching for active duty US Air Force (AF) retirees and beneficiaries. Determine the direct and interactive effects of health coaching and providing genetic risk information when added to standard risk counseling for CHD and T2D on health behaviors and clinical risk markers. Four-group (2 X 2 factorial) randomized controlled trial. Two AF primary care clinical settings on the west coast of the United States. Adult AF primary care patients. All participants will have a risk counseling visit with a clinic provider to discuss personal risk factors for T2D and CHD. Half of the participants (two groups) will also learn of their genetic risk testing results for T2D and CHD in this risk counseling session. Participants randomized to the two groups receiving health coaching will then receive telephonic health coaching over 6 months. Behavioral measures (self-reported dietary intake, physical activity, smoking cessation, medication adherence); clinical outcomes (AF composite fitness scores, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids, T2D/CHD risk scores) and psychosocial measures (self-efficacy, worry, perceived risk) will be collected at baseline and 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months. This study tests novel strategies deployed within existing AF primary care to increase adherence to evidence-based diet, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication recommendations for

  1. A comparison of five elicitation techniques for elicitation of attributes of low involvement products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    1999-01-01

    of dimensions directed from theories of consumer buying behaviour. Although a number of differences between the techniques are identified in the study, the main findings are that the robustness of the different techniques for attribute elicitation is considerable Udgivelsesdato: JUN......The critical first step for most instruments used in analysing consumer choice and motivation is the identification of product attributes which are important to the consumer and for which there are differences among the available product alternatives. A number of techniques, ranging from...... the complex elicitation of idiosyncratic attributes or simpler picking procedures, has been developed to elicitate such attributes. The purpose of the study presented here is to com-pare attributes of a low involvement product, viz. vegetable oil, elicited by five different techniques on a number...

  2. Can packaging elements elicit consumers’ emotional responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis; Corsi, Armando; Lockshin, Larry

    Emotion has been an important concept in many areas of consumer research such as judgment, decision-making and advertising. Little research has been done on emotion in packaging adopting the physiological measures used in other areas. This paper draws on past studies in advertising that measure...... emotional responses toward image, colour and font, and apply them to packaging research. The study tests the extent at which packaging can elicit consumers’ spontaneous emotional response for each of those three elements, by using skin conductance, facial electromyography (EMG) and selfassessment scales....... The results show that packaging can elicit an emotional response via different elements. The paper also raises concerns about the accuracy of using selfreport measures of emotional responses to packaging research....

  3. Needs Elicitation for Novel Pervasive Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Forchhammer, B. H.; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    is to include the large number of users required to represent the entire population. Failure to do so may lead to a solution that is over specialised to fit the needs of only a small subset of users. Both challenges are common in healthcare applications in which the end-user is also care recipient (or patient......). What if instead of trying to engage vastly many users in design activities, we could hear the voice of the patient by tapping into existing channels within the health care service system? Many interactions between healthcare providers and patients involve knowledge transfer. Observing these could...... for pervasive healthcare technology, in which established methods for engaging users to elicit their needs can be difficult or even impossible to apply. In this paper we document our needs elicitation process in a relevant example as a method story, and present our findings and reflections on this as the key...

  4. Evaluating Expert Estimators Based on Elicited Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Karna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of expert effort estimation approach shows promising results when it is applied to software development process. It is based on judgment and decision making process and due to comparative advantages extensively used especially in situations when classic models cannot be accounted for. This becomes even more accentuated in today’s highly dynamical project environment. Confronted with these facts companies are placing ever greater focus on their employees, specifically on their competences. Competences are defined as knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform job assignments. During effort estimation process different underlying expert competences influence the outcome i.e. judgments they express. Special problem here is the elicitation, from an input collection, of those competences that are responsible for accurate estimates. Based on these findings different measures can be taken to enhance estimation process. The approach used in study presented in this paper was targeted at elicitation of expert estimator competences responsible for production of accurate estimates. Based on individual competences scores resulting from performed modeling experts were ranked using weighted scoring method and their performance evaluated. Results confirm that experts with higher scores in competences identified by applied models in general exhibit higher accuracy during estimation process. For the purpose of modeling data mining methods were used, specifically the multilayer perceptron neural network and the classification and regression decision tree algorithms. Among other, applied methods are suitable for the purpose of elicitation as in a sense they mimic the ways human brains operate. Data used in the study was collected from real projects in the company specialized for development of IT solutions in telecom domain. The proposed model, applied methodology for elicitation of expert competences and obtained results give evidence that in

  5. Molecular mimicry and horror autotoxicus: do chlamydial infections elicit autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanborg, Robert H; Boros, Dov L; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

    2006-11-30

    All species of the order Chlamydiales are obligate intracellular eubacterial pathogens of their various hosts. Two chlamydial species, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae, are primarily human pathogens, and each is known to cause important diseases. Some strains of C. trachomatis are sexually transmitted and frequently cause severe reproductive problems, primarily in women. Other strains of the organism serve as the aetiological agents for blinding trachoma, still the leading cause of preventable blindness in underdeveloped nations. C. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen known to cause community-acquired pneumonia. Importantly, both organisms engender an immunopathogenic response in the human host, and both have been associated with widely diverse, relatively common and currently idiopathic chronic diseases, most of which include an important autoimmune component. In this article, we explore the available experimental data regarding the possible elicitation of autoimmunity in various contexts by chlamydial infection, and we suggest several avenues for research to explore this potentially important issue further.

  6. Essays on probability elicitation scoring rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, Paulo Renato A.; dos Santos Neto, Ademir B.

    2012-10-01

    In probability elicitation exercises it has been usual to considerer scoring rules (SRs) to measure the performance of experts when inferring about a given unknown, Θ, for which the true value, θ*, is (or will shortly be) known to the experimenter. Mathematically, SRs quantify the discrepancy between f(θ) (the distribution reflecting the expert's uncertainty about Θ) and d(θ), a zero-one indicator function of the observation θ*. Thus, a remarkable characteristic of SRs is to contrast expert's beliefs with the observation θ*. The present work aims at extending SRs concepts and formulas for the cases where Θ is aleatory, highlighting advantages of goodness-of-fit and entropy-like measures. Conceptually, it is argued that besides of evaluating the personal performance of the expert, SRs may also play a role when comparing the elicitation processes adopted to obtain f(θ). Mathematically, it is proposed to replace d(θ) by g(θ), the distribution that model the randomness of Θ, and do also considerer goodness-of-fit and entropylike metrics, leading to SRs that measure the adherence of f(θ) to g(θ). The implications of this alternative perspective are discussed and illustrated by means of case studies based on the simulation of controlled experiments. The usefulness of the proposed approach for evaluating the performance of experts and elicitation processes is investigated.

  7. Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, K. J.

    1997-05-30

    This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca

  8. Immune response elicited by the oral administration of an intermediate strain of IBDV in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Carballeda; Silvina Chimeno Zoth; Evangelina Gómez; María Soledad Lucero; María José Gravisaco; Analía Berinstein

    2015-01-01

    The immune response elicited by the oral inoculation of an intermediate strain of infectious bursal disease virus was studied in chickens. A strong over expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFNα and IFNγ was observed in bursa at 3 days post inoculation together with an increase in splenic NO2 release. An influx of T-lymphocytes was also detected.

  9. Immune response elicited by the oral administration of an intermediate strain of IBDV in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Carballeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune response elicited by the oral inoculation of an intermediate strain of infectious bursal disease virus was studied in chickens. A strong over expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFNα and IFNγ was observed in bursa at 3 days post inoculation together with an increase in splenic NO2 release. An influx of T-lymphocytes was also detected.

  10. Phagostimulants for the Asian citrus psyllid also elicit volatile release from citrus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical cues that elicit orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. We identified an optimal blend ratio of formic and acetic acids that stimulate...

  11. Eliciting Probabilistic Expectations with Visual Aids in Developing Countries : How Sensitive Are Answers to Variations in Elicitation Design?

    OpenAIRE

    Giné, Xavier; McKenzie, David; Delavande, Adeline

    2010-01-01

    Eliciting subjective probability distributions in developing countries is often based on visual aids such as beans to represent probabilities and intervals on a sheet of paper to represent the support. The authors conducted an experiment in India that tested the sensitivity of elicited expectations to variations in three facets of the elicitation methodology: the number of beans, the desig...

  12. Multiple faces elicit augmented neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina ePuce

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How do our brains respond when we are being watched by a group of people? Despite the large volume of literature devoted to face processing, this question has received very little attention. Here we measured the effects on the face-sensitive N170 and other ERPs to viewing displays of one, two and three faces in two experiments. In Experiment 1, overall image brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, whereas in Experiment 2 local contrast and brightness of individual faces were not manipulated. A robust positive-negative-positive (P100-N170-P250 ERP complex and an additional late positive ERP, the P400, were elicited to all stimulus types. As the number of faces in the display increased, N170 amplitude increased for both stimulus sets, and latency increased in Experiment 2. P100 latency and P250 amplitude were affected by changes in overall brightness and contrast, but not by the number of faces in the display per se. In Experiment 1 when overall brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, later ERP (P250 and P400 latencies showed differences as a function of hemisphere. Hence, our data indicate that N170 increases its magnitude when multiple faces are seen, apparently impervious to basic low-level stimulus features including stimulus size. Outstanding questions remain regarding category-sensitive neural activity that is elicited to viewing multiple items of stimulus categories other than faces.

  13. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  14. Intermediary’s Elicitation and Patron’s Retrieval Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Jung Chiang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An elicitation is a verbal request for information reflecting one's interests, concerns or perplexities in conversation. Elicitation behavior in studies of information retrieval interaction is, in fact, the micro-level of information-seeking behavior in which the user and the intermediary exchange information to fill the gaps in one's internal state of knowledge. This study aims to understand the intermediary's elicitation behavior in terms of linguistic forms, communicative functions (illocutionary force and utterance purposes (semantic contents and further to identify the relationship between intermediary's individual differences and search results satisfaction. Research methods include participatory observation, conversation analysis, content analysis and statistical analysis of elicitation frequencies and questionnaires. Our research results successfully identify the three dimensions of intermediary's elicitation behavior and characterize intermediary's inquiring minds and elicitation styles. Further analysis shows that there exists a significant relationship between inquiring minds/elicitation styles and user's relevance judgment of search results.[Article content in Chinese

  15. ELICIT: An alternative imprecise weight elicitation technique for use in multi-criteria decision analysis for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Sanogo, Vassiki; Moussa, Kouame Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the readers are introduced to ELICIT, an imprecise weight elicitation technique for multicriteria decision analysis for healthcare. The application of ELICIT consists of two steps: the rank ordering of evaluation criteria based on decision-makers' (DMs) preferences using the principal component analysis; and the estimation of criteria weights and their descriptive statistics using the variable interdependent analysis and the Monte Carlo method. The application of ELICIT is illustrated with a hypothetical case study involving the elicitation of weights for five criteria used to select the best device for eye surgery. The criteria were ranked from 1-5, based on a strict preference relationship established by the DMs. For each criterion, the deterministic weight was estimated as well as the standard deviation and 95% credibility interval. ELICIT is appropriate in situations where only ordinal DMs' preferences are available to elicit decision criteria weights.

  16. Antigenic peptide nanofibers elicit adjuvant-free CD8⁺ T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Charles B; Huelsmann, Erica J; Lacek, Andrew T; Kohlhapp, Frederick J; Webb, Matthew F; Nabatiyan, Arman; Zloza, Andrew; Rudra, Jai S

    2014-02-26

    Vaccines that elicit robust CD8⁺ T cell responses are desirable for protection against infectious diseases and cancers. However, most vaccine adjuvants fail to elicit robust CD8⁺ T cell responses without inflammation and associated toxicity. We recently reported that self-assembling peptides that form nanofibers in physiological buffers elicited strong adjuvant-free and antigen-specific antibody responses in mice. However, whether or not such nanofibers likewise can elicit strong CD8⁺ T cell responses is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the self-assembling peptide Q11 conjugated to a CD8⁺ T cell epitope of ovalbumin (Q11-OVA), elicits strong antigen-specific primary and recall responses, and in a vaccination regimen protects against subsequent infection. Importantly, we show that these antigenic peptide nanofibers do not persist as an inflammatory antigen depot at the injection site. Our results demonstrate for the first time that self-assembling peptides may be useful as carriers for vaccines where CD8⁺ T cell-mediated protection is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Eliciting promises from children reduces cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lin, Jianyan; Qian, Miao K; Lee, Kang

    2015-11-01

    Widespread cheating can undermine rules that are necessary for maintaining social order. Preventing cheating can be a challenge, especially with regard to children, who as a result of their limited executive function skills may have particular difficulty with resisting temptation to cheat. We examined one approach designed to help children resist this temptation: eliciting a verbal commitment to not cheat. We tested 4- to 7-year-olds (total N = 330) and found that starting at 5 years of age, a verbal commitment to not cheat led to a substantial reduction in cheating. The results suggest that verbal commitments can be used to help children overcome temptations and comply with rules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bayesian markets to elicit private information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillon, Aurélien

    2017-07-25

    Financial markets reveal what investors think about the future, and prediction markets are used to forecast election results. Could markets also encourage people to reveal private information, such as subjective judgments (e.g., "Are you satisfied with your life?") or unverifiable facts? This paper shows how to design such markets, called Bayesian markets. People trade an asset whose value represents the proportion of affirmative answers to a question. Their trading position then reveals their own answer to the question. The results of this paper are based on a Bayesian setup in which people use their private information (their "type") as a signal. Hence, beliefs about others' types are correlated with one's own type. Bayesian markets transform this correlation into a mechanism that rewards truth telling. These markets avoid two complications of alternative methods: they need no knowledge of prior information and no elicitation of metabeliefs regarding others' signals.

  19. Norovirus P particle efficiently elicits innate, humoral and cellular immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Fang

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV P domain complexes, the 24 mer P particles and the P dimers, induced effective humoral immunity, but their role in the cellular immune responses remained unclear. We reported here a study on cellular immune responses of the two P domain complexes in comparison with the virus-like particle (VLP of a GII.4 NoV (VA387 in mice. The P domain complexes induced significant central memory CD4(+ T cell phenotypes (CD4(+ CD44(+ CD62L(+ CCR7(+ and activated polyclonal CD4(+ T cells as shown by production of Interleukin (IL-2, Interferon (IFN-γ, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α. Most importantly, VA387-specific CD4(+ T cell epitope induced a production of IFN-γ, indicating an antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell response in P domain complex-immunized mice. Furthermore, P domain complexes efficiently induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC maturation, evidenced by up-regulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules, as well as production of IL-12 and IL-1β. Finally, P domain complex-induced mature dendritic cells (DCs elicited proliferation of specific CD4(+ T cells targeting VA387 P domain. Overall, we conclude that the NoV P domain complexes are efficiently presented by DCs to elicit not only humoral but also cellular immune responses against NoVs. Since the P particle is highly effective for both humoral and cellular immune responses and easily produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli, it is a good choice of vaccine against NoVs and a vaccine platform against other diseases.

  20. Elicitation of expert prior opinion: application to the MYPAN trial in childhood polyarteritis nodosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa V Hampson

    Full Text Available Definitive sample sizes for clinical trials in rare diseases are usually infeasible. Bayesian methodology can be used to maximise what is learnt from clinical trials in these circumstances. We elicited expert prior opinion for a future Bayesian randomised controlled trial for a rare inflammatory paediatric disease, polyarteritis nodosa (MYPAN, Mycophenolate mofetil for polyarteritis nodosa.A Bayesian prior elicitation meeting was convened. Opinion was sought on the probability that a patient in the MYPAN trial treated with cyclophosphamide would achieve disease remission within 6-months, and on the relative efficacies of mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide. Expert opinion was combined with previously unseen data from a recently completed randomised controlled trial in ANCA associated vasculitis.A pan-European group of fifteen experts participated in the elicitation meeting. Consensus expert prior opinion was that the most likely rates of disease remission within 6 months on cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil were 74% and 71%, respectively. This prior opinion will now be taken forward and will be modified to formulate a Bayesian posterior opinion once the MYPAN trial data from 40 patients randomised 1:1 to either CYC or MMF become available.We suggest that the methodological template we propose could be applied to trial design for other rare diseases.

  1. Methods to elicit beliefs for Bayesian priors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sindhu R; Tomlinson, George A; Hawker, Gillian A; Granton, John T; Feldman, Brian M

    2010-04-01

    Bayesian analysis can incorporate clinicians' beliefs about treatment effectiveness into models that estimate treatment effects. Many elicitation methods are available, but it is unclear if any confer advantages based on principles of measurement science. We review belief-elicitation methods for Bayesian analysis and determine if any of them had an incremental value over the others based on its validity, reliability, and responsiveness. A systematic review was performed. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, Current Index to Statistics, MathSciNet, and Zentralblatt Math were searched using the terms (prior OR prior probability distribution) AND (beliefs OR elicitation) AND (Bayes OR Bayesian). Studies were evaluated on: design, question stem, response options, analysis, consideration of validity, reliability, and responsiveness. We identified 33 studies describing methods for elicitation in a Bayesian context. Elicitation occurred in cross-sectional studies (n=30, 89%), to derive point estimates with individual-level variation (n=19; 58%). Although 64% (n=21) considered validity, 24% (n=8) reliability, 12% (n=4) responsiveness of the elicitation methods, only 12% (n=4) formally tested validity, 6% (n=2) tested reliability, and none tested responsiveness. We have summarized methods of belief elicitation for Bayesian priors. The validity, reliability, and responsiveness of elicitation methods have been infrequently evaluated. Until comparative studies are performed, strategies to reduce the effects of bias on the elicitation should be used. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.

  3. Octave illusion elicited by overlapping narrowband noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas Brännström, K; Nilsson, Patrik

    2011-05-01

    The octave or Deutsch illusion occurs when two tones, separated by about one octave, are presented simultaneously but alternating between ears, such that when the low tone is presented to the left ear the high tone is presented to the right ear and vice versa. Most subjects hear a single tone that alternates both between ears and in pitch; i.e., they hear a low pitched tone in one ear alternating with a high pitched tone in the other ear. The present study examined whether the illusion can be elicited by aperiodic signals consisting of low-frequency band-pass filtered noises with overlapping spectra. The amount of spectral overlap was held constant, but the high- and low-frequency content of the signals was systematically varied. The majority of subjects perceived an auditory illusion in terms of a dominant ear for pitch and lateralization by frequency, as proposed by Deutsch [(1975a) Sci. Am. 233, 92-104]. Furthermore, the salience of the illusion increased as the high frequency of the content in the signal increased. Since no harmonics were present in the stimuli, it is highly unlikely that this illusion is perceived on the basis of binaural diplacusis or harmonic binaural fusion.

  4. Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Eliciting and using expert knowledge in metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    The expression of uncertainty has hitherto been seen as an add-on—first an estimate is obtained and then uncertainty in that estimate is evaluated. We argue that quantification of uncertainty should be an intrinsic part of measurement and that the measurement result should be a probability distribution for the measurand. Full quantification of uncertainties in measurement, recognizing and quantifying all sources of uncertainty, is rarely simple. Many potential sources of uncertainty can effectively only be quantified by the application of expert judgement. Scepticism about the validity or reliability of expert judgement has meant that these sources of uncertainty have often been overlooked, ignored or treated in a qualitative, narrative way. But the consequence of this is that reported expressions of uncertainty regularly understate the true degree of uncertainty in measurements. This article first discusses the concept of quantifying uncertainty in measurement, and then considers some of the areas where expert judgement is needed in order to quantify fully the uncertainties in measurement. The remainder of the article is devoted to describing methodology for eliciting expert knowledge.

  6. The future costs of nuclear power using multiple expert elicitations: effects of RD&D and elicitation design

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Anadon, Laura; Nemet, Gregory F.; Verdolini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in t...

  7. The potential for using visual elicitation in understanding preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We explore the use of video and photo elicitation in a research study undertaken to understand the way in which preschool teachers perceive and construct their provision of children's educational experiences. We explore the value of visually elicited interviews based on video footage and photographs captured during ...

  8. A method to elicit beliefs as most likely intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlag, K.H.; van der Weele, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We show how to elicit the beliefs of an expert in the form of a "most likely interval", a set of future outcomes that are deemed more likely than any other outcome. Our method, called the Most Likely Interval elicitation rule (MLI), asks the expert for an interval and pays according to how well the

  9. Freeze or Flee? Negative Stimuli Elicit Selective Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words elicit slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli elicit a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…

  10. Distributed and Collaborative Requirements Elicitation Based on Social Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Bin; Luo, Z.; Liang, P.

    2012-01-01

    Requirements is the formal expression of user's needs. Also, requirements elicitation is the process of activity focusing on requirements collection. Traditional acquisition methods, such as interview, observation and prototype, are unsuited for the service-oriented software development featuring in

  11. Film clips and narrative text as subjective emotion elicitation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Barbra; Babbage, Duncan R

    2017-01-01

    Film clips and narrative text are useful techniques in eliciting emotion in a laboratory setting but have not been examined side-by-side using the same methodology. This study examined the self-identification of emotions elicited by film clip and narrative text stimuli to confirm that selected stimuli appropriately target the intended emotions. Seventy participants viewed 30 film clips, and 40 additional participants read 30 narrative texts. Participants identified the emotion experienced (happy, sad, angry, fearful, neutral-six stimuli each). Eighty-five percent of participants self-identified the target emotion for at least two stimuli for all emotion categories of film clips, except angry (only one) and for all categories of narrative text, except fearful (only one). The most effective angry text was correctly identified 74% of the time. Film clips were more effective in eliciting all target emotions in participants for eliciting the correct emotion (angry), intensity rating (happy, sad), or both (fearful).

  12. Improving Passage Retrieval Using Interactive Elicition and Statistical Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Daqing; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Oard, Douglas W; Karakos, Damianos; Khudanpur, Sanjeev

    2006-01-01

    ...) entered additional search terms. Query expansion based on these three types of elicited information yielded statistically significant improvements in R-precision over baselines with and without blind relevance feedback...

  13. The potential for using visual elicitation in understanding preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We explore the use of video and photo elicitation in a research study undertaken to ... text, since “photography remains closely tied to identity, memory, and presence” ... photographing … influences how the fieldworker is received in the field”.

  14. CCSI Risk Estimation: An Application of Expert Elicitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.

    2012-10-01

    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.

  15. Advanced biofuels: Future perspectives from an expert elicitation survey

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorese, Giulia; Catenacci, Michela; Verdolini, Elena; Bosetti, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the main results of an expert elicitation survey on advanced (second and third generation) biofuel technologies. The survey focuses on eliciting probabilistic information on the future costs of advanced biofuels and on the potential role of RD&D (Research, Development and Demonstration) efforts in reducing these costs and in supporting the deployment of biofuels in OECD and non-OECD countries. Fifteen leading experts from different EU member states provide insights on t...

  16. Green Software Engineering Adaption In Requirement Elicitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Khatuna Jannat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent technology investigates the role of concern in the environment software that is green software system. Now it is widely accepted that the green software can fit all process of software development. It is also suitable for the requirement elicitation process. Now a days software companies have used requirements elicitation techniques in an enormous majority. Because this process plays more and more important roles in software development. At the present time most of the requirements elicitation process is improved by using some techniques and tools. So that the intention of this research suggests to adapt green software engineering for the intention of existing elicitation technique and recommend suitable actions for improvement. This research being involved qualitative data. I used few keywords in my searching procedure then searched IEEE ACM Springer Elsevier Google scholar Scopus and Wiley. Find out articles which published in 2010 until 2016. Finding from the literature review Identify 15 traditional requirement elicitations factors and 23 improvement techniques to convert green engineering. Lastly The paper includes a squat review of the literature a description of the grounded theory and some of the identity issues related finding of the necessity for requirements elicitation improvement techniques.

  17. Elicitation Phenolic Compounds in Cell Culture of Vitis vinifera L. by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sák Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv. St. Laurent were treated with two elicitors - synthetic methyl jasmonate and natural, prepared from grapevine plant infected with the Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the agent causing the Esca disease of grapevine. Efficiency of phenolic compounds production after elicitation of cell culture was analysed immediately after treatment (15 min, 30 min, 60 min and later (after 24, 48, and 72 hours. The cell growth and content of phenolic compounds (+-catechin, (--epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, syringaldehyde, rutin, vanillic acid, and trans-resveratrol were analysed in cultivated cells as well as in cultivation medium. Pch-treatment increased production of total polyphenols the most significantly 15 min after the elicitation and in optimal time was 2.86 times higher than in nonelicited culture and 1.44 times higher than in MeJa induced cell culture.

  18. The Appearance of Phosphenes Elicited Using a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Nicholas C; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Perera, Thushara; Gillespie, Lisa N; McDermott, Hugh J; Ayton, Lauren N; Blamey, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Phosphenes are the fundamental building blocks for presenting meaningful visual information to the visually impaired using a bionic eye device. The aim of this study was to characterize the size, shape, and location of phosphenes elicited using a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. Three patients with profound vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa were implanted with a suprachoroidal electrode array, which was used to deliver charge-balanced biphasic constant-current pulses at various rates, amplitudes, and durations to produce phosphenes. Tasks assessing phosphene appearance, location, overlap, and the patients' ability to recognize phosphenes were performed using a custom psychophysics setup. Phosphenes were reliably elicited in all three patients, with marked differences in the reported appearances between patients and between electrodes. Phosphene shapes ranged from simple blobs to complex forms with multiple components in both space and time. Phosphene locations within the visual field generally corresponded to the retinotopic position of the stimulating electrodes. Overlap between phosphenes elicited from adjacent electrodes was observed with one patient, which reduced with increasing electrode separation. In a randomized recognition task, two patients correctly identified the electrode being stimulated for 57.2% and 23% of trials, respectively. Phosphenes of varying complexity were successfully elicited in all three patients, indicating that the suprachoroidal space is an efficacious site for electrically stimulating the retina. The recognition scores obtained with two patients suggest that a suprachoroidal implant can elicit phosphenes containing unique information. This information may be useful when combining phosphenes into more complex and meaningful images that provide functional vision.

  19. Emotion Elicitation in a Socially Intelligent Service: The Typing Tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Košir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on modeling machine emotion elicitation in a socially intelligent service, the typing tutor. The aim of the study is to evaluate the extent to which the machine emotion elicitation can influence the affective state (valence and arousal of the learner during a tutoring session. The tutor provides continuous real-time emotion elicitation via graphically rendered emoticons, as an emotional feedback to learner’s performance. Good performance is rewarded by the positive emoticon, based on the notion of positive reinforcement. Facial emotion recognition software is used to analyze the affective state of the learner for later evaluation. Experimental results show the correlation between the positive emoticon and the learner’s affective state is significant for all 13 (100% test participants on the arousal dimension and for 9 (69% test participants on both affective dimensions. The results also confirm our hypothesis and show that the machine emotion elicitation is significant for 11 (85% of 13 test participants. We conclude that the machine emotion elicitation with simple graphical emoticons has a promising potential for the future development of the tutor.

  20. Response Elicitation in English-medium Christian Pulpit Discourse (ECPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo, Rotimi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is an investigation into the various ways pulpit preachers in Christian religion elicit responses from their congregation. The data for the study consists of messages delivered from the pulpit at denominational, non-denominational and interdenominational Christian services in South-Western Nigeria. Working within the framework of Sociolinguistics and Discourse Analysis, the analyses reveal that preachers control the discourse, while the worshippers share in the process of creation of the text as it unfolds. For instance, they determine what responses are given, how they should be given and when to give them. It was also observed that response elicitation is done through the use of interrogatives, declaratives and imperatives, and such responses may come in forms of speech, physical action, and mental behaviour. Our analyses reveal a preponderance of spoken responses in the data. Five kinds of spoken responses are identified in the data, namely: Conventional Answer (CA, Response to Prayers (RP, Repeated Statements (RS, Gap Filling (GF, and Corrected Statement (CS. The study concludes that despite that the way responses are elicited depends largely on the practices of any religious community, certain patterns of elicitation are common in ECPD. The degree of control and the kind of response elicited by a preacher are determined by the language expectations of the community. Such expectations include knowledge of the language code, principles, norms, use, situation and the world of such religious communities.

  1. Eliciting societal preferences of reimbursement decision criteria for anti cancer drugs in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sun-Hong; Park, Sun-Kyeong; Byun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2017-08-01

    In order to look beyond the cost-effectiveness analysis, this study used a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), which reflects societal values with regard to reimbursement decisions. This study aims to elicit societal preferences of the reimbursement decision criteria for anti cancer drugs from public and healthcare professionals. Eight criteria were defined based on a literature review and focus group sessions: disease severity, disease population size, pediatrics targets, unmet needs, innovation, clinical benefits, cost-effectiveness, and budget impacts. Using quota sampling and purposive sampling, 300 participants from the Korean public and 30 healthcare professionals were selected for the survey. Preferences were elicited using an analytic hierarchy process. Both groups rated clinical benefits the highest, followed by cost-effectiveness and disease severity, but differed with regard to disease population size and unmet needs. Innovation was the least preferred criteria. Clinical benefits and other social values should be reflected appropriately with cost-effectiveness in healthcare coverage. MCDA can be used to assess decision priorities for complicated health policy decisions, including reimbursement decisions. It is a promising method for making logical and transparent drug reimbursement decisions that consider a broad range of factors, which are perceived as important by relevant stakeholders.

  2. Patient Health Goals Elicited During Home Care Admission: A Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Chou, Edgar Y; Wojciechowicz, Christine

    2017-11-01

    Home care agencies are initiating "patient health goal elicitation" activities as part of home care admission planning. We categorized elicited goals and identified "clinically informative" goals at a home care agency. We examined patient goals that admitting clinicians documented in the point-of-care electronic health record; conducted content analysis on patient goal data to develop a coding scheme; grouped goal themes into codes; assigned codes to each goal; and identified goals that were in the patient voice. Of the 1,763 patient records, 16% lacked a goal; only 15 goals were in a patient's voice. Nurse and physician experts identified 12 of the 20 codes as clinically important accounting for 82% of goal occurrences. The most frequent goal documented was safety/falls (23%). Training and consistent communication of the intent and operationalization of patient goal elicitation may address the absence of patient voice and the less than universal recording of home care patients' goals.

  3. Intrathecal orphenadrine elicits spinal block in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Tzeng, Jann-Inn; Chen, Yu-Chung; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2014-11-05

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the local anesthetic effect of orphenadrine, an anti-muscarinic agent, in spinal anesthesia and its comparison with the local anesthetic lidocaine. After the rat was injected intrathecally, the spinal block of orphenadrine and lidocaine was constructed in a dosage-dependent fashion. The potency and duration of spinal anesthesia with orphenadrine were compared with that of lidocaine. Our data demonstrated that orphenadrine and lidocaine elicited dose-dependent spinal blockades on the motor function, sensory, and proprioception. On the 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the ranks of potency in motor function, nociception, and proprioception were orphenadrine>lidocaine (Pblock duration elicited by orphenadrine was greater than that elicited by lidocaine (Pblock exhibited more potent and longer spinal anesthesia when compared to lidocaine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mast cells elicit proinflammatory but not type I interferon responses upon activation of TLRs by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Nicole; Rohde, Manfred; Geffers, Robert; Kröger, Andrea; Hauser, Hansjörg; Weiss, Siegfried; Gekara, Nelson O

    2010-05-11

    Balanced induction of proinflammatory and type I IFN responses upon activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) determines the outcome of microbial infections and the pathogenesis of autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases. Mast cells, key components of the innate immune system, are known for their debilitating role in allergy and autoimmunity. However, their role in antimicrobial host defenses is being acknowledged increasingly. How mast cells interact with microbes and the nature of responses triggered thereby is not well characterized. Here we show that in response to TLR activation by Gram-positive and -negative bacteria or their components, mast cells elicit proinflammatory but not type I IFN responses. We demonstrate that in mast cells, bound bacteria and TLR ligands remain trapped at the cell surface and do not undergo internalization, a prerequisite for type I IFN induction. Such cells, however, can elicit type I IFNs in response to vesicular stomatitis virus which accesses the cytosolic retinoic acid-inducible gene I receptor. Although important for antiviral immunity, a strong I IFN response is known to contribute to pathogenesis of several bacterial pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. Interestingly, we observed that the mast cell-dependent neutrophil mobilization upon L. monocytogenes infection is highly impaired by IFN-beta. Thus, the fact that mast cells, although endowed with the capacity to elicit type I IFNs in response to viral infection, elicit only proinflammatory responses upon bacterial infection shows that mast cells, key effector cells of the innate immune system, are well adjusted for optimal antibacterial and antiviral responses.

  5. Belief elicitation in experiments: Is there a hedging problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    ? And can we avoid potential hedging confounds? We propose an experimental design that theoretically eliminates hedging opportunities. Using this design, we test for the empirical relevance of hedging effects in the lab. Our results suggest that hedging confounds are not a major problem unless hedging......Belief-elicitation experiments usually reward accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. But this allows risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of the other decisions. So can we trust the existing belief-elicitation results...

  6. Biologically inspired robots elicit a robust fear response in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G.; Butail, Sachit; Macrı, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish to three fear-evoking stimuli. In a binary choice test, zebrafish are exposed to a live allopatric predator, a biologically-inspired robot, and a computer-animated image of the live predator. A target tracking algorithm is developed to score zebrafish behavior. Unlike computer-animated images, the robotic and live predator elicit a robust avoidance response. Importantly, the robotic stimulus elicits more consistent inter-individual responses than the live predator. Results from this effort are expected to aid in hypothesis-driven studies on zebrafish fear response, by offering a valuable approach to maximize data-throughput and minimize animal subjects.

  7. Induced Accelerated Aging in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    clones . Western blot analysis will be used to detect the protein expression after selection. 2. Differentiation into oligoprecursor cells (OPCs... monkey and mouse which will be tested in iPSC derived neurons aged with progerin. 13 Key Research Accomplishments: • Milestone 1 (month 1-2...iPSC clones with drug-inducible progerin construct we established the plasmid transfection for iPSC induced neural stem cells, the retroviral

  8. Delphi Fuzzy Elicitation Technique in the Determination of Third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Delphi technique via the expert elicitation method becomes extremely handy particularly in view of limited availability of data in determining failure probabilities of onshore transmission pipelines in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria occasioned by third party activity. Using, ten (10) experts opinion elucidated individually ...

  9. Using Automatic Speech Recognition Technology with Elicited Oral Response Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Troy L.; Davies, Randall S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) scored elicited oral response (EOR) tests to assess the speaking ability of English language learners. It also examined the relationship between ASR-scored EOR and other language proficiency measures and the ability of the ASR to rate speakers without bias to gender or native…

  10. Preparing Beginning Teachers to Elicit and Interpret Students' Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Laurie; Boerst, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how teacher education assignments can be designed to support beginning teachers in learning to do the work of teaching. We examined beginners' formative assessment practices--in particular, their eliciting and interpreting of students' mathematical thinking--in the context of an elementary mathematics methods assignment,…

  11. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phaf, R.H.; Rotteveel, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised

  12. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Van den Bergh, O.; Beckers, T.

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task.

  13. Eliciting Persian Requests: DCT and Role Play Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, Abbass Eslami; Alijanian, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    The validity of speech act data taken from different kinds of elicitation instruments has been widely discussed in interlangauge and cross cultural pragmatics literature. In this study an attempt is made to evaluate and investigate data taken from two of the most popular speech act instruments namely, written DCT and closed role play. The…

  14. Selection and Mode Effects in Risk Preference Elicitation Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Gaudecker, H.M.; van Soest, A.H.O.; Wengstrom, E.

    2008-01-01

    We combine data from a risk preference elicitation experiment conducted on a representative sample via the Internet with laboratory data on student subjects for the same experiment in order to investigate effects of implementation mode and of subject pool selection. We find that the frequency of

  15. Eliciting and Applying Local Research Knowledge for Peacebuilding ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    gs

    A Joint Research Initiative of Carnegie Corporation of New York and the International Development Research Centre. Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) are pleased to announce a jointly-funded research initiative Eliciting and Applying Local Research.

  16. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials Elicited by Organic Electroluminescence Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Soiti Matsumoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs. Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years. Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  17. Creating a Framework: Art Therapy Elicits the Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Karen

    2011-01-01

    A case study illustrates how art therapy was used to elicit the narrative of an adolescent male student in transition from incarceration to a transfer school setting. Childhood trauma was addressed in individual sessions and within a literacy group co-led by a reading specialist. The art therapist responded to the client's needs by broadening the…

  18. Eliciting the Dutch loan phoneme /g/ with the Menu Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamann, S.; de Jonge, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the menu task, which can be used to elicit infrequent sounds such as loan phonemes that only occur in a restricted set of words. The menu task is similar to the well-known map task and involves the interaction of two participants to create a menu on the basis of a list of

  19. Information aggregation and belief elicitation in experimental parimutuel betting markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koessler, F.; Noussair, C.N.; Ziegelmeyer, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of belief elicitation on informational efficiency and individual behavior in experimental parimutuel betting markets. In one treatment, groups of eight participants, who possess a private signal about the eventual outcome, play a sequential betting game. The second

  20. Superior protection elicited by live-attenuated vaccines in the murine model of paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pallab; Shippy, Daniel C; Talaat, Adel M

    2015-12-16

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteric infection in ruminants with severe economic impact on the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. Currently, available vaccines have limited protective efficacy against disease progression and does not prevent spread of the infection among animals. Because of their ability to elicit wide-spectrum immune responses, we adopted a live-attenuated vaccine approach based on a sigH knock-out strain of M. paratuberculosis (ΔsigH). Earlier analysis of the ΔsigH mutant in mice indicated their inadequate ability to colonize host tissues, unlike the isogenic wild-type strain, validating the role of this sigma factor in M. paratuberculosis virulence. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the ΔsigH mutant compared to inactivated vaccine constructs in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. The presented analysis indicated that ΔsigH mutant with or without QuilA adjuvant is capable of eliciting strong immune responses (such as interferon gamma-γ, IFN-γ) suggesting their immunogenicity and ability to potentially initiate effective vaccine-induced immunity. Following a challenge with virulent strains of M. paratuberculosis, ΔsigH conferred protective immunity as indicated by the reduced bacterial burden accompanied with reduced lesions in main body organs (liver, spleen and intestine) usually infected with M. paratuberculosis. More importantly, our data indicated better ability of the ΔsigH vaccine to confer protection compared to the inactivated vaccine constructs even with the presence of oil-adjuvant. Overall, our approach provides a rational basis for using live-attenuated mutant strains to develop improved vaccines that elicit robust immunity against this chronic infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonlinear Analyses of Elicited Modal, Raised, and Pressed Rabbit Phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to use nonlinear dynamic analysis methods such as phase space portraits and correlation dimension (D2) as well as descriptive spectrographic analyses to characterize acoustic signals produced during evoked rabbit phonation. Methods Seventeen New Zealand white breeder rabbits were used to perform the study. A Grass S-88 stimulator (SA Instrumentation, Encinitas, CA) and constant current isolation unit (Grass Telefactor, model PSIU6; West Warwick, RI) were used to provide electrical stimulation to laryngeal musculature, and transglottal airflow rate and stimulation current (mA) were manipulated to elicit modal, raised intensity, and pressed phonations. Central 1 second portions of the most stable portion of the acoustic waveform for modal, raised intensity, and pressed phonations were edited, and then analyzed via phase space portraits, Poincaré sections, and the estimation of the correlation dimension (D2). In an attempt to limit the effects of the highly variable and nonstationary characteristics of some of the signals being analyzed, D2 analysis was also performed on the most stable central 200 ms portion of the acoustic waveform. Descriptive analysis of each phonation was also conducted using sound spectrograms. Results Results showed that the complexity of phonation and the subsequent acoustic waveform is increased as transglottal airflow rate and degree of glottal adduction is manipulated in the evoked rabbit phonation model. In particular, phonatory complexity, as quantified via correlation dimension analyses and demonstrated via spectrographic characteristics, increases from “modal” (i.e., phonation elicited at just above the phonation threshold pressure) to raised intensity (phonation elicited by increasing transglottal airflow rate) to pressed (phonation elicited by increasing the stimulation current delivered to the larynx). Variations in a single dynamic dimension (airflow rate or adductory force

  2. Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

  3. The Frame Constraint on Experimentally Elicited Speech Errors in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akie; Inoue, Tomoyoshi

    2017-06-01

    The so-called syllable position effect in speech errors has been interpreted as reflecting constraints posed by the frame structure of a given language, which is separately operating from linguistic content during speech production. The effect refers to the phenomenon that when a speech error occurs, replaced and replacing sounds tend to be in the same position within a syllable or word. Most of the evidence for the effect comes from analyses of naturally occurring speech errors in Indo-European languages, and there are few studies examining the effect in experimentally elicited speech errors and in other languages. This study examined whether experimentally elicited sound errors in Japanese exhibits the syllable position effect. In Japanese, the sub-syllabic unit known as "mora" is considered to be a basic sound unit in production. Results showed that the syllable position effect occurred in mora errors, suggesting that the frame constrains the ordering of sounds during speech production.

  4. The effect of context on verbal elicited imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniff, M H; Siegel, G M

    1981-02-01

    Elicited imitation is a language sampling procedure in which a child is asked to repeat an utterance that is modeled by the examiner. In most clinical applications of this technique, the stimulus sentences are presented without any relevant context and without regard to whether the child knows the meaning of the sentences to be imitated. In the current experiment, 16 language-delayed preschool children repeated a set of 40 sentences, controlled for length, without context and with context provided by a set of pictures drawn to capture the meaning of the stimuli. For some of the children, the context had little effect. For the group as a whole, however, the number of errors was significantly reduced when the visual context was provided. These findings suggest that, for at least some children, the elicited imitation procedure is made more sensitive to the child's best grammatical performance when context is added.

  5. Elicitation of preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    This paper attempts to examine and measure ostomates’ preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches. Described are the study design, elicitation procedure and resulting preference structure of the Swedish ostomate sample. The method used to elicit the preferences is a Discrete Choice Experiment...... (DCE), where respondents are asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets. Each alternative is comprised of a number of attributes relating to the adhesive, filter and flexibility of ostomy pouches. The choice between alternatives made by the respondent implies an implicit trade-off between...... the attributes and allows for the estimation of individuals’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for the attributes of ostomy pouches when cost is included as an attribute. The data consists of 254 ostomates responding to the survey. The respondents have positive WTP for all improvement attributes presented to them...

  6. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  7. Applying Subject Matter Expertise (SME) Elicitation Techniques to TRAC Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    in different ways. In the first case, CPR Analisys , we use the measures as way to derive effectiveness and uncertainty. In the second approach...means by which to overcome these capability gaps through the implementation of solutions, e.g., changes to doctrine, organizational structure , training...controlled through good elicitation practices, especially good question structuring , which we discuss in section C. (2) Modeling bias. This type of bias

  8. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects’ perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects’ counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects’ perception by confronting them with statement-evidence incons...

  9. Different behaviours elicited by CO2 in fruit fly larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Nuno Pimpão Santos, 1987-

    2010-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2010 CO2 molecules are present almost everywhere and have many biological roles, special as environmental cues or metabolic products of animals. Due to its importance, many insect species are able to sense its presence and concentration. In animals this molecule elicits appetitive behaviours, like moths and mosquitoes. On others, like fruit flies of the Drosophila melanogast...

  10. Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect Elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Hans ePhaf; Mark eRotteveel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at...

  11. A Step-Wise Approach to Elicit Triangular Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Adapt/combine known methods to demonstrate an expert judgment elicitation process that: 1.Models expert's inputs as a triangular distribution, 2.Incorporates techniques to account for expert bias and 3.Is structured in a way to help justify expert's inputs. This paper will show one way of "extracting" expert opinion for estimating purposes. Nevertheless, as with most subjective methods, there are many ways to do this.

  12. Neutrosophic Logic for Mental Model Elicitation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pérez-Teruel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental models are personal, internal representations of external reality that people use to interact with the world around them. They are useful in multiple situations such as muticriteria decision making, knowledge management, complex system learning and analysis. In this paper a framework for mental models elicitation and analysis based on neutrosophic Logic is presented. An illustrative example is provided to show the applicability of the proposal. The paper ends with conclusion future research directions.

  13. Incentives for Truthful Information Elicitation of Continuous Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Radanovic, Goran; Faltings, Boi

    2014-01-01

    We consider settings where a collective intelligence is formed by aggregating information contributed from many independent agents, such as product reviews, community sensing, or opinion polls. We propose a novel mechanism that elicits both private signals and beliefs. The mechanism extends the previous versions of the Bayesian Truth Serum (the original BTS, the RBTS, and the multi-valued BTS), by allowing small populations and non-binary private signals, while not requiring additional assump...

  14. Immune response and protective profile elicited by a multi-epitope chimeric protein derived from Leptospira interrogans

    OpenAIRE

    Luis G.V. Fernandes; Teixeira, Aline F.; Antonio F.S. Filho; Gisele O. Souza; Silvio A. Vasconcellos; Marcos B Heinemann; Eliete C. ROMERO; Nascimento, Ana L. T. O.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Pathogenic Leptospira is the causative agent of leptospirosis, a widely disseminated disease of human and veterinary concern. The development of vaccines that elicit cross-protective immunity through multiple leptospiral serovars has long been pursued. The aim of this study was to develop a novel chimeric multi-epitope fusion antigen, containing sequences of previously studied outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Leptospira. Methods: The chimeric protein was designed based on th...

  15. Shared bimanual tasks elicit bimanual reflexes during movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutha, Pratik K; Sainburg, Robert L

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested distinct predictive and reactive control mechanisms for bimanual movements compared with unimanual motion. Recent studies have extended these findings by demonstrating that movement corrections during bimanual movements might differ depending on whether or not the task is shared between the arms. We hypothesized that corrective responses during shared bimanual tasks recruit bilateral rapid feedback mechanisms such as reflexes. We tested this hypothesis by perturbing one arm as subjects performed uni- and bimanual movements. Movements were made in a virtual-reality environment in which hand position was displayed as a cursor on a screen. During bimanual motion, we provided cursor feedback either independently for each arm (independent-cursor) or such that one cursor was placed at the average location between the arms (shared-cursor). On random trials, we applied a 40 N force pulse to the right arm 100 ms after movement onset. Our results show that while reflex responses were rapidly elicited in the perturbed arm, electromyographic activity remained close to baseline levels in the unperturbed arm during the independent-cursor trials. In contrast, when the cursor was shared between the arms, reflex responses were reduced in the perturbed arm and were rapidly elicited in the unperturbed arm. Our results thus suggest that when both arms contribute to achieving the task goal, reflex responses are bilaterally elicited in response to unilateral perturbations. These results agree with and extend recent suggestions that bimanual feedback control might be modified depending on task context.

  16. Approaching threats elicit a freeze-like response in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagliano, Laura; Cappuccio, Angela; Trojano, Luigi; Conson, Massimiliano

    2014-02-21

    Freezing is one of the most widely recognized defensive reactions to approaching threats in animals. Here we tested whether the same stimuli can elicit freeze-like responses in healthy humans as well. We used a modified version of the two-frame apparent motion paradigm, in which both size and location of a stimulus within a background were manipulated; by these means, participants perceived the stimuli as approaching or receding. In Experiment 1, we showed that implicitly processed approaching threats (e.g., spiders or snakes) elicited a stronger freeze-like response (operationalized as slower reaction times) with respect to receding threats; freezing was significantly related to higher levels of participants' state anxiety. In Experiment 2, approaching/threatening animals were explicitly judged as more threatening than receding ones. Finally, in two further control experiments we observed that the same manipulation of stimuli's size and location, but in absence of apparent motion, did not affect freezing (Experiment 3) or explicit threat judgements (Experiment 4). The present findings demonstrated that approaching threats are critical to elicit freezing in humans, in line with animals' behaviour. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Faces elicit different scanning patterns depending on task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Isabelle; Lemieux, Chantal L; Goulet, Marc-André; Collin, Charles A

    2017-05-01

    Eye movements were recorded while participants discriminated upright and inverted faces that differed with respect to either configural or featural information. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) whether featural and configural information processing elicit different scanning patterns; (2) whether fixations on a specific region of the face dominate scanning patterns. Results from two experiments were compared to examine whether participants' prior knowledge of the kind of information that would be relevant for the task (i.e., configural vs featural) influences eye movements. In Experiment 1, featural and configural discrimination trials were presented in random order such that participants were unaware of the information that would be relevant on any given trial. In Experiment 2, featural and configural discrimination trials were blocked and participants were informed of the nature of the discriminations. The results of both experiments suggest that faces elicit different scanning patterns depending on task demands. When participants were unaware of the nature of the information relevant for the task at hand, face processing was dominated by attention to the eyes. When participants were aware that relational information was relevant, scanning was dominated by fixations to the center of the face. We conclude that faces elicit scanning strategies that are driven by task demands.

  18. Eliciting adverse effects data from participants in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth N; Chandler, Clare Ir; Mandimika, Nyaradzo; Leisegang, Cordelia; Barnes, Karen

    2018-01-16

    Analysis of drug safety in clinical trials involves assessing adverse events (AEs) individually or by aggregate statistical synthesis to provide evidence of likely adverse drug reactions (ADR). While some AEs may be ascertained from physical examinations or tests, there is great reliance on reports from participants to detect subjective symptoms, where he/she is often the only source of information. There is no consensus on how these reports should be elicited, although it is known that questioning methods influence the extent and nature of data detected. This leaves room for measurement error and undermines comparisons between studies and pooled analyses. This review investigated comparisons of methods used in trials to elicit participant-reported AEs. This should contribute to knowledge about the methodological challenges and possible solutions for achieving better, or more consistent, AE ascertainment in trials. To systematically review the research that has compared methods used within clinical drug trials (or methods that would be specific for such trials) to elicit information about AEs defined in the protocol or in the planning for the trial. Databases (searched to March 2015 unless indicated otherwise) included: Embase; MEDLINE; MEDLINE in Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations; Cochrane Methodology Register (July 2012); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (February 2015); Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (January 2015); Health Technology Assessment database (January 2015); CINAHL; CAB Abstracts; BIOSIS (July 2013); Science Citation Index; Social Science Citation Index; Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science. The search used thesaurus headings and synonyms for the following concepts: (A): Adverse events AND measurement; (B): Participants AND elicitation (also other synonyms for extraction of information about adverse effects from people); (C): Participants AND checklists (also other

  19. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  20. A penny for your thoughts: a survey of methods for eliciting beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlag, K.H.; Tremewan, J.; van der Weele, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Incentivized methods for eliciting subjective probabilities in economic experiments present the subject with risky choices that encourage truthful reporting. We discuss the most prominent elicitation methods and their underlying assumptions, provide theoretical comparisons and give a new

  1. A Penny for Your Thoughts: A Survey of Methods for Eliciting Beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlag, K.; Tremewan, J.; van der Weele, J.

    2013-01-01

    Incentivized methods for eliciting subjective probabilities in economic experiments present the subject with risky choices or bets that encourage truthful reporting. We discuss the most prominent elicitation methods and their underlying assumptions, provide theoretical comparisons, and propose some

  2. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D

    2003-01-01

    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests...

  3. Elicitation of hypersensitive responses in Nicotiana glutinosa by the suppressor of RNA silencing protein P0 from poleroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken-Der; Empleo, Roman; Nguyen, Tan Tri V; Moffett, Peter; Sacco, Melanie Ann

    2015-06-01

    Plant disease resistance (R) proteins that confer resistance to viruses recognize viral gene products with diverse functions, including viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). The P0 protein from poleroviruses is a VSR that targets the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein for degradation, thereby disrupting RNA silencing and antiviral defences. Here, we report resistance against poleroviruses in Nicotiana glutinosa directed against Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV). The P0 proteins from TuYV (P0(T) (u) ), PLRV (P0(PL) ) and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (P0(CA) ) were found to elicit a hypersensitive response (HR) in N. glutinosa accession TW59, whereas other accessions recognized P0(PL) only. Genetic analysis showed that recognition of P0(T) (u) by a resistance gene designated RPO1 (Resistance to POleroviruses 1) is inherited as a dominant allele. Expression of P0 from a Potato virus X (PVX) expression vector transferred recognition to the recombinant virus on plants expressing RPO1, supporting P0 as the unique Polerovirus factor eliciting resistance. The induction of HR required a functional P0 protein, as P0(T) (u) mutants with substitutions in the F-box motif that abolished VSR activity were unable to elicit HR. We surmised that the broad P0 recognition seen in TW59 and the requirement for the F-box protein motif could indicate detection of P0-induced AGO1 degradation and disruption of RNA silencing; however, other viral silencing suppressors, including the PVX P25 that also causes AGO1 degradation, failed to elicit HR in N. glutinosa. Investigation of P0 elicitation of RPO1 could provide insight into P0 activities within the cell that trigger resistance. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. A web-based tool for eliciting probability distributions from experts

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, David E.; Oakley, Jeremy E.; Crowe, John A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a web-based probability distribution elicitation tool: The MATCH Uncertainty Elicitation Tool. The Tool is designed to help elicit probability distributions about uncertain model parameters from experts, in situations where suitable data is either unavailable or sparse. The Tool is free to use, and offers five different techniques for eliciting univariate probability distributions. A key feature of the Tool is that users can log in from different sites and view and interact with th...

  5. Tumor-derived exosomes elicit tumor suppression in murine hepatocellular carcinoma models and humans in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Quan; Zuo, Bingfeng; Lu, Zhen; Gao, Xianjun; You, Abin; Wu, Chenxuan; Du, Zhi; Yin, HaiFang

    2016-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a global challenge due to high morbidity and mortality rates and poor response to treatment. Immunotherapy, based on introduction of dendritic cells (DCs) activated by tumor cell lysates as antigens ex vivo, shows limited response rates in HCC patients. Here, we demonstrate that tumor cell-derived exosomes (TEXs), displaying an array of HCC antigens, can elicit a stronger immune response than cell lysates in vitro and in vivo. Significant tumor growth inhibition was achieved in ectopic and orthotopic HCC mice treated with TEX-pulsed DCs. Importantly, the tumor immune microenvironment was significantly improved in orthotopic HCC mice treated by TEX-pulsed DCs, demonstrated by increased numbers of T lymphocytes, elevated levels of interferon-γ, and decreased levels of interleukin-10 and tumor growth factor-β in tumor sites. As expected, T cells played an essential role in the TEX-pulsed DC-mediated immune response. Notably, exosomes from HCC cells not only promoted HCC-specific cytolysis but also provided cross-protective effects against pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, HCC-specific cytolysis, elicited by DCs pulsed with human HepG2 cell-derived exosomes, was observed across different human HCC cells irrespective of human leukocyte antigen types. HCC TEXs can potently carry HCC antigens, trigger a strong DC-mediated immune response, and improve the HCC tumor microenvironment. (Hepatology 2016;64:456-472). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Possible mechanisms of protection elicited by candidate rotavirus vaccines as determined with the adult mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    Rotaviruses cause extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide each year, supporting the need for a vaccine that is effective against rotavirus disease in all socioeconomic environments. Vaccines evaluated in clinical trials have all been live viruses that are delivered orally to mimic the excellent protection against severe rotavirus disease consistently observed after natural infection. The mechanisms by which either these vaccine candidates or natural rotavirus infections elicit protection are poorly understood. Therefore, it is not surprising that several of these candidate vaccines have provided little or no protection and have been discontinued. Two candidate vaccines are presently in phase III trials. These two were developed on the basis of very different views regarding the importance of one specific immune effector, that is, serotype-specific neutralizing antibody. One of these candidates (RotaTeq) is composed of five bovine/human reassortant rotavirus strains containing neutralization proteins representative of dominant human serotypes. The other candidate (Rotarix) is composed of only a single strain of human rotavirus. Very recent data obtained with Rotarix support the suggestion that factors other than neutralizing antibody can play important roles in protection against rotavirus disease after live rotavirus immunization. These results must be confirmed in subsequent studies in different locales with circulating rotaviruses belonging to a variety of serotypes in order to establish there overall applicability. Mechanisms by which rotavirus immunization with live viruses or other immunogens elicit protection have been most extensively examined in an adult mouse model and were reported to be multi-factorial. That is, CD8 and CD4 T cells as well as B cells were all found to play significant roles. The importance of each lymphocyte population as effectors of protection was found to be dependent on the immunogen and the route of immunization. The results of

  7. Developing Socio-Cultural Scaffolding Model to Elicit Learners's Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englishtina, Inti

    2015-01-01

    This study is concerned with developing scaffolding model to elicit bilingual kindergarten children's English speech production. It is aimed at describing what the teachers need in eliciting their students' speech production; how a scaffolding model should be developed to elicit the children's speech production; and how effective is the…

  8. Sample Size for Measuring Grammaticality in Preschool Children from Picture-Elicited Language Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a shorter language sample elicited with fewer pictures (i.e., 7) would yield a percent grammatical utterances (PGU) score similar to that computed from a longer language sample elicited with 15 pictures for 3-year-old children. Method: Language samples were elicited by asking forty…

  9. Elicitation of neurological knowledge with argument-based machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groznik, Vida; Guid, Matej; Sadikov, Aleksander; Možina, Martin; Georgiev, Dejan; Kragelj, Veronika; Ribarič, Samo; Pirtošek, Zvezdan; Bratko, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes the use of expert's knowledge in practice and the efficiency of a recently developed technique called argument-based machine learning (ABML) in the knowledge elicitation process. We are developing a neurological decision support system to help the neurologists differentiate between three types of tremors: Parkinsonian, essential, and mixed tremor (comorbidity). The system is intended to act as a second opinion for the neurologists, and most importantly to help them reduce the number of patients in the "gray area" that require a very costly further examination (DaTSCAN). We strive to elicit comprehensible and medically meaningful knowledge in such a way that it does not come at the cost of diagnostic accuracy. To alleviate the difficult problem of knowledge elicitation from data and domain experts, we used ABML. ABML guides the expert to explain critical special cases which cannot be handled automatically by machine learning. This very efficiently reduces the expert's workload, and combines expert's knowledge with learning data. 122 patients were enrolled into the study. The classification accuracy of the final model was 91%. Equally important, the initial and the final models were also evaluated for their comprehensibility by the neurologists. All 13 rules of the final model were deemed as appropriate to be able to support its decisions with good explanations. The paper demonstrates ABML's advantage in combining machine learning and expert knowledge. The accuracy of the system is very high with respect to the current state-of-the-art in clinical practice, and the system's knowledge base is assessed to be very consistent from a medical point of view. This opens up the possibility to use the system also as a teaching tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prior Elicitation, Assessment and Inference with a Dirichlet Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Evans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methods are developed for eliciting a Dirichlet prior based upon stating bounds on the individual probabilities that hold with high prior probability. This approach to selecting a prior is applied to a contingency table problem where it is demonstrated how to assess the prior with respect to the bias it induces as well as how to check for prior-data conflict. It is shown that the assessment of a hypothesis via relative belief can easily take into account what it means for the falsity of the hypothesis to correspond to a difference of practical importance and provide evidence in favor of a hypothesis.

  11. Expert Panel Elicitation of Seismicity Following Glaciation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, Stephen; Jensen, Mikael (eds.)

    2005-12-15

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company have jointly carried out a project on expert panel elicitation on the issue of glacial induced Swedish earthquakes. Following a broad nomination procedure, 5 experts were chosen by a selection committee of 4 professors within Earth sciences disciplines. The 5 experts presented judgments about the frequency of earthquakes greater the magnitude 6 within 10 km for two Swedish sites, Oskarshamn and Forsmark, in connection with a glaciation cycle. The experts' median value vas 0,1 earthquakes for one glaciation cycle.

  12. Electronic health records: eliciting behavioral health providers' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Nancy; Willborn, Elizabeth; Pytlikzillig, Lisa; Noel, Harmonijoie

    2012-04-01

    Interviews with 32 community behavioral health providers elicited perceived benefits and barriers of using electronic health records. Themes identified were (a) quality of care, (b) privacy and security, and (c) delivery of services. Benefits to quality of care were mentioned by 100% of the providers, and barriers by 59% of providers. Barriers involving privacy and security concerns were mentioned by 100% of providers, and benefits by 22%. Barriers to delivery of services were mentioned by 97% of providers, and benefits by 66%. Most providers (81%) expressed overall positive support for electronic behavioral health records.

  13. Quantifying catchment water balances and their uncertainties by expert elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Eva; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Warmink, Jord J.; Stisen, Simon; Høgh Jensen, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    The increasing demand on water resources necessitates a more responsible and sustainable water management requiring a thorough understanding of hydrological processes both on small scale and on catchment scale. On catchment scale, the characterization of hydrological processes is often carried out by calculating a water balance based on the principle of mass conservation in hydrological fluxes. Assuming a perfect water balance closure and estimating one of these fluxes as a residual of the water balance is a common practice although this estimate will contain uncertainties related to uncertainties in the other components. Water balance closure on the catchment scale is also an issue in Denmark, thus, it was one of the research objectives of the HOBE hydrological observatory, that has been collecting data in the Skjern river catchment since 2008. Water balance components in the 1050 km2 Ahlergaarde catchment and the nested 120 km2 Holtum catchment, located in the glacial outwash plan of the Skjern catchment, were estimated using a multitude of methods. As the collected data enables the complex assessment of uncertainty of both the individual water balance components and catchment-scale water balances, the expert elicitation approach was chosen to integrate the results of the hydrological observatory. This approach relies on the subjective opinion of experts whose available knowledge and experience about the subject allows to integrate complex information from multiple sources. In this study 35 experts were involved in a multi-step elicitation process with the aim of (1) eliciting average annual values of water balance components for two nested catchments and quantifying the contribution of different sources of uncertainties to the total uncertainty in these average annual estimates; (2) calculating water balances for two catchments by reaching consensus among experts interacting in form of group discussions. To address the complex problem of water balance closure

  14. Eliciting macroporosity in polyacrylamide and agarose gels with polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlionet, R; Levasseur, L; Malandain, J J

    1996-01-01

    Preparation of highly porous polyacrylamide has recently been described (Righetti et al., Electrophoresis, 1992, 13, 587-595). In this report we add new observations on the conditions of promoting macroporosity in polyacrylamide gels and extend the possibility of eliciting this phenomenon to agarose matrices by the combined use of polyethylene glycol and glycerol. The process of cluster formation in hot agarose solutions was studied and gel structures were examined by scanning electron microscopy. A definition of macroporosity in gel, related to controlled microsyneresis during gelation, is tentatively proposed. The unexpected influence of acrylamide and agarose concentrations upon the size of macroporous structures in the corresponding gels is revealed.

  15. Defining DSL design principles for enhancing the requirements elicitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arroyo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La Elicitación de Requisitos propicia el entendimiento de las necesidades de los usuarios con respecto a un desarrollo de software. Los métodos que se emplean provienen de las ciencias sociales por lo que se carece de una retroalimentación ejecutable. Consecuentemente, la primera versión del software podría no cumplir con las expectativas. El uso de DSLs como herramientas para el descubrimiento de requisitos es una idea aceptada, desafortunadamente, muy pocos trabajos en la literatura se enfocan en la definición de principios de diseño de DSLs. En este trabajo planteamos principios de diseño de DSLs orientados a la elicitación de requisitos, enseguida, generamos casos de prueba en ANTLR, Ruby y Curry. También, enunciamos el perfil que debe tener el nuevo analista de software. Con ello, se incrementa la retroalimentación entre los involucrados en el desarrollo de software y se mejora el producto.Requirements elicitation is concerned with learning and understanding the needs of users w.r.t. a new software development. Frequently the methods employed for requirements elicitation are adapted from areas like social sciences that do not include executable (prototype based on feedback. As a consequence, it is relatively common to discover that the first release does not fit the requirements defined at the beginning of the project. Using domain-specific languages (DSLs as an auxiliary tool for requirements elicitation is a commonly well accepted idea. Unfortunately, there are few works in the literature devoted to the definition of design principles for DSLs to be experienced in the frameworks for DSL developing such as ANTLR, Ruby, and Curry. We propose design principles for the DSL development (regardless of paradigm which are sufficient to model the domain in a requirements phase. Further more we enunciate a new profile for the requirements analyst and a set of elicitation steps. The use of DSLs not only giveus an immediate feedback with

  16. disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To undertake an economic evaluation of the administration and monitoring costs of the two different forms of heparin in patients with unstable coronary artery disease (DCAD). Study design. Equivalent efficacy was found for low- molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and for unfraction- ated heparin (UFH) in the ...

  17. EXPLICIT: a feasibility study of remote expert elicitation in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Bogdan; Peters, Jaime; Hyde, Christopher; Stein, Ken

    2017-09-04

    Expert opinion is often sought to complement available information needed to inform model-based economic evaluations in health technology assessments. In this context, we define expert elicitation as the process of encoding expert opinion on a quantity of interest, together with associated uncertainty, as a probability distribution. When availability for face-to-face expert elicitation with a facilitator is limited, elicitation can be conducted remotely, overcoming challenges of finding an appropriate time to meet the expert and allowing access to experts situated too far away for practical face-to-face sessions. However, distance elicitation is associated with reduced response rates and limited assistance for the expert during the elicitation session. The aim of this study was to inform the development of a remote elicitation tool by exploring the influence of mode of elicitation on elicited beliefs. An Excel-based tool (EXPLICIT) was developed to assist the elicitation session, including the preparation of the expert and recording of their responses. General practitioners (GPs) were invited to provide expert opinion about population alcohol consumption behaviours. They were randomised to complete the elicitation by either a face-to-face meeting or email. EXPLICIT was used in the elicitation sessions for both arms. Fifteen GPs completed the elicitation session. Those conducted by email were longer than the face-to-face sessions (13 min 30 s vs 10 min 26 s, p = 0.1) and the email-elicited estimates contained less uncertainty. However, the resulting aggregated distributions were comparable. EXPLICIT was useful in both facilitating the elicitation task and in obtaining expert opinion from experts via email. The findings support the opinion that remote, self-administered elicitation is a viable approach within the constraints of HTA to inform policy making, although poor response rates may be observed and additional time for individual sessions may be required.

  18. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria

    2015-06-01

    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects' perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects' counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects' perception by confronting them with statement-evidence inconsistencies. Participants (N = 90) were asked to perform several mock criminal tasks before being interviewed using 1 of 3 interview techniques: (a) SUE-Confrontation, (b) Early Disclosure of Evidence, or (c) No Disclosure of Evidence. As predicted, the SUE-Confrontation interview generated more statement-evidence inconsistencies from suspects than the Early Disclosure interview. Importantly, suspects in the SUE-Confrontation condition (vs. Early and No disclosure conditions) admitted more self-incriminating information and also perceived the interviewer to have had more information about the critical phase of the crime (the phase where the interviewer lacked evidence). The findings show the adaptability of the SUE-technique and how it may be used as a tool for eliciting admissions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Concert hall acoustics assessment with individually elicited attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokki, Tapio; Patynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Vertanen, Heikki; Tervo, Sakari

    2011-08-01

    Concert hall acoustics was evaluated with a descriptive sensory analysis method by employing an individual vocabulary development technique. The goal was to obtain sensory profiles of three concert halls by eliciting perceptual attributes for evaluation and comparison of the halls. The stimuli were gathered by playing back anechoic symphony music from 34 loudspeakers on stage in each concert hall and recording the sound field with a microphone array. Four musical programs were processed for multichannel 3D sound reproduction in the actual listening test. Twenty screened assessors developed their individual set of attributes and performed a comparative evaluation of nine seats, three in each hall. The results contain the distinctive groups of elicited attributes and show good agreement within assessors, even though they applied individual attributes when rating the samples. It was also found that loudness and distance gave the strongest perceptual direction to the principal component basis. In addition, the study revealed that the perception of reverberance is related to the size of the space or to the enveloping reverberance, depending on the assessor.

  20. Bee Threat Elicits Alarm Call in African Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Savage, Anne; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, African elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. The sound of disturbed African honeybees Apis meliffera scutellata causes African elephants Loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. In our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stings, compared to white noise control playbacks. Most importantly, elephants produced distinctive “rumble” vocalizations in response to bee sounds. These rumbles exhibited an upward shift in the second formant location, which implies active vocal tract modulation, compared to rumbles made in response to white noise playbacks. In a second experiment, audio playbacks of these rumbles produced in response to bees elicited increased headshaking, and further and faster retreat behavior in other elephants, compared to control rumble playbacks with lower second formant frequencies. These responses to the bee rumble stimuli occurred in the absence of any bees or bee sounds. This suggests that these elephant rumbles may function as referential signals, in which a formant frequency shift alerts nearby elephants about an external threat, in this case, the threat of bees. PMID:20436682

  1. Does Campylobacter jejuni infection elicit "demyelinating" Guillain-Barre syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, S; Ogawara, K; Misawa, S; Koga, M; Mori, M; Hiraga, A; Kanesaka, T; Hattori, T; Yuki, N

    2004-08-10

    Campylobacter jejuni enteritis is the most common antecedent infection in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). C. jejuni-related GBS is usually acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), but previous reports described many cases of the demyelinating subtype of GBS (acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy [AIDP]) after C. jejuni infection. To investigate whether C. jejuni infection elicits AIDP. In 159 consecutive patients with GBS, antibodies against C. jejuni were measured using ELISA. Antecedent C. jejuni infection was determined by the strict criteria of positive C. jejuni serology and a history of a diarrheal illness within the previous 3 weeks. Electrodiagnostic studies were performed weekly for the first 4 weeks, and sequential findings were analyzed. There was evidence of recent C. jejuni infection in 22 (14%) patients. By electrodiagnostic criteria, these patients were classified with AMAN (n = 16; 73%) or AIDP (n = 5; 23%) or as unclassified (n = 1) in the first studies. The five C. jejuni-positive patients with the AIDP pattern showed prolonged motor distal latencies in two or more nerves and had their rapid normalization within 2 weeks, eventually all showing the AMAN pattern. In contrast, patients with cytomegalovirus- or Epstein-Barr virus-related AIDP (n = 13) showed progressive increases in distal latencies in the 8 weeks after onset. Patients with C. jejuni-related Guillain-Barré syndrome can show transient slowing of nerve conduction, mimicking demyelination, but C. jejuni infection does not appear to elicit acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

  2. Bee threat elicits alarm call in African elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy E King

    Full Text Available Unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, African elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. The sound of disturbed African honeybees Apis meliffera scutellata causes African elephants Loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. In our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stings, compared to white noise control playbacks. Most importantly, elephants produced distinctive "rumble" vocalizations in response to bee sounds. These rumbles exhibited an upward shift in the second formant location, which implies active vocal tract modulation, compared to rumbles made in response to white noise playbacks. In a second experiment, audio playbacks of these rumbles produced in response to bees elicited increased headshaking, and further and faster retreat behavior in other elephants, compared to control rumble playbacks with lower second formant frequencies. These responses to the bee rumble stimuli occurred in the absence of any bees or bee sounds. This suggests that these elephant rumbles may function as referential signals, in which a formant frequency shift alerts nearby elephants about an external threat, in this case, the threat of bees.

  3. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends—in part—on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world’s foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  4. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-09-12

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends -- in part -- on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world's foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  5. Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce

    2013-03-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility.

  6. Emotion Elicitation: A Comparison of Pictures and Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Meike K.; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed. PMID:26925007

  7. A trivalent virus-like particle vaccine elicits protective immune responses against seasonal influenza strains in mice and ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted M Ross

    Full Text Available There is need for improved human influenza vaccines, particularly for older adults who are at greatest risk for severe disease, as well as to address the continuous antigenic drift within circulating human subtypes of influenza virus. We have engineered an influenza virus-like particle (VLP as a new generation vaccine candidate purified from the supernatants of Sf9 insect cells following infection by recombinant baculoviruses to express three influenza virus proteins, hemagglutinin (HA, neuraminidase (NA, and matrix 1 (M1. In this study, a seasonal trivalent VLP vaccine (TVV formulation, composed of influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 and influenza B VLPs, was evaluated in mice and ferrets for the ability to elicit antigen-specific immune responses. Animals vaccinated with the TVV formulation had hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI antibody titers against all three homologous influenza virus strains, as well as HAI antibodies against a panel of heterologous influenza viruses. HAI titers elicited by the TVV were statistically similar to HAI titers elicited in animals vaccinated with the corresponding monovalent VLP. Mice vaccinated with the TVV had higher level of influenza specific CD8+ T cell responses than a commercial trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV. Ferrets vaccinated with the highest dose of the VLP vaccine and then challenged with the homologous H3N2 virus had the lowest titers of replicating virus in nasal washes and showed no signs of disease. Overall, a trivalent VLP vaccine elicits a broad array of immunity and can protect against influenza virus challenge.

  8. Coxsackievirus B3 VLPs purified by ion exchange chromatography elicit strong immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koho, Tiia; Koivunen, Minni R L; Oikarinen, Sami; Kummola, Laura; Mäkinen, Selina; Mähönen, Anssi J; Sioofy-Khojine, Amirbabak; Marjomäki, Varpu; Kazmertsuk, Artur; Junttila, Ilkka; Kulomaa, Markku S; Hyöty, Heikki; Hytönen, Vesa P; Laitinen, Olli H

    2014-04-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is an important cause of acute and chronic viral myocarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Although vaccination against CVB3 could significantly reduce the incidence of serious or fatal viral myocarditis and various other diseases associated with CVB3 infection, there is currently no vaccine or therapeutic reagent in clinical use. In this study, we contributed towards the development of a CVB3 vaccine by establishing an efficient and scalable ion exchange chromatography-based purification method for CVB3 virus and baculovirus-insect cell-expressed CVB3 virus-like particles (VLPs). This purification system is especially relevant for vaccine development and production on an industrial scale. The produced VLPs were characterized using a number of biophysical methods and exhibited excellent quality and high purity. Immunization of mice with VLPs elicited a strong immune response, demonstrating the excellent vaccine potential of these VLPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Voice Pitch Elicited Frequency Following Response in Chinese Elderlies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Hu, Jiong; Dong, Ruijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Chen, Jing; Musacchia, Gabriella; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background. Method: Mandarin speaking younger (n = 12) and older (n = 12) adults were recruited for this study. All participants had normal audiometric test results and normal suprathreshold click-evoked ABR. To record frequency following responses (FFRs) elicited by Mandarin lexical tones, two Mandarin Chinese syllables with different fundamental frequency pitch contours (Flat Tone and Falling Tone) were presented at 70 dB SPL. Fundamental frequencies (f0) of both the stimulus and the responses were extracted and compared to individual brainstem responses. Two indices were used to examine different aspects of pitch processing ability at the brainstem level: Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation. Results: Lexical tone elicited FFR were overall weaker in the older adult group compared to their younger adult counterpart. Measured by Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation, statistically significant group differences were only found when the tone with a falling f0 (Falling Tone) were used as the stimulus. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that in a tonal language speaking population, pitch processing ability at the brainstem level of older adults are not as strong and robust as their younger counterparts. Findings of this study are consistent with previous reports on brainstem responses of older adults whose native language is English. On the other hand, lexical tone elicited

  10. Voice Pitch Elicited Frequency Following Response in Chinese Elderlies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response. The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background.Method: Mandarin speaking younger (n=12 and older (n=12 adults were recruited for this study. All participants had normal audiometric test results and normal suprathreshold click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABR. To record Frequency Following Responses (FFR elicited by Mandarin lexical tones, two Mandarin Chinese syllables with different fundamental frequency pitch contours (Flat Tone and Falling Tone were presented at 70 dB SPL. Fundamental frequencies (f0 of both the stimulus and the responses were extracted and compared to individual brainstem responses. Two indices were used to examine different aspects of pitch processing ability at the brainstem level: Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation. Results: Lexical tone elicited FFR were overall weaker in the older adult group compared to their younger adult counterpart. Measured by Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation, statistically significant group differences were only found when the tone with a falling f0 (Falling Tone were used as the stimulus.Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that in a tonal language speaking population, pitch processing ability at the brainstem level of older adults are not as strong and robust as their younger counterparts. Findings of this study are consistent with previous reports on brainstem responses of older adults whose native language is English. On the

  11. Eliciting and receiving online support: using computer-aided content analysis to examine the dynamics of online social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chia; Kraut, Robert E; Levine, John M

    2015-04-20

    Although many people with serious diseases participate in online support communities, little research has investigated how participants elicit and provide social support on these sites. The first goal was to propose and test a model of the dynamic process through which participants in online support communities elicit and provide emotional and informational support. The second was to demonstrate the value of computer coding of conversational data using machine learning techniques (1) by replicating results derived from human-coded data about how people elicit support and (2) by answering questions that are intractable with small samples of human-coded data, namely how exposure to different types of social support predicts continued participation in online support communities. The third was to provide a detailed description of these machine learning techniques to enable other researchers to perform large-scale data analysis in these communities. Communication among approximately 90,000 registered users of an online cancer support community was analyzed. The corpus comprised 1,562,459 messages organized into 68,158 discussion threads. Amazon Mechanical Turk workers coded (1) 1000 thread-starting messages on 5 attributes (positive and negative emotional self-disclosure, positive and negative informational self-disclosure, questions) and (2) 1000 replies on emotional and informational support. Their judgments were used to train machine learning models that automatically estimated the amount of these 7 attributes in the messages. Across attributes, the average Pearson correlation between human-based judgments and computer-based judgments was .65. Part 1 used human-coded data to investigate relationships between (1) 4 kinds of self-disclosure and question asking in thread-starting posts and (2) the amount of emotional and informational support in the first reply. Self-disclosure about negative emotions (beta=.24, Pemotional support. However, asking questions depressed

  12. Eliciting and Receiving Online Support: Using Computer-Aided Content Analysis to Examine the Dynamics of Online Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Robert E; Levine, John M

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many people with serious diseases participate in online support communities, little research has investigated how participants elicit and provide social support on these sites. Objective The first goal was to propose and test a model of the dynamic process through which participants in online support communities elicit and provide emotional and informational support. The second was to demonstrate the value of computer coding of conversational data using machine learning techniques (1) by replicating results derived from human-coded data about how people elicit support and (2) by answering questions that are intractable with small samples of human-coded data, namely how exposure to different types of social support predicts continued participation in online support communities. The third was to provide a detailed description of these machine learning techniques to enable other researchers to perform large-scale data analysis in these communities. Methods Communication among approximately 90,000 registered users of an online cancer support community was analyzed. The corpus comprised 1,562,459 messages organized into 68,158 discussion threads. Amazon Mechanical Turk workers coded (1) 1000 thread-starting messages on 5 attributes (positive and negative emotional self-disclosure, positive and negative informational self-disclosure, questions) and (2) 1000 replies on emotional and informational support. Their judgments were used to train machine learning models that automatically estimated the amount of these 7 attributes in the messages. Across attributes, the average Pearson correlation between human-based judgments and computer-based judgments was .65. Results Part 1 used human-coded data to investigate relationships between (1) 4 kinds of self-disclosure and question asking in thread-starting posts and (2) the amount of emotional and informational support in the first reply. Self-disclosure about negative emotions (beta=.24, Pemotional support

  13. Illusory visual motion stimulus elicits postural sway in migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu eImaizumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the perception of visual motion modulates postural control, it is unknown whether illusory visual motion elicits postural sway. The present study examined the effect of illusory motion on postural sway in patients with migraine, who tend to be sensitive to it. We measured postural sway for both migraine patients and controls while they viewed static visual stimuli with and without illusory motion. The participants’ postural sway was measured when they closed their eyes either immediately after (Experiment 1, or 30 seconds after (Experiment 2, viewing the stimuli. The patients swayed more than the controls when they closed their eyes immediately after viewing the illusory motion (Experiment 1, and they swayed less than the controls when they closed their eyes 30 seconds after viewing it (Experiment 2. These results suggest that static visual stimuli with illusory motion can induce postural sway that may last for at least 30 seconds in patients with migraine.

  14. Ontological leveling and elicitation for complex industrial transactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.; Goldsmith, S.Y.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-11-01

    The authors present an agent-oriented mechanism that uses a central ontology as a means to conduct complex distributed transactions. This is done by instantiating a template object motivated solely by the ontology, then automatically and explicitly linking each temple element to an independently constructed interface component. Validation information is attached directly to the links so that the agent need not know a priori the semantics of data validity, merely how to execute a general validation process to satisfy the conditions given in the link. Ontological leveling is critical: all terms presented to informants must be semantically coherent within the central ontology. To illustrate this approach in an industrial setting, they discuss an existing implementation that conducted international commercial transactions on the World-Wide Web. Agents operating within a federated architecture construct, populate by Web-based elicitation, and manipulate a distributed composite transaction object to effect transport of goods over the US/Mexico border.

  15. [Structure of guilt eliciting situations in Japanese adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimitsu, Kohki

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to specify guilt eliciting situations for Japanese adolescents, and examine the relationship between guilt-proneness in the situations and personality traits. With an open-ended questionnaire, 315 guilt experiences were collected and categorized into 37 situations. Situational Guilt Inventory (SGI) for the 37 was developed and administered to 500 Japanese adolescents. Factor analysis found four factors: hurting others, inconsiderate to others, acting selfishly, and debt feeling toward others. SGI scores had positive correlations with private and public self-consciousness and depression. However, correlations with the Big Five were low, none higher than .2, except those with conscientiousness. The factors were similar to those of Dimension of Conscience Questionnaire (DCQ; Gore & Harvey, 1995) and Situational Guilt Scale (SGS; Klass, 1987), except that they do not have the fourth: debt feeling. These results showed some characteristics of guilt among Japanese people, as well as reliability of the inventory.

  16. Vaccination elicits a prominent acute phase response in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susanne A; Petersen, Henrik H; Ersbøll, Annette K; Falk-Rønne, Jørgen; Jacobsen, Stine

    2012-02-01

    European and American guidelines for vaccination against tetanus and influenza in horses recommend annual and annual/semi-annual vaccinations, respectively, against the two pathogens. Too-frequent vaccination may, however, have adverse effects, among other things because an inflammatory response is elicited with subsequent alterations in homeostasis. The objective of the study was to compare the acute phase response (APR) in 10 horses following administration of two different types of vaccines, namely, an inactivated Immune Stimulating COMplex (ISCOM) vaccine and a live recombinant vector vaccine. Blood was sampled before and after vaccination to measure levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell counts (WBC) and iron. Vaccination induced a prominent APR with increased WBC, elevated blood levels of SAA and fibrinogen, and decreased serum iron concentrations. The ISCOM vaccine caused significantly (Phorse owners about convalescence after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Expert Elicitations of 2100 Emission of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emily; Bosetti, Valentina; Budescu, David; Keller, Klaus; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    Emission scenarios such as Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) are used intensively for climate research (e.g. climate change projections) and policy analysis. While the range of these scenarios provides an indication of uncertainty, these scenarios are typically not associated with probability values. Some studies (e.g. Vuuren et al, 2007; Gillingham et al., 2015) took a different approach associating baseline emission pathways (conditionally) with probability distributions. This paper summarizes three studies where climate change experts were asked to conduct pair-wise comparisons of possible ranges of 2100 greenhouse gas emissions and rate the relative likelihood of the ranges. The elicitation was performed under two sets of assumptions: 1) a situation where no climate policies are introduced beyond the ones already in place (baseline scenario), and 2) a situation in which countries have ratified the voluntary policies in line with the long term target embedded in the 2015 Paris Agreement. These indirect relative judgments were used to construct subjective cumulative distribution functions. We show that by using a ratio scaling method that invokes relative likelihoods of scenarios, a subjective probability distribution can be derived for each expert that expresses their beliefs in the projected greenhouse gas emissions range in 2100. This method is shown to elicit stable estimates that require minimal adjustment and is relatively invariant to the partition of the domain of interest. Experts also rated the method as being easy and intuitive to use. We also report results of a study that allowed participants to choose their own ranges of greenhouse gas emissions to remove potential anchoring bias. We discuss the implications of the use of this method for facilitating comparison and communication of beliefs among diverse users of climate science research.

  18. Noncanonical roles of the immune system in eliciting oncogene addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Stephanie C; Bellovin, David I; Felsher, Dean W

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is highly complex. The magnitude of this complexity makes it highly surprising that even the brief suppression of an oncogene can sometimes result in rapid and sustained tumor regression, illustrating that cancers can be 'oncogene addicted' [1-10]. The essential implication is that oncogenes may not only fuel the initiation of tumorigenesis, but in some cases must be excessively activated to maintain a neoplastic state [11]. Oncogene suppression acutely restores normal physiological programs that effectively overrides secondary genetic events and a cancer collapses [12,13]. Oncogene addiction is the description of the dramatic and sustained regression of some cancers upon the specific inactivation of a single oncogene [1-13,14(••),15,16(••)], that can occur through tumor intrinsic [1,2,4,12], but also host immune mechanisms [17-23]. Notably, oncogene inactivation elicits a host immune response that involves specific immune effectors and cytokines that facilitate a remodeling of the tumor microenvironment including the shut down of angiogenesis and the induction of cellular senescence of tumor cells [16(••)]. Hence, immune effectors are not only critically involved in tumor prevention, initiation [17-19], and progression [20], but also appear to be essential to tumor regression upon oncogene inactivation [21,22(••),23(••)]. Understanding how the inactivation of an oncogene elicits a systemic signal in the host that prompts a deconstruction of a tumor could have important implications. The combination of oncogene-targeted therapy together with immunomodulatory therapy may be ideal for the development of both robust tumor intrinsic and immunological responses, effectively leading to sustained tumor regression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypoglycemic activity of withanolides and elicitated Withania somnifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Jonathan; Rosenberg, Rivka; Smotrich, Avinoam; Hanuš, Lumír; Bernstein, Nirit

    2015-08-01

    Withania somnifera, known in India as Asghawhanda, is used traditionally to treat many medical problems including diabetes and has demonstrated therapeutic activity in various animal models as well as in diabetic patients. While much of W. somnifera's therapeutic activity is attributed to withanolides, their role in the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera has not been adequately studied. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera extract and purified withanolides, as well as the effect of various elicitors on this activity. W. somnifera leaf and root extracts increased glucose uptake in myotubes and adipocytes in a dose dependent manner, with the leaf extract more active than the root extract. Leaf but not root extract increased insulin secretion in basal pancreatic beta cells but not in stimulated cells. Six withanolides isolated from W. somnifera were tested for anti-diabetic activity based on glucose uptake in skeletal myotubes. Withaferin A was found to increase glucose uptake, with 10μM producing a 54% increase compared with control, suggesting that withaferin A is at least partially responsible for W. somnifera's anti-diabetic activity. Elicitors applied to the root growing solutions affected the physiological state of the plants, altering membrane leakage or osmotic potential. Methyl salicylate and chitosan increased withaferin A content by 75% and 69% respectively, and extracts from elicited plants increased glucose uptake to a higher extent than non-elicited plants, demonstrating a correlation between increased content of withaferin A and anti-diabetic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge elicitation techniques and application to nuclear plant maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, E. Kevin

    The new millennium has brought with it the opportunity of global trade which in turn requires the utmost in efficiency from each individual industry. This includes the nuclear power industry, a point which was emphasized when the electrical generation industry began to be de regulated across North America the late 1990s and re-emphasized when the northeast power grid of North America collapsed in the summer of 2003. This dissertation deals with reducing the cost of the maintenance function of Candu nuclear power plants and initiating a strong link between universities and the Canadian nuclear industry. Various forms of RCM (reliability-centred maintenance) have been the tools of choice in industry for improving the maintenance function during the last 20 years. In this project, pilot studies, conducted at Bruce Power between 1999 and 2005, and reported on in this dissertation, lay out a path to implement statistical improvements as the next step after RCM in reducing the cost of the maintenance. Elicitation protocols, designed for the age group being elicited, address the much-documented issue of a lack of data. Clear, graphical, inferential statistical interfaces are accentuated and developed to aid in building the teams required to implement the various methodologies and to help in achieving funding targets. Graphical analysis and Crow/AMSAA (army materials systems analysis activity) plots are developed and demonstrated from the point of view of justifying the expenditures of cost reduction efforts. This dissertation ultimately speaks to the great opportunity being presented by this approach at this time: of capturing the baby-boom generation's huge pool of knowledge before those people retire. It is expected that the protocols and procedures referenced here will have applicability across the many disciplines where collecting expert information from a similar age group is required.

  1. Cytoplasmic CUG RNA foci are insufficient to elicit key DM1 features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warunee Dansithong

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1 is the expansion of a CTG tract located in the 3' untranslated region of DMPK. Expression of mutant RNAs encoding expanded CUG repeats plays a central role in the development of cardiac disease in DM1. Expanded CUG tracts form both nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates, yet the relative significance of such aggregates in eliciting DM1 pathology is unclear. To test the pathophysiology of CUG repeat encoding RNAs, we developed and analyzed mice with cardiac-specific expression of a beta-galactosidase cassette in which a (CTG(400 repeat tract was positioned 3' of the termination codon and 5' of the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation signal. In these animals CUG aggregates form exclusively in the cytoplasm of cardiac cells. A key pathological consequence of expanded CUG repeat RNA expression in DM1 is aberrant RNA splicing. Abnormal splicing results from the functional inactivation of MBNL1, which is hypothesized to occur due to MBNL1 sequestration in CUG foci or from elevated levels of CUG-BP1. We therefore tested the ability of cytoplasmic CUG foci to elicit these changes. Aggregation of CUG RNAs within the cytoplasm results both in Mbnl1 sequestration and in approximately a two fold increase in both nuclear and cytoplasmic Cug-bp1 levels. Significantly, despite these changes RNA splice defects were not observed and functional analysis revealed only subtle cardiac dysfunction, characterized by conduction defects that primarily manifest under anesthesia. Using a human myoblast culture system we show that this transgene, when expressed at similar levels to a second transgene, which encodes expanded CTG tracts and facilitates both nuclear focus formation and aberrant splicing, does not elicit aberrant splicing. Thus the lack of toxicity of cytoplasmic CUG foci does not appear to be a consequence of low expression levels. Our results therefore demonstrate that the cellular location of CUG RNA

  2. A farnesyltransferase inhibitor prevents both the onset and late progression of cardiovascular disease in a progeria mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Brian C; Olive, Michelle; Erdos, Michael R; Cao, Kan; Faddah, Dina A; Tavarez, Urraca L; Conneely, Karen N; Qu, Xuan; San, Hong; Ganesh, Santhi K; Chen, Xiaoyan; Avallone, Hedwig; Kolodgie, Frank D; Virmani, Renu; Nabel, Elizabeth G; Collins, Francis S

    2008-10-14

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is the most dramatic form of human premature aging. Death occurs at a mean age of 13 years, usually from heart attack or stroke. Almost all cases of HGPS are caused by a de novo point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene that results in production of a mutant lamin A protein termed progerin. This protein is permanently modified by a lipid farnesyl group, and acts as a dominant negative, disrupting nuclear structure. Treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) has been shown to prevent and even reverse this nuclear abnormality in cultured HGPS fibroblasts. We have previously created a mouse model of HGPS that shows progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells in the media of the large arteries, in a pattern that is strikingly similar to the cardiovascular disease seen in patients with HGPS. Here we show that the dose-dependent administration of the FTI tipifarnib (R115777, Zarnestra) to this HGPS mouse model can significantly prevent both the onset of the cardiovascular phenotype as well as the late progression of existing cardiovascular disease. These observations provide encouraging evidence for the current clinical trial of FTIs for this rare and devastating disease.

  3. Whose Preferences Matter? A Patient-Centered Approach for Eliciting Treatment Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Col, Nananda F; Solomon, Andrew J; Springmann, Vicky; Garbin, Calvin P; Ionete, Carolina; Pbert, Lori; Alvarez, Enrique; Tierman, Brenda; Hopson, Ashli; Kutz, Christen; Berrios Morales, Idanis; Griffin, Carolyn; Phillips, Glenn; Ngo, Long H

    2017-08-01

    Patients facing a high-stakes clinical decision are often confronted with an overwhelming array of options. High-quality decisions about treatment should reflect patients' preferences as well as their clinical characteristics. Preference-assessment instruments typically focus on pre-selected clinical outcomes and attributes chosen by the investigator. We sought to develop a patient-centered approach to elicit and compare the treatment goals of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthcare providers (HCPs). We conducted five nominal group technique (NGT) meetings to elicit and prioritize treatment goals from patients and HCPs. Five to nine participants in each group responded silently to one question about their treatment goals. Responses were shared, consolidated, and ranked to develop a prioritized list for each group. The ranked lists were combined. Goals were rated and sorted into categories. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to derive a visual representation, or cognitive map, of the data and to identify conceptual clusters, reflecting how frequently items were sorted into the same category. Five NGT groups yielded 34 unique patient-generated treatment goals and 31 unique HCP-generated goals. There were differences between patients and HCPs in the goals generated and how they were clustered. Patients' goals tended to focus on the impact of specific symptoms on their day-to-day lives, whereas providers' goals focused on slowing down the course of disease progression. Differences between the treatment goals of patients and HCPs underscore the limitations of using HCP- or investigator-identified goals. This new adaptation of cognitive mapping is a patient-centered approach that can be used to generate and organize the outcomes and attributes for values clarification exercises while minimizing investigator bias and maximizing relevance to patients.

  4. Coxiella burnetii and Leishmania mexicana residing within similar parasitophorous vacuoles elicit disparate host responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Jess A; Valdés, Raquel; Kacharia, Fenil R; Landfear, Scott M; Cambronne, Eric D; Raghavan, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a bacterium that thrives in an acidic parasitophorous vacuole (PV) derived from lysosomes. Leishmania mexicana, a eukaryote, has also independently evolved to live in a morphologically similar PV. As Coxiella and Leishmania are highly divergent organisms that cause different diseases, we reasoned that their respective infections would likely elicit distinct host responses despite producing phenotypically similar parasite-containing vacuoles. The objective of this study was to investigate, at the molecular level, the macrophage response to each pathogen. Infection of THP-1 (human monocyte/macrophage) cells with Coxiella and Leishmania elicited disparate host responses. At 5 days post-infection, when compared to uninfected cells, 1057 genes were differentially expressed (746 genes up-regulated and 311 genes down-regulated) in C. burnetii infected cells, whereas 698 genes (534 genes up-regulated and 164 genes down-regulated) were differentially expressed in L. mexicana infected cells. Interestingly, of the 1755 differentially expressed genes identified in this study, only 126 genes (~7%) are common to both infections. We also discovered that 1090 genes produced mRNA isoforms at significantly different levels under the two infection conditions, suggesting that alternate proteins encoded by the same gene might have important roles in host response to each infection. Additionally, we detected 257 micro RNAs (miRNAs) that were expressed in THP-1 cells, and identified miRNAs that were specifically expressed during Coxiella or Leishmania infections. Collectively, this study identified host mRNAs and miRNAs that were influenced by Coxiella and/or Leishmania infections, and our data indicate that although their PVs are morphologically similar, Coxiella and Leishmania have evolved different strategies that perturb distinct host processes to create and thrive within their respective intracellular niches.

  5. Application and Evaluation of an Expert Judgment Elicitation Procedure for Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; van de Schoot-Hubeek, Wenneke; Lek, Kimberley; Hoijtink, Herbert; van de Schoot, Rens

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to apply and evaluate a procedure to elicit expert judgments about correlations, and to update this information with empirical data. The result is a face-to-face group elicitation procedure with as its central element a trial roulette question that elicits experts' judgments expressed as distributions. During the elicitation procedure, a concordance probability question was used to provide feedback to the experts on their judgments. We evaluated the elicitation procedure in terms of validity and reliability by means of an application with a small sample of experts. Validity means that the elicited distributions accurately represent the experts' judgments. Reliability concerns the consistency of the elicited judgments over time. Four behavioral scientists provided their judgments with respect to the correlation between cognitive potential and academic performance for two separate populations enrolled at a specific school in the Netherlands that provides special education to youth with severe behavioral problems: youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and youth with diagnoses other than ASD. Measures of face-validity, feasibility, convergent validity, coherence, and intra-rater reliability showed promising results. Furthermore, the current study illustrates the use of the elicitation procedure and elicited distributions in a social science application. The elicited distributions were used as a prior for the correlation, and updated with data for both populations collected at the school of interest. The current study shows that the newly developed elicitation procedure combining the trial roulette method with the elicitation of correlations is a promising tool, and that the results of the procedure are useful as prior information in a Bayesian analysis. PMID:28197115

  6. TRAC-Monterey FY16 Work Program Development and Report of Research Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    conducted a research priorities elicitation from across TRAC in order to support development of the research council’s FY14 research priorities.1 In...interesting re- search ideas that can be pursued to support not only TRAC, but the Army in general. TRAC-MTRY elicits these ideas, prioritizes them...analysts and resources to each project. Methodology The TRAC-MTRY research elicitation drives the TRAC-MTRY work program. We use the Topics, Technologies

  7. The effects of a model-eliciting activity on high school student design performance

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Tanner J

    2015-01-01

    Modeling allows students to become more effective designers. High school technology and engineering students engage in engineering design challenges as part of traditional instructional practices. Model-eliciting activities (MEA) present students with opportunities to elicit mathematically thinking that facilitates modeling. Students (n=266) from four schools completed a model-eliciting activity (MEA) and design challenge procedure. The research design utilized a quasi-experimental method, po...

  8. Eliciting population preferences for mass colorectal cancer screening organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayaradou, Maximilien; Berchi, Célia; Dejardin, Olivier; Launoy, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of mass colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a public health priority. Population participation is fundamental for the success of CRC screening as for any cancer screening program. The preferences of the population may influence their likelihood of participation. The authors sought to elicit population preferences for CRC screening test characteristics to improve the design of CRC screening campaigns. A discrete choice experiment was used. Questionnaires were compiled with a set of pairs of hypothetical CRC screening scenarios. The survey was conducted by mail from June 2006 to October 2006 on a representative sample of 2000 inhabitants, aged 50 to 74 years from the northwest of France, who were randomly selected from electoral lists. Questionnaires were sent to 2000 individuals, each of whom made 3 or 4 discrete choices between hypothetical tests that differed in 7 attributes: how screening is offered, process, sensitivity, rate of unnecessary colonoscopy, expected mortality reduction, method of screening test result transmission, and cost. Complete responses were received from 656 individuals (32.8%). The attributes that influenced population preferences included expected mortality reduction, sensitivity, cost, and process. Participants from high social classes were particularly influenced by sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the discrete choice experiment provides information on patient preferences for CRC screening: improving screening program effectiveness, for instance, by improving test sensitivity (the most valued attribute) would increase satisfaction among the general population with regard to CRC screening programs. Additional studies are required to study how patient preferences actually affect adherence to regular screening programs.

  9. Eliciting Parents' Individual Requirements for an Inclusive Digital School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftring, Håkan; Rassmus-Gröhn, Kirsten; Hedvall, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Parents often have a busy time sorting out their life puzzles, including getting information about their children's activities in school. More and more communication between teachers and parents take place via digital school systems. It can be hard for parents to find the information they are looking for and the teacher decides when information is sent and what communication method to use. All parents, but especially parents with disabilities, might have individual preferences on how to receive information and how to adapt meetings at school. In this paper we present a project where we involved parents and teachers in focus groups, an idea workshop and iterative user trials of a digital prototype. The goal was to elicit parents' individual requirements for an inclusive digital school system, where they can store their individual preferences about how and when to receive information from school and what requirements they have on meetings at school. Preliminary results show that we managed to create open and focused discussions among parents and teachers. The parents reacted very positively on an onboarding page with the possibility to quickly and easily enter preferences after their first log in, but more work needs to be done on how preferences are categorized on the onboarding page. Finally, parents need to get clear feedback from teachers and school when they have entered or updated preferences, so they can trust that their preferences will be met.

  10. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio-nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired.

  11. Micafungin Elicits an Immunomodulatory Effect in Galleria mellonella and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Li, Yan; Li, Dedong; Johnston, Tatiana; Hendricks, Gabriel; Li, Gang; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2016-02-01

    The echinocandin family of drugs is well characterized for antifungal function that inhibits β-D-glucan synthesis. The aim of this work was to study whether micafungin, a member of the echinocandin family, elicits additional activities that prime the host's immune response. We found that in a Galleria mellonella model, prophylactic treatment with micafungin extended the life of Staphylococcus aureus-infected larvae (a pathogen to which the drug demonstrates no direct antimicrobial activity) compared to insects that did not receive micafungin (P mellonella infection model was characterized by a 2.43-fold increase in hemocyte density, compared to larvae inoculated with PBS. In a murine model where animals were provided micafungin prophylaxis 3 days prior to macrophage collection, macrophages were found associated with an average 0.9 more fungal cells per macrophage as compared to saline-treated animals. Interestingly, micafungin-stimulated macrophages killed 11.6 ± 6.2 % of fungal cells compared to 3.8 ± 2.4 % of macrophages from saline-treated animals. The prophylactic provision of micafungin prior to Candida albicans infection was characterized by an increase in the proinflammatory cytokines CXCL13 and SPP1 by 11- and 6.9-fold, respectively. In conclusion, micafungin demonstrated the ability to stimulate phagocytic cells and promote an immune response that can inhibit microbial infections.

  12. Affective monitoring: a generic mechanism for affect elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaf, R Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  13. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus E; Christensen, Lars P

    2015-03-01

    Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. The concentration of SLs on the sunflower seeds is considered high enough to elicit dermatitis in sensitive persons, and it seems appropriate to warn Compositae-allergic subjects against handling sunflower seeds. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dreamed movement elicits activation in the sensorimotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Koch, Stefan P; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Holsboer, Florian; Steiger, Axel; Sämann, Philipp G; Obrig, Hellmuth; Czisch, Michael

    2011-11-08

    Since the discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming, much effort has been devoted to link physiological signatures of REM sleep to the contents of associated dreams [1-4]. Due to the impossibility of experimentally controlling spontaneous dream activity, however, a direct demonstration of dream contents by neuroimaging methods is lacking. By combining brain imaging with polysomnography and exploiting the state of "lucid dreaming," we show here that a predefined motor task performed during dreaming elicits neuronal activation in the sensorimotor cortex. In lucid dreams, the subject is aware of the dreaming state and capable of performing predefined actions while all standard polysomnographic criteria of REM sleep are fulfilled [5, 6]. Using eye signals as temporal markers, neural activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was related to dreamed hand movements during lucid REM sleep. Though preliminary, we provide first evidence that specific contents of REM-associated dreaming can be visualized by neuroimaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  16. Immunological responses elicited by different infection regimes with Strongyloides ratti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Paterson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infections are a ubiquitous feature of vertebrate life. In nature, such nematode infections are acquired by continued exposure to infective stages over a prolonged period of time. By contrast, experimental laboratory infections are typically induced by the administration of a single (and often large dose of infective stages. Previous work has shown that the size of an infection dose can have significant effects on anti-nematode immune responses. Here we investigated the effect of different infection regimes of Strongyloides ratti, comparing single and repeated dose infections, on the host immune response that was elicited. We considered and compared infections of the same size, but administered in different ways. We considered infection size in two ways: the maximum dose of worms administered and the cumulative worm exposure time. We found that both infection regimes resulted in Th2-type immune response, characterised by IL4 and IL13 produced by S. ratti stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells, anti-S. ratti IgG(1 and intestinal rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII production. We observed some small quantitative immunological differences between different infection regimes, in which the concentration of IL4, IL13, anti-S. ratti IgG(1 and IgG(2a and RMCPII were affected. However, these differences were quantitatively relatively modest compared with the temporal dynamics of the anti-S. ratti immune response as a whole.

  17. When Do Morally Motivated Innovators Elicit Inspiration Instead of Irritation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem Bolderdijk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovators (i.e., consumers who are the first to adopt an innovation are pivotal for the societal diffusion of sustainable innovations. But when are innovators most influential? Recent work suggests that morally motivated innovators (i.e., consumers who adopt an innovation out of concern for the welfare of others can make fellow consumers who have not yet adopted that innovation feel morally inadequate. As a self-defense mechanism, those fellow consumers might dismiss these innovators and their choices. As a result, ironically, morally motivated innovators might discourage others to adopt sustainable innovations. In an experimental study, we replicate this pattern, but also show that moral innovators can elicit a more positive response as well. Specifically, our results offer initial evidence that morally motivated innovators may be more inspiring than self-interested innovators, provided that their actions do not directly pose a threat to the moral self-concept of observers. In sum, our research sheds empirical light on the conditions under which innovators are likely to facilitate, rather than slow down the transition to a more sustainable society.

  18. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mild environmental stress elicits mutations affecting fitness in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goho, S; Bell, G

    2000-01-01

    Cultures of Chlamydomonas were exposed to a range of relatively mild stresses for a period of 24 h. These stresses comprised high and low temperatures, osmotic stress, low pH, starvation and toxic stress. They were then allowed to recuperate for around ten vegetative generations under near-optimal conditions in unmodified minimal medium. Fitness was then assayed as the rate of division of isolated cells on agar. We found that there was a strong tendency for stressed cultures to have lower mean fitness and greater standardized variance in fitness than the negative controls which had been cultured throughout in unmodified minimal medium. The same tendency was shown, as expected, by positive controls which received mutagenic doses of ultraviolet irradiation. We concluded that the most reasonable interpretation of these observations is that mild stress increases the genomic rate of mutation. This appears to be the first time that this phenomenon has been noticed in eukaryotes. The response might be adaptive because lineages in which higher mutation rates are elicited by stress can be favourably selected through the production of a few mutants which are fortuitously well adapted to the stressful environment. Other interpretations are not excluded, however. Regardless of the mechanism involved, the elevation of mutation rates under stress will affect the rate of evolutionary response to environmental change and also the maintenance of sexuality. PMID:10687816

  20. Context-dependency of cue-elicited urge to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewissen, Roy; van den Hout, Marcel; Havermans, Remco C; Jansen, Anita

    2005-03-01

    Earlier studies have suggested that the cue-induced urge to smoke depends on the expectation of the availability of smoking. The present study investigated whether a 'room context' change could undo the learned discrimination between two stimuli, respectively, predicting smoking availability or smoking unavailability. A 2 (smoking cue) x 2 (availability context cue) x 6 (trial) x 2 (room context change) within-subjects design was used. Participants were repeatedly presented with a context cue predicting smoking availability (blue serving tray) and a context cue predicting unavailability (yellow serving tray) in one room and tested for an effect of context change in a different room. Two distinct rooms located in different department buildings of Maastricht University. Seventeen daily smokers who had smoked at least five cigarettes a day for at least 2 years. Self-reported urge to smoke using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results replicated the finding that a context cue that predicted smoking elicited greater urges to smoke than a context cue that predicted no smoking, irrespective of the presence of smoking cues. In addition, this study showed that this differential effect on the urge to smoke was generalized to a context other than the context in which learning took place. These findings are discussed in relation to the significance of a context change regarding the predictive value of smoking availability.

  1. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Jan E.; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people’s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities. PMID:19826558

  2. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Chevrier-Lamoureux

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD, remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario. Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people‟s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1 place and access to health resources; 2 time and food culture; and 3 itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities.

  3. Expert elicitation on uncertainty, climate change and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306644398; de Jong, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326795960; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489

    2010-01-01

    Climate change may have a range of diverse effects on human health, ranging from increased heat-related disease and mortality to effects on vector-borne diseases and allergic disorders such as hay fever. Assessments for the Netherlands have indicated a number of effects that are considered relevant

  4. Salient Beliefs in Majoring in Management Information Systems: An Elicitation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipidza, Wallace; Green, Gina; Riemenschneider, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Research utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand behavior should first elicit beliefs about the phenomenon from the target population. In order to understand the reasons why students choose to major or not major in Management Information Systems (MIS), we elicited beliefs from 136 students attending university in the United States…

  5. Naturalistic Observations of Elicited Expressive Communication of Children with Autism: An Analysis of Teacher Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min

    2009-01-01

    This study observed expressive communication of 17 Australian and 15 Taiwanese children with autism who were mute or had limited spoken language during 2 hour regular school routines and analyzed teacher instructions associated with elicited expressive communication. Results indicated: (a) the frequency of occurrence of elicited expressive…

  6. Photo elicitation interviews as a way of accessing primary school students' attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Stine Karen; Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher; Tonnesen, Pia Beck

    explores the potential of photo-elicitation interviews as a qualitative path to affect. This particular type of interview is shaped as conversations about self-produced images of mathematics. When conducting the photo elicitation interviews, researchers also introduce their own photographs...

  7. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  8. Photo-Elicitation and Visual Semiotics: A Unique Methodology for Studying Inclusion for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…

  9. Identifying and Responding to Personal Stressors: Utilizing Photo Elicitation in Health Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    The "Photo Elicitation Project" teaching idea applies the techniques of photo elicitation to stress prevention and management. This activity is designed to help students identify their personal stressors and to determine which stress prevention strategies are most useful for them. Objectives: students will be able to (a) identify current…

  10. Visualising community: using participant-driven photo-elicitation for research and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Van Auken; Svein J. Frisvoll; Susan I. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Despite a contemporary socio-culture revolving around cultural consumption of imagery, metaphors, representations and "gaze", photo-elicitation is a rarely used method for social scientists and planners to acquire knowledge. In this paper, we discuss participant-driven photo-elicitation, a process in which participant photos are paired with in-depth...

  11. Translation Elicitation Techniques and Mother-Tongue Interference: Any Significant Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Hameed

    1999-01-01

    Examined the validity of Dulay, Burt, and Krashen's hypothesis that the use of translation as an elicitation technique in foreign or second language (L2) research artificially increases L2 learners' reliance on the mother tongue, and accordingly, the proportion of interference errors. Examined interference errors on two elicitation tasks: an…

  12. Expert elicitation on ultrafine particles: likelihood of health effects and causal pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunekreef Bert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (PM has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The relationship between exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP and health effects is less firmly established. If UFP cause health effects independently from coarser fractions, this could affect health impact assessment of air pollution, which would possibly lead to alternative policy options to be considered to reduce the disease burden of PM. Therefore, we organized an expert elicitation workshop to assess the evidence for a causal relationship between exposure to UFP and health endpoints. Methods An expert elicitation on the health effects of ambient ultrafine particle exposure was carried out, focusing on: 1 the likelihood of causal relationships with key health endpoints, and 2 the likelihood of potential causal pathways for cardiac events. Based on a systematic peer-nomination procedure, fourteen European experts (epidemiologists, toxicologists and clinicians were selected, of whom twelve attended. They were provided with a briefing book containing key literature. After a group discussion, individual expert judgments in the form of ratings of the likelihood of causal relationships and pathways were obtained using a confidence scheme adapted from the one used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Results The likelihood of an independent causal relationship between increased short-term UFP exposure and increased all-cause mortality, hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, aggravation of asthma symptoms and lung function decrements was rated medium to high by most experts. The likelihood for long-term UFP exposure to be causally related to all cause mortality, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and lung cancer was rated slightly lower, mostly medium. The experts rated the likelihood of each of the six identified possible causal pathways separately. Out of these

  13. Feeding-elicited cataplexy in orexin knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erika L.; Baumann, Christian R.; Cano, Georgina; Scammell, Thomas E.; Mochizuki, Takatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Mice lacking orexin/hypocretin signaling have sudden episodes of atonia and paralysis during active wakefulness. These events strongly resemble cataplexy, episodes of sudden muscle weakness triggered by strong positive emotions in people with narcolepsy, but it remains unknown whether murine cataplexy is triggered by positive emotions. To determine whether positive emotions elicit murine cataplexy, we placed orexin knockout (KO) mice on a scheduled feeding protocol with regular or highly palatable food. Baseline sleep/wake behavior was recorded with ad lib regular chow. Mice were then placed on a scheduled feeding protocol in which they received 60% of their normal amount of chow 3 hr after dark onset for the next 10 days. Wild-type and KO mice rapidly entrained to scheduled feeding with regular chow, with more wake and locomotor activity prior to the feeding time. On day 10 of scheduled feeding, orexin KO mice had slightly more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and more cataplexy in the second half of the dark period, when they may have been foraging for residual food. To test whether more palatable food increases cataplexy, mice were then switched to scheduled feeding with an isocaloric amount of Froot Loops, a food often used as a reward in behavioral studies. With this highly palatable food, orexin KO mice had much more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and throughout the dark period. The increase in cataplexy with scheduled feeding, especially with highly palatable food, suggests that positive emotions may trigger cataplexy in mice, just as in people with narcolepsy. Establishing this connection helps validate orexin KO mice as an excellent model of human narcolepsy and provides an opportunity to better understand the mechanisms that trigger cataplexy. PMID:19362119

  14. Functional Changes in the Snail Statocyst System Elicited by Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Pavel M.; Malyshev, Aleksey Y.; Ierusalimsky, Victor N.; Aseyev, Nikolay; Korshunova, Tania A.; Bravarenko, Natasha I.; Lemak, M. S.; Roshchin, Matvey; Zakharov, Igor S.; Popova, Yekaterina; Boyle, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. Methodology/Principal Findings In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2) and 12-day (Foton M-3) exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i) the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L.), (ii) the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L.), and (iii) the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep) and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.). Experiments were performed 13–42 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90° head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. Conclusions/Significance Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity changes. This

  15. Brain injury forces of moderate magnitude elicit the fencing response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Ario H; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2009-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury is heterogeneous, both in its induction and ensuing neurological sequelae. In this way, medical care depends on accurately identifying the severity of injury-related forces. Clinically, injury severity is determined by a combination of the Glasgow Coma Scale, length of unconsciousness, posttraumatic amnesia, and persistence of neurological sequelae. In the laboratory, injury severity is gauged by the biomechanical forces and the acute suppression of neurological reflexes. The present communication describes and validates the "fencing response" as an overt indicator of injury force magnitude and midbrain localization to aid in injury identification and classification. Using YouTube, the Internet video database, videos were screened for head injury resulting in unconsciousness and documented for the fencing response. Adult male rats were subjected to midline fluid percussion brain injury at two severities, observed for acute neurological reflexes and the midbrain evaluated histopathologically. Tonic posturing (fencing response) has been observed to precede convulsions in sports injuries at the moment of impact, where extension and flexion of opposite arms occurs despite body position or gravity. Of the 35 videos identified by an impact to the head and period of unconsciousness, 66% showed a fencing response at the moment of impact, regardless of the side of impact, without ensuing convulsion. Similarly, diffuse brain-injured rats demonstrate a fencing response upon injury at moderate (1.9 atm, 39/44 animals) but not mild severity (1.1 atm, 0/19 animals). The proximity of the lateral vestibular nucleus to the cerebellar peduncles makes it vulnerable to mechanical forces that initiate a neurochemical storm to elicit the neuromotor response, disrupt the blood-brain barrier, and alter the nuclear volume. Therefore, the fencing response likely indicates neurological disturbance unique from convulsion associated with mechanical forces of moderate

  16. Impact of discussion on preferences elicited in a group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.

  17. Functional changes in the snail statocyst system elicited by microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel M Balaban

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2 and 12-day (Foton M-3 exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L., (ii the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L., and (iii the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.. Experiments were performed 13-42 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90° head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity

  18. Comparison of elicitation methods for moral and affective beliefs in the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M; Arvola, A; Vassallo, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Raats, M M; Saba, A; Shepherd, R

    2006-09-01

    Although the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been applied successfully in the area of food choice, it has been criticized for its pure utilitarian approach to the factors determining behaviour. Despite the increase in predictive power of the model with added components such as affective attitude and moral and ethical concerns, in most studies the elicitation process still only addresses people's utilitarian beliefs about the behaviour with little attention paid to other aspects. This study compares the traditional method of elicitation of advantages and disadvantages with two other methods (word association and open-ended) in the elicitations of beliefs, attitudes and moral concerns in relation to the consumption of organic foods. Results show the traditional method to be best for eliciting cognitive beliefs, open-ended emotion task for eliciting emotional beliefs and open-ended beliefs task best for moral concerns. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  19. Early phase telemedicine requirements elicitation in collaboration with medical practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larburu Rubio, Nekane; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Napolitano, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquity of Information and Communication Technology enables innovative telemedicine treatment applications for disease management of ambulant patients. Development of new treatment applications must comply with medical protocols and ‘way of working’ to obtain safety and efficacy evidence before

  20. Proposal for a Five-Step Method to Elicit Expert Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duco Veen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elicitation is a commonly used tool to extract viable information from experts. The information that is held by the expert is extracted and a probabilistic representation of this knowledge is constructed. A promising avenue in psychological research is to incorporated experts’ prior knowledge in the statistical analysis. Systematic reviews on elicitation literature however suggest that it might be inappropriate to directly obtain distributional representations from experts. The literature qualifies experts’ performance on estimating elements of a distribution as unsatisfactory, thus reliably specifying the essential elements of the parameters of interest in one elicitation step seems implausible. Providing feedback within the elicitation process can enhance the quality of the elicitation and interactive software can be used to facilitate the feedback. Therefore, we propose to decompose the elicitation procedure into smaller steps with adjustable outcomes. We represent the tacit knowledge of experts as a location parameter and their uncertainty concerning this knowledge by a scale and shape parameter. Using a feedback procedure, experts can accept the representation of their beliefs or adjust their input. We propose a Five-Step Method which consists of (1 Eliciting the location parameter using the trial roulette method. (2 Provide feedback on the location parameter and ask for confirmation or adjustment. (3 Elicit the scale and shape parameter. (4 Provide feedback on the scale and shape parameter and ask for confirmation or adjustment. (5 Use the elicited and calibrated probability distribution in a statistical analysis and update it with data or to compute a prior-data conflict within a Bayesian framework. User feasibility and internal validity for the Five-Step Method are investigated using three elicitation studies.

  1. Minocycline inhibits D-amphetamine-elicited action potential bursts in a central snail neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H; Lin, P-L; Wong, R-W; Wu, Y-T; Hsu, H-Y; Tsai, M-C; Lin, M-J; Hsu, Y-C; Lin, C-H

    2012-10-25

    Minocycline is a second-generation tetracycline that has been reported to have powerful neuroprotective properties. In our previous studies, we found that d-amphetamine (AMPH) elicited action potential bursts in an identifiable RP4 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. This study sought to determine the effects of minocycline on the AMPH-elicited action potential pattern changes in the central snail neuron, using the two-electrode voltage clamping method. Extracellular application of AMPH at 300 μM elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron. Minocycline dose-dependently (300-900 μM) inhibited the action potential bursts elicited by AMPH. The inhibitory effects of minocycline on AMPH-elicited action potential bursts were restored by forskolin (50 μM), an adenylate cyclase activator, and by dibutyryl cAMP (N(6),2'-O-Dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate; 1mM), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog. Co-administration of forskolin (50 μM) plus tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 5mM) or co-administration of TEA (5mM) plus dibutyryl cAMP (1mM) also elicited action potential bursts, which were prevented and inhibited by minocycline. In addition, minocycline prevented and inhibited forskolin (100 μM)-elicited action potential bursts. Notably, TEA (50mM)-elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron were not affected by minocycline. Minocycline did not affect steady-state outward currents of the RP4 neuron. However, minocycline did decrease the AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. Similarly, minocycline decreased the effects of forskolin-elicited steady-state current changes. Pretreatment with H89 (N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride; 10 μM), a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited AMPH-elicited action potential bursts and decreased AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. These results suggest that the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway and the steady-state current are involved in

  2. Infection with diverse immune-modulating poxviruses elicits different compositional shifts in the mouse gut microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguirre de Cárcer

    Full Text Available It is often not possible to demonstrate causality within the context of gut microbiota dysbiosis-linked diseases. Thus, we need a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby an altered host immunophysiology shapes its resident microbiota. In this regard, immune-modulating poxvirus strains and mutants could differentially alter gut mucosal immunity in the context of a natural immune response, providing a controlled natural in vivo setting to deepen our understanding of the immune determinants of microbiome composition. This study represents a proof-of-concept that the use of an existing collection of different immune-modulating poxviruses may represent an innovative tool in gut microbiome research. To this end, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and RNAseq transcriptome profiling were employed as proxies for microbiota composition and gut immunophysiological status in the analysis of caecal samples from control mice and mice infected with various poxvirus types. Our results show that different poxvirus species and mutants elicit different shifts in the mice mucosa-associated microbiota and, in some instances, significant concomitant shifts in gut transcriptome profiles, thus providing an initial validation to the proposed model.

  3. Botanical and biological pesticides elicit a similar Induced Systemic Response in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretali, Luca; Bernardo, Letizia; Butterfield, Timothy S; Trevisan, Marco; Lucini, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Natural pesticides have attracted substantial interest due to the increase in organic agriculture and enhanced attention to environmental pollution. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are applied for both disease control and growth enhancement; PGPBs are known to elicit Induced Systemic Response (ISR) in plants. However, less is known about the effect of botanical pesticides, such as the azadirachtin-containing neem extracts, on plant metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of foliar application of the above-mentioned natural pesticides on the metabolic profiling of tomato. Leaf application of Bacillus subtilis fostered Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) in treated plants via the Jasmonic acid pathway, and enhanced production of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phytoalexins and auxins. Changes in sterols and terpenes, as well as an increase in glucosinolates were also observed. Interestingly, azadirachtin-treated tomatoes also showed an increase in ISR and our results revealed that most of the enriched metabolites are shared with a B. subtilis treatment, suggesting conserved biochemical responses. These (un)expected findings indicate that plants are not insensitive to application of natural pesticide and while Azadirachtin is applied as a direct pesticide, it also stimulates a defense response in tomatoes very similar to B. subtilis induced ISR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurotransmitters activate T-cells and elicit crucial functions via neurotransmitter receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levite, Mia

    2008-08-01

    Neurotransmitters are traditionally viewed as nerve-secreted molecules that trigger or inhibit neuronal functions. Yet, neurotransmitters bind also their neurotransmitter receptors in T-cells and directly activate or suppress T-cell functions. This review focuses only on the activating effects of neurotransmitters on T-cells, primarily naïve/resting cells, and covers dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, and few neuropeptides: GnRH-I, GnRH-II, substance P, somatostatin, CGRP, and neuropeptide Y. T-cells express many neurotransmitter receptors. These are regulated by TCR-activation, cytokines, or the neurotransmitters themselves, and are upregulated/downregulated in some human diseases. The context - whether the T-cells are naïve/resting or antigen/mitogen/cytokine-activated, the T-cell subset (CD4/CD8/Th1/Th2/Teff/Treg), neurotransmitter dose (low/optimal or high/excess), exact neurotransmitter receptors expressed, and the cytokine milieu - is crucial, and can determine either activation or suppression of T-cells by the same neurotransmitter. T-cells also produce many neurotransmitters. In summary, neurotransmitters activate vital T-cell functions in a direct, potent and specific manner, and may serve for communicating between the brain and the immune system to elicit an effective and orchestrated immune function, and for new therapeutic avenues, to improve T-cell eradication of cancer and infectious organisms.

  5. The use of theory based semistructured elicitation questionnaires: formative research for CDC's Prevention Marketing Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, S E; Bhattacharyya, K; Rosenbaum, J; Fishbein, M; Shepherd, M

    1996-01-01

    Through one of its many HIV prevention programs, the Prevention Marketing Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention promotes a multifaceted strategy for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among people less than 25 years of age. The Prevention Marketing Initiative is an application of marketing and consumer-oriented technologies that rely heavily on behavioral research and behavior change theories to bring the behavioral and social sciences to bear on practical program planning decisions. One objective of the Prevention Marketing Initiative is to encourage consistent and correct condom use among sexually active young adults. Qualitative formative research is being conducted in several segments of the population of heterosexually active, unmarried young adults between 18 and 25 using a semistructured elicitation procedure to identify and understand underlying behavioral determinants of consistent condom use. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of this type of qualitative research methodology in designing effective theory-based behavior change interventions. Issues of research design and data collection and analysis are discussed. To illustrate the methodology, results of content analyses of selected responses to open-ended questions on consistent condom use are presented by gender (male, female), ethnic group (white, African American), and consistency of condom use (always, sometimes). This type of formative research can be applied immediately to designing programs and is invaluable for valid and relevant larger-scale quantitative research.

  6. Two bacterial entophytes eliciting both plant growth promotion and plant defense on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung Hoon; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Cheong, Hoon; Ryu, Choong-Min; Kim, Jihyun F; Park, Seung-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the potential to be used as microbial inoculants to reduce disease incidence and severity and to increase crop yield. Some of the PGPR have been reported to be able to enter plant tissues and establish endophytic populations. Here, we demonstrated an approach to screen bacterial endophytes that have the capacity to promote the growth of pepper seedlings and protect pepper plants against a bacterial pathogen. Initially, out of 150 bacterial isolates collected from healthy stems of peppers cultivated in the Chungcheong and Gyeongsang provinces of Korea, 23 putative endophytic isolates that were considered to be predominating and representative of each pepper sample were selected. By phenotypic characterization and partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolates were identified as species of Ochrobacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Janthinobacterium, Ralstonia, Arthrobacter, Clavibacter, Sporosarcina, Acidovorax, and Brevundimonas. Among them, two isolates, PS4 and PS27, were selected because they showed consistent colonizing capacity in pepper stems at the levels of 10(6)-10(7) CFU/g tissue, and were found to be most closely related to Pseudomonas rhodesiae and Pantoea ananatis, respectively, by additional analyses of their entire 16S rDNA sequences. Drenching application of the two strains on the pepper seedlings promoted significant growth of peppers, enhancing their root fresh weight by 73.9% and 41.5%, respectively. The two strains also elicited induced systemic resistance of plants against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria.

  7. Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin elicits host cell autophagy as a response to intoxication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onya Opota

    Full Text Available Bacillus sphaericus strains that produce the binary toxin (Bin are highly toxic to Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, and have been used since the late 1980s as a biopesticide for the control of these vectors of infectious disease agents. The Bin toxin produced by these strains targets mosquito larval midgut epithelial cells where it binds to Cpm1 (Culex pipiens maltase 1 a digestive enzyme, and causes severe intracellular damage, including a dramatic cytoplasmic vacuolation. The intoxication of mammalian epithelial MDCK cells engineered to express Cpm1 mimics the cytopathologies observed in mosquito enterocytes following Bin ingestion: pore formation and vacuolation. In this study we demonstrate that Bin-induced vacuolisation is a transient phenomenon that affects autolysosomes. In addition, we show that this vacuolisation is associated with induction of autophagy in intoxicated cells. Furthermore, we report that after internalization, Bin reaches the recycling endosomes but is not localized either within the vacuolating autolysosomes or within any other degradative compartment. Our observations reveal that Bin elicits autophagy as the cell's response to intoxication while protecting itself from degradation through trafficking towards the recycling pathways.

  8. Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin elicits host cell autophagy as a response to intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opota, Onya; Gauthier, Nils C; Doye, Anne; Berry, Colin; Gounon, Pierre; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Pauron, David

    2011-02-14

    Bacillus sphaericus strains that produce the binary toxin (Bin) are highly toxic to Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, and have been used since the late 1980s as a biopesticide for the control of these vectors of infectious disease agents. The Bin toxin produced by these strains targets mosquito larval midgut epithelial cells where it binds to Cpm1 (Culex pipiens maltase 1) a digestive enzyme, and causes severe intracellular damage, including a dramatic cytoplasmic vacuolation. The intoxication of mammalian epithelial MDCK cells engineered to express Cpm1 mimics the cytopathologies observed in mosquito enterocytes following Bin ingestion: pore formation and vacuolation. In this study we demonstrate that Bin-induced vacuolisation is a transient phenomenon that affects autolysosomes. In addition, we show that this vacuolisation is associated with induction of autophagy in intoxicated cells. Furthermore, we report that after internalization, Bin reaches the recycling endosomes but is not localized either within the vacuolating autolysosomes or within any other degradative compartment. Our observations reveal that Bin elicits autophagy as the cell's response to intoxication while protecting itself from degradation through trafficking towards the recycling pathways.

  9. Sub-lethal levels of electric current elicit the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimoyo, Evans; Farag, Mohamed A; Sumner, Lloyd W; Wasmann, Catherine; Cuello, Joel L; VanEtten, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Many secondary metabolites that are normally undetectable or in low amounts in healthy plant tissue are synthesized in high amounts in response to microbial infection. Various abiotic and biotic agents have been shown to mimic microorganisms and act as elicitors of the synthesis of these plant compounds. In the present study, sub-lethal levels of electric current are shown to elicit the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in transgenic and non-transgenic plant tissue. The production of the phytoalexin (+)-pisatin by pea was used as the main model system. Non-transgenic pea hairy roots treated with 30-100 mA of electric current produced 13 times higher amounts of (+)-pisatin than did the non-elicited controls. Electrically elicited transgenic pea hairy root cultures blocked at various enzymatic steps in the (+)-pisatin biosynthetic pathway also accumulated intermediates preceding the blocked enzymatic step. Secondary metabolites not usually produced by pea accumulated in some of the transgenic root cultures after electric elicitation due to the diversion of the intermediates into new pathways. The amount of pisatin in the medium bathing the roots of electro-elicited roots of hydroponically cultivated pea plants was 10 times higher 24 h after elicitation than in the medium surrounding the roots of non-elicited control plants, showing not only that the electric current elicited (+)-pisatin biosynthesis but also that the (+)-pisatin was released from the roots. Seedlings, intact roots or cell suspension cultures of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), barrel medic, (Medicago truncatula), Arabidopsis thaliana, red clover (Trifolium pratense) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) also produced increased levels of secondary metabolites in response to electro-elicitation. On the basis of our results, electric current would appear to be a general elicitor of plant secondary metabolites and to have potential for application in both basic and commercial research.

  10. Dose per unit area - a study of elicitation of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Arup; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental sensitization depends upon the amount of allergen per unit skin area and is largely independent of the area size. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at testing if this also applies for elicitation of nickel allergy. PATIENTS/METHODS: 20 nickel allergic individuals were tested...... compared to the small area. It was also found that the ROAT threshold (per application) was lower than the patch test threshold. CONCLUSION: For elicitation of nickel allergy, the size of the exposed area and therefore the total amount of applied nickel, influence the elicitation reaction at some...

  11. Suppression of nitric oxide production in mouse macrophages by soybean flavonoids accumulated in response to nitroprusside and fungal elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamashiro Wirla MSC

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anti-inflammatory properties of some flavonoids have been attributed to their ability to inhibit the production of NO by activated macrophages. Soybean cotyledons accumulate certain flavonoids following elicitation with an extract of the fungal pathogen Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis (Dpm. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a nitric oxide donor, can substitute for Dpm in inducing flavonoid production. In this study, we investigated the effect of flavonoid-containing diffusates obtained from Dpm- and SNP-elicited soybean cotyledons on NO production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS- and LPS plus interferon-γ (IFNγ-activated murine macrophages. Results Significant inhibition of NO production, measured as nitrite formation, was observed when macrophages were activated in the presence of soybean diffusates from Dpm- or SNP-elicited cotyledons. This inhibition was dependent on the duration of exposure to the elicitor. Daidzein, genistein, luteolin and apigenin, the main flavonoids present in diffusates of elicited cotyledons, suppressed the NO production by LPS + IFNγ activated macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 81.4 μM, 34.5 μM, 38.6 μM and 10.4 μM respectively. For macrophages activated with LPS alone, the IC50 values were 40.0 μM, 16.6 μM, 10.4 μM and 2.8 μM, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that iNOS expression was not affected by daidzein, was reduced by genistein, and was abolished by apigenin, luteolin and Dpm- and SNP-soybean diffusates at concentrations that significantly inhibited NO production by activated macrophages. Conclusions These results suggest that the suppressive effect of flavonoids on iNOS expression could account for the potent inhibitory effect of Dpm- and SNP-diffusates on NO production by activated macrophages. Since the physiological concentration of flavonoids in plants is normally low, the treatment of soybean tissues with SNP may provide a simple

  12. Immune response and protective profile elicited by a multi-epitope chimeric protein derived from Leptospira interrogans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luis G V; Teixeira, Aline F; Filho, Antonio F S; Souza, Gisele O; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Heinemann, Marcos B; Romero, Eliete C; Nascimento, Ana L T O

    2017-04-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira is the causative agent of leptospirosis, a widely disseminated disease of human and veterinary concern. The development of vaccines that elicit cross-protective immunity through multiple leptospiral serovars has long been pursued. The aim of this study was to develop a novel chimeric multi-epitope fusion antigen, containing sequences of previously studied outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Leptospira. The chimeric protein was designed based on the amino acid sequences of the LigA, Mce, Lsa45, OmpL1, and LipL41 proteins, cloned into pAE vector, the protein expressed in Escherichia coli, and its immune response evaluated in the hamster infection model. The recombinant chimeric protein (rChi) was recognized by antibodies present in serum samples of confirmed cases of human leptospirosis and experimentally infected hamsters, demonstrating that the rChi protein participates in the immune response activation during infection. However, despite high antibody titers achieved when the rChi protein was administered with either Alhydrogel or Bordetella pertussis monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), only 50% of the hamsters were protected against infection. Although a complete characterization of the immune response elicited by rChi/adjuvant in hamsters is required, it is believed that the construction of chimeric genes is an important attempt towards the generation of an effective vaccine against leptospirosis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The Beta-1-Receptor Blocker Nebivolol Elicits Dilation of Cerebral Arteries by Reducing Smooth Muscle [Ca2+]i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseplo, Peter; Vamos, Zoltan; Ivic, Ivan; Torok, Orsolya; Toth, Attila; Koller, Akos

    2016-01-01

    Nebivolol is known to have beta-1 blocker activity, but it was also suggested that it elicits relaxation of the peripheral arteries in part via release of nitric oxide (NO). However, the effect of nebivolol on the vasomotor tone of cerebral arteries is still unclear. To assess the effects of nebivolol on the diameter of isolated rat basilar arteries (BA) in control, in the presence of inhibitors of vasomotor signaling pathways of know action and hemolysed blood. Vasomotor responses were measured by videomicroscopy and the intracellular Ca2+ by the Fura-2 AM ratiometric method. Under control conditions, nebivolol elicited a substantial dilation of the BA (from 216±22 to 394±20 μm; pblocker). Dilatation of BA was also affected by beta-2 receptor blockade with butoxamine, but not by the guanylate cyclase blocker ODQ. Interestingly, beta-1 blockade by atenolol inhibited nebivolol-induced dilation. Also, the BKCa channel blocker iberiotoxin and KCa channel inhibitor TEA significantly reduced nebivolol-induced dilation. Nebivolol significantly reduced smooth muscle Ca2+ level, which correlated with the increases in diameters and moreover it reversed the hemolysed blood-induced constriction of BA. Nebivolol seems to have an important dilator effect in cerebral arteries, which is mediated via several vasomotor mechanisms, converging on the reduction of smooth muscle Ca2+ levels. As such, nebivolol may be effective to improve cerebral circulation in various diseased conditions, such as hemorrhage.

  14. Auditory evoked fields elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal changes in human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko eOkamoto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral-temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30 – 50 ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously.

  15. Elicitation of Slips of the Tongue from Young Children: A New Method and Preliminary Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    Examination of the use of short "tongue-twister" phrases in eliciting spontaneous slips of the tongue in five year olds indicated that the technique was a feasible and beneficial method for collecting spoonerism data from children. (24 references) (CB)

  16. Eyeglasses elicit effects similar to face-like perceptual expertise: evidence from the N170 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohua; Yang, Qi; Hu, Fengpei

    2016-03-01

    Studies of event-related potentials show that the specific N170 response has become a stable electrophysiological hallmark of objects related to expertise in early perceptual processing. In the present study, we investigated whether eyeglasses can elicit N170 effects similar to those elicited by objects of expertise. Our results showed that the N170 response elicited by eyeglasses was larger than the response elicited by objects that do not generate perceptual expertise (e.g., houses). Importantly, we found that eyeglasses could produce a within-category N170 adaptation effect, similar to that produced in response to objects of expertise (e.g., faces). Our results have revealed for the first time that with a large amount of experience, eyeglasses could evoke the face-like N170 response, which suggested that eyeglasses may become an object of perceptual expertise to some human observers.

  17. Hypothesis Testing of Edge Organizations: Laboratory Experimentation Using the ELICIT Multiplayer Intelligence Game

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leweling, Tara A; Nissen, Mark E

    2007-01-01

    .... Building upon prior command and control (C2) research, we report the preliminary results of our extension of our campaign of computational experimentation to series of laboratory experiments using the ELICIT multiplayer intelligence game...

  18. The potential for using visual elicitation in understanding preschool teachers' beliefs of appropriate educational practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Ruto-Korir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use of video and photo elicitation in a research study undertaken to understand the way in which preschool teachers perceive and construct their provision of children's educational experiences. We explore the value of visually elicited interviews based on video footage and photographs captured during teaching and learning in four classrooms in two preschool settings in Kenya. Through visually elicited interviews, both the teachers and the researcher constructed meaningful conversations (interviews to explore preschool teachers' practical experiences and their beliefs, understanding and interpretation of developmentally appropriate educational practices. This paper targets the possible value ofand contribution made by visual data generation procedures, as well as their inherent challenges, in order to add to the body of knowledge on visually elicited interviews.

  19. Conditioning stimulation techniques for enhancement of transcranially elicited evoked motor responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Journee, H. -L.; Polak, H. E.; De Kleuver, M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. - In spite of the use of multipulse, transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) is still insufficient in a subgroup of patients to elicit motor-evoked potentials during intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). Classic facilitation methods used in awake patients are precluded

  20. Testing Edge versus Hierarchical C2 Organizations using the ELICIT Platform and Common Identification Picture Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    were obtained from the log files of the ELICIT software. Data Analysis Data analyses were performed using the statistical package SPSS 13.0...Finally, our analyses of the data provided by the ELICIT log files regarding Share, Post and Pull variables did not evidence statistically significant...sharing channels provides a more complete –and also realistic– setting for decision-making ability testing. This conjoint set of tools resembles the

  1. Molecular Mechanisms Elicited by d-Aspartate in Leydig Cells and Spermatogonia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Maddalena Di Fiore; Alessandra Santillo; Sara Falvo; Salvatore Longobardi; Gabriella Chieffi Baccari

    2016-01-01

    A bulk of evidence suggests that d-aspartate (d-Asp) regulates steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in vertebrate testes. This review article focuses on intracellular signaling mechanisms elicited by d-Asp possibly via binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in both Leydig cells, and spermatogonia. In Leydig cells, the amino acid upregulates androgen production by eliciting the adenylate cyclase-cAMP and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. d-Asp treatment enhances...

  2. The new journeyman: The role of an expert learner in eliciting and transmitting skilled knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents interim research findings of a project which seeks to elicit the skilled knowledge of master craftsmen through use of an expert learner (Horne) acting as intermediary between the craftsmen and a designer (Wood) creating a multimedia resource to support those wishing to learn the skill. It builds on previous research that evolved a set of principles for the design of multimedia learning materials (Wood & Rust 2003) and moved on to develop techniques for elicitation of exper...

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hera Chaudhry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ, thymohydroquinone (THQ, and thymol (THY. Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2 elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35±0.8, 2.4±0.2, and 2.46±0.5, resp.. Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production.

  4. Scenario-based Requirements Elicitation in a Pain-teletreatment Application

    OpenAIRE

    Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Shishkov, Boris; Cordeiro, J.; Ranchordas, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a way to elicit requirements in the domain of eHealth, in particular telemedicine treatment, that is in alignment with the evidence based working practice in medicine. In collaboration with ICT developers, medical professionals co-shape the intended system, which has to support the telemedicine application. These professionals develop a scenario and provide feedback to the subsequent requirements elicitation process which is based on the developed scenario. We propose a mi...

  5. The future prospect of PV and CSP solar technologies: An expert elicitation survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bosetti, Valentina; Catenacci, Michela; Fiorese, Giulia; Verdolini, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss the results of an expert elicitation survey on solar technologies. Sixteen leading European experts from the academic world, the private sector and international institutions took part in this expert elicitation survey on Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies. The survey collected probabilistic information on (1) how Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) investments will impact the future costs of solar technologies and...

  6. From Expert Elicitations to Integrated Assessment: Future Prospects of Carbon Capture Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Claire Ricci; Valentina Bosetti; Erin Baker

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the future prospects of carbon capture technologies. The first part of the analysis presents and discusses the results of an expert elicitation survey on a broad range of carbon capture options. The survey collected probabilistic estimates on the future values of energy penalty under three different scenarios of R&D investments and climate policies from twelve leading European experts from both academia and industry. In the second part of the analysis, the elicitation resu...

  7. Real-Time Elicitation of Moral Emotions Using a Prejudice Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Melike M.; Kilchenmann, Nadine; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Thomas, Kevin G. F. 

    2012-01-01

    Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively and positively valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46) who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Impli...

  8. A Framework For Designing Information Elicitation Mechanisms That Reward Truth-telling

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Yuqing; Schoenebeck, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Information elicitation mechanisms, such as Peer Prediction [Miller 2005] and Bayesian Truth Serum [Prelec 2004], are designed to reward agents for honestly reporting their private information, even when this information cannot be directly verified. Information elicitation mechanisms, such as these, are cleverly designed so that truth-telling is a strict Bayesian Nash Equilibrium. However, a key challenge that has arisen is that there are typically many other non-truthful equilibrium as well,...

  9. Evaluation of a structured expert elicitation estimating the proportion of illness acquired by foodborne transmission for nine enteric pathogens in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, H; Glass, K; Ford, L; Hall, G; Kirk, M D; Shadbolt, C; Veitch, M G K; Fullerton, K E; Musto, J; Becker, N

    2016-04-01

    Estimates of the proportion of illness transmitted by food for different enteric pathogens are essential for foodborne burden-of-disease studies. Owing to insufficient scientific data, a formal synthesis of expert opinion, an expert elicitation, is commonly used to produce such estimates. Eleven experts participated in an elicitation to estimate the proportion of illnesses due to food in Australia for nine pathogens over three rounds: first, based on their own knowledge alone; second, after being provided with systematic reviews of the literature and Australian data; and finally, at a workshop where experts reflected on the evidence. Estimates changed significantly across the three rounds (P = 0·002) as measured by analysis of variance. Following the workshop in round 3, estimates showed smoother distributions with significantly less variation for several pathogens. When estimates were combined to provide combined distributions for each pathogen, the width of these combined distributions reflected experts' perceptions of the availability of evidence, with narrower intervals for pathogens for which evidence was judged to be strongest. Our findings show that the choice of expert elicitation process can significantly influence final estimates. Our structured process - and the workshop in particular - produced robust estimates and distributions appropriate for inclusion in burden-of-disease studies.

  10. HIV-1 Cross-Reactive Primary Virus Neutralizing Antibody Response Elicited by Immunization in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimeng; O'Dell, Sijy; Turner, Hannah L; Chiang, Chi-I; Lei, Lin; Guenaga, Javier; Wilson, Richard; Martinez-Murillo, Paola; Doria-Rose, Nicole; Ward, Andrew B; Mascola, John R; Wyatt, Richard T; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Li, Yuxing

    2017-11-01

    Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses is a major goal for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Current HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) vaccine candidates elicit predominantly tier 1 and/or autologous tier 2 virus neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses, as well as weak and/or sporadic cross-reactive tier 2 virus NAb responses with unknown specificity. To delineate the specificity of vaccine-elicited cross-reactive tier 2 virus NAb responses, we performed single memory B cell sorting from the peripheral blood of a rhesus macaque immunized with YU2gp140-F trimers in adjuvant, using JR-FL SOSIP.664, a native Env trimer mimetic, as a sorting probe to isolate monoclonal Abs (MAbs). We found striking genetic and functional convergence of the SOSIP-sorted Ig repertoire, with predominant VH4 or VH5 gene family usage and Env V3 specificity. Of these vaccine-elicited V3-specific MAbs, nearly 20% (6/33) displayed cross-reactive tier 2 virus neutralization, which recapitulated the serum neutralization capacity. Substantial similarities in binding specificity, neutralization breadth and potency, and sequence/structural homology were observed between selected macaque cross-reactive V3 NAbs elicited by vaccination and prototypic V3 NAbs derived from natural infections in humans, highlighting the convergence of this subset of primate V3-specific B cell repertories. Our study demonstrated that cross-reactive primary virus neutralizing B cell lineages could be elicited by vaccination as detected using a standardized panel of tier 2 viruses. Whether these lineages could be expanded to acquire increased breadth and potency of neutralization merits further investigation.IMPORTANCE Elicitation of antibody responses capable of neutralizing diverse HIV-1 primary virus isolates (designated broadly neutralizing antibodies [bNAbs]) remains a high priority for the vaccine field. bNAb responses were so far observed only in response to natural infection within a subset

  11. A comparison of two methods for expert elicitation in health technology assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Grigore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When data needed to inform parameters in decision models are lacking, formal elicitation of expert judgement can be used to characterise parameter uncertainty. Although numerous methods for eliciting expert opinion as probability distributions exist, there is little research to suggest whether one method is more useful than any other method. This study had three objectives: (i to obtain subjective probability distributions characterising parameter uncertainty in the context of a health technology assessment; (ii to compare two elicitation methods by eliciting the same parameters in different ways; (iii to collect subjective preferences of the experts for the different elicitation methods used. Methods Twenty-seven clinical experts were invited to participate in an elicitation exercise to inform a published model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative treatments for prostate cancer. Participants were individually asked to express their judgements as probability distributions using two different methods – the histogram and hybrid elicitation methods – presented in a random order. Individual distributions were mathematically aggregated across experts with and without weighting. The resulting combined distributions were used in the probabilistic analysis of the decision model and mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and the expected values of perfect information (EVPI were calculated for each method, and compared with the original cost-effectiveness analysis. Scores on the ease of use of the two methods and the extent to which the probability distributions obtained from each method accurately reflected the expert’s opinion were also recorded. Results Six experts completed the task. Mean ICERs from the probabilistic analysis ranged between £162,600–£175,500 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY depending on the elicitation and weighting methods used. Compared to having no information, use of expert opinion

  12. How Can a Computer be Useful to You? A Feasibility Study to Elicit Perceptions of Computers in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavnani, Suresh K.; Chavan, Apala L.; Jain, Isha; Maroo, Sudhanshoo

    2011-01-01

    The growing influx of information and communication technologies (ICTs) into rural India provides new opportunities for the prevention and treatment of diseases across millions of residents. However, little is known about how rural Indians with little or no exposure to computers perceive computers and their uses, and how best to elicit those perceptions. Such perceptions could lead to new insights for using ICTs to affect health behavior change in developing countries. We therefore developed a semi-structured interview approach to probe how residents of a north Indian village perceived computers and their uses. The results suggest that besides helping to overturn several assumptions of the researchers through unexpected insights, the approach could be easily implemented in rural settings, which could lead to deeper insights for developing future culturally and medically-relevant ICTs for rural residents. PMID:22195062

  13. Cytokine balance in human malaria: does Plasmodium vivax elicit more inflammatory responses than Plasmodium falciparum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel M Gonçalves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which humans regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory responses on exposure to different malaria parasites remains unclear. Although Plasmodium vivax usually causes a relatively benign disease, this parasite has been suggested to elicit more host inflammation per parasitized red blood cell than P. falciparum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured plasma concentrations of seven cytokines and two soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α receptors, and evaluated clinical and laboratory outcomes, in Brazilians with acute uncomplicated infections with P. vivax (n = 85, P. falciparum (n = 30, or both species (n = 12, and in 45 asymptomatic carriers of low-density P. vivax infection. Symptomatic vivax malaria patients, compared to those infected with P. falciparum or both species, had more intense paroxysms, but they had no clear association with a pro-inflammatory imbalance. To the contrary, these patients had higher levels of the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL-10, which correlated positively with parasite density, and elevated IL-10/TNF-α, IL-10/interferon (IFN-γ, IL-10/IL-6 and sTNFRII/TNF-α ratios, compared to falciparum or mixed-species malaria patient groups. Vivax malaria patients had the highest levels of circulating soluble TNF-α receptor sTNFRII. Levels of regulatory cytokines returned to normal values 28 days after P. vivax clearance following chemotherapy. Finally, asymptomatic carriers of low P. vivax parasitemias had substantially lower levels of both inflammatory and regulatory cytokines than did patients with clinical malaria due to either species. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling fast-multiplying P. falciparum blood stages requires a strong inflammatory response to prevent fulminant infections, while reducing inflammation-related tissue damage with early regulatory cytokine responses may be a more cost-effective strategy in infections with the less virulent P. vivax parasite. The early induction

  14. Foodborne proportion of gastrointestinal illness: estimates from a Canadian expert elicitation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, André; Davidson, Valerie J; Ruzante, Juliana M; Fazil, Aamir

    2010-12-01

    The study used a structured expert elicitation survey to derive estimates of the foodborne attributable proportion for nine illnesses caused by enteric pathogens in Canada. It was based on a similar study conducted in the United States and focused on Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Norwalk-like virus. For each pathogen, experts were asked to provide their best estimate and low and high limits for the proportion of foodborne illness relative to total cases. In addition, they provided background information with regard to food safety experience, including self-evaluated expertise for each pathogen on a 5-point scale. A snowball approach was used to identify 152 experts within Canada. The experts' background details were summarized using descriptive statistics. Factor analysis was used to determine whether the variability in best estimates was related to self-assessed level of expertise or other background information. Cluster analysis followed by beta function fitting was undertaken on best estimates from experts who self-evaluated their expertise 3 or higher. In parallel, Monte Carlo resampling was run using triangular distributions based on each expert's best estimate and its limits. Sixty-six experts encompassing various academic backgrounds, fields of expertise, and experiences relevant to food safety provided usable data. Considerable variation between experts in their estimated foodborne attributable proportions was observed over all diseases, without any relationship to the expert's background. Uncertainty about their estimate (measured by the low and high limits) varied between experts and between pathogens as well. Both cluster analysis and Monte Carlo resampling clearly indicated disagreement between experts for Campylobacter, E. coli O157, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, Vibrio, and Y. enterocolitica. In the

  15. Protective immunity to H7N9 influenza viruses elicited by synthetic DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Villarreal, Daniel O; Racine, Trina; Chu, Jaemi S; Walters, Jewell N; Morrow, Matthew P; Khan, Amir S; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Kim, J Joseph; Kobinger, Gary P; Weiner, David B

    2014-05-19

    Despite an intensive vaccine program influenza infections remain a major health problem, due to the viruses' ability to change its envelope glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA), through shift and drift, permitting influenza to escape protection induced by current vaccines or natural immunity. Recently a new variant, H7N9, has emerged in China causing global concern. First, there have been more than 130 laboratory-confirmed human infections resulting in an alarmingly high death rate (32.3%). Second, genetic changes found in H7N9 appear to be associated with enabling avian influenza viruses to spread more effectively in mammals, thus transmitting infections on a larger scale. Currently, no vaccines or drugs are effectively able to target H7N9. Here, we report the rapid development of a synthetic consensus DNA vaccine (pH7HA) to elicit potent protective immunity against the H7N9 viruses. We show that pH7HA induces broad antibody responses that bind to divergent HAs from multiple new members of the H7N9 family. These antibody responses result in high-titer HAI against H7N9. Simultaneously, this vaccine induces potent polyfunctional effector CD4 and CD8T cell memory responses. Animals vaccinated with pH7HA are completely protected from H7N9 virus infection and any morbidity associated with lethal challenge. This study establishes that this synthetic consensus DNA vaccine represents a new tool for targeting emerging infection, and more importantly, its design, testing and development into seed stock for vaccine production in a few days in the pandemic setting has significant implications for the rapid deployment of vaccines protecting against emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Algae-Produced Pfs25 Elicits Antibodies That Inhibit Malaria Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, James A.; Li, Fengwu; Tomosada, Lauren M.; Cox, Chesa J.; Topol, Aaron B.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Mayfield, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Subunit vaccines are significantly more expensive to produce than traditional vaccines because they are based primarily on recombinant proteins that must be purified from the expression system. Despite the increased cost, subunit vaccines are being developed because they are safe, effective, and can elicit antibodies that confer protection against diseases that are not currently vaccine-preventable. Algae are an attractive platform for producing subunit vaccines because they are relatively inexpensive to grow, genetically tractable, easily scaled to large volumes, have a short generation time, and are devoid of inflammatory, viral, or prion contaminants often present in other systems. We tested whether algal chloroplasts can produce malaria transmission blocking vaccine candidates, Plasmodium falciparum surface protein 25 (Pfs25) and 28 (Pfs28). Antibodies that recognize Pfs25 and Pfs28 disrupt the sexual development of parasites within the mosquito midgut, thus preventing transmission of malaria from one human host to the next. These proteins have been difficult to produce in traditional recombinant systems because they contain tandem repeats of structurally complex epidermal growth factor-like domains, which cannot be produced in bacterial systems, and because they are not glycosylated, so they must be modified for production in eukaryotic systems. Production in algal chloroplasts avoids these issues because chloroplasts can fold complex eukaryotic proteins and do not glycosylate proteins. Here we demonstrate that algae are the first recombinant system to successfully produce an unmodified and aglycosylated version of Pfs25 or Pfs28. These antigens are structurally similar to the native proteins and antibodies raised to these recombinant proteins recognize Pfs25 and Pfs28 from P. falciparum. Furthermore, antibodies to algae-produced Pfs25 bind the surface of in-vitro cultured P. falciparum sexual stage parasites and exhibit transmission blocking activity. Thus

  17. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Chervyakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122, orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  18. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervyakova, Olga V; Zaitsev, Valentin L; Iskakov, Bulat K; Tailakova, Elmira T; Strochkov, Vitaliy M; Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T; Sandybayev, Nurlan T; Stanbekova, Gulshan E; Beisenov, Daniyar K; Abduraimov, Yergali O; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay; Sansyzbay, Abylay R; Kovalskaya, Natalia Y; Nemchinov, Lev G; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2016-06-07

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae) structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122), orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  19. Phytophthora austrocedri Elicitates Changes in Diterpene Profile of Austrocedrus chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rachel Olate

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The populations of the Andean Cupressaceae Austrocedrus chilensis have been severely affected by a disease caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthora austrocedri. A study was undertaken to disclose changes in the resin composition of P. austrocedri-infected individuals, including naturally infected and artificially inoculated trees, compared with healthy A. chilensis trees. GC-MS and 1H-NMR studies showed a clear differentiation among healthy and infected resins, with the diterpene isopimara-8(9,15-dien-19-ol as a relevant constituent in resins from infected trees. The effect of resin fractions from P. austrocedri infected trees on the pathogen was assessed by measuring the mycelial growth in agar plates. The most active fractions from resin obtained from infected trees inhibited fungal growth by nearly 50% at 1 mg/dish (35.37 µg/cm2. The main constituent in the active fractions were 18-hydroxymanool and the aldehyde torulosal. Both compounds are oxidation products of manool and can be a chemical response of the tree to the pathogen or be formed from the pathogen as a biotransformation product of manool by microbial oxidation. While the diterpene profiles from A. chilensis tree resins can easily differentiate healthy and P. austrocedri infected individuals, the possible conversion of manool to the antifungal derivatives 4 and 6 by the microorganism remains to be established.

  20. Metaphors of Distress: Photo-Elicitation Enhances a Discourse Analysis of Parents' Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2016-07-01

    In research on sensitive topics, photo-elicitation can be a profound aid to data collection and interpretation processes. Photo-elicitation methods were used in this manner in a discourse analysis of parents' distress at least 6 months after preterm birth. After an initial interview, participants were asked to take digital photographs representing their distress and to return for a second interview to discuss the photographs. The elicited photo representations supported participants' engagement with their current or past distress and generated new meanings from the reappraisal of old photographs. Photo-elicitation demonstrated the embodiment of parents' distress in the child and the placement of distress in specific locations. Photographs of documents showed the power of the written word in generating and maintaining distress. Participants used existing photographs from their child's photo history to generate rich metaphors for their distress as parents. These findings have implications for enhancing interpretive health research by incorporating photo-elicitation methods. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Does alexithymia explain variation in cue-elicited craving reported by methamphetamine-dependent individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-01-01

    Drug craving is an important motivational phenomenon among addicted individuals, and successful management of craving is essential to both the initiation and maintenance of abstinence. Although craving in response to drug cues is common in drug-dependent individuals, it is not universal. At the present time, it is not known why approximately 20-30% of all addicted persons fail to report appreciable craving in laboratory-based cue reactivity studies. This study examined the possibility that alexithymia, a personality attribute characterized by a difficulty identifying and describing emotions, may contribute to the impoverished cue-elicited craving experienced by some addicts. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that alexithymia, as measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), would be inversely related to the magnitude of cue-elicited craving obtained in a cue reactivity protocol. Forty methamphetamine-dependent individuals completed the TAS and provided craving ratings for methamphetamine after presentation of methamphetamine-associated cues. Thirteen participants (32%) reported no methamphetamine cue-elicited craving. Contrary to expectation, TAS factor 1 (a measure of difficulty identifying feelings) scores were positively associated with cue-elicited craving. Thus, the results suggest that increasing difficulty-identifying feelings may be associated with higher cue-elicited craving. Clinical implications for this finding are discussed. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  2. Mechanical perturbations can elicit triggered reactions in the absence of a startle response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgaard, Christopher J; Franks, Ian M; Bennett, Kimberly; Maslovat, Dana; Chua, Romeo

    2017-11-18

    Perturbations delivered to the upper limbs elicit reflexive responses in stretched muscle at short- (M1: 25-50 ms) and long- (M2: 50-100 ms) latencies. When presented in a simple reaction time (RT) task, the perturbation can also elicit a preprogrammed voluntary response at a latency (elicits activity in sternocleidomastoid (SCM) over a time-course consistent with the startle response and it was, therefore, proposed that the StartReact effect underlies triggered reactions (Ravichandran et al., Exp Brain Res 230:59-69, 2013). The present work investigated whether perturbation-evoked SCM activity results from startle or postural control and whether triggered reactions can also occur in the absence of startle. In Experiment 1, participants "compensated" against a wrist extension perturbation. A prepulse inhibition (PPI) stimulus (known to attenuate startle) was randomly presented before the perturbation. Rather than attenuating SCM activity, the responses in SCM were advanced by the PPI stimulus. In Experiment 2, participants "assisted" a wrist extension perturbation. The perturbation did not reliably elicit startle but despite this, two-thirds of trials had RTs of less than 100 ms and the earliest responses began at ~ 70 ms. These findings suggest that SCM activity following a perturbation is the result of postural control and is not related to startle. Moreover, an overt startle response is not a prerequisite for the elicitation of a triggered reaction.

  3. Feasibility of eliciting the H reflex in the masseter muscle in patients under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulkatan, Sedat; Jaramillo, Ana Maria; Téllez, Maria J; Goodman, Robert R; Deletis, Vedran

    2017-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of eliciting the brainstem H reflex in the masseter muscle in patients under general anesthesia. We electrically stimulated the masseteric nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerve, and recorded ipsilateral masseteric and temporalis muscle responses. We tested eight patients who presented with trigeminal neuralgia; one patient had a temporal bone tumor and one patient had a brainstem arteriovenous malformation. All responses were elicited when patients were under general anesthesia and before the initiation of surgery. The H reflex in the masseter muscle was reliably elicited in 70% of the patients. The reflexes met the usual criteria for the H reflex because they were elicited below the threshold of the direct M response, and their amplitudes decreased when the M response increased with stronger stimuli. The mean onset latencies of the masseter H reflex and the M response were 5.4±1.3ms and 2.6±0.6ms, respectively. In the present study, we provide evidence of the feasibility of eliciting the H reflex in the masseter muscles of patients under general anesthesia. The H reflex of the masseter muscle may represent a new method available for intraoperative monitoring. Specifically, this method may be important for the monitoring of brainstem functional integrity, particularly in the midbrain and mid-pons, in addition to the trigeminal nerve path. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this st......Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim...... of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case...... control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate...

  5. Using process elicitation and validation to understand and improve chemotherapy ordering and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Wilson C; Christov, Stefan C; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Cassells, Lucinda J; Marquard, Jenna L

    2012-11-01

    Chemotherapy ordering and administration, in which errors have potentially severe consequences, was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated by employing process formalism (or formal process definition), a technique derived from software engineering, to elicit and rigorously describe the process, after which validation techniques were applied to confirm the accuracy of the described process. The chemotherapy ordering and administration process, including exceptional situations and individuals' recognition of and responses to those situations, was elicited through informal, unstructured interviews with members of an interdisciplinary team. The process description (or process definition), written in a notation developed for software quality assessment purposes, guided process validation (which consisted of direct observations and semistructured interviews to confirm the elicited details for the treatment plan portion of the process). The overall process definition yielded 467 steps; 207 steps (44%) were dedicated to handling 59 exceptional situations. Validation yielded 82 unique process events (35 new expected but not yet described steps, 16 new exceptional situations, and 31 new steps in response to exceptional situations). Process participants actively altered the process as ambiguities and conflicts were discovered by the elicitation and validation components of the study. Chemotherapy error rates declined significantly during and after the project, which was conducted from October 2007 through August 2008. Each elicitation method and the subsequent validation discussions contributed uniquely to understanding the chemotherapy treatment plan review process, supporting rapid adoption of changes, improved communication regarding the process, and ensuing error reduction.

  6. Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M Granger

    2014-05-20

    The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making.

  7. Implantation of Neural Probes in the Brain Elicits Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evon S. Ereifej

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical implantation of intracortical microelectrodes has been hindered, at least in part, by the perpetual inflammatory response occurring after device implantation. The neuroinflammatory response observed after device implantation has been correlated to oxidative stress that occurs due to neurological injury and disease. However, there has yet to be a definitive link of oxidative stress to intracortical microelectrode implantation. Thus, the objective of this study is to give direct evidence of oxidative stress following intracortical microelectrode implantation. This study also aims to identify potential molecular targets to attenuate oxidative stress observed postimplantation. Here, we implanted adult rats with silicon non-functional microelectrode probes for 4 weeks and compared the oxidative stress response to no surgery controls through postmortem gene expression analysis and qualitative histological observation of oxidative stress markers. Gene expression analysis results at 4 weeks postimplantation indicated that EH domain-containing 2, prion protein gene (Prnp, and Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1 were all significantly higher for animals implanted with intracortical microelectrode probes compared to no surgery control animals. To the contrary, NADPH oxidase activator 1 (Noxa1 relative gene expression was significantly lower for implanted animals compared to no surgery control animals. Histological observation of oxidative stress showed an increased expression of oxidized proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids concentrated around the implant site. Collectively, our results reveal there is a presence of oxidative stress following intracortical microelectrode implantation compared to no surgery controls. Further investigation targeting these specific oxidative stress linked genes could be beneficial to understanding potential mechanisms and downstream therapeutics that can be utilized to reduce oxidative stress-mediated damage

  8. Atrazine exposure elicits copy number alterations in the zebrafish genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    Atrazine is an agricultural herbicide used throughout the Midwestern United States that frequently contaminates potable water supplies resulting in human exposure. Using the zebrafish model system, an embryonic atrazine exposure was previously reported to decrease spawning rates with an increase in progesterone and ovarian follicular atresia in adult females. In addition, alterations in genes associated with distinct molecular pathways of the endocrine system were observed in brain and gonad tissue of the adult females and males. Current hypotheses for mechanistic changes in the developmental origins of health and disease include genetic (e.g., copy number alterations) or epigenetic (e.g., DNA methylation) mechanisms. As such, in the current study we investigated whether an atrazine exposure would generate copy number alterations (CNAs) in the zebrafish genome. A zebrafish fibroblast cell line was used to limit detection to CNAs caused by the chemical exposure. First, cells were exposed to a range of atrazine concentrations and a crystal violet assay was completed, showing confluency decreased by ~60% at 46.3μM. Cells were then exposed to 0, 0.463, 4.63, or 46.3μM atrazine and array comparative genomic hybridization completed. Results showed 34, 21, and 44 CNAs in the 0.463, 4.63, and 46.3μM treatments, respectively. Furthermore, CNAs were associated with previously reported gene expression alterations in adult male and female zebrafish. This study demonstrates that atrazine exposure can generate CNAs that are linked to gene expression alterations observed in adult zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis providing a mechanism of the developmental origins of atrazine endocrine disruption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in elicited hairy roots culture of Eurycoma longifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia

    2016-11-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were elicited at early exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) elicitation.

  10. Ecstasy and methamphetamine elicit action potential bursts via different mechanisms in a central snail neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Lin; Tsai, Ming-Cheng; Lu, Guan-Ling; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Chuang, Chieh-Min; Yang, Han-Yin; Huang, Shiang-Suo; Chen, Yi-Hung

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of (+) methamphetamine (METH) and its ring-substituted analog (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) on electrophysiological behavior and their relationships to second messenger systems in an identifiable RP4 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. Extracellular application of MDMA at 1mM and METH at 3mM elicited action potential bursts that were not blocked after immersing the neurons in Ca(2+)-free solution. Notably, MDMA- (1mM) elicited action potential bursts were blocked by pretreatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors chelerythrine (20 microM) and Ro 31-8220 (20 microM), but not by the PKA inhibitors KT-5720 (10 microM) and H89 (10 microM). The PKC activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 3 microM), but not the PKA activator forskolin (50 microM), facilitated the induction of bursts elicited by MDMA at a lower concentration (0.3mM). In contrast, METH- (3mM) elicited action potential bursts were blocked by pretreatment with KT-5720 (10 microM) and H89 (10 microM), but not by chelerythrine (20 microM) and Ro 31-8220 (20 microM). Forskolin (50 microM), but not PDBu (3 microM) facilitated the induction of bursts elicited by METH at a lower concentration (1mM). Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a blocker of the delayed rectifying K(+) current (I(KD)), did not elicit bursts at a concentration of 5mM but did facilitate the induction of action potential bursts elicited by both METH and MDMA. Voltage clamp studies revealed that both METH and MDMA decreased the TEA-sensitive I(KD) of the RP4 neuron. Forskolin (50 microM) or dibutyryl cAMP (1mM), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog, alone did not elicit action potential bursts. However, co-administration with forskolin (50 microM) and TEA (5mM) or co-administration with dibutyryl cAMP (1mM) and TEA (50mM) elicited action potential bursts in the presence of the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine (20 microM). Similarly, PDBu (10 microM) or phorbol

  11. Allergens in combination have a synergistic effect on the elicitation response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Skov, L; Volund, A

    1998-01-01

    Perfume ingredients were chosen as model substances to study the effect of allergens in combination on the elicitation response. Two groups of eczema patients were studied. One consisted of 18 subjects with a contact allergy to two fragrance substances and the other was a control group of 15...... of reactions was carried out on day 3 by clinical grading and laser Doppler flowmetry, and the extent of the reaction was measured in millimetres. The data were analysed by logistic dose-response models. It was found that the combination of two allergens in individuals allergic to both substances had...... a synergistic effect on the elicitation response evaluated by all three methods. The 1 : 1 mixtures of the two allergens elicited responses as if the doses were three to four times higher than those actually used, which is significantly more than expected if an additive effect had been present. In the control...

  12. Comparison of elicitation potential of chloroatranol and atranol - 2 allergens in oak moss absolute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.D.; Bernard, G.; Gimenez-Arnau, E.

    2006-01-01

    Chloroatranol and atranol are degradation products of chloroatranorin and atranorin, respectively, and have recently been identified as important contact allergens in the natural fragrance extract, oak moss absolute. Oak moss absolute is widely used in perfumery and is the cause of many cases...... of fragrance allergic contact dermatitis. Chloroatranol elicits reactions at very low levels of exposure. In oak moss absolute, chloroatranol and atranol are present together and both may contribute to the allergenicity and eliciting capacity of the natural extract. In this study, 10 eczema patients with known...... sensitization to chloroatranol and oak moss absolute were tested simultaneously to a serial dilution of chloroatranol and atranol in ethanol, in equimolar concentrations (0.0034-1072 microM). Dose-response curves were estimated and analysed by logistic regression. The estimated difference in elicitation potency...

  13. A nonparametric elicitation of the equity-efficiency trade-off in cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleichrodt, Han; Doctor, Jason; Stolk, Elly

    2005-07-01

    We performed an empirical elicitation of the equity-efficiency trade-off in cost-utility analysis using the rank-dependent quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) model, a model that includes as special cases many of the social welfare functions that have been proposed in the literature. Our elicitation method corrects for utility curvature and, therefore, our estimated equity weights are not affected by diminishing marginal utility. We observed a preference for equality in the allocation of health. The data suggest that the elicited equity weights were jointly determined by preferences for equality and by insensitivity to group size. A procedure is proposed to correct the equity weights for insensitivity to group size. Finally, we give an illustration how our method can be implemented in health policy.

  14. Good Food, Bad Food, and White Rice: Understanding Child Feeding Using Visual-Narrative Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Visual-narrative elicitation, a process combining photo elicitation and pile sorting in applied medical anthropology, sheds light on food consumption patterns in urban areas of Vanuatu where childhood malnutrition is a persistent problem. Groups of participants took photographs of the foods they feed their children, and the resources and barriers they encounter in accessing foodstuffs. This revealed how imported and local foods are assigned value as "good" or "bad" foods when contributing to dietary diversity and creating appropriate meals for children, particularly in the context of consuming white rice. The process of gathering and working with photographs illuminated the complex negotiations in which caregivers engaged when making food and nutritional choices for their children. At the nexus of visual and medical anthropology, the visual-narrative elicitation process yielded nuanced, comprehensive understandings of how caregivers value the various foods they feed their children.

  15. Expert Elicitation Methods in Quantifying the Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance from Offshore Renewable Energy Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Carl; Harwood, John; King, Stephanie; Booth, Cormac; Caneco, Bruno; Walker, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    There are many developments for offshore renewable energy around the United Kingdom whose installation typically produces large amounts of far-reaching noise, potentially disturbing many marine mammals. The potential to affect the favorable conservation status of many species means extensive environmental impact assessment requirements for the licensing of such installation activities. Quantification of such complex risk problems is difficult and much of the key information is not readily available. Expert elicitation methods can be employed in such pressing cases. We describe the methodology used in an expert elicitation study conducted in the United Kingdom for combining expert opinions based on statistical distributions and copula-like methods.

  16. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-01-01

    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests...... with more positive patch tests on the forearm patch tested with SLS plus hydroxycitronellal and no day of patch test readings with more positive patch tests on the forearm tested with hydroxycitronellal (P = 0.0253). Estimation of the blood flow with laser Doppler supported these findings....

  17. Explaining choice option attractiveness by beliefs elicited by the laddering method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2005-01-01

    It is a common approach to explain choice option attractiveness by beliefs about the choice option. The means'end chain model is used to distinguish between various types of beliefs, depending on whether the belief links the choice option to attributes, consequences, or values related to the choice...... option. The laddering method is used to elicit beliefs of all three types for a choice between conventional and organic pork. As a benchmark, beliefs were also elicited in the traditional way advocated by Ajzen and Fishbein. Using both sets of beliefs in a subsequent survey, it was shown that the beliefs...

  18. Pichia pastoris-expressed dengue 3 envelope-based virus-like particles elicit predominantly domain III-focused high titer neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Lav; Mani, Shailendra; Raut, Rajendra; Poddar, Ankur; Tyagi, Poornima; Arora, Upasana; de Silva, Aravinda; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Khanna, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Dengue poses a serious public health risk to nearly half the global population. It causes ~400 million infections annually and is considered to be one of the fastest spreading vector-borne diseases. Four distinct serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4) cause dengue disease, which may be either mild or extremely severe. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), by pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies, is considered to be the major mechanism underlying severe disease. This mandates that a preventive vaccine must confer simultaneous and durable immunity to each of the four prevalent DENV serotypes. Recently, we used Pichia pastoris, to express recombinant DENV-2 E ectodomain, and found that it assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs), in the absence of prM, implicated in the elicitation of ADE-mediating antibodies. These VLPs elicited predominantly type-specific neutralizing antibodies that conferred significant protection against lethal DENV-2 challenge, in a mouse model. The current work is an extension of this approach to develop prM-lacking DENV-3 E VLPs. Our data reveal that P. pastoris-produced DENV-3 E VLPs not only preserve the antigenic integrity of the major neutralizing epitopes, but also elicit potent DENV-3 virus-neutralizing antibodies. Further, these neutralizing antibodies appear to be exclusively directed toward domain III of the DENV-3 E VLPs. Significantly, they also lack discernible ADE potential toward heterotypic DENVs. Taken together with the high productivity of the P. pastoris expression system, this approach could potentially pave the way toward developing a DENV E-based, inexpensive, safe, and efficacious tetravalent sub-unit vaccine, for use in resource-poor dengue endemic countries.

  19. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States); Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Center for Predictive Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Pushko, Peter, E-mail: ppushko@medigen-usa.com [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. - Highlights: • The iDNA{sup ®} platform combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. • Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine was launched from iDNA plasmid in vitro and in vivo. • Safety of iDNA-generated 17D virus was confirmed in AG129 mice. • BALB/c mice seroconverted after a single-dose vaccination with iDNA. • YF virus-neutralizing response was elicited in iDNA-vaccinated mice.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi-elicited CD8+ T cell-mediated myocarditis: chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules as potential therapeutic targets to control chronic inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Lannes-Vieira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In Chagas disease, during the acute phase, the establishment of inflammatory processes is crucial for Trypanosoma cruzi control in target tissues and for the establishment of host/parasite equilibrium. However, in about 30% of the patients, inflammation becomes progressive, resulting in chronic disease, mainly characterized by myocarditis. Although several hypothesis have been raised to explain the pathogenesis of chagasic myocardiopathy, including the persistence of the parasite and/or participation of autoimmune processes, the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment of the inflammatory process leading to parasitism control but also contributing to the maintenance of T. cruzi-elicited chronic myocarditis remain unsolved. Trying to shed light on these questions, we have for several years been working with murine models for Chagas disease that reproduce the acute self-resolving meningoencephalitis, the encephalitis resulting of reactivation described in immunodeficient individuals, and several aspects of the acute and chronic myocarditis. In the present review, our results are summarized and discussed under the light of the current literature. Furthermore, rational therapeutic intervention strategies based on integrin-mediated adhesion and chemokine receptor-driven recruitment of leukocytes are proposed to control T. cruzi-elicited unbalanced inflammation.

  1. Decoding Temporal Structure in Music and Speech Relies on Shared Brain Resources but Elicits Different Fine-Scale Spatial Patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abrams, Daniel A; Bhatara, Anjali; Ryali, Srikanth; Balaban, Evan; Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2011-01-01

    .... Although the same manipulation of temporal structure elicited brain activation level differences of similar magnitude for both music and speech stimuli, multivariate classification analysis revealed...

  2. Use of expert judgment elicitation to estimate seismic vulnerability of selected building types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, K.S.; Aspinall, W.; Perkins, D.; Wald, D.; Porter, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Pooling engineering input on earthquake building vulnerability through an expert judgment elicitation process requires careful deliberation. This article provides an overview of expert judgment procedures including the Delphi approach and the Cooke performance-based method to estimate the seismic vulnerability of a building category.

  3. Biochemical Changes in β-Cryptogein-Elicited Tobacco: A possible Basis of Acquired Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edreva A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available β-Cryptogein, a proteinaceous elicitor from the phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthoracryptogea, is known to induce leaf necrosis in tobacco and non-specific resistance (expressed in the perinecrotic leaf area against a wide range of tobacco pathogens. To reveal mechanisms underlying the acquired resistance, biochemical changes in leaves of β-cryptogein-elicited tobacco were followed three, five and ten days after elicitation. The activities of peroxidase, β-1,3-glucanase and β-glucosidase, as well as the patterns of acidic pathogenesis-related (PR-proteins were determined. The protected part (perinecrotic area and the non-protected part (distant extra-perinecrotic area of leaves of β-cryptogein-stem treated tobacco (cv. Xanthin.c. were analyzed. Leaves of water-stem treated tobacco served as controls. It was shown that in the protected leaf part β-cryptogein caused significant metabolic shifts early after elicitation, persisting during the whole period studied. An important increase of peroxidase and β-1,3-glucanase activity was recorded. PR-protein components appeared that were absent in the controls. There were negligible changes in β-glucosidase activity. In the non-protected leaf part late and non-significant changes occurred. Taking into account the antimicrobial, regulatory and structure-modifying properties of the biochemical components studied, it may be admitted that β-cryptogein elicited the development of a hostile environment, i.e. a potential for plant resistance against subsequent pathogen invasion.

  4. Business Process Elicitation, Modeling, and Reengineering: Teaching and Learning with Simulated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, Anand

    2010-01-01

    The design of enterprise information systems requires students to master technical skills for elicitation, modeling, and reengineering business processes as well as soft skills for information gathering and communication. These tacit skills and behaviors cannot be effectively taught students but rather experienced and learned by students. This…

  5. Concept Cartoons as a Way to Elicit Understandings and Encourage Reasoning about Decimals in Year 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Samone; Askew, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This paper is located within the research into encouraging learners to reason mathematically and become engaged with concepts rather than just procedures. It reports on a research in progress examining two techniques to be used at the beginning of a sequence of lessons in order to elicit students' prior knowledge and understanding of topics about…

  6. Early Morphological Productivity in Hungarian: Evidence from Sentence Repetition and Elicited Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Balint; Lukacs, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates early productivity of morpheme use in Hungarian children aged between 2 ; 1 and 5 ; 3. Hungarian has a rich morphology which is the core marker of grammatical functions. A new method is introduced using the novel word paradigm in a sentence repetition task with masked inflections (i.e. a disguised elicited production task).…

  7. Students' Affordance of Teleologic Explanations and Anthropomorphic Language in Eliciting Concepts in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Romiro G.

    2015-01-01

    This study ascertains that the students' affordance of teleologic explanations and anthropomorphic language in eliciting concepts in Physics is influenced by their age and learning exposure and experience. Using Explicative-Reductive Method of Descriptive Research, this study focused on the determinants of students' affordance of…

  8. Children with Autism Respond Differently to Spontaneous, Elicited and Deferred Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, M.; Nordqvist, E.; Strid, K.; Connant Almrot, J.; Tjus, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imitation, a key vehicle for both cognitive and social development, is often regarded as more difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than for children with Down syndrome (DS) or typically developing (TD) children. The current study investigates similarities and differences in observed elicited, spontaneous and…

  9. Scenario-based Requirements Elicitation in a Pain-teletreatment Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Shishkov, Boris; Cordeiro, J.; Ranchordas, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a way to elicit requirements in the domain of eHealth, in particular telemedicine treatment, that is in alignment with the evidence based working practice in medicine. In collaboration with ICT developers, medical professionals co-shape the intended system, which has to support

  10. A Double Take: The Practical and Ethical Dilemmas of Teaching the Visual Method of Photo Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Caroline; Watt, Sal

    2014-01-01

    This paper advocates the teaching of photo elicitation in higher education as a valuable data collection technique and draws on our experience of teaching this visual method across two consecutive postgraduate cohorts. Building on previous work (Watt & Wakefield, 2014) and based on a former concern regarding student duty of care, a…

  11. Language Sample Analysis and Elicitation Technique Effects in Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Restrepo, M. Adelaida

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the language sample elicitation technique (i.e., storytelling and story-retelling tasks with pictorial support) affects lexical diversity (D), grammaticality (grammatical errors per communication unit [GE/CU]), sentence length (mean length of utterance in words [MLUw]), and sentence complexity (subordination…

  12. Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…

  13. Testing Moral Foundation Theory: Are Specific Moral Emotions Elicited by Specific Moral Transgressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Helen; Hess, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Moral foundation theory posits that specific moral transgressions elicit specific moral emotions. To test this claim, participants (N = 195) were asked to rate their emotions in response to moral violation vignettes. We found that compassion and disgust were associated with care and purity respectively as predicted by moral foundation theory.…

  14. Motivating and achievement-eliciting pop-ups in online environments: A user experience perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny; Zondervan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to develop pop-up windows that motivate users and evoke a positive user experience. Several variants of achievement eliciting pop-ups were designed and tested on a real business-website. A pre-test examined the effectiveness of 24 combinations of pictures and

  15. Linguistic Proficiency Assessment in Second Language Acquisition Research: The Elicited Imitation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Stéphanie; Tremblay, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the elicited imitation task (EIT) as a tool for measuring linguistic proficiency in a second/foreign (L2) language, focusing on French. Nonnative French speakers (n = 94) and native French speakers (n = 6) completed an EIT that included 50 sentences varying in length and complexity. Three raters evaluated productions on…

  16. Eliciting, Identifying, Interpreting, and Responding to Students' Ideas: Teacher Candidates' Growth in Formative Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used…

  17. Effects of diazepam on auditory evoked potentials of rats elicited in a ten-tone paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, M.L.A.; Rijn, C.M. van; Schaijk, W.J. van; Coenen, A.M.L.; Dirksen, R.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of diazepam on sensory gating was studied in rats, by measuring diazepam effects on Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) elicited in a ten-tone paradigm. Trains of 10 repetitive tone-pip stimuli were presented. Rats (n=8) received 4 mg.kg-1 diazepam s.c. or vehicle, counterbalanced over two

  18. Using a knowledge elicitation method to specify the business model of a human factors organization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; van de Ven, Josine; Hoffman, Robert R.; Moon, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a

  19. "Dare I Ask?": Eliciting Prior Knowledge and Its Implications for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson

    2015-01-01

    This article examines high school teachers' engagement of newcomer English learner students' prior knowledge. Three central research questions guided this study: 1) To what extent do teachers function as mediators of their students' prior knowledge? 2) What goes into teachers' thinking about how and when to elicit prior knowledge? and 3) How do…

  20. Serendipitous search practices of media researchers: Developing techniques to elicit ‘the unforeseen'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    “Serendipitous search practices of media researchers: Developing techniques to elicit ‘the unforeseen’” deals with the relation between serendipity, creativity and search. It presents insights into the role of serendipitous search for media researchers’ unearthing of research ideas and insights.

  1. Eliciting Children's Recall of Events: How Do Computers Compare with Humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martine B.; Wilson, J. Clare; Thomson, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the usefulness of an interactive computer program in eliciting children's reports about an event. Compared results of interviews by computer with interviews with humans with children aged five through eight that showed little benefit in computers over face-to-face interviews. (Author/LRW)

  2. Muscular reflexes elicited by electrical stimulation of the anterior cruciate ligament in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhre-Poulsen, P; Krogsgaard, M R

    2000-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees have impaired proprioception, and, although mechanoreceptors have been found in the ACL, the existence of a reflex elicited from these receptors has not been directly demonstrated in humans. In eight patients that underwent knee arthroscopy and had...

  3. Allergens in combination have a synergistic effect on the elicitation response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Skov, L; Volund, A

    1998-01-01

    Perfume ingredients were chosen as model substances to study the effect of allergens in combination on the elicitation response. Two groups of eczema patients were studied. One consisted of 18 subjects with a contact allergy to two fragrance substances and the other was a control group of 15...

  4. Breaking Narrative Ground: Innovative Methods for Rigorously Eliciting and Assessing Patient Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Rachel; Schlesinger, Mark; Parker, Andrew M; Shaller, Dale; Barre, Lacey Rose; Martino, Steven C; Finucane, Melissa L; Rybowski, Lise; Cerully, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    To design a methodology for rigorously eliciting narratives about patients' experiences with clinical care that is potentially useful for public reporting and quality improvement. Two rounds of experimental data (N = 48 each) collected in 2013-2014, using a nationally representative Internet panel. Our study (1) articulates and operationalizes criteria for assessing narrative elicitation protocols; (2) establishes a "gold standard" for assessment of such protocols; and (3) creates and tests a protocol for narratives about outpatient treatment experiences. We randomized participants between telephone and web-based modalities and between protocols placed before and after a closed-ended survey. Elicited narratives can be assessed relative to a gold standard using four criteria: (1) meaningfulness, (2) completeness, (3) whether the narrative accurately reflects the balance of positive and negative events, and (4) representativeness, which reflects the protocol's performance across respondent subgroups. We demonstrate that a five-question protocol that has been tested and refined yields three- to sixfold increases in completeness and four- to tenfold increases in meaningfulness, compared to a single open-ended question. It performs equally well for healthy and sick patients. Narrative elicitation protocols suitable for inclusion in extant patient experience surveys can be designed and tested against objective performance criteria, thus advancing the science of public reporting. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. Assessing Second-Language Oral Proficiency for Research: The Spanish Elicited Imitation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Harriet Wood

    2016-01-01

    Proficiency is a key variable in late second language (L2) learning, but one that is undermeasured in current research. This study investigates whether L2 oral proficiency can be quickly and reliably assessed via the Spanish "elicited imitation task" (EIT; Ortega, Iwashita, Rabie, & Norris, 1999). Thirty-seven L2 learners of Spanish…

  6. Mike"s Conker: a collaborative nonlinear knowledge elicitation repository for mobile HCI practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamedally, Dean; Edlich, Stefan; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Petrie, Helen

    2005-03-01

    In the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), we use a variety of Knowledge Elicitation (KE) techniques to capture user cognitive issues e.g. via interviews, paper prototyping, card sorting, focus group debates and more. MIKE (Mobile Interactive Knowledge Elicitation) is an ongoing research direction to enhance the KE capabilities of HCI practitioners via mobile and electronic methods. MIKE tools are a suite of Mobile HCI software and hardware configurations for a variety of mobile platforms. With MIKE's CONKER we describe a Collaborative Non-linear Knowledge Elicitation Repository for HCI practitioners. Its intention is to provide a scalable infrastructure for supporting the management and collaborative retrieval of mobile based KE datasets. Some of its functional design requirements include HCI practitioner profiles management, managing experimental progress from dispersed mobile HCI teams, timetabling expenditures for time critical empirical capture and participant management, and enabling concurrent HCI specialists to compare elicited mobile data. Further expansion of the CONKER system will include incorporation of distributed psychometric analysis methods. CONKER is realized as a sourceforge-alike Web-Portal using state-of-the-art web-framework technologies. We describe several approaches to the capturing and management of HCI data and how CONKER makes this available to the HCI community.

  7. Elicitation Techniques: Getting People to Talk about Ideas They Don't Usually Talk About

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    Elicitation techniques are a category of research tasks that use visual, verbal, or written stimuli to encourage participants to talk about their ideas. These tasks are particularly useful for exploring topics that may be difficult to discuss in formal interviews, such as those that involve sensitive issues or rely on tacit knowledge. Elicitation…

  8. Mixed Adjuvant Formulations Reveal a New Combination That Elicit Antibody Response Comparable to Freund's Adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Rachel P. J.; Seaman, Michael S.; Tonks, Paul; Wegmann, Frank; Seilly, David J.; Frost, Simon D. W.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David C.; Dey, Antu K.; Srivastava, Indresh K.; Sattentau, Quentin; Barnett, Susan W.; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvant formulations capable of inducing high titer and high affinity antibody responses would provide a major advance in the development of vaccines to viral infections such as HIV-1. Although oil-in-water emulsions, such as Freund's adjuvant (FCA/FIA), are known to be potent, their toxicity and reactogenicity make them unacceptable for human use. Here, we explored different adjuvants and compared their ability to elicit antibody responses to FCA/FIA. Recombinant soluble trimeric HIV-1 gp140 antigen was formulated in different adjuvants, including FCA/FIA, Carbopol-971P, Carbopol-974P and the licensed adjuvant MF59, or combinations of MF59 and Carbopol. The antigen-adjuvant formulation was administered in a prime-boost regimen into rabbits, and elicitation of antigen binding and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) was evaluated. When used individually, only FCA/FIA elicited significantly higher titer of nAbs than the control group (gp140 in PBS (pCarbopol-971P and MF59 induced potent adjuvant activity with significantly higher titer nAbs than FCA/FIA (pCarbopol-971P and MF59 is unusually potent for eliciting nAbs to a variety of HIV-1 nAb epitopes. PMID:22509385

  9. Mixed adjuvant formulations reveal a new combination that elicit antibody response comparable to Freund's adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Rachel P J; Seaman, Michael S; Tonks, Paul; Wegmann, Frank; Seilly, David J; Frost, Simon D W; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Dey, Antu K; Srivastava, Indresh K; Sattentau, Quentin; Barnett, Susan W; Heeney, Jonathan L

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvant formulations capable of inducing high titer and high affinity antibody responses would provide a major advance in the development of vaccines to viral infections such as HIV-1. Although oil-in-water emulsions, such as Freund's adjuvant (FCA/FIA), are known to be potent, their toxicity and reactogenicity make them unacceptable for human use. Here, we explored different adjuvants and compared their ability to elicit antibody responses to FCA/FIA. Recombinant soluble trimeric HIV-1 gp140 antigen was formulated in different adjuvants, including FCA/FIA, Carbopol-971P, Carbopol-974P and the licensed adjuvant MF59, or combinations of MF59 and Carbopol. The antigen-adjuvant formulation was administered in a prime-boost regimen into rabbits, and elicitation of antigen binding and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) was evaluated. When used individually, only FCA/FIA elicited significantly higher titer of nAbs than the control group (gp140 in PBS (pCarbopol-971P and MF59 induced potent adjuvant activity with significantly higher titer nAbs than FCA/FIA (pCarbopol-971P and MF59 is unusually potent for eliciting nAbs to a variety of HIV-1 nAb epitopes.

  10. Eliciting and Developing Teachers' Conceptions of Random Processes in a Probability and Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Toni M.; Hjalmarson, Margret A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine prospective mathematics specialists' engagement in an instructional sequence designed to elicit and develop their understandings of random processes. The study was conducted with two different sections of a probability and statistics course for K-8 teachers. Thirty-two teachers participated. Video analyses…

  11. Elicitation of Valerenic Acid in the Hairy Root Cultures of Valeriana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    simulate pathogen-induced plant defense responses. Successful induction of valepotriate has been reported in adventitious roots of. Valeriana amurensis by biotic and abiotic elicitors. [15]. The effect of elicitors depends on several parameters such as elicitor concentration, age of culture at the time of elicitation, cell line and.

  12. Theatre Elicitation: developing a potentially child-friendly method with children aged 8–12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Sandra J.T.M.; Roerig, S.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the growing body of literature published in Children Geographies on the importance of involving children in research processes. Inspired by participatory creative methods such as photo elicitation and popular/forum theatre, we have developed a potentially child-friendly tool

  13. Deriving Childhood Temperament Measures from Emotion-Eliciting Behavioral Episodes: Scale Construction and Initial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific…

  14. Lexical Difficulty--Using Elicited Imitation to Study Child L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, Dorota E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a post-hoc analysis of the influence of lexical difficulty of cue sentences on performance in an elicited imitation (EI) task to assess oral production skills for 645 child L2 English learners in instructional settings. This formed part of a large-scale investigation into effectiveness of foreign language teaching in Polish…

  15. Using expert elicitation to quantify catchment water balances and their uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebok, E.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Warmink, Jord Jurriaan; Stisen, S.; Jensen, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation with the participation of 35 experts was used to estimate a water balance for the nested Ahlergaarde and Holtum catchments in Western Denmark. Average annual values of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and surface runoff as well as subsurface outflow and recharge and their

  16. Variation in accumulation of isoflavonoids in Phaseoleae seedlings elicited by Rhizopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Andini, Silvia; Bettonvil, Monique; Severing, Eduard; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Seeds from seven species of tribe Phaseoleae, i.e. Phaseolus, Vigna, Lablab and Psophocarpus, were investigated for inducibility of isoflavonoids by germination with or without subsequent elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae. Germination alone poorly induced isoflavonoid production (in the range of

  17. Variation in accumulation of isoflavonoids in Phaseoleae seedlings elicited by Rhizopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Andini, Silvia; Bettonvil, Monique; Severing, Edouard; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Seeds from seven species of tribe Phaseoleae, i.e. Phaseolus, Vigna, Lablab and Psophocarpus, were investigated for inducibility of isoflavonoids by germination with or without subsequent elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae. Germination alone poorly induced isoflavonoid production (in the range of 0.2-0.7 mg representative compound equivalents (RCE)/g DW), whereas application of Rhizopus onto the seedlings increased the isoflavonoid content considerably (in the range of 0.5-3.3 mg RCE/g DW). The inducibility of different isoflavonoid subclasses in seedlings with Rhizopus varied per species. Isoflavones and isoflavanones were mainly found in elicited seedlings of Phaseolus, Vigna and Lablab, whereas pterocarpans were mainly observed in those of Psophocarpus. Despite their phylogenetic relatedness, the seeds of various species within Phaseoleae appeared to respond differently towards elicitation by Rhizopus during germination. The kind of molecules induced followed the phylogenetic relationship of the various species, but their amounts induced during germination, alone or combined with elicitation, did not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Negative brain potentials elicited by an unexpected color patch or word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, J; Yagi, A

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a physical stimulus that deviates from a semantic context can elicit the N400 component of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). ERPs were recorded while 12 students judged the veracity of a simple statement (e.g., red/is not/blue) presented with the order of subject (S), object (O), and verb (V), which is normal in Japanese grammar. In one condition, S was a color patch and O was a word representing the color, while in the other condition, S was a color name and O was a patch. In both conditions, a late additional negative potential was elicited by the O stimulus when it was mismatched with S. In addition, the negativities elicited by the incongruous color patch and word had the same morphology and scalp distribution. The results indicate that not only a word but a physical stimulus which deviates from a semantic context can elicit the N400 component.

  19. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  20. Explaining Distortions in Utility Elicitation through the Rank-Dependent Model for Risky Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter); A.M. Stiggelbout (Anne)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe standard gamble (SG) method has been accepted as the gold standard for the elicitation of utility when risk or uncertainty is involved in decisions, and thus for the measurement of utility in medical decisions. Unfortunately, the SG method is distorted by a general dislike for

  1. RiskREP: Risk-Based Security Requirements Elicitation and Prioritization (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Andrea; Morali, A.

    2010-01-01

    Today, companies are required to be in control of the security of their IT assets. This is especially challenging in the presence of limited budgets and conflicting requirements. Here, we present Risk-Based Requirements Elicitation and Prioritization (RiskREP), a method for managing IT security

  2. Infection-derived lipids elicit a novel immune deficiency circuitry in arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect Immune Deficiency (IMD) pathway resembles the tumor necrosis factor receptor network in mammals and senses diaminopimelic-type peptidoglycans present in Gram-negative bacteria. Whether unidentified chemical moieties elicit the IMD signaling cascade remains unknown. Here, we disclose thoug...

  3. The capsaicin cough reflex in patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, H.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mosbech, H.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with multiple chemical sensitivity and eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals have enhanced cough reflex to capsaicin when applying the tidal breathing method. The aims of the present study were to test whether the capsaicin induced cough reflex was enhanced w...

  4. Reexamining Elicited Imitation as a Measure of Implicit Grammatical Knowledge and Beyond…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarandi, Hedayat

    2015-01-01

    This study examines elicited imitation (EI) both as a measure of implicit grammatical knowledge and more global semantic and syntactic knowledge. It also examines whether length affects the difficulty of EI tests when they contain both grammatical and ungrammatical items. Fifty language learners took an EI test and an oral narrative task. The data…

  5. Elicited Imitation in Second Language Learners. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamayan, Else; And Others

    Three groups of subjects were tested in an elicited imitation study. These were 8-year-old, 11-year-old and adult native speakers of Arabic who were learning English as a second language. The subjects were asked to repeat sentences of seven different grammatical structure types. Previous research with 4-year-old native speakers of English (Smith,…

  6. Collage Life Story Elicitation Technique: A Representational Technique for Scaffolding Autobiographical Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.

    2010-01-01

    A basic premise in narrative therapy and inquiry is that life story telling is a mechanism by which experiences are rendered meaningful within some form of structure. However, narrative inquiry has to take cognisance of difficulties ensuing from discursive practices for different populations when eliciting their life stories. In this article I…

  7. The novel interaction between Phytophthora ramorum and wildfire elicits elevated ambrosia beetle landing rates on tanoak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia M. Beh; Margaret Metz; Steven J. Seybold; David Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Beh, Maia M.; Metz, Margaret; Seybold, Steven J.; Rizzo, David. 2013. The novel interaction between Phytophthora ramorum and wildfire elicits elevated ambrosia beetle landing rates on tanoak. In: Frankel, S.J.; Kliejunas, J.T.; Palmieri, K.M.; Alexander, J.M. tech. coords. Proceedings of the sudden oak death fifth science symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep...

  8. Fotohistorias : Participatory photography as a methodology to elicit the life experiences of migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yefimova, Katya; Neils, Moriah; Newell, Bryce; Gomez, Ricardo

    We present the results of a participatory photography approach to eliciting the life experiences and worldviews of undocumented Hispanic migrants at the U.S.-Mexico border. While offering a space for reflection, Fotohistorias explores how undocumented migrants at the U.S.-Mexico border express their

  9. Alcohol odor elicits appetitive facial expressions in human neonates prenatally exposed to the drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faas, Ana E; March, Samanta M; Moya, Pedro R; Molina, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    Specific memories arise during prenatal life as a function of fetal processing of chemosensory stimuli present in the amniotic fluid. Preclinical studies indicate that fetal exposure to alcohol modifies subsequent neonatal and infantile responsiveness towards the sensory attributes of the drug. It has been previously demonstrated that 1-2day-old human neonates recognize ethanol odor as a function of moderate maternal alcohol consumption during gestation. In the present study 7-14day-old newborns were assessed in terms of behavioral responsiveness to alcohol's chemosensory attributes or to a novel odor (lemon). These newborns were representative of mothers that exhibited infrequent or frequent alcohol drinking patterns during pregnancy. Different clinical assessments indicated that all newborns did not suffer congenital or genetic diseases and that they were completely healthy when behaviorally evaluated. Testing was defined by brief presentations of ethanol or lemon odorants. Two sequences of olfactory stimulation were employed. One sequence included five initial trials defined by ethanol odor stimulation followed by one trial with lemon and five additional trials with the scent of the drug (EtOH-Lem-EtOH). The alternative sequence (Lem-EtOH-Lem) was primarily defined by lemon olfactory exposure. The dependent variables under analysis were duration and frequency of overall body movements and of facial expressions categorized as aversive or appetitive. The main results of this study were as follows: a) at the end of the testing procedure and independent of the sequence of olfactory stimulation, babies born to frequent drinkers exhibited signs of distress as operationalized through higher durations of aversive facial expressions, b) despite this effect, babies born to frequent drinkers relative to newborns delivered by infrequent drinkers exhibited significantly higher frequencies of appetitive facial responses when primarily stimulated with ethanol odor (Et

  10. Amyloid β oligomers elicit mitochondrial transport defects and fragmentation in a time-dependent and pathway-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yanfang; Zheng, James Q

    2016-08-17

    Small oligomeric forms of amyloid-β (Aβ) are believed to be the culprit for declined brain functions in AD in part through their impairment of neuronal trafficking and synaptic functions. However, the precise cellular actions of Aβ oligomers and underlying mechanisms in neurons remain to be fully defined. Previous studies have identified mitochondria as a major target of Aβ toxicity contributing to early cognitive decline and memory loss in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we report that Aβ oligomers acutely elicit distinct effects on the transport and integrity of mitochondria. We found that acute exposure of hippocampal neurons to Aβ oligomers from either synthetic peptides or AD brain homogenates selectively impaired fast transport of mitochondria without affecting the movement of late endosomes and lysosomes. Extended exposure of hipoocampal neurons to Aβ oligomers was found to result in mitochondrial fragmentation. While both mitochondrial effects induced by Aβ oligomers can be abolished by the inhibition of GSK3β, they appear to be independent from each other. Aβ oligomers impaired mitochondrial transport through HDAC6 activation whereas the fragmentation involved the GTPase Drp-1. These results show that Aβ oligomers can acutely disrupt mitochondrial transport and integrity in a time-dependent and pathway-specific manner. These findings thus provide new insights into Aβ-induced mitochondrial defects that may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and AD pathogenesis.

  11. Blockade of cholinergic transmission elicits somatic signs in nicotine-naïve adolescent rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E. Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available High doses of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR antagonist mecamylamine can elicit somatic signs resembling those associated with nicotine withdrawal in nicotine-naïve adult rats. Understanding this phenomenon, and its possible modulation by acute nicotine and age, could inform the use of mecamylamine as both an experimental tool and potential pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence and other disorders. This study evaluated the ability of high-dose mecamylamine to elicit somatic signs in adolescent rats, and the potential for acute nicotine pretreatment to potentiate this effect as previously reported in adults. Single or repeated injections of mecamylamine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, s.c. elicited somatic signs in nicotine-naive adolescents, but this effect was not influenced by two hour pretreatment with acute nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.. In an initial evaluation of the effects of age in this model, mecamylamine (2.25 mg/kg, s.c. elicited somatic signs in nicotine-naive adolescents and adults. This effect was modestly enhanced following acute nicotine injections in adults but not in adolescents, even when a higher nicotine dose (1.0 rather than 0.5 mg/kg, s.c. was used in adolescents to account for age differences in nicotine pharmacokinetics. These studies are the first to show that mecamylamine elicits somatic signs in nicotine-naïve adolescent rats, an effect that should be considered when designing and interpreting studies examining effects of high doses of mecamylamine in adolescents. Our findings also provide preliminary evidence that these signs may be differentially modulated by acute nicotine pretreatment in adolescents versus adults.

  12. Microinjections of urocortin1 into the nucleus ambiguus of the rat elicit bradycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitravanshi, Vineet C.

    2011-01-01

    Urocortins are members of the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family. Urocortin1 (UCN1) mRNA has been reported to be expressed in the brainstem neurons. The present investigation was carried out to test the hypothesis that microinjections of UCN1 into the nucleus ambiguus (nAmb) may elicit cardiac effects. Urethane-anesthetized, artificially ventilated, adult male Wistar rats, weighing between 300–350 g, were used. nAmb was identified by microinjections of l-glutamate (5 mM, 30 nl). Microinjections (30 nl) of different concentrations (0.062, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mM) of UCN1 into the nAmb elicited bradycardic responses (26.5 ± 1, 30.1 ± 1.7, 46.9 ± 1.7, and 40.3 ± 2.6 beats/min, respectively). These heart rate responses were not accompanied by significant changes in mean arterial pressure. The bradycardic responses to maximally effective concentration of UCN1 (0.25 mM) were significantly (P elicited by UCN1 microinjections into the nAmb. Microinjections of NBI 27914 (1.5 mM) into the nAmb did not alter baroreflex responses. Bilateral vagotomy abolished the bradycardic responses to microinjections of UCN1 into the nAmb. These results indicated that 1) microinjections of UCN1 into the nAmb elicited bradycardia, 2) the bradycardia was vagally mediated, 3) activation of CRF1Rs in the nAmb was responsible for the actions of UCN1, and 4) activation of iGLURs in the nAmb also participated in the bradycardia elicited by UCN1. PMID:20952663

  13. Positive and Negative Ultrasonic Social Signals Elicit Opposing Firing Patterns in Rat Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsana, Ashwini J.; Li, Nanxin; Brown, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are ethologically-essential social signals. Under natural conditions, 22 kHz USVs and 50 kHz USVs are emitted in association with negative and positive emotional states, respectively. Our first experiment examined freezing behavior elicited in naïve Sprague-Dawley rats by a 22 kHz USV, a 50 kHz USV, and frequency-matched tones. None of the stimuli elicited freezing, which is the most commonly-used index of fear. The second experiment examined single-unit responses to these stimuli in the amygdala (AM), which is well-known for its role in innate and acquired fear responses. Among 127 well-discriminated single units, 82% were auditory-responsive. Elicited firing patterns were classified using a multidimensional scheme that included transient (phasic) responses to the stimulus onsets and/or offsets as well as sustained (tonic) responses during the stimulus. Tonic responses, which are not ordinarily evaluated in AM, were 4.4-times more common than phasic responses. The 22 kHz stimuli tended to elicit tonic increases in the firing rates, whereas the 50 kHz stimuli more often elicited tonic decreases in firing rates. These opposing tonic responses correspond with the ethological valence of USVs in the two frequency bands. Thus, a relatively-small sample of single-unit responses in AM furnished a more sensitive index of emotional valence than freezing behavior. Latency analysis suggested that stimuli in the two frequency bands are processed through different pathways to AM. One possible interpretation is that phasic responses in AM reflect the detection of a stimulus change, whereas tonic responses indicate the valence of the detected stimulus. PMID:21911010

  14. Action potential bursts in central snail neurons elicited by procaine: roles of ionic currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Pei-Lin; Tsai, Ming-Cheng; Hsu, Hui-Yu; Yang, Han-Yin; Chuang, Chieh-Min; Chen, Yi-Hung

    2010-10-31

    The role of ionic currents on procaine-elicited action potential bursts was studied in an identifiable RP1 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac, using the two-electrode voltage clamp method. The RP1 neuron generated spontaneous action potentials and bath application of procaine at 10 mM reversibly elicited action potential bursts in a concentration-dependent manner. Voltage clamp studies revealed that procaine at 10 mM decreased [1] the Ca2+ current, [2] the Na+ current, [3] the delayed rectifying K+ current I(KD), and [4] the fast-inactivating K+ current (I(A)). Action potential bursts were not elicited by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), an inhibitor of I(A), whereas they were seen after application of tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a blocker of the I(K)(Ca) and I(KD) currents, and tacrine, an inhibitor of I(KD). Pretreatment with U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, blocked the action potential bursts elicited by procaine. U73122 did not affect the I(KD) of the RP1 neuron; however, U73122 decreased the inhibitory effect of procaine on the I(KD). Tacrine decreased the TEA-sensitive I(KD) of RP1 neuron but did not significantly affect the I(A). Tacrine also successfully induced action potential bursts in the RP1 neuron. It is concluded that the inhibition on the I(KD) is responsible for the generation of action potential bursts in the central snail RP1 neuron. Further, phospholipase C activity is involved in the procaine-elicited I(KD) inhibition and action potential bursts.

  15. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Safety Risk Knowledge Elicitation in Support of Aeronautical R and D Portfolio Management: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Luxhoj, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Aviation is a problem domain characterized by a high level of system complexity and uncertainty. Safety risk analysis in such a domain is especially challenging given the multitude of operations and diverse stakeholders. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) projects that by 2025 air traffic will increase by more than 50 percent with 1.1 billion passengers a year and more than 85,000 flights every 24 hours contributing to further delays and congestion in the sky (Circelli, 2011). This increased system complexity necessitates the application of structured safety risk analysis methods to understand and eliminate where possible, reduce, and/or mitigate risk factors. The use of expert judgments for probabilistic safety analysis in such a complex domain is necessary especially when evaluating the projected impact of future technologies, capabilities, and procedures for which current operational data may be scarce. Management of an R&D product portfolio in such a dynamic domain needs a systematic process to elicit these expert judgments, process modeling results, perform sensitivity analyses, and efficiently communicate the modeling results to decision makers. In this paper a case study focusing on the application of an R&D portfolio of aeronautical products intended to mitigate aircraft Loss of Control (LOC) accidents is presented. In particular, the knowledge elicitation process with three subject matter experts who contributed to the safety risk model is emphasized. The application and refinement of a verbal-numerical scale for conditional probability elicitation in a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) is discussed. The preliminary findings from this initial step of a three-part elicitation are important to project management practitioners as they illustrate the vital contribution of systematic knowledge elicitation in complex domains.

  17. The extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein elicits atypical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rat and Macaque species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D Curtis

    Full Text Available Atypical models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE are advantageous in that the heterogeneity of clinical signs appears more reflective of those in multiple sclerosis (MS. Conversely, models of classical EAE feature stereotypic progression of an ascending flaccid paralysis that is not a characteristic of MS. The study of atypical EAE however has been limited due to the relative lack of suitable models that feature reliable disease incidence and severity, excepting mice deficient in gamma-interferon signaling pathways. In this study, atypical EAE was induced in Lewis rats, and a related approach was effective for induction of an unusual neurologic syndrome in a cynomolgus macaque. Lewis rats were immunized with the rat immunoglobulin variable (IgV-related extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (IgV-MOG in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA followed by one or more injections of rat IgV-MOG in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA. The resulting disease was marked by torticollis, unilateral rigid paralysis, forelimb weakness, and high titers of anti-MOG antibody against conformational epitopes of MOG, as well as other signs of atypical EAE. A similar strategy elicited a distinct atypical form of EAE in a cynomolgus macaque. By day 36 in the monkey, titers of IgG against conformational epitopes of extracellular MOG were evident, and on day 201, the macaque had an abrupt onset of an unusual form of EAE that included a pronounced arousal-dependent, transient myotonia. The disease persisted for 6-7 weeks and was marked by a gradual, consistent improvement and an eventual full recovery without recurrence. These data indicate that one or more boosters of IgV-MOG in IFA represent a key variable for induction of atypical or unusual forms of EAE in rat and Macaca species. These studies also reveal a close correlation between humoral immunity against conformational epitopes of MOG, extended confluent demyelinating plaques in

  18. The Extracellular Domain of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Elicits Atypical Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Rat and Macaque Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Alan D.; Taslim, Najla; Reece, Shaun P.; Grebenciucova, Elena; Ray, Richard H.; Rosenbaum, Matthew D.; Wardle, Robert L.; Van Scott, Michael R.; Mannie, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are advantageous in that the heterogeneity of clinical signs appears more reflective of those in multiple sclerosis (MS). Conversely, models of classical EAE feature stereotypic progression of an ascending flaccid paralysis that is not a characteristic of MS. The study of atypical EAE however has been limited due to the relative lack of suitable models that feature reliable disease incidence and severity, excepting mice deficient in gamma-interferon signaling pathways. In this study, atypical EAE was induced in Lewis rats, and a related approach was effective for induction of an unusual neurologic syndrome in a cynomolgus macaque. Lewis rats were immunized with the rat immunoglobulin variable (IgV)-related extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (IgV-MOG) in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) followed by one or more injections of rat IgV-MOG in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA). The resulting disease was marked by torticollis, unilateral rigid paralysis, forelimb weakness, and high titers of anti-MOG antibody against conformational epitopes of MOG, as well as other signs of atypical EAE. A similar strategy elicited a distinct atypical form of EAE in a cynomolgus macaque. By day 36 in the monkey, titers of IgG against conformational epitopes of extracellular MOG were evident, and on day 201, the macaque had an abrupt onset of an unusual form of EAE that included a pronounced arousal-dependent, transient myotonia. The disease persisted for 6–7 weeks and was marked by a gradual, consistent improvement and an eventual full recovery without recurrence. These data indicate that one or more boosters of IgV-MOG in IFA represent a key variable for induction of atypical or unusual forms of EAE in rat and Macaca species. These studies also reveal a close correlation between humoral immunity against conformational epitopes of MOG, extended confluent demyelinating plaques in spinal cord

  19. Elicitation Enhanced the Production of Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activities in Hairy Root Cultures of Bitter melon ( Momordica charantia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill-Min Chung

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae is an important vegetable and also medicinal crop which produces the bioactive compounds for various biological activities with potential uses in human health. The present investigation relates to elicitors of jasmonic acid (JA and salicylic acid (SA to enhance biomass accumulation and phenolic compound production in hairy root cultures of M. charantia. Hairy root cultures were elicited with JA and SA at 0, 25, 50 and 100 μM concentrations respectively. The adding of elicitation to the hairy root cultures on the 15th day of culture and the roots were harvested on day 25. Cultures supplemented with 100 μM JA and SA enhanced the phenolic compounds significantly compared to that of non-elicited hairy root cultures. The biomass of hairy root culture significantly increased by SA whereas decreased in JA elicitation at 100 μM. JA and SA-elicited hairy root cultures significantly produced a higher amount of phenolic compounds (12811.23 and 11939.37µg/g, total phenolic (4.1 and 3.7 mg/g and flavonoid (3.5 and 3.2 mg/g contents than non-elicited hairy root cultures (10964.25 µg/g, 2.8 and 2.5 mg/g. JA and SA-elicited hairy root cultures were significantly higher antioxidant activity of DPPH (84 and 78%, reducing potential (0.53 and 0.48, phosphomolybdenum (3.6 and 3.2 mg/g and ferrous ion chelating assays (80 and 74% than non-elicited hairy root cultures. The higher antimicrobial and anticancer activity were exhibited in JA and SA-elicited than non-elicited hairy root cultures. This protocol can be developed for the production of phenolic compounds from JA and SA-elicited hairy root cultures.

  20. Virus-like particles derived from Pichia pastoris-expressed dengue virus type 1 glycoprotein elicit homotypic virus-neutralizing envelope domain III-directed antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Ankur; Ramasamy, Viswanathan; Shukla, Rahul; Rajpoot, Ravi Kant; Arora, Upasana; Jain, Swatantra K; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Khanna, Navin

    2016-06-14

    Four antigenically distinct serotypes (1-4) of dengue viruses (DENVs) cause dengue disease. Antibodies to any one DENV serotype have the potential to predispose an individual to more severe disease upon infection with a different DENV serotype. A dengue vaccine must elicit homotypic neutralizing antibodies to all four DENV serotypes to avoid the risk of such antibody-dependent enhancement in the vaccine recipient. This is a formidable challenge as evident from the lack of protective efficacy against DENV-2 by a tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine that has completed phase III trials recently. These trial data underscore the need to explore non-replicating subunit vaccine alternatives. Recently, using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, we showed that DENV-2 and DENV-3 envelope (E) glycoproteins, expressed in absence of prM, implicated in causing severe dengue disease, self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs), which elicit predominantly virus-neutralizing antibodies and confer significant protection against lethal DENV challenge in an animal model. The current study extends this work to a third DENV serotype. We cloned and expressed DENV-1 E antigen in P. pastoris, and purified it to near homogeneity. Recombinant DENV-1 E underwent post-translational processing, namely, signal peptide cleavage and glycosylation. Purified DENV-1 E self-assembled into stable VLPs, based on electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis. Epitope mapping with monoclonal antibodies revealed that the VLPs retained the overall antigenic integrity of the virion particles despite the absence of prM. Subtle changes accompanied the efficient display of E domain III (EDIII), which contains type-specific neutralizing epitopes. These VLPs were immunogenic, eliciting predominantly homotypic EDIII-directed DENV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies. This work demonstrates the inherent potential of P. pastoris-expressed DENV-1 E glycoprotein to self-assemble into VLPs

  1. Photon emissions from rice cells elicited by N-acetylchitooligosaccharide are generated through phospholipid signaling in close association with the production of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, C; Kato, K; Iyozumi, H; Inagaki, H; Yamaguchi, A; Furuse, K; Baba, K

    2006-01-01

    Biophotons are ultraweak light emissions from biochemical reactions in a living body. They increase in suspension-cultured rice (Oryza sativa L.) cells when elicited by N-acetylchitooligosaccharide. Biochemical analyses were undertaken to investigate the relationship between disease response and biophotons in order to clarify the emission mechanism of biophotons caused by this elicitor. Photon emissions induced by N-acetylchitohexaose were suppressed when cells were pretreated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating inhibitors: pyrocatechol-3,5-disulfonic acid disodium salt (Tiron); diphenylene iodonium (DPI); and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). Conversely, exogenously applied ROS (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) were able to induce photon emissions. The effects of protein phosphorylation (K-252a) and the Ca(2+) signaling inhibitors, ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and LaCl(3), caused photon emissions to decrease. It is clear that photon emissions from rice cells elicited by N-acetylchitohexaose are closely associated with the ROS-generating system, and are regulated by Ca(2+) signaling and protein phosphorylation. Exogenously applied phosphatidic acid (PA), the second messenger in the signal transduction of disease response, raised photon emissions in rice cells. Comparisons of photon emissions from PA and N-acetylchitohexaose regarding time courses, spectral compositions, and the inhibition ratios of several inhibitors, as well as a loss- and gain-of-function assay using the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) and PA, showed the possibility that photon emissions from rice cells elicited by N-acetylchitooligosaccharide were generated through PA, an intermediate of phospholipid signaling.

  2. Plant innate immunity induced by flagellin suppresses the hypersensitive response in non-host plants elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Fong; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Deng, Wen-Ling; Wen, Yu-Der; Huang, Hsiou-Chen

    2012-01-01

    A new pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi (Pav), which causes bacterial spot disease on carambola was identified in Taiwan in 1997. Many strains of this pathovar have been isolated from different locations and several varieties of hosts. Some of these strains, such as HL1, are nonmotile and elicit a strong hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco leaves, while other strains, such as PA5, are motile and elicit a weak HR. Based on the image from a transmission electron microscope, the results showed that HL1 is flagellum-deficient and PA5 has normal flagella. Here we cloned and analyzed the fliC gene and glycosylation island from Pav HL1 and PA5. The amino acid sequences of FliC from HL1 and PA5 are identical to P. s. pvs. tabaci (Pta), glycinea and phaseolicola and share very high similarity with other pathovars of P. syringae. In contrast to the flagellin mutant PtaΔfliC, PA5ΔfliC grows as well as wild type in the host plant, but it elicits stronger HR than wild type does in non-host plants. Furthermore, the purified Pav flagellin, but not the divergent flagellin from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is able to impair the HR induced by PA5ΔfliC. PA5Δfgt1 possessing nonglycosylated flagella behaved as its wild type in both bacterial growth in host and HR elicitation. Flagellin was infiltrated into tobacco leaves either simultaneously with flagellum-deficient HL1 or prior to the inoculation of wild type HL1, and both treatments impaired the HR induced by HL1. Moreover, the HR elicited by PA5 and PA5ΔfliC was enhanced by the addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that the flagellin is one of the PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) contributed to induce the PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Taken together, the results shown in this study reveal that flagellin in Pav is capable of suppressing HR via PTI induction during an incompatible interaction.

  3. Plant innate immunity induced by flagellin suppresses the hypersensitive response in non-host plants elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Fong Wei

    Full Text Available A new pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi (Pav, which causes bacterial spot disease on carambola was identified in Taiwan in 1997. Many strains of this pathovar have been isolated from different locations and several varieties of hosts. Some of these strains, such as HL1, are nonmotile and elicit a strong hypersensitive response (HR in nonhost tobacco leaves, while other strains, such as PA5, are motile and elicit a weak HR. Based on the image from a transmission electron microscope, the results showed that HL1 is flagellum-deficient and PA5 has normal flagella. Here we cloned and analyzed the fliC gene and glycosylation island from Pav HL1 and PA5. The amino acid sequences of FliC from HL1 and PA5 are identical to P. s. pvs. tabaci (Pta, glycinea and phaseolicola and share very high similarity with other pathovars of P. syringae. In contrast to the flagellin mutant PtaΔfliC, PA5ΔfliC grows as well as wild type in the host plant, but it elicits stronger HR than wild type does in non-host plants. Furthermore, the purified Pav flagellin, but not the divergent flagellin from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is able to impair the HR induced by PA5ΔfliC. PA5Δfgt1 possessing nonglycosylated flagella behaved as its wild type in both bacterial growth in host and HR elicitation. Flagellin was infiltrated into tobacco leaves either simultaneously with flagellum-deficient HL1 or prior to the inoculation of wild type HL1, and both treatments impaired the HR induced by HL1. Moreover, the HR elicited by PA5 and PA5ΔfliC was enhanced by the addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that the flagellin is one of the PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns contributed to induce the PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Taken together, the results shown in this study reveal that flagellin in Pav is capable of suppressing HR via PTI induction during an incompatible interaction.

  4. Autophagic degradation of farnesylated prelamin A as a therapeutic approach to lamin-linked progeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cenni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Farnesylated prelamin A is a processing intermediate produced in the lamin A maturation pathway. Accumulation of a truncated farnesylated prelamin A form, called progerin, is a hallmark of the severe premature ageing syndrome, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria. Progerin elicits toxic effects in cells, leading to chromatin damage and cellular senescence and ultimately causes skin and endothelial defects, bone resorption, lipodystrophy and accelerated ageing. Knowledge of the mechanism underlying prelamin A turnover is critical for the development of clinically effective protein inhibitors that can avoid accumulation to toxic levels without impairing lamin A/C expression, which is essential for normal biological functions. Little is known about specific molecules that may target farnesylated prelamin A to elicit protein degradation. Here, we report the discovery of rapamycin as a novel inhibitor of progerin, which dramatically and selectively decreases protein levels through a mechanism involving autophagic degradation. Rapamycin treatment of progeria cells lowers progerin, as well as wild-type prelamin A levels, and rescues the chromatin phenotype of cultured fibroblasts, including histone methylation status and BAF and LAP2alpha distribution patterns. Importantly, rapamycin treatment does not affect lamin C protein levels, but increases the relative expression of the prelamin A endoprotease ZMPSTE24. Thus, rapamycin, an antibiotic belonging to the class of macrolides, previously found to increase longevity in mouse models, can serve as a therapeutic tool, to eliminate progerin, avoid farnesylated prelamin A accumulation, and restore chromatin dynamics in progeroid laminopathies.

  5. A Measure of Proficiency or Short-Term Memory? Validation of an Elicited Imitation Test for SLA Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youjin; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Jung, Yeonjoo

    2016-01-01

    Elicited imitation requires listeners to listen and repeat sentences as accurately as possible. In second language acquisition (SLA) research it has been used for a variety of purposes. Recently, versions of the same elicited imitation test (EIT) have been created in 6 languages with the purpose of measuring second language proficiency (Ortega…

  6. Patch test dose-response study: polysensitized individuals do not express lower elicitation thresholds than single/double-sensitized individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B C; Fischer, Louise Arup; Sosted, H

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not known if reduced elicitation thresholds are evident among polysensitized individuals when using allergens to which the patients are already sensitized. Reduced elicitation thresholds may be an expression of increased reactivity in this patient group. OBJECTIVES: To examine...

  7. DMPD: Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12960231 Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited sign...82. Epub 2003 Jul 22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-media...on through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpathways. Authors Lee C, Liu QH, Tomkowicz B, Yi

  8. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale cohorts and multiomics are critical components of precision medicine. Here we summarize the application of precision medicine to cardiovascular diseases based on cohort and omic studies, and hope to elicit discussion about future health care.

  9. Combination of the two schistosomal antigens Sm14 and Sm29 elicits significant protection against experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaisha, Radwa E; Bahey-El-Din, Mohammed; Mossallam, Shereen F; Amer, Eglal I; Aboushleib, Hamida M; Khalil, Amal M

    2014-10-01

    Schistosomiasis continues to be a serious helminthic disease that is widespread in many regions in the world. Disease management relies mainly on early treatment with praziquantel, nevertheless, re-infection rates can still be high. An effective vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni is still lacking; a situation which hinders the efforts to eradicate the disease worldwide. Most investigators test S. mansoni antigens individually, rather than in combination, in their vaccine trials. A single-antigen vaccine is likely to elicit less protection against schistosomiasis than a multi-antigen vaccine. In the current study, we have selected two promising S. mansoni antigens, Sm14 and Sm29, and investigated their combination as a potential vaccine. Recombinant Sm14 and a truncated form of Sm29, designated TrSm29, were successfully expressed in Escherichiacoli. The two antigens were purified using affinity chromatography and administered to Swiss albino mice individually and in combination. Significant protection against S. mansoni infection was observed in mice immunized with the Sm14/TrSm29 combination in the presence/absence of the immunoadjuvant poly (I:C). The poly (I:C)-adjuvanted combination resulted in 40.3%, 68.2%, and 57.9% reduction in adult worm burden, liver egg burden and intestinal eggs, respectively. Granuloma size and count were also reduced besides improvement of the histopathological picture of livers of immunized mice. This study demonstrates the importance of using multi-antigen vaccines as an effective and simple approach to fulfill enhanced protection against schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Different Types of Resistant Starch Elicit Different Glucose Reponses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, Mark D.; Hubach, Kelcie L.; Al-tamimi, Enas K.; Ornelas, Sammy; Seib, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether different types of resistant starch (RS) elicited different glycemic responses. Eleven healthy subjects consumed solutions containing 30 g of either dextrose (DEX), resistant starch type 2 (RS2), or cross-linked resistant wheat starch type 4 (RS4XL) on three separate occasions, which were assigned randomly. Finger stick blood samples were collected before and over the following two hours and measured for glucose. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for the glucose response was calculated for all trials. The two types of resistant starch significantly (P < .05) decreased iAUC compared with DEX. The response with RS4XL was significantly decreased compared with the RS2 trial. These data demonstrate that different types of resistant starch elicit significantly different glycemic responses. PMID:20700404

  11. Developing a job-exposure matrix with exposure uncertainty from expert elicitation and data modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Heidi J; Vergara, Ximena P; Yost, Michael; Silva, Michael; Lombardi, David A; Kheifets, Leeka

    2017-01-01

    Job exposure matrices (JEMs) are tools used to classify exposures for job titles based on general job tasks in the absence of individual level data. However, exposure uncertainty due to variations in worker practices, job conditions, and the quality of data has never been quantified systematically in a JEM. We describe a methodology for creating a JEM which defines occupational exposures on a continuous scale and utilizes elicitation methods to quantify exposure uncertainty by assigning exposures probability distributions with parameters determined through expert involvement. Experts use their knowledge to develop mathematical models using related exposure surrogate data in the absence of available occupational level data and to adjust model output against other similar occupations. Formal expert elicitation methods provided a consistent, efficient process to incorporate expert judgment into a large, consensus-based JEM. A population-based electric shock JEM was created using these methods, allowing for transparent estimates of exposure.

  12. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  13. Rational Design of Vaccines to Elicit Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of a highly effective AIDS vaccine will likely depend on success in designing immunogens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies to naturally circulating strains of HIV-1. Although the antibodies induced after natural infection with HIV-1 are often directed to strain-specific or nonneutralizing determinants, it is now evident that 10%–25% of HIV-infected individuals generate neutralizing antibody responses of considerable breadth. In the past, only four broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies had been defined, but more than a dozen monoclonal antibodies of substantial breadth have more recently been isolated. An understanding of their recognition sites, the structural basis of their interaction with the HIV Env, and their development pathways provides new opportunities to design vaccine candidates that will elicit broadly protective antibodies against this virus. PMID:22229123

  14. Reward feedback stimuli elicit high-beta EEG oscillations in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HajiHosseini, Azadeh; Hosseini, Azadeh Haji; Holroyd, Clay B

    2015-08-17

    Reward-related feedback stimuli have been observed to elicit a burst of power in the beta frequency range over frontal areas of the human scalp. Recent discussions have suggested possible neural sources for this activity but there is a paucity of empirical evidence on the question. Here we recorded EEG from participants while they navigated a virtual T-maze to find monetary rewards. Consistent with previous studies, we found that the reward feedback stimuli elicited an increase in beta power (20-30 Hz) over a right-frontal area of the scalp. Source analysis indicated that this signal was produced in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These findings align with previous observations of reward-related beta oscillations in the DLPFC in non-human primates. We speculate that increased power in the beta frequency range following reward receipt reflects the activation of task-related neural assemblies that encode the stimulus-response mapping in working memory.

  15. Prey-rolling behavior of coatis ( Nasua spp.) is elicited by benzoquinones from millipedes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Paul J.; Cranmore, Catherine F.; Chatfield, Jenifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Coatis ( Nasua spp.), gregarious, omnivorous carnivores that range in forests from the southwestern USA to south America, dispatch millipedes by rolling them on the ground using rapid, alternating movements of their forepaws. Prey rolling of millipedes is thought to stimulate the depletion of their defensive secretions and to wipe off secretions before millipedes are consumed. We report that prey-rolling behavior in Nasua spp. is elicited by 1,4-benzoquinone; 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone; and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, the chief components of the defensive secretions of julidan, spirobolidan, and spirostreptidan millipedes. Chemicals elaborated for defense sometimes evolutionarily “backfire,” providing cues to predators on the presence or identity of prey. The elicitation of prey-rolling behavior in Nasua spp. by benzoquinones illustrates this effect for millipedes (and possibly other arthropods) that defensively discharge these compounds.

  16. Previously reappraised: the lasting effect of description type on picture-elicited electrocortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Annmarie; Ochsner, Kevin N; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-06-01

    To examine whether reappraisal modifies responses to subsequent encounters with stimuli, participants viewed neutral and unpleasant pictures that were preceded by negative or neutral descriptions which served as reappraisal frames. A half an hour later, the same pictures were presented, without preceding frames; EEG was recorded and participants rated each picture on arousal and valence. In line with previous work, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures elicited more positive early- (359 ms), mid- (1074 ms) and late-latency (2436 ms) centrally-distributed ERP components. Pictures previously preceded by negative compared to neutral reappraisal frames were rated as more unpleasant and more emotionally arousing; these pictures elicited a larger mid-latency (1074 ms) occipital positivity. Together, the data suggest that reappraisal exerts an enduring effect on both subjective and neural responses to stimuli.

  17. A Comparison of Active and Passive Virtual Reality Exposure Scenarios to Elicit Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoones A. Sekhavat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Social phobia is an anxiety disorder that results in an excessive and unreasonable fear of social situations. As a safe and controlled tool, Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET has been used to treat anxiety disorders and phobias. This paper aims to study whether VRET with active scenarios can challenge a person more than passive scenarios. By comparing participants who were exposed to active and passive scenarios in VRET, we show that active scenarios are more effective than passive scenarios to elicit social anxiety in healthy participants. We focus on eliciting social anxiety and creating the sense of presence as two parameters enhancing the efficacy of VRET scenarios.

  18. Gene expression time course in the human skin during elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    Genes involved in the inflammatory response resulting in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are only partly known. In this study, we introduce the use of high-density oligonucleotide arrays for gene expression profiling in human skin during the elicitation of ACD. Skin biopsies from normal...... and nickel-exposed skin were obtained from seven nickel-allergic patients and five nonallergic controls at four different time points during elicitation of eczema. Each gene expression profile was analyzed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Cluster analysis of 74 genes found...... to be differentially expressed in the patients over time revealed that the patient samples may be categorized into two groups: an early time-point group (no clinical reaction) and a late time-point group (clinical reaction). Bioinformatics analyses unraveled the potential involvement of signal transducers...

  19. Square or Sine: Finding a Waveform with High Success Rate of Eliciting SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Teng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP is the brain's natural electrical potential response for visual stimuli at specific frequencies. Using a visual stimulus flashing at some given frequency will entrain the SSVEP at the same frequency, thereby allowing determination of the subject's visual focus. The faster an SSVEP is identified, the higher information transmission rate the system achieves. Thus, an effective stimulus, defined as one with high success rate of eliciting SSVEP and high signal-noise ratio, is desired. Also, researchers observed that harmonic frequencies often appear in the SSVEP at a reduced magnitude. Are the harmonics in the SSVEP elicited by the fundamental stimulating frequency or by the artifacts of the stimuli? In this paper, we compare the SSVEP responses of three periodic stimuli: square wave (with different duty cycles, triangle wave, and sine wave to find an effective stimulus. We also demonstrate the connection between the strength of the harmonics in SSVEP and the type of stimulus.

  20. The capsaicin cough reflex in patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, H; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Mosbech, H

    2010-01-01

    Patients with multiple chemical sensitivity and eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals have enhanced cough reflex to capsaicin when applying the tidal breathing method. The aims of the present study were to test whether the capsaicin induced cough reflex was enhanced...... when applying the single breath inhalation method in similar groups of patients with symptoms related to odorous chemicals e.g. other persons wearing of perfume; and to investigate to what extent the reporting of lower airway symptoms influenced the cough reflex. Sixteen patients fulfilling Cullen......'s criteria for multiple chemical sensitivity and 15 eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals were compared with 29 age-matched, healthy controls. We measured C5--the capsaicin concentration causing five coughs or more--using the single breath inhalation test. No difference was found...

  1. Product information affects perception of sensory, collative properties and elicited emotions of Indonesian tempe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibri, Dwi Larasatie Nur; Frøst, Michael Bom

    of sensory properties, rating of collative properties and elicited emotions. The results show astonishingly large effects of the information (table 1 and 2). The 5 traditional tempes (produced from velvet bean, black soybean, mungbean, jackbean, and local yellow soybean, all inoculated with traditional usar...... inoculum) have significantly different collative properties when information is provided, especially in authenticity and traditional. The elicited emotions that were affected were proud, pleasant and enthusiastic. The five traditional tempes are also more liked when the consumer knows the information...... of the products. The perceived sensory properties measured with CATA were affected significantly by the provided information. In particular the firmness, rancidity, bitterness, umami, and savory were affected. Surprisingly, the soy-based tempes changed substantially in perception, as a result of the production...

  2. No association between oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene polymorphisms and experimentally elicited social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coren L Apicella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OXT has been implicated in a suite of complex social behaviors including observed choices in economic laboratory experiments. However, actual studies of associations between oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene variants and experimentally elicited social preferences are rare. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test hypotheses of associations between social preferences, as measured by behavior in two economic games, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the OXTR gene in a sample of Swedish twins (n = 684. Two standard economic games, the dictator game and the trust game, both involving real monetary consequences, were used to elicit such preferences. After correction for multiple hypothesis testing, we found no significant associations between any of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and behavior in either of the games. CONCLUSION: We were unable to replicate the most significant association reported in previous research between the amount donated in a dictator game and an OXTR genetic variant.

  3. Somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by dorsal penile and posterior tibial nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, D F; Hendricks, S E; Graber, B; Balogh, S E; Wetzel, M

    1989-01-01

    SEPs were elicited by stimulation of the dorsal penile nerve (DPN) or posterior tibial nerve (PTN) under 3 conditions of stimulation: random and constant interstimulus intervals, and subject-initiated stimulation. Within these conditions, the effects of repeated stimulation were also examined. The latency of the N90 peak decreased with repeated stimulation. N90 amplitude decreased with increased foreknowledge as well as with repeated stimulation. Factors extracted by principal components analysis revealed similar effects. A difference between DPN and PTN stimulation was seen in a factor associated with the N90 peak, wherein the condition involving subject self-initiation of the stimulus reflected a significantly greater decrease in SEP amplitude when the DPN was stimulated. Morphological commonalities were observed in the SEPs elicited by DPN and PTN for a given subject.

  4. Spinal Fos labeling and penile erection elicited by stimulation of dorsal nerve of the rat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampin, O; Gougis, S; Giuliano, F; Rousseau, J P

    1997-05-01

    Penile afferents present in the dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) convey sensory information from the penis to the spinal cord and represent the afferent limb of reflexive erections. Immunocytochemical staining of Fos was used to identify spinal neurons that receive excitatory inputs from the DNP in anesthetized rats. Intracavernous pressure (ICP) was recorded as an index of erection. Dissection as well as stimulation of the DNP elicited a comparable increase in Fos staining. Labeling was present in the dorsal horn, the dorsal gray commissure, and the sacral parasympathetic nucleus, supporting the hypothesis of direct or indirect afferent projection from the penis and penile sheath in these areas. No change in ICP was observed in these rats. Stimulation of the DNP elicited both increased Fos labeling and ICP after spinalization, demonstrating the presence of a supraspinal inhibitory control exerted on the polysynaptic intraspinal circuitry responsible for reflexive penile erection.

  5. Viewing pain and happy faces elicited similar changes in postural body sway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gea

    Full Text Available Affective facial expressions are potent social cues that can induce relevant physiological changes, as well as behavioral dispositions in the observer. Previous studies have revealed that angry faces induced significant reductions in body sway as compared with neutral and happy faces, reflecting an avoidance behavioral tendency as freezing. The expression of pain is usually considered an unpleasant stimulus, but also a relevant cue for delivering effective care and social support. Nevertheless, there are few data about behavioral dispositions elicited by the observation of pain expressions in others. The aim of the present research was to evaluate approach-avoidance tendencies by using video recordings of postural body sway when participants were standing and observing facial expressions of pain, happy and neutral. We hypothesized that although pain faces would be rated as more unpleasant than the other faces, they would provoke significant changes in postural body sway as compared to neutral facial expressions. Forty healthy female volunteers (mean age 25 participated in the study. Amplitude of forward movements and backward movements in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes were obtained. Statistical analyses revealed that pain faces were the most unpleasant stimuli, and that both happy and pain faces were more arousing than neutral ones. Happy and pain faces also elicited greater amplitude of body sway in the anterior-posterior axes as compared with neutral faces. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between body sway elicited by pain faces and pleasantness and empathic ratings, suggesting that changes in postural body sway elicited by pain faces might be associated with approach and cooperative behavioral responses.

  6. Flammable gas double shell tank expert elicitation presentations (Part A and Part B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-04-17

    This document is a compilation of presentation packages and white papers for the Flammable Gas Double Shell Tank Expert Elicitation Workshop {number_sign}2. For each presentation given by the different authors, a separate section was developed. The purpose for issuing these workshop presentation packages and white papers as a supporting document is to provide traceability and a Quality Assurance record for future reference to these packages.

  7. Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Elicited Different Responses after Infection with Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Junin Virus Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Negrotto, Soledad; Mena, Hebe A.; Ure, Agustin E.; Jaquenod De Giusti, Carolina; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Vermeulen, Elba M.; Schattner, Mirta; Gómez, Ricardo M.

    2015-01-01

    The arenavirus Junin virus (JUNV) is the etiologic agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. We characterized the JUNV infection of human peripheral blood-derived plasmacytoid dendritic cells (hpDC), demonstrating that hpDC are susceptible to infection with the C#1 strain (attenuated) and even more susceptible to infection with the P (virulent) JUNV strain. However, hpDC elicited different responses in terms of viability, activation, maturation, and cytokine expression after infection with both J...

  8. Influenza hemagglutinin stem-fragment immunogen elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies and confers heterologous protection

    OpenAIRE

    Mallajosyula, Vamsee V. A.; Citron, Michael; Ferrara, Francesca; Lu, Xianghan; Callahan, Cheryl; Heidecker, Gwendolyn J.; Sarma, Siddhartha P.; Flynn, Jessica A.; Temperton, Nigel J.; Liang, Xiaoping; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2014-01-01

    Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is the primary target of the humoral response during infection/vaccination. Current influenza vaccines typically fail to elicit/boost broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), thereby limiting their efficacy. Although several bnAbs bind to the conserved stem domain of HA, focusing the immune response to this conserved stem in the presence of the immunodominant, variable head domain of HA is challenging. We report the design of a thermotolerant, disulfide-free, and ...

  9. L1 Shapes L2 Auditory Representation Elicited Imitation of Arabic-Speaking Learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Aquil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L1 interference plays a major role in second language acquisition, as evidenced by empirical studies (Kellerman & Sharwood Smith, 1986. The interference could result from a learner's conscious or unconscious judgment that some linguistic features in L1 and L2 are similar (Odlin, 1989, particularly in phonology (MacKain, Best, & Strange, 1981. This paper reports on two experiments using Elicited Imitation and Reading Tasks to investigate whether L1, Cairene Arabic prosodic strategy of epenthesis to break up consonant clusters is transferred to the participants' English output. Results of Experiment A showed that epenthesis took place more in reading than in repetition, as tested by the Elicited Imitation and Reading Tasks. Mimicking was suspected to be behind the results. To control for mimicking, a second experiment (Experiment B was conducted following the same design, but with the addition of a familiarity task to ensure that the participants knew and understood the words of an utterance and did not just mimic them. Results of Experiment B showed that epenthesis instances were the same in repetition as in reading. Epenthesis of a vowel to break consonant clusters suggests that participants of the study reconstructed the utterances based not only on how English words are stored in their mental representation, but also on Cairene Arabic syllable structure rules. This study, through the usage of Elicited Imitation Task, is able to tap into L2 Arabic speaking learners’ auditory mental representation of L2 input and demonstrate the influence of L1 transfer. Keywords: Elicited imitation, L1 transfer, epenthesis, L2 listening, auditory mental representation

  10. Mixed adjuvant formulations reveal a new combination that elicit antibody response comparable to Freund's adjuvants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel P J Lai

    Full Text Available Adjuvant formulations capable of inducing high titer and high affinity antibody responses would provide a major advance in the development of vaccines to viral infections such as HIV-1. Although oil-in-water emulsions, such as Freund's adjuvant (FCA/FIA, are known to be potent, their toxicity and reactogenicity make them unacceptable for human use. Here, we explored different adjuvants and compared their ability to elicit antibody responses to FCA/FIA. Recombinant soluble trimeric HIV-1 gp140 antigen was formulated in different adjuvants, including FCA/FIA, Carbopol-971P, Carbopol-974P and the licensed adjuvant MF59, or combinations of MF59 and Carbopol. The antigen-adjuvant formulation was administered in a prime-boost regimen into rabbits, and elicitation of antigen binding and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs was evaluated. When used individually, only FCA/FIA elicited significantly higher titer of nAbs than the control group (gp140 in PBS (p<0.05. Sequential prime-boost immunizations with different adjuvants did not offer improvements over the use of FCA/FIA or MF59. Remarkably however, the concurrent use of the combination of Carbopol-971P and MF59 induced potent adjuvant activity with significantly higher titer nAbs than FCA/FIA (p<0.05. This combination was not associated with any obvious local or systemic adverse effects. Antibody competition indicated that the majority of the neutralizing activities were directed to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs. Increased antibody titers to the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER and gp120 V3 were detected when the more potent adjuvants were used. These data reveal that the combination of Carbopol-971P and MF59 is unusually potent for eliciting nAbs to a variety of HIV-1 nAb epitopes.

  11. Five 2-(2-Phenylethylchromones from Sodium Chloride-Elicited Aquilaria sinensis Cell Suspension Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxiu Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Five 2-(2-phenylethylchromones including a new one, (5S,6R,7S,8R-5,8-dichloro-6,7-dihydroxy-2-phenylethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromen-4-one (1, and four known ones (2–5, were isolated from 150 mM NaCl-elicited Aquilaria sinensis cell suspension cultures. In addition, three feruloyl amides (6–8, six nucleosides (9–14, (+-syringaresinol (15, indole-3-carboxaldehyde (16, and two glycosides (17–18 were also obtained. The structures were unambiguously identified by analysis of their UV, IR, NMR, and HRESIMS data. The absolute configuration of the new 2-(2-phenylethylchromone (1 was established by a dimolybdenum tetraacetate-induced circular dichroism experiment. Compared to un-elicited cell lines, the appearance of 2-(2-phenylethylchromones in NaCl-treated cells occurred on the 3rd and 5th days of their treatment. 2-(2-Phenylethylchromones, feruloyl amides, nucleosides, and lignins have been reported to be closely related to plant defense; therefore, the identification of these compounds from NaCl-elicited A. sinensis cell suspension cultures would be useful for further exploring the mechanism of agarwood formation.

  12. Nutritional and Antioxidant Potential of Lentil Sprouts Affected by Elicitation with Temperature Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Baraniak, Barbara

    2014-04-09

    The influences of temperature stress on antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of lentil sprouts were studied. Temperature treatments (TC, 1 h at 4 °C; TH, 1 h at 40 °C) significantly improved the nutraceutical potential without any negative effect on nutritional quality. In comparison to control, elicited sprouts were characterized by elevated content of condensed tannins, flavonoids, and total phenolics. The highest content of total phenolics and flavonoids was determined for 6-day-old TH sprouts -23.7 ± 0.87 and 2.50 ± 0.07 mg/(g of dry weight (DW)), respectively. The general trend of antiradical, lipid preventing, and reducing properties in elicited sprouts indicates a significantly improvement of these activities. The highest reducing power was determined for 6-day-old sprouts induced at TH (0.43 ± 0.02 mmol of Trolox/(g of DW)), while the lowest for 3-day-old sprouts elicited at TC (0.29 ± 0.02 mmol of Trolox/(g of DW)). Both modifications effectively elevated the ability to prevent lipids against oxidation (in 3-day-old sprouts a 3.3- and 4-fold increase for TC and TH, respectively).

  13. Allergenic sensitization versus elicitation risk criteria for novel food proteins - short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Ladics, Gregory S

    2018-02-23

    The value of criteria used in the weight-of-evidence assessment of allergenic risk of genetically modified (GM) crops has been debated. This debate may originate, in part, from not specifying if the criteria are intended to contribute to the assessment of sensitization risk or elicitation risk. Here, this distinction is explicitly discussed in the context of exposure and hazard. GM crops with structural relationships with known allergens or sourced from an organism known to cause allergy (hazard) are screened for IgE-antibody reactivity using serum from sensitized individuals. If IgE reactivity is observed, the GM crop is not developed. While digestive and heat stability impact exposure and thus the elicitation risk to sensitized individuals, these attributes are not interpretable relative to sensitization risk. For novel food proteins with no identified hazard, heat stability cannot be validly assessed because relevant IgE antibodies are not available. Likewise, the uncertain and sometime non-monotonic dose relationship between oral exposure to allergens and sensitization makes digestive stability a poor predictor of sensitization risk. It is hoped that by explicitly distinguishing between sensitization risk and elicitation risk, some of the debate surrounding the weight-of evidence criteria for predicting the allergenic risk of GM crops can be resolved. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts.

  15. Eliciting Preferences on Secondary Findings: The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results (PIGSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kyle B.; East, Kelly M.; Kelley, Whitley V.; Frances Wright, M.; Westbrook, Matthew J.; Rich, Carla A.; Bowling, Kevin M.; Lose, Edward J.; Martina Bebin, E.; Simmons, Shirley; Myers, John A.; Barsh, Greg; Myers, Richard M.; Cooper, Greg M.; Pulley, Jill M.; Rothstein, Mark A.; Wright Clayton, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Eliciting and understanding patient and research participant preferences regarding return of secondary test results is a key aspect of genomic medicine. A valid instrument should be easily understood without extensive pre-test counseling, while still faithfully eliciting patients’ preferences. Methods We conducted focus groups with 110 adults to understand patient perspectives on secondary genomic findings and the role preferences should play. We then developed and refined a draft instrument, and used it to elicit preferences from parents participating in a genomic sequencing study in children with intellectual disabilities. Results Patients preferred filtering of secondary genomic results to avoid information overload and to avoid learning what the future holds, among other reasons. Patients preferred to make autonomous choices about which categories of results to receive and to have their choices applied automatically before results are returned to them and their clinicians. The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results (PIGSR) is designed to be completed by patients or research participants without assistance and to guide bioinformatic analysis of genomic raw data. Most participants wanted to receive all secondary results, but a significant minority indicated other preferences. Conclusions Our novel instrument – PIGSR – should be useful in a wide range of clinical and research settings. PMID:27561086

  16. Eliciting preferences on secondary findings: the Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kyle B; East, Kelly M; Kelley, Whitley V; Wright, M Frances; Westbrook, Matthew J; Rich, Carla A; Bowling, Kevin M; Lose, Edward J; Bebin, E Martina; Simmons, Shirley; Myers, John A; Barsh, Greg; Myers, Richard M; Cooper, Greg M; Pulley, Jill M; Rothstein, Mark A; Clayton, Ellen Wright

    2017-03-01

    Eliciting and understanding patient and research participant preferences regarding return of secondary test results are key aspects of genomic medicine. A valid instrument should be easily understood without extensive pretest counseling while still faithfully eliciting patients' preferences. We conducted focus groups with 110 adults to understand patient perspectives on secondary genomic findings and the role that preferences should play. We then developed and refined a draft instrument and used it to elicit preferences from parents participating in a genomic sequencing study in children with intellectual disabilities. Patients preferred filtering of secondary genomic results to avoid information overload and to avoid learning what the future holds, among other reasons. Patients preferred to make autonomous choices about which categories of results to receive and to have their choices applied automatically before results are returned to them and their clinicians. The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results (PIGSR) is designed to be completed by patients or research participants without assistance and to guide bioinformatic analysis of genomic raw data. Most participants wanted to receive all secondary results, but a significant minority indicated other preferences. Our novel instrument-PIGSR-should be useful in a wide variety of clinical and research settings.Genet Med 19 3, 337-344.

  17. Eliciting, Identifying, Interpreting, and Responding to Students' Ideas: Teacher Candidates' Growth in Formative Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used to support all students in learning science successfully. This study follows seven secondary science teacher candidates in a yearlong practice-based methods course. Course assignments (i.e., plans for and reflections on teaching) as well as teaching videos were analyzed using a recursive qualitative approach. In this paper, we present themes and patterns in teacher candidates' abilities to elicit, identify, interpret, and respond to students' ideas. Specifically, we found that those teacher candidates who grew in the ways in which they elicited students' ideas from fall to spring were also those who were able to adopt a more balanced reflection approach (considering both teacher and student moves). However, we found that even the teacher candidates who grew in these practices did not move toward seeing students' ideas as nuanced; rather, they saw students' ideas in a dichotomous fashion: right or wrong. We discuss implications for teacher preparation, specifically for how to promote productive reflection and tools for better understanding students' ideas.

  18. High spatial validity is not sufficient to elicit voluntary shifts of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauszek, Joseph R; Gibson, Bradley S

    2016-10-01

    Previous research suggests that the use of valid symbolic cues is sufficient to elicit voluntary shifts of attention. The present study interpreted this previous research within a broader theoretical context which contends that observers will voluntarily use symbolic cues to orient their attention in space when the temporal costs of using the cues are perceived to be less than the temporal costs of searching without the aid of the cues. In this view, previous research has not addressed the sufficiency of valid symbolic cues, because the temporal cost of using the cues is usually incurred before the target display appears. To address this concern, 70%-valid spatial word cues were presented simultaneously with a search display. In addition, other research suggests that opposing cue-dependent and cue-independent spatial biases may operate in these studies and alter standard measures of orienting. After identifying and controlling these opposing spatial biases, the results of two experiments showed that the word cues did not elicit voluntary shifts of attention when the search task was relatively easy but did when the search task was relatively difficult. Moreover, the findings also showed that voluntary use of the word cues changed over the course of the experiment when the task was difficult, presumably because the temporal cost of searching without the cue lessened as the task got easier with practice. Altogether, the present findings suggested that the factors underlying voluntary control are multifaceted and contextual, and that spatial validity alone is not sufficient to elicit voluntary shifts of attention.

  19. Which Clinician Questions Elicit Accurate Disclosure of Antiretroviral Non-adherence When Talking to Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callon, Wynne; Saha, Somnath; Korthuis, P Todd; Wilson, Ira B; Moore, Richard D; Cohn, Jonathan; Beach, Mary Catherine

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated how clinicians assess antiretroviral (ARV) adherence in clinical encounters, and which questions elicit accurate responses. We conducted conversation analysis of audio-recorded encounters between 34 providers and 58 patients reporting ARV non-adherence in post-encounter interviews. Among 42 visits where adherence status was unknown by providers, 4 providers did not discuss ARVs (10 %), 6 discussed ARVs but did not elicit non-adherence disclosure (14 %), and 32 discussed ARVs which prompted disclosure (76 %). Questions were classified as: (1) clarification of medication ("Are you still taking the Combivir?"); (2) broad ("How's it going with your meds?"); (3) positively-framed ("Are you taking your medications regularly?"); (4) negatively-framed ("Have you missed any doses?"). Clinicians asked 75 ARV-related questions: 23 clarification, 12 broad, 17 positively-framed, and 23 negatively-framed. Negatively-framed questions were 3.8 times more likely to elicit accurate disclosure than all other question types (p < 0.0001). Providers can improve disclosure probability by asking directly about missed doses.

  20. Oncolytic Immunotherapy: Dying the Right Way is a Key to Eliciting Potent Antitumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Sheng eGuo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses (OVs are novel immunotherapeutic agents whose anticancer effects come from both oncolysis and elicited antitumor immunity. OVs induce mostly immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD, including immunogenic apoptosis, necrosis/necroptosis, pyroptosis and autophagic cell death, leading to exposure of calreticulin and heat-shock proteins to the cell surface, and/or released ATP, high mobility group box-1 [HMGB1], uric acid, and other DAMPs as well as PAMPs as danger signals, along with tumor-associated antigens, to activate dendritic cells (DCs and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Dying the right way may greatly potentiate adaptive antitumor immunity. The mode of cancer cell death may be modulated by individual OVs and cancer cells as they often encode and express genes that inhibit/promote apoptosis, necroptosis or autophagic cell death. We can genetically engineer OVs with death-pathway-modulating genes and thus skew the infected cancer cells towards certain death pathways for the enhanced immunogenicity. Strategies combining with some standard therapeutic regimens may also change the immunological consequence of cancer cell death. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of danger signals, modes of cancer cell death induced by OVs, the induced danger signals and functions in eliciting subsequent antitumor immunity. We also discuss potential combination strategies to target cells into specific modes of ICD and enhance cancer immunogenicity, including blockade of immune checkpoints, in order to break immune tolerance, improve antitumor immunity and thus the overall therapeutic efficacy.

  1. Eliciting Patients’ Health Concerns in Consulting Rooms and Wards in Vietnamese Public Hospitals

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    Huong Thi Linh Nguyen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the doctor’s elicitation of the patient’s presenting health concern in two clinical settings in the Vietnamese public hospital system: the consulting room and the ward. The data were taken from 66 audio-recorded consultations. Our analysis shows that the elicitors used by the doctor in the consulting room often communicate a weak epistemic stance towards the patient’s health issue, while those used in the ward tend to signal a strong epistemic stance. In addition, this contrast between the elicitors employed in the consulting room and the ward is evident in our data regardless of whether the consultation is a first visit or a same follow-up (in which the doctor is the same one that treated the patient on their last visit, though the contrast is less clear for different follow-ups (in which the doctor has not treated the patient before. An additional finding is that the clinical setting has some bearing on the use of inappropriate elicitation formats (in which the doctor opens the visit with an elicitor which is more appropriate for another type of visit. The precise way in which each of the consulting room and the ward operates is, of course, a feature of the Vietnamese public hospital system itself. Hence, the overall contrast between the elicitors and elicitation formats used in these two settings illustrates how, on a more general level, the institutional context can have an impact on doctor-patient communication.

  2. Practical Speech Emotion Recognition Based on Online Learning: From Acted Data to Elicited Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the cross-database speech emotion recognition based on online learning. How to apply a classifier trained on acted data to naturalistic data, such as elicited data, remains a major challenge in today’s speech emotion recognition system. We introduce three types of different data sources: first, a basic speech emotion dataset which is collected from acted speech by professional actors and actresses; second, a speaker-independent data set which contains a large number of speakers; third, an elicited speech data set collected from a cognitive task. Acoustic features are extracted from emotional utterances and evaluated by using maximal information coefficient (MIC. A baseline valence and arousal classifier is designed based on Gaussian mixture models. Online training module is implemented by using AdaBoost. While the offline recognizer is trained on the acted data, the online testing data includes the speaker-independent data and the elicited data. Experimental results show that by introducing the online learning module our speech emotion recognition system can be better adapted to new data, which is an important character in real world applications.

  3. Elicitation by design in ecology: using expert opinion to inform priors for Bayesian statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Samantha Low; O'Leary, Rebecca; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian statistical modeling has several benefits within an ecological context. In particular, when observed data are limited in sample size or representativeness, then the Bayesian framework provides a mechanism to combine observed data with other "prior" information. Prior information may be obtained from earlier studies, or in their absence, from expert knowledge. This use of the Bayesian framework reflects the scientific "learning cycle," where prior or initial estimates are updated when new data become available. In this paper we outline a framework for statistical design of expert elicitation processes for quantifying such expert knowledge, in a form suitable for input as prior information into Bayesian models. We identify six key elements: determining the purpose and motivation for using prior information; specifying the relevant expert knowledge available; formulating the statistical model; designing effective and efficient numerical encoding; managing uncertainty; and designing a practical elicitation protocol. We demonstrate this framework applies to a variety of situations, with two examples from the ecological literature and three from our experience. Analysis of these examples reveals several recurring important issues affecting practical design of elicitation in ecological problems.

  4. Expert elicitation, uncertainty, and the value of information in controlling invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Smith, Brian J.; Bonneau, Mathieu; Martin, Julien; Romagosa, Christina; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Reed, Robert; Eckles, Jennifer Kettevrlin; Vitt, Laurie J.

    2017-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of expert elicitation, explicit recognition of uncertainty, and the value of information for directing management and research efforts for invasive species, using tegu lizards (Salvator merianae) in southern Florida as a case study. We posited a post-birth pulse, matrix model in which four age classes of tegus are recognized: hatchlings, 1 year-old, 2 year-olds, and 3 + year-olds. This matrix model was parameterized using a 3-point process to elicit estimates of tegu demographic rates in southern Florida from 10 herpetology experts. We fit statistical distributions for each parameter and for each expert, then drew and pooled a large number of replicate samples from these to form a distribution for each demographic parameter. Using these distributions, as well as the observed correlations among elicited values, we generated a large sample of matrix population models to infer how the tegu population would respond to control efforts. We used the concepts of Pareto efficiency and stochastic dominance to conclude that targeting older age classes at relatively high rates appears to have the best chance of minimizing tegu abundance and control costs. We conclude that expert opinion combined with an explicit consideration of uncertainty can be valuable in conducting an initial assessment of what control strategy, effort, and monetary resources are needed to reduce and eventually eliminate the invader. Scientists, in turn, can use the value of information to focus research in a way that not only increases the efficacy of control, but minimizes costs as well.

  5. Physiological and self-assessed emotional responses to emotion-eliciting films in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Matilde; Soler, Joaquim; Fernández, Cristina; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Jesús Portella, María; Pérez, Víctor; Alvarez, Enrique; Carlos Pascual, Juan

    2012-12-30

    According to Linehan's biosocial model, the core characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is emotional dysregulation. In the present study, we investigated two components of this model: baseline emotional intensity and emotional reactivity. A total of 60 women, 30 with BPD diagnosis and 30 age and sex-matched healthy subjects (HCs), participated in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated emotional responses to six films designed to elicit discrete emotions (anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement and neutral). The second experiment evaluated emotional reactions to three emotion-eliciting films containing BPD-specific content (sexual abuse, emotional dependence and abandonment/separation). Skin conductance level, heart rate, and subjective emotional response were recorded for each film. Although self-reported data indicated that negative emotions at baseline were stronger in the BPD group, physiological measures showed no differences between the groups. Physiological results should be interpreted with caution since most BPD participants were under pharmacological treatment. BPD subjects presented no subjective heightened reactivity to most of the discrete emotion-eliciting films. Subjective responses to amusement and "BPD-specific content" films revealed significant between-group differences. These findings suggest that the main characteristic of BPD might be negative emotional intensity rather than heightened emotional reactivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Eliciting hyperparameters of prior distributions for the parameters of paired comparison models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA In the study of paired comparisons (PC, items may be ranked or issues may be prioritized through subjective assessment of certain judges. PC models are developed and then used to serve the purpose of ranking. The PC models may be studied through classical or Bayesian approach. Bayesian inference is a modern statistical technique used to draw conclusions about the population parameters. Its beauty lies in incorporating prior information about the parameters into the analysis in addition to current information (i.e. data. The prior and current information are formally combined to yield a posterior distribution about the population parameters, which is the work bench of the Bayesian statisticians. However, the problems the Bayesians face correspond to the selection and formal utilization of prior distribution. Once the type of prior distribution is decided to be used, the problem of estimating the parameters of the prior distribution (i.e. elicitation still persists. Different methods are devised to serve the purpose. In this study an attempt is made to use Minimum Chi-square (hence forth MCS for the elicitation purpose. Though it is a classical estimation technique, but is used here for the election purpose. The entire elicitation procedure is illustrated through a numerical data set.

  7. Recombinant rabies virus particles presenting botulinum neurotoxin antigens elicit a protective humoral response in vivo

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    Andrew W Hudacek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins are one of the most potent toxins found in nature, with broad medical applications from cosmetics to the treatment of various neuropathies. Additionally, these toxins are classified as Category A-Tier 1 agents, with human lethal doses calculated at as little as 90 ng depending upon the route of administration. Of the eight distinct botulinum neurotoxin serotypes, the most common causes of human illness are from serotypes /A, /B, and /E. Protection can be achieved by eliciting antibody responses against the receptor-binding domain of the neurotoxin. Our previous research has shown that recombinant rabies virus–based particles can effectively present heterologous antigens. Here, we describe a novel strategy using recombinant rabies virus particles that elicits a durable humoral immune response against the botulinum neurotoxin receptor binding domains from serotypes /A, /B, and /E. Following intramuscular administration of β-propiolactone-inactivated rabies virus particles, mice elicited specific immune responses against the cognate antigen. Administration of a combination of these vectors also demonstrated antibody responses against all three serotypes based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA measurements, with minimal decay within the study timeline. Complete protection was achieved against toxin challenge from the serotypes /A and /B and partial protection for /E, indicating that a multivalent approach is feasible.

  8. Effects of adjuvants on IgG subclasses elicited by virus-like Particles

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    Visciano Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus-Like Particles (VLPs represent an efficient strategy to present and deliver conformational antigens to the immune system, inducing both arms of the adaptive immune response. Moreover, their particulate structure surrounded by cell membrane provides an adjuvanted effect to VLP-based immunizations. In the present study, the elicitation of different patterns of IgG subclasses by VLPs, administered in CpG ODN1826 or poly(I:C adjuvants, has been evaluated in an animal model. Results Adjuvanted VLPs elicited a higher titer of total specific IgG compared to VLPs alone. Furthermore, while VLPs alone induced a balanced TH2 pattern, VLPs formulated with either adjuvant elicited a TH1-biased IgG subclasses (IgG2a and IgG3, with poly(I:C more potent than CpG ODN1826. Conclusions The results confirmed that adjuvants efficiently improve antigen immunogenicity and represent a suitable strategy to skew the adaptive immune response toward the differentiation of the desired T helper subset, also using VLPs as antigen.

  9. Hybrid Approach for Automatic Evaluation of Emotion Elicitation Oriented to People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, R.; de Ipiña, K. López; Irigoyen, E.; Asla, N.

    People with intellectual disabilities and elderly need physical and intellectual support to ensuring independent living. This is one of the main issues in applying Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into Assistive Technology field. In this sense the development of appropriated Intelligent Systems (ISs) offers new perspectives to this community. In our project a new IS system (LAGUNTXO) which adds user affective information oriented to people with intellectual disabilities has been developed. The system integrates a Human Emotion Analysis System (HEAS) which attempts to solve critical situations for this community as block stages. In the development of the HEAS one of the critical issues was to create appropriated databases to train the system due to the difficulty to simulate pre-block stages in laboratory. Finally a films and real sequences based emotion elicitation database was created. The elicitation material was categorized with more actual features based on discrete emotions and dimensional terms (pleasant, unpleasant). Classically the evaluation is carried out by a specialist (psychologist). In this work we present a hybrid approach for Automatic Evaluation of Emotion Elicitation databases based on Machine Learning classifiers and K-means clustering. The new categorization and the automatic evaluation show a high level of accuracy with respect to others methodologies presented in the literature.

  10. Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in leather and elicitation of eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Barré; Menne, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between the content of Cr(VI) and soluble Cr(III) in leather and the ability of the leather to elicit eczema in chromium allergic patients. An array of chromium-tanned leather samples was analysed for the content of total Cr(VI) and sol......The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between the content of Cr(VI) and soluble Cr(III) in leather and the ability of the leather to elicit eczema in chromium allergic patients. An array of chromium-tanned leather samples was analysed for the content of total Cr......(VI) and soluble Cr(III) using the DIN 53314 and the DS/EN 420 methods. Subsequently, a group of 15 patients with a history of foot eczema and leather exposure was exposed to a selection of 14 chromium- and 1 vegetable-tanned leather sample on the upper back for 48 hr. In addition, one leather sample was used...... not otherwise identified using an ordinary 48-hr exposure period. No relation was observed between the measured content of Cr(VI) and soluble Cr(III) in the leather and the elicitation of eczema. Thus, in order to evaluate the quality of chromium-tanned leather in relation to preventing allergic skin reactions...

  11. Dominant Lyapunov Exponent and Approximate Entropy in Heart Rate Variability during Emotional Visual Elicitation

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    Gaetano eValenza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we characterized the nonlinear complexity of Heart Rate Variability (HRV in short time series. The complexity of HRV signal was evaluated during emotional visual elicitation by using Dominant Lyapunov Exponents (DLE and Approximate Entropy (ApEn. We adopted a simplified model of emotion derived from the Circumplex Model of Affects (CMA, in which emotional mechanisms are conceptualized in two dimensions by the terms of valence and arousal. Following CMA model, a set of standardized visual stimuli in terms of arousal and valence gathered from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS was administered to a group of 35 healthy volunteers. Experimental session consisted of eight sessions alternating neutral images with high arousal content images. Several works can be found in the literature showing a chaotic dynamics of HRV during rest or relax conditions. The outcomes of this work showed a clear switching mechanism between regular and chaotic dynamics when switching from neutral to arousal elicitation. Accordingly, the mean ApEn decreased with statistical significance during arousal elicitation and the DLE became negative. Results are very promising and could be profitably exploited to improve the accuracy of emotion recognition systems based on HRV time series analysis.

  12. Real-time elicitation of moral emotions using a prejudice paradigm.

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    Melike Marethe Fourie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively- and positively-valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46 who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs. Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants’ nonprejudiced self-standards (positive condition, or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition, in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants’ attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride, and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt. In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS scale, reported greater guilt.

  13. Photo-elicitation in lifelong learning of teachers of elementary education

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    Antonio Bautista García-Vera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present and analyze a plan of teacher training. This plan is promoted and supported in the photographs taken by two teachers in their classrooms. Subsequently, through two focus groups, one for each class, we reflect and debate on the content of the photographs. This study is based on three areas of theorizing: teacher reflection on own practice, the essence of experiential image and multimodal literacy of teacher and, finally, the value of the photo- elicitation as a means of storytelling. The question generator that plan was how to materialize represent delayed or experiential image of the teacher to encourage description and, therefore, understanding the experiences of your practice? The response we obtained using photo - elicitation is helping us to further investigate with rigor in human experiences unrelated to the hegemonic visual communication methodologies. Among its benefits within the teacher training, is to recreate the action out of what happened in it and, in parallel, offering the possibility of making visible and discuss conflicts and ethical dilemmas present in it. Thus, the photo- elicitation situations are warm to analyze how and why a teacher has made a decision and no other, because when asked by a choice made is forced to explain his theories, beliefs, values, attitudes.., and only when made explicit, when subjected to public scrutiny, is aware of them. We note that the change in teachers is only possible when it is aware of his theories, beliefs ... and what they entail in teaching.

  14. Quantification of the Impact of the HIV-1-Glycan Shield on Antibody Elicitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tongqing; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Cheng, Cheng; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B. E.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Chambers, Michael; Druz, Aliaksandr; Geng, Hui; McKee, Krisha; Kwon, Young Do; O’Dell, Sijy; Sastry, Mallika; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Xu, Kai; Chen, Lei; Chen, Rita E.; Louder, Mark K.; Pancera, Marie; Wanninger, Timothy G.; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Farney, S. Katie; Foulds, Kathryn E.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Lemmin, Thomas; Narpala, Sandeep; Rawi, Reda; Soto, Cinque; Todd, John-Paul; Shen, Chen-Hsiang; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Yang, Yongping; Zhao, Peng; Haynes, Barton F.; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wells, Lance; Scorpio, Diana G.; Shapiro, Lawrence; McDermott, Adrian B.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2017-04-01

    While the HIV-1-glycan shield is known to shelter Env from the humoral immune response, its quantitative impact on antibody elicitation has been unclear. Here, we use targeted deglycosylation to measure the impact of the glycan shield on elicitation of antibodies against the CD4 supersite. We engineered diverse Env trimers with select glycans removed proximal to the CD4 supersite, characterized their structures and glycosylation, and immunized guinea pigs and rhesus macaques. Immunizations yielded little neutralization against wild-type viruses but potent CD4-supersite neutralization (titers 1: >1,000,000 against four-glycan-deleted autologous viruses with over 90% breadth against four-glycan-deleted heterologous strains exhibiting tier 2 neutralization character). To a first approximation, the immunogenicity of the glycan-shielded protein surface was negligible, with Env-elicited neutralization (ID50) proportional to the exponential of the protein-surface area accessible to antibody. Based on these high titers and exponential relationship, we propose site-selective deglycosylated trimers as priming immunogens to increase the frequency of site-targeting antibodies.

  15. Cryo-thermal therapy elicits potent anti-tumor immunity by inducing extracellular Hsp70-dependent MDSC differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Aili; He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.

    2016-01-01

    Achieving control of metastatic disease is a long-sought goal in cancer therapy. Treatments that encourage a patient’s own immune system are bringing new hopes in reaching such a goal. In clinic, local hyperthermia and cryoablation have been explored to induce anti-tumor immune responses against tumors. We have also developed a novel therapeutic modality of cryo-thermal treatment by alternating liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling and radio frequency (RF) heating, and better therapeutic effect was achieved in treating metastatic cancer in animal model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of systemic immune response elicited by cryo-thermal therapy. In the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model, we found that local cryo-thermal therapy resulted in a considerable reduction of distant lung metastases, and improved long-term survival. Moreover, results of tumor re-challenge experiments indicated generation of a strong tumor-specific immune memory after the local treatment of primary tumors. Our further study indicated that cryo-thermal therapy caused an elevated extracellular release of Hsp70. Subsequently, Hsp70 induced differentiation of MDSCs into mature DCs, contributing to the relief of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and ultimately the activation of strong anti-tumor immune response. Our findings reveal new insight into the mechanism of robust therapeutic effects of cryo-thermal therapy against metastatic cancers. PMID:27256519

  16. Formic and Acetic Acids in Degradation Products of Plant Volatiles Elicit Olfactory and Behavioral Responses from an Insect Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Justin; Robbins, Paul S; Alessandro, Rocco T; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Lapointe, Stephen L

    2016-05-01

    Volatile phytochemicals play a role in orientation by phytophagous insects. We studied antennal and behavioral responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vector of the citrus greening disease pathogen. Little or no response to citrus leaf volatiles was detected by electroantennography. Glass cartridges prepared with β-ocimene or citral produced no response initially but became stimulatory after several days. Both compounds degraded completely in air to a number of smaller molecules. Two peaks elicited large antennal responses and were identified as acetic and formic acids. Probing by D. citri of a wax substrate containing odorants was significantly increased by a blend of formic and acetic acids compared with either compound separately or blends containing β-ocimene and/or citral. Response surface modeling based on a 4-component mixture design and a 2-component mixture-amount design predicted an optimal probing response on wax substrate containing a blend of formic and acetic acids. Our study suggests that formic and acetic acids play a role in host selection by D. citri and perhaps by phytophagous insects in general even when parent compounds from which they are derived are not active. These results have implications for the investigation of arthropod olfaction and may lead to elaboration of attract-and-kill formulations to reduce nontarget effects of chemical control in agriculture. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of US Government 2016.

  17. IL-25 Elicits Innate Lymphoid Cells and Multipotent Progenitor Type 2 Cells That Reduce Renal Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingsong; Niu, Zhiguo; Tan, Jing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Yun; Ma, Haijun; Lee, Vincent W S; Sun, Shuming; Song, Xiangfeng; Guo, Minghao; Wang, Yiping; Cao, Qi

    2015-09-01

    IL-25 is an important immune regulator that can promote Th2 immune response-dependent immunity, inflammation, and tissue repair in asthma, intestinal infection, and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of IL-25 in renal ischemic/reperfusion injury (IRI). Treating IRI mice with IL-25 significantly improved renal function and reduced renal injury. Furthermore, IL-25 treatment increased the levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in serum and kidney and promoted induction of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages in kidney. Notably, IL-25 treatment also increased the frequency of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and multipotent progenitor type 2 (MPP(type2)) cells in kidney. IL-25-responsive ILC2 and MPP(type2) cells produced greater amounts of Th2 cytokines that associated with the induction of M2 macrophages and suppression of classically activated (M1) macrophages in vitro. Finally, adoptive transfer of ILC2s or MPP(type2) cells not only reduced renal functional and histologic injury in IRI mice but also induced M2 macrophages in kidney. In conclusion, our data identify a mechanism whereby IL-25-elicited ILC2 and MPP(type2) cells regulate macrophage phenotype in kidney and prevent renal IRI. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat; Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S; Pushko, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cryo-thermal therapy elicits potent anti-tumor immunity by inducing extracellular Hsp70-dependent MDSC differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Aili; He, Kun; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.

    2016-06-01

    Achieving control of metastatic disease is a long-sought goal in cancer therapy. Treatments that encourage a patient’s own immune system are bringing new hopes in reaching such a goal. In clinic, local hyperthermia and cryoablation have been explored to induce anti-tumor immune responses against tumors. We have also developed a novel therapeutic modality of cryo-thermal treatment by alternating liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling and radio frequency (RF) heating, and better therapeutic effect was achieved in treating metastatic cancer in animal model. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of systemic immune response elicited by cryo-thermal therapy. In the 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model, we found that local cryo-thermal therapy resulted in a considerable reduction of distant lung metastases, and improved long-term survival. Moreover, results of tumor re-challenge experiments indicated generation of a strong tumor-specific immune memory after the local treatment of primary tumors. Our further study indicated that cryo-thermal therapy caused an elevated extracellular release of Hsp70. Subsequently, Hsp70 induced differentiation of MDSCs into mature DCs, contributing to the relief of MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression and ultimately the activation of strong anti-tumor immune response. Our findings reveal new insight into the mechanism of robust therapeutic effects of cryo-thermal therapy against metastatic cancers.

  20. P. falciparum and P. vivax Epitope-Focused VLPs Elicit Sterile Immunity to Blood Stage Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Whitacre

    Full Text Available In order to design P. falciparum preerythrocytic vaccine candidates, a library of circumsporozoite (CS T and B cell epitopes displayed on the woodchuck hepatitis virus core antigen (WHcAg VLP platform was produced. To test the protective efficacy of the WHcAg-CS VLPs, hybrid CS P. berghei/P. falciparum (Pb/Pf sporozoites were used to challenge immunized mice. VLPs carrying 1 or 2 different CS repeat B cell epitopes and 3 VLPs carrying different CS non-repeat B cell epitopes elicited high levels of anti-insert antibodies (Abs. Whereas, VLPs carrying CS repeat B cell epitopes conferred 98% protection of the liver against a 10,000 Pb/Pf sporozoite challenge, VLPs carrying the CS non-repeat B cell eptiopes were minimally-to-non-protective. One-to-three CS-specific CD4/CD8 T cell sites were also fused to VLPs, which primed CS-specific as well as WHcAg-specific T cells. However, a VLP carrying only the 3 T cell domains failed to protect against a sporozoite challenge, indicating a requirement for anti-CS repeat Abs. A VLP carrying 2 CS repeat B cell epitopes and 3 CS T cell sites in alum adjuvant elicited high titer anti-CS Abs (endpoint dilution titer >1x10(6 and provided 80-100% protection against blood stage malaria. Using a similar strategy, VLPs were constructed carrying P. vivax CS repeat B cell epitopes (WHc-Pv-78, which elicited high levels of anti-CS Abs and conferred 99% protection of the liver against a 10,000 Pb/Pv sporozoite challenge and elicited sterile immunity to blood stage infection. These results indicate that immunization with epitope-focused VLPs carrying selected B and T cell epitopes from the P. falciparum and P. vivax CS proteins can elicit sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. Hybrid WHcAg-CS VLPs could provide the basis for a bivalent P. falciparum/P. vivax malaria vaccine.

  1. Smooth pursuit eye movement preferentially facilitates motor-evoked potential elicited by anterior-posterior current in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Ae, Minori; Ogura, Nana; Komuratani, Sayo; Sano, Chisa; Shiomi, Keigo; Morita, Yuji; Yokoyama, Haruka

    2014-03-26

    Neural interaction between the eye and hand movement centers must be a critical part of the mechanism underlying eye-hand coordination. One of the previous findings supporting this view is smooth pursuit eye movement-induced suppression of motor-evoked potential (MEP) in the hand muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine which descending volleys contributing to MEP are preferentially modulated by smooth pursuit eye movement. MEP in the first dorsal interosseous muscle was elicited by different directions of current in the brain during the steady-state phase of smooth pursuit eye movement. Smooth pursuit eye movement facilitated MEP elicited by anterior-posterior (AP) current, but this effect was not seen in MEP elicited by lateromedial or posterior-anterior current. Latency of MEP elicited by AP current was significantly longer than latencies of MEPs elicited by other directions of current, indicating that AP current in the brain predominantly elicited later I-waves. We conclude that smooth pursuit eye movement in the steady-state phase preferentially facilitates MEP predominantly elicited by later I-waves generated by AP current in the brain.

  2. Schistosoma mansoni Infection of Mice, Rats and Humans Elicits a Strong Antibody Response to a Limited Number of Reduction-Sensitive Epitopes on Five Major Tegumental Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautz-Peterson, Greice; Debatis, Michelle; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Oliveira, Sergio C; Da'dara, Akram A; Skelly, Patrick J; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major disease of the developing world for which no vaccine has been successfully commercialized. While numerous Schistosoma mansoni worm antigens have been identified that elicit antibody responses during natural infections, little is known as to the identities of the schistosome antigens that are most prominently recognized by antibodies generated through natural infection. Non-reducing western blots probed with serum from schistosome-infected mice, rats and humans on total extracts of larval or adult schistosomes revealed that a small number of antigen bands predominate in all cases. Recognition of each of these major bands was lost when the blots were run under reducing condition. We expressed a rationally selected group of schistosome tegumental membrane antigens in insect host cells, and used the membrane extracts of these cells to unambiguously identify the major antigens recognized by S. mansoni infected mouse, rat and human serum. These results revealed that a limited number of dominant, reduction-sensitive conformational epitopes on five major tegumental surface membrane proteins: SmTsp2, Sm23, Sm29, SmLy6B and SmLy6F, are primary targets of mouse, rat and human S. mansoni infection sera antibodies. We conclude that, Schistosoma mansoni infection of both permissive (mouse) and non-permissive (rat) rodent models, as well as humans, elicit a dominant antibody response recognizing a limited number of conformational epitopes on the same five tegumental membrane proteins. Thus it appears that neither infecting schistosomula nor mature adult schistosomes are substantively impacted by the robust circulating anti-tegumental antibody response they elicit to these antigens. Importantly, our data suggest a need to re-evaluate host immune responses to many schistosome antigens and has important implications regarding schistosome immune evasion mechanisms and schistosomiasis vaccine development.

  3. Schistosoma mansoni Infection of Mice, Rats and Humans Elicits a Strong Antibody Response to a Limited Number of Reduction-Sensitive Epitopes on Five Major Tegumental Membrane Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Krautz-Peterson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a major disease of the developing world for which no vaccine has been successfully commercialized. While numerous Schistosoma mansoni worm antigens have been identified that elicit antibody responses during natural infections, little is known as to the identities of the schistosome antigens that are most prominently recognized by antibodies generated through natural infection. Non-reducing western blots probed with serum from schistosome-infected mice, rats and humans on total extracts of larval or adult schistosomes revealed that a small number of antigen bands predominate in all cases. Recognition of each of these major bands was lost when the blots were run under reducing condition. We expressed a rationally selected group of schistosome tegumental membrane antigens in insect host cells, and used the membrane extracts of these cells to unambiguously identify the major antigens recognized by S. mansoni infected mouse, rat and human serum. These results revealed that a limited number of dominant, reduction-sensitive conformational epitopes on five major tegumental surface membrane proteins: SmTsp2, Sm23, Sm29, SmLy6B and SmLy6F, are primary targets of mouse, rat and human S. mansoni infection sera antibodies. We conclude that, Schistosoma mansoni infection of both permissive (mouse and non-permissive (rat rodent models, as well as humans, elicit a dominant antibody response recognizing a limited number of conformational epitopes on the same five tegumental membrane proteins. Thus it appears that neither infecting schistosomula nor mature adult schistosomes are substantively impacted by the robust circulating anti-tegumental antibody response they elicit to these antigens. Importantly, our data suggest a need to re-evaluate host immune responses to many schistosome antigens and has important implications regarding schistosome immune evasion mechanisms and schistosomiasis vaccine development.

  4. Group elicitations yield more consistent, yet more uncertain experts in understanding risks to ecosystem services in New Zealand bays

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gerald G.

    2017-08-02

    The elicitation of expert judgment is an important tool for assessment of risks and impacts in environmental management contexts, and especially important as decision-makers face novel challenges where prior empirical research is lacking or insufficient. Evidence-driven elicitation approaches typically involve techniques to derive more accurate probability distributions under fairly specific contexts. Experts are, however, prone to overconfidence in their judgements. Group elicitations with diverse experts can reduce expert overconfidence by allowing cross-examination and reassessment of prior judgements, but groups are also prone to uncritical

  5. Molecular smallpox vaccine delivered by alphavirus replicons elicits protective immunity in mice and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jay W; Ferro, Anthony M; Golden, Joseph W; Silvera, Peter; Dudek, Jeanne; Alterson, Kim; Custer, Max; Rivers, Bryan; Morris, John; Owens, Gary; Smith, Jonathan F; Kamrud, Kurt I

    2009-12-11

    Naturally occurring smallpox was eradicated as a result of successful vaccination campaigns during the 1960s and 1970s. Because of its highly contagious nature and high mortality rate, smallpox has significant potential as a biological weapon. Unfortunately, the current vaccine for orthopoxviruses is contraindicated for large portions of the population. Thus, there is a need for new, safe, and effective orthopoxvirus vaccines. Alphavirus replicon vectors, derived from strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, are being used to develop alternatives to the current smallpox vaccine. Here, we demonstrated that virus-like replicon particles (VRPs) expressing the vaccinia virus A33R, B5R, A27L, and L1R genes elicited protective immunity in mice comparable to vaccination with live-vaccinia virus. Furthermore, cynomolgus macaques vaccinated with a combination of the four poxvirus VRPs (4pox-VRP) developed antibody responses to each antigen. These antibody responses were able to neutralize and inhibit the spread of both vaccinia virus and monkeypox virus. Macaques vaccinated with 4pox-VRP, flu HA VRP (negative control), or live-vaccinia virus (positive control) were challenged intravenously with 5 x 10(6)pfu of monkeypox virus 1 month after the second VRP vaccination. Four of the six negative control animals succumbed to monkeypox and the remaining two animals demonstrated either severe or grave disease. Importantly, all 10 macaques vaccinated with the 4pox-VRP vaccine survived without developing severe disease. These findings revealed that a single-boost VRP smallpox vaccine shows promise as a safe alternative to the currently licensed live-vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine.

  6. Role of LPS-elicited signaling in triggering gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to H. pylori: modulatory effect of ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomiany, B L; Slomiany, A

    2017-08-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a primary culprit in the etiology of gastric disease, and its cell-wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized as a potent endotoxin responsible for triggering a pattern of the mucosal inflammatory responses. The engagement by the LPS of gastric mucosal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) leads to initiation of signal transduction events characterized by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, induction of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, and up-regulation in Src/Akt. These signaling events in turn exert their influence over H. pylori-elicited excessive generation of NO and PGE2 caused by the disturbances in nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase isozyme systems, increase in epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation, and the induction in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) release. Interestingly, the extent of gastric mucosal inflammatory response to H. pylori is influenced by a peptide hormone, ghrelin, the action of which relays on the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a)-mediated mobilization of G-protein dependent transduction pathways. Yet, the signals triggered by TLR-4 activation as well as those arising through GHS-R1a stimulation converge at MAPK and PLC/PKC/PI3K pathways that form a key integration node for proinflammatory signals generated by H. pylori LPS as well as for those involved in modulation of inflammation by ghrelin. Hence, therapeutic targeting these signals' convergence and integration node could provide a novel and attractive opportunities for developing more effective treatments of H. pylori-related gastric disease.

  7. Elicited soybean (Glycine max) extract effect on improving levels of Ter-119+Cd59+ in a mouse model fed a high fat-fructose diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Yunita Diyah; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    People who have unbalanced lifestyles and habits such as consuming high fat and sugar foods, as well as the lack of physical activity, have an increased risk of obesity and related metabolic diseases. The condition of obesity occurs due to an excess of nutrients which leads to low-grade inflammation. Inflammation induced by obesity causes unstable bone marrow homeostasis which is associated with proliferation and differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs). This study aimed to observe the erythroid progenitor (TER-119) and complement regulator (CD59) on bone marrow cells in mouse models fed a high fat-fructose diet (HFFD). This research was conducted by modeling obese mice using high fat and fructose food for 20 weeks, and then treating them with elicited soybean extract (ESE) for four weeks with several doses: low dose (78 mg/kgBB), moderate dose (104 mg/kgBB) and high dose (130 mg/kgBB). Cell TER119+CD59+ expression decreased in the HFFD group compared to the normal group. In the low, moderate and high dose group, TER119+CD59+ expression significantly increased compared to the HFFD group. These results demonstrate that soybean elicited extract can improve the hematopoietic system by increasing TER119+CD59+ expression in a high fat and fructose diet mouse model.

  8. Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX...

  9. Effects of Elicited Reflections combined with Tutor or Peer Feedback on Self-Regulated Learning and Learning Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Boom, Gerard; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Van den Boom, G., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2007). Effects of elicited reflections combined with tutor or peer feedback on self-regulated learning and learning outcomes. Learning and Instruction, 17, 532-548.

  10. Using Photo-Elicitation with Native American Students to Explore Perceptions of the Physical Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Neurohr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – This research project explored Native American students’ perceptions of the Edmon Low Library at Oklahoma State University (OSU. The study sought to understand how Native American students perceived the role of the academic library in their lives, and which elements of the library students depicted and described as holding meaning for them. Methods – Photo-elicitation, a form of visual research and a participatory research method, was the primary method chosen to explore students’ perceptions of the library. To qualify for this study, students self-identified as Native American and as frequent library users. They also had completed three or more semesters of study at OSU. Five students followed a photo prompt for taking at least fifteen pictures of the library, then participated in two separate interviews with the primary researcher. Participants also completed a demographic/questionnaire form, answered semi-structured questions, and ranked the photos they took. Results – This study produced several emergent findings. First, students expressed uncertainty about the library’s books. Second, functional library tools such as express printers and library signage played a valuable role for facilitating student work. Third, the method of photo-elicitation was enjoyable for students and served as library discovery. Fourth, Native American resources and exhibits in the library had varied salience for students. Conclusion – Limited research focuses on Native American students in academic libraries, particularly on how students use and experience the library. Exploring how individual students who identify as Native American perceive the university library enhanced our understanding of how libraries in Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs can best serve and support students. This study provided insight into the method of photo-elicitation interviews. This research also provided practical benefits for student

  11. Influenza immunization elicits antibodies specific for an egg-adapted vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Donald D; Stewart, Shaun M; Lee, Jiwon; Ferdman, Jack; Bajic, Goran; Do, Khoi T; Ernandes, Michael J; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Settembre, Ethan C; Dormitzer, Philip R; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Finco, Oretta; Kang, Tae Hyun; Ippolito, Gregory C; Georgiou, George; Kepler, Thomas B; Haynes, Barton F; Moody, M Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Schmidt, Aaron G; Harrison, Stephen C

    2016-12-01

    For broad protection against infection by viruses such as influenza or HIV, vaccines should elicit antibodies that bind conserved viral epitopes, such as the receptor-binding site (RBS). RBS-directed antibodies have been described for both HIV and influenza virus, and the design of immunogens to elicit them is a goal of vaccine research in both fields. Residues in the RBS of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) determine a preference for the avian or human receptor, α-2,3-linked sialic acid and α-2,6-linked sialic acid, respectively. Transmission of an avian-origin virus between humans generally requires one or more mutations in the sequences encoding the influenza virus RBS to change the preferred receptor from avian to human, but passage of a human-derived vaccine candidate in chicken eggs can select for reversion to avian receptor preference. For example, the X-181 strain of the 2009 new pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, derived from the A/California/07/2009 isolate and used in essentially all vaccines since 2009, has arginine at position 226, a residue known to confer preference for an α-2,3 linkage in H1 subtype viruses; the wild-type A/California/07/2009 isolate, like most circulating human H1N1 viruses, has glutamine at position 226. We describe, from three different individuals, RBS-directed antibodies that recognize the avian-adapted H1 strain in current influenza vaccines but not the circulating new pandemic 2009 virus; Arg226 in the vaccine-strain RBS accounts for the restriction. The polyclonal sera of the three donors also reflect this preference. Therefore, when vaccines produced from strains that are never passaged in avian cells become widely available, they may prove more capable of eliciting RBS-directed, broadly neutralizing antibodies than those produced from egg-adapted viruses, extending the established benefits of current seasonal influenza immunizations.

  12. Eliciting patients' values by use of 'willingness to pay': letting the theory drive the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, C

    2001-09-01

    To describe the three different ways in which 'willingness to pay' (WTP) has been used to elicit patients' values of alternative interventions. For each of the three approaches a survey of patients or the public was undertaken. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: studied For two surveys, the setting was Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, where pregnant women were asked about their WTP for different methods of prenatal screening for cystic fibrosis. In the third survey, parents of primary and secondary schoolchildren were asked about their WTP for different ways of providing child health services. Ability of WTP to discriminate between options (i.e. to say whether one option is 'better' than another) and the consistency of WTP with stated preferences. Experience with some methods shows that, despite the apparent logic of the technique, it is difficult to elicit consistent responses whereby WTP values derived match the rankings of interventions compared. The most promising technique, the 'marginal approach', happens to conform more with economic theory than other approaches. Potential limitations of WTP, such as its association with ability to pay, are discussed, as are approaches to dealing with such problems. Finally, if patients prefer an intervention that is more costly than the status quo, logic dictates that those extra resources will have to be obtained from another health-care programme. In such contexts, to aid decision-making, values derived from members of the community for different programmes may be more relevant than values derived from patients. Initial studies in the use of WTP in this broader context of eliciting community values are also outlined. WTP has potential, but its application, and interpretation, are not straightforward. More testing of the 'marginal approach' is required and greater use of qualitative research, to assess the validity of the approach, should be made in this area.

  13. Effect of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and elicitation on the asiaticoside production in cell cultures of Centella asiatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslan, Komar; Selfitri, Anggrahaeni Dewi; Bulan, Shella A.; Rukayadi, Yaya; Elfahmi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Apiaceae) is an important medicinal plant, and it has been using to prepare herbal medicines. The compounds responsible for the biological activity of C. asiatica are triterpenoids such as asiaticoside. Asiaticoside is also important as a marker for standardization of C. asiatica. Due to the low content, there is a need to enhance the production of asiaticoside of C. asiatica. The biotechnological approach is one of the methods that can be used to enhance its production. Objectives: This study was designed to enhance the production of asiaticoside from C. asiatica using A. rhizogenes and elicitation experiments. Materials and Methods: Callus cultures were initiated using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurin (BAP). All media were supplemented with 4% (w/w) sucrose and solidified with 0.9% agar. Elicitations were done using pectin, methyl jasmonate, and Cu2+ ions. Transformed hairy root cultures were performed using A. rhizogenes. Results: Callus culture of C. asiatica was successfully initiated. Enhancement of the production of asiaticoside in the callus culture by elicitors pectin was up to 31%; methyl jasmonate (50 μM) in cell suspension cultures at day 14 was up to 171% compared to explant and 494% compared to control callus; copper ion (25 μM) at day 21 was up to 144% compared to explant, and 676% compared to control cell suspension cultures. While enhancement by genetic transformation using A. rhizogenes was 166-172% compare to untransformed roots Conclusion: Elicitation and genetically transformed hairy root cultures of C. asiatica produced asiaticoside up to 172% higher than untreated callus. PMID:22701283

  14. Structure-based Design of Cyclically Permuted HIV-1 gp120 Trimers That Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavardhana, Sannula; Das, Raksha; Citron, Michael; Datta, Rohini; Ecto, Linda; Srilatha, Nonavinakere Seetharam; DiStefano, Daniel; Swoyer, Ryan; Joyce, Joseph G; Dutta, Somnath; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Flynn, Jessica A; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2017-01-06

    A major goal for HIV-1 vaccine development is an ability to elicit strong and durable broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses. The trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env) spikes on HIV-1 are known to contain multiple epitopes that are susceptible to bNAbs isolated from infected individuals. Nonetheless, all trimeric and monomeric Env immunogens designed to date have failed to elicit such antibodies. We report the structure-guided design of HIV-1 cyclically permuted gp120 that forms homogeneous, stable trimers, and displays enhanced binding to multiple bNAbs, including VRC01, VRC03, VRC-PG04, PGT128, and the quaternary epitope-specific bNAbs PGT145 and PGDM1400. Constructs that were cyclically permuted in the V1 loop region and contained an N-terminal trimerization domain to stabilize V1V2-mediated quaternary interactions, showed the highest homogeneity and the best antigenic characteristics. In guinea pigs, a DNA prime-protein boost regimen with these new gp120 trimer immunogens elicited potent neutralizing antibody responses against highly sensitive Tier 1A isolates and weaker neutralizing antibody responses with an average titer of about 115 against a panel of heterologous Tier 2 isolates. A modest fraction of the Tier 2 virus neutralizing activity appeared to target the CD4 binding site on gp120. These results suggest that cyclically permuted HIV-1 gp120 trimers represent a viable platform in which further modifications may be made to eventually achieve protective bNAb responses. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Patterns on serpentine shapes elicit visual attention in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombolt, Jessica R; Caine, Nancy G

    2016-09-01

    Given the prevalence of threatening snakes in the evolutionary history, and modern-day environments of human and nonhuman primates, sensory, and perceptual abilities that allow for quick detection of, and appropriate response to snakes are likely to have evolved. Many studies have demonstrated that primates recognize snakes faster than other stimuli, and it is suggested that the unique serpentine shape is responsible for its quick detection. However, there are many nonthreatening serpentine shapes in the environment (e.g., vines) that are not threatening; therefore, other cues must be used to distinguish threatening from benign serpentine objects. In two experiments, we systematically evaluated how common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) visually attend to specific snake-like features. In the first experiment, we examined if skin pattern is a cue that elicits increased visual inspection of serpentine shapes by measuring the amount of time the marmosets looked into a blind before, during, and after presentation of clay models with and without patterns. The marmosets spent the most time looking at the objects, both serpentine and triangle, that were etched with scales, suggesting that something may be uniquely salient about scales in evoking attention. In contrast, they showed relatively little interest in the unpatterned serpentine and control (a triangle) stimuli. In experiment 2, we replicated and extended the results of experiment 1 by adding additional stimulus conditions. We found that patterns on a serpentine shape generated more inspection than those same patterns on a triangle shape. We were unable to confirm that a scaled pattern is unique in its ability to elicit visual interest; the scaled models elicited similar looking times as line and star patterns. Our data provide a foundation for future research to examine how snakes are detected and identified by primates. Am. J. Primatol. 78:928-936, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  16. Assessing Problematic Substance Use in HIV Care: Which Questions Elicit Accurate Patient Disclosures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callon, Wynne; Beach, Mary Catherine; Saha, Somnath; Chander, Geetanjali; Wilson, Ira B; Laws, Michael Barton; Sharp, Victoria; Cohn, Jonathan; Moore, Richard; Korthuis, P Todd

    2016-10-01

    Substance use is associated with higher rates of antiretroviral non-adherence and poor HIV outcomes. This study examined how HIV care providers assess substance use, and which questions elicit accurate patient disclosures. We conducted a conversation analysis of audio-recorded encounters between 56 providers and 162 patients living with HIV (PLWH) reporting active substance use in post-encounter interviews (cocaine or heroin use in the past 30 days, > 4 days intoxicated in past 30 days, or AUDIT score ≥ 8). We assessed the frequency of substance use discussion, characterized the types of questions used by providers, and determined the frequency of accurate patient disclosure by question type. In 55 reports of active substance use, providers already knew about the use (n = 16) or patients disclosed unpromptednn = 39). Among the remaining 155 instances of substance use in which providers had the opportunity to elicit disclosure, 78 reports (50 %) of substance use were not discussed. Of the remaining 77 reports in which the provider asked about substance use, 55 (71 %) patients disclosed and 22 (29 %) did not disclose. Questions were classified as: open-ended (n = 18, "How's the drinking going?"); normalizing (n = 14, "When was the last time you used?"); closed-ended (n = 36, "Have you used any cocaine?"); leading towards non-use (n = 9, "Have you been clean?"). Accurate disclosure followed 100 % of open-ended and normalizing questions, 58 % of closed-ended questions, and 22 % of leading questions. After adjusting for drug type, closed-ended questions were 41 % less likely (p elicit disclosures. Providers in this sample missed almost half of the opportunities to identify and discuss substance use with PLWH. Providers can increase the probability of patient disclosure by using open-ended or normalizing questions that ask about the "last time" that the patient used drugs or alcohol.

  17. Glucose elicits cephalic-phase insulin release in mice by activating KATP channels in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I; Frim, Yonina G; Hochman, Ayelet; Lubitz, Gabrielle S; Basile, Anthony J; Sclafani, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    The taste of sugar elicits cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), which limits the rise in blood glucose associated with meals. Little is known, however, about the gustatory mechanisms that trigger CPIR. We asked whether oral stimulation with any of the following taste stimuli elicited CPIR in mice: glucose, sucrose, maltose, fructose, Polycose, saccharin, sucralose, AceK, SC45647, or a nonmetabolizable sugar analog. The only taste stimuli that elicited CPIR were glucose and the glucose-containing saccharides (sucrose, maltose, Polycose). When we mixed an α-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose) with the latter three saccharides, the mice no longer exhibited CPIR. This revealed that the carbohydrates were hydrolyzed in the mouth, and that the liberated glucose triggered CPIR. We also found that increasing the intensity or duration of oral glucose stimulation caused a corresponding increase in CPIR magnitude. To identify the components of the glucose-specific taste-signaling pathway, we examined the necessity of Calhm1, P2X2+P2X3, SGLT1, and Sur1. Among these proteins, only Sur1 was necessary for CPIR. Sur1 was not necessary, however, for taste-mediated attraction to sugars. Given that Sur1 is a subunit of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) channel and that this channel functions as a part of a glucose-sensing pathway in pancreatic β-cells, we asked whether the KATP channel serves an analogous role in taste cells. We discovered that oral stimulation with drugs known to increase (glyburide) or decrease (diazoxide) KATP signaling produced corresponding changes in glucose-stimulated CPIR. We propose that the KATP channel is part of a novel signaling pathway in taste cells that mediates glucose-induced CPIR. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Regulation of staphylococcal enterotoxin B-elicited nitric oxide production by endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClaire, R D; Kell, W M; Sadik, R A; Downs, M B; Parker, G W

    1995-01-01

    The effect of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-elicited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mouse endothelial cells was investigated. Results showed that SEB stimulated the same level of NO production in gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-primed cells as did trichloroacetic acid-extracted lipopolysaccharide. The kinetics of induced NO production and expression of mRNA for iNOS differed markedly in endothelial and macrophage cells. Induced endothelial nitrite production was transient and was 15 to 20% of that generated by macrophage cells; mRNA levels peaked by 2 h and then steadily declined, whereas macrophage message levels continually increased. The ability of endothelial cells to produce SEB-induced NO depended on priming with IFN-gamma, although detectable mRNA could be elicited by SEB alone. Induction of endothelial iNOS mRNA was inhibited by cycloheximide, which indicated a requirement for de novo protein synthesis. Niacinamide and interleukin-10 significantly reduced SEB-induced endothelial NO production. Both are reported to affect IFN-gamma-induced class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression on antigen-presenting cells. Niacinamide reduced iNOS mRNA levels and markedly reduced IFN-gamma induction of endothelial class II MHC surface antigen. Interleukin-10 did not consistently reduce iNOS mRNA expression and had no effect on IFN-gamma induction of endothelial class II MHC surface antigen. These results suggest that SEB interacts with IFN-gamma-primed endothelial cells to elicit induced NO and that this induction can be effectively modulated at the receptor or transcriptional level. PMID:7529748

  19. Proteins differentially expressed in elicited cell suspension culture of Podophyllum hexandrum with enhanced podophyllotoxin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Dipto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podophyllotoxin (PTOX, the precursor for semi-synthesis of cancer therapeutics like etoposide, teniposide and etophos, is primarily obtained from an endangered medicinal herb, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. PTOX, a lignan is biosynthetically derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in the P. hexandrum cell proteome potentially related to PTOX accumulation in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA elicitation. High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE followed by colloidal Coomassie staining and mass spectrometric analysis was used to detect statistically significant changes in cell’s proteome. Result The HPLC analysis showed approximately 7–8 fold change in accumulation of PTOX, in the 12day old cell suspension culture (i.e. after 9days of elicitation elicited with 100 μM MeJA as compared to the control. Using 2-DE a total of 233 spots was detected, out of which 105 spots were identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS/MS. Data were subjected to functional annotation from a biological point of view through KEGG. The phenylpropanoid and monolignol pathway enzymes were identified, amongst these, chalcone synthase, polyphenol oxidase, caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferases, caffeic acid-O-methyl transferase etc. are noted as important. The relation of other differentially accumulated proteins with varied effects caused by elicitors on P. hexandrum cells namely stress and defense related protein, transcription and DNA replication and signaling are also discussed. Conclusions Elicitor-induced PTOX accumulation in P. hexandrum cell cultures provides a responsive model system to profile modulations in proteins related to phenylpropanoid/monolignol biosynthesis and other defense responses. Present findings form a baseline for future investigation on a non-sequenced medicinal herb P. hexandrum at molecular level.

  20. Thermogenesis elicited by skin cooling in anaesthetized rats: lack of contribution of the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Toshimasa

    2004-01-01

    Non-noxious cooling stimuli were delivered to the shaved back of urethane-chloralose-anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats using a plastic bag containing water at 24–40°C. Cooling of the skin by 2–6°C increased the rate of whole body oxygen consumption (V̇O2) and triggered electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the neck or femoral muscles. The cooling-induced V̇O2 responses did not depend on core (colonic) temperature and followed skin temperature in a graded manner. Pretreatment with the β-blocker propranolol (10 mg kg−1, i.v.) greatly attenuated the V̇O2 response but did not affect the EMG response. On the other hand, pretreatment with the muscle relaxant pancuronium bromide (2 mg kg−1, i.v.) affected the V̇O2 response very slightly but completely abolished the EMG activity. Accordingly, the cooling stimulus activated mainly non-shivering thermogenesis. Next, the contribution of the cerebral cortex to the cooling-induced thermogenesis was examined. Power spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) showed that the cooling stimulus largely inhibited delta (0.5–3 Hz) waves, enhanced theta (3–8 Hz) waves, and slightly increased frequencies higher than 8 Hz. Pinching the hindpaw elicited changes in EEG similar to those elicited by skin cooling but did not increase the V̇O2. Therefore, there was no relationship between changes in the EEG and the magnitude of thermogenesis. Finally, skin cooling increased the V̇O2 of decorticated rats but did not increase that of decerebrated rats. The results suggest that the subcortical forebrain structure, but not cortical activation, is indispensable for non-shivering thermogenesis elicited by cooling stimulation of the skin. PMID:14578483

  1. Oscillatory Mechanisms of Response Conflict Elicited by Color and Motion Direction: An Individual Differences Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Marlies E; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Cohen, Michael X; Slagter, Heleen A

    2017-12-15

    Goal-directed behavior requires control over automatic behavior, for example, when goal-irrelevant information from the environment captures an inappropriate response and conflicts with the correct, goal-relevant action. Neural oscillations in the theta band (∼6 Hz) measured at midfrontal electrodes are thought to form an important substrate of the detection and subsequent resolution of response conflict. Here, we examined the extent to which response conflict and associated theta-band activity depend on the visual stimulus feature dimension that triggers the conflict. We used a feature-based Simon task to manipulate conflict by motion direction and stimulus color. Analyses were focused on individual differences in behavioral response conflict elicited across different stimulus dimensions and their relationship to conflict-related midfrontal theta. We first confirmed the presence of response conflict elicited by task-irrelevant motion and stimulus color, demonstrating the usefulness of our modified version of the Simon task to assess different sensory origins of response conflict. Despite titrating overall task performance, we observed large individual differences in the behavioral manifestations of response conflict elicited by the different visual dimensions. These behavioral conflict effects were mirrored in a dimension-specific relationship with conflict-related midfrontal theta power, such that, for each dimension, individual midfrontal theta power was generally higher when experienced response conflict was high. Finally, exploratory analyses of interregional functional connectivity suggested a role for phase synchronization between frontal and parietal scalp sites in modulating experienced conflict when color was the task-relevant visual dimension. Highlighting the importance of an individual differences approach in cognitive neuroscience, these results reveal large individual differences in experienced response conflict depending on the source of visual

  2. Elicitation of Phenolics from the Micropropagated Endangered Medicinal Plant Calligonum polygonoides L. (Polygonoaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owis, Asmaa I; Abdelwahab, Nada S; Abul-Soad, Adel A

    2016-07-01

    Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum (L'Hér.) Sosk. is a plant species belonging to family Polygonaceae. Susceptibility to threaten, presence of various chemical constituents, and many medicinal effects reported for this plant in addition to rareness of in vitro culture studies have fuelled the need for its micropropagation and phytochemical investigations of the produced cultures. To employ in vitro culture technique for ex situ conservation of C. polygonoides, using the fruit as an explant; establish callus and cell suspension cultures from in vitro germinated plantlets; investigate the production of phenolics through callus, redifferentiated shoot, and cell suspension cultures; attempt to enhance cell capacity to accumulate phenolics using salicylic acid and yeast extract and provide a brief demonstration of biosynthetic pathway leading to phenolic production. Modified Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with growth hormones such as kinetin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, and indole-3-acetic acid were used to establish callus, redifferentiated shoots, and cell suspension cultures. Elicitation of cell suspension culture was performed using salicylic acid and yeast extracts. A reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of phenolic content in the aforementioned cultures was developed. The unorganized callus and cell suspension cultures contained fewer amounts of phenolic compounds than redifferentiated shoots. Elicitation produced massive quantitative reprogramming of phenolic content. The present study offers an alternative and renewable source for this valuable natural plant, provide a chance to improve secondary metabolite yield and serve as a useful tool for studying the biosynthesis of these compounds and its regulation in plant cells. In vitro culture techniques provided a strategy for ex situ conservation of the endangered C. polygonoides.Unorganized callus and cell suspension cultures accumulated

  3. Targeting HIV-1 Env gp140 to LOX-1 Elicits Immune Responses in Rhesus Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Zurawski

    Full Text Available Improved antigenicity against HIV-1 envelope (Env protein is needed to elicit vaccine-induced protective immunity in humans. Here we describe the first tests in non-human primates (NHPs of Env gp140 protein fused to a humanized anti-LOX-1 recombinant antibody for delivering Env directly to LOX-1-bearing antigen presenting cells, especially dendritic cells (DC. LOX-1, or 1ectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor-1, is expressed on various antigen presenting cells and endothelial cells, and is involved in promoting humoral immune responses. The anti-LOX-1 Env gp140 fusion protein was tested for priming immune responses and boosting responses in animals primed with replication competent NYVAC-KC Env gp140 vaccinia virus. Anti-LOX-1 Env gp140 vaccination elicited robust cellular and humoral responses when used for either priming or boosting immunity. Co-administration with Poly ICLC, a TLR3 agonist, was superior to GLA, a TLR4 agonist. Both CD4+ and CD8+ Env-specific T cell responses were elicited by anti-LOX-1 Env gp140, but in particular the CD4+ T cells were multifunctional and directed to multiple epitopes. Serum IgG and IgA antibody responses induced by anti-LOX-1 Env gp140 against various gp140 domains were cross-reactive across HIV-1 clades; however, the sera neutralized only HIV-1 bearing sequences most similar to the clade C 96ZM651 Env gp140 carried by the anti-LOX-1 vehicle. These data, as well as the safety of this protein vaccine, justify further exploration of this DC-targeting vaccine approach for protective immunity against HIV-1.

  4. A critical and interpretive literature review of birthing women's non-elicited pain language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Stephanie; Bogossian, Fiona E; Sussex, Roland; Strong, Jenny

    2017-10-01

    Standardised pain assessment i.e. the McGill Pain Questionnaire provide an elicited pain language. Midwives observe spontaneous non-elicited pain language to guide their assessment of how a woman is coping with labour. This paper examined the labour pain experience using the questions: What type of pain language do women use? Do any of the words match the descriptors of standardised pain assessments? What type of information doverbal and non-verbal cues provide to the midwife? A literature search was conducted in 2013. Studies were included if they had pain as the primary outcome and examined non-elicited pain language from the maternal perspective. A total of 12 articles were included. The analysis revealed six categories in which labour pain can be viewed: 'positive', 'negative', 'physical', 'emotional', 'transcendent' and 'natural'. Women's language comprised i.e. prefixes and suffixes, which indicate the qualities of pain, and figurative language. Language indicated location of pain, gave insight into other life phenomena i.e. death, and shared similarities with standardised pain assessmentdescriptors. Labour cues were 'functional', 'dysfunctional,' or 'neutral' (part of the physiological childbirth process), and were verbal, non-verbal, emotional, psychological, physical behaviour or reactions, or tactile. Labour can bring about a spectrum of sensations and therefore emotions from happiness and pleasure to suffering and grief. Spontaneous pain language comprises verbal language and non-verbal behaviour. Narratives are an effective form of pain communication in that they provide details regarding the quality, nature and dimensions of pain, and details notcaptured in quantitative data. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential role of blood dendritic cells in elicitation phase of contact hypersensitivity response – preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Lesiak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . In contrast to our broad knowledge about the role of dendritic cells in the sensitization phase of the contact hypersensitivity response (CHS, very little is known about their function in the effector phase. The pathophysiological mechanism of blood dendritic cells’ participation in the inflammatory response in CHS is an emerging subject of study and needs to be scrutinized. Objective . To assess the presence and type of human blood dendritic cells (BDC – plasmacytoid DC (pDC and myeloid DC (mDC – at the elicitation site of CHS. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 25 healthy volunteers with a mean age of 22.3 ±6.1. Each patient before the trial was sensitized with DPCP, and after 3 weeks skin biopsies were taken from the elicitation site and were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal mouse IgG1 antibodies against blood dendritic cell antigens (BDCA. Results . Skin biopsies were divided into two groups: group 1 where the CHS score was assessed as 0 (no reaction; n = 7 and group 2 where the CHS score was assessed as 1 (any response noted; n = 18. Compared to group 1, group 2 had a significantly lower percentage of pDC (60% vs. 15% respectively in the inflammatory infiltrate site. We also observed that the percentage of mDC was higher in group 2 compared to group 1, although this result was not statistically significant. Conclusions . Our findings provide some data on composition of inflammatory infiltrate in the elicitation phase of CHS. We suggest that the imbalance between pDC and mDC may be a key to understanding the effector phase of CHS.

  6. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Owen, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.

  7. Expanding spectrum of human RYR2-related disease - New electrocardiographic, structural, and genetic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhuiyan, Zahurul A.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Bink-Boelkens, Margreet T. E.; Wiesfeld, Ans C. P.; Alders, Marielle; Postma, Alex V.; van Langen, Irene; Mannens, Marcel M. A. M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background - Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a disease characterized by ventricular arrhythmias elicited exclusively under adrenergic stress. Additional features include baseline bradycardia and, in some patients, right ventricular fatty displacement. The clinical spectrum

  8. Elicitation of attributes for the evaluation of audio-on audio-interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francombe, Jon; Mason, R.; Dewhirst, M.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment to determine the perceptual attributes of the experience of listening to a target audio program in the presence of an audio interferer was performed. The first stage was a free elicitation task in which a total of 572 phrases were produced. In the second stage, a consensus vocabulary...... procedure was used to reduce these phrases into a comprehensive set of attributes. Groups of experienced and inexperienced listeners determined nine and eight attributes, respectively. These attribute sets were combined by the listeners to produce a final set of 12 attributes: masking, calming, distraction...

  9. An HIV gp120-CD4 Immunogen Does Not Elicit Autoimmune Antibody Responses in Cynomolgus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jennifer A; Prado, Ilia; Misamore, Johnathan; Weiss, Deborah; Francis, Jesse; Pal, Ranajit; Huaman, Maria; Cristillo, Anthony; Lewis, George K; Gallo, Robert C; DeVico, Anthony L; Fouts, Timothy R

    2016-07-01

    A promising concept for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines focuses immunity on the highly conserved transition state structures and epitopes that appear when the HIV glycoprotein gp120 binds to its receptor, CD4. We are developing chimeric antigens (full-length single chain, or FLSC) in which gp120 and CD4 sequences are flexibly linked to allow stable intrachain complex formation between the two moieties (A. DeVico et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:17477-17482, 2007, doi:10.1073/pnas.0707399104; T. R. Fouts et al., J Virol 74:11427-11436, 2000, doi:10.1128/JVI.74.24.11427-11436.2000). Proof of concept studies with nonhuman primates show that FLSC elicited heterologous protection against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (T. R. Fouts et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:E992-E999, 2016, doi:10.1073/pnas.1423669112), which correlated with antibodies against transition state gp120 epitopes. Nevertheless, advancement of any vaccine that comprises gp120-CD4 complexes must consider whether the CD4 component breaks tolerance and becomes immunogenic in the autologous host. To address this, we performed an immunotoxicology study with cynomolgus macaques vaccinated with either FLSC or a rhesus variant of FLSC containing macaque CD4 sequences (rhFLSC). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) binding titers, primary CD3(+) T cell staining, and temporal trends in T cell subset frequencies served to assess whether anti-CD4 autoantibody responses were elicited by vaccination. We find that immunization with multiple high doses of rhFLSC did not elicit detectable antibody titers despite robust responses to rhFLSC. In accordance with these findings, immunized animals had no changes in circulating CD4(+) T cell counts or evidence of autoantibody reactivity with cell surface CD4 on primary naive macaque T cells. Collectively, these studies show that antigens using CD4 sequences to stabilize transition state gp120 structures

  10. LC-MS-Based Metabolomic Investigation of Chemopreventive Phytochemical-Elicited Metabolic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yao, Dan; Chen, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals are under intensive investigation for their potential use as chemopreventive agents in blocking or suppressing carcinogenesis. Metabolic interactions between phytochemical and biological system play an important role in determining the efficacy and toxicity of chemopreventive phytochemicals. However, complexities of phytochemical biotransformation and intermediary metabolism pose challenges for studying phytochemical-elicited metabolic events. Metabolomics has become a highly effective technical platform to detect subtle changes in a complex metabolic system. Here, using green tea polyphenols as an example, we describe a workflow of LC-MS-based metabolomics study, covering the procedures and techniques in sample collection, preparation, LC-MS analysis, data analysis, and interpretation.

  11. Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Elicited Different Responses after Infection with Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Junin Virus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrotto, Soledad; Mena, Hebe A; Ure, Agustin E; Jaquenod De Giusti, Carolina; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Vermeulen, Elba M; Schattner, Mirta; Gómez, Ricardo M

    2015-07-01

    The arenavirus Junin virus (JUNV) is the etiologic agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. We characterized the JUNV infection of human peripheral blood-derived plasmacytoid dendritic cells (hpDC), demonstrating that hpDC are susceptible to infection with the C#1 strain (attenuated) and even more susceptible to infection with the P (virulent) JUNV strain. However, hpDC elicited different responses in terms of viability, activation, maturation, and cytokine expression after infection with both JUNV strains. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Selection and Mode Effects in Risk Preference Elicitation Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin; van Soest, Arthur; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2008-01-01

    We combine data from a risk preference elicitation experiment conducted on a representative sample via the Internet with laboratory data on students for the same experiment to investigate effects of implementation mode and of subject pool selection. We find that the frequency of errors in the lab...... experiment is drastically below that of the representative sample in the Internet experiment, and average risk aversion is also lower. Considering the student-like subsample of the Internet subjects and comparing a traditional lab design with an Internet-like design in the lab gives two ways to decompose...

  13. Induced seismicity hazard and risk by enhanced geothermal systems: an expert elicitation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Trutnevyte, Evelina; Azevedo, Ines L

    2018-01-01

    Induced seismicity is a concern for multiple geoenergy applications, including low-carbon Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). We present results of an international expert elicitation (N=14) on EGS induced seismicity hazard and risk. Using a hypothetical scenario of an EGS plant and its geological context, we show that expert best-guess estimates of annualized exceedance probabilities of a M≥3 event range from 0.2% to 95% during reservoir stimulation and 0.2% to 100% during operation. Best-gue...

  14. Cilnidipine but not amlodipine suppresses sympathetic activation elicited by isometric exercise in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Yumi; Kawabe, Tetsuya; Nishihara, Kanami; Iwane, Naomi; Hano, Takuzo

    2015-01-01

    Pupillometry was used to evaluate the effects of the calcium channel blockers cilnidipine (CL) and amlodipine (AM) on changes in autonomic nervous activity induced by isometric exercise in patients with hypertension. After handgrip exercise, the velocity of miosis increased in both the CL and AM groups. However, the velocity of mydriasis increased in only the AM group. Velocity slopes of miosis and mydriasis were smaller in the CL group than in the AM group. The low-to-high frequency ratio obtained from pulse wave analysis increased in only the AM group. Sympathetic activation elicited by isometric exercise was suppressed more effectively by CL than by AM.

  15. Increasing the synthesis of bioactive abietane diterpenes in Salvia sclarea hairy roots by elicited transcriptional reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, M C; Mariaevelina, A; Malafronte, N; De Tommasi, N; Leone, A

    2017-02-01

    Transcriptional activation of genes belonging to the plastidial MEP-derived isoprenoid pathway by elicitation with methyl jasmonate and coronatine enhanced the content of bioactive abietane diterpenes in Salvia sclarea hairy roots. We have shown that aethiopinone, an abietane diterpene synthesized in Salvia sclarea roots is cytotoxic and induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells. To develop a production platform for this compound and other abietane diterpenes, hairy root technology was combined with the elicitation of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or the phytotoxin coronatine (Cor). Both MeJA and Cor induced a significant accumulation of aethiopinone, but prolonged exposure to MeJA irremediably caused inhibition of hairy root growth, which was unaffected by Cor treatment. Considering together the fold increase in aethiopinone content and the final hairy root biomass, the best combination was a Cor treatment for 28 days, which allowed to obtain up to 105.34 ± 2.30 mg L-1 of this compound to be obtained, corresponding to a 24-fold increase above the basal content in untreated hairy roots. MeJA or Cor elicitation also enhanced the synthesis of other bioactive abietane-quinone diterpenes. The elicitor-dependent steering effect was due to a coordinated transcriptional activation of several biosynthetic genes belonging to the plastidial MEP-derived isoprenoid pathway. High correlations between aethiopinone content and MeJA or Cor-elicited level of gene transcripts were found for DXS2 (r 2 = 0.99), DXR (r 2 = 0.99), and GGPPS (r 2 = 0.98), encoding enzymes acting upstream of GGPP, the common precursor of diterpenes and other plastidial-derived terpenes, as well as CPPS (r 2 = 0.99), encoding the enzyme involved in the first cyclization steps leading to copalyl-diphosphate, the precursor of abietane-like diterpenes. These results point to these genes as possible targets of metabolic engineering approaches to establish a more efficient production platform for such

  16. Group elicitations yield more consistent, yet more uncertain experts in understanding risks to ecosystem services in New Zealand bays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald G Singh

    Full Text Available The elicitation of expert judgment is an important tool for assessment of risks and impacts in environmental management contexts, and especially important as decision-makers face novel challenges where prior empirical research is lacking or insufficient. Evidence-driven elicitation approaches typically involve techniques to derive more accurate probability distributions under fairly specific contexts. Experts are, however, prone to overconfidence in their judgements. Group elicitations with diverse experts can reduce expert overconfidence by allowing cross-examination and reassessment of prior judgements, but groups are also prone to uncritical "groupthink" errors. When the problem context is underspecified the probability that experts commit groupthink errors may increase. This study addresses how structured workshops affect expert variability among and certainty within responses in a New Zealand case study. We find that experts' risk estimates before and after a workshop differ, and that group elicitations provided greater consistency of estimates, yet also greater uncertainty among experts, when addressing prominent impacts to four different ecosystem services in coastal New Zealand. After group workshops, experts provided more consistent ranking of risks and more consistent best estimates of impact through increased clarity in terminology and dampening of extreme positions, yet probability distributions for impacts widened. The results from this case study suggest that group elicitations have favorable consequences for the quality and uncertainty of risk judgments within and across experts, making group elicitation techniques invaluable tools in contexts of limited data.

  17. Group elicitations yield more consistent, yet more uncertain experts in understanding risks to ecosystem services in New Zealand bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gerald G; Sinner, Jim; Ellis, Joanne; Kandlikar, Milind; Halpern, Benjamin S; Satterfield, Terre; Chan, Kai

    2017-01-01

    The elicitation of expert judgment is an important tool for assessment of risks and impacts in environmental management contexts, and especially important as decision-makers face novel challenges where prior empirical research is lacking or insufficient. Evidence-driven elicitation approaches typically involve techniques to derive more accurate probability distributions under fairly specific contexts. Experts are, however, prone to overconfidence in their judgements. Group elicitations with diverse experts can reduce expert overconfidence by allowing cross-examination and reassessment of prior judgements, but groups are also prone to uncritical "groupthink" errors. When the problem context is underspecified the probability that experts commit groupthink errors may increase. This study addresses how structured workshops affect expert variability among and certainty within responses in a New Zealand case study. We find that experts' risk estimates before and after a workshop differ, and that group elicitations provided greater consistency of estimates, yet also greater uncertainty among experts, when addressing prominent impacts to four different ecosystem services in coastal New Zealand. After group workshops, experts provided more consistent ranking of risks and more consistent best estimates of impact through increased clarity in terminology and dampening of extreme positions, yet probability distributions for impacts widened. The results from this case study suggest that group elicitations have favorable consequences for the quality and uncertainty of risk judgments within and across experts, making group elicitation techniques invaluable tools in contexts of limited data.

  18. Heart rate variability during cycloergometric exercise or judo wrestling eliciting the same heart rate level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, François; Durbin, François; Papelier, Yves

    2004-03-01

    This study compared heart rate variability (HRV) in ten male judokas between two types of exercise eliciting the same near-maximal average heart rate (HR): judo wrestling vs. cycloergometric bout. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were recorded during (1) a 4-min judo randori (wrestling); (2) a 4-min cycloergometric exercise eliciting maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2MAX)). Time series were analyzed both by short term Fourier transform (STFT) and Poincaré plot (PP). The main results are as follows. First, despite the fact that the same maximal HR was reached during the two exercises, the spectral energy computed from the judo recordings was significantly higher than that recorded from the cycloergometric exercise. Second, according to the PP index of rapid HRV (SD1), the high-frequency spectral energy (HF) was significantly higher during judo than cycloergometric exercise as well. Third, judo spectra show chaotic harmonics in place of the precise HF peak observed during cycloergometric exercise. Fourth, the respective parts of normalized LFn and HFn are not different between the two exercise modes, suggesting that autonomic control during severe exercise cannot depend on the type of exercise. In conclusion, this study shows that it is possible, according to the observed kind of variability from RR time series, to differentiate between two types of effort: steady-state dynamic exercise or conversely exercise made of both isometric and irregular dynamic efforts (wrestling, collective sports, and others).

  19. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  20. Elicitive Conflict Transformation and New Media: In Search for a Common Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Suetzl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Advocates of elicitive conflict transformation (ECT maintain that the parties to a conflict are the most important resource in efforts to render that conflict less violent. According to them, the transformation of the conflict is immanent to the conflict itself. The claim of ECT theorists is that classical conflict resolution has mostly aimed at overcoming a conflict by means of neutral mediation, while conflict transformation is not primarily concerned with terminating a conflict and considers the conflict worker as part of the conflict system. Although ECT is a communication-based model of conflict management and relies on human media, its media-theoretical aspects are not made explicit, raising the question of what role technological media play in the communicative processes that make up ECT techniques. Through an examination of the claimed differences between conflict resolution and conflict transformation, and focusing on the common roots of new media and the elicitive model in systems and cybernetic theory, this paper asks whether any peacebuilding potential of new media could be found in a specific anti-propagandistic quality of distributed technological media. It concludes by looking at any such potential in social media.

  1. Who Deserves My Trust? Cue-Elicited Feedback Negativity Tracks Reputation Learning in Repeated Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diandian Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Trust and trustworthiness contribute to reciprocal behavior and social relationship development. To make better decisions, people need to evaluate others’ trustworthiness. They often assess this kind of reputation by learning through repeated social interactions. The present event-related potential (ERP study explored the reputation learning process in a repeated trust game where subjects made multi-round decisions of investment to different partners. We found that subjects gradually learned to discriminate trustworthy partners from untrustworthy ones based on how often their partners reciprocated the investment, which was indicated by their own investment decisions. Besides, electrophysiological data showed that the faces of the untrustworthy partners induced larger feedback negativity (FN amplitude than those of the trustworthy partners, but only in the late phase of the game. The ERP results corresponded with the behavioral pattern and revealed that the learned trustworthiness differentiation was coded by the cue-elicited FN component. Consistent with previous research, our findings suggest that the anterior cue-elicited FN reflects the reputation appraisal and tracks the reputation learning process in social interactions.

  2. Optimized Peptide Vaccines Eliciting Extensive CD8 T Cell Responses with Therapeutic Anti-Tumor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Celis, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge for developing effective therapeutic vaccines against cancer is overcoming immunological tolerance to tumor-associated antigens that are expressed on both malignant cells and normal tissues. Herein, we describe a novel vaccination approach, TriVax that utilizes synthetic peptides representing CD8 T cell epitopes, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists that function as a potent immunological adjuvants and costimulatory anti-CD40 antibodies to generate large numbers of high avidity antigen-reactive T cells capable of recognizing and killing tumor cells. Our results show that TriVax induced huge numbers of long-lasting antigen specific CD8 T cells that displayed significant anti-tumor effects in vivo. The administration of a TriVax formulation containing a CD8 T cell epitope derived from a melanosomal antigen (Trp2180-188) elicited antigen-specific CD8 T cells that induced systemic autoimmunity (vitiligo). More important, TriVax immunization was effective in eliciting potent protective anti-tumor immunity as well as remarkable therapeutic effects against established B16 melanoma. This therapeutic effect was mediated by CD8 T cells via perforin-mediated lysis and required the participation of type I-IFN but not IFNγ. These results suggest that similar strategies would be applicable for the design of effective vaccination for conducting clinical studies in cancer patients. PMID:19903852

  3. Optimized peptide vaccines eliciting extensive CD8 T-cell responses with therapeutic antitumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Celis, Esteban

    2009-12-01

    A major challenge for developing effective therapeutic vaccines against cancer is overcoming immunologic tolerance to tumor-associated antigens that are expressed on both malignant cells and normal tissues. Herein, we describe a novel vaccination approach, TriVax, that uses synthetic peptides representing CD8 T-cell epitopes, Toll-like receptor agonists that function as potent immunologic adjuvants and costimulatory anti-CD40 antibodies to generate large numbers of high-avidity antigen-reactive T cells capable of recognizing and killing tumor cells. Our results show that TriVax induced huge numbers of long-lasting antigen-specific CD8 T cells that displayed significant antitumor effects in vivo. The administration of a TriVax formulation containing a CD8 T-cell epitope derived from a melanosomal antigen (Trp2(180-188)) elicited antigen-specific CD8 T cells that induced systemic autoimmunity (vitiligo). More important, TriVax immunization was effective in eliciting potent protective antitumor immunity as well as remarkable therapeutic effects against established B16 melanoma. This therapeutic effect was mediated by CD8 T cells via perforin-mediated lysis and required the participation of type-I IFN but not IFNgamma. These results suggest that similar strategies would be applicable for the design of effective vaccination for conducting clinical studies in cancer patients.

  4. Chimeric rhinoviruses displaying MPER epitopes elicit anti-HIV neutralizing responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Yi

    Full Text Available The development of an effective AIDS vaccine has been a formidable task, but remains a critical necessity. The well conserved membrane-proximal external region (MPER of the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein is one of the crucial targets for AIDS vaccine development, as it has the necessary attribute of being able to elicit antibodies capable of neutralizing diverse isolates of HIV.Guided by X-ray crystallography, molecular modeling, combinatorial chemistry, and powerful selection techniques, we designed and produced six combinatorial libraries of chimeric human rhinoviruses (HRV displaying the MPER epitopes corresponding to mAbs 2F5, 4E10, and/or Z13e1, connected to an immunogenic surface loop of HRV via linkers of varying lengths and sequences. Not all libraries led to viable chimeric viruses with the desired sequences, but the combinatorial approach allowed us to examine large numbers of MPER-displaying chimeras. Among the chimeras were five that elicited antibodies capable of significantly neutralizing HIV-1 pseudoviruses from at least three subtypes, in one case leading to neutralization of 10 pseudoviruses from all six subtypes tested.Optimization of these chimeras or closely related chimeras could conceivably lead to useful components of an effective AIDS vaccine. While the MPER of HIV may not be immunodominant in natural infection by HIV-1, its presence in a vaccine cocktail could provide critical breadth of protection.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms Elicited by d-Aspartate in Leydig Cells and Spermatogonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena; Santillo, Alessandra; Falvo, Sara; Longobardi, Salvatore; Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella

    2016-07-14

    A bulk of evidence suggests that d-aspartate (d-Asp) regulates steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in vertebrate testes. This review article focuses on intracellular signaling mechanisms elicited by d-Asp possibly via binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in both Leydig cells, and spermatogonia. In Leydig cells, the amino acid upregulates androgen production by eliciting the adenylate cyclase-cAMP and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. d-Asp treatment enhances gene and protein expression of enzymes involved in the steroidogenic cascade. d-Asp also directly affects spermatogonial mitotic activity. In spermatogonial GC-1 cells, d-Asp induces phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT serine-threonine kinase proteins, and stimulates expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and aurora kinase B (AURKB). Further stimulation of spermatogonial GC-1 cell proliferation might come from estradiol/estrogen receptor β (ESR2) interaction. d-Asp modulates androgen and estrogen levels as well as the expression of their receptors in the rat epididymis by acting on mRNA levels of Srd5a1 and Cyp19a1 enzymes, hence suggesting involvement in spermatozoa maturation.

  6. Molecular Mechanisms Elicited by d-Aspartate in Leydig Cells and Spermatogonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Maddalena Di Fiore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A bulk of evidence suggests that d-aspartate (d-Asp regulates steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in vertebrate testes. This review article focuses on intracellular signaling mechanisms elicited by d-Asp possibly via binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR in both Leydig cells, and spermatogonia. In Leydig cells, the amino acid upregulates androgen production by eliciting the adenylate cyclase-cAMP and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. d-Asp treatment enhances gene and protein expression of enzymes involved in the steroidogenic cascade. d-Asp also directly affects spermatogonial mitotic activity. In spermatogonial GC-1 cells, d-Asp induces phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT serine-threonine kinase proteins, and stimulates expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and aurora kinase B (AURKB. Further stimulation of spermatogonial GC-1 cell proliferation might come from estradiol/estrogen receptor β (ESR2 interaction. d-Asp modulates androgen and estrogen levels as well as the expression of their receptors in the rat epididymis by acting on mRNA levels of Srd5a1 and Cyp19a1 enzymes, hence suggesting involvement in spermatozoa maturation.

  7. The N400 elicited by homonyms in puns: Two primes are not better than one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Ayesha; Meade, Gabriela; Coch, Donna

    2016-12-01

    To comprehend a pun involving a homonym (e.g., The prince with a bad tooth got a crown), both meanings of the homonym must be accessed and selected. Previous ERP studies have shown that the N400 reflects lexicosemantic processing, but none have directly investigated the N400 elicited by homonyms in the unique context of puns. Here, N400 priming effects showed that the dual context of puns (e.g., the primes prince and tooth) did not facilitate homonym processing in comparison to single dominant biasing (e.g., The prince with a bad leg got a crown) or subordinate biasing (e.g., The adult with a bad tooth got a crown) conditions. However, homonyms did elicit a less negative N400 (i.e., priming) in the pun condition in comparison to the neutral context condition (e.g., The adult with a bad leg got a crown). These findings are interpreted in terms of the dominant advantage and subordinate bias effect posited by the reordered access model of homonym processing, and in terms of N400 amplitude as an index of how consistently various sources of semantic featural information converge on one lexical item, even when two lexical items must be activated for comprehension. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. 13C NMR and LC-MS Profiling of Stilbenes from Elicited Grapevine Hairy Root Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisserant, Leo-Paul; Hubert, Jane; Lequart, Michelle; Borie, Nicolas; Maurin, Nicolas; Pilard, Serge; Jeandet, Philippe; Aziz, Aziz; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Clément, Christophe; Boitel-Conti, Michèle; Courot, Eric

    2016-11-23

    Resveratrol and related oligostilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors or signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, these compounds have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmacological properties. The cost-effective production of resveratrol derivatives such as viniferins or more structurally complex stilbene oligomers remains a challenging task. In this study, the chemical diversity of stilbenes produced by Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir hairy roots was investigated after elicitation for 4 days with a mixture of methyl jasmonate (100 μM) and cyclodextrins (50 mM). Two crude extracts obtained from the culture medium and from the hairy roots were fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography. The fractions were chemically investigated by two complementary identification approaches involving a 13C NMR-based dereplication method and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In total, groups of 21 and 18 molecules, including flavonoids and stilbenes, were detected in the culture medium and root extracts, respectively. These included resveratrol monomers, dimers, trimers, and a tetramer, thus highlighting the ability of elicited hairy root culture systems to synthesize a wide diversity of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical significance. The main compounds were unambiguously identified as trans-resveratrol, ε-viniferin, trans-piceatannol, pallidol, scirpusin A, eriodictyol, naringenin, vitisin B, and maackin.

  9. Eliciting patient preferences in shared decision-making (SDM): Comparing conversation analysis and SDM measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Anne Marie Dalby; Ofstad, Eirik Hugaas; Svennevig, Jan

    2017-11-01

    To explore how physicians bring up patient preferences, and how it aligns with assessments of shared decision-making. Qualitative conversation analysis of physicians formulating hypotheses about the patient's treatment preference was compared with quantitative scores on SDM and 'patient preferences' using OPTION(5) and MAPPIN'SDM. Physicians occasionally formulate hypotheses about patients' preferences and then present a treatment option on the basis of that ("if you think X+we can do Y"). This practice may promote SDM in that the decisions are treated as contingent on patient preferences. However, the way these hypotheses are formulated, simultaneously constrains the patient's freedom of choice and exerts a pressure to accept the physician's recommendation. These opposing effects may in part explain cases where different assessment instruments yield large variations in SDM measures. Eliciting patient preferences is a complex phenomenon that can be difficult to reduce into an accurate number. Detailed analysis can shed light on how patient preferences are elicited, and its consequences for patient involvement. Comparing CA and SDM measurements can contribute to specifying communicative actions that SDM scores are based on. Our findings have implications for SDM communication skills training and further development of SDM measurements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Eliciting mixed emotions: a meta-analysis comparing models, types, and measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Raul; Totterdell, Peter; Kellett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The idea that people can experience two oppositely valenced emotions has been controversial ever since early attempts to investigate the construct of mixed emotions. This meta-analysis examined the robustness with which mixed emotions have been elicited experimentally. A systematic literature search identified 63 experimental studies that instigated the experience of mixed emotions. Studies were distinguished according to the structure of the underlying affect model—dimensional or discrete—as well as according to the type of mixed emotions studied (e.g., happy-sad, fearful-happy, positive-negative). The meta-analysis using a random-effects model revealed a moderate to high effect size for the elicitation of mixed emotions (dIG+ = 0.77), which remained consistent regardless of the structure of the affect model, and across different types of mixed emotions. Several methodological and design moderators were tested. Studies using the minimum index (i.e., the minimum value between a pair of opposite valenced affects) resulted in smaller effect sizes, whereas subjective measures of mixed emotions increased the effect sizes. The presence of more women in the samples was also associated with larger effect sizes. The current study indicates that mixed emotions are a robust, measurable and non-artifactual experience. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for an affect system that has greater versatility and flexibility than previously thought. PMID:25926805

  11. Nest sanitation does not elicit egg ejection in a brown-headed cowbird host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Brian D

    2017-03-01

    Most passerine birds practice nest sanitation whereby they remove debris from their nest. Nest sanitation has been posited as a pre-adaptation for egg ejection by hosts of avian brood parasites. However, relatively few North American hosts of the brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) eject cowbird eggs to the detriment of their fitness. In this study, I added either a piece of flagging tape or a pine cone bract scale along with an artificial cowbird egg to nests of the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) to determine whether the act of nest sanitation would elicit egg ejection. All red-winged blackbirds removed the debris within 24 h, but all individuals also accepted the cowbird eggs and this rate of ejection did not differ from that in nests that only received a cowbird egg. While nest cleaning and egg ejection are similar mechanically, they differ cognitively and egg ejection is not elicited in red-winged blackbirds during the act of removing debris from their nests.

  12. Building the BIKE: Development and Testing of the Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Izci, Kemal; McClure, Bruce

    2014-10-01

    Identifying students' conceptual scientific understanding is difficult if the appropriate tools are not available for educators. Concept inventories have become a popular tool to assess student understanding; however, traditionally, they are multiple choice tests. International science education standard documents advocate that assessments should be reform based, contain diverse question types, and should align with instructional approaches. To date, no instrument of this type targeting student conceptions in biotechnology has been developed. We report here the development, testing, and validation of a 35-item Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE) that includes a mix of question types. The BIKE was designed to elicit student thinking and a variety of conceptual understandings, as opposed to testing closed-ended responses. The design phase contained nine steps including a literature search for content, student interviews, a pilot test, as well as expert review. Data from 175 students over two semesters, including 16 student interviews and six expert reviewers (professors from six different institutions), were used to validate the instrument. Cronbach's alpha on the pre/posttest was 0.664 and 0.668, respectively, indicating the BIKE has internal consistency. Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability among the 6,525 total items was 0.684 indicating substantial agreement among scorers. Item analysis demonstrated that the items were challenging, there was discrimination among the individual items, and there was alignment with research-based design principles for construct validity. This study provides a reliable and valid conceptual understanding instrument in the understudied area of biotechnology.

  13. Changes in room acoustics elicit a Mismatch Negativity in the absence of overall interaural intensity differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Johannes Daniel; Wendt, Mike; Löw, Andreas; Möller, Stephan; Zölzer, Udo; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2017-02-15

    Changes in room acoustics provide important clues about the environment of sound source-perceiver systems, for example, by indicating changes in the reflecting characteristics of surrounding objects. To study the detection of auditory irregularities brought about by a change in room acoustics, a passive oddball protocol with participants watching a movie was applied in this study. Acoustic stimuli were presented via headphones. Standards and deviants were created by modelling rooms of different sizes, keeping the values of the basic acoustic dimensions (e.g., frequency, duration, sound pressure, and sound source location) as constant as possible. In the first experiment, each standard and deviant stimulus consisted of sequences of three short sounds derived from sinusoidal tones, resulting in three onsets during each stimulus. Deviant stimuli elicited a Mismatch Negativity (MMN) as well as two additional negative deflections corresponding to the three onset peaks. In the second experiment, only one sound was used; the stimuli were otherwise identical to the ones used in the first experiment. Again, an MMN was observed, followed by an additional negative deflection. These results provide further support for the hypothesis of automatic detection of unattended changes in room acoustics, extending previous work by demonstrating the elicitation of an MMN by changes in room acoustics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The critical protein interactions and structures that elicit growth deregulation in cancer and viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Horng D.; May, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biomedicine is to define the critical targets and network interactions that are subverted to elicit growth deregulation in human cells. Understanding and developing rational treatments for cancer requires a definition of the key molecular targets and how they interact to elicit the complex growth deregulation phenotype. Viral proteins provide discerning and powerful probes to understand both how cells work and how they can be manipulated using a minimal number of components. The small DNA viruses have evolved to target inherent weaknesses in cellular protein interaction networks to hijack the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery. In the battle to escape the inevitability of senescence and programmed cell death, cancers have converged on similar mechanisms, through the acquisition and selection of somatic mutations that drive unchecked cellular replication in tumors. Understanding the dynamic mechanisms through which a minimal number of viral proteins promote host cells to undergo unscheduled and pathological replication is a powerful strategy to identify critical targets that are also disrupted in cancer. Viruses can therefore be used as tools to probe the system-wide protein-protein interactions and structures that drive growth deregulation in human cells. Ultimately this can provide a path for developing system context-dependent therapeutics. This review will describe ongoing experimental approaches using viruses to study pathways deregulated in cancer, with a particular focus on viral cellular protein-protein interactions and structures. PMID:21061422

  15. Student’s Spatial Reasoning through Model Eliciting Activities with Cabri 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartatiana; Darhim; Nurlaelah, E.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research is to find the influence of cabri 3D on the improvement of spatial reasoning ability of junior high school students through model eliciting activities learning with cabri 3D. This research is a quasi experimental research. The study was conducted in one of junior high school in Palembang with 143 students as a sample. Sample consist of 71 students with model eliciting activities (MEA) and 72 students through MEA learning with Cabri 3D (MEAC). Data conducted by tes spatial reasoning before and after learning approach applied by researcher. The results indicate that the enhanced spatial reasoning abilities who obtain MEAC learning are better than male and female students with MEA learning. This means that learning with cabri 3D has a significant effect on improving students’ spatial reasoning abilities. It caused in MEAC learning, the student has opportunity to use cabri 3D that make student more anthusiasm and easier to understand about concept line and angle. Based on the result teacher can apply this approach in mathematics learning to improve student’s spatial reasoning ability.

  16. Chimeric Rhinoviruses Displaying MPER Epitopes Elicit Anti-HIV Neutralizing Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guohua; Lapelosa, Mauro; Bradley, Rachel; Mariano, Thomas M.; Dietz, Denise Elsasser; Hughes, Scott; Wrin, Terri; Petropoulos, Chris; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M.; Arnold, Eddy; Arnold, Gail Ferstandig

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of an effective AIDS vaccine has been a formidable task, but remains a critical necessity. The well conserved membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein is one of the crucial targets for AIDS vaccine development, as it has the necessary attribute of being able to elicit antibodies capable of neutralizing diverse isolates of HIV. Methodology/Principle Findings Guided by X-ray crystallography, molecular modeling, combinatorial chemistry, and powerful selection techniques, we designed and produced six combinatorial libraries of chimeric human rhinoviruses (HRV) displaying the MPER epitopes corresponding to mAbs 2F5, 4E10, and/or Z13e1, connected to an immunogenic surface loop of HRV via linkers of varying lengths and sequences. Not all libraries led to viable chimeric viruses with the desired sequences, but the combinatorial approach allowed us to examine large numbers of MPER-displaying chimeras. Among the chimeras were five that elicited antibodies capable of significantly neutralizing HIV-1 pseudoviruses from at least three subtypes, in one case leading to neutralization of 10 pseudoviruses from all six subtypes tested. Conclusions Optimization of these chimeras or closely related chimeras could conceivably lead to useful components of an effective AIDS vaccine. While the MPER of HIV may not be immunodominant in natural infection by HIV-1, its presence in a vaccine cocktail could provide critical breadth of protection. PMID:24039745

  17. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia outer membrane vesicles elicit a potent inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoo Jeong; Jeon, Hyejin; Na, Seok Hyeon; Kwon, Hyo Il; Selasi, Gati Noble; Nicholas, Asiimwe; Park, Tae In; Lee, Sang Hwa; Lee, Je Chul

    2016-11-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has become one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens in hospitalized patients. This microorganism secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), but the pathogenesis of S. maltophilia as it relates to OMVs has not been characterized. This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of S. maltophilia OMVs and their ability to induce inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13637 and two clinical isolates were found to secrete spherical OMVs during in vitro culture. OMVs from S. maltophilia ATCC 13637 were cytotoxic to human lung epithelial A549 cells. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OMVs stimulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in A549 cells. Early inflammatory responses such as congestion and neutrophilic infiltrations and profound expression of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes were observed in the lungs of mice injected with S. maltophilia OMVs, and were similar to responses elicited by the bacteria. Our data demonstrate that S. maltophilia OMVs are important secretory nanocomplexes that elicit a potent inflammatory response that might contribute to S. maltophilia pathogenesis during infection. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Acinetobacter baumannii outer membrane vesicles elicit a potent innate immune response via membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, So Hyun; Lee, Jung Hwa; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Tae In; Lee, Je Chul; Lee, Yoo Chul

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is increasingly becoming a major nosocomial pathogen. This opportunistic pathogen secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that interact with host cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of A. baumannii OMVs to elicit a pro-inflammatory response in vitro and the immunopathology in response to A. baumannii OMVs in vivo. OMVs derived from A. baumannii ATCC 19606(T) induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, and chemokine genes, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Disintegration of OMV membrane with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in low expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, as compared with the response to intact OMVs. In addition, proteinase K-treated A. baumannii OMVs did not induce significant increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes above the basal level, suggesting that the surface-exposed membrane proteins in intact OMVs are responsible for pro-inflammatory response. Early inflammatory processes, such as vacuolization and detachment of epithelial cells and neutrophilic infiltration, were clearly observed in lungs of mice injected with A. baumannii OMVs. Our data demonstrate that OMVs produced by A. baumannii elicit a potent innate immune response, which may contribute to immunopathology of the infected host.

  19. Previously seen and expected stimuli elicit surprise in the context of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2016-04-01

    In the context of visual search, surprise is the phenomenon by which a previously unseen and unexpected stimulus exogenously attracts spatial attention. Capture by such a stimulus occurs, by definition, independent of task goals and is thought to be dependent on the extent to which the stimulus deviates from expectations. However, the relative contributions of prior-exposure and explicit knowledge of an unexpected event to the surprise response have not yet been systematically investigated. Here observers searched for a specific color while ignoring irrelevant cues of different colors presented prior to the target display. After a brief familiarization period, we presented an irrelevant motion cue to elicit surprise. Across conditions we varied prior exposure to the motion stimulus - seen versus unseen - and top-down expectations of occurrence - expected versus unexpected - to assess the extent to which each of these factors contributes to surprise. We found no attenuation of the surprise response when observers were pre-exposed to the motion cue and or had explicit knowledge of its occurrence. Our results show that it is neither sufficient nor necessary that a stimulus be new and unannounced to elicit surprise and suggest that the expectations that determine the surprise response are highly context specific.

  20. Amphetamine elicits opposing actions on readily releasable and reserve pools for dopamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan P Covey

    Full Text Available Amphetamine, a highly addictive drug with therapeutic efficacy, exerts paradoxical effects on the fundamental communication modes employed by dopamine neurons in modulating behavior. While amphetamine elevates tonic dopamine signaling by depleting vesicular stores and driving non-exocytotic release through reverse transport, this psychostimulant also activates phasic dopamine signaling by up-regulating vesicular dopamine release. We hypothesized that these seemingly incongruent effects arise from amphetamine depleting the reserve pool and enhancing the readily releasable pool. This novel hypothesis was tested using in vivo voltammetry and stimulus trains of varying duration to access different vesicular stores. We show that amphetamine actions are stimulus dependent in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, amphetamine up-regulated vesicular dopamine release elicited by a short-duration train, which interrogates the readily releasable pool, but depleted release elicited by a long-duration train, which interrogates the reserve pool. These opposing actions of vesicular dopamine release were associated with concurrent increases in tonic and phasic dopamine responses. A link between vesicular depletion and tonic signaling was supported by results obtained for amphetamine in the ventral striatum and cocaine in both striatal sub-regions, which demonstrated augmented vesicular release and phasic signals only. We submit that amphetamine differentially targeting dopamine stores reconciles the paradoxical activation of tonic and phasic dopamine signaling. Overall, these results further highlight the unique and region-distinct cellular mechanisms of amphetamine and may have important implications for its addictive and therapeutic properties.

  1. The acquisition of auxiliary syntax: a longitudinal elicitation study. Part 1: auxiliary BE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theakston, Anna L; Rowland, Caroline F

    2009-12-01

    The question of how and when English-speaking children acquire auxiliaries is the subject of extensive debate. Some researchers posit the existence of innately given Universal Grammar principles to guide acquisition, although some aspects of the auxiliary system must be learned from the input. Others suggest that auxiliaries can be learned without Universal Grammar, citing evidence of piecemeal learning in their support. This study represents a unique attempt to trace the development of auxiliary syntax by using a longitudinal elicitation methodology. Twelve English-speaking children participated in 3 tasks designed to elicit auxiliary BE in declaratives and yes/no and wh-questions. They completed each task 6 times in total between the ages of 2;10 (years;months) and 3;6. The children's levels of correct use of 2 forms of BE (is, are) differed according to auxiliary form and sentence structure, and these relations changed over development. An analysis of the children's errors also revealed complex interactions between these factors. These data are problematic for existing accounts of auxiliary acquisition and highlight the need for researchers working within both generativist and constructivist frameworks to develop more detailed theories of acquisition that directly predict the pattern of acquisition observed.

  2. The acquisition of auxiliary syntax: a longitudinal elicitation study. Part 2: the modals and auxiliary DO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F; Theakston, Anna L

    2009-12-01

    The study of auxiliary acquisition is central to work on language development and has attracted theoretical work from both nativist and constructivist approaches. This study is part of a 2-part companion set that represents a unique attempt to trace the development of auxiliary syntax by using a longitudinal elicitation methodology. The aim of the research described in this part is to track the development of modal auxiliaries and auxiliary DO in questions and declaratives to provide a more complete picture of the development of the auxiliary system in English-speaking children. Twelve English-speaking children participated in 2 tasks designed to elicit auxiliaries CAN, WILL, and DOES in declaratives and yes/no questions. They completed each task 6 times in total between the ages of 2;10 (years;months) and 3;6. The children's levels of correct use of the target auxiliaries differed in complex ways according to auxiliary, polarity, and sentence structure, and these relations changed over development. An analysis of the children's errors also revealed complex interactions between these factors. These data cannot be explained in full by existing theories of auxiliary acquisition. Researchers working within both generativist and constructivist frameworks need to develop more detailed theories of acquisition that predict the pattern of acquisition observed.

  3. Subcortical cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes elicited by cortical spreading depression in rat

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    Mraovitch, S.; Calando, Y.; Goadsby, P.J.; Seylaz, J. (Laboratoire de Recherches Cerebrovasculaire, Paris (France))

    1992-06-01

    Changes in cerebral cortical perfusion (CBF{sub LDF}), local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) elicited by unilateral cortical spreading depression (SD) were monitored and measured in separate groups of rats anesthetized with {alpha}-chloralose. CBF{sub LDF} was recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry, while lCBF and lCGU were measured by the quantitative autoradiographic ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine and ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose methods, respectively. SD elicited a wave of hyperemia after a latency of 2 to 3 min followed by an oligemic phase. Ninety minutes following the onset of SD cortical lCBF and lCGU were essentially the same as on the contralateral side and in sham-treated rats. However, alteration in the lCBF and lCGU in upper and lower brainstem persisted. The present results demonstrate that long-lasting cerebrovascular and metabolic alterations take place within the subcortical regions following SD. These regions provide an attractive site to integrate observations in man concerning spreading depression and the aura of migraine with the other features of the syndrome. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Highly relevant stimuli may passively elicit processes associated with consciousness during the sleep onset period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Paniz; Varma, Sonia; Campbell, Kenneth

    2017-10-31

    Sleep onset marks the transition from waking to sleep, during which conscious awareness of the external environmental is gradually lost. The present study examines the extent of processing of acoustic change during sleep onset. An auditory optimal paradigm was used to record event-related potentials to six deviant stimuli during wakefulness, stage N1, and stage N2 sleep. During waking and early-stage N1, two of the deviants, environmental sounds and white noise, elicited a P3a reflecting processes that may lead to conscious awareness of acoustic change. Surprisingly, the P3a was also observed following both deviants during late-stage N1, a period thought to represent decreased awareness of the environment. Only the environmental sounds continued to elicit a P3a during stage N2 sleep, associated with the loss of consciousness of the external environment. Certain auditory stimuli may thus continue to activate processes that may lead to conscious awareness during the sleep onset period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Elicitation Effect of Pathogenic Fungi on Trichodermin Production by Trichoderma brevicompactum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Ping Shentu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of six species of phytopathogenic fungi mycelia as elicitors on trichodermin yield by Trichoderma brevicompactum were investigated. Neither nonviable nor viable mycelia of Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and Thanatephorus cucumeris demonstrated any elicitation on the accumulation of trichodermin. However, the production of trichodermin was increased by the presence of viable/nonviable Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum mycelia. The strongest elicitation effect was found at the presence of nonviable R. solani. At the presence of nonviable R. solani, the maximum yield of trichodermin (144.55 mg/L was significantly higher than the Control (67.8 mg/L, and the cultivation time to obtain the maximum yield of trichodermin decreased from 72 h to 60 h. No difference of trichodermin accumulation was observed by changing the concentration of nonviable R. solani from 0.1 to 1.6 g/L. It was observed that the optimum time for adding nonviable R. solani is immediately after inoculation. The diameter of T. brevicompactum mycelial globule after 72 h cultivation with nonviable R. solani elicitor was smaller than that of the Control.

  6. The Elicitation Effect of Pathogenic Fungi on Trichodermin Production by Trichoderma brevicompactum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shentu, Xu-Ping; Liu, Wei-Ping; Zhan, Xiao-Huan; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of six species of phytopathogenic fungi mycelia as elicitors on trichodermin yield by Trichoderma brevicompactum were investigated. Neither nonviable nor viable mycelia of Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and Thanatephorus cucumeris demonstrated any elicitation on the accumulation of trichodermin. However, the production of trichodermin was increased by the presence of viable/nonviable Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum mycelia. The strongest elicitation effect was found at the presence of nonviable R. solani. At the presence of nonviable R. solani, the maximum yield of trichodermin (144.55 mg/L) was significantly higher than the Control (67.8 mg/L), and the cultivation time to obtain the maximum yield of trichodermin decreased from 72 h to 60 h. No difference of trichodermin accumulation was observed by changing the concentration of nonviable R. solani from 0.1 to 1.6 g/L. It was observed that the optimum time for adding nonviable R. solani is immediately after inoculation. The diameter of T. brevicompactum mycelial globule after 72 h cultivation with nonviable R. solani elicitor was smaller than that of the Control. PMID:24385883

  7. Possible mechanisms for the venular constriction elicited by Ruscus extract on hamster cheek pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouskela, E; Cyrino, F Z; Marcelon, G

    1994-07-01

    We investigated the influence of alpha-adrenoceptors blockers and calcium blockers on the effects of the venotonic agent Ruscus extract on the diameter of arterioles (ID 10-70 microns) and venules (ID 20-135 microns) of hamster cheek pouch microvasculature in vivo. For microcirculatory measurements, the preparations were placed under an intravital microscope coupled to a closed-circuit TV system. The TV monitor display was used to obtain arteriolar and venular internal diameter recordings (always at the same site) by an image shearing device. All drugs were applied topically. Ruscus extract was tested in different concentrations and in combination with prazosin (alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist), rauwolscine (alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist), or diltiazem (calcium blocker). Topical application of Ruscus extract elicited concentration-dependent responses in the studied vessels: arterioles remained unchanged in the concentration range tested, whereas venules remained unchanged or constricted depending on the concentration used. The observed venular constriction could be blocked by low concentrations (10(-9) M) of prazosin or diltiazem and by high concentrations (> 10(-6) M) of rauwolscine. Our results suggest that the venular constriction elicited by Ruscus extract in vivo, at the microcirculatory level, is mediated by calcium and by alpha-adrenoceptors and further support data previously reported on larger vessels and on patients with venous insufficiency.

  8. Influence of superimposed optokinetic stimulus on smooth pursuit eye movements elicited by sinusoidal spot target oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, M; Hattori, T; Watabe, H; Matsuoka, T; Watanabe, N; Ito, S; Baba, S; Watanabe, S

    1996-01-01

    In 6 healthy subjects, smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEMs), elicited by sinusoidal spot target oscillation, were measured against three different backgrounds: dark, stationary texture (texture), and texture background movement in-phase with the spot target (coupled). Spot-target oscillation frequencies ranging between 0.2 to 1.6 Hz and peak velocities ranging between 19 to 75 degrees/s were employed. SPEM gain did not differ significantly among the three backgrounds below 0.8 Hz. However when at 1.6 Hz it responded to a peak velocity of 75 degrees/s, the gain for the "coupled" background condition was greater than that for the "dark" condition, which in turn was greater than the gain for "texture". However, SPEM phase delays were found to be similar for the three background conditions. Since the responses during "coupled" and "texture" backgrounds are most likely elicited by rapid-rise optokinetic reflex (OKR) interaction it can be concluded that SPEMs and the rapid-rise OKR system have the same latency (response) time.

  9. Amphetamine Elicits Opposing Actions on Readily Releasable and Reserve Pools for Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P.; Juliano, Steven A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamine, a highly addictive drug with therapeutic efficacy, exerts paradoxical effects on the fundamental communication modes employed by dopamine neurons in modulating behavior. While amphetamine elevates tonic dopamine signaling by depleting vesicular stores and driving non-exocytotic release through reverse transport, this psychostimulant also activates phasic dopamine signaling by up-regulating vesicular dopamine release. We hypothesized that these seemingly incongruent effects arise from amphetamine depleting the reserve pool and enhancing the readily releasable pool. This novel hypothesis was tested using in vivo voltammetry and stimulus trains of varying duration to access different vesicular stores. We show that amphetamine actions are stimulus dependent in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, amphetamine up-regulated vesicular dopamine release elicited by a short-duration train, which interrogates the readily releasable pool, but depleted release elicited by a long-duration train, which interrogates the reserve pool. These opposing actions of vesicular dopamine release were associated with concurrent increases in tonic and phasic dopamine responses. A link between vesicular depletion and tonic signaling was supported by results obtained for amphetamine in the ventral striatum and cocaine in both striatal sub-regions, which demonstrated augmented vesicular release and phasic signals only. We submit that amphetamine differentially targeting dopamine stores reconciles the paradoxical activation of tonic and phasic dopamine signaling. Overall, these results further highlight the unique and region-distinct cellular mechanisms of amphetamine and may have important implications for its addictive and therapeutic properties. PMID:23671560

  10. Arginine Residues are More Effective than Lysine Residues in Eliciting the Cellular Uptake of Onconase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundlass, Nadia K.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2011-01-01

    Onconase is an amphibian member of the pancreatic ribonuclease family of enzymes that is in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Onconase, which has an abundance of lysine residues, is internalized by cancer cells through endocytosis in a mechanism similar to that of cell-penetrating peptides. Here, we compare the effect of lysine versus arginine residues on the biochemical attributes necessary for Onconase to elicit its cytotoxic activity. In the variant R-Onconase, ten of the twelve lysine residues in Onconase are replaced with arginine, leaving only the two active-site lysines intact. Cytometric assays quantifying internalization showed a 3-fold increase in the internalization of R-Onconase compared with Onconase. R-Onconase also showed greater affinity for heparin and a 2-fold increase in ribonucleolytic activity. Nonetheless, arginine substitution endowed only a slight increase in toxicity towards human cancer cells. Analysis of denaturation induced with guanidine–HCl showed that R-Onconase has less conformational stability than does the wild-type enzyme; moreover, R-Onconase is more susceptible to proteolytic degradation. These data indicate that arginine residues are more effective than lysine in eliciting cellular internalization, but can compromise other aspects of protein structure and function. PMID:21980976

  11. A probabilistic characterization of the relationship between fine particulate matter and mortality: elicitation of European experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Roger M; Wilson, Andrew M; Tuomisto, Jouni T; Morales, Oswaldo; Tainio, Marko; Evans, John S

    2007-09-15

    In support of an assessment of the mortality impacts of the Kuwait Oil Fires we interviewed six European experts in epidemiology and toxicology using formal procedures for elicitation of expert judgment. While the primary focus of the elicitations was to characterize the public health impacts of the fires, the experts provided quantitative estimates of the mortality impacts of hypothetical changes in the levels of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in both the United States and Europe. Uncertainty was assessed by asking each expert to provide the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of their subjective cumulative probability density function for each quantity of interest. The results suggest that many regulatory risk assessments underestimate the impacts of PM2.5 mortality; confirm that only a small fraction of the mortality impact occurs within the first few months after exposure; and indicate that it may be important to better address the differential toxicities of particles from various source classes. By providing quantitative estimates of the uncertainty in current estimates of PM2.5 mortality risks, the study facilitates structured analysis of the value of further research on PM2.5 and its impacts.

  12. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  13. Videos of conspecifics elicit interactive looking patterns and facial expressions in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Clayton P; Zimmerman, Prisca E; Gothard, Katalin M

    2011-08-01

    A broader understanding of the neural basis of social behavior in primates requires the use of species-specific stimuli that elicit spontaneous, but reproducible and tractable behaviors. In this context of natural behaviors, individual variation can further inform about the factors that influence social interactions. To approximate natural social interactions similar to those documented by field studies, we used unedited video footage to induce in viewer monkeys spontaneous facial expressions and looking patterns in the laboratory setting. Three adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta), previously behaviorally and genetically (5-HTTLPR) characterized, were monitored while they watched 10 s video segments depicting unfamiliar monkeys (movie monkeys) displaying affiliative, neutral, and aggressive behaviors. The gaze and head orientation of the movie monkeys alternated between "averted" and "directed" at the viewer. The viewers were not reinforced for watching the movies, thus their looking patterns indicated their interest and social engagement with the stimuli. The behavior of the movie monkey accounted for differences in the looking patterns and facial expressions displayed by the viewers. We also found multiple significant differences in the behavior of the viewers that correlated with their interest in these stimuli. These socially relevant dynamic stimuli elicited spontaneous social behaviors, such as eye-contact induced reciprocation of facial expression, gaze aversion, and gaze following, that were previously not observed in response to static images. This approach opens a unique opportunity to understanding the mechanisms that trigger spontaneous social behaviors in humans and nonhuman primates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Eliciting cues to false intent: a new application of strategic interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Franziska; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif A

    2011-12-01

    This article examined how to elicit cues to deception when a suspect is asked both about his/her intentions and his/her corresponding past planning, and when the investigator holds evidence on the suspect's planning activities. In a new experimental set-up accommodating the main characteristics of intent, participants (N = 120) either planned a criminal or a non-criminal act. They were intercepted before completing the planned act. Each participant was interviewed in accordance with one of three interview techniques: Early Evidence disclosure or one of two versions of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) technique. All the interviews were transcribed and scored for consistency. As predicted, the liars were perceived as having a higher degree of inconsistency for two of the three relevant comparisons (Statement on Planning-Evidence on Planning; Statement on Intent-Evidence on Planning). Furthermore, using the evidence strategically resulted in differences between liars and truth tellers being magnified, as predicted. This article advances previous findings in showing that by interviewing strategically with respect to the evidence, it is possible to elicit reliable cues to deception when a suspect is asked about intentions and corresponding planning activities.

  15. Evaluation of immune response elicited by inulin as an adjuvant with filarial antigens in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-10-01

    Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. NMDAR-mediated calcium transients elicited by glutamate co-release at developing inhibitory synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Kalmbach

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Before hearing onset, the topographic organization of the inhibitory sound localization pathway from the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB to the lateral superior olive (LSO is refined by means of synaptic silencing and strengthening. During this refinement period MNTB-LSO synapses not only release GABA and glycine but also release glutamate. This co-released glutamate can elicit postsynaptic currents that are predominantly mediated by NMDA receptors (NMDARs. To gain a better understanding of how glutamate contributes to synaptic signaling at developing MNTB-LSO inhibitory synapse, we investigated to what degree and under what conditions NMDARs contribute to postsynaptic calcium responses. Our results demonstrate that MNTB-LSO synapses can elicit compartmentalized calcium responses along aspiny LSO dendrites. These responses are significantly attenuated by the NMDARs antagonist APV. APV, however, has no effect on somatically recorded electrical postsynaptic responses, indicating little, if any, contribution of NMDARs to spike generation. Small NMDAR-mediated calcium responses were also observed under physiological levels of extracellular magnesium concentrations indicating that MNTB-LSO synapses activate magnesium sensitive NMDAR on immature LSO dendrites. In Fura-2 AM loaded neurons, blocking GABAA and glycine receptors decreased NMDAR contribution to somatic calcium responses suggesting that GABA and glycine, perhaps by shunting backpropagating action potentials, decrease the level of NMDAR activation under strong stimulus conditions.

  17. Subcortical cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes elicited by cortical spreading depression in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mraovitch, S; Calando, Y; Goadsby, P J; Seylaz, J

    1992-06-01

    Changes in cerebral cortical perfusion (CBFLDF), local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) elicited by unilateral cortical spreading depression (SD) were monitored and measured in separate groups of rats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. CBFLDF was recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry, while lCBF and lCGU were measured by the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]iodoantipyrine and [14C]-2-deoxyglucose methods, respectively. SD elicited a wave of hyperemia after a latency of 2 to 3 min followed by an oligemic phase. Ninety minutes following the onset of SD cortical (frontal, parietal and occipital) lCBF and lCGU were essentially the same as on the contralateral side and in sham-treated rats. However, alteration in the lCBF and lCGU in upper and lower brainstem persisted. The present results demonstrate, for the first time, that long-lasting cerebrovascular and metabolic alterations take place within the subcortical regions following SD. These regions provide an attractive site to integrate observations in man concerning spreading depression and the aura of migraine with the other features of the syndrome.

  18. Which Individual Therapist Behaviors Elicit Client Change Talk and Sustain Talk in Motivational Interviewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Timothy R; Jackson, Kristina M; Borsari, Brian; Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Barnett, Nancy P

    2016-02-01

    To identify individual therapist behaviors which elicit client change talk or sustain talk in motivational interviewing sessions. Motivational interviewing sessions from a single-session alcohol intervention delivered to college students were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC), a therapy process coding system. Participants included 92 college students and eight therapists who provided their treatment. The MISC was used to code 17 therapist behaviors related to the use of motivational interviewing, and client language reflecting movement toward behavior change (change talk), away from behavior change (sustain talk), or unrelated to the target behavior (follow/neutral). Client change talk was significantly more likely to immediately follow individual therapist behaviors [affirm (p=.013), open question (pquestion (pquestions (pquestions (p<.001). Certain individual therapist behaviors within motivational interviewing can either elicit both client change talk and sustain talk or suppress both types of client language. Affirm was the only therapist behavior that both increased change talk and also reduced sustain talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anger elicitation in Tonga and Germany: The impact of culture on cognitive determinants of emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBender

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive appraisal of an event is crucial for the elicitation and differentiation of emotions, and causal attributions are an integral part of this process. In an interdisciplinary project comparing Tonga and Germany, we examined how cultural differences in attribution tendencies affect emotion assessment and elicitation. Data on appraising causality and responsibility and on emotional responses were collected through questionnaires based on experimentally designed vignettes, and were related to culture-specific values, norms, and the prevailing self-concept. The experimental data support our hypothesis that—driven by culturally defined self-concepts and corresponding attribution tendencies—members of the two cultures cognitively appraise events in diverging manners and consequently differ in their emotional responses. Ascription of responsibility to self and/or circumstances, in line with a more interdependent self-concept, co-varies with higher ratings of shame, guilt and sadness, whereas ascription of responsibility to others, in line with a less interdependent self-concept, co-varies with higher ratings of anger. These findings support the universal contingency hypothesis and help to explain cultural differences in this domain on a fine-grained level.

  20. Expert knowledge elicitation using computer simulation: the organization of frail elderly case management as an illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiêm, Jean-Christophe; Van Durme, Thérèse; Vandendorpe, Florence; Schmitz, Olivier; Speybroeck, Niko; Cès, Sophie; Macq, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Various elderly case management projects have been implemented in Belgium. This type of long-term health care intervention involves contextual factors and human interactions. These underlying complex mechanisms can be usefully informed with field experts' knowledge, which are hard to make explicit. However, computer simulation has been suggested as one possible method of overcoming the difficulty of articulating such elicited qualitative views. A simulation model of case management was designed using an agent-based methodology, based on the initial qualitative research material. Variables and rules of interaction were formulated into a simple conceptual framework. This model has been implemented and was used as a support for a structured discussion with experts in case management. The rigorous formulation provided by the agent-based methodology clarified the descriptions of the interventions and the problems encountered regarding: the diverse network topologies of health care actors in the project; the adaptation time required by the intervention; the communication between the health care actors; the institutional context; the organization of the care; and the role of the case manager and his or hers personal ability to interpret the informal demands of the frail older person. The simulation model should be seen primarily as a tool for thinking and learning. A number of insights were gained as part of a valuable cognitive process. Computer simulation supporting field experts' elicitation can lead to better-informed decisions in the organization of complex health care interventions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A novel emotion elicitation index using frontal brain asymmetry for enhanced EEG-based emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims at providing a novel method for evaluating the emotion elicitation procedures in an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition setup. By employing the frontal brain asymmetry theory, an index, namely asymmetry Index (AsI), is introduced, in order to evaluate this asymmetry. This is accomplished by a multidimensional directed information analysis between different EEG sites from the two opposite brain hemispheres. The proposed approach was applied to three-channel (Fp1, Fp2, and F3/F4 10/20 sites) EEG recordings drawn from 16 healthy right-handed subjects. For the evaluation of the efficiency of the AsI, an extensive classification process was conducted using two feature-vector extraction techniques and a SVM classifier for six different classification scenarios in the valence/arousal space. This resulted in classification results up to 62.58% for the user independent case and 94.40% for the user-dependent one, confirming the efficacy of AsI as an index for the emotion elicitation evaluation.

  2. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Benzoxazinoid Glycosides from Rhizopus-Elicited Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Wouter J C; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Duran, Katharina; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-08-17

    Benzoxazinoids function as defense compounds and have been suggested to possess health-promoting effects. In this work, the mass spectrometric behavior of benzoxazinoids from the classes benzoxazin-3-ones (with subclasses lactams, hydroxamic acids, and methyl derivatives) and benzoxazolinones was studied. Wheat seeds were germinated with simultaneous elicitation by Rhizopus. The seedling extract was screened for the presence of benzoxazinoid (glycosides) using reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection coupled in line to multiple-stage mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-PDA-MS(n)). Benzoxazin-3-ones from the different subclasses showed distinctly different ionization and fragmentation behaviors. These features were incorporated into a newly proposed decision guideline to aid the classification of benzoxazinoids. Glycosides of the methyl derivative 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one were tentatively identified for the first time in wheat. We conclude that wheat seedlings germinated with simultaneous fungal elicitation contain a diverse array of benzoxazinoids, mainly constituted by benzoxazin-3-one glycosides.

  3. Examining Recall Memory in Infancy and Early Childhood Using the Elicited Imitation Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M

    2016-04-28

    The ability to recall the past allows us to report on details of previous experiences, from the everyday to the significant. Because recall memory is commonly assessed using verbal report paradigms in adults, studying the development of this ability in preverbal infants and children proved challenging. Over the past 30 years, researchers have developed a non-verbal means of assessing recall memory known as the elicited or deferred imitation paradigm. In one variant of the procedure, participants are presented with novel three-dimensional stimuli for a brief baseline period before a researcher demonstrates a series of actions that culminate in an end- or goal-state. The participant is allowed to imitate the demonstrated actions immediately, after a delay, or both. Recall performance is then compared to baseline or to performance on novel control sequences presented at the same session; memory can be assessed for the individual target actions and the order in which they were completed. This procedure is an accepted analogue to the verbal report techniques used with adults, and it has served to establish a solid foundation of the nature of recall memory in infancy and early childhood. In addition, the elicited or deferred imitation procedure has been modified and adapted to answer questions relevant to other aspects of cognitive functioning. The broad utility and application of imitation paradigms is discussed, along with limitations of the approach and directions for future research.

  4. Adaptation aftereffects in vocal emotion perception elicited by expressive faces and voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuk, Verena G; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotions is often suggested to be multimodal in nature, and bimodal as compared to unimodal (auditory or visual) presentation of emotional stimuli can lead to superior emotion recognition. In previous studies, contrastive aftereffects in emotion perception caused by perceptual adaptation have been shown for faces and for auditory affective vocalization, when adaptors were of the same modality. By contrast, crossmodal aftereffects in the perception of emotional vocalizations have not been demonstrated yet. In three experiments we investigated the influence of emotional voice as well as dynamic facial video adaptors on the perception of emotion-ambiguous voices morphed on an angry-to-happy continuum. Contrastive aftereffects were found for unimodal (voice) adaptation conditions, in that test voices were perceived as happier after adaptation to angry voices, and vice versa. Bimodal (voice + dynamic face) adaptors tended to elicit larger contrastive aftereffects. Importantly, crossmodal (dynamic face) adaptors also elicited substantial aftereffects in male, but not in female participants. Our results (1) support the idea of contrastive processing of emotions (2), show for the first time crossmodal adaptation effects under certain conditions, consistent with the idea that emotion processing is multimodal in nature, and (3) suggest gender differences in the sensory integration of facial and vocal emotional stimuli.

  5. Searching for the optimal stimulus eliciting auditory brainstem responses in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobel, Oliver; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    This study examines auditory brainstem responses (ABR) elicited by rising frequency chirps. Two chirp stimuli were developed and designed such as to compensate for cochlear travel-time differences across frequency, in order to maximize neural synchrony. One chirp, referred to as the O-chirp, was ......This study examines auditory brainstem responses (ABR) elicited by rising frequency chirps. Two chirp stimuli were developed and designed such as to compensate for cochlear travel-time differences across frequency, in order to maximize neural synchrony. One chirp, referred to as the O...... compared to click responses and to responses obtained with the original chirp as defined in Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107(3), 1530–1540 (2000)], referred to here as the M-chirp since it is based on a (linear) cochlea model. The main hypothesis was that, at low and medium stimulation levels, the O......- and A-chirps might produce a larger response than the original M-chirp whose parameters were essentially derived from high-level BM data. The main results of the present study are as follows: (i) All chirps evoked a larger wave-V amplitude than the click stimulus indicating that for the chirps a broader...

  6. Music-Elicited Emotion Identification Using Optical Flow Analysis of Human Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniaz, V. V.; Smirnova, Z. N.

    2015-05-01

    Human emotion identification from image sequences is highly demanded nowadays. The range of possible applications can vary from an automatic smile shutter function of consumer grade digital cameras to Biofied Building technologies, which enables communication between building space and residents. The highly perceptual nature of human emotions leads to the complexity of their classification and identification. The main question arises from the subjective quality of emotional classification of events that elicit human emotions. A variety of methods for formal classification of emotions were developed in musical psychology. This work is focused on identification of human emotions evoked by musical pieces using human face tracking and optical flow analysis. Facial feature tracking algorithm used for facial feature speed and position estimation is presented. Facial features were extracted from each image sequence using human face tracking with local binary patterns (LBP) features. Accurate relative speeds of facial features were estimated using optical flow analysis. Obtained relative positions and speeds were used as the output facial emotion vector. The algorithm was tested using original software and recorded image sequences. The proposed technique proves to give a robust identification of human emotions elicited by musical pieces. The estimated models could be used for human emotion identification from image sequences in such fields as emotion based musical background or mood dependent radio.

  7. It's all about the children: a participant-driven photo-elicitation study of Mexican-origin mothers' food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cassandra M; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R

    2011-09-26

    There is a desperate need to address diet-related chronic diseases in Mexican-origin women, particularly for those in border region colonias (Mexican settlements) and other new destination communities in rural and non-rural areas of the U.S. Understanding the food choices of mothers, who lead food and health activities in their families, provides one way to improve health outcomes in Mexican-origin women and their children. This study used a visual method, participant-driven photo-elicitation, and grounded theory in a contextual study of food choices from the perspectives of Mexican-origin mothers. Teams of trained promotoras (female community health workers from the area) collected all data in Spanish. Ten Mexican-origin mothers living in colonias in Hidalgo County, TX completed a creative photography assignment and an in-depth interview using their photographs as visual prompts and examples. English transcripts were coded inductively by hand, and initial observations emphasized the salience of mothers' food practices in their routine care-giving. This was explored further by coding transcripts in the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti. An inductive conceptual framework was created to provide context for understanding mothers' daily practices and their food practices in particular. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) a mother's primary orientation was toward her children; 2) leveraging resources to provide the best for her children; and 3) a mother's daily food practices kept her children happy, healthy, and well-fed. Results offer insight into the intricate meanings embedded in Mexican-origin mothers' routine food choices. This paper provides a new perspective for understanding food choice through the eyes of mothers living in the colonias of South Texas -- one that emphasizes the importance of children in their routine food practices and the resilience of the mothers themselves. Additional research is needed to better understand mothers' perspectives

  8. Yellow fever vaccination elicits broad functional CD4+ T cell responses that recognize structural and nonstructural proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Eddie A; LaFond, Rebecca E; Gates, Theresa J; Mai, Duy T; Malhotra, Uma; Kwok, William W

    2013-12-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) can induce acute, life-threatening disease that is a significant health burden in areas where yellow fever is endemic, but it is preventable through vaccination. The live attenuated 17D YFV strain induces responses characterized by neutralizing antibodies and strong T cell responses. This vaccine provides an excellent model for studying human immunity. While several studies have characterized YFV-specific antibody and CD8(+) T cell responses, less is known about YFV-specific CD4(+) T cells. Here we characterize the epitope specificity, functional attributes, and dynamics of YFV-specific T cell responses in vaccinated subjects by investigating peripheral blood mononuclear cells by using HLA-DR tetramers. A total of 112 epitopes restricted by seven common HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified. Epitopes were present within all YFV proteins, but the capsid, envelope, NS2a, and NS3 proteins had the highest epitope density. Antibody blocking demonstrated that the majority of YFV-specific T cells were HLA-DR restricted. Therefore, CD4(+) T cell responses could be effectively characterized with HLA-DR tetramers. Ex vivo tetramer analysis revealed that YFV-specific T cells persisted at frequencies ranging from 0 to 100 cells per million that are detectable years after vaccination. Longitudinal analysis indicated that YFV-specific CD4(+) T cells reached peak frequencies, often exceeding 250 cells per million, approximately 2 weeks after vaccination. As frequencies subsequently declined, YFV-specific cells regained CCR7 expression, indicating a shift from effector to central memory. Cells were typically CXCR3 positive, suggesting Th1 polarization, and produced gamma interferon and other cytokines after reactivation in vitro. Therefore, YFV elicits robust early effector CD4(+) T cell responses that contract, forming a detectable memory population.

  9. DNA vaccines elicit durable protective immunity against individual or simultaneous infections with Lassa and Ebola viruses in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kathleen A; Wilkinson, Eric R; Wollen, Suzanne E; Shamblin, Joshua D; Zelko, Justine M; Bearss, Jeremy J; Zeng, Xiankun; Broderick, Kate E; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2017-12-02

    We previously developed optimized DNA vaccines against both Lassa fever and Ebola hemorrhagic fever viruses and demonstrated that they were protective individually in guinea pig and nonhuman primate models. In this study, we vaccinated groups of strain 13 guinea pigs two times, four weeks apart with 50 µg of each DNA vaccine or a mock vaccine at discrete sites by intradermal electroporation. Five weeks following the second vaccinations, guinea pigs were exposed to lethal doses of Lassa virus, Ebola virus, or a combination of both viruses simultaneously. None of the vaccinated guinea pigs, regardless of challenge virus and including the coinfected group, displayed weight loss, fever or other disease signs, and all survived to the study endpoint. All of the mock-vaccinated guinea pigs that were infected with Lassa virus, and all but one of the EBOV-infected mock-vaccinated guinea pigs succumbed. In order to determine if the dual-agent vaccination strategy could protect against both viruses if exposures were temporally separated, we held the surviving vaccinates in BSL-4 for approximately 120 days to perform a cross-challenge experiment in which guinea pigs originally infected with Lassa virus received a lethal dose of Ebola virus and those originally infected with Ebola virus were infected with a lethal dose of Lassa virus. All guinea pigs remained healthy and survived to the study endpoint. This study clearly demonstrates that DNA vaccines against Lassa and Ebola viruses can elicit protective immunity against both individual virus exposures as well as in a mixed-infection environment.

  10. Influence of elicitation with H₂O₂ on phenolics content, antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of Lens culinaris sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Baraniak, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    The use of lentil sprouts as bioreactors for obtaining low-processed food with modified composition and biological activity was studied. Special emphasis was placed on the nutritional quality. Sprouts metabolism was elicited with 20 mmol L⁻¹ and 200 mmol L⁻¹ H₂O₂. The polyphenolics content and antioxidative abilities at different germination stages of lentil were studied. Both sprouting and elicitation significantly influenced the nutritional and nutraceutical quality of sprouts. In comparison to control conditions both treatments gave an increase in caffeic, salicylic acid and genistein contents in 4-day-old sprouts and p-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, o-coumaric, p-coumaric acids and naringenin, (+)-catechin contents for 6-day-old sprouts. Elicitation significantly increased the ability to prevent lipid against peroxidation. The antioxidant potential was the most effectively elevated in 6-day-old sprouts. Elicitation caused a significant decrease in protein content associated with a significant elevation in the non-protein nitrogen content. Induction of sprout metabolism caused a decrease of bioavailable starch and subsequent elevation of resistant starch content. The significantly elevated antioxidant potential, high content of resistant starch and low starch bioaccessibility of sprouts elicited with H₂O₂ indicated that this technology allows the production of functional food products with particular characteristics. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Diagrams and Relational Maps: The Use of Graphic Elicitation Techniques with Interviewing for Data Collection, Analysis, and Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Copeland PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphic elicitation techniques, which ask research participants to provide visual data representing personal understandings of concepts, experiences, beliefs, or behaviors, can be especially useful in helping participants to express complex or abstract ideas or opinions. The benefits and drawbacks of using graphic elicitation techniques for data collection, data analysis, and data display in qualitative research studies are analyzed using examples from a research study that employed data matrices and relational maps in conjunction with semi-structured interviews. Results from this analysis demonstrate that the use of these combined techniques for data collection facilitates triangulation and helps to establish internal consistency of data, thereby increasing the trustworthiness of the interpretation of that data and lending support to validity and reliability claims. Findings support the notion that graphic elicitation techniques can be highly useful in qualitative research studies at the data collection, the data analysis, and the data reporting stages. For example, this study found that graphic elicitation techniques are especially useful for eliciting data related to emotions and emotional experiences.

  12. Pretreatment of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) Suspension Cultures with Methyl Jasmonate Enhances Elicitation of Activated Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauss, H.; Jeblick, W.; Ziegler, J.; Krabler, W.

    1994-05-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) were used to demonstrate an influence of jasmonic acid methyl ester (JAME) on the elicitation of activated oxygen species. Preincubation of the cell cultures for 1 d with JAME greatly enhanced the subsequent induction by an elicitor preparation from cell walls of Phytophtora megasperma f. sp. glycinea (Pmg elicitor) and by the polycation chitosan. Shorter preincubation times with JAME were less efficient, and the effect was saturated at about 5 [mu]M JAME. Treatment of the crude Pmg elicitor with trypsin abolished induction of activated oxygen species, an effect similar to that seen with elicitation of coumarin secretion. These results suggest that JAME conditioned the parsley suspension cells in a time-dependent manner to become more responsive to elicitation, reminiscent of developmental effects caused by JAME in whole plants. It is interesting that pretreatment of the parsley cultures with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic and 5-chlorosalicylic acid only slightly enhanced the elicitation of activated oxygen species, whereas these substances greatly enhanced the elicitation of coumarin secretion. Therefore, these presumed inducers of systemic acquired resistance exhibit a specificity different from JAME.

  13. Basic taste stimuli elicit unique responses in facial skin blood flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Kashima

    Full Text Available Facial expression changes characteristically with the emotions induced by basic tastes in humans. We tested the hypothesis that the five basic tastes also elicit unique responses in facial skin blood flow. Facial skin blood flow was measured using laser speckle flowgraphy in 16 healthy subjects before and during the application of basic taste stimuli in the oral cavity for 20 s. The skin blood flow in the eyelid increased in response to sweet and umami taste stimuli, while that in the nose decreased in response to a bitter stimulus. There was a significant correlation between the subjective hedonic scores accompanying these taste stimuli and the above changes in skin blood flow. These results demonstrate that sweet, umami, and bitter tastes induce unique changes in facial skin blood flow that reflect subjective hedonic scores.

  14. Beliefs about meditating among university students, faculty, and staff: a theory-based salient belief elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M; Middlestadt, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Stress impacts college students, faculty, and staff alike. Although meditation has been found to decrease stress, it is an underutilized strategy. This study used the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to identify beliefs underlying university constituents' decision to meditate. N=96 students, faculty, and staff at a large midwestern university during spring 2012. A survey measured the RAA global constructs and elicited the beliefs underlying intention to meditate. Thematic and frequency analyses and multiple regression were performed. Quantitative analyses showed that intention to meditate was significantly predicted (R2=.632) by attitude, perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control. Qualitative analyses revealed advantages (eg, reduced stress; feeling calmer), disadvantages (eg, takes time; will not work), and facilitating circumstances (eg, having more time; having quiet space) of meditating. Results of this theory-based research suggest how college health professionals can encourage meditation practice through individual, interpersonal, and environmental interventions.

  15. Understanding hospital meal experiences by means of Participant-Driven-Photo-Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2014-01-01

    A patients’ hospital meal experiences can be complex and often difficult to capture using traditional methods. This study investigated patients’ hospital meal experiences using participant-driven-photo-elicitation (PDPE). PDPE invites respondents to photograph their daily lives and combines...... this with interviews, which can provide deeper insight into multisensory experiences beyond verbal or written discourse. The sample consisted of eight hospitalised patients. Patients completed a photo-essay of their hospital meal experience during a single day at a Danish hospital and afterwards participated...... in an open-ended interview. Two inductive analytical approaches were selected to assess the patients’ reflections on their hospital meal experiences. First, the interview transcripts were analysed using the Semiotic Analysis approach using qualitative data analysis software NVivo 9. Second, the 91 produced...

  16. Development of an Expert Judgement Elicitation and Calibration Methodology for Risk Analysis in Conceptual Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit; Keating, Charles; Conway, Bruce; Chytka, Trina

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive expert-judgment elicitation methodology to quantify input parameter uncertainty and analysis tool uncertainty in a conceptual launch vehicle design analysis has been developed. The ten-phase methodology seeks to obtain expert judgment opinion for quantifying uncertainties as a probability distribution so that multidisciplinary risk analysis studies can be performed. The calibration and aggregation techniques presented as part of the methodology are aimed at improving individual expert estimates, and provide an approach to aggregate multiple expert judgments into a single probability distribution. The purpose of this report is to document the methodology development and its validation through application to a reference aerospace vehicle. A detailed summary of the application exercise, including calibration and aggregation results is presented. A discussion of possible future steps in this research area is given.

  17. Decision Strategies in Continuous Ratings of Jealousy Feelings Elicited by Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Schützwohl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies (total N = 689 tested the assumption of DeSteno, Bartlett, Braverman, and Salovey (2002 that sex differences in jealousy predicted by the evolutionary view are an artifact of measurement because they are restricted to a forced-choice response format and do not emerge when using continuous jealousy ratings. In Study 1, men and women rated how much a mate's emotional and sexual infidelity contributed to their jealousy feeling. In Study 2, men and women rated the intensity of their jealousy feeling elicited by a mate's emotional and sexual infidelity. In one condition they were asked to make their ratings spontaneously whereas in the other condition they were instructed to make their ratings only after careful consideration. The results of both studies lend no support for the artifact-of-measurement assumption. The implications of the present finding for the assumption of DeSteno et al. (2002 are discussed.

  18. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Ramanathan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine.

  19. Against the odds: human values arising in unfavourable circumstances elicit the feeling of being moved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; van Soolingen, Jantine

    2017-10-30

    People sometimes say they are "moved" or "touched" by something. Although the experience is familiar to most, systematic research on being moved has just begun. The current research aims to advance our understanding of the prototypical elicitors of being moved. We tested the hypothesis that being moved is elicited by core values (i.e. values that are particularly central to being human) that manifest themselves in circumstances that are unfavourable to their emergence. In three experiments, two with text stimuli and one with pictorial stimuli, we found compelling evidence that the same core value (e.g. love, willpower, beauty) is perceived as more moving when it emerges in unfavourable than in favourable circumstances. The effect was found in both males and females, although stronger in the latter group, and across all investigated core values, although love was generally more moving than other core values. The theoretical and practical significance of these findings is discussed.

  20. Proposal for elicitation and analysis of environmental requirements into the construction design process: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pegoraro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Proposal: As new demands from sustainable development, environmental requirements arise as another challenge to design process management. It is already known that companies which design buildings are usually exposed to many managerial difficulties. Faced to the environmental demands, these companies require new facilities to align environmental requirements to the business goals and to include them properly in design process. This paper is based on a case study in a construction company, which was developed through interviews and document analysis. It is intended to present a procedure for the project environmental requirements elicitation, organization and analysis, which is based on the requirements engineering (ER concepts. As results it was concluded that the ER concepts are useful for the environmental requirements integration into the design process and that strategic planning should give directions for the effective environmental requirements adherence. Moreover, a procedure for environmental requirements modeling is proposed. Key-words: Design process, Requirements management, Environmental requirements, Construction