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Sample records for progeria syndrome mutation

  1. Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome

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    Gopal G

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS is a rare pediatric genetic syndrome associated with a characteristic aged appearance very early in life, generally leading to death in the second decade of life. Apart from premature aging, the other notable characteristics of children with HGPS include extreme short stature, prominent superficial veins, poor weight gain, alopecia, as well as various skeletal and cardiovascular pathologies associated with advanced age. The pattern of inheritance of HGPS is uncertain, though both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive modes have been described. Recent genetic studies have demonstrated mutations in the LMNA gene in children with HGPS. In this article, we report a 16 years old girl who had the phenotypic features of HGPS and was later confirmed to have LMNA mutation by genetic analysis.

  2. Progeria syndrome: A case report

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    Rastogi Rajul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeria is a rare and peculiar combination of dwarfism and premature aging. The incidence is one in several million births. It occurs sporadically and is probably an autosomal recessive syndrome. Though the clinical presentation is usually typical, conventional radiological and biochemical investigations help in confirming the diagnosis. We present a rare case of progeria with most of the radiological features as a pictorial essay.

  3. Immortalization of Werner syndrome and progeria fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Moses, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Human fibroblast cells from two different progeroid syndromes, Werner syndrome (WS) and progeria, were established as immortalized cell lines by transfection with plasmid DNA containing the SV40 early region. The lineage of each immortalized cell line was confirmed by VNTR analysis. Each of the immortalized cell lines maintained its original phenotype of slow growth. DNA repair ability of these cells was also studied by measuring sensitivity to killing by uv or the DNA-damaging drugs methyl methansulfonate, bleomycin, and cis-dichlorodiamine platinum. The results showed that both WS and progeria cells have normal sensitivity to these agents

  4. Ocular manifestations in the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

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    Shivcharan L Chandravanshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hutchinson-Gilford progeria (HGP syndrome is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by an appearance of accelerated aging in children. The word progeria is derived from the Greek word progeros meaning ′prematurely old′. It is caused by de novo dominant mutation in the LMNA gene (gene map locus 1q21.2 and characterized by growth retardation and accelerated degenerative changes of the skin, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. The most common ocular manifestations are prominent eyes, loss of eyebrows and eyelashes, and lagophthalmos. In the present case some additional ocular features such as horizontal narrowing of palpebral fissure, superior sulcus deformity, upper lid retraction, upper lid lag in down gaze, poor pupillary dilatation, were noted. In this case report, a 15-year-old Indian boy with some additional ocular manifestations of the HGP syndrome is described.

  5. Dermal fibroblasts in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome with the lamin A G608G mutation have dysmorphic nuclei and are hypersensitive to heat stress

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    Worman Howard J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670 is a rare sporadic disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 per 8 million live births. The phenotypic appearance consists of short stature, sculptured nose, alopecia, prominent scalp veins, small face, loss of subcutaneous fat, faint mid-facial cyanosis, and dystrophic nails. HGPS is caused by mutations in LMNA, the gene that encodes nuclear lamins A and C. The most common mutation in subjects with HGPS is a de novo single-base pair substitution, G608G (GGC>GGT, within exon 11 of LMNA. This creates an abnormal splice donor site, leading to expression of a truncated protein. Results We studied a new case of a 5 year-old girl with HGPS and found a heterozygous point mutation, G608G, in LMNA. Complementary DNA sequencing of RNA showed that this mutation resulted in the deletion of 50 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminal tail domain of prelamin A. We characterized a primary dermal fibroblast cell line derived from the subject's skin. These cells expressed the mutant protein and exhibited a normal growth rate at early passage in primary culture but showed alterations in nuclear morphology. Expression levels and overall distributions of nuclear lamins and emerin, an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, were not dramatically altered. Ultrastructural analysis of the nuclear envelope using electron microscopy showed that chromatin is in close association to the nuclear lamina, even in areas with abnormal nuclear envelope morphology. The fibroblasts were hypersensitive to heat shock, and demonstrated a delayed response to heat stress. Conclusion Dermal fibroblasts from a subject with HGPS expressing a mutant truncated lamin A have dysmorphic nuclei, hypersensitivity to heat shock, and delayed response to heat stress. This suggests that the mutant protein, even when expressed at low levels, causes defective cell stability, which may be responsible for phenotypic

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mutant lamin A causes progressive changes in nuclear architecture in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Proc Natl Acad ... Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical ...

  7. Progeria (Hutchison - Gilford syndrome in siblings: In an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance

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    Raghu Tanjore

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Progeria is an autosomal dominant, premature aging syndrome. Six and three year old female siblings had sclcrodermatous changes over the extremities, alopecia, beaked nose, prominent veins and bird-like facies. Radiological features were consistent with features of progeria. The present case highlights rarity of progeria in siblings with a possible autosomal recessive pattern.

  8. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: review of the phenotype

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    Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare but well known entity characterized by extreme short stature, low body weight, early loss of hair, lipodystrophy, scleroderma, decreased joint mobility, osteolysis, and facial features that resemble aged persons. Cardiovascular compromise leads

  9. Leg ulcer in Werner syndrome (adult progeria): a case report.

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    Fumo, Giuseppe; Pau, Monica; Patta, Federico; Aste, Nicola; Atzori, Laura

    2013-03-15

    Werner syndrome (WS; MIM#277700) or adult progeria, is a rare disease, associated with mutations of a single gene (RECQL2 or WRN), located on chromosome 8 (8p12). It codes a DNA-helicase, whose defects cause genomic instability. The highest incidences are reported in Japan and Sardinia (Italy). On this major island of the Mediterranean Basin, the WS cases have been observed in the northern areas. The authors describe the apparently first case reported in southern Sardinia, a 51-year-old woman, who was born in and resides in the province of Cagliari. She presented with a 9-year history of an intractable leg ulcer and other characteristic symptoms, including "bird-like" face, high-pitched voice, premature greying, short stature, abdominal obesity in contrast with thin body type, scleroderma-like legs, decreased muscle mass, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and premature menopause. A specialized genetic Institute of Research (IRCCS-IDI, Rome) confirmed the clinical diagnosis. There is no cure or specific treatment and patients must be periodically screened for an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and malignancies. Among the many findings, leg ulcers significantly affect the patient's quality of life. This problem may send the patient to the dermatologist, who finally suspects the diagnosis. Poor response to medical treatment may require aggressive repeated surgery, with poor or temporary results.

  10. A prospective study of radiographic manifestations in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

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    Cleveland, Robert H. [Harvard Medical School, Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Gordon, Leslie B. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Anesthesia, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Department of Pediatrics, Hasbro Children' s Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Kleinman, Monica E. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Anesthesia, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Miller, David T. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Genetics, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Gordon, Catherine M. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Endocrinology and Adolescent Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Snyder, Brian D. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Nazarian, Ara [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Giobbie-Hurder, Anita [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Boston, MA (United States); Neuberg, Donna [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Kieran, Mark W. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Children' s Hospital Boston, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Progeria is a rare segmental premature aging disease with significant skeletal abnormalities. Defining the full scope of radiologic abnormalities requires examination of a large proportion of the world's progeria population (estimated at 1 in 4 million). There has been no comprehensive prospective study describing the skeletal abnormalities associated with progeria. To define characteristic radiographic features of this syndrome. Thirty-nine children with classic progeria, ages 2-17 years, from 29 countries were studied at a single site. Comprehensive radiographic imaging studies were performed. Sample included 23 girls and 16 boys - the largest number of patients with progeria evaluated prospectively to date. Eight new and two little known progeria-associated radiologic findings were identified (frequencies of 3-36%). Additionally, 23 commonly reported findings were evaluated. Of these, 2 were not encountered and 21 were present and ranked according to their frequency. Nine abnormalities were associated with increasing patient age (P = 0.02-0.0001). This study considerably expands the radiographic morphological spectrum of progeria. A better understanding of the radiologic abnormalities associated with progeria and improved understanding of the biology of progerin (the molecule responsible for this disease), will improve our ability to treat the spectrum of bony abnormalities. (orig.)

  11. A prospective study of radiographic manifestations in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, Robert H.; Gordon, Leslie B.; Kleinman, Monica E.; Miller, David T.; Gordon, Catherine M.; Snyder, Brian D.; Nazarian, Ara; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Neuberg, Donna; Kieran, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Progeria is a rare segmental premature aging disease with significant skeletal abnormalities. Defining the full scope of radiologic abnormalities requires examination of a large proportion of the world's progeria population (estimated at 1 in 4 million). There has been no comprehensive prospective study describing the skeletal abnormalities associated with progeria. To define characteristic radiographic features of this syndrome. Thirty-nine children with classic progeria, ages 2-17 years, from 29 countries were studied at a single site. Comprehensive radiographic imaging studies were performed. Sample included 23 girls and 16 boys - the largest number of patients with progeria evaluated prospectively to date. Eight new and two little known progeria-associated radiologic findings were identified (frequencies of 3-36%). Additionally, 23 commonly reported findings were evaluated. Of these, 2 were not encountered and 21 were present and ranked according to their frequency. Nine abnormalities were associated with increasing patient age (P = 0.02-0.0001). This study considerably expands the radiographic morphological spectrum of progeria. A better understanding of the radiologic abnormalities associated with progeria and improved understanding of the biology of progerin (the molecule responsible for this disease), will improve our ability to treat the spectrum of bony abnormalities. (orig.)

  12. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7...... weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose...... alone. However, the reversal of the dental phenotype of overgrown and laterally displaced lower incisors in HGPS mice could be attributed to resveratrol. Our results indicate that the HGPS bone defects were reversible upon suppressed transgenic expression and suggest that treatments targeting aberrant...

  13. Recapitulation of premature ageing with iPSCs from Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Hui; Barkho, Basam Z; Ruiz, Sergio; Diep, Dinh; Qu, Jing; Yang, Sheng-Lian; Panopoulos, Athanasia D; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Kurian, Leo; Walsh, Christopher; Thompson, James; Boue, Stephanie; Fung, Ho Lim; Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio; Zhang, Kun; Yates, John; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2011-04-14

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare and fatal human premature ageing disease, characterized by premature arteriosclerosis and degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). HGPS is caused by a single point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene, resulting in the generation of progerin, a truncated splicing mutant of lamin A. Accumulation of progerin leads to various ageing-associated nuclear defects including disorganization of nuclear lamina and loss of heterochromatin. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts obtained from patients with HGPS. HGPS-iPSCs show absence of progerin, and more importantly, lack the nuclear envelope and epigenetic alterations normally associated with premature ageing. Upon differentiation of HGPS-iPSCs, progerin and its ageing-associated phenotypic consequences are restored. Specifically, directed differentiation of HGPS-iPSCs to SMCs leads to the appearance of premature senescence phenotypes associated with vascular ageing. Additionally, our studies identify DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNAPKcs, also known as PRKDC) as a downstream target of progerin. The absence of nuclear DNAPK holoenzyme correlates with premature as well as physiological ageing. Because progerin also accumulates during physiological ageing, our results provide an in vitro iPSC-based model to study the pathogenesis of human premature and physiological vascular ageing.

  14. Hypoparathyroidism in an Egyptian child with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: a case report

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    Kalil Kotb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. It is reported to be present in one in eight million and is characterized by severe growth failure, early loss of hair, lipodystrophy, scleroderma, decreased joint mobility, osteolysis, early atherosclerosis and facial features that resemble those of an aged person. Apart from diabetes mellitus, there are no reported abnormalities of thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary or adrenal function. Here, we report the case of a 10-year-old Egyptian child with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and hypoparathyroidism. Case presentation A 10-year-old Egyptian boy was referred to our institution for an evaluation of recurrent attacks of muscle cramps, paresthesia of his fingertips and perioral numbness of two months duration. On examination, we found dilated veins present over his scalp with alopecia and frontal bossing, a beaked nose, thin lips, protruding ears, a high pitched voice with sparse hair over his eyebrows and eyelashes and micrognathia but normal dentition. His eyes appeared prominent and our patient appeared to have poor sexual development. A provisional diagnosis of progeria was made, which was confirmed by molecular genetics study. Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs were positive. He had low total calcium (5.4 mg/dL, low ionized calcium (2.3 mg/dL, raised serum phosphate (7.2 mg/dL, raised alkaline phosphatase (118 U/L and low intact parathyroid hormone (1.2 pg/mL levels. He was started on oral calcium salt and vitamin D; his symptoms improved with the treatment and his serum calcium, urinary calcium and alkaline phosphates level were monitored every three months to ensure adequacy of therapy and to avoid hypercalcemia. Conclusion Routine checking of serum calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone will help in the early detection of hypoparathyrodism among children with progeria.

  15. Radiological Diagnosis of a Rare Premature Aging Genetic Disorder: Progeria (Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome

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    Haji Mohammed Nazir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS is a rare disease with a combination of short stature, bone abnormalities, premature ageing, and skin changes. Though the physical appearance of these patients is characteristic, there is little emphasis on the characteristic radiological features. In this paper, we report a 16-year-old boy with clinical and radiological features of this rare genetic disorder. He had a characteristic facial appearance with a large head, large eyes, thin nose with beaked tip, small chin, protruding ears, prominent scalp veins, and absence of hair.

  16. Importance of molecular cell biology investigations in human medicine in the story of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raška, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2010), s. 89-93 ISSN 1337-6853 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC535 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : laminopathies * Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome * progerin Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  17. Discordant gene expression signatures and related phenotypic differences in lamin A- and A/C-related Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS.

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    Martina Plasilova

    Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS is a genetic disorder displaying features reminiscent of premature senescence caused by germline mutations in the LMNA gene encoding lamin A and C, essential components of the nuclear lamina. By studying a family with homozygous LMNA mutation (K542N, we showed that HGPS can also be caused by mutations affecting both isoforms, lamin A and C. Here, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in both, lamin A- (sporadic and lamin A and C-related (hereditary HGPS. For this, we performed detailed molecular studies on primary fibroblasts of hetero- and homozygous LMNA K542N mutation carriers, accompanied with clinical examinations related to the molecular findings. By assessing global gene expression we found substantial overlap in altered transcription profiles (13.7%; 90/657 in sporadic and hereditary HGPS, with 83.3% (75/90 concordant and 16.7% (15/90 discordant transcriptional changes. Among the concordant ones we observed down-regulation of TWIST2, whose inactivation in mice and humans leads to loss of subcutaneous fat and dermal appendages, and loss of expression in dermal fibroblasts and periadnexial cells from a LMNA(K542N/K542N patient further confirming its pivotal role in skin development. Among the discordant transcriptional profiles we identified two key mediators of vascular calcification and bone metabolism, ENPP1 and OPG, which offer a molecular explanation for the major phenotypic differences in vascular and bone disease in sporadic and hereditary HGPS. Finally, this study correlates reduced TWIST2 and OPG expression with increased osteocalcin levels, thereby linking altered bone remodeling to energy homeostasis in hereditary HGPS.

  18. Progeria 101/FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Progeria, but also may shed light on the phenomenon of aging and cardiovascular disease.” v “Recurrent de ... Statistics Is Progeria passed down from parent to child? HGPS is not usually passed down in families. ...

  19. Unique Preservation of Neural Cells in Hutchinson- Gilford Progeria Syndrome Is Due to the Expression of the Neural-Specific miR-9 MicroRNA

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    Xavier Nissan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One puzzling observation in patients affected with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, who overall exhibit systemic and dramatic premature aging, is the absence of any conspicuous cognitive impairment. Recent studies based on induced pluripotent stem cells derived from HGPS patient cells have revealed a lack of expression in neural derivatives of lamin A, a major isoform of LMNA that is initially produced as a precursor called prelamin A. In HGPS, defective maturation of a mutated prelamin A induces the accumulation of toxic progerin in patient cells. Here, we show that a microRNA, miR-9, negatively controls lamin A and progerin expression in neural cells. This may bear major functional correlates, as alleviation of nuclear blebbing is observed in nonneural cells after miR-9 overexpression. Our results support the hypothesis, recently proposed from analyses in mice, that protection of neural cells from progerin accumulation in HGPS is due to the physiologically restricted expression of miR-9 to that cell lineage.

  20. Progeria in siblings: A rare case report

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    R Sowmiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeria, also known as Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome, is an extremely rare, severe genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. It is an autosomal dominant disorder. It is not seen in siblings of affected children although there are very few case reports of progeria affecting more than one child in a family. Here we are presenting two siblings, a 14-year-old male and a 13-year-old female with features of progeria, suggesting a possible autosomal recessive inheritance.

  1. Lifespan extension by dietary intervention in a mouse model of Cockayne syndrome uncouples early postnatal development from segmental progeria.

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    Brace, Lear E; Vose, Sarah C; Vargas, Dorathy F; Zhao, Shuangyun; Wang, Xiu-Ping; Mitchell, James R

    2013-12-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive segmental progeria characterized by growth failure, lipodystrophy, neurological abnormalities, and photosensitivity, but without skin cancer predisposition. Cockayne syndrome life expectancy ranges from 5 to 16 years for the two most severe forms (types II and I, respectively). Mouse models of CS have thus far been of limited value due to either very mild phenotypes, or premature death during postnatal development prior to weaning. The cause of death in severe CS models is unknown, but has been attributed to extremely rapid aging. Here, we found that providing mutant pups with soft food from as late as postnatal day 14 allowed survival past weaning with high penetrance independent of dietary macronutrient balance in a novel CS model (Csa(-/-) | Xpa(-/-)). Survival past weaning revealed a number of CS-like symptoms including small size, progressive loss of adiposity, and neurological symptoms, with a maximum lifespan of 19 weeks. Our results caution against interpretation of death before weaning as premature aging, and at the same time provide a valuable new tool for understanding mechanisms of progressive CS-related progeroid symptoms including lipodystrophy and neurodysfunction. © 2013 the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Chemical screening identifies ROCK as a target for recovering mitochondrial function in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

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    Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Joon Tae; Choi, Kobong; Choi, Hyo Jei Claudia; Jung, Chul Won; Kim, Gyu Ree; Lee, Young-Sam; Park, Sang Chul

    2017-06-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) constitutes a genetic disease wherein an aging phenotype manifests in childhood. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in HGPS phenotype progression. Thus, pharmacological reduction in ROS levels has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for patient with this disorder. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to find compounds that could reduce ROS levels in HGPS fibroblasts and identified rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) as an effective agent. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of ROCK in regulating ROS levels, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and discovered that ROCK1 interacts with Rac1b. ROCK activation phosphorylated Rac1b at Ser71 and increased ROS levels by facilitating the interaction between Rac1b and cytochrome c. Conversely, ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 abolished their interaction, concomitant with ROS reduction. Additionally, ROCK activation resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, whereas ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 induced the recovery of mitochondrial function. Furthermore, a reduction in the frequency of abnormal nuclear morphology and DNA double-strand breaks was observed along with decreased ROS levels. Thus, our study reveals a novel mechanism through which alleviation of the HGPS phenotype is mediated by the recovery of mitochondrial function upon ROCK inactivation. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

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    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation ... Inc. All rights reserved. Page 2 of 5 Physical and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria ...

  4. Labor Market Progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  5. Signaling pathway activation drift during aging: Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome fibroblasts are comparable to normal middle-age and old-age cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliper, Alexander M; Csoka, Antonei Benjamin; Buzdin, Anton; Jetka, Tomasz; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Moskalev, Alexy; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    For the past several decades, research in understanding the molecular basis of human aging has progressed significantly with the analysis of premature aging syndromes. Progerin, an altered form of lamin A, has been identified as the cause of premature aging in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), and may be a contributing causative factor in normal aging. However, the question of whether HGPS actually recapitulates the normal aging process at the cellular and organismal level, or simply mimics the aging phenotype is widely debated. In the present study we analyzed publicly available microarray datasets for fibroblasts undergoing cellular aging in culture, as well as fibroblasts derived from young, middle-age, and old-age individuals, and patients with HGPS. Using GeroScope pathway analysis and drug discovery platform we analyzed the activation states of 65 major cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis reveals that signaling pathway activation states in cells derived from chronologically young patients with HGPS strongly resemble cells taken from normal middle-aged and old individuals. This clearly indicates that HGPS may truly represent accelerated aging, rather than being just a simulacrum. Our data also points to potential pathways that could be targeted to develop drugs and drug combinations for both HGPS and normal aging.

  6. Abnormal nuclear morphology is independent of longevity in a zmpste24-deficient fish model of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS).

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    Tonoyama, Yasuhiro; Shinya, Minori; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kitano, Takeshi; Oga, Atsunori; Nishimaki, Toshiyuki; Katsumura, Takafumi; Oota, Hiroki; Wan, Miles T; Yip, Bill W P; Helen, Mok O L; Chisada, Shinichi; Deguchi, Tomonori; Au, Doris W T; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshihito

    2018-07-01

    Lamin is an intermediate protein underlying the nuclear envelope and it plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of the nucleus. A defect in the processing of its precursor by a metalloprotease, ZMPSTE24, results in the accumulation of farnesylated prelamin in the nucleus and causes various diseases, including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). However, the role of lamin processing is unclear in fish species. Here, we generated zmpste24-deficient medaka and evaluated their phenotype. Unlike humans and mice, homozygous mutants did not show growth defects or lifespan shortening, despite lamin precursor accumulation. Gonadosomatic indices, blood glucose levels, and regenerative capacity of fins were similar in 1-year-old mutants and their wild-type (WT) siblings. Histological examination showed that the muscles, subcutaneous fat tissues, and gonads were normal in the mutants at the age of 1 year. However, the mutants showed hypersensitivity to X-ray irradiation, although p53target genes, p21 and mdm2, were induced 6 h after irradiation. Immunostaining of primary cultured cells from caudal fins and visualization of nuclei using H2B-GFP fusion proteins revealed an abnormal nuclear shape in the mutants both in vitro and in vivo. The telomere lengths were significantly shorter in the mutants compared to WT. Taken together, these results suggest that zmpste24-deficient medaka phenocopied HGPS only partially and that abnormal nuclear morphology and lifespan shortening are two independent events in vertebrates. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Germline KRAS mutations cause Noonan syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubbert, S.; Zenker, M.; Rowe, S.L.; Boll, S.; Klein, C.; Bollag, G.; Burgt, I. van der; Musante, L.; Kalscheuer, V.M.M.; Wehner, L.E.; Nguyen, H.; West, B.; Zhang, K.Y.; Sistermans, E.A.; Rauch, A.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Shannon, K.; Kratz, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (MIM 163950) is characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphism and cardiac defects. Heterozygous mutations in PTPN11, which encodes SHP-2, cause approximately 50% of cases of Noonan syndrome. The SHP-2 phosphatase relays signals from activated receptor complexes to downstream

  8. Sporadic Premature Aging in a Japanese Monkey: A Primate Model for Progeria

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    Oishi, Takao; Imai, Hiroo; Go, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Masanori; Hirai, Hirohisa; Takada, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In our institute, we have recently found a child Japanese monkey who is characterized by deep wrinkles of the skin and cataract of bilateral eyes. Numbers of analyses were performed to identify symptoms representing different aspects of aging. In this monkey, the cell cycle of fibroblasts at early passage was significantly extended as compared to a normal control. Moreover, both the appearance of senescent cells and the deficiency in DNA repair were observed. Also, pathological examination showed that this monkey has poikiloderma with superficial telangiectasia, and biochemical assay confirmed that levels of HbA1c and urinary hyaluronan were higher than those of other (child, adult, and aged) monkey groups. Of particular interest was that our MRI analysis revealed expansion of the cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles probably due to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, the conduction velocity of a peripheral sensory but not motor nerve was lower than in adult and child monkeys, and as low as in aged monkeys. However, we could not detect any individual-unique mutations of known genes responsible for major progeroid syndromes. The present results indicate that the monkey suffers from a kind of progeria that is not necessarily typical to human progeroid syndromes. PMID:25365557

  9. Genetic mutations in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Daneswari, Muthumula; Reddy, Mutjumula Swamy Ranga

    2013-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal at a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is mainly characterized by basal cell carcinoma, odontogenic keratocyst and skeletal anomalies. Diagnosis is based upon established major and minor clinical and radiographic criteria and gene mutation analysis. This article presents a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, its genetic predisposition, diagnosis and management.

  10. Genetic mutations in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneswari, Muthumula; Reddy, Mutjumula Swamy Ranga

    2013-07-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal at a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is mainly characterized by basal cell carcinoma, odontogenic keratocyst and skeletal anomalies. Diagnosis is based upon established major and minor clinical and radiographic criteria and gene mutation analysis. This article presents a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, its genetic predisposition, diagnosis and management.

  11. Sequential acquisition of mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

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    Makishima, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in next-generation sequencing technologies allows us to discover frequent mutations throughout the coding regions of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), potentially providing us with virtually a complete spectrum of driver mutations in this disease. As shown by many study groups these days, such driver mutations are acquired in a gene-specific fashion. For instance, DDX41 mutations are observed in germline cells long before MDS presentation. In blood samples from healthy elderly individuals, somatic DNMT3A and TET2 mutations are detected as age-related clonal hematopoiesis and are believed to be a risk factor for hematological neoplasms. In MDS, mutations of genes such as NRAS and FLT3, designated as Type-1 genes, may be significantly associated with leukemic evolution. Another type (Type-2) of genes, including RUNX1 and GATA2, are related to progression from low-risk to high-risk MDS. Overall, various driver mutations are sequentially acquired in MDS, at a specific time, in either germline cells, normal hematopoietic cells, or clonal MDS cells.

  12. LRIG2 mutations cause urofacial syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Helen M; Roberts, Neil A; Burgu, Berk; Daly, Sarah B; Urquhart, Jill E; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Dickerson, Jonathan E; Mermerkaya, Murat; Silay, Mesrur Selcuk; Lewis, Malcolm A; Olondriz, M Beatriz Orive; Gener, Blanca; Beetz, Christian; Varga, Rita E; Gülpınar, Omer; Süer, Evren; Soygür, Tarkan; Ozçakar, Zeynep B; Yalçınkaya, Fatoş; Kavaz, Aslı; Bulum, Burcu; Gücük, Adnan; Yue, Wyatt W; Erdogan, Firat; Berry, Andrew; Hanley, Neil A; McKenzie, Edward A; Hilton, Emma N; Woolf, Adrian S; Newman, William G

    2013-02-07

    Urofacial syndrome (UFS) (or Ochoa syndrome) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by congenital urinary bladder dysfunction, associated with a significant risk of kidney failure, and an abnormal facial expression upon smiling, laughing, and crying. We report that a subset of UFS-affected individuals have biallelic mutations in LRIG2, encoding leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 2, a protein implicated in neural cell signaling and tumorigenesis. Importantly, we have demonstrated that rare variants in LRIG2 might be relevant to nonsyndromic bladder disease. We have previously shown that UFS is also caused by mutations in HPSE2, encoding heparanase-2. LRIG2 and heparanase-2 were immunodetected in nerve fascicles growing between muscle bundles within the human fetal bladder, directly implicating both molecules in neural development in the lower urinary tract. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SKIV2L Mutations Cause Syndromic Diarrhea, or Trichohepatoenteric Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Alexandre; Charroux, Bernard; Martinez-Vinson, Christine; Roquelaure, Bertrand; Odul, Egritas; Sayar, Ersin; Smith, Hilary; Colomb, Virginie; Andre, Nicolas; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Goulet, Olivier; Lacoste, Caroline; Sarles, Jacques; Royet, Julien; Levy, Nicolas; Badens, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Syndromic diarrhea (or trichohepatoenteric syndrome) is a rare congenital bowel disorder characterized by intractable diarrhea and woolly hair, and it has recently been associated with mutations in TTC37. Although databases report TTC37 as being the human ortholog of Ski3p, one of the yeast Ski-complex cofactors, this lead was not investigated in initial studies. The Ski complex is a multiprotein complex required for exosome-mediated RNA surveillance, including the regulation of normal mRNA and the decay of nonfunctional mRNA. Considering the fact that TTC37 is homologous to Ski3p, we explored a gene encoding another Ski-complex cofactor, SKIV2L, in six individuals presenting with typical syndromic diarrhea without variation in TTC37. We identified mutations in all six individuals. Our results show that mutations in genes encoding cofactors of the human Ski complex cause syndromic diarrhea, establishing a link between defects of the human exosome complex and a Mendelian disease. PMID:22444670

  14. IRF6 mutation screening in non-syndromic orofacial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, Elizabeth J; Koboldt, Daniel C; Kang, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    -syndromic OFCs. About 70% of causal VWS mutations occur in IRF6, a gene that is also associated with non-syndromic OFCs. Screening for IRF6 mutations in apparently non-syndromic cases has been performed in several modestly sized cohorts with mixed results. In this study, we screened 1521 trios with presumed non......-syndromic OFCs to determine the frequency of causal IRF6 mutations. We identified seven likely causal IRF6 mutations, although a posteriori review identified two misdiagnosed VWS families based on the presence of lip pits. We found no evidence for association between rare IRF6 polymorphisms and non......-syndromic OFCs. We combined our results with other similar studies (totaling 2472 families) and conclude that causal IRF6 mutations are found in 0.24–0.44% of apparently non-syndromic OFC families. We suggest that clinical mutation screening for IRF6 be considered for certain family patterns such as families...

  15. Wolfram syndrome: new mutations, different phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Aloi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolfram Syndrome (WS is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy, and Deafness identified by the acronym "DIDMOAD". The WS gene, WFS1, encodes a transmembrane protein called Wolframin, which recent evidence suggests may serve as a novel endoplasmic reticulum calcium channel in pancreatic β-cells and neurons. WS is a rare disease, with an estimated prevalence of 1/550.000 children, with a carrier frequency of 1/354. The aim of our study was to determine the genotype of WS patients in order to establish a genotype/phenotype correlation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We clinically evaluated 9 young patients from 9 unrelated families (6 males, 3 females. Basic criteria for WS clinical diagnosis were coexistence of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy occurring before 15 years of age. Genetic analysis for WFS1 was performed by direct sequencing. Molecular sequencing revealed 5 heterozygous compound and 3 homozygous mutations. All of them were located in exon 8, except one in exon 4. In one proband only an heterozygous mutation (A684V was found. Two new variants c.2663 C>A and c.1381 A>C were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study increases the spectrum of WFS1 mutations with two novel variants. The male patient carrying the compound mutation [c.1060_1062delTTC]+[c.2663 C>A] showed the most severe phenotype: diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy (visual acuity 5/10, deafness with deep auditory bilaterally 8000 Hz, diabetes insipidus associated to reduced volume of posterior pituitary and pons. He died in bed at the age of 13 years. The other patient carrying the compound mutation [c.409_424dup16]+[c.1381 A>C] showed a less severe phenotype (DM, OA.

  16. Mutations in HPSE2 Cause Urofacial Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Sarah B.; Urquhart, Jill E.; Hilton, Emma; McKenzie, Edward A.; Kammerer, Richard A.; Lewis, Malcolm; Kerr, Bronwyn; Stuart, Helen; Donnai, Dian; Long, David A.; Burgu, Berk; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Derbent, Murat; Garcia-Minaur, Sixto; Reardon, Willie; Gener, Blanca; Shalev, Stavit; Smith, Rupert; Woolf, Adrian S.; Black, Graeme C.; Newman, William G.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary voiding dysfunction in childhood, manifesting as incontinence, dysuria, and urinary frequency, is a common condition. Urofacial syndrome (UFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by facial grimacing when attempting to smile and failure of the urinary bladder to void completely despite a lack of anatomical bladder outflow obstruction or overt neurological damage. UFS individuals often have reflux of infected urine from the bladder to the upper renal tract, with a risk of kidney damage and renal failure. Whole-genome SNP mapping in one affected individual defined an autozygous region of 16 Mb on chromosome 10q23-q24, within which a 10 kb deletion encompassing exons 8 and 9 of HPSE2 was identified. Homozygous exonic deletions, nonsense mutations, and frameshift mutations in five further unrelated families confirmed HPSE2 as the causative gene for UFS. Mutations were not identified in four additional UFS patients, indicating genetic heterogeneity. We show that HPSE2 is expressed in the fetal and adult central nervous system, where it might be implicated in controlling facial expression and urinary voiding, and also in bladder smooth muscle, consistent with a role in renal tract morphology and function. Our findings have broader implications for understanding the genetic basis of lower renal tract malformations and voiding dysfunction. PMID:20560210

  17. Mutations in HPSE2 cause urofacial syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Sarah B; Urquhart, Jill E; Hilton, Emma; McKenzie, Edward A; Kammerer, Richard A; Lewis, Malcolm; Kerr, Bronwyn; Stuart, Helen; Donnai, Dian; Long, David A; Burgu, Berk; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Derbent, Murat; Garcia-Minaur, Sixto; Reardon, Willie; Gener, Blanca; Shalev, Stavit; Smith, Rupert; Woolf, Adrian S; Black, Graeme C; Newman, William G

    2010-06-11

    Urinary voiding dysfunction in childhood, manifesting as incontinence, dysuria, and urinary frequency, is a common condition. Urofacial syndrome (UFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by facial grimacing when attempting to smile and failure of the urinary bladder to void completely despite a lack of anatomical bladder outflow obstruction or overt neurological damage. UFS individuals often have reflux of infected urine from the bladder to the upper renal tract, with a risk of kidney damage and renal failure. Whole-genome SNP mapping in one affected individual defined an autozygous region of 16 Mb on chromosome 10q23-q24, within which a 10 kb deletion encompassing exons 8 and 9 of HPSE2 was identified. Homozygous exonic deletions, nonsense mutations, and frameshift mutations in five further unrelated families confirmed HPSE2 as the causative gene for UFS. Mutations were not identified in four additional UFS patients, indicating genetic heterogeneity. We show that HPSE2 is expressed in the fetal and adult central nervous system, where it might be implicated in controlling facial expression and urinary voiding, and also in bladder smooth muscle, consistent with a role in renal tract morphology and function. Our findings have broader implications for understanding the genetic basis of lower renal tract malformations and voiding dysfunction.

  18. Fibrillin mutations in the Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, C.E.; Wang, M.; Wang, J.; Godfrey, M. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant heritable disorder of connective tissue manifested by variable and pleiotropic defect in the skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems. We have recently begun to use intron-specific primers that have become available through the International Marfan Syndrome Consortium to screen for fibrillin mutations in MFS patients. Using the genomic PCR-based approach in addition to RT-PCR methodologies, we have identified several novel mutations. A single base insertion was identified in all affected individuals of one family. The insertion of an {open_quote}A{close_quote} at position 1891 in exon 15 causes a premature stop codon and thus a truncated polypeptide. The truncated protein of 617 amino acids has an expected molecular weight of 63 kD. Metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation studies are in progress. A C{r_arrow}T transition at position 1634 in exon 12 causing a 5th position Cys to Phe substitution in an EGF-like motif was observed in another MFS patient. Finally, we have identified a G{r_arrow}A transition at the +1 position of the donor splice site that causes the deletion of fibrillin exon 32 in a patient with the neonatal form of MFS. Exon 32 is a precursor EGF-like calcium binding motif that is located in a single stretch of 12 similar domains. We had previously identified the skipping of this exon due to an A{r_arrow}T transversion at the -2 position of the consensus acceptor splice site in another patient with neonatal MFS. The reason that the skipping of exon 32 causes a neonatal lethal MFS phenotype is presently unclear. These studies will help elucidate the role of diverse regions of fibrillin.

  19. A restricted spectrum of NRAS mutations causes Noonan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirstea, Ion C.; Kutsche, Kerstin; Dvorsky, Radovan; Gremer, Lothar; Carta, Claudio; Horn, Denise; Roberts, Amy E.; Lepri, Francesca; Merbitz-Zahradnik, Torsten; Koenig, Rainer; Kratz, Christian P.; Pantaleoni, Francesca; Dentici, Maria L.; Joshi, Victoria A.; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Mazzanti, Laura; Mundlos, Stefan; Patton, Michael A.; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo; Rossi, Cesare; Zampino, Giuseppe; Digilio, Cristina; Stuppia, Liborio; Seemanova, Eva; Pennacchio, Len A.; Gelb, Bruce D.; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Ahmadian, Mohammad R.; Tartaglia, Marco; Zenker, Martin

    Noonan syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by congenital heart defects, reduced growth, facial dysmorphism and variable cognitive deficits, is caused by constitutional dysregulation of the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Here we report that germline NRAS mutations conferring enhanced

  20. Confirmation that RIPK4 mutations cause not only Bartsocas-Papas syndrome but also CHAND syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busa, Tiffany; Jeraiby, Mohammed; Clémenson, Alix; Manouvrier, Sylvie; Granados, Viviana; Philip, Nicole; Touraine, Renaud

    2017-11-01

    CHAND syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by curly hair, ankyloblepharon, and nail dysplasia. Only few patients were reported to date. A homozygous RIPK4 mutation was recently identified by homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing in three patients from an expanded consanguineous kindred with a clinical diagnosis of CHAND syndrome. RIPK4 was previously known to be implicated in Bartsocas-Papas syndrome, the autosomal recessive form of popliteal pterygium syndrome. We report here two cases of RIPK4 homozygous mutations in a fetus with severe Bartsocas-Papas syndrome and a patient with CHAND syndrome. The patient with CHAND syndrome harbored the same mutation as the one identified in the family previously reported. We thus confirm the implication of RIPK4 gene in CHAND syndrome in addition to Bartsocas-Papas syndrome and discuss genotype/phenotype correlations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dominant missense mutations in ABCC9 cause Cantu syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakalova, M.; van Harssel, J.J.; Terhal, P.A.; van Lieshout, S.; Duran, K.; Renkens, I.; Amor, D.J.; Wilson, L.C.; Kirk, E.P.; Turner, C.L.; Shears, D.; Garcia-Minaur, S.; Lees, M.M.; Ross, A.; Venselaar, H.; Vriend, G.; Takanari, H.; Rook, M.B.; van der Heyden, M.A.; Asselbergs, F.W.; Breur, H.M.; Swinkels, M.E.; Scurr, I.J.; Smithson, S.F.; Knoers, N.V.; van der Smagt, J.J.; Nijman, I.J.; Kloosterman, W.P.; van Haelst, M.M.; van Haaften, G.; Cuppen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Cantu syndrome is characterized by congenital hypertrichosis, distinctive facial features, osteochondrodysplasia and cardiac defects. By using family-based exome sequencing, we identified a de novo mutation in ABCC9. Subsequently, we discovered novel dominant missense mutations in ABCC9 in 14 of the

  2. Dominant missense mutations in ABCC9 cause Cantu syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakalova, M.; Harssel, J.J. van; Terhal, P.A.; Lieshout, S. van; Duran, K.; Renkens, I.; Amor, D.J.; Wilson, L.C.; Kirk, E.P.; Turner, C.L.; Shears, D.; Garcia-Minaur, S.; Lees, M.M.; Ross, A.; Venselaar, H.; Vriend, G.; Takanari, H.; Rook, M.B.; Heyden, M.A. van der; Asselbergs, F.W.; Breur, H.M.; Swinkels, M.E.; Scurr, I.J.; Smithson, S.F.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Smagt, J.J. van der; Nijman, IJ; Kloosterman, W.P.; Haelst, M.M. van; Haaften, G. van; Cuppen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Cantu syndrome is characterized by congenital hypertrichosis, distinctive facial features, osteochondrodysplasia and cardiac defects. By using family-based exome sequencing, we identified a de novo mutation in ABCC9. Subsequently, we discovered novel dominant missense mutations in ABCC9 in 14 of the

  3. Prevalence of Novel MAGED2 Mutations in Antenatal Bartter Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Anne; Treard, Cyrielle; Roncelin, Isabelle; Dreux, Sophie; Bertholet-Thomas, Aurélia; Broux, Françoise; Bruno, Daniele; Decramer, Stéphane; Deschenes, Georges; Djeddi, Djamal; Guigonis, Vincent; Jay, Nadine; Khalifeh, Tackwa; Llanas, Brigitte; Morin, Denis; Morin, Gilles; Nobili, François; Pietrement, Christine; Ryckewaert, Amélie; Salomon, Rémi; Vrillon, Isabelle; Blanchard, Anne; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa

    2018-02-07

    Mutations in the MAGED2 gene, located on the X chromosome, have been recently detected in males with a transient form of antenatal Bartter syndrome or with idiopathic polyhydramnios. The aim of this study is to analyze the proportion of the population with mutations in this gene in a French cohort of patients with antenatal Bartter syndrome. The French cohort of patients with antenatal Bartter syndrome encompasses 171 families. Mutations in genes responsible for types 1-4 have been detected in 75% of cases. In patients without identified genetic cause ( n =42), transient antenatal Bartter syndrome was reported in 12 cases. We analyzed the MAGED2 gene in the entire cohort of negative cases by Sanger sequencing and retrospectively collected clinical data regarding pregnancy as well as the postnatal outcome for positive cases. We detected mutations in MAGED2 in 17 patients, including the 12 with transient antenatal Bartter syndrome, from 16 families. Fifteen different mutations were detected (one whole deletion, three frameshift, three splicing, three nonsense, two inframe deletions, and three missense); 13 of these mutations had not been previously described. Interestingly, two patients are females; in one of these patients our data are consistent with selective inactivation of chromosome X explaining the severity. The phenotypic presentation in our patients was variable and less severe than that of the originally described cases. MAGED2 mutations explained 9% of cases of antenatal Bartter syndrome in a French cohort, and accounted for 38% of patients without other characterized mutations and for 44% of male probands of negative cases. Our study confirmed previously published data and showed that females can be affected. As a result, this gene must be included in the screening of the most severe clinical form of Bartter syndrome. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Diverse growth hormone receptor gene mutations in Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M A; Argente, J; Chernausek, S; Gracia, R; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Hopp, M; Pérez-Jurado, L; Rosenbloom, A; Toledo, S P; Francke, U

    1993-01-01

    To better understand the molecular genetic basis and genetic epidemiology of Laron syndrome (growth-hormone insensitivity syndrome), we analyzed the growth-hormone receptor (GHR) genes of seven unrelated affected individuals from the United States, South America, Europe, and Africa. We amplified all nine GHR gene exons and splice junctions from these individuals by PCR and screened the products for mutations by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). We identified a single GHR gene fragment with abnormal DGGE results for each affected individual, sequenced this fragment, and, in each case, identified a mutation likely to cause Laron syndrome, including two nonsense mutations (R43X and R217X), two splice-junction mutations, (189-1 G to T and 71 + 1 G to A), and two frameshift mutations (46 del TT and 230 del TA or AT). Only one of these mutations, R43X, has been previously reported. Using haplotype analysis, we determined that this mutation, which involves a CpG dinucleotide hot spot, likely arose as a separate event in this case, relative to the two prior reports of R43X. Aside from R43X, the mutations we identified are unique to patients from particular geographic regions. Ten GHR gene mutations have now been described in this disorder. We conclude that Laron syndrome is caused by diverse GHR gene mutations, including deletions, RNA processing defects, translational stop codons, and missense codons. All the identified mutations involve the extracellular domain of the receptor, and most are unique to particular families or geographic areas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8488849

  5. The mutational spectrum of Lynch syndrome in cyprus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Loizidou

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome is the most common form of hereditary colorectal cancer and is caused by germline mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Mutation carriers have an increased lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other extracolonic tumours. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the frequency and distribution of mutations in the MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes within a cohort of Cypriot families that fulfilled the revised Bethesda guidelines. The study cohort included 77 patients who fulfilled at least one of the revised Bethesda guidelines. Mutational analysis revealed the presence of 4 pathogenic mutations, 3 in the MLH1 gene and 1 in the MSH2 gene, in 5 unrelated individuals. It is noted that out of the 4 pathogenic mutations detected, one is novel (c.1610delG in exon 14 of the MLH1 and has been detected for the first time in the Cypriot population. Overall, the pathogenic mutation detection rate in our patient cohort was 7%. This percentage is relatively low but could be explained by the fact that the sole criterion for genetic screening was compliance to the revised Bethesda guidelines. Larger numbers of Lynch syndrome families and screening of the two additional predisposition genes, PMS2 and EPCAM, are needed in order to decipher the full spectrum of mutations associated with Lynch syndrome predisposition in Cyprus.

  6. Exome sequencing reveals a de novo POLD1 mutation causing phenotypic variability in mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome (MDPL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elouej, Sahar; Beleza-Meireles, Ana; Caswell, Richard; Colclough, Kevin; Ellard, Sian; Desvignes, Jean Pierre; Béroud, Christophe; Lévy, Nicolas; Mohammed, Shehla; De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara

    2017-06-01

    Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome (MDPL) is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder characterized by prominent loss of subcutaneous fat, a characteristic facial appearance and metabolic abnormalities. This syndrome is caused by heterozygous de novo mutations in the POLD1 gene. To date, 19 patients with MDPL have been reported in the literature and among them 14 patients have been characterized at the molecular level. Twelve unrelated patients carried a recurrent in-frame deletion of a single codon (p.Ser605del) and two other patients carried a novel heterozygous mutation in exon 13 (p.Arg507Cys). Additionally and interestingly, germline mutations of the same gene have been involved in familial polyposis and colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition. We describe a male and a female patient with MDPL respectively affected with mild and severe phenotypes. Both of them showed mandibular hypoplasia, a beaked nose with bird-like facies, prominent eyes, a small mouth, growth retardation, muscle and skin atrophy, but the female patient showed such a severe and early phenotype that a first working diagnosis of Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria was made. The exploration was performed by direct sequencing of POLD1 gene exon 15 in the male patient with a classical MDPL phenotype and by whole exome sequencing in the female patient and her unaffected parents. Exome sequencing identified in the latter patient a de novo heterozygous undescribed mutation in the POLD1 gene (NM_002691.3: c.3209T>A), predicted to cause the missense change p.Ile1070Asn in the ZnF2 (Zinc Finger 2) domain of the protein. This mutation was not reported in the 1000 Genome Project, dbSNP and Exome sequencing databases. Furthermore, the Isoleucine1070 residue of POLD1 is highly conserved among various species, suggesting that this substitution may cause a major impairment of POLD1 activity. For the second patient, affected with a typical MDPL phenotype, direct sequencing

  7. Usher syndrome in Denmark: mutation spectrum and some clinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dad, Shzeena; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Grønskov, Karen; Karstensen, Helena Gásdal; Brox, Vigdis; Nilssen, Øivind; Roux, Anne-Françoise; Rosenberg, Thomas; Jensen, Hanne; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2016-09-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a genetically heterogeneous deafness-blindness syndrome, divided into three clinical subtypes: USH1, USH2 and USH3. Mutations in 21 out of 26 investigated Danish unrelated individuals with USH were identified, using a combination of molecular diagnostic methods. Before Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) became available mutations in nine individuals (1 USH1, 7 USH2, 1 USH3) were identified by Sanger sequencing of USH1C , USH2A or CLRN1 or by Arrayed Primer EXtension (APEX) method. Mutations in 12 individuals (7 USH1, 5 USH2) were found by targeted NGS of ten known USH genes. Five novel pathogenic variants were identified. We combined our data with previously published, and obtained an overview of the USH mutation spectrum in Denmark, including 100 unrelated individuals; 32 with USH1, 67 with USH2, and 1 with USH3. Macular edema was observed in 44 of 117 individuals. Olfactory function was tested in 12 individuals and found to be within normal range in all. Mutations that lead to USH1 were predominantly identified in MYO7A (75%), whereas all mutations in USH2 cases were identified in USH2A . The MYO7A mutation c.93C>A, p.(Cys31*) accounted for 33% of all USH1 mutations and the USH2A c.2299delG, p.(Glu767Serfs*21) variant accounted for 45% of all USH2 mutations in the Danish cohort.

  8. Mutation Spectrum and Phenotypic Features in Noonan Syndrome with PTPN11 Mutations: Definition of Two Novel Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Tahir; Aykut, Ayca; Hazan, Filiz; Onay, Huseyin; Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran; Tukun, Ajlan; Ozkinay, Ferda

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the spectrum of PTPN11 gene mutations in Noonan syndrome patients and to study the genotype-phenotype associations. In this study, twenty Noonan syndrome patients with PTPN11 mutations were included. The patients underwent a detailed clinical and physical evaluation. To identify inherited cases, parents of all mutation positive patients were analyzed. Thirteen different PTPN11 mutations, two of them being novel, were detected in the study group. These mutations included eleven missense mutations: p.G60A, p.D61N, p.Y62D, p.Y63C, p.E69Q, p.Q79R, p.Y279C,p.N308D, p.N308S, p.M504V, p.Q510R and two novel missense mutations: p.I56V and p.I282M. The frequency of cardiac abnormalities and short stature were found to be 80 % and 80 %, respectively. Mental retardation was not observed in patients having exon 8 mutations. No significant correlations were detected between other phenotypic features and genotypes. By identifying genotype-phenotype correlations, this study provides information on phenotypes observed in NS patients with different PTPN11 mutations.

  9. A nonsense mutation in FMR1 causing fragile X syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønskov, Karen; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Dedic, Alma

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is a common cause of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by lack of the FMR1 gene product FMRP. The most frequent cause is the expansion of a CGG repeat located in the 5'UTR of FMR1. Alleles with 200 or more repeats become hypermethylated and transcriptionally silent....... Only few patients with intragenic point mutations in FMR1 have been reported and, currently, routine analysis of patients referred for fragile X syndrome includes solely analysis for repeat expansion and methylation status. We identified a substitution in exon 2 of FMR1, c.80C>A, causing a nonsense...... mutation p.Ser27X, in a patient with classical clinical symptoms of fragile X syndrome. The mother who carried the mutation in heterozygous form presented with mild intellectual impairment. We conclude that further studies including western blot and DNA sequence analysis of the FMR1 gene should...

  10. Expanding the mutation and clinical spectrum of Roberts syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hanan H; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Eid, Maha M; Tosson, Angie M S; Shousha, Wafaa Gh; Abdel Azeem, Amira A; Farag, Mona K; Mehrez, Mennat I; Gaber, Khaled R

    2016-07-01

    Roberts syndrome and SC phocomelia syndrome are rare autosomal recessive genetic disorders representing the extremes of the spectrum of severity of the same condition, caused by mutations in ESCO2 gene. We report three new patients with Roberts syndrome from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families. All patients presented with growth retardation, mesomelic shortening of the limbs more in the upper than in the lower limbs and microcephaly. Patients were subjected to clinical, cytogenetic and radiologic examinations. Cytogenetic analysis showed the characteristic premature separation of centromeres and puffing of heterochromatic regions. Further, sequencing of the ESCO2 gene identified a novel mutation c.244_245dupCT (p.T83Pfs*20) in one family besides two previously reported mutations c.760_761insA (p.T254Nfs*27) and c.764_765delTT (p.F255Cfs*25). All mutations were in homozygous state, in exon 3. The severity of the mesomelic shortening of the limbs and craniofacial anomalies showed variability among patients. Interestingly, patient 1 had abnormal skin hypopigmentation. Serial fetal ultrasound examinations and measurements of long bones diagnosed two affected fetuses in two of the studied families. A literature review and case comparison was performed. In conclusion, we report a novel ESCO2 mutation and expand the clinical spectrum of Roberts syndrome. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  11. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome. A Report of a New Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelva Lizbeth Guillén-Rocha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome was rst reported clinically in 1937, and in 1954 the classic triad was identified: eccema, recurrent infections and thrombocytopenia with an X-linked transmission. Its incidence is estimated at 1 to 10 in one million live births per year. Wiskott Aldrich syndrome is caused by mutations in a gene in the short arm of chromosome X that encodes the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp, which identi cation and sequencing was rst performed in 1994, and since then about 300 mutations have been reported. This paper describes the case of a boy with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, with clinical and genetic diagnosis, with a considerable diagnostic delay attributable to an atypical presentation misdiagnosed as immune thrombocytopenia.

  12. Hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, and renal dysgenesis syndrome with a mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Suk Shim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, and renal dysgenesis syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the GATA3 gene on chromosome 10p15. We identified a patient diagnosed with hypoparathyroidism who also had a family history of hypoparathyroidism and sensorineural deafness, present in the father. The patient was subsequently diagnosed and found to be a heterozygote for an insertion mutation c.255_256ins4 (GTGC in exon 2 of GATA3. His father was also confirmed to have the same mutation in GATA3.

  13. Lynch Syndrome Caused by Germline PMS2 Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Broeke, Sanne W; Brohet, Richard M; Tops, Carli M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The clinical consequences of PMS2 germline mutations are poorly understood compared with other Lynch-associated mismatch repair gene (MMR) mutations. The aim of this European cohort study was to define the cancer risk faced by PMS2 mutation carriers. METHODS: Data were collected from 98...... PMS2 families ascertained from family cancer clinics that included a total of 2,548 family members and 377 proven mutation carriers. To adjust for potential ascertainment bias, a modified segregation analysis model was used to calculate colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) risks....... Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to estimate risks for other Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. RESULTS: The cumulative risk (CR) of CRC for male mutation carriers by age 70 years was 19%. The CR among female carriers was 11% for CRC and 12% for EC. The mean age of CRC development was 52...

  14. Mutation spectrum of Chinese patients with Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Lin, Yi; Sun, Qing; Wang, Shujuan; Gao, Yanxia; Shao, Leping

    2017-11-24

    Bartter syndrome (BS) has been rarely reported in Chinese population except for a few case reports. This investigation was aimed to analyze the mutations of the causal genes in sixteen Chinese patients with BS, and review their followup and treatment. Identify mutations by the next generation sequencing and the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Clinical characteristics and biochemical findings at the first presentation as well as follow-up were reviewed. 15 different CLCNKB gene mutations were identified in fourteen patients with BS, including 11 novel ones. A novel missense mutation and a novel small deletion were found from SLC12A1 gene. A novel gross deletion was found in CLCNKA gene. A recurrent missense mutation was identified from BSND gene. We found that the whole gene deletion mutation of CLCNKB gene was the most frequent mutation (32%), and the rate of gross deletion was up to 50 percent in this group of Chinese patients. The present study has found 19 mutations, including 14 novel ones, which would enrich the human gene mutation database (HGMD) and provide valuable references to the genetic counseling and diagnosis of the Chinese population.

  15. Unique cerebrovascular anomalies in Noonan syndrome with RAF1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Yuri A; Lichty, Angie W; Champion, Kristen J; Clarkson, L Kate; Holden, Kenton R; Matheus, M Gisele

    2014-08-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by gain-of-function germline mutations affecting components of the Ras-MAPK pathway. The authors present the case of a 6-year-old male with Noonan syndrome, Chiari malformation type I, shunted benign external hydrocephalus in infancy, and unique cerebrovascular changes. A de novo heterozygous change in the RAF1 gene was identified. The patient underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography to further clarify the nature of his abnormal brain vasculature. The authors compared his findings to the few cases of Noonan syndrome reported with cerebrovascular pathology. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. A novel mutation in MED12 causes FG syndrome (Opitz-Kaveggia syndrome)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rump, P.; Niessen, R. C.; Verbruggen, K. T.; Brouwer, O. F.; de Raad, M.; Hordijk, R.

    Opitz-Kaveggia syndrome is a rare X-linked multiple congenital anomalies and intellectual disability disorder caused by the recurrent p.R961W mutation in the MED12 gene. Twenty-three affected males from 10 families with this mutation in the MED12 gene have been described so far. Here we report on a

  17. Spectrum of PEX6 mutations in Zellweger syndrome spectrum patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebberink, Merel S.; Kofster, Janet; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.

    2010-01-01

    The autosomal recessive Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) disorders comprise a main subgroup of the peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The ZSS disorders can be caused by mutations in any of 12 different currently identified PEX genes resulting in severe, often lethal, multi-systemic disorders. Defects

  18. Defining functional classes of Barth syndrome mutation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Ya-Wen; Galbraith, Laura; Herndon, Jenny D.; Lu, Ya-Lin; Pras-Raves, Mia; Vervaart, Martin; van Kampen, Antoine; Luyf, Angela; Koehler, Carla M.; McCaffery, J. Michael; Gottlieb, Eyal; Vaz, Frederic M.; Claypool, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The X-linked disease Barth syndrome (BTHS) is caused by mutations in TAZ; TAZ is the main determinant of the final acyl chain composition of the mitochondrial-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin. To date, a detailed characterization of endogenous TAZ has only been performed in yeast. Further, why a

  19. Dominant de novo DSP mutations cause erythrokeratodermia-cardiomyopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Lynn M; Kam, Chen Y; Hernández-Martín, Angela; Zhou, Jing; Craiglow, Brittany G; Sidbury, Robert; Mathes, Erin F; Maguiness, Sheilagh M; Crumrine, Debra A; Williams, Mary L; Hu, Ronghua; Lifton, Richard P; Elias, Peter M; Green, Kathleen J; Choate, Keith A

    2016-01-15

    Disorders of keratinization (DOK) show marked genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. In most cases, disease is primarily cutaneous, and further clinical evaluation is therefore rarely pursued. We have identified subjects with a novel DOK featuring erythrokeratodermia and initially-asymptomatic, progressive, potentially fatal cardiomyopathy, a finding not previously associated with erythrokeratodermia. We show that de novo missense mutations clustered tightly within a single spectrin repeat of DSP cause this novel cardio-cutaneous disorder, which we term erythrokeratodermia-cardiomyopathy (EKC) syndrome. We demonstrate that DSP mutations in our EKC syndrome subjects affect localization of desmosomal proteins and connexin 43 in the skin, and result in desmosome aggregation, widening of intercellular spaces, and lipid secretory defects. DSP encodes desmoplakin, a primary component of desmosomes, intercellular adhesion junctions most abundant in the epidermis and heart. Though mutations in DSP are known to cause other disorders, our cohort features the unique clinical finding of severe whole-body erythrokeratodermia, with distinct effects on localization of desmosomal proteins and connexin 43. These findings add a severe, previously undescribed syndrome featuring erythrokeratodermia and cardiomyopathy to the spectrum of disease caused by mutation in DSP, and identify a specific region of the protein critical to the pathobiology of EKC syndrome and to DSP function in the heart and skin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mutations in ROGDI Cause Kohlschutter-Tonz Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schossig, A.; Wolf, N.I.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, M.; Stocker, G.; Pabinger, S.; Dander, A.; Steiner, B.; Tonz, O.; Kotzot, D.; Haberlandt, E.; Amberger, A.; Burwinkel, B.; Wimmer, K.; Fauth, C.; Grond-Ginsbach, C.; Koch, M.J.; Deichmann, A.; von Kalle, C.; Bartram, C.R.; Kohlschutter, A.; Trajanoski, Z.; Zschocke, J.

    2012-01-01

    Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome (KTS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of epilepsy, psychomotor regression, and amelogenesis imperfecta. The molecular basis has not yet been elucidated. Here, we report that KTS is caused by mutations in ROGDI. Using a combination of

  1. A Novel Mutation in ERCC8 Gene Causing Cockayne Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Taghdiri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by impaired neurological and sensory functions, cachectic dwarfism, microcephaly, and photosensitivity. This syndrome shows a variable age of onset and rate of progression, and its phenotypic spectrum include a wide range of severity. Due to the progressive nature of this disorder, diagnosis can be more important when additional signs and symptoms appear gradually and become steadily worse over time. Therefore, mutation analysis of genes involved in CS pathogenesis can be helpful to confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis. Here, we report a novel mutation in ERCC8 gene in a 16-year-old boy who suffers from poor weight gain, short stature, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and photosensitivity. The patient was born to consanguineous family with no previous documented disease in his parents. To identify disease-causing mutation in the patient, whole exome sequencing utilizing next-generation sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. Results revealed a novel homozygote mutation in ERCC8 gene (NM_000082: exon 11, c.1122G>C in our patient. Another gene (ERCC6, which is also involved in CS did not have any disease-causing mutations in the proband. The new identified mutation was then confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the proband, his parents, and extended family members, confirming co-segregation with the disease. In addition, different bioinformatics programs which included MutationTaster, I-Mutant v2.0, NNSplice, Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion, The PhastCons, Genomic Evolutationary Rate Profiling conservation score, and T-Coffee Multiple Sequence Alignment predicted the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our study identified a rare novel mutation in ERCC8 gene and help to provide accurate genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to minimize new affected individuals in this family.

  2. A Novel Mutation in ERCC8 Gene Causing Cockayne Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghdiri, Maryam; Dastsooz, Hassan; Fardaei, Majid; Mohammadi, Sanaz; Farazi Fard, Mohammad Ali; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by impaired neurological and sensory functions, cachectic dwarfism, microcephaly, and photosensitivity. This syndrome shows a variable age of onset and rate of progression, and its phenotypic spectrum include a wide range of severity. Due to the progressive nature of this disorder, diagnosis can be more important when additional signs and symptoms appear gradually and become steadily worse over time. Therefore, mutation analysis of genes involved in CS pathogenesis can be helpful to confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis. Here, we report a novel mutation in ERCC8 gene in a 16-year-old boy who suffers from poor weight gain, short stature, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and photosensitivity. The patient was born to consanguineous family with no previous documented disease in his parents. To identify disease-causing mutation in the patient, whole exome sequencing utilizing next-generation sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. Results revealed a novel homozygote mutation in ERCC8 gene (NM_000082: exon 11, c.1122G>C) in our patient. Another gene ( ERCC6 ), which is also involved in CS did not have any disease-causing mutations in the proband. The new identified mutation was then confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the proband, his parents, and extended family members, confirming co-segregation with the disease. In addition, different bioinformatics programs which included MutationTaster, I-Mutant v2.0, NNSplice, Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion, The PhastCons, Genomic Evolutationary Rate Profiling conservation score, and T-Coffee Multiple Sequence Alignment predicted the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our study identified a rare novel mutation in ERCC8 gene and help to provide accurate genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to minimize new affected individuals in this family.

  3. Nephropathic Cystinosis Mimicking Bartter Syndrome: a Novel Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Funda; Nalcacioglu, Hulya; Ozaltin, Fatih; Korkmaz, Emine; Yel, Sibel

    2018-01-01

    Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defective lysosomal transport of cystine due to mutations in the cystinosin lysosomal cystine transporter (CTNS) gene. The clinical phenotype of nephropathic cystinosis is characterized by renal tubular Fanconi syndrome and development of end-stage renal disease during the first decade. Although metabolic acidosis is the classically prominent finding of the disease, a few cases may present with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis mimicking Bartter syndrome. Bartter-like presentation may lead to delay in diagnosis and initiation of specific treatment for cystinosis. We report a case of a 6-year-old girl initially presenting with the features of Bartter syndrome that was diagnosed 2 years later with nephropathic cystinosis and a novel CTNS mutation.

  4. A patient with Werner syndrome and adiponectin gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Naotake; Hatanaka, Sachiko; Yokote, Koutaro; Kurosawa, Hiroko; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Iwai, Rie; Takahashi, Hidenori; Yoshida, Katsuya; Horie, Atsuya; Sakurai, Kenichi; Yagui, Kazuo; Saito, Yasushi; Yoshida, Shouji

    2007-01-01

    Werner syndrome is a premature aging disease characterized by genomic instability and increased cancer risk. Here, we report a 45-year-old diabetic man as the first Werner syndrome patient found to have an adiponectin gene mutation. Showing graying and loss of hair, skin atrophy, and juvenile cataract, he was diagnosed with Werner syndrome type 4 by molecular analysis. His serum adiponectin concentration was low. In the globular domain of the adiponectin gene, I164T in exon 3 was detected. When we examined effects of pioglitazone (15 mg/day) on serum adiponectin multimer and monomer concentrations using selective assays, the patient's relative percentage increased in adiponectin concentration was almost same as that in the 18 diabetic patients without an adiponectin mutation, but the absolute adiponectin concentration was half of those seen in diabetic patients treated with the same pioglitazone dose who had no adiponectin mutation. The response suggested that pioglitazone treatment might help to prevent future Werner syndrome-related acceleration of atherosclerosis. Present and further clinical relevant to atherosclerosis in this patient should be imformative concerning the pathogenesis and treatment of atherosclerosis in the presence of hypoadiponectinemia and insulin resistance.

  5. Mutations in CDK5RAP2 cause Seckel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Gökhan; Brown, Karen E; Kayserili, Hülya; Pohl, Esther; Caliebe, Almuth; Zahnleiter, Diana; Rosser, Elisabeth; Bögershausen, Nina; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Altunoglu, Umut; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Rauch, Anita; Li, Yun; Thiel, Christian Thomas; Wollnik, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Seckel syndrome is a heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder marked by prenatal proportionate short stature, severe microcephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features. Here, we describe the novel homozygous splice-site mutations c.383+1G>C and c.4005-9A>G in CDK5RAP2 in two consanguineous families with Seckel syndrome. CDK5RAP2 (CEP215) encodes a centrosomal protein which is known to be essential for centrosomal cohesion and proper spindle formation and has been shown to be causally involved in autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. We establish CDK5RAP2 as a disease-causing gene for Seckel syndrome and show that loss of functional CDK5RAP2 leads to severe defects in mitosis and spindle organization, resulting in cells with abnormal nuclei and centrosomal pattern, which underlines the important role of centrosomal and mitotic proteins in the pathogenesis of the disease. Additionally, we present an intriguing case of possible digenic inheritance in Seckel syndrome: A severely affected child of nonconsanguineous German parents was found to carry heterozygous mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152. This finding points toward a potential additive genetic effect of mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152.

  6. Mutations in CDK5RAP2 cause Seckel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Gökhan; Brown, Karen E; Kayserili, Hülya; Pohl, Esther; Caliebe, Almuth; Zahnleiter, Diana; Rosser, Elisabeth; Bögershausen, Nina; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Altunoglu, Umut; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Rauch, Anita; Li, Yun; Thiel, Christian Thomas; Wollnik, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Seckel syndrome is a heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder marked by prenatal proportionate short stature, severe microcephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features. Here, we describe the novel homozygous splice-site mutations c.383+1G>C and c.4005-9A>G in CDK5RAP2 in two consanguineous families with Seckel syndrome. CDK5RAP2 (CEP215) encodes a centrosomal protein which is known to be essential for centrosomal cohesion and proper spindle formation and has been shown to be causally involved in autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. We establish CDK5RAP2 as a disease-causing gene for Seckel syndrome and show that loss of functional CDK5RAP2 leads to severe defects in mitosis and spindle organization, resulting in cells with abnormal nuclei and centrosomal pattern, which underlines the important role of centrosomal and mitotic proteins in the pathogenesis of the disease. Additionally, we present an intriguing case of possible digenic inheritance in Seckel syndrome: A severely affected child of nonconsanguineous German parents was found to carry heterozygous mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152. This finding points toward a potential additive genetic effect of mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152. PMID:26436113

  7. CtIP Mutations Cause Seckel and Jawad Syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Qvist

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seckel syndrome is a recessively inherited dwarfism disorder characterized by microcephaly and a unique head profile. Genetically, it constitutes a heterogeneous condition, with several loci mapped (SCKL1-5 but only three disease genes identified: the ATR, CENPJ, and CEP152 genes that control cellular responses to DNA damage. We previously mapped a Seckel syndrome locus to chromosome 18p11.31-q11.2 (SCKL2. Here, we report two mutations in the CtIP (RBBP8 gene within this locus that result in expression of C-terminally truncated forms of CtIP. We propose that these mutations are the molecular cause of the disease observed in the previously described SCKL2 family and in an additional unrelated family diagnosed with a similar form of congenital microcephaly termed Jawad syndrome. While an exonic frameshift mutation was found in the Jawad family, the SCKL2 family carries a splicing mutation that yields a dominant-negative form of CtIP. Further characterization of cell lines derived from the SCKL2 family revealed defective DNA damage induced formation of single-stranded DNA, a critical co-factor for ATR activation. Accordingly, SCKL2 cells present a lowered apoptopic threshold and hypersensitivity to DNA damage. Notably, over-expression of a comparable truncated CtIP variant in non-Seckel cells recapitulates SCKL2 cellular phenotypes in a dose-dependent manner. This work thus identifies CtIP as a disease gene for Seckel and Jawad syndromes and defines a new type of genetic disease mechanism in which a dominant negative mutation yields a recessively inherited disorder.

  8. [Mutation analysis of seven patients with Waardenburg syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ziqi; Zhou, Yongan; Li, Pengli; Zhang, Quanbin; Li, Jiao; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Xiangshao; Feng, Yong

    2016-06-01

    To perform genetic analysis for 7 patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Potential mutation of MITF, PAX3, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes was screened by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Functions of non-synonymous polymorphisms were predicted with PolyPhen2 software. Seven mutations, including c.649-651delAGA (p.R217del), c.72delG (p.G24fs), c.185T>C (p.M62T), c.118C>T (p.Q40X), c.422T>C (p.L141P), c.640C>T (p.R214X) and c.28G>T(p.G43V), were detected in the patients. Among these, four mutations of the PAX3 gene (c.72delG, c.185T>C, c.118C>T and c.128G>T) and one SOX10 gene mutation (c.422T>C) were not reported previously. Three non-synonymous SNPs (c.185T>C, c.128G>T and c.422T>C) were predicted as harmful. Genetic mutations have been detected in all patients with Waardenburg syndrome.

  9. Collagen XVIII Mutation in Knobloch Syndrome with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vinit B.; Olney, Ann Haskins; Garrett, Penny; Chary, Ajit; Dragan, Ecaterina; Lerner, Gary; Murray, Jeffrey; Bassuk, Alexander G.

    2010-01-01

    Knobloch syndrome (KNO) is caused by mutations in the collagen XIII gene (COL18A1) and patients develop encephalocele and vitreoretinal degeneration. Here we report an El Salvadorian family where two sisters showed features of KNO. One of the siblings also developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. DNA sequencing of COL18A1revealed a homozygous, 2-base pair deletion (c3514-3515delCT) in exon 41, which leads to abnormal collagen XVIII and deficiency of its proteolytic cleavage product endostatin. KNO patients with mutations in COL18A1 may be at risk for endostatin-related conditions including malignancy. PMID:20799329

  10. Extended mutation spectrum of Usher syndrome in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västinsalo, Hanna; Jalkanen, Reetta; Bergmann, Carsten; Neuhaus, Christine; Kleemola, Leenamaija; Jauhola, Liisa; Bolz, Hanno Jörn; Sankila, Eeva-Marja

    2013-06-01

    The Finnish distribution of clinical Usher syndrome (USH) types is 40% USH3, 34% USH1 and 12% USH2. All patients with USH3 carry the founder mutation in clarin 1 (CLRN1), whereas we recently reported three novel myosin VIIA (MYO7A) mutations in two unrelated patients with USH1. This study was carried out to further investigate the USH mutation spectrum in Finnish patients. We analysed samples from nine unrelated USH patients/families without known mutations and two USH3 families with atypically severe phenotype. The Asper Ophthalmics USH mutation chip was used to screen for known mutations and to evaluate the chip in molecular diagnostics of Finnish patients. The chip revealed a heterozygous usherin (USH2A) mutation, p.N346H, in one patient. Sequencing of MYO7A and/or USH2A in three index patients revealed two novel heterozygous mutations, p.R873W in MYO7A and c.14343+2T>C in USH2A. We did not identify definite pathogenic second mutations in the patients, but identified several probably nonpathogenic variations that may modify the disease phenotype. Possible digenism could not be excluded in two families segregating genomic variations in both MYO7A and USH2A, and two families with CLRN1 and USH2A. We conclude that there is considerable genetic heterogeneity of USH1 and USH2 in Finland, making molecular diagnostics and genetic counselling of patients and families challenging. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  11. MSX1 Mutation in Witkop Syndrome; A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Ghaderi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Witkop syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the absence of several teeth and abnormalities of the nails. This is the first report of a rare genetic tooth and nail syndrome diagnosed in a 2.5-year-old boy with early exfoliation of the primary canine, absence of the primary incisors, and nail dysplasia. A homozygous mutation was identified in 3’-UTR of MSX1 gene in the proband. The parents of the patient had no dental and nail anomalies.

  12. Noonan syndrome: Severe phenotype and PTPN11 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Salas, Pilar; Gómez-Molina, Gertrudis; Carreto-Alba, Páxedes; Granell-Escobar, Reyes; Vázquez-Rico, Ignacio; León-Justel, Antonio

    2018-04-24

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic disorder characterized by a wide range of distinctive features and health problems. It caused in 50% of cases by missense mutations in PTPN11 gene. It has been postulated that it is possible to predict the disease course based into the impact of mutations on the protein. We report two cases of severe NS phenotype including hydrops fetalis. PTPN11 gene was studied in germinal cells of both patients by sequencing. Two different mutations (p.Gly503Arg and p.Met504Val) was detected in PTPN11 gene. These mutations have been reported previously, and when they were germinal variants, patients presented classic NS, NS with other malignancies and recently, p.Gly503Arg has been also observed in a patient with severe NS and hydrops fetalis, as our cases. Therefore, these observations shade light on that it is not always possibly to determine the genotype-phenotype relation based into the impact of mutations on the protein in NS patients with PTPN11 mutations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Congenital short bowel syndrome as the presenting symptom in male patients with FLNA mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Christine S.; Sribudiani, Yunia; Verheij, Joke B. G. M.; Carroll, Matthew; O'Loughlin, Edward; Chen, Chien-Huan; Brooks, Alice S.; Liszewski, M. Kathryn; Atkinson, John P.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    Purpose: Autosomal recessive congenital short bowel syndrome is caused by mutations in CLMP. No mutations were found in the affected males of a family with presumed X-linked congenital short bowel syndrome or in an isolated male patient. Our aim was to identify the disease-causing mutation in these

  14. Biomechanical Strain Exacerbates Inflammation on a Progeria-on-a-Chip Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribas, J.; Zhang, Y.S.; Pitrez, P.R.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Miscuglio, M.; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Dokmeci, M.R.; Nissan, X.; Ferreira, L.; Khademhosseini, A.

    2017-01-01

    A progeria-on-a-chip model is engineered to recapitulate the biomechanical dynamics of vascular disease and aging. The model shows an exacerbated injury response to strain and is rescued by pharmacological treatments. The progeria-on-a-chip is expected to drive the discovery of new drugs and to

  15. ADAMTS13 Gene Mutations in Children with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyoung Soo; Cheong, Hae Il; Kim, Nam Keun

    2011-01-01

    We investigated ADAMTS13 activity as well as the ADAMTS13 gene mutation in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Eighteen patients, including 6 diarrhea-negative (D-HUS) and 12 diarrhea-associated HUS (D+HUS) patients, were evaluated. The extent of von Willebrand factor (VWF) degradation was assayed by multimer analysis, and all exons of the ADAMTS13 gene were PCR-amplified using Taq DNA polymerase. The median and range for plasma activity of ADAMTS13 in 6 D-HUS and 12 D+HUS patients were 71.8% (22.8-94.1%) and 84.9% (37.9-119.9%), respectively, which were not statistically significantly different from the control group (86.4%, 34.2-112.3%) (p>0.05). Five ADAMTS13 gene mutations, including 2 novel mutations [1584+2T>A, 3941C>T (S1314L)] and 3 polymorphisms (Q448E, P475S, S903L), were found in 2 D-HUS and one D+HUS patients, which were not associated with deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity. Whether these mutations without reduced ADAMTS13 activity are innocent bystanders or predisposing factors in HUS remains unanswered. PMID:21488199

  16. Novel TGM5 mutations in acral peeling skin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Jaap J A J; van Geel, Michel; Nellen, Ruud G L; Jonkman, Marcel F; McGrath, John A; Nanda, Arti; Sprecher, Eli; van Steensel, Maurice A M; McLean, W H Irwin; Cassidy, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS, MIM #609796) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by superficial exfoliation and blistering of the volar and dorsal aspects of hands and feet. The level of separation is at the junction of the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. APSS is caused by mutations in the TGM5 gene encoding transglutaminase-5, which is important for structural integrity of the outermost epidermal layers. The majority of patients originate from Europe and carry a p.(Gly113Cys) mutation in TGM5. In this study, we report both European and non-European families carrying other mutations in the TGM5 gene. In 5 patients, we found 3 novel mutations: c.1001+2_1001+3del, c.1171G>A and c.1498C>T. To confirm their pathogenicity, we performed functional analyses with a transglutaminase activity assay, determined alternative splicing by reverse-transcribed PCR analysis and used databases and in silico prediction tools. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. De novo SOX11 mutations cause Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Koshimizu, Eriko; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Phadke, Shubha; Kou, Ikuyo; Shiina, Masaaki; Suzuki, Toshifumi; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Shintaro; Yamashita, Michiaki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kodera, Hirofumi; Miyatake, Satoko; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Ikegawa, Shiro; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2014-06-02

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is a congenital disorder characterized by growth deficiency, intellectual disability, microcephaly, characteristic facial features and hypoplastic nails of the fifth fingers and/or toes. We previously identified mutations in five genes encoding subunits of the BAF complex, in 55% of CSS patients. Here we perform whole-exome sequencing in additional CSS patients, identifying de novo SOX11 mutations in two patients with a mild CSS phenotype. sox11a/b knockdown in zebrafish causes brain abnormalities, potentially explaining the brain phenotype of CSS. SOX11 is the downstream transcriptional factor of the PAX6-BAF complex, highlighting the importance of the BAF complex and SOX11 transcriptional network in brain development.

  18. Inflammatory peeling skin syndrome caused a novel mutation in CDSN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana Fuchs; Israeli, Shirli; Sarig, Ofer; Sprecher, Eli

    2012-04-01

    Generalized peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare autosomal recessive dermatosis manifesting with continuous exfoliation of the stratum corneum. The inflammatory (type B) subtype of PSS was recently found to be caused by deleterious mutations in the CDSN gene encoding corneodesmosin, a major component of desmosomal junctions in the uppermost layers of the epidermis. In the present study, we assessed a 10-month-old baby, who presented with generalized superficial peeling of the skin. Using PCR amplification and direct sequencing, we identified the third PSS-associated mutation in CDSN, a homozygous 4 bp duplication in the second exon of the gene (c.164_167dup GCCT; p.Thr57ProfsX6). These data further support the notion that corneodesmosin deficiency impairs cell-cell adhesion in the upper epidermis, paving the way for an abnormal inflammatory response due to epidermal barrier disruption.

  19. Review and update of mutations causing Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingault, Véronique; Ente, Dorothée; Dastot-Le Moal, Florence; Goossens, Michel; Marlin, Sandrine; Bondurand, Nadège

    2010-04-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is characterized by the association of pigmentation abnormalities, including depigmented patches of the skin and hair, vivid blue eyes or heterochromia irides, and sensorineural hearing loss. However, other features such as dystopia canthorum, musculoskeletal abnormalities of the limbs, Hirschsprung disease, or neurological defects are found in subsets of patients and used for the clinical classification of WS. Six genes are involved in this syndrome: PAX3 (encoding the paired box 3 transcription factor), MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), EDN3 (endothelin 3), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), SOX10 (encoding the Sry bOX10 transcription factor), and SNAI2 (snail homolog 2), with different frequencies. In this review we provide an update on all WS genes and set up mutation databases, summarize molecular and functional data available for each of them, and discuss the applications in diagnostics and genetic counseling. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Sarcomeric gene mutations in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Maria; Allegue, Catarina; Santori, Montserrat; Gil, Rocio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Haas, Cordula; Bartsch, Christine; Poster, Simone; Madea, Burkhard; Campuzano, Oscar; Brugada, Ramon; Carracedo, Angel

    2012-06-10

    In developed countries, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) represents the most prevalent cause of death in children between 1 month and 1 year of age. SIDS is a diagnosis of exclusion, a negative autopsy which requires the absence of structural organ disease. Although investigators have confirmed that a significant percentage of SIDS cases are actually channelopathies, no data have been made available as to whether other sudden cardiac death-associated diseases, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), could be responsible for some cases of SIDS. The presence of a genetic mutation in the sarcomeric protein usually affects the force of contraction of the myocyte, whose weakness is compensated with progressive hypertrophy and disarray. However, it is unclear whether in the most incipient forms, that is, first years of life, the lack of these phenotypes still confers a risk of arrhythmogenesis. The main goal of the present study is to wonder whether genetic defects in the sarcomeric proteins, previously associated with HCM, could be responsible for SIDS. We have analysed 286 SIDS cases for the most common genes implicated in HCM in adults. A total of 680 mutations localised in 16 genes were analysed by semi-automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF-MS) using the Sequenom MassARRAY(®) System. Ten subjects with completely normal hearts showed mutated alleles at nine of the genetic variants analysed, and one additional novel mutation was detected by conventional sequencing. Therefore, a genetic mutation associated with HCM may cause sudden cardiac death in the absence of an identifiable phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. De novo mutations in ARID1B associated with both syndromic and non-syndromic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongguo; Yao, RuEn; Wang, Lili; Fan, Yanjie; Huang, Xiaodong; Hirschhorn, Joel; Dauber, Andrew; Shen, Yiping

    2015-09-16

    Human height is a complex trait with a strong genetic basis. Recently, a significant association between rare copy number variations (CNVs) and short stature has been identified, and candidate genes in these rare CNVs are being explored. This study aims to evaluate the association between mutations in ARID1B gene and short stature, both the syndromic and non-syndromic form. Based on a case-control study of whole genome chromosome microarray analysis (CMA), three overlapping CNVs were identified in patients with developmental disorders who exhibited short stature. ARID1B, a causal gene for Coffin Siris syndrome, is the only gene encompassed by all three CNVs. A following retrospective genotype-phenotype analysis based on a literature review confirmed that short stature is a frequent feature in those Coffin-Siris syndrome patients with ARID1B mutations. Mutation screening of ARID1B coding regions was further conducted in a cohort of 48 non-syndromic short stature patients,andfour novel missense variants including two de novo mutations were found. These results suggest that haploinsufficient mutations of ARID1B are associated with syndromic short stature including Coffin-Siris syndrome and intellectual disability, while rare missense variants in ARID1B are associated with non-syndromic short stature. This study supports the notion that mutations in genes related to syndromic short stature may exert milder effect and contribute to short stature in the general population.

  2. Clinical presentation of Griscelli syndrome type 2 and spectrum of RAB27A mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meeths, Marie; Bryceson, Yenan T; Rudd, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Griscelli syndrome type 2 (GS2) is an autosomal-recessive immunodeficiency caused by mutations in RAB27A, clinically characterized by partial albinism and haemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH). We evaluated the frequency of RAB27A mutations in 21 unrelated patients with haemophagocytic syndromes...

  3. Sex-related hearing impairment in Wolfram syndrome patients identified by inactivating WFS1 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, RJE; Huygen, PLM; van den Ouweland, JMW; Cryns, K; Dikkeschei, LD; Van Camp, G; Cremers, CWRJ

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the audiovestibular profile of 11 Wolfram syndrome patients (4 males, 7 females) from 7 families, with identified WFS1 mutations, and the audiometric profile of 17 related heterozygous carriers of WFS1 mutations. Patients with Wolfram syndrome showed a downsloping audiogram and

  4. Sex-related hearing impairment in Wolfram syndrome patients identified by inactivating WFS1 mutations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Ouweland, J.M.W. van den; Cryns, K.; Dikkeschei, L.D.; Camp, G. van; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the audiovestibular profile of 11 Wolfram syndrome patients (4 males, 7 females) from 7 families, with identified WFS1 mutations, and the audiometric profile of 17 related heterozygous carriers of WFS1 mutations. Patients with Wolfram syndrome showed a downsloping audiogram and

  5. Expanded Mutational Spectrum in Cohen Syndrome, Tissue Expression, and Transcript Variants of COH1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Wenke; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Kuehnisch, Jirko; Kahrizi, Kimia; Tzschach, Andreas; Garshasbi, Masoud; Najmabadi, Hossein; Kuss, Andreas Walter; Kress, Wolfram; Laureys, Genevieve; Loeys, Bart; Brilstra, Eva; Mancini, Grazia M. S.; Dollfus, Helene; Dahan, Karin; Apse, Kira; Hennies, Hans Christian; Horn, Denise

    Cohen syndrome is characterised by mental retardation, postnatal microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, pigmentary retinopathy, myopia, and intermittent neutropenia. Mutations in COH1 (VPS13B) have been found in patients with Cohen syndrome from diverse ethnic origins. We have carried out mutation

  6. RAI1 gene mutations: mechanisms of Smith–Magenis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falco M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mariateresa Falco,1,* Sonia Amabile,1,* Fabio Acquaviva2 1Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Translational Medical Sciences (DISMET, Section of Pediatric Clinical Genetics, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM #182290 is a complex genetic disorder characterized by distinctive physical features, developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and a typical behavioral phenotype. SMS is caused by interstitial 17p11.2 deletions, encompassing multiple genes and including the retinoic acid-induced 1 gene (RAI1, or by mutations in RAI1 itself. About 10% of all the SMS patients, in fact, carry an RAI1 mutation responsible for the phenotype. RAI1 (OMIM *607642 is a dosage-sensitive gene expressed in many tissues and highly conserved among species. Over the years, several studies have demonstrated that RAI1 (or its homologs in animal models acts as a transcriptional factor implicated in embryonic neurodevelopment, neuronal differentiation, cell growth and cell cycle regulation, bone and skeletal development, lipid and glucose metabolisms, behavioral functions, and circadian activity. Patients with RAI1 pathogenic variants show some phenotypic differences when compared to those carrying the typical deletion. They usually have lower incidence of hypotonia and less cognitive impairment than those with 17p11.2 deletions but more frequently show the behavioral characteristics of the syndrome and overeating issues. These differences reflect the primary pathogenetic role of RAI1 without the pathogenetic contribution of the other genes included in the typical 17p11.2 deletion. The better comprehension of physiological roles of RAI1, its molecular co-workers and interactors, and its contribution in determining the typical SMS phenotype will certainly open a new path

  7. Mutations in the G6PC3 gene cause Dursun syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banka, Siddharth; Newman, William G; Ozgül, R Koksal; Dursun, Ali

    2010-10-01

    Dursun syndrome is a triad of familial primary pulmonary hypertension, leucopenia, and atrial septal defect. Here we demonstrate that mutations in G6PC3 cause Dursun syndrome. Mutations in G6PC3 are known to also cause severe congenital neutropenia type 4. Identification of the genetic basis of Dursun syndrome expands the pre-existing knowledge about the phenotypic effects of mutations in G6PC3. We propose that Dursun syndrome should now be considered as a subset of severe congenital neutropenia type 4 with pulmonary hypertension as an important clinical feature. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Waardenburg syndrome: Novel mutations in a large Brazilian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocángel, Magnolia Astrid Pretell; Melo, Uirá Souto; Alves, Leandro Ucela; Pardono, Eliete; Lourenço, Naila Cristina Vilaça; Marcolino, Humberto Vicente Cezar; Otto, Paulo Alberto; Mingroni-Netto, Regina Célia

    2018-06-01

    This paper deals with the molecular investigation of Waardenburg syndrome (WS) in a sample of 49 clinically diagnosed probands (most from southeastern Brazil), 24 of them having the type 1 (WS1) variant (10 familial and 14 isolated cases) and 25 being affected by the type 2 (WS2) variant (five familial and 20 isolated cases). Sequential Sanger sequencing of all coding exons of PAX3, MITF, EDN3, EDNRB, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes, followed by CNV detection by MLPA of PAX3, MITF and SOX10 genes in selected cases revealed many novel pathogenic variants. Molecular screening, performed in all patients, revealed 19 causative variants (19/49 = 38.8%), six of them being large whole-exon deletions detected by MLPA, seven (four missense and three nonsense substitutions) resulting from single nucleotide substitutions (SNV), and six representing small indels. A pair of dizygotic affected female twins presented the c.430delC variant in SOX10, but the mutation, imputed to gonadal mosaicism, was not found in their unaffected parents. At least 10 novel causative mutations, described in this paper, were found in this Brazilian sample. Copy-number-variation detected by MLPA identified the causative mutation in 12.2% of our cases, corresponding to 31.6% of all causative mutations. In the majority of cases, the deletions were sporadic, since they were not present in the parents of isolated cases. Our results, as a whole, reinforce the fact that the screening of copy-number-variants by MLPA is a powerful tool to identify the molecular cause in WS patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel CLCNKB mutations causing Bartter syndrome affect channel surface expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Mathilde; Andrini, Olga; Lahuna, Olivier; Burgos, Johanna; Cid, L Pablo; Sepúlveda, Francisco V; L'hoste, Sébastien; Blanchard, Anne; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Lourdel, Stéphane; Teulon, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    Mutations in the CLCNKB gene encoding the ClC-Kb Cl(-) channel cause Bartter syndrome, which is a salt-losing renal tubulopathy. Here, we investigate the functional consequences of seven mutations. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, four mutants carried no current (c.736G>C, p.Gly246Arg; c.1271G>A, p.Gly424Glu; c.1313G>A, p.Arg438His; c.1316T>C, p.Leu439Pro), whereas others displayed a 30%-60% reduction in conductance as compared with wild-type ClC-Kb (c.242T>C, p.Leu81Pro; c.274C>T, p.Arg92Trp; c.1052G>C, p.Arg351Pro). Anion selectivity and sensitivity to external Ca(2+) and H(+), typical of the ClC-Kb channel, were not modified in the partially active mutants. In oocytes, we found that all the mutations reduced surface expression with a profile similar to that observed for currents. In HEK293 cells, the currents in the mutants had similar profiles to those obtained in oocytes, except for p.Leu81Pro, which produced no current. Furthermore, p.Arg92Trp and p.Arg351Pro mutations did not modify the unit-conductance of closely related ClC-K1. Western blot analysis in HEK293 cells showed that ClC-Kb protein abundance was lower for the nonconducting mutants but similar to wild-type for other mutants. Overall, two classes of mutants can be distinguished: nonconducting mutants associated with low total protein expression, and partially conducting mutants with unaltered channel properties and ClC-Kb protein abundance. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  10. STAT3 mutations correlated with hyper-IgE syndrome lead to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Of all the causes identified for the disease hyper-immunoglobulinemia E syndrome (HIES), a homozygous mutation in tyrosine kinase2 (TYK2) and heterozygous mutations in STAT3 are implicated the defects in Jak/STAT signalling pathway in the pathogenesis of HIES. Mutations of STAT3 have been frequently clinically ...

  11. Digenic mutations involving both the BSND and GJB2 genes detected in Bartter syndrome type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Han; Feng, Yong; Li, Hai-Bo; Wu, Hong; Mei, Ling-Yun; Wang, Xing-Wei; Jiang, Lu; He, Chu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Bartter syndrome type IV, characterized by salt-losing nephropathies and sensorineural deafness, is caused by mutations of BSND or simultaneous mutations of both CLCNKA and CLCNKB. GJB2 is the primary causative gene for non-syndromic sensorineural deafness and associated with several syndromic sensorineural deafness. Owing to the rarity of Bartter syndrome, only a few mutations have been reported in the abovementioned causative genes. To investigate the underlying mutations in a Chinese patient with Bartter syndrome type IV, genetic analysis of BSND, CLCNKA, CLCNKB and GJB2 were performed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Finally, double homozygous mutations c.22C > T (p.Arg8Trp) and c.127G > A (Val43Ile) were detected in exon 1 of BSND. Intriguingly, compound heterozygous mutations c.235delC (p.Leu79CysfsX3) and c.109G > A (p.Val37Ile) were also revealed in exon 2 of GJB2 in the same patient. No pathogenic mutations were found in CLCNKA and CLCNKB. Our results indicated that the homozygous mutation c.22C > T was the key genetic reason for the proband, and a digenic effect of BSND and GJB2 might contributed to sensorineural deafness. To our knowledge, it was the first report showing that the GJB2 gene mutations were detected in Bartter syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. De novo nonsense mutations in ASXL1 cause Bohring-Opitz syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoischen, Alexander; van Bon, Bregje W M; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín

    2011-01-01

    Bohring-Opitz syndrome is characterized by severe intellectual disability, distinctive facial features and multiple congenital malformations. We sequenced the exomes of three individuals with Bohring-Opitz syndrome and in each identified heterozygous de novo nonsense mutations in ASXL1, which...... is required for maintenance of both activation and silencing of Hox genes. In total, 7 out of 13 subjects with a Bohring-Opitz phenotype had de novo ASXL1 mutations, suggesting that the syndrome is genetically heterogeneous....

  13. Adaptive stress response in segmental progeria resembles long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, Marieke; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Holcomb, Valerie B.; von Lindern, Marieke; Jong, Willeke M. C.; de Zeeuw, Chris I.; Suh, Yousin; Hasty, Paul; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Mitchell, James R.

    2006-01-01

    How congenital defects causing genome instability can result in the pleiotropic symptoms reminiscent of aging but in a segmental and accelerated fashion remains largely unknown. Most segmental progerias are associated with accelerated fibroblast senescence, suggesting that cellular senescence is a

  14. Adaptive stress response in segmental progeria resembles long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.W.M. van de Ven (Marieke); J.-O. Andressoo (Jaan-Olle); V.B. Holcomb (Valerie); M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); W.M.C. Jong (Willeke); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); Y. Suh (Yousin); P. Hasty (Paul); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); J.R. Mitchell (James)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHow congenital defects causing genome instability can result in the pleiotropic symptoms reminiscent of aging but in a segmental and accelerated fashion remains largely unknown. Most segmental progerias are associated with accelerated fibroblast senescence, suggesting that cellular

  15. Recessive mutations in PTHR1 cause contrasting skeletal dysplasias in Eiken and Blomstrand syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchatelet, Sabine; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Cortes, Dina

    2005-01-01

    Eiken syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia. We identified a truncation mutation in the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) type 1 receptor (PTHR1) gene as the cause of this syndrome. Eiken syndrome differs from Jansen...

  16. The mutational spectrum in Treacher Collins syndrome reveals a predominance of mutations that create a premature-termination codon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, S.J.; Gladwin, A.J.; Dixon, M.J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development, the features of which include conductive hearing loss and cleft palate. The TCS locus has been mapped to human chromosome 5q31.3-32 and the mutated gene identified. In the current investigation, 25 previously undescribed mutations, which are spread throughout the gene, are presented. This brings the total reported to date to 35, which represents a detection rate of 60%. Of the mutations that have been reported to date, all but one result in the introduction of a premature-termination codon into the predicted protein, treacle. Moreover, the mutations are largely family specific, although a common 5-bp deletion in exon 24 (seven different families) and a recurrent splicing mutation in intron 3 (two different families) have been identified. This mutational spectrum supports the hypothesis that TCS results from haploin-sufficiency. 49 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. [Schinzel-Giedion syndrome: a new mutation in SETBP1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, V; Domingo-Jiménez, M R; Burglen, L; Ballesta-Martínez, M J; Whalen, S; Piñero-Fernández, J A; Guillén-Navarro, E

    2015-01-01

    Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS) (#MIM 269150) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by very marked craniofacial dysmorphism, multiple congenital anomalies and severe intellectual disability. Most affected patients die in early childhood. SETBP1 was identified as the causative gene, but a limited number of patients with molecular confirmation have been reported to date. The case is reported of a 4 and a half year-old male patient, affected by SGS. SETBP1 sequencing analysis revealed the presence of a non-previously described mutation: c.2608G>T (p.Gly870Cys). The clinical features and differential diagnosis of this rare condition are reviewed. Dysmorphic features are strongly suggestive of SGS. Its clinical recognition is essential to enable an early diagnosis, a proper follow-up, and to provide the family with genetic counseling. To date, this is the seventeenth SGS patient published with SETBP1 mutation, and the first in Spain, helping to widen clinical and molecular knowledge of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. A new nonsense mutation in the NF1 gene with neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimenicioğlu, Sevgi; Yakut, Ayten; Karaer, Kadri; Zenker, Martin; Ekici, Arzu; Carman, Kürşat Bora

    2012-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder which combines neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) features with Noonan syndrome. NF1 gene mutations are reported in the majority of these patients. Sequence analysis of the established genes for Noonan syndrome revealed no mutation; a heterozygous NF1 point mutation c.7549C>T in exon 51, creating a premature stop codon (p.R2517X), had been demonstrated. Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome recently has been considered a subtype of NF1 and caused by different NF1 mutations. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy with neurofibromatosis type 1 with Noonan-like features, who complained of headache with triventricular hydrocephaly and a heterozygous NF1 point mutation c.7549C>T in exon 51.

  19. A frame-shift mutation of PMS2 is a widespread cause of Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clendenning, Mark; Senter, Leigha; Hampel, Heather

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When compared to the other mismatch repair genes involved in Lynch syndrome, the identification of mutations within PMS2 has been limited (Lynch syndrome cases...... on immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: We have identified a frequently occurring frame-shift mutation (c.736_741del6ins11) in 12 ostensibly unrelated Lynch syndrome patients (20% of patients we have identified with a deleterious mutation in PMS2, n=61). These individuals all display the rare allele (population...... and Swedish ancestry. We estimate that there are >10,000 carriers of this mutation in the United States alone. The identification of both the mutation and the common haplotype in one Swedish control sample (n = 225), along with evidence that Lynch syndrome associated cancers are rarer than expected...

  20. Identification of SCN1A and PCDH19 mutations in Chinese children with Dravet syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ka-Yee Kwong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome is a severe form of epilepsy. Majority of patients have a mutation in SCN1A gene, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel. A recent study has demonstrated that 16% of SCN1A-negative patients have a mutation in PCDH19, the gene encoding protocadherin-19. Mutations in other genes account for only a very small proportion of families. TSPYL4 is a novel candidate gene within the locus 6q16.3-q22.31 identified by linkage study. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the mutations in epileptic Chinese children with emphasis on Dravet syndrome. METHODS: A hundred children with severe epilepsy were divided into Dravet syndrome and non-Dravet syndrome groups and screened for SCN1A mutations by direct sequencing. SCN1A-negative Dravet syndrome patients and patients with phenotypes resembling Dravet syndrome were checked for PCDH19 and TSPYL4 mutations. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (9 males, 9 females were diagnosed to have Dravet syndrome. Among them, 83% (15/18 had SCN1A mutations including truncating (7, splice site (2 and missense mutations (6. The truncating/splice site mutations were associated with moderate to severe degree of intellectual disability (p<0.05. During the progression of disease, 73% (11/15 had features fitting into the diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorder and 53% (8/15 had history of vaccination-induced seizures. A novel PCDH19 p.D377N mutation was identified in one SCN1A-negative female patient with Dravet syndrome and a known PCDH19 p.N340S mutation in a female non-Dravet syndrome patient. The former also inherited a TSPYL4 p.G60R variant. CONCLUSION: A high percentage of SCN1A mutations was identified in our Chinese cohort of Dravet syndrome patients but none in the rest of patients. We demonstrated that truncating/splice site mutations were linked to moderate to severe intellectual disability in these patients. A de novo PCDH19 missense mutation together with an inherited TSPYL4 missense

  1. The clinical phenotype of Lynch syndrome due to germline PMS2 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Leigha; Clendenning, Mark; Sotamaa, Kaisa; Hampel, Heather; Green, Jane; Potter, John D.; Lindblom, Annika; Lagerstedt, Kristina; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Young, Joanne; Winship, Ingrid; Dowty, James G.; White, Darren M.; Hopper, John L.; Baglietto, Laura; Jenkins, Mark A.; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Although the clinical phenotype of Lynch syndrome (also known as Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer) has been well described, little is known about disease in PMS2 mutation carriers. Now that mutation detection methods can discern mutations in PMS2 from mutations in its pseudogenes, more mutation carriers have been identified. Information about the clinical significance of PMS2 mutations is crucial for appropriate counseling. Here, we report the clinical characteristics of a large series of PMS2 mutation carriers. Methods We performed PMS2 mutation analysis using long range PCR and MLPA for 99 probands diagnosed with Lynch syndrome-associated tumors showing isolated loss of PMS2 by immunohistochemistry. Penetrance was calculated using a modified segregation analysis adjusting for ascertainment. Results Germline PMS2 mutations were detected in 62% of probands (n = 55 monoallelic; 6 biallelic). Among families with monoallelic PMS2 mutations, 65.5% met revised Bethesda guidelines. Compared with the general population, in mutation carriers, the incidence of colorectal cancer was 5.2 fold higher and the incidence of endometrial cancer was 7.5 fold higher. In North America, this translates to a cumulative cancer risk to age 70 of 15–20% for colorectal cancer, 15% for endometrial cancer, and 25–32% for any Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. No elevated risk for non-Lynch syndrome-associated cancers was observed. Conclusions PMS2 mutations contribute significantly to Lynch syndrome but the penetrance for monoallelic mutation carriers appears to be lower than that for the other mismatch repair genes. Modified counseling and cancer surveillance guidelines for PMS2 mutation carriers are proposed. PMID:18602922

  2. The clinical phenotype of Lynch syndrome due to germ-line PMS2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Leigha; Clendenning, Mark; Sotamaa, Kaisa; Hampel, Heather; Green, Jane; Potter, John D; Lindblom, Annika; Lagerstedt, Kristina; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Lindor, Noralane M; Young, Joanne; Winship, Ingrid; Dowty, James G; White, Darren M; Hopper, John L; Baglietto, Laura; Jenkins, Mark A; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2008-08-01

    Although the clinical phenotype of Lynch syndrome (also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) has been well described, little is known about disease in PMS2 mutation carriers. Now that mutation detection methods can discern mutations in PMS2 from mutations in its pseudogenes, more mutation carriers have been identified. Information about the clinical significance of PMS2 mutations is crucial for appropriate counseling. Here, we report the clinical characteristics of a large series of PMS2 mutation carriers. We performed PMS2 mutation analysis using long-range polymerase chain reaction and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for 99 probands diagnosed with Lynch syndrome-associated tumors showing isolated loss of PMS2 by immunohistochemistry. Penetrance was calculated using a modified segregation analysis adjusting for ascertainment. Germ-line PMS2 mutations were detected in 62% of probands (n = 55 monoallelic; 6 biallelic). Among families with monoallelic PMS2 mutations, 65.5% met revised Bethesda guidelines. Compared with the general population, in mutation carriers, the incidence of colorectal cancer was 5.2-fold higher, and the incidence of endometrial cancer was 7.5-fold higher. In North America, this translates to a cumulative cancer risk to age 70 years of 15%-20% for colorectal cancer, 15% for endometrial cancer, and 25%-32% for any Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. No elevated risk for non-Lynch syndrome-associated cancers was observed. PMS2 mutations contribute significantly to Lynch syndrome, but the penetrance for monoallelic mutation carriers appears to be lower than that for the other mismatch repair genes. Modified counseling and cancer surveillance guidelines for PMS2 mutation carriers are proposed.

  3. Spectrum of MECP2 gene mutations in a cohort of Indian patients with Rett syndrome: report of two novel mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhanjit Kumar; Raha, Sarbani; Sanghavi, Daksha; Maitra, Anurupa; Udani, Vrajesh

    2013-02-15

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily affecting females and characterized by developmental regression, epilepsy, stereotypical hand movements, and motor abnormalities. Its prevalence is about 1 in 10,000 female births. Rett syndrome is caused by mutations within methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Over 270 individual nucleotide changes which cause pathogenic mutations have been reported. However, eight most commonly occurring missense and nonsense mutations account for almost 70% of all patients. We screened 90 individuals with Rett syndrome phenotype. A total of 19 different MECP2 mutations and polymorphisms were identified in 27 patients. Of the 19 mutations, we identified 7 (37%) frameshift, 6 (31%) nonsense, 14 (74%) missense mutations and one duplication (5%). The most frequent pathogenic changes were: missense p.T158M (11%), p.R133C (7.4%), and p.R306C (7.4%) and nonsense p.R168X (11%), p.R255X (7.4%) mutations. We have identified two novel mutations namely p.385-388delPLPP present in atypical patients and p.Glu290AlafsX38 present in a classical patient of Rett syndrome. Sequence homology for p.385-388delPLPP mutation revealed that these 4 amino acids were conserved across mammalian species. This indicated the importance of these 4 amino acids in structure and function of the protein. A novel variant p.T479T has also been identified in a patient with atypical Rett syndrome. A total of 62 (69%) patients remained without molecular genetics diagnosis that necessitates further search for mutations in other genes like CDKL5 and FOXG1 that are known to cause Rett phenotype. The majority of mutations are detected in exon 4 and only one mutation was present in exon 3. Therefore, our study suggests the need for screening exon 4 of MECP2 as first line of diagnosis in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome, a RAS/MAPK pathway syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yoko; Niihori, Tetsuya; Banjo, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Seiji; Kurosawa, Kenji; Ogata, Tsutomu; Takada, Fumio; Yano, Michihiro; Ando, Toru; Hoshika, Tadataka; Barnett, Christopher; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kawame, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Okutani, Takahiro; Nagashima, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Funayama, Ryo; Nagashima, Takeshi; Nakayama, Keiko; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Watanabe, Yusuke; Ogura, Toshihiko; Matsubara, Yoichi

    2013-07-11

    RAS GTPases mediate a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recent studies have revealed that germline mutations and mosaicism for classical RAS mutations, including those in HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS, cause a wide spectrum of genetic disorders. These include Noonan syndrome and related disorders (RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase [RAS/MAPK] pathway syndromes, or RASopathies), nevus sebaceous, and Schimmelpenning syndrome. In the present study, we identified a total of nine missense, nonsynonymous mutations in RIT1, encoding a member of the RAS subfamily, in 17 of 180 individuals (9%) with Noonan syndrome or a related condition but with no detectable mutations in known Noonan-related genes. Clinical manifestations in the RIT1-mutation-positive individuals are consistent with those of Noonan syndrome, which is characterized by distinctive facial features, short stature, and congenital heart defects. Seventy percent of mutation-positive individuals presented with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; this frequency is high relative to the overall 20% incidence in individuals with Noonan syndrome. Luciferase assays in NIH 3T3 cells showed that five RIT1 alterations identified in children with Noonan syndrome enhanced ELK1 transactivation. The introduction of mRNAs of mutant RIT1 into 1-cell-stage zebrafish embryos was found to result in a significant increase of embryos with craniofacial abnormalities, incomplete looping, a hypoplastic chamber in the heart, and an elongated yolk sac. These results demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome and show a similar biological effect to mutations in other RASopathy-related genes. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectrum of mismatch repair gene mutations and clinical presentation of Hispanic individuals with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunga, Annette Y; Ricker, Charité; Espenschied, Carin R; Castillo, Danielle; Melas, Marilena; Herzog, Josef; Bannon, Sarah; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Lynch, Patrick; Solomon, Ilana; Gruber, Stephen B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N

    2017-04-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, is caused by mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. However, data about MMR mutations in Hispanics are limited. This study aims to describe the spectrum of MMR mutations in Hispanics with LS and explore ancestral origins. This case series involved an IRB-approved retrospective chart review of self-identified Hispanic patients (n = 397) seen for genetic cancer risk assessment at four collaborating academic institutions in California, Texas, and Puerto Rico who were evaluated by MMR genotyping and/or tumor analysis. A literature review was conducted for all mutations identified. Of those who underwent clinical genetic testing (n = 176), 71 had MMR gene mutations. Nine mutations were observed more than once. One third (3/9) of recurrent mutations and two additional mutations (seen only once) were previously reported in Spain, confirming the influence of Spanish ancestry on MMR mutations in Hispanic populations. The recurrent mutations identified (n = 9) included both previously reported mutations as well as unique mutations not in the literature. This is the largest report of Hispanic MMR mutations in North America; however, a larger sample and haplotype analyses are needed to better understand recurrent MMR mutations in Hispanic populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Cancer risks and immunohistochemical profiles linked to the Danish MLH1 Lynch syndrome founder mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Ladelund, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Founder mutations with a large impact in distinct populations have been described in Lynch syndrome. In Denmark, the MLH1 c.1667+2_1667_+8TAAATCAdelinsATTT mutation accounts for 25 % of the MLH1 mutant families. We used the national Danish hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer register...... to estimate the cumulative lifetime risks for Lynch syndrome-associated cancer in 16 founder mutation families with comparison to 47 other MLH1 mutant families. The founder mutation conferred comparable risks for colorectal cancer (relative risks, RR, of 0.99 for males and 0.79 for females) and lower risks...... in 68 % with extensive inter-tumor variability despite the same underlying germline mutation. In conclusion, the Danish MLH1 founder mutation that accounts for a significant proportion of Lynch syndrome and is associated with a lower risk for extracolonic cancers....

  7. Mitchell-Riley Syndrome: A Novel Mutation in RFX6 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zegre Amorim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel RFX6 homozygous missense mutation was identified in an infant with Mitchell-Riley syndrome. The most common features of Mitchell-Riley syndrome were present, including severe neonatal diabetes associated with annular pancreas, intestinal malrotation, gallbladder agenesis, cholestatic disease, chronic diarrhea, and severe intrauterine growth restriction. Perijejunal tissue similar to pancreatic tissue was found in the submucosa, a finding that has not been previously reported in this syndrome. This case associating RFX6 mutation with structural and functional pancreatic abnormalities reinforces the RFX6 gene role in pancreas development and β-cell function, adding information to the existent mutation databases.

  8. Functional effects of KCNE3 mutation and its role in the development of Brugada syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delpón, Eva; Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Núñez, Lucía

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Brugada Syndrome (BrS), an inherited syndrome associated with a high incidence of sudden cardiac arrest, has been linked to mutations in four different genes leading to a loss of function in sodium and calcium channel activity. Although the transient outward current (I......(to)) is thought to play a prominent role in the expression of the syndrome, mutations in I(to)-related genes have not been identified as yet. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and five probands with BrS were screened for ion channel gene mutations using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP...

  9. Plasma Screening for Progranulin Mutations in Patients with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Corticobasal Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Daniela; Bertram, Kelly; Formica, Alessandra; Fenoglio, Chiara; Cioffi, Sara M G; Arighi, Andrea; Scarpini, Elio; Colosimo, Carlo

    2016-05-04

    Progranulin gene (GRN) mutations are characterized by heterogeneous presentations. Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is often associated with GRN mutations, whereas association with progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS) is rare. Plasma progranulin levels were evaluated in 34 patients, including 19 with PSPS, 12 with CBS, and 3 with mixed signs, with the purpose to screen for the presence of causal mutations, associated with low levels. We found undetectable levels in a patient with CBS. Sequencing confirmed the presence of the Thr272fs deletion. Progranulin mutation screening is suggested in cases of CBS, even in the absence of positive family history for dementia and/or movement disorders.

  10. Constitutional NRAS mutations are rare among patients with Noonan syndrome or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraoua, Lilia; Journel, Hubert; Bonnet, Philippe; Amiel, Jeanne; Pouvreau, Nathalie; Baumann, Clarisse; Verloes, Alain; Cavé, Hélène

    2012-10-01

    Recently, germline mutations of NRAS have been shown to be associated with Noonan syndrome (NS), a relatively common developmental disorder characterized by short stature, congenital heart disease, and distinctive facial features. We report on the mutational analysis of NRAS in a cohort of 125 French patients with NS and no known mutation for PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, MEK1, MEK2, RAF1, BRAF, and SHOC2. The c.179G>A (p.G60E) mutation was identified in two patients with typical NS, confirming that NRAS germline mutations are a rare cause of this syndrome. We also screened our cohort of 95 patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Among 17 patients with NRAS-mutated JMML, none had clinical features suggestive of NS. None of the 11 JMML patients for which germline DNA was available had a constitutional NRAS mutation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. GATA3 mutation in a family with hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zi-Yang; Zhou, Qiao-Li; Ni, Shi-Ning; Gu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder primarily caused by GATA3 gene mutation. We report here a case that both of a Chinese boy and his father had HDR syndrome which caused by a novel mutation of GATA3. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing was performed to detect the exons of the GATA3 gene for mutation analysis. Sequence analysis of GATA3 revealed a heterozygous nonsense mutation in this family: a mutation of GATA3 at exon 2 (c.515C >A) that resulted in a premature stop at codon 172 (p.S172X) with a loss of two zinc finger domains. We identified a novel nonsense mutation which will expand the spectrum of HDR-associated GATA3 mutations.

  12. Mismatch repair gene mutation spectrum in the Swedish Lynch syndrome population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerstedt-Robinson, Kristina; Rohlin, Anna; Aravidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Lynch syndrome caused by constitutional mismatch‑repair defects is one of the most common hereditary cancer syndromes with a high risk for colorectal, endometrial, ovarian and urothelial cancer. Lynch syndrome is caused by mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes i.e., MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2...... Lynch syndrome families. These mutations affected MLH1 in 40%, MSH2 in 36%, MSH6 in 18% and PMS2 in 6% of the families. A large variety of mutations were identified with splice site mutations being the most common mutation type in MLH1 and frameshift mutations predominating in MSH2 and MSH6. Large...... deletions of one or several exons accounted for 21% of the mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 and 22% in PMS2, but were rare (4%) in MSH6. In 66% of the Lynch syndrome families the variants identified were private and the effect from founder mutations was limited and predominantly related to a Finnish founder...

  13. In vivo and in vitro functional characterization of Andersen's syndrome mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendahhou, Saïd; Fournier, Emmanuel; Sternberg, Damien; Bassez, Guillaume; Furby, Alain; Sereni, Carole; Donaldson, Matthew R; Larroque, Marie-Madeleine; Fontaine, Bertrand; Barhanin, Jacques

    2005-06-15

    The inward rectifier K(+) channel Kir2.1 carries all Andersen's syndrome mutations identified to date. Patients exhibit symptoms of periodic paralysis, cardiac dysrhythmia and multiple dysmorphic features. Here, we report the clinical manifestations found in three families with Andersen's syndrome. Molecular genetics analysis identified two novel missense mutations in the KCNJ2 gene leading to amino acid changes C154F and T309I of the Kir2.1 open reading frame. Patch clamp experiments showed that the two mutations produced a loss of channel function. When co-expressed with Kir2.1 wild-type (WT) channels, both mutations exerted a dominant-negative effect leading to a loss of the inward rectifying K(+) current. Confocal microscopy imaging in HEK293 cells is consistent with a co-assembly of the EGFP-fused mutant proteins with WT channels and proper traffick to the plasma membrane to produce silent channels alone or as hetero-tetramers with WT. Functional expression in C2C12 muscle cell line of newly as well as previously reported Andersen's syndrome mutations confirmed that these mutations act through a dominant-negative effect by altering channel gating or trafficking. Finally, in vivo electromyographic evaluation showed a decrease in muscle excitability in Andersen's syndrome patients. We hypothesize that Andersen's syndrome-associated mutations and hypokalaemic periodic paralysis-associated calcium channel mutations may lead to muscle membrane hypoexcitability via a common mechanism.

  14. Germinal mosaicism of PAX3 mutation caused Waardenburg syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaitian; Zhan, Yuan; Wu, Xuan; Zong, Ling; Jiang, Hongyan

    2018-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome mutations are most often recurrent or de novo. The rate of familial recurrence is low and families with several affected children are extremely rare. In this study, we aimed to clarify the underlying hereditary cause of Waardenburg syndrome type I in two siblings in a Chinese family, with a mother affected by prelingual mild hearing loss and a father who was negative for clinical symptoms of Waardenburg syndrome and had a normal hearing threshold. Complete characteristic features of the family members were recorded and genetic sequencing and parent-child relationship analyses were performed. The two probands were found to share double mutations in the PAX3/GJB2 genes that caused concurrent hearing loss in Waardenburg syndrome type I. Their mother carried the GJB2 c.109G > A homozygous mutation; however, neither the novel PAX3 c.592delG mutation, nor the Waardenburg syndrome phenotype, was observed in either parent. These previously unreported digenic mutations in PAX3/GJB2 resulted in deafness associated with Waardenburg syndrome type I in this family. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing germinal mosaicism in Waardenburg syndrome. This concept is important because it complicates genetic counseling of this family regarding the risk of recurrence of the mutations in subsequent pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Noonan syndrome gain-of-function mutations in NRAS cause zebrafish gastrulation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Runtuwene

    2011-05-01

    Noonan syndrome is a relatively common developmental disorder that is characterized by reduced growth, wide-set eyes and congenital heart defects. Noonan syndrome is associated with dysregulation of the Ras–mitogen-activated-protein-kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Recently, two mutations in NRAS were reported to be associated with Noonan syndrome, T50I and G60E. Here, we report a mutation in NRAS, resulting in an I24N amino acid substitution, that we identified in an individual bearing typical Noonan syndrome features. The I24N mutation activates N-Ras, resulting in enhanced downstream signaling. Expression of N-Ras-I24N, N-Ras-G60E or the strongly activating mutant N-Ras-G12V, which we included as a positive control, results in developmental defects in zebrafish embryos, demonstrating that these activating N-Ras mutants are sufficient to induce developmental disorders. The defects in zebrafish embryos are reminiscent of symptoms in individuals with Noonan syndrome and phenocopy the defects that other Noonan-syndrome-associated genes induce in zebrafish embryos. MEK inhibition completely rescued the activated N-Ras-induced phenotypes, demonstrating that these defects are mediated exclusively by Ras-MAPK signaling. In conclusion, mutations in NRAS from individuals with Noonan syndrome activated N-Ras signaling and induced developmental defects in zebrafish embryos, indicating that activating mutations in NRAS cause Noonan syndrome.

  16. Noonan syndrome gain-of-function mutations in NRAS cause zebrafish gastrulation defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtuwene, Vincent; van Eekelen, Mark; Overvoorde, John; Rehmann, Holger; Yntema, Helger G.; Nillesen, Willy M.; van Haeringen, Arie; van der Burgt, Ineke; Burgering, Boudewijn; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Noonan syndrome is a relatively common developmental disorder that is characterized by reduced growth, wide-set eyes and congenital heart defects. Noonan syndrome is associated with dysregulation of the Ras–mitogen-activated-protein-kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Recently, two mutations in NRAS were reported to be associated with Noonan syndrome, T50I and G60E. Here, we report a mutation in NRAS, resulting in an I24N amino acid substitution, that we identified in an individual bearing typical Noonan syndrome features. The I24N mutation activates N-Ras, resulting in enhanced downstream signaling. Expression of N-Ras-I24N, N-Ras-G60E or the strongly activating mutant N-Ras-G12V, which we included as a positive control, results in developmental defects in zebrafish embryos, demonstrating that these activating N-Ras mutants are sufficient to induce developmental disorders. The defects in zebrafish embryos are reminiscent of symptoms in individuals with Noonan syndrome and phenocopy the defects that other Noonan-syndrome-associated genes induce in zebrafish embryos. MEK inhibition completely rescued the activated N-Ras-induced phenotypes, demonstrating that these defects are mediated exclusively by Ras-MAPK signaling. In conclusion, mutations in NRAS from individuals with Noonan syndrome activated N-Ras signaling and induced developmental defects in zebrafish embryos, indicating that activating mutations in NRAS cause Noonan syndrome. PMID:21263000

  17. ABCD syndrome is caused by a homozygous mutation in the EDNRB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheij, Joke B G M; Kunze, Jürgen; Osinga, Jan; van Essen, Anthonie J; Hofstra, Robert M W

    2002-03-15

    ABCD syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by albinism, black lock, cell migration disorder of the neurocytes of the gut (Hirschsprung disease [HSCR]), and deafness. This phenotype clearly overlaps with the features of the Shah-Waardenburg syndrome, comprising sensorineural deafness; hypopigmentation of skin, hair, and irides; and HSCR. Therefore, we screened DNA of the index patient of the ABCD syndrome family for mutations in the endothelin B receptor (EDNRB) gene, a gene known to be involved in Shah-Waardenburg syndrome. A homozygous nonsense mutation in exon 3 (R201X) of the EDNRB gene was found. We therefore suggest that ABCD syndrome is not a separate entity, but an expression of Shah-Waardenburg syndrome.

  18. A frame-shift mutation of PMS2 is a widespread cause of Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clendenning, Mark; Senter, Leigha; Hampel, Heather

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When compared to the other mismatch repair genes involved in Lynch syndrome, the identification of mutations within PMS2 has been limited (Lynch syndrome cases...... on immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: We have identified a frequently occurring frame-shift mutation (c.736_741del6ins11) in 12 ostensibly unrelated Lynch syndrome patients (20% of patients we have identified with a deleterious mutation in PMS2, n=61). These individuals all display the rare allele (population...... are caused by PMS2. This disparity is primarily due to complications in the study of this gene caused by interference from pseudogene sequences. METHODS: Using a recently developed method for detecting PMS2 specific mutations, we have screened 99 patients who are likely candidates for PMS2 mutations based...

  19. New mutations in the NHS gene in Nance-Horan Syndrome families from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florijn, Ralph J; Loves, Willem; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, Liesbeth J J M; Mannens, Marcel M A M; Tijmes, Nel; Brooks, Simon P; Hardcastle, Alison J; Bergen, Arthur A B

    2006-09-01

    Mutations in the NHS gene cause Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS), a rare X-chromosomal recessive disorder with variable features, including congenital cataract, microphthalmia, a peculiar form of the ear and dental anomalies. We investigated the NHS gene in four additional families with NHS from the Netherlands, by dHPLC and direct sequencing. We identified an unique mutation in each family. Three out of these four mutations were not reported before. We report here the first splice site sequence alteration mutation and three protein truncating mutations. Our results suggest that X-linked cataract and NHS are allelic disorders.

  20. Identification of three novel NHS mutations in families with Nance-Horan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Kristen M.; Wu, Junhua; Brooks, Simon P.; Hardcastle, Alison J.; Lewis, Richard Alan; Stambolian, Dwight

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS) is an infrequent and often overlooked X-linked disorder characterized by dense congenital cataracts, microphthalmia, and dental abnormalities. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the NHS gene, whose function is not known. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and distribution of NHS gene mutations and compare genotype with Nance-Horan phenotype in five North American NHS families. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from white blood cells f...

  1. Major contribution from recurrent alterations and MSH6 mutations in the Danish Lynch syndrome population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Wikman, Friedrik P; Hansen, Thomas V O

    2009-01-01

    mutations in 164 families are considered pathogenic and an additional 50 variants from 76 families are considered to represent variants of unknown pathogenicity. The different MMR genes contribute to 40% (MSH2), 29% (MLH1), and 22% (MSH6) of the mutations and the Danish population thus shows a considerably...... higher frequency of MSH6 mutations than previously described. Although 69/88 (78%) pathogenic mutations were present in a single family, previously recognized recurrent/founder mutations were causative in 75/137 (55%) MLH1/MSH2 mutant families. In addition, the Danish MLH1 founder mutation c.1667......+2_1667_+8TAAATCAdelinsATTT was identified in 14/58 (24%) MLH1 mutant families. The Danish Lynch syndrome population thus demonstrates that MSH6 mutations and recurrent/founder mutations have a larger contribution than previously recognized, which implies that the MSH6 gene should be included in routine diagnostics...

  2. Lack of Mutation-histopathology Correlation in a Patient with Proteus Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Doucet, Meggie E.; Bloomhardt, Hadley M.; Moroz, Krzysztof; Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2016-01-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS) is characterized by progressive, disproportionate, segmental overgrowth and tumor susceptibility caused by a somatic mosaic AKT1 activating mutation. Each individual has unique manifestations making this disorder extremely heterogeneous. We correlated three variables in 38 tissue samples from a patient who died with PS: the gross affection status, the microscopic affection status, and the mutation level. The AKT1 mutation was measured using a PCR-based RFLP assay. Thirte...

  3. SIL1 mutations and clinical spectrum in patients with Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Michael; Roos, Andreas; Stendel, Claudia; Claeys, Kristl G; Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Baudis, Michael; Bauer, Peter; Bornemann, Antje; de Goede, Christian; Dufke, Andreas; Finkel, Richard S; Goebel, Hans H; Häussler, Martin; Kingston, Helen; Kirschner, Janbernd; Medne, Livija; Muschke, Petra; Rivier, François; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Spengler, Sabrina; Inzana, Francesca; Stanzial, Franco; Benedicenti, Francesco; Synofzik, Matthis; Lia Taratuto, Ana; Pirra, Laura; Tay, Stacey Kiat-Hong; Topaloglu, Haluk; Uyanik, Gökhan; Wand, Dorothea; Williams, Denise; Zerres, Klaus; Weis, Joachim; Senderek, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder featuring cerebellar ataxia, early-onset cataracts, chronic myopathy, variable intellectual disability and delayed motor development. More recently, mutations in the SIL1 gene, which encodes an endoplasmic reticulum resident co-chaperone, were identified as the main cause of Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. Here we describe the results of SIL1 mutation analysis in 62 patients presenting with early-onset ataxia, cataracts and myopathy or combinations of at least two of these. We obtained a mutation detection rate of 60% (15/25) among patients with the characteristic Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome triad (ataxia, cataracts, myopathy) whereas the detection rate in the group of patients with more variable phenotypic presentation was below 3% (1/37). We report 16 unrelated families with a total of 19 different SIL1 mutations. Among these mutations are 15 previously unreported changes, including single- and multi-exon deletions. Based on data from our screening cohort and data compiled from the literature we found that SIL1 mutations are invariably associated with the combination of a cerebellar syndrome and chronic myopathy. Cataracts were observed in all patients beyond the age of 7 years, but might be missing in infants. Six patients with SIL1 mutations had no intellectual disability, extending the known wide range of cognitive capabilities in Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome to include normal intelligence. Modestly constant features were somatic growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities and pyramidal tract signs. Examination of mutant SIL1 expression in cultured patient lymphoblasts suggested that SIL1 mutations result in severely reduced SIL1 protein levels irrespective of the type and position of mutations. Our data broaden the SIL1 mutation spectrum and confirm that SIL1 is the major Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome gene. SIL1 patients usually present with the characteristic triad but cataracts might be

  4. TP53 germline mutation testing in 180 families suspected of Li-Fraumeni syndrome: mutation detection rate and relative frequency of cancers in different familial phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, M.W.G.; Verhoef, S.; Rookus, M.A.; Pruntel, R.; van der Hout, A.H.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Kluijt, I.; Sijmons, R.H.; Aalfs, C.M.; Wagner, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; van Asperen, C.J.; Gómez García, E.B.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; ten Kate, L.P.; Menko, F.H.; van 't Veer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome. Most families fulfilling the classical diagnostic criteria harbour TP53 germline mutations. However, TP53 germline mutations may also occur in less obvious phenotypes. As a result, different criteria

  5. A Novel MAPT Mutation Causing Corticobasal Syndrome Led by Progressive Apraxia of Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Charles R; Guerreiro, Rita; Thust, Steffi; Fletcher, Phillip; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Fox, Nick C

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a case of corticobasal syndrome led by progressive apraxia of speech, associated with a novel mutation in exon 10 of the MAPT gene. Genetic bases for progressive apraxia of speech and corticobasal syndrome are only rarely described, and have not been described in conjunction.

  6. Noonan syndrome gain-of-function mutations in NRAS cause zebrafish gastrulation defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runtuwene, V.J.; van Eekelen, M.J.L.; Overvoorde, J.; Rehmann, H.; Yntema, H.G.; Nillesen, W.M.; van Haeringen, A.; van der Burgt, I.; Burgering, B.; den Hertog, J.

    2011-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a relatively common developmental disorder that is characterized by reduced growth, wide-set eyes and congenital heart defects. Noonan syndrome is associated with dysregulation of the Ras-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Recently, two mutations in NRAS

  7. Mutations in KEOPS-complex genes cause nephrotic syndrome with primary microcephaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, Daniela A; Rao, Jia; Mollet, Geraldine; Schapiro, David; Daugeron, Marie-Claire; Tan, Weizhen; Gribouval, Olivier; Boyer, Olivia; Revy, Patrick; Jobst-Schwan, Tilman; Schmidt, Johanna Magdalena; Lawson, Jennifer A; Schanze, Denny; Ashraf, Shazia; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Hoogstraten, Charlotte A; Boddaert, Nathalie; Collinet, Bruno; Martin, Gaëlle; Liger, Dominique; Lovric, Svjetlana; Furlano, Monica; Guerrera, I Chiara; Sanchez-Ferras, Oraly; Hu, Jennifer F; Boschat, Anne-Claire; Sanquer, Sylvia; Menten, Björn; Vergult, Sarah; De Rocker, Nina; Airik, Merlin; Hermle, Tobias; Shril, Shirlee; Widmeier, Eugen; Gee, Heon Yung; Choi, Won-Il; Sadowski, Carolin E; Pabst, Werner L; Warejko, Jillian K; Daga, Ankana; Basta, Tamara; Matejas, Verena; Scharmann, Karin; Kienast, Sandra D; Behnam, Babak; Beeson, Brendan; Begtrup, Amber; Bruce, Malcolm; Ch'ng, Gaik-Siew; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Chen, Chao-Huei; Cho, Megan T; Gaffney, Patrick M; Gipson, Patrick E; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Kari, Jameela A; Ke, Yu-Yuan; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Lai, Wai-Ming; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Littlejohn, Rebecca Okashah; Masri, Amira; Moghtaderi, Mastaneh; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Ozaltin, Fatih; Praet, Marleen; Prasad, Chitra; Prytula, Agnieszka; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Rump, Patrick; Schnur, Rhonda E; Shiihara, Takashi; Sinha, Manish D; Soliman, Neveen A; Soulami, Kenza; Sweetser, David A; Tsai, Wen-Hui; Tsai, Jeng-Daw; Topaloglu, Rezan; Vester, Udo; Viskochil, David H; Vatanavicharn, Nithiwat; Waxler, Jessica L; Wierenga, Klaas J; Wolf, Matthias T F; Wong, Sik-Nin; Leidel, Sebastian A; Truglio, Gessica; Dedon, Peter C; Poduri, Annapurna; Mane, Shrikant; Lifton, Richard P; Bouchard, Maxime; Kannu, Peter; Chitayat, David; Magen, Daniella; Callewaert, Bert; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Zenker, Martin; Antignac, Corinne; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of early-onset nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and microcephaly with brain anomalies. Here we identified recessive mutations in OSGEP, TP53RK, TPRKB, and LAGE3, genes encoding the four subunits of the KEOPS

  8. Germline KRAS and BRAF mutations in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niihori, Tetsuya; Aoki, Yoko; Narumi, Yoko; Neri, Giovanni; Cavé, Hélène; Verloes, Alain; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Kavamura, Maria Ines; Kurosawa, Kenji; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Wilson, Louise; Heron, Delphine; Bonneau, Dominique; Corona, Giuseppina; Kaname, Tadashi; Naritomi, Kenji; Baumann, Clarisse; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Kato, Kumi; Kure, Shigeo; Matsubara, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects and mental retardation. It phenotypically overlaps with Noonan and Costello syndrome, which are caused by mutations in PTPN11 and HRAS, respectively. In 43 individuals with CFC, we identified two

  9. De novo nonsense mutations in ASXL1 cause Bohring-Opitz syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoischen, Alexander; van Bon, Bregje W. M.; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Gilissen, Christian; Vissers, Lisenka E. L. M.; de Vries, Petra; Janssen, Irene; van Lier, Bart; Hastings, Rob; Smithson, Sarah F.; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Kjaergaard, Susanne; Goodship, Judith; McGowan, Ruth; Bartholdi, Deborah; Rauch, Anita; Peippo, Maarit; Cobben, Jan M.; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Veltman, Joris A.; Brunner, Han G.; de Vries, Bert B. B. A.

    2011-01-01

    Bohring-Opitz syndrome is characterized by severe intellectual disability, distinctive facial features and multiple congenital malformations. We sequenced the exomes of three individuals with Bohring-Opitz syndrome and in each identified heterozygous de novo nonsense mutations in ASXL1, which is

  10. Identification of a novel FBN1 gene mutation in a large Pakistani family with Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micheal, S.; Khan, M.I.; Akhtar, F.; Weiss, M.M.; Islam, F.; Ali, M.; Qamar, R.; Maugeri, A.; Hollander, A.I. den

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a novel mutation in the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene in a large Pakistani family with autosomal dominant Marfan syndrome (MFS). METHODS: Blood samples were collected of 11 family members affected with Marfan syndrome, and DNA was isolated by phenol-extraction. The coding exons of

  11. A Mosaic Activating Mutation in AKT1 Associated with the Proteus Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Sapp, Julie C.; Teer, Jamie K.; Johnston, Jennifer J.; Finn, Erin M.; Peters, Kathryn; Turner, Joyce; Cannons, Jennifer L.; Bick, David; Blakemore, Laurel; Blumhorst, Catherine; Brockmann, Knut; Calder, Peter; Cherman, Natasha; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Everman, David B.; Golas, Gretchen; Greenstein, Robert M.; Kato, B. Maya; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Miyamoto, Richard T.; Newman, Kurt; Ng, David; O'Brien, Kevin; Rothenberg, Steven; Schwartzentruber, Douglas J.; Singhal, Virender; Tirabosco, Roberto; Upton, Joseph; Wientroub, Shlomo; Zackai, Elaine H.; Hoag, Kimberly; Whitewood-Neal, Tracey; Robey, Pamela G.; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.; Darling, Thomas N.; Tosi, Laura L.; Mullikin, James C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Proteus syndrome is characterized by the overgrowth of skin, connective tissue, brain, and other tissues. It has been hypothesized that the syndrome is caused by somatic mosaicism for a mutation that is lethal in the nonmosaic state. METHODS We performed exome sequencing of DNA from

  12. Predicting the impact of Lynch syndrome-causing missense mutations from structural calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie V,; Stein, Amelie; Dinitzen, Alexander B.

    2017-01-01

    selected the human mismatch repair protein, MSH2, where missense variants are known to cause the hereditary cancer predisposition disease, known as Lynch syndrome. We show that the majority of disease-causing MSH2 mutations give rise to folding defects and proteasome-dependent degradation rather than...... and for diagnosis of Lynch syndrome, and perhaps other hereditary diseases....

  13. Mutation of Mitochondrial DNA G13513A Presenting with Leigh Syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bing Wang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA G13513A, encoding the ND5 subunit of respiratory chain complex I, can cause mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS and Leigh syndrome. Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome and optic atrophy were reported in a high proportion of patients with this mutation. We report an 18-month-old girl, with an 11-month history of psychomotor regression who was diagnosed with WPW syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, in association with Leigh syndrome. Supplementation with coenzyme Q10, thiamine and carnitine prevented further regression in gross motor function but the patient's heart function deteriorated and dilated cardiomyopathy developed 11 months later. She was found to have a mutation of mtDNA G13513A. We suggest that mtDNA G13513A mutation is an important factor in patients with Leigh syndrome associated with WPW syndrome and/or optic atrophy, and serial heart function monitoring by echocardiography is recommended in this group of patients.

  14. BCOR and BCORL1 mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Frederik; Chesnais, Virginie; Nagata, Yasunobu; Yoshida, Kenichi; Scourzic, Laurianne; Okuno, Yusuke; Itzykson, Raphael; Sanada, Masashi; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Gelsi-Boyer, Véronique; Renneville, Aline; Miyano, Satoru; Mori, Hiraku; Shih, Lee-Yung; Park, Sophie; Dreyfus, François; Guerci-Bresler, Agnes; Solary, Eric; Rose, Christian; Cheze, Stéphane; Prébet, Thomas; Vey, Norbert; Legentil, Marion; Duffourd, Yannis; de Botton, Stéphane; Preudhomme, Claude; Birnbaum, Daniel; Bernard, Olivier A; Ogawa, Seishi; Fontenay, Michaela; Kosmider, Olivier

    2013-10-31

    Patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) that rapidly progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain a challenge in disease management. Using whole-exome sequencing of an MDS patient, we identified a somatic mutation in the BCOR gene also mutated in AML. Sequencing of BCOR and related BCORL1 genes in a cohort of 354 MDS patients identified 4.2% and 0.8% of mutations respectively. BCOR mutations were associated with RUNX1 (P = .002) and DNMT3A mutations (P = .015). BCOR is also mutated in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia patients (7.4%) and BCORL1 in AML patients with myelodysplasia-related changes (9.1%). Using deep sequencing, we show that BCOR mutations arise after mutations affecting genes involved in splicing machinery or epigenetic regulation. In univariate analysis, BCOR mutations were associated with poor prognosis in MDS (overall survival [OS]: P = .013; cumulative incidence of AML transformation: P = .005). Multivariate analysis including age, International Prognostic Scoring System, transfusion dependency, and mutational status confirmed a significant inferior OS to patients with a BCOR mutation (hazard ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.1; P = .008). These data suggest that BCOR mutations define the clinical course rather than disease initiation. Despite infrequent mutations, BCOR analyses should be considered in risk stratification.

  15. A novel frameshift mutation of CHD7 in a Japanese patient with CHARGE syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Shono, Miki; Naruto, Takuya; Watanabe, Miki; Suga, Ken-Ichi; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Kagami, Shoji; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei

    2016-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant developmental disorder involving multiple organs. CHD7 is a major causative gene of CHARGE syndrome. We performed targeted-exome sequencing using a next-generation sequencer for molecular diagnosis of a 4-month-old male patient who was clinically suspected to have CHARGE syndrome, and report a novel monoallelic mutation in CHD7, NM_017780.3(CHD7_v001):c.2966del causing a reading frameshift [p.(Cys989Serfs*3)].

  16. A FBN1 mutation association with different phenotypes of Marfan syndrome in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yapeng; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Mingjie; Du, Binbin; Li, Qiaoli; Xing, Qinghe; Zhang, Yanzhou

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that patients with different FBN1 mutations often present more considerable phenotypic variation compared to different members of the related family carrying a same mutation. The purpose of our study was to identify pathogenic mutation and provide more information about genotype-phenotypic correlations in a large Chinese family with Marfan syndrome. 15 related family members from a Chinese 4-generation pedigree with Marfan syndrome underwent physical, ophthalmologic, radiological and cardiovascular examinations. The propositus has De Bakey III aortic dissection and didn't fulfill the revised Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome. Nine family members have ectopia lentis and their echocardiogram was normal. Five other family members have no evidence of Marfan syndrome. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. The exome sequencing was employed on the propositus, then the Sanger sequencing was conducted for mutation verification in other 14 participants of this family. The causative mutation in FBN1 discovered in the propositus was a known heterozygous missense mutation, c.1633T>G (p.R545C), in exon 14 (NM 000138). This same mutation was also identified in all 9 ectopia lentis patients and one unaffected 8-year-old girl. However, the same mutation was not discovered in other 4 unaffected family members. Our data enhance the information of genotype-phenotype correlation owing to FBN1 mutations. To our current knowledge, we firstly reported that the same FBN1 mutation, c. 1633C>T (Arg545Cys), was detected simultaneously in three different cardinal phenotypes (ectopia lentis, aortic dissection and unaffected) within one family. The unaffected girl with FBN1 mutation may presumably represent a rare case of nonpenetrance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel mutations in MYO7A and USH2A in Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubaret, Cécilia; Griffoin, Jean-Michel; Arnaud, Bernard; Hamel, Christian

    2005-03-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease associating retinitis pigmentosa and neurosensory deafness. Three clinical types (USH1, USH2, USH3) and 11 mutated genes or loci have been described. Mutations in MYO7A and USH2A are responsible for about 40% and 60% of Usher syndromes type 1 and 2, respectively. These genes were screened in a series of patients suffering from Usher syndrome. We performed SSCP screening of MYO7A in 12 unrelated patients suffering from Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) and USH2A in 28 unrelated patients affected by Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2). Six mutations in MYO7A were found in five patients, including two novel mutations c.397C > G (His133Asp) and 1244-2A > G (Glu459Stop), accounting for 42% of our USH1 patients. Twelve mutations in USH2A were found in 11 patients, including four new mutations c.850delGA, c.1841-2A > G, c.3129insT, and c.3920C > G (Ser1307Stop), accounting for 39% of our USH2 patients

  18. Neonatal Marfan syndrome caused by an exon 25 mutation of the fibrillin-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elçioglu, N H; Akalin, F; Elçioglu, M; Comeglio, P; Child, A H

    2004-01-01

    Neonatal Marfan syndrome caused by an exon 25 mutation of the Fibrillin-1 gene: We describe a male infant with severe arachnodactyly, hypermobility of the fingers, flexion contractures of elbows, wrists, hips, and knees, microretrognathia, crumpled ears, rockerbottom feet, loose redundant skin, and lens dislocations. Cardiac valve insufficiency and aortic dilatation resulted in cardiac failure, decompensated with digitalisation and death occurred at the age of 4 months. This case represents the severe end of the clinical spectrum of Marfan syndrome, namely neonatal Marfan syndrome. Molecular diagnostic analyses confirmed a de novo exon 25 mutation in the FBN1 gene.

  19. Novel growth hormone receptor mutation in a Chinese patient with Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hamilton N T; Metherell, Louise A; Ng, K L; Savage, Martin O; Camacho-Hübner, Cecilia; Clark, Adrian J L

    2005-02-01

    Laron syndrome, growth hormone (GH) insensitivity syndrome, caused by a mutation of the GH receptor (GHR) gene, is extremely rare in the Chinese population. We report a Chinese girl diagnosed with Laron syndrome at age 1.9 years with height -4.9 SDS, basal GH 344 mIU/ml, IGF-I <12 ng/ml, IGFBP-3 <0.2 mg/ml, and undetectable GHBP. A novel mutation of the GHR, not previously described, was identified at the donor splice site of intron 6.

  20. Genome-first approach diagnosed Cabezas syndrome via novel CUL4B mutation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Miki; Naruto, Takuya; Matsuda, Keiko; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Saito, Masako; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Cabezas syndrome is a syndromic form of X-linked intellectual disability primarily characterized by a short stature, hypogonadism and abnormal gait, with other variable features resulting from mutations in the CUL4B gene. Here, we report a clinically undiagnosed 5-year-old male with severe intellectual disability. A genome-first approach using targeted exome sequencing identified a novel nonsense mutation [NM_003588.3:c.2698G>T, p.(Glu900*)] in the last coding exon of CUL4B , thus diagnosing this patient with Cabezas syndrome.

  1. Neonatal pulmonary arterial hypertension and Noonan syndrome: two fatal cases with a specific RAF1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Rachel K; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Manning, Melanie A; Benitz, William; Hudgins, Louanne

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in RAF1 are associated with Noonan syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We present two infants with Noonan syndrome and an identical RAF1 mutation, p.Ser257Leu (c.770C>T), who developed severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that proved to be fatal. The RAF1 gene encodes Raf-1 kinase, part of the Ras/mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, which has been linked to the development of PAH. This specific mutation has been associated with dephosphorylation of a critical serine residue and constitutive activation of the Raf-1 kinase. These two cases suggest that abnormal activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway may play a significant role in the development of pulmonary vascular disease in the subset of patients with Noonan syndrome and a specific RAF1 mutation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mutation Profile of the CDH23 Gene in 56 Probands with Usher Syndrome Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, A.; Jaijo, T.; Aller, E.; Millan, J.M.; Carney, C.; Usami, S.; Moller, C.; Kimberling, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the human gene encoding cadherin 23 (CDH23) cause Usher syndrome type 1D (USH1D) and nonsyndromic hearing loss. Individuals with Usher syndrome type I have profound congenital deafness, vestibular areflexia and usually begin to exhibit signs of RP in early adolescence. In the present study, we carried out the mutation analysis in all 69 exons of the CDH23 gene in 56 Usher type 1 probands already screened for mutations in MYO7A. A total of 18 of 56 subjects (32.1%) were observed to have one or two CDH23 variants that are presumed to be pathologic. Twenty one different pathologic genome variants were observed of which 15 were novel. Out of a total of 112 alleles, 31 (27.7%) were considered pathologic. Based on our results it is estimated that about 20% of patients with Usher syndrome type I have CDH23 mutations. PMID:18429043

  3. Identification of a novel CLRN1 gene mutation in Usher syndrome type 3: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Hidekane; Oshikawa, Chie; Nakayama, Jun; Moteki, Hideaki; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the CLRN1 gene mutation analysis in Japanese patients who were diagnosed with Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) on the basis of clinical findings. Genetic analysis using massively parallel DNA sequencing (MPS) was conducted to search for 9 causative USH genes in 2 USH3 patients. We identified the novel pathogenic mutation in the CLRN1 gene in 2 patients. The missense mutation was confirmed by functional prediction software and segregation analysis. Both patients were diagnosed as having USH3 caused by the CLRN1 gene mutation. This is the first report of USH3 with a CLRN1 gene mutation in Asian populations. Validating the presence of clinical findings is imperative for properly differentiating among USH subtypes. In addition, mutation screening using MPS enables the identification of causative mutations in USH. The clinical diagnosis of this phenotypically variable disease can then be confirmed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Functional assessment of compound mutations in the KCNQ1 and KCNH2 genes associated with long QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Behr, Elijah Raphael; Calloe, Kirstine

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiovascular disorder characterized by prolonged QTc time, syncope, or sudden death caused by torsades de pointes and ventricular fibrillation. We investigated the clinical and electrophysiologic phenotype of individual mutations and the compound mutations...

  5. MSH6 and PMS2 mutation positive Australian Lynch syndrome families: novel mutations, cancer risk and age of diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; McPhillips, Mary; Groombridge, Claire; Spigelman, Allan; Scott, Rodney J

    2010-05-21

    Approximately 10% of Lynch syndrome families have a mutation in MSH6 and fewer families have a mutation in PMS2. It is assumed that the cancer incidence is the same in families with mutations in MSH6 as in families with mutations in MLH1/MSH2 but that the disease tends to occur later in life, little is known about families with PMS2 mutations. This study reports on our findings on mutation type, cancer risk and age of diagnosis in MSH6 and PMS2 families. A total of 78 participants (from 29 families) with a mutation in MSH6 and 7 participants (from 6 families) with a mutation in PMS2 were included in the current study. A database of de-identified patient information was analysed to extract all relevant information such as mutation type, cancer incidence, age of diagnosis and cancer type in this Lynch syndrome cohort. Cumulative lifetime risk was calculated utilising Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. MSH6 and PMS2 mutations represent 10.3% and 1.9%, respectively, of the pathogenic mutations in our Australian Lynch syndrome families. We identified 26 different MSH6 and 4 different PMS2 mutations in the 35 families studied. We report 15 novel MSH6 and 1 novel PMS2 mutations. The estimated cumulative risk of CRC at age 70 years was 61% (similar in males and females) and 65% for endometrial cancer in MSH6 mutation carriers. The risk of developing CRC is different between males and females at age 50 years, which is 34% for males and 21% for females. Novel MSH6 and PMS2 mutations are being reported and submitted to the current databases for identified Lynch syndrome mutations. Our data provides additional information to add to the genotype-phenotype spectrum for both MSH6 and PMS2 mutations.

  6. MSH6 and PMS2 mutation positive Australian Lynch syndrome families: novel mutations, cancer risk and age of diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talseth-Palmer Bente A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 10% of Lynch syndrome families have a mutation in MSH6 and fewer families have a mutation in PMS2. It is assumed that the cancer incidence is the same in families with mutations in MSH6 as in families with mutations in MLH1/MSH2 but that the disease tends to occur later in life, little is known about families with PMS2 mutations. This study reports on our findings on mutation type, cancer risk and age of diagnosis in MSH6 and PMS2 families. Methods A total of 78 participants (from 29 families with a mutation in MSH6 and 7 participants (from 6 families with a mutation in PMS2 were included in the current study. A database of de-identified patient information was analysed to extract all relevant information such as mutation type, cancer incidence, age of diagnosis and cancer type in this Lynch syndrome cohort. Cumulative lifetime risk was calculated utilising Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results MSH6 and PMS2 mutations represent 10.3% and 1.9%, respectively, of the pathogenic mutations in our Australian Lynch syndrome families. We identified 26 different MSH6 and 4 different PMS2 mutations in the 35 families studied. We report 15 novel MSH6 and 1 novel PMS2 mutations. The estimated cumulative risk of CRC at age 70 years was 61% (similar in males and females and 65% for endometrial cancer in MSH6 mutation carriers. The risk of developing CRC is different between males and females at age 50 years, which is 34% for males and 21% for females. Conclusion Novel MSH6 and PMS2 mutations are being reported and submitted to the current databases for identified Lynch syndrome mutations. Our data provides additional information to add to the genotype-phenotype spectrum for both MSH6 and PMS2 mutations.

  7. A frame-shift mutation of PMS2 is a widespread cause of Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenning, M; Senter, L; Hampel, H; Robinson, K Lagerstedt; Sun, S; Buchanan, D; Walsh, M D; Nilbert, M; Green, J; Potter, J; Lindblom, A; de la Chapelle, A

    2008-06-01

    When compared to the other mismatch repair genes involved in Lynch syndrome, the identification of mutations within PMS2 has been limited (PMS2. This disparity is primarily due to complications in the study of this gene caused by interference from pseudogene sequences. Using a recently developed method for detecting PMS2 specific mutations, we have screened 99 patients who are likely candidates for PMS2 mutations based on immunohistochemical analysis. We have identified a frequently occurring frame-shift mutation (c.736_741del6ins11) in 12 ostensibly unrelated Lynch syndrome patients (20% of patients we have identified with a deleterious mutation in PMS2, n = 61). These individuals all display the rare allele (population frequency 10 000 carriers of this mutation in the USA alone. The identification of both the mutation and the common haplotype in one Swedish control sample (n = 225), along with evidence that Lynch syndrome associated cancers are rarer than expected in the probands' families, would suggest that this is a prevalent mutation with reduced penetrance.

  8. MELAS syndrome, cardiomyopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and autism associated with the A3260G mitochondrial DNA mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Barbara S; Feigenbaum, Annette S J; Robinson, Brian H; Dipchand, Anne I; Simon, David K; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2010-11-12

    The A to G transition mutation at position 3260 of the mitochondrial genome is usually associated with cardiomyopathy and myopathy. One Japanese kindred reported the phenotype of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS syndrome) in association with the A3260G mtDNA mutation. We describe the first Caucasian cases of MELAS syndrome associated with the A3260G mutation. Furthermore, this mutation was associated with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, hearing loss, seizures, cardiomyopathy, and autism in the large kindred. We conclude that the A3260G mtDNA mutation is associated with wide phenotypic heterogeneity with MELAS and other "classical" mitochondrial phenotypes being manifestations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Complement Mutations in Diacylglycerol Kinase-ε–Associated Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Chinchilla, Daniel; Pinto, Sheila; Hoppe, Bernd; Adragna, Marta; Lopez, Laura; Justa Roldan, Maria Luisa; Peña, Antonia; Lopez Trascasa, Margarita; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by vascular endothelial damage caused by complement dysregulation. Consistently, complement inhibition therapies are highly effective in most patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Recently, it was shown that a significant percentage of patients with early-onset atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome carry mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε, an intracellular protein with no obvious role in complement. These data support an alternative, complement-independent mechanism leading to thrombotic microangiopathy that has implications for treatment of early-onset atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. To get additional insights into this new form of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, the diacylglycerol kinase-ε gene in a cohort with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome was analyzed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Eighty-three patients with early-onset atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (<2 years) enrolled in the Spanish atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome registry between 1999 and 2013 were screened for mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε. These patients were also fully characterized for mutations in the genes encoding factor H, membrane cofactor protein, factor I, C3, factor B, and thrombomodulin CFHRs copy number variations and rearrangements, and antifactor H antibodies. Results Four patients carried mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε, one p.H536Qfs*16 homozygote and three compound heterozygotes (p.W322*/p.P498R, two patients; p.Q248H/p.G484Gfs*10, one patient). Three patients also carried heterozygous mutations in thrombomodulin or C3. Extensive plasma infusions controlled atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome recurrences and prevented renal failure in the two patients with diacylglycerol kinase-ε and thrombomodulin mutations. A positive response to plasma infusions and complement inhibition treatment was also observed in the patient with concurrent diacylglycerol

  10. Complement mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε-associated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Chinchilla, Daniel; Pinto, Sheila; Hoppe, Bernd; Adragna, Marta; Lopez, Laura; Justa Roldan, Maria Luisa; Peña, Antonia; Lopez Trascasa, Margarita; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2014-09-05

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by vascular endothelial damage caused by complement dysregulation. Consistently, complement inhibition therapies are highly effective in most patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Recently, it was shown that a significant percentage of patients with early-onset atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome carry mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε, an intracellular protein with no obvious role in complement. These data support an alternative, complement-independent mechanism leading to thrombotic microangiopathy that has implications for treatment of early-onset atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. To get additional insights into this new form of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, the diacylglycerol kinase-ε gene in a cohort with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome was analyzed. Eighty-three patients with early-onset atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (<2 years) enrolled in the Spanish atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome registry between 1999 and 2013 were screened for mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε. These patients were also fully characterized for mutations in the genes encoding factor H, membrane cofactor protein, factor I, C3, factor B, and thrombomodulin CFHRs copy number variations and rearrangements, and antifactor H antibodies. Four patients carried mutations in diacylglycerol kinase-ε, one p.H536Qfs*16 homozygote and three compound heterozygotes (p.W322*/p.P498R, two patients; p.Q248H/p.G484Gfs*10, one patient). Three patients also carried heterozygous mutations in thrombomodulin or C3. Extensive plasma infusions controlled atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome recurrences and prevented renal failure in the two patients with diacylglycerol kinase-ε and thrombomodulin mutations. A positive response to plasma infusions and complement inhibition treatment was also observed in the patient with concurrent diacylglycerol kinase-ε and C3 mutations. Data suggest that complement dysregulation influences

  11. Long QT interval in Turner syndrome--a high prevalence of LQTS gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, Christian; Mortensen, Kristian H; Pedersen, Lisbeth N; Berglund, Agnethe; Jensen, Henrik K; Andersen, Niels H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-01-01

    QT-interval prolongation of unknown aetiology is common in Turner syndrome. This study set out to explore the presence of known long QT mutations in Turner syndrome and to examine the corrected QT-interval (QTc) over time and relate the findings to the Turner syndrome phenotype. Adult women with Turner syndrome (n = 88) were examined thrice and 68 age-matched healthy controls were examined once. QTc was measured by one blinded reader (intra-reader variability: 0.7%), and adjusted for influence of heart rate by Bazett's (bQTc) and Hodges's formula (hQTc). The prevalence of mutations in genes related to Long QT syndrome was determined in women with Turner syndrome and a QTc >432.0 milliseconds (ms). Echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve morphology, 24-hour blood pressures and blood samples were done. The mean hQTc in women with Turner syndrome (414.0 ± 25.5 ms) compared to controls (390.4 ± 17.8 ms) was prolonged (pTurner syndrome karyotypes (418.2 ± 24.8 vs. 407.6 ± 25.5 ms; p = 0.055). In women with Turner syndrome and a bQTc >432 ms, 7 had mutations in major Long QT syndrome genes (SCN5A and KCNH2) and one in a minor Long QT syndrome gene (KCNE2). There is a high prevalence of mutations in the major LQTS genes in women with TS and prolonged QTc. It remains to be settled, whether these findings are related to the unexplained excess mortality in Turner women. NCT00624949. https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol/sid/S0001FLI/selectaction/View/ts/3/uid/U000099E.

  12. Norrie-Warburg syndrome: two novel mutations in patients with classical clinical phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, A; Veske, A; Jojart, G; Grammatico, B; Huber, B; Gu, S; del Porto, G; Senyi, K

    1996-01-01

    Norrie-Warburg syndrome (NWS) is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by blindness, which is invariable, deafness and mental disturbances, which are present occasionally. We describe here two novel mutations, a missense mutation (C126S) and a 1-base pair insertion (insT466/T467), together with a recurrent mutation (M1V), found in patients presenting with the classical clinical phenotype of NWS. All three mutations are likely to result in prominent structural changes of the norrin protein.

  13. Novel mutations in the USH1C gene in Usher syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparisi, María José; García-García, Gema; Jaijo, Teresa; Rodrigo, Regina; Graziano, Claudio; Seri, Marco; Simsek, Tulay; Simsek, Enver; Bernal, Sara; Baiget, Montserrat; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio; Aller, Elena; Millán, José María

    2010-12-31

    Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, and vestibular areflexia. To date, five USH1 genes have been identified. One of these genes is Usher syndrome 1C (USH1C), which encodes a protein, harmonin, containing PDZ domains. The aim of the present work was the mutation screening of the USH1C gene in a cohort of 33 Usher syndrome patients, to identify the genetic cause of the disease and to determine the relative involvement of this gene in USH1 pathogenesis in the Spanish population. Thirty-three patients were screened for mutations in the USH1C gene by direct sequencing. Some had already been screened for mutations in the other known USH1 genes (myosin VIIA [MYO7A], cadherin-related 23 [CDH23], protocadherin-related 15 [PCDH15], and Usher syndrome 1G [USH1G]), but no mutation was found. Two novel mutations were found in the USH1C gene: a non-sense mutation (p.C224X) and a frame-shift mutation (p.D124TfsX7). These mutations were found in a homozygous state in two unrelated USH1 patients. In the present study, we detected two novel pathogenic mutations in the USH1C gene. Our results suggest that mutations in USH1C are responsible for 1.5% of USH1 disease in patients of Spanish origin (considering the total cohort of 65 Spanish USH1 patients since 2005), indicating that USH1C is a rare form of USH in this population.

  14. Mutation screening of the PCDH15 gene in Spanish patients with Usher syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaijo, Teresa; Oshima, Aki; Aller, Elena; Carney, Carol; Usami, Shin-ichi; Millán, José M; Kimberling, William J

    2012-01-01

    PCDH15 codes for protocadherin-15, a cell-cell adhesion protein essential in the morphogenesis and cohesion of stereocilia bundles and in the function or preservation of photoreceptor cells. Mutations in the PCDH15 gene are responsible for Usher syndrome type I (USH1F) and non-syndromic hearing loss (DFNB23). The purpose of this work was to perform PCDH15 mutation screening to identify the genetic cause of the disease in a cohort of Spanish patients with Usher syndrome type I and establish phenotype-genotype correlation. Mutation analysis of PCDH15 included additional exons recently identified and was performed by direct sequencing. The screening was performed in 19 probands with USH already screened for mutations in the most prevalent USH1 genes, myosin VIIA (MYO7A) and cadherin-23 (CDH23), and for copy number variants in PCDH15. Seven different point mutations, five novel, were detected. Including the large PCDH15 rearrangements previously reported in our cohort of patients, a total of seven of 19 patients (36.8%) were carriers of at least one pathogenic allele. Thirteen out of the 38 screened alleles carried pathogenic PCDH15 variants (34.2%). Five out of the seven point mutations reported in the present study are novel, supporting the idea that most PCDH15 mutations are private. Furthermore, no mutational hotspots have been identified. In most patients, detected mutations led to a truncated protein, reinforcing the hypothesis that severe mutations cause the Usher I phenotype and that missense variants are mainly responsible for non-syndromic hearing impairment.

  15. Tietz syndrome (hypopigmentation/deafness) caused by mutation of MITF

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, S.; Kelley, P.; Kenyon, J.; Hoover, D.

    2000-01-01

    Patients with Tietz syndrome have congenital profound deafness and generalised hypopigmentation, inherited in a fully penetrant autosomal dominant fashion. The pigmentary features and complete penetrance make this syndrome distinct among syndromes with pigmentary anomalies and deafness, which characteristically have patchy depigmentation and variable penetrance. Only one family has been reported with the exact features described in the original report of this syndrome. This family was reascer...

  16. A novel ICK mutation causes ciliary disruption and lethal endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Machteld M; Bonnard, Carine; Mans, Dorus A; Altunoglu, Umut; Tohari, Sumanty; Ng, Alvin Yu Jin; Eskin, Ascia; Lee, Hane; Rupar, C Anthony; de Wagenaar, Nathalie P; Wu, Ka Man; Lahiry, Piya; Pazour, Gregory J; Nelson, Stanley F; Hegele, Robert A; Roepman, Ronald; Kayserili, Hülya; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Siu, Victoria M; Reversade, Bruno; Arts, Heleen H

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome [MIM:612651] caused by a recessive mutation (p.R272Q) in Intestinal cell kinase (ICK) shows significant clinical overlap with ciliary disorders. Similarities are strongest between ECO syndrome, the Majewski and Mohr-Majewski short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with polydactyly syndromes, and hydrolethalus syndrome. In this study, we present a novel homozygous ICK mutation in a fetus with ECO syndrome and compare the effect of this mutation with the previously reported ICK variant on ciliogenesis and cilium morphology. Through homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified a second variant (c.358G > T; p.G120C) in ICK in a Turkish fetus presenting with ECO syndrome. In vitro studies of wild-type and mutant mRFP-ICK (p.G120C and p.R272Q) revealed that, in contrast to the wild-type protein that localizes along the ciliary axoneme and/or is present in the ciliary base, mutant proteins rather enrich in the ciliary tip. In addition, immunocytochemistry revealed a decreased number of cilia in ICK p.R272Q-affected cells. Through identification of a novel ICK mutation, we confirm that disruption of ICK causes ECO syndrome, which clinically overlaps with the spectrum of ciliopathies. Expression of ICK-mutated proteins result in an abnormal ciliary localization compared to wild-type protein. Primary fibroblasts derived from an individual with ECO syndrome display ciliogenesis defects. In aggregate, our findings are consistent with recent reports that show that ICK regulates ciliary biology in vitro and in mice, confirming that ECO syndrome is a severe ciliopathy.

  17. Shah-Waardenburg syndrome and PCWH associated with SOX10 mutations : A case report and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Johanna B G M; Sival, Deborah A; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Vos, Yvonne J; Meiners, Linda C; Brouwer, Oebele F; van Essen, Anthonie J

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome is a rare congenital disorder with variable clinical expression, characterised by aganglionosis of the rectosigmoid (Hirschsprung disease), and abnormal melanocyte migration, resulting in pigmentary abnormalities and sensorineural deafness (Waardenburg syndrome). Mutations

  18. Hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome with novel mutations in an afebrile infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, Simi D; Green, Reid; Carrasco, Ruy; Levy, Moise L; Diaz, Lucia Z

    2018-03-30

    Hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive autoinflammatory syndrome in which a mevalonate kinase deficiency results due to mutations of the mevalonate kinase gene. We report a case of an Asian male infant who was found to have hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome in the absence of fever. His skin manifestations included cephalic pustulosis as well recurrent transient and fixed pink plaques and nodules on the face and extremities. Subsequent examination revealed hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome with two novel allelic mutations in the mevalonate kinase gene: c.895G > A (p.D299N) and c.1168C > T (p.Q390). It is important for dermatologists to recognize the varied cutaneous presentations of hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome because rapid diagnosis and treatment can significantly affect outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Identification of a Variety of Mutations in Cancer Predisposition Genes in Patients With Suspected Lynch Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurgelun, Matthew B; Allen, Brian; Kaldate, Rajesh R; Bowles, Karla R; Judkins, Thaddeus; Kaushik, Praveen; Roa, Benjamin B; Wenstrup, Richard J; Hartman, Anne-Renee; Syngal, Sapna

    2015-09-01

    Multigene panels are commercially available tools for hereditary cancer risk assessment that allow for next-generation sequencing of numerous genes in parallel. However, it is not clear if these panels offer advantages over traditional genetic testing. We investigated the number of cancer predisposition gene mutations identified by parallel sequencing in individuals with suspected Lynch syndrome. We performed germline analysis with a 25-gene, next-generation sequencing panel using DNA from 1260 individuals who underwent clinical genetic testing for Lynch syndrome from 2012 through 2013. All patients had a history of Lynch syndrome-associated cancer and/or polyps. We classified all identified germline alterations for pathogenicity and calculated the frequencies of pathogenic mutations and variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS). We also analyzed data on patients' personal and family history of cancer, including fulfillment of clinical guidelines for genetic testing. Of the 1260 patients, 1112 met National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria for Lynch syndrome testing (88%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 86%-90%). Multigene panel testing identified 114 probands with Lynch syndrome mutations (9.0%; 95% CI, 7.6%-10.8%) and 71 with mutations in other cancer predisposition genes (5.6%; 95% CI, 4.4%-7.1%). Fifteen individuals had mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2; 93% of these met the NCCN criteria for Lynch syndrome testing and 33% met NCCN criteria for BRCA1 and BRCA2 analysis (P = .0017). An additional 9 individuals carried mutations in other genes linked to high lifetime risks of cancer (5 had mutations in APC, 3 had bi-allelic mutations in MUTYH, and 1 had a mutation in STK11); all of these patients met NCCN criteria for Lynch syndrome testing. A total of 479 individuals had 1 or more VUS (38%; 95% CI, 35%-41%). In individuals with suspected Lynch syndrome, multigene panel testing identified high-penetrance mutations in cancer predisposition genes, many

  20. Identification of four novel mutations of the WFS1 gene in Iranian Wolfram syndrome pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahraman, Martha; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Vakili, Rahim; Hosseini, Sousan; Fardi Golyan, Fatemeh; Ghaemi, Nosrat; Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance characterized by various clinical manifestations. The related gene, WFS1, encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein, named wolframin. Genetic analyses demonstrated that mutations in this gene are associated with WS type 1. Our aim in this study was to sequence WFS1 coding region in Iranian Wolfram syndrome pedigrees. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 12 WS patients and their healthy parents. Exons 2-8 and the exon-intron junctions of WFS1 were sequenced. DNA sequences were compared to the reference using Sequencher software. Molecular analysis of WFS1 revealed six different mutations. Four novel and two previously reported mutations were identified. One novel mutation, c.1379_1381del, is predicted to produce an aberrant protein. A second novel mutation, c.1384G > T, encodes a truncated protein. Novel mutation, c.1097-1107dup (11 bp), causes a frameshift which results in a premature stop codon. We screened for the novel missense mutation, c.1010C > T, in 100 control alleles. This mutation was not found in any of the healthy controls. Our study increased the spectrum of WFS1 mutations and supported the role of WFS1 in susceptibility to WS. We hope that these findings open new horizons to future molecular investigations which may help to prevent and treat this devastating disease.

  1. Splicing Analysis of Exonic OCRL Mutations Causing Lowe Syndrome or Dent-2 Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Suarez-Artiles

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the OCRL gene are associated with both Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease. Patients with Lowe syndrome present congenital cataracts, mental disabilities and a renal proximal tubulopathy, whereas patients with Dent-2 disease exhibit similar proximal tubule dysfunction but only mild, or no additional clinical defects. It is not yet understood why some OCRL mutations cause the phenotype of Lowe syndrome, while others develop the milder phenotype of Dent-2 disease. Our goal was to gain new insights into the consequences of OCRL exonic mutations on pre-mRNA splicing. Using predictive bioinformatics tools, we selected thirteen missense mutations and one synonymous mutation based on their potential effects on splicing regulatory elements or splice sites. These mutations were analyzed in a minigene splicing assay. Results of the RNA analysis showed that three presumed missense mutations caused alterations in pre-mRNA splicing. Mutation c.741G>T; p.(Trp247Cys generated splicing silencer sequences and disrupted splicing enhancer motifs that resulted in skipping of exon 9, while mutations c.2581G>A; p.(Ala861Thr and c.2581G>C; p.(Ala861Pro abolished a 5′ splice site leading to skipping of exon 23. Mutation c.741G>T represents the first OCRL exonic variant outside the conserved splice site dinucleotides that results in alteration of pre-mRNA splicing. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the effects of OCRL exonic mutations at the mRNA level.

  2. c.376G>A mutation in WFS1 gene causes Wolfram syndrome without deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarpour Lima, Behnam; Ghaedi, Hamid; Daftarian, Narsis; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Jamshidi, Javad; Khorrami, Mehdi; Noroozi, Rezvan; Sohrabifar, Nasim; Assarzadegan, Farhad; Hesami, Omid; Taghavi, Shaghayegh; Ahmadifard, Azadeh; Atakhorrami, Minoo; Rahimi-Aliabadi, Simin; Shahmohammadibeni, Neda; Alehabib, Elham; Andarva, Monavvar; Darvish, Hossein; Emamalizadeh, Babak

    2016-02-01

    Wolfram syndrome is one of the rare autosomal recessive, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. Several other features are observed in patients including deafness, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. A gene called WFS1 is identified on chromosome 4p, responsible for Wolfram syndrome. We investigated a family consisted of parents and 8 children, which 5 of them have been diagnosed for Wolfram syndrome. WFS1 gene in all family members was sequenced for causative mutations. A mutation (c.376G>A, p.A126T) was found in all affected members in homozygous state and in both parents in heterozygous state. The bioinformatics analysis showed the deleterious effects of this nucleotide change on the structure and function of the protein product. As all of the patients in the family showed the homozygote mutation, and parents were both heterozygote, this mutation is probably the cause of the disease. We identified this mutation in homozygous state for the first time as Wolfram syndrome causation. We also showed that this mutation probably doesn't cause deafness in affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Three cases with L1 syndrome and two novel mutations in the L1CAM gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Rosario; Ley-Martos, Miriam; Gutiérrez, Gema; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Felicidad; Arroyo, Diego; Mora-López, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in the L1CAM gene have been identified in the following various X-linked neurological disorders: congenital hydrocephalus; mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, and adducted thumbs (MASA) syndrome; spastic paraplegia; and agenesis of the corpus callosum. These conditions are currently considered different phenotypes of a single entity known as L1 syndrome. We present three families with L1 syndrome. Sequencing of the L1CAM gene allowed the identification of the following mutations involved: a known splicing mutation (c.3531-12G>A) and two novel ones: a missense mutation (c.1754A>C; p.Asp585Ala) and a nonsense mutation (c.3478C>T; p.Gln1160Stop). The number of affected males and carrier females identified in a relatively small population suggests that L1 syndrome may be under-diagnosed. L1 syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intellectual disability or mental retardation in children, especially when other signs such as hydrocephalus or adducted thumbs are present.

  4. [Gene mutation and clinical phenotype analysis of patients with Noonan syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X H; Ding, W W; Han, L; Liu, X R; Xiao, Y Y; Yang, J; Mo, Y

    2017-10-02

    Objective: To analyze the gene mutations and clinical features of patients with Noonan syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Method: Determined the mutation domain in five cases diagnosed with Noonan syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and identified the relationship between the mutant domain and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by searching relevant articles in pubmed database. Result: Three mutant genes (PTPN11 gene in chromosome 12, RIT1 gene in chromosome 1 and RAF1 gene in chromosome 3) in five cases all had been reported to be related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The reported hypertrophic cardiomyopathy relevant genes MYPN, MYH6 and MYBP3 had also been found in case 1 and 2. Patients with same gene mutation had different clinical manifestations. Both case 4 and 5 had RAF1 mutation (c.770C>T). However, case 4 had special face, low IQ, mild pulmonary artery stenosis, and only mild ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusion: Noonan syndrome is a genetic heterogeneity disease. Our study identified specific gene mutations that could result in Noonan syndrome with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy through molecular biology methods. The results emphasize the importance of gene detection in the management of Noonan syndrome.

  5. Wolfram syndrome in the Polish population: novel mutations and genotype-phenotype correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmyslowska, A; Borowiec, M; Antosik, K; Szalecki, M; Stefanski, A; Iwaniszewska, B; Jedrzejczyk, M; Pietrzak, I; Mlynarski, W

    2011-11-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a rare form of diabetes mellitus associated with optic atrophy and disorders of different organs (e.g. diabetes insipidus, hearing loss, ataxia, anaemia and many others). This syndrome is caused by recessive mutations in the wolframin gene (WFS1) localized on chromosome 4p16·1. The aim of this study was to identify the causative mutations in WFS1 in a group of Polish patients with suspected Wolfram syndrome. Nine patients with clinical symptoms consistent with Wolfram syndrome (at least diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy) and 22 first-degree relatives were examined. The molecular analysis was carried out by direct sequencing of the exons, the exon-intron junctions, and the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of WFS1. Nine different mutations in WFS1 (five of them novel) were identified in the nine patients. Six patients were homozygous for the following mutations: V412fs, S443R, W539X, V659fs. They developed diabetes at a mean age of 5·2 years. Three patients were compound-heterozygous for the following mutations: S167fs, Q392X, Y513fs, W648X, V779G. They developed diabetes at a mean age of 6·5 years. Mean age of diagnosis of diabetes among the Polish patients was typical for Wolfram syndrome; however, compound-heterozygous patients were slightly older at diabetes onset. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Association of germline mutation in the PTEN tumour suppressor gene and Proteus and Proteus-like syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.; Hampel, H.; Thiele, H.; Gorlin, R. J.; Hennekam, R. C.; Parisi, M.; Winter, R. M.; Eng, C.

    2001-01-01

    The molecular aetiology of Proteus syndrome (PS) remains elusive. Germline mutations in PTEN cause Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, which are hereditary hamartoma syndromes. Some features-eg, macrocephaly, lipomatosis, and vascular malformations-can be seen in all three

  7. The genetic basis of long QT and short QT syndromes: a mutation update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Jørgensen, Poul; Schlamowitz, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Long QT and short QT syndromes (LQTS and SQTS) are cardiac repolarization abnormalities that are characterized by length perturbations of the QT interval as measured on electrocardiogram (ECG). Prolonged QT interval and a propensity for ventricular tachycardia of the torsades de pointes (TdP) type......-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS), Andersen syndrome (AS), and Timothy syndrome (TS). The genetics are further complicated by the occurrence of double and triple heterozygotes in LQTS and a considerable number of nonpathogenic rare polymorphisms in the involved genes. SQTS is a very rare condition, caused by mutations...

  8. NHS Gene Mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish Families with Nance-Horan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshany, Nadav; Avni, Isaac; Morad, Yair; Weiner, Chen; Einan-Lifshitz, Adi; Pras, Eran

    2017-09-01

    To describe ocular and extraocular abnormalities in two Ashkenazi Jewish families with infantile cataract and X-linked inheritance, and to identify their underlying mutations. Seven affected members were recruited. Medical history, clinical findings, and biometric measurements were recorded. Mutation analysis of the Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) gene was performed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified exons. An unusual anterior Y-sutural cataract was documented in the affected male proband. Other clinical features among examined patients included microcorneas, long and narrow faces, and current or previous dental anomalies. A nonsense mutation was identified in each family, including a previously described 742 C>T, p.(Arg248*) mutation in Family A, and a novel mutation 2915 C>A, p.(Ser972*) in Family B. Our study expands the repertoire of NHS mutations and the related phenotype, including newly described anterior Y-sutural cataract and dental findings.

  9. Mutations du gene de la filamine et syndromes malformatifs | Koffi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filamin is a cytoskeletal protein that occurs in the control of cytoskeleton structure and activity, the modulation of cell shape and migration as well as in the maintaining of cell shape. Mutations in the genes FLNA and FLNB provoke diverse malformative diseases in human. Mutations in the gene FLNA cause four X-Linked ...

  10. Long QT interval in Turner syndrome--a high prevalence of LQTS gene mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Trolle

    Full Text Available QT-interval prolongation of unknown aetiology is common in Turner syndrome. This study set out to explore the presence of known long QT mutations in Turner syndrome and to examine the corrected QT-interval (QTc over time and relate the findings to the Turner syndrome phenotype.Adult women with Turner syndrome (n = 88 were examined thrice and 68 age-matched healthy controls were examined once. QTc was measured by one blinded reader (intra-reader variability: 0.7%, and adjusted for influence of heart rate by Bazett's (bQTc and Hodges's formula (hQTc. The prevalence of mutations in genes related to Long QT syndrome was determined in women with Turner syndrome and a QTc >432.0 milliseconds (ms. Echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve morphology, 24-hour blood pressures and blood samples were done.The mean hQTc in women with Turner syndrome (414.0 ± 25.5 ms compared to controls (390.4 ± 17.8 ms was prolonged (p432 ms, 7 had mutations in major Long QT syndrome genes (SCN5A and KCNH2 and one in a minor Long QT syndrome gene (KCNE2.There is a high prevalence of mutations in the major LQTS genes in women with TS and prolonged QTc. It remains to be settled, whether these findings are related to the unexplained excess mortality in Turner women.NCT00624949. https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol/sid/S0001FLI/selectaction/View/ts/3/uid/U000099E.

  11. RNF43 is mutated less frequently in Lynch Syndrome compared with sporadic microsatellite unstable colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Lochlan J; Clendenning, Mark; McKeone, Diane M; Jamieson, Saara H; Balachandran, Samanthy; Borowsky, Jennifer; Liu, John; Kawamata, Futoshi; Bond, Catherine E; Rosty, Christophe; Burge, Matthew E; Buchanan, Daniel D; Leggett, Barbara A; Whitehall, Vicki L J

    2018-01-01

    The WNT signaling pathway is commonly altered during colorectal cancer development. The E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF43, negatively regulates the WNT signal through increased ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the Frizzled receptor. RNF43 has recently been reported to harbor frequent truncating frameshift mutations in sporadic microsatellite unstable (MSI) colorectal cancers. This study assesses the relative frequency of RNF43 mutations in hereditary colorectal cancers arising in the setting of Lynch syndrome. The entire coding region of RNF43 was Sanger sequenced in 24 colorectal cancers from 23 patients who either (i) carried a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH6, MSH2, PMS2), or (ii) showed immunohistochemical loss of expression of one or more of the DNA mismatch repair proteins, was BRAF wild type at V600E, were under 60 years of age at diagnosis, and demonstrated no promoter region methylation for MLH1 in tumor DNA. A validation cohort of 44 colorectal cancers from mismatch repair germline mutation carriers from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) were sequenced for the most common truncating mutation hotspots (X117 and X659). RNF43 mutations were found in 9 of 24 (37.5%) Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers. The majority of mutations were frameshift deletions in the G659 G7 repeat tract (29%); 2 cancers (2/24, 8%) from the one patient harbored frameshift mutations at codon R117 (C6 repeat tract) within exon 3. In the ACCFR validation cohort, RNF43 hotspot mutations were identified in 19/44 (43.2%) of samples, which was not significantly different to the initial series. The proportion of mutant RNF43 in Lynch syndrome related colorectal cancers is significantly lower than the previously reported mutation rate found in sporadic MSI colorectal cancers. These findings identify further genetic differences between sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers. This may be because Lynch Syndrome cancers

  12. Common mutations identified in the MLH1 gene in familial Lynch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisha Elias

    2017-12-01

    In this study we identified three families with Lynch syndrome from a rural cancer center in western India (KCHRC, Goraj, Gujarat, where 70-75 CRC patients are seen annually. DNA isolated from the blood of consented family members of all three families (8-10 members/family was subjected to NGS sequencing methods on an Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform. We identified unique mutations in the MLH1 gene in all three HNPCC family members. Two of the three unrelated families shared a common mutation (154delA and 156delA. Total 8 members of a family were identified as carriers for 156delA mutation of which 5 members were unaffected while 3 were affected (age of onset: 1 member <30yrs & 2 were>40yr. The family with 154delA mutation showed 2 affected members (>40yr carrying the mutations.LYS618DEL mutation found in 8 members of the third family showed that both affected and unaffected carried the mutation. Thus the common mutations identified in the MLH1 gene in two unrelated families had a high risk for lynch syndrome especially above the age of 40.

  13. Identification of three novel NHS mutations in families with Nance-Horan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kristen M; Wu, Junhua; Brooks, Simon P; Hardcastle, Alison J; Lewis, Richard Alan; Stambolian, Dwight

    2007-03-27

    Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS) is an infrequent and often overlooked X-linked disorder characterized by dense congenital cataracts, microphthalmia, and dental abnormalities. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the NHS gene, whose function is not known. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and distribution of NHS gene mutations and compare genotype with Nance-Horan phenotype in five North American NHS families. Genomic DNA was isolated from white blood cells from NHS patients and family members. The NHS gene coding region and its splice site donor and acceptor regions were amplified from genomic DNA by PCR, and the amplicons were sequenced directly. We identified three unique NHS coding region mutations in these NHS families. This report extends the number of unique identified NHS mutations to 14.

  14. Numerous BAF complex genes are mutated in Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Noriko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2014-09-01

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS; OMIM#135900) is a rare congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, coarse face, hypertrichosis, and absence/hypoplasia of the fifth digits' nails. As the majority of patients are sporadic, an autosomal dominant inheritance model has been postulated. Recently, whole exome sequencing (WES) emerged as a comprehensive analytical method for rare variants. We applied WES on five CSS patients and found two de novo mutations in SMARCB1. SMARCB1 was completely sequenced in 23 CSS patients and the mutations were found in two more patients. As SMARCB1 encodes a subunit of the BAF complex functioning as a chromatin remodeling factor, mutations in 15 other subunit genes may cause CSS and thus were analyzed in 23 CSS patients. We identified heterozygous mutations in either of six genes (SMARCA4, SMARCB1, SMARCA2, SMARCE1, ARID1A, and ARID1B) in 20 out of 23 CSS patients. The patient with a SMARCA2 mutation was re-evaluated and identified as having Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (OMIM#601358), which is similar to but different from CSS. Additionally, 49 more CSS patients were analyzed as a second cohort. Together with the first cohort, 37 out of 71 (22 plus 49) patients were found to have a mutation in either one of five BAF complex genes. Furthermore, two CSS patients were reported to have a PHF6 abnormality, which can also cause Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (OMIM#301900), an X-linked intellectual disability syndrome with epilepsy and endocrine abnormalities. The current list of mutated genes in CSS is far from being complete and analysis of more patients is required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comprehensive Mutation Analysis of PMS2 in a Large Cohort of Probands Suspected of Lynch Syndrome or Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klift, H.M. van der; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Drost, M.; Bik, E.C.; Vos, Y.J.; Gille, H.J.; Redeker, B.E.; Tiersma, Y.; Zonneveld, J.B.; Garcia, E.G.; Letteboer, T.G.; Olderode-Berends, M.J.; Hest, L.P. van; Os, T.A. van; Verhoef, S.; Wagner, A.; Asperen, C.J. van; Broeke, S.W. ten; Hes, F.J.; Wind, N. de; Nielsen, M.; Devilee, P.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Wijnen, J.T.; Tops, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Monoallelic PMS2 germline mutations cause 5%-15% of Lynch syndrome, a midlife cancer predisposition, whereas biallelic PMS2 mutations cause approximately 60% of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD), a rare childhood cancer syndrome. Recently improved DNA- and RNA-based strategies are

  16. Comprehensive Mutation Analysis of PMS2 in a Large Cohort of Probands Suspected of Lynch Syndrome or Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klift, Heleen M.; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Drost, Mark; Bik, Elsa C.; Vos, Yvonne J.; Gille, Hans J. J. P.; Redeker, Bert E. J. W.; Tiersma, Yvonne; Zonneveld, Jose B. M.; Garcia, Encarna Gomez; Letteboer, Tom G. W.; Olderode-Berends, Maran J. W.; van Hest, Liselotte P.; van Os, Theo A.; Verhoef, Senno; Wagner, Anja; van Asperen, Christi J.; ten Broeke, Sanne W.; Hes, Frederik J.; de Wind, Niels; Nielsen, Maartje; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Tops, Carli M. J.

    Monoallelic PMS2 germline mutations cause 5%-15% of Lynch syndrome, a midlife cancer predisposition, whereas biallelic PMS2 mutations cause approximately 60% of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD), a rare childhood cancer syndrome. Recently improved DNA- and RNA-based strategies are

  17. Comprehensive Mutation Analysis of PMS2 in a Large Cohort of Probands Suspected of Lynch Syndrome or Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency (CMMRD) Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klift, Heleen M; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Drost, Mark; Bik, Elsa C; Vos, Yvonne J; Gille, Hans J J P; Redeker, Bert E J W; Tiersma, Yvonne; Zonneveld, José B M; García, Encarna Gómez; Letteboer, Tom G W; Olderode-Berends, Maran J W; van Hest, Liselotte P; van Os, Theo A; Verhoef, Senno; Wagner, Anja; van Asperen, Christi J; Ten Broeke, Sanne W; Hes, Frederik J; de Wind, Niels; Nielsen, Maartje; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Wijnen, Juul T; Tops, Carli M J

    2016-01-01

    Monoallelic PMS2 germline mutations cause 5-15% of Lynch syndrome, a midlife cancer predisposition, whereas biallelic PMS2 mutations cause approximately 60% of constitutional MMR deficiency (CMMRD), a rare childhood cancer syndrome. Recently improved DNA and RNA-based strategies are applied to

  18. A novel PAX3 mutation in a Japanese boy with Waardenburg syndrome type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yu; Doi, Rieko; Adachi, Kaori; Nanba, Eiji; Kodani, Isamu; Ryoke, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hair hypopigmentation, abnormal iris pigmentation, and congenital hearing loss. WS1 is caused by mutations in paired box gene 3 (PAX3). We identified a novel PAX3 mutation (c.1107 C>G, p.Ser369Arg) in a Japanese WS1 patient showing abnormal right iris pigmentation, right-sided congenital hearing loss, synophrys, incomplete left cleft lip, and cryptorchidism. PMID:27081571

  19. Congenital mydriasis and prune belly syndrome in a child with an ACTA2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Michael C; Turan, Kadriye Erkan; Khanna, Cheryl L; Patton, Alice; Kirmani, Salman

    2014-08-01

    We report the association of congenital mydriasis with prune belly syndrome and cerebrovascular anomalies in a 9-year-old boy who was found to have an ACTA2 mutation. This case illustrates the spectrum of systemic malformations that are attributable to mutations in ACTA2 and expands the spectrum of cerebrovascular anomalies that are now known to accompany congenital mydriasis. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mutation in filamin A causes periventricular heterotopia, developmental regression, and West syndrome in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masruha, Marcelo R; Caboclo, Luis O S F; Carrete, Henrique; Cendes, Iscia L; Rodrigues, Murilo G; Garzon, Eliana; Yacubian, Elza M T; Sakamoto, Américo C; Sheen, Volney; Harney, Megan; Neal, Jason; Hill, R Sean; Bodell, Adria; Walsh, Christopher; Vilanova, Luiz C P

    2006-01-01

    Familial periventricular heterotopia (PH) represents a disorder of neuronal migration resulting in multiple gray-matter nodules along the lateral ventricular walls. Prior studies have shown that mutations in the filamin A (FLNA) gene can cause PH through an X-linked dominant pattern. Heterozygotic female patients usually remain asymptomatic until the second or third decade of life, when they may have predominantly focal seizures, whereas hemizygotic male fetuses typically die in utero. Recent studies have also reported mutations in FLNA in male patients with PH who are cognitively normal. We describe PH in three male siblings with PH due to FLNA, severe developmental regression, and West syndrome. The study includes the three affected brothers and their parents. Video-EEG recordings and magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanning were performed on all individuals. Mutations for FLNA were detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on genomic DNA followed by single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis or sequencing. Two of the siblings are monozygotic twins, and all had West syndrome with hypsarrhythmia on EEG. MRI of the brain revealed periventricular nodules of cerebral gray-matter intensity, typical for PH. Mutational analyses demonstrated a cytosine-to-thymidine missense mutation (c. C1286T), resulting in a threonine-to-methionine amino acid substitution in exon 9 of the FLNA gene. The association between PH and West syndrome, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. Males with PH have been known to harbor FLNA mutations, although uniformly, they either show early lethality or survive and have a normal intellect. The current studies show that FLNA mutations can cause periventricular heterotopia, developmental regression, and West syndrome in male patients, suggesting that this type of FLNA mutation may contribute to severe neurologic deficits.

  1. Prognostic implications of mutation-specific QTc standard deviation in congenital long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Andrew; Moss, Arthur J; Lopes, Coeli M; Barsheshet, Alon; McNitt, Scott; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer L; Locati, Emanuela H; Ackerman, Michael J; Benhorin, Jesaia; Kaufman, Elizabeth S; Platonov, Pyotr G; Qi, Ming; Shimizu, Wataru; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Michael Vincent, G; Wilde, Arthur A M; Zhang, Li; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2013-05-01

    Individual corrected QT interval (QTc) may vary widely among carriers of the same long QT syndrome (LQTS) mutation. Currently, neither the mechanism nor the implications of this variable penetrance are well understood. To hypothesize that the assessment of QTc variance in patients with congenital LQTS who carry the same mutation provides incremental prognostic information on the patient-specific QTc. The study population comprised 1206 patients with LQTS with 95 different mutations and ≥ 5 individuals who carry the same mutation. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the effect of mutation-specific standard deviation of QTc (QTcSD) on the risk of cardiac events (comprising syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death) from birth through age 40 years in the total population and by genotype. Assessment of mutation-specific QTcSD showed large differences among carriers of the same mutations (median QTcSD 45 ms). Multivariate analysis showed that each 20 ms increment in QTcSD was associated with a significant 33% (P = .002) increase in the risk of cardiac events after adjustment for the patient-specific QTc duration and the family effect on QTc. The risk associated with QTcSD was pronounced among patients with long QT syndrome type 1 (hazard ratio 1.55 per 20 ms increment; P<.001), whereas among patients with long QT syndrome type 2, the risk associated with QTcSD was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 0.99; P = .95; P value for QTcSD-by-genotype interaction = .002). Our findings suggest that mutations with a wider variation in QTc duration are associated with increased risk of cardiac events. These findings appear to be genotype-specific, with a pronounced effect among patients with the long QT syndrome type 1 genotype. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Acral peeling skin syndrome associated with a novel CSTA gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttardi, K; Nitoiu, D; Kelsell, D P; O'Toole, E A; Batta, K

    2016-06-01

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition, characterized by asymptomatic peeling of the skin of the hands and feet, often linked to mutations in the gene TGM5. However, more recently recessive loss of function mutations in CSTA, encoding cystatin A, have been linked with APSS and exfoliative ichthyosis. We describe the clinical features in two sisters with APSS, associated with a novel large homozygous deletion encompassing exon 1 of CSTA. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. A novel PAX3 mutation in a Japanese boy with Waardenburg syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yu; Doi, Rieko; Adachi, Kaori; Nanba, Eiji; Kodani, Isamu; Ryoke, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hair hypopigmentation, abnormal iris pigmentation, and congenital hearing loss. WS1 is caused by mutations in paired box gene 3 (PAX3). We identified a novel PAX3 mutation (c.1107 C>G, p.Ser369Arg) in a Japanese WS1 patient showing abnormal right iris pigmentation, right-sided congenital hearing loss, synophrys, incomplete left cleft lip, and cryptorchidism.

  4. A novel PAX3 mutation in a Japanese boy with Waardenburg syndrome type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Yu; Doi, Rieko; Adachi, Kaori; Nanba, Eiji; Kodani, Isamu; Ryoke, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hair hypopigmentation, abnormal iris pigmentation, and congenital hearing loss. WS1 is caused by mutations in paired box gene 3 (PAX3). We identified a novel PAX3 mutation (c.1107 C>G, p.Ser369Arg) in a Japanese WS1 patient showing abnormal right iris pigmentation, right-sided congenital hearing loss, synophrys, incomplete left cleft lip, and cryptorchidism.

  5. Apert Syndrome With FGFR2 758 C > G Mutation: A Chinese Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahong Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apert syndrome is considered as one of the most common craniosynostosis syndromes with a prevalence of 1 in 65,000 individuals, and has a close relationship with point mutations in FGFR2 gene.Case report: Here, we described a Apert syndrome case, who was referred to genetic consultation in our hospital with the symptom of craniosynostosis and syndactyly of the hands and feet. Craniosynostosis, midfacial retrusion, steep wide forehead, larger head circumference, marked depression of the nasal bridge, short and wide nose and proptosis could be found obviously, apart from these, ears were mildly low compared with normal children and there was no cleft lip and palate. Mutation was identified by sanger sequencing and a mutation in the exon 7 of FGFR2 gene was detected: p.Pro253Arg (P253R 758 C > G, which was not found in his parents.Conclusion: The baby had Apert syndrome caused by 758 C > G mutation in the exon 7 of FGFR2 gene, considering no this mutation in his parents, it was spontaneous.

  6. Long QT interval in Turner syndrome: a high prevalence of LQTS gene mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian

    Objective: QT interval prolongation of unknown aetiology is common in Turner syndrome (TS). This study set out to explore the presence of known pathogenic long QT (LQT) mutations in TS and to examine the corrected QT interval (QTc) over time and relate the findings to the TS phenotype. Methods......QTc). The prevalence of mutations in genes related to Long QT syndrome (LQTS) was determined in females with TS and a QTc >432.0 milliseconds (ms). Echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve morphology, 24-hour blood pressures and blood samples were done. Results: The mean hQTc in females with TS (414.0±25.5 ms...

  7. Mutations affecting components of the SWI/SNF complex cause Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kosho, Tomoki; Imai, Yoko; Hibi-Ko, Yumiko; Kaname, Tadashi; Naritomi, Kenji; Kawame, Hiroshi; Wakui, Keiko; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Homma, Tomomi; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Hiraki, Yoko; Yamagata, Takanori; Yano, Shoji; Mizuno, Seiji; Sakazume, Satoru; Ishii, Takuma; Nagai, Toshiro; Shiina, Masaaki; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Tohru; Niikawa, Norio; Miyatake, Satoko; Okada, Ippei; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Doi, Hiroshi; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2012-03-18

    By exome sequencing, we found de novo SMARCB1 mutations in two of five individuals with typical Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS), a rare autosomal dominant anomaly syndrome. As SMARCB1 encodes a subunit of the SWItch/Sucrose NonFermenting (SWI/SNF) complex, we screened 15 other genes encoding subunits of this complex in 23 individuals with CSS. Twenty affected individuals (87%) each had a germline mutation in one of six SWI/SNF subunit genes, including SMARCB1, SMARCA4, SMARCA2, SMARCE1, ARID1A and ARID1B.

  8. Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Nilbert, Mef; Wernhoff, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system.......Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system....

  9. Somatic frameshift mutations in the Bloom syndrome BLM gene are frequent in sporadic gastric carcinomas with microsatellite mutator phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Irina

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic instability has been reported at microsatellite tracts in few coding sequences. We have shown that the Bloom syndrome BLM gene may be a target of microsatelliteinstability (MSI in a short poly-adenine repeat located in its coding region. To further characterize the involvement of BLM in tumorigenesis, we have investigated mutations in nine genes containing coding microsatellites in microsatellite mutator phenotype (MMP positive and negative gastric carcinomas (GCs. Methods We analyzed 50 gastric carcinomas (GCs for mutations in the BLM poly(A tract aswell as in the coding microsatellites of the TGFβ1-RII, IGFIIR, hMSH3, hMSH6, BAX, WRN, RECQL and CBL genes. Results BLM mutations were found in 27% of MMP+ GCs (4/15 cases but not in any of the MMP negative GCs (0/35 cases. The frequency of mutations in the other eight coding regions microsatellite was the following: TGFβ1-RII (60 %, BAX (27%, hMSH6 (20%,hMSH3 (13%, CBL (13%, IGFIIR (7%, RECQL (0% and WRN (0%. Mutations in BLM appear to be more frequently associated with frameshifts in BAX and in hMSH6and/or hMSH3. Tumors with BLM alterations present a higher frequency of unstable mono- and trinucleotide repeats located in coding regions as compared with mutator phenotype tumors without BLM frameshifts. Conclusions BLM frameshifts are frequent alterations in GCs specifically associated with MMP+tumors. We suggest that BLM loss of function by MSI may increase the genetic instability of a pre-existent unstable genotype in gastric tumors.

  10. Somatic frameshift mutations in the Bloom syndrome BLM gene are frequent in sporadic gastric carcinomas with microsatellite mutator phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calin, George; Ranzani, Guglielmina N; Amadori, Dino; Herlea, Vlad; Matei, Irina; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Negrini, Massimo

    2001-01-01

    Background Genomic instability has been reported at microsatellite tracts in few coding sequences. We have shown that the Bloom syndrome BLM gene may be a target of microsatelliteinstability (MSI) in a short poly-adenine repeat located in its coding region. To further characterize the involvement of BLM in tumorigenesis, we have investigated mutations in nine genes containing coding microsatellites in microsatellite mutator phenotype (MMP) positive and negative gastric carcinomas (GCs). Methods We analyzed 50 gastric carcinomas (GCs) for mutations in the BLM poly(A) tract aswell as in the coding microsatellites of the TGFβ1-RII, IGFIIR, hMSH3, hMSH6, BAX, WRN, RECQL and CBL genes. Results BLM mutations were found in 27% of MMP+ GCs (4/15 cases) but not in any of the MMP negative GCs (0/35 cases). The frequency of mutations in the other eight coding regions microsatellite was the following: TGFβ1-RII (60 %), BAX (27%), hMSH6 (20%),hMSH3 (13%), CBL (13%), IGFIIR (7%), RECQL (0%) and WRN (0%). Mutations in BLM appear to be more frequently associated with frameshifts in BAX and in hMSH6and/or hMSH3. Tumors with BLM alterations present a higher frequency of unstable mono- and trinucleotide repeats located in coding regions as compared with mutator phenotype tumors without BLM frameshifts. Conclusions BLM frameshifts are frequent alterations in GCs specifically associated with MMP+tumors. We suggest that BLM loss of function by MSI may increase the genetic instability of a pre-existent unstable genotype in gastric tumors. PMID:11532193

  11. Muckle-Wells syndrome in an Indian family associated with NLRP3 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muckle - Wells syndrome (MWS is a rare autosomal dominant disease that belongs to a group of hereditary periodic fever syndromes. It is part of the wider spectrum of the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS which has only rarely been described in non-Caucasian individuals. It is characterized by recurrent self-limiting episodes of fever, urticaria, arthralgia, myalgia and conjunctivitis from childhood. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss and amyloidosis are two late complications. MWS is caused by gain of function mutations in the NLRP3 gene, which encodes cryopyrin, a protein involved in regulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines. We report two patients with MWS in an Indian family associated with the p.D303N mutation in the NLRP3 gene. These findings promote awareness of these hereditary periodic fever syndromes as a cause for recurrent fevers from childhood in the Indian population.

  12. Association of a Novel Nonsense Mutation in KIAA1279 with Goldberg-Shprintzen Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Shadab; Hashemi-Gorji, Feyzollah; Soltani, Ziba; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Miryounesi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome (OMIM 609460) (GOSHS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome distinguished by intellectual disability, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facial characteristics. Most affected individuals also have Hirschsprung disease and/or gyral abnormalities of the brain. This syndrome has been associated with KIAA1279 gene mutations at 10q22.1. Here we report a 16 yr old male patient referred to Center for Comprehensive Genetic Services, Tehran, Iran in 2015 with cardinal features of GOSHS in addition to refractory seizures. Whole exome sequencing in the patient revealed a novel nonsense (stop gain) homozygous mutation in KIAA1279 gene (KIAA1279: NM_015634:exon6:c.C976T:p.Q326X). Considering the wide range of phenotypic variations in GOSHS, relying on phenotypic characteristics for discrimination of GOSH from similar syndromes may lead to misdiagnosis. Consequently, molecular diagnostic tools would help in accurate diagnosis of such overlapping phenotypes.

  13. [Identification of an ideal noninvasive method to detect A3243G gene mutation in MELAS syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi-nan; Fang, Fang; Yang, Yan-ling; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Song-tao; Xu, Yu-feng; Pei, Pei; Yuan, Yun; Bu, Ding-fang; Qi, Yu

    2008-12-16

    To identify a better non-invasive method to detect the carrier of mitochondrial A3243G mutation, a cause of mitochondrial encephalopathy-lactic acidosis-stroke like episode (MELAS) syndrome. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood, urine, hair follicle, and saliva of 25 MELAS syndrome patients carrying A3243G mutation and their mothers and other maternal relatives, 33 persons in number, and the muscle tissues from 5 patients obtained by biopsy. A3243G mutation was detected by PCR-RFLP method, and the A3243G mutation ratio was identified by measuring the density of each band and calculation with the software AlphaEase 5.0. A3243G mutations were detected in all tissues of the 25 MELAS patients. The A3243G mutation ratio in urine was 62% +/- 9%, significantly higher than that in the blood [(36% +/- 10%), t = -11.13, P < 0.01]. A3243G mutations were detected in at least one tissue of the 28 maternal relatives. The A3243G mutation rates in their urine samples was 33.0% (5.0% - 70.4%), significantly higher than that in their blood samples [8.0% (0 - 33.3%), z = -4.197, P < 0.01]. There was no significant difference in A3243G mutation ratio among the samples of hair follicle, saliva, and blood. The A3243G mutation ratio in urine is significantly higher than those in blood samples of the patients and their maternal relatives. A noninvasive method, A3243G mutation ratio analysis of urine is superior to that in blood.

  14. Adaptive stress response in segmental progeria resembles long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ven, Marieke; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Holcomb, Valerie; Lindern, Marieke; Jong, Willeke; Zeeuw, Chris; Suh, Yousin; Hasty, Paul; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Horst, Gijsbertus; Mitchell, James

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHow congenital defects causing genome instability can result in the pleiotropic symptoms reminiscent of aging but in a segmental and accelerated fashion remains largely unknown. Most segmental progerias are associated with accelerated fibroblast senescence, suggesting that cellular senescence is a likely contributing mechanism. Contrary to expectations, neither accelerated senescence nor acute oxidative stress hypersensitivity was detected in primary fibroblast or erythroblast cul...

  15. Familial cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome in a father and a son with a novel MEK2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaer, Kadri; Lissewski, Christina; Zenker, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder belonging to the group of RASopathies. It is typically characterized by congenital heart defects, short stature, dysmorphic craniofacial features, intellectual disability, failure to thrive, and ectodermal abnormalities such as hyperkeratosis and sparse, brittle, curly hair. CFC syndrome is caused by dominant mutations in one of the four genes BRAF, MEK1, MEK2, and KRAS. Only three familial cases of CFC syndrome have been reported to date, whereas the vast majorities are sporadic cases due to de novo mutations. We report on a fourth familial case with transmission of CFC syndrome from father to son due to a novel heterozygous sequence change c.376A>G (p.N126D) in exon 3 of MEK2 gene. This observation further documents the possibility of vertical transmission of CFC syndrome, which appears to be associated with rare mutations and relatively mild intellectual disability in affected individual. The hypomorphic effect of specific mutations particularly regarding neurocognitive issues may be related to the variable fertility of affected individuals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Differential effects of FGFR2 mutations on syndactyly and cleft palate in Apert syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaney, S.F.; Oldridge, M.; Wilkie, A.O.M. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Apert syndrome is a distinctive human malformation characterized by craniosynostosis and severe syndactyly of the hands and feet. It is caused by specific missense substitutions involving adjacent amino acids (Ser252Trp or Pro253Arg) in the linker between the second and third extracellular immunoglobulin domains of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). We have developed a simple PCR assay for these mutations in genomic DNA, based on the creation of novel SfiI and BstUI restriction sites. Analysis of DNA from 70 unrelated patients with Apert syndrome showed that 45 had the Ser252Trp mutation and 25 had the Pro253Arg mutation. Phenotypic differences between these two groups of patients were investigated. Significant differences were found for severity of syndactyly and presence of cleft palate. The syndactyly was more severe with the Pro253Arg mutation, for both the hands and the feet. In contrast, cleft palate was significantly more common in the Ser252Trp patients. No convincing differences were found in the prevalence of other malformations associated with Apert syndrome. We conclude that, although the phenotype attributable to the two mutations is very similar, there are subtle differences. The opposite trends for severity of syndactyly and cleft palate in relation to the two mutations may relate to the varying patterns of temporal and tissue-specific expression of different fibroblast growth factors, the ligands for FGFR2. 54 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Whole-exome sequencing revealed two novel mutations in Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparir, Asuman; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Atayoglu, Ali Timucin; Yuksel, Bayram; Sagiroglu, Mahmut Samil; Seven, Mehmet; Ulucan, Hakan; Yuksel, Adnan; Ozen, Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    Usher syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive inherited disorder accompanied by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Since the associated genes are various and quite large, we utilized whole-exome sequencing (WES) as a diagnostic tool to identify the molecular basis of Usher syndrome. DNA from a 12-year-old male diagnosed with Usher syndrome was analyzed by WES. Mutations detected were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The pathogenicity of these mutations was determined by in silico analysis. A maternally inherited deleterious frameshift mutation, c.14439_14454del in exon 66 and a paternally inherited non-sense c.10830G>A stop-gain SNV in exon 55 of USH2A were found as two novel compound heterozygous mutations. Both of these mutations disrupt the C terminal of USH2A protein. As a result, WES revealed two novel compound heterozygous mutations in a Turkish USH2A patient. This approach gave us an opportunity to have an appropriate diagnosis and provide genetic counseling to the family within a reasonable time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostate cancer in a male with Holt-Oram syndrome: first clinical association of the TBX5 mutation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aherne, Noel J

    2013-08-05

    Holt-Oram syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder which is caused by mutations of TBX5 and is characterised by cardiac and skeletal abnormalities. TBX5 is part of the T-box gene family and is thought to upregulate tumour cell proliferation and metastasis when mutated. We report the first clinical case of prostate cancer in an individual with Holt Oram syndrome.

  19. Ophthalmologic abnormalities in Mowat-Wilson syndrome and a mutation in ZEB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariss, Michelle; Natan, Kristina; Friedman, Neil; Traboulsi, Elias I

    2012-09-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by a distinct facial appearance, moderate-to-severe mental retardation, microcephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, Hirschsprung disease, congenital heart disease, and genital anomalies. Ophthalmological abnormalities have been rarely described in patients with this condition which is caused by mutations in the ZEB2 gene. We report a 9-year-old female with this syndrome who has severe ocular abnormalities including bilateral microphthalmia, cataract, and retinal aplasia.

  20. A novel nonsense mutation in the WFS1 gene causes the Wolfram syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorian, Shahab; Savad, Shahram; Mohammadi, Davood Shah

    2016-05-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, which is mostly caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene. The WFS1 gene product, which is called wolframin, is thought to regulate the function of endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum has a critical role in protein folding and material transportation within the cell or to the surface of the cell. Identification of new mutations in WFS1 gene will unravel the molecular pathology of WS. The aim of this case report study is to describe a novel mutation in exon 4 of the WFS1 gene (c.330C>A) in a 9-year-old boy with WS.

  1. Phenotype and genotype in 52 patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome caused by EP300 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergelot, Patricia; Van Belzen, Martine; Van Gils, Julien; Afenjar, Alexandra; Armour, Christine M; Arveiler, Benoit; Beets, Lex; Burglen, Lydie; Busa, Tiffany; Collet, Marie; Deforges, Julie; de Vries, Bert B A; Dominguez Garrido, Elena; Dorison, Nathalie; Dupont, Juliette; Francannet, Christine; Garciá-Minaúr, Sixto; Gabau Vila, Elisabeth; Gebre-Medhin, Samuel; Gener Querol, Blanca; Geneviève, David; Gérard, Marion; Gervasini, Cristina Giovanna; Goldenberg, Alice; Josifova, Dragana; Lachlan, Katherine; Maas, Saskia; Maranda, Bruno; Moilanen, Jukka S; Nordgren, Ann; Parent, Philippe; Rankin, Julia; Reardon, Willie; Rio, Marlène; Roume, Joëlle; Shaw, Adam; Smigiel, Robert; Sojo, Amaia; Solomon, Benjamin; Stembalska, Agnieszka; Stumpel, Constance; Suarez, Francisco; Terhal, Paulien; Thomas, Simon; Touraine, Renaud; Verloes, Alain; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Wincent, Josephine; Peters, Dorien J M; Bartsch, Oliver; Larizza, Lidia; Lacombe, Didier; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2016-12-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a developmental disorder characterized by a typical face and distal limbs abnormalities, intellectual disability, and a vast number of other features. Two genes are known to cause RSTS, CREBBP in 60% and EP300 in 8-10% of clinically diagnosed cases. Both paralogs act in chromatin remodeling and encode for transcriptional co-activators interacting with >400 proteins. Up to now 26 individuals with an EP300 mutation have been published. Here, we describe the phenotype and genotype of 42 unpublished RSTS patients carrying EP300 mutations and intragenic deletions and offer an update on another 10 patients. We compare the data to 308 individuals with CREBBP mutations. We demonstrate that EP300 mutations cause a phenotype that typically resembles the classical RSTS phenotype due to CREBBP mutations to a great extent, although most facial signs are less marked with the exception of a low-hanging columella. The limb anomalies are more similar to those in CREBBP mutated individuals except for angulation of thumbs and halluces which is very uncommon in EP300 mutated individuals. The intellectual disability is variable but typically less marked whereas the microcephaly is more common. All types of mutations occur but truncating mutations and small rearrangements are most common (86%). Missense mutations in the HAT domain are associated with a classical RSTS phenotype but otherwise no genotype-phenotype correlation is detected. Pre-eclampsia occurs in 12/52 mothers of EP300 mutated individuals versus in 2/59 mothers of CREBBP mutated individuals, making pregnancy with an EP300 mutated fetus the strongest known predictor for pre-eclampsia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Identification and functional analysis of SOX10 missense mutations in different subtypes of Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoui, Asma; Watanabe, Yuli; Touraine, Renaud; Baral, Viviane; Goossens, Michel; Pingault, Veronique; Bondurand, Nadege

    2011-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disorder characterized by pigmentation defects and sensorineural deafness, classified into four clinical subtypes, WS1-S4. Whereas the absence of additional features characterizes WS2, association with Hirschsprung disease defines WS4. WS is genetically heterogeneous, with six genes already identified, including SOX10. About 50 heterozygous SOX10 mutations have been described in patients presenting with WS2 or WS4, with or without myelination defects of the peripheral and central nervous system (PCWH, Peripheral demyelinating neuropathy-Central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy-Waardenburg syndrome-Hirschsprung disease, or PCW, PCWH without HD). The majority are truncating mutations that most often remove the main functional domains of the protein. Only three missense mutations have been thus far reported. In the present study, novel SOX10 missense mutations were found in 11 patients and were examined for effects on SOX10 characteristics and functions. The mutations were associated with various phenotypes, ranging from WS2 to PCWH. All tested mutations were found to be deleterious. Some mutants presented with partial cytoplasmic redistribution, some lost their DNA-binding and/or transactivation capabilities on various tissue-specific target genes. Intriguingly, several mutants were redistributed in nuclear foci. Whether this phenomenon is a cause or a consequence of mutation-associated pathogenicity remains to be determined, but this observation could help to identify new SOX10 modes of action. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Mutational Analysis of PTPN11 Gene in Taiwanese Children with Noonan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Sui Hung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Noonan syndrome (NS is an autosomal dominant disorder presenting with characteristic facies, short stature, skeletal anomalies, and congenital heart defects. Mutations in protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 11 (PTPN11, encoding SHP-2, account for 33-50% of NS. This study screened for mutations in the PTPN11 gene in 34 Taiwanese patients with NS. Mutation analysis of the 15 coding exons and exon/intron boundaries was performed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the PTPN11 gene. We identified 10 different missense mutations in 13 (38% patients, including a novel missense mutation (855T > G, F285L. These mutations were clustered in exon 3 (n = 6 encoding the N-SH2 domain, exon 4 (n = 2 encoding the C-SH2 domain, and in exons 8 (n = 2 and 13 (n = 3 encoding the PTP domain. In conclusion, this study provides further support that PTPN11 mutations are responsible for Noonan syndrome in Taiwanese patients. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2:169-172

  4. Agrin mutations lead to a congenital myasthenic syndrome with distal muscle weakness and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Sophie; Chaouch, Amina; Torbergsen, Torberg; Bauché, Stéphanie; de Bruyckere, Elodie; Fontenille, Marie-Joséphine; Horn, Morten A; van Ghelue, Marijke; Løseth, Sissel; Issop, Yasmin; Cox, Daniel; Müller, Juliane S; Evangelista, Teresinha; Stålberg, Erik; Ioos, Christine; Barois, Annie; Brochier, Guy; Sternberg, Damien; Fournier, Emmanuel; Hantaï, Daniel; Abicht, Angela; Dusl, Marina; Laval, Steven H; Griffin, Helen; Eymard, Bruno; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2014-09-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare diseases resulting from impaired neuromuscular transmission. Their clinical hallmark is fatigable muscle weakness associated with a decremental muscle response to repetitive nerve stimulation and frequently related to postsynaptic defects. Distal myopathies form another clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of primary muscle disorders where weakness and atrophy are restricted to distal muscles, at least initially. In both congenital myasthenic syndromes and distal myopathies, a significant number of patients remain genetically undiagnosed. Here, we report five patients from three unrelated families with a strikingly homogenous clinical entity combining congenital myasthenia with distal muscle weakness and atrophy reminiscent of a distal myopathy. MRI and neurophysiological studies were compatible with mild myopathy restricted to distal limb muscles, but decrement (up to 72%) in response to 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation pointed towards a neuromuscular transmission defect. Post-exercise increment (up to 285%) was observed in the distal limb muscles in all cases suggesting presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analyses of muscle end-plate regions showed synaptic remodelling with denervation-reinnervation events. We performed whole-exome sequencing in two kinships and Sanger sequencing in one isolated case and identified five new recessive mutations in the gene encoding agrin. This synaptic proteoglycan with critical function at the neuromuscular junction was previously found mutated in more typical forms of congenital myasthenic syndrome. In our patients, we found two missense mutations residing in the N-terminal agrin domain, which reduced acetylcholine receptors clustering activity of agrin in vitro. Our findings expand the spectrum of congenital myasthenic syndromes due to agrin mutations and show an unexpected

  5. A novel mitochondrial mutation m.8989G>C associated with neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa - the NARP syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duno, Morten; Wibrand, Flemming; Baggesen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    mitochondrial point mutation, m.8989G>C, in a patient presenting with neuropathy, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa constituting the classical NARP phenotype. This mutation alters the amino acid right next to canonical NARP mutation. We suggest that classic NARP syndrome relates to a defined dysfunction of p...

  6. Variable clinical expressivity of STAT3 mutation in hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome: genetic and clinical studies of six patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolach, Ofir; Kuijpers, Taco; Ben-Ari, Josef; Gavrieli, Ronit; Feinstein-Goren, Neta; Alders, Marielle; Garty, Ben Zion; Wolach, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant Hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is a rare and complex primary immunodeficiency that affects multiple systems. Mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) gene cause AD-HIES. These mutations have a dominant-negative effect and the presence of such mutations

  7. WS1 gene mutation analysis of Wolfram syndrome in a Chinese patient and a systematic review of literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang; Yu, Man-li; Wang, Jia-feng; Gao, Cong-rong; Chen, Zhong-jin

    2010-10-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a rare hereditary disease characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. The outcome of this disease is always poor. WFS1 gene mutation is the main cause of this disease. A patient with diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, renal tract disorder, psychiatric abnormality, and cataract was diagnosed with Wolfram syndrome. Mutations in open reading frame (ORF) of WFS1 gene was analyzed by sequencing. Mutations in WFS1 gene was also summarized by a systematic review in Pubmed and Chinese biological and medical database. Sequencing of WFS1 gene in this patient showed a new mutation, 1962G>A, and two other non-sense mutations, 2433A>G and 2565G>A. Systematic review included 219 patients in total and identified 172 WFS1 gene mutations, most of which were located in Exon 8. These mutations in WFS1 gene might be useful in prenatal diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome.

  8. The genetic basis of Brugada syndrome: a mutation update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Jørgensen, Poul; Schlamowitz, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    of inheritance with an average prevalence of 5:10,000 worldwide. Currently, more than 100 mutations in seven genes have been associated with BrS. Loss-of-function mutations in SCN5A, which encodes the alpha-subunit of the Na(v)1.5 sodium ion channel conducting the depolarizing I(Na) current, causes 15-20% of Br......S cases. A few mutations have been described in GPD1L, which encodes glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-1 like protein; CACNA1C, which encodes the alpha-subunit of the Ca(v)1.2 ion channel conducting the depolarizing I(L,Ca) current; CACNB2, which encodes the stimulating beta2-subunit of the Ca(v)1.2 ion...

  9. PTPN11 mutations in Noonan syndrome: molecular spectrum, genotype-phenotype correlation, and phenotypic heterogeneity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tartaglia, M.; Kalidas, K.; Shaw, A.; Song, X.; Musat, D.L.; Burgt, C.J.A.M. van der; Brunner, H.G.; Bertola, D.R.; Crosby, A.; Ion, A.; Kucherlapati, R.S.; Jeffery, S.; Patton, M.A.; Gelb, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphia, short stature, cardiac defects, and skeletal malformations. We recently demonstrated that mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the non-receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 (src homology region 2-domain

  10. New mutations in the NHS gene in Nance-Horan Syndrome families from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florijn, Ralph J.; Loves, Willem; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, Liesbeth J. J. M.; Mannens, Marcel M. A. M.; Tijmes, Nel; Brooks, Simon P.; Hardcastle, Alison J.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the NHS gene cause Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS), a rare X-chromosomal recessive disorder with variable features, including congenital cataract, microphthalmia, a peculiar form of the ear and dental anomalies. We investigated the NHS gene in four additional families with NHS from the

  11. Prognostic implications of mutation-specific QTc standard deviation in congenital long QT syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathias, Andrew; Moss, Arthur J.; Lopes, Coeli M.; Barsheshet, Alon; McNitt, Scott; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer L.; Locati, Emanuela H.; Ackerman, Michael J.; Benhorin, Jesaia; Kaufman, Elizabeth S.; Platonov, Pyotr G.; Qi, Ming; Shimizu, Wataru; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Michael Vincent, G.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Zhang, Li; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2013-01-01

    Individual corrected QT interval (QTc) may vary widely among carriers of the same long QT syndrome (LQTS) mutation. Currently, neither the mechanism nor the implications of this variable penetrance are well understood. To hypothesize that the assessment of QTc variance in patients with congenital

  12. Mutations of the catalytic subunit of RAB3GAP cause Warburg Micro syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aligianis, Irene A; Johnson, Colin A; Gissen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Warburg Micro syndrome (WARBM1) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental abnormalities of the eye and central nervous system and by microgenitalia. We identified homozygous inactivating mutations in RAB3GAP, encoding RAB3 GTPase activating protein, a key regulator...

  13. Determinants of adherence to recommendations for cancer prevention among Lynch Syndrome mutation carriers : A qualitative exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Annemiek; Vrieling, Alina; Murugesu, Laxsini; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Kampman, Ellen; Hoedjes, Meeke

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lynch Syndrome (LS) mutation carriers are at high risk for various cancer types, particularly colorectal cancer. Adherence to lifestyle and body weight recommendations for cancer prevention may lower this risk. To promote adherence to these recommendations, knowledge on determinants of

  14. Altered intracellular localization and mobility of SBDS protein upon mutation in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orelio, Claudia; van der Sluis, Renée M.; Verkuijlen, Paul; Nethe, Micha; Hordijk, Peter L.; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2011-01-01

    Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome (SDS) is a rare inherited disease caused by mutations in the SBDS gene. Hematopoietic defects, exocrine pancreas dysfunction and short stature are the most prominent clinical features. To gain understanding of the molecular properties of the ubiquitously expressed SBDS

  15. Determinants of adherence to recommendations for cancer prevention among Lynch Syndrome mutation carriers: a qualitative exploration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Vrieling, A.; Murugesu, L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Kampman, E.; Hoedjes, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lynch Syndrome (LS) mutation carriers are at high risk for various cancer types, particularly colorectal cancer. Adherence to lifestyle and body weight recommendations for cancer prevention may lower this risk. To promote adherence to these recommendations, knowledge on determinants of

  16. Development of lymphoma in Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) and its relationship to Fas gene mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppema, Sibrand; Maggio, Ewerton; van den Berg, Anke

    Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is generally the result of a mutation in genes associated with apoptosis, like Fas, Fas ligand, Casp 8 and Casp 10. As a result, the normal homeostasis of T- and B-lymphocytes is disturbed and a proliferation of polyclonal T lymphocytes occurs. This

  17. Identification of a novel STAT3 mutation in a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Trine H; Jakobsen, Marianne; Larsen, Carsten S

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome presenting with recurrent staphylococcal abscesses, pneumonia, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and report the identification of a novel STAT3 mutation at amino acid position 621, which has not previously been described. In addition, we...

  18. Brugada syndrome and calcium channel mutation in a patient with congenital deaf mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Canpolat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge, for the first time in the literature, we described a congenitally deaf-mute patient with Brugada syndrome (BrS in whom a mutation in L-type Ca+2 channel [CACNA1C (Cav1.2α1] was identified.

  19. USH2A mutation analysis in 70 Dutch families with Usher syndrome type II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Brinke, H. te; Weston, M.D.; Claassen, A.M.W.; Orten, D.J.; Weekamp, H.; Aarem, A. van; Huygen, P.L.M.; Deutman, A.F.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Kimberling, W.J.; Kremer, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is characterised by moderate to severe high-frequency hearing impairment, progressive visual loss due to retinitis pigmentosa and intact vestibular responses. Three loci are known for USH2, however, only the gene for USH2a (USH2A) has been identified. Mutation analysis

  20. Progressive Encephalopathy in Boys with Symptoms of Rett Syndrome and MECP2 Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Four young boys with neonatal onset of encephalopathy, a progressive course, and MECP2 mutations are reported from the University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL Symptoms suggestive of Rett syndrome included failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency, microcephaly, hypotonia, movement disorder, with myoclonic, dyskinetic, and choreiform patterns, and repetitive face scratching or nose rubbing stereotypies.

  1. Familial Mediterranean fever, Inflammation and Nephrotic Syndrome: Fibrillary Glomerulopathy and the M680I Missense Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semerdjian Ronald J

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by inflammatory serositis (fever, peritonitis, synovitis and pleuritis. The gene locus responsible for FMF was identified in 1992 and localized to the short arm of chromosome 16. In 1997, a specific FMF gene locus, MEFV, was discovered to encode for a protein, pyrin that mediates inflammation. To date, more than forty missense mutations are known to exist. The diversity of mutations identified has provided insight into the variability of clinical presentation and disease progression. Case Report We report an individual heterozygous for the M680I gene mutation with a clinical diagnosis of FMF using the Tel-Hashomer criteria. Subsequently, the patient developed nephrotic syndrome with biopsy-confirmed fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN. Further diagnostic studies were unremarkable with clinical workup negative for amyloidosis or other secondary causes of nephrotic syndrome. Discussion Individuals with FMF are at greater risk for developing nephrotic syndrome. The most serious etiology is amyloidosis (AA variant with renal involvement, ultimately progressing to end-stage renal disease. Other known renal diseases in the FMF population include IgA nephropathy, IgM nephropathy, Henoch-Schönlein purpura as well as polyarteritis nodosa. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first association between FMF and the M680I mutation later complicated by nephrotic syndrome and fibrillary glomerulonephritis.

  2. Mutation and phenotypic spectrum in patients with cardio-facio-cutaneous and Costello syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, A.L.; Albrecht, B.; Arici, C.; Burgt, I. van der; Buske, A.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.; Heller, R.; Horn, D.; Hubner, C.A.; Korenke, C.G.; Konig, R.; Kress, W.; Kruger, G.; Meinecke, P.; Mucke, J.; Plecko, B.; Rossier, E.; Schinzel, A.; Schulze, A.; Seemanova, E.; Seidel, H.; Spranger, S.; Tuysuz, B.; Uhrig, S.; Wieczorek, D.; Kutsche, K.; Zenker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) and Costello syndrome (CS) are congenital disorders with a significant clinical overlap. The recent discovery of heterozygous mutations in genes encoding components of the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway in both CFC and CS suggested a similar underlying pathogenesis of these two

  3. Subacute Budd-Chiari syndrome associated with polycythemia vera and factor V Leiden mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simsek, S; Verheesen, RV; Haagsma, EB; Lourens, J

    We describe a 48-year-old caucasian woman with a subacute Budd-Chiari syndrome attributed to the presence of polycythaemia vera, heterozygosity for the factor V Leiden mutation and the use of an oral contraceptive pill. Two diagnostic pitfalls were encountered. First, on CT scanning of the abdomen

  4. Noonan syndrome-causing genes: Molecular update and an assessment of the mutation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihssane El Bouchikhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Noonan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, congenital heart disease and facial dysmorphia with an incidence of 1/1000 to 2500 live births. Up to now, several genes have been proven to be involved in the disturbance of the transduction signal through the RAS-MAP Kinase pathway and the manifestation of Noonan syndrome. The first gene described was PTPN11, followed by SOS1, RAF1, KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, MAP2K1, and RIT1, and recently SOS2, LZTR1, and A2ML1, among others. Progressively, the physiopathology and molecular etiology of most signs of Noonan syndrome have been demonstrated, and inheritance patterns as well as genetic counseling have been established. In this review, we summarize the data concerning clinical features frequently observed in Noonan syndrome, and then, we describe the molecular etiology as well as the physiopathology of most Noonan syndrome-causing genes. In the second part of this review, we assess the mutational rate of Noonan syndrome-causing genes reported up to now in most screening studies. This review should give clinicians as well as geneticists a full view of the molecular aspects of Noonan syndrome and the authentic prevalence of the mutational events of its causing-genes. It will also facilitate laying the groundwork for future molecular diagnosis research, and the development of novel treatment strategies.

  5. A novel NHS mutation causes Nance-Horan Syndrome in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qi; Li, Yunping; Kousar, Rizwana; Guo, Hui; Peng, Fenglan; Zheng, Yu; Yang, Xiaohua; Long, Zhigao; Tian, Runyi; Xia, Kun; Lin, Haiying; Pan, Qian

    2017-01-07

    Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS) (OMIM: 302350) is a rare X-linked developmental disorder characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts, with occasional dental anomalies, characteristic dysmorphic features, brachymetacarpia and mental retardation. Carrier females exhibit similar manifestations that are less severe than in affected males. Here, we report a four-generation Chinese family with multiple affected individuals presenting Nance-Horan Syndrome. Whole-exome sequencing combined with RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing was used to search for a genetic cause underlying the disease phenotype. Whole-exome sequencing identified in all affected individuals of the family a novel donor splicing site mutation (NM_198270: c.1045 + 2T > A) in intron 4 of the gene NHS, which maps to chromosome Xp22.13. The identified mutation results in an RNA processing defect causing a 416-nucleotide addition to exon 4 of the mRNA transcript, likely producing a truncated NHS protein. The donor splicing site mutation NM_198270: c.1045 + 2T > A of the NHS gene is the causative mutation in this Nance-Horan Syndrome family. This research broadens the spectrum of NHS gene mutations, contributing to our understanding of the molecular genetics of NHS.

  6. [Analysis of USH2A gene mutation in a Chinese family affected with Usher syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Mingchang; Wang, Qiufen; Liu, Mugen

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the disease-causing mutation in a Chinese family affected with Usher syndrome type II. All of the 11 members from the family underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and hearing test, and their genomic DNA were isolated from venous leukocytes. PCR and direct sequencing of USH2A gene were performed for the proband. Wild type and mutant type minigene vectors containing exon 42, intron 42 and exon 43 of the USH2A gene were constructed and transfected into Hela cells by lipofectamine reagent. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was carried out to verify the splicing of the minigenes. Pedigree analysis and clinical diagnosis indicated that the patients have suffered from autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type II. DNA sequencing has detected a homozygous c.8559-2A>G mutation of the USH2A gene in the proband, which has co-segregated with the disease in the family. The mutation has affected a conserved splice site in intron 42, which has led to inactivation of the splice site. Minigene experiment has confirmed the retaining of intron 42 in mature mRNA. The c.8559-2A>G mutation in the USH2A gene probably underlies the Usher syndrome type II in this family. The splice site mutation has resulted in abnormal splicing of USH2A pre-mRNA.

  7. Functional analysis of Waardenburg syndrome-associated PAX3 and SOX10 mutations: report of a dominant-negative SOX10 mutation in Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Hongsheng; Luo, Hunjin; An, Jing; Sun, Lin; Mei, Lingyun; He, Chufeng; Jiang, Lu; Jiang, Wen; Xia, Kun; Li, Jia-Da; Feng, Yong

    2012-03-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder resulting from melanocyte defects, with varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and inner ear. WS is classified into four subtypes (WS1-WS4) based on additional symptoms. PAX3 and SOX10 are two transcription factors that can activate the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a critical transcription factor for melanocyte development. Mutations of PAX3 are associated with WS1 and WS3, while mutations of SOX10 cause WS2 and WS4. Recently, we identified some novel WS-associated mutations in PAX3 and SOX10 in a cohort of Chinese WS patients. Here, we further identified an E248fsX30 SOX10 mutation in a family of WS2. We analyzed the subcellular distribution, expression and in vitro activity of two PAX3 mutations (p.H80D, p.H186fsX5) and four SOX10 mutations (p.E248fsX30, p.G37fsX58, p.G38fsX69 and p.R43X). Except H80D PAX3, which retained partial activity, the other mutants were unable to activate MITF promoter. The H80D PAX3 and E248fsX30 SOX10 were localized in the nucleus as wild type (WT) proteins, whereas the other mutant proteins were distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Furthermore, E248fsX30 SOX10 protein retained the DNA-binding activity and showed dominant-negative effect on WT SOX10. However, E248fsX30 SOX10 protein seems to decay faster than the WT one, which may underlie the mild WS2 phenotype caused by this mutation.

  8. AR mutations in 28 patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome (Prader grade 0-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Gong, Chunxiu; Wang, Xiou; Qin, Miao

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutation profiles of Chinese patients exhibiting severe androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) phenotypes. The present study enrolled 28 patients with genetically diagnosed AIS, who presented with severe phenotypes (Prader grade 0-3). Patients and some family members were screened via amplification and sequencing of their AR exons 1-8, including the corresponding intronic flanking regions. Luteinizing (LH), follicle-stimulating (FSH), and testosterone (T) hormone levels were found to be slightly, but not significantly, higher in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) than in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) (P>0.05). We identified 24 different AR mutations, including 12 that were novel. Ten patients (cases 2, 3, 10, 28, 11, 12, 19, 20, 24, and 25) were found to carry five recurrent mutations (p.Y572S, p.P914S, p.S176R, p.Y782N, and p.R841H); of these, p.Y572S, p.S176R, and p.Y782N were novel. Among the mutations identified in patients with CAIS, six (66.7%) were characterized as single-nucleotide missense mutations, and six (66.7%) were found to be located in the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD). Among the mutations identified in patients with PAIS, 15 (93.8%) were found to be missense, and 11 (68.8%) were found to be located in the LBD. Patients 10 and 28 were determined to harbor the same missense mutation (p.P914S), but were diagnosed with CAIS and PAIS, respectively. Sex hormone levels were slightly, but not significantly, elevated in patients with CAIS compared to those with PAIS. Missense mutations spanning AR exons 1-8 were the predominant form of identified mutations, and these were mostly located in the AR LBD. Approximately 50% of the identified mutations were novel, and have enriched the AR gene-mutation database. Patients harboring identical mutations were in some instances found to exhibit divergent phenotypes.

  9. Variable expressivity of FGF3 mutations associated with deafness and LAMM syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffith Andrew J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recessive mutations of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3 can cause LAMM syndrome (OMIM 610706, characterized by fully penetrant complete labyrinthine aplasia, microtia and microdontia. Methods We performed a prospective molecular genetic and clinical study of families segregating hearing loss linked to FGF3 mutations. Ten affected individuals from three large Pakistani families segregating FGF3 mutations were imaged with CT, MRI, or both to detect inner ear abnormalities. We also modeled the three dimensional structure of FGF3 to better understand the structural consequences of the three missense mutations. Results Two families segregated reported mutations (p.R104X and p.R95W and one family segregated a novel mutation (p.R132GfsX26 of FGF3. All individuals homozygous for p.R104X or p.R132GfsX26 had fully penetrant features of LAMM syndrome. However, recessive p.R95W mutations were associated with nearly normal looking auricles and variable inner ear structural phenotypes, similar to that reported for a Somali family also segregating p.R95W. This suggests that the mild phenotype is not entirely due to genetic background. Molecular modeling result suggests a less drastic effect of p.R95W on FGF3 function compared with known missense mutations detected in fully penetrant LAMM syndrome. Since we detected significant intrafamilial variability of the inner ear structural phenotype in the family segregating p.R95W, we also sequenced FGF10 as a likely candidate for a modifier. However, we did not find any sequence variation, pointing out that a larger sample size will be needed to map and identify a modifier. We also observed a mild to moderate bilateral conductive hearing loss in three carriers of p.R95W, suggesting either a semi-dominant effect of this mutant allele of FGF3, otitis media, or a consequence of genetic background in these three family members. Conclusions We noted a less prominent dental and external ear phenotype in

  10. Receptor tyrosine kinase mutations in developmental syndromes and cancer: two sides of the same coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonell, Laura M.; Kernohan, Kristin D.; Boycott, Kym M.; Sawyer, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a family of ligand-binding cell surface receptors that regulate a wide range of essential cellular activities, including proliferation, differentiation, cell-cycle progression, survival and apoptosis. As such, these proteins play an important role during development and throughout life; germline mutations in genes encoding RTKs cause several developmental syndromes, while somatic alterations contribute to the pathogenesis of many aggressive cancers. This creates an interesting paradigm in which mutation timing, type and location in a gene leads to different cell signaling and biological responses, and ultimately phenotypic outcomes. In this review, we highlight the roles of RTKs in developmental disorders and cancer. The multifaceted roles of these receptors, their genetic signatures and their signaling during developmental morphogenesis and oncogenesis are discussed. Additionally, we propose that comparative analysis of RTK mutations responsible for developmental syndromes may shed light on those driving tumorigenesis. PMID:26152202

  11. Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome due to a BMPR1A mutation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Riordan, J M

    2010-06-01

    The conditions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS) and Hereditary Mixed Polyposis Syndrome (HMPS) are associated with an increased risk of colorectal carcinoma. The genetic mechanisms which explain these conditions have until recently been poorly understood. Recent interest has focused on the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signalling pathway and, in particular, on mutations in the SMAD4 gene. However, not all cases of JPS and HMPS have mutations in SMAD4 and focus has now shifted to other components of the TGF-beta pathway to clarify the genetic mechanisms involved in these conditions. In this report, we describe the significance of a bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1A gene mutation in an Irish family.

  12. Fifteen novel FBN1 mutations causing Marfan syndrome detected by heteroduplex analysis of genomic amplicons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijbroek, G.; Sood, S.; McIntosh, I. [John Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1), a component of the extracellular microfibril, cause the Marfan syndrome (MFS). This statement is supported by the observations that the classic Marfan phenotype cosegregates with intragenic and/or flanking marker alleles in all families tested and that a significant number of FBN1 mutations have been identified in affected individuals. We have now devised a method to screen the entire coding sequence and flanking splice junctions of FBN1. On completion for a panel of nine probands with classic MFS, six new mutations were identified that accounted for disease in seven (78%) of nine patients. Nine additional new mutations have been characterized in the early stages of a larger screening project. These 15 mutations were equally distributed throughout the gene and, with one exception, were specific to single families. One-third of mutations created premature termination codons, and 6 of 15 substituted residues with putative significance for calcium finding to epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. Mutations causing severe and rapidly progressive disease that presents in the neonatal period can occur in a larger region of the gene than previously demonstrated, and the nature of the mutation is as important a determinant as its location, in predisposing to this phenotype. 56 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Novel USH2A mutations in Israeli patients with retinitis pigmentosa and Usher syndrome type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiserman, Nadia; Obolensky, Alexey; Banin, Eyal; Sharon, Dror

    2007-02-01

    To identify USH2A mutations in Israeli patients with autosomal-recessive Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Patients from 95 families with RP and 4 with USH2 were clinically evaluated. USH2A exons 2-72 were scanned for mutations using single-strand conformation and sequencing analyses. The frequency of novel missense changes was determined in patients and controls using restriction endonucleases. The analysis revealed 3 USH2A mutations, 2 of which are novel, in 2 families with USH2 and a large family (MOL0051) with both USH2 and RP. Compound heterozygotes for 2 null mutations (Thr80fs and Arg737stop) in MOL0051 suffered from USH2 while compound heterozygotes for 1 of the null mutations and a novel missense mutation (Gly4674Arg) had nonsyndromic RP. Our results support the involvement of USH2A in nonsyndromic RP and we report here of a second, novel, missense mutation in this gene causing autosomal-recessive RP. Possible involvement of USH2A should be considered in the molecular genetic evaluation of patients with autosomal-recessive RP. Understanding the mechanism by which different USH2A mutations cause either USH2 or RP may assist in the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  14. FATP4 missense and nonsense mutations cause similar features in Ichthyosis Prematurity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Niklas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ichthyosis Prematurity Syndrome (IPS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by premature birth, non-scaly ichthyosis and atopic manifestations. The disease was recently shown to be caused by mutations in the gene encoding the fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 and a specific reduction in the incorporation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA into cellular lipids. Findings We screened probands from five families segregating IPS for mutations in the FATP4 gene. Four probands were compound heterozygous for four different mutations of which three are novel. Four patients were heterozygous and one patient homozygous for the previously reported non-sense mutation p.C168X (c.504c > a. All patients had clinical characteristics of IPS and a similar clinical course. Conclusions Missense mutations and non-sense mutations in FATP4 are associated with similar clinical features suggesting that missense mutations have a severe impact on FATP4 function. The results broaden the mutational spectrum in FATP4 associated with IPS for molecular diagnosis of and further functional analysis of FATP4.

  15. Somatic FAS mutations are common in patients with genetically undefined autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdell, Kennichi C; Niemela, Julie E; Price, Susan; Davis, Joie; Hornung, Ronald L; Oliveira, João Bosco; Puck, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Elaine S; Pittaluga, Stefania; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Fleisher, Thomas A; Rao, V Koneti

    2010-06-24

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by childhood onset of lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune cytopenias, elevated numbers of double-negative T (DNT) cells, and increased risk of lymphoma. Most cases of ALPS are associated with germline mutations of the FAS gene (type Ia), whereas some cases have been noted to have a somatic mutation of FAS primarily in their DNT cells. We sought to determine the proportion of patients with somatic FAS mutations among a group of our ALPS patients with no detectable germline mutation and to further characterize them. We found more than one-third (12 of 31) of the patients tested had somatic FAS mutations, primarily involving the intracellular domain of FAS resulting in loss of normal FAS signaling. Similar to ALPS type Ia patients, the somatic ALPS patients had increased DNT cell numbers and elevated levels of serum vitamin B(12), interleukin-10, and sFAS-L. These data support testing for somatic FAS mutations in DNT cells from ALPS patients with no detectable germline mutation and a similar clinical and laboratory phenotype to that of ALPS type Ia. These findings also highlight the potential role for somatic mutations in the pathogenesis of nonmalignant and/or autoimmune hematologic conditions in adults and children.

  16. [Gene mutation analysis and prenatal diagnosis of a family with Bartter syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Ma, Na; Li, Xiu-Rong; Gong, Fei; DU, Juan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the mutation of related genes and prenatal diagnosis of a family with Bartter syndrome (BS). The high-throughput capture sequencing technique and PCR-Sanger sequencing were used to detect pathogenic genes in the proband of this family and analyze the whole family at the genomic level. After the genetic cause was clarified, the amniotic fluid was collected from the proband's mother who was pregnant for 5 months for prenatal diagnosis. The proband carried compound heterozygous mutations of c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) and c.968+2T>A in the CLCNKB gene; c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) had been reported as a pathogenic mutation, and c.968+2T>A was a new mutation. Pedigree analysis showed that the two mutations were inherited from the mother and father, respectively. Prenatal diagnosis showed that the fetus did not inherit the mutations from parents and had no mutations at the two loci. The follow-up visit confirmed that the infant was in a healthy state, which proved the accuracy of genetic diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis. The compound heterozygous mutations c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) and c.968+2T>A in the CLCNKB gene are the cause of BS in the proband, and prenatal diagnosis can prevent the risk of recurrence of BS in this family.

  17. Novel mutations of endothelin-B receptor gene in Pakistani patients with Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Raheela; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Ahmad, Jamil; Awan, Ali Raza

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in EDNRB gene have been reported to cause Waardenburg-Shah syndrome (WS4) in humans. We investigated 17 patients with WS4 for identification of mutations in EDNRB gene using PCR and direct sequencing technique. Four genomic mutations were detected in four patients; a G to C transversion in codon 335 (S335C) in exon 5 and a transition of T to C in codon (S361L) in exon 5, a transition of A to G in codon 277 (L277L) in exon 4, a non coding transversion of T to A at -30 nucleotide position of exon 5. None of these mutations were found in controls. One of the patients harbored two novel mutations (S335C, S361L) in exon 5 and one in Intronic region (-30exon5 A>G). All of the mutations were homozygous and novel except the mutation observed in exon 4. In this study, we have identified 3 novel mutations in EDNRB gene associated with WS4 in Pakistani patients.

  18. [Study of gene mutation and pathogenetic mechanism for a family with Waardenburg syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liao, Xinbin; Liu, Yalan; He, Chufeng; Zhang, Hua; Jiang, Lu; Feng, Yong; Mei, Lingyun

    2017-08-10

    To explore the pathogenetic mechanism of a family affected with Waardenburg syndrome. Clinical data of the family was collected. Potential mutation of the MITF, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes were screened. Plasmids for wild type (WT) and mutant MITF proteins were constructed to determine their exogenous expression and subcellular distribution by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. A heterozygous c.763C>T (p.R255X) mutation was detected in exon 8 of the MITF gene in the proband and all other patients from the family. No pathological mutation of the SOX10 and SNAI2 genes was detected. The DNA sequences of plasmids of MITF wild and mutant MITF R255X were confirmed. Both proteins were detected with the expected size. WT MITF protein only localized in the nucleus, whereas R255X protein showed aberrant localization in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm. The c.763C>T mutation of the MITF gene probably underlies the disease in this family. The mutation can affect the subcellular distribution of MITF proteins in vitro, which may shed light on the molecular mechanism of Waardenburg syndrome caused by mutations of the MITF gene.

  19. Two Novel Mutations Identified in an African-American Child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Morrone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, coagulopathy and late-onset, progressive neurological dysfunction. It also has an “accelerated phase” characterized by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH. The disease is caused by mutations in the CHS1/LYST gene located on chromosome 1, which affects lysosome morphology and function. We report the case of an African-American child with CHS in Case. This 16-month old African-American girl presented with fever and lethargy. The proband had pale skin compared to her parents, with light brown eyes, silvery hair and massive hepatosplenomegaly. Her laboratory evaluation was remarkable for pancytopenia, high serum ferritin and an elevated LDH. Bone marrow aspirate revealed large inclusions in granulocytes and erythrophagocytosis consistent with HLH. Genetic evaluation revealed two novel nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene: c.3622C>T (p.Q1208X and c.11002G>T (p.E3668X. Conclusions. Our patient is one of the few cases of CHS reported in the African American population. We identified 2 nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene, the first mutation analysis published of an African-American child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. These two mutations predict a severe phenotype and thus identification of these mutations has an important clinical significance in CHS.

  20. MLL2 mutation detection in 86 patients with Kabuki syndrome: a genotype-phenotype study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrythanasis, P; van Bon, B W; Steehouwer, M; Rodríguez-Santiago, B; Simpson, M; Dias, P; Anderlid, B M; Arts, P; Bhat, M; Augello, B; Biamino, E; Bongers, E M H F; Del Campo, M; Cordeiro, I; Cueto-González, A M; Cuscó, I; Deshpande, C; Frysira, E; Izatt, L; Flores, R; Galán, E; Gener, B; Gilissen, C; Granneman, S M; Hoyer, J; Yntema, H G; Kets, C M; Koolen, D A; Marcelis, C l; Medeira, A; Micale, L; Mohammed, S; de Munnik, S A; Nordgren, A; Psoni, S; Reardon, W; Revencu, N; Roscioli, T; Ruiterkamp-Versteeg, M; Santos, H G; Schoumans, J; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, J H M; Silengo, M C; Toledo, L; Vendrell, T; van der Burgt, I; van Lier, B; Zweier, C; Reymond, A; Trembath, R C; Perez-Jurado, L; Dupont, J; de Vries, B B A; Brunner, H G; Veltman, J A; Merla, G; Antonarakis, S E; Hoischen, A

    2013-12-01

    Recently, pathogenic variants in the MLL2 gene were identified as the most common cause of Kabuki (Niikawa-Kuroki) syndrome (MIM#147920). To further elucidate the genotype-phenotype correlation, we studied a large cohort of 86 clinically defined patients with Kabuki syndrome (KS) for mutations in MLL2. All patients were assessed using a standardized phenotype list and all were scored using a newly developed clinical score list for KS (MLL2-Kabuki score 0-10). Sequencing of the full coding region and intron-exon boundaries of MLL2 identified a total of 45 likely pathogenic mutations (52%): 31 nonsense, 10 missense and four splice-site mutations, 34 of which were novel. In five additional patients, novel, i.e. non-dbSNP132 variants of clinically unknown relevance, were identified. Patients with likely pathogenic nonsense or missense MLL2 mutations were usually more severely affected (median 'MLL2-Kabuki score' of 6) as compared to the patients without MLL2 mutations (median 'MLL2-Kabuki score' of 5), a significant difference (p < 0.0014). Several typical facial features such as large dysplastic ears, arched eyebrows with sparse lateral third, blue sclerae, a flat nasal tip with a broad nasal root, and a thin upper and a full lower lip were observed more often in mutation positive patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Mutation screening of MITF gene in patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Yang, Shu-Zhi; Liu, Jun; Han, Bing; Wang, Guo-Jian; Zhang, Xin; Kang, Dong-Yang; Dai, Pu; Young, Wie-Yen; Yuan, Hui-Jun

    2008-04-01

    Warrgenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) is the most common autosomal dominantly-inherited syndrome with hearing loss. MITF (microphthalmia associated transcription factor)is a basic-helix-loop-helix-luecine zipper (bHLHZip) factor which regulates expression of tyrosinase, and is involved in melanocyte differentiation. Mutations in MITF associated with WS2 have been identified in some but not all affected families. Here, we report a three-generation Chinese family with a point mutation in the MITF gene causing WS2. The proband exhibits congenital severe sensorineural hearing loss, heterochromia iridis and facial freckles. One of family members manifests sensorineural deafness, and the other patients show premature greying or/and freckles. This mutation, heterozygous deletion c.639delA, creates a stop codon in exon 7 and is predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking normal interaction with its target DNA motif. This mutation is a novel mutation and the third case identified in exon 7 of MITF in WS2. Though there is only one base pair distance between this novel mutation and the other two documented cases and similar amino acids change, significant difference is seen in clinical phenotype, which suggests genetic background may play an important role.

  2. Myopathic mtDNA Depletion Syndrome Due to Mutation in TK2 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, Elena; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Rodríguez-García, María Elena; Rivera, Henry; Hernández-Laín, Aurelio; Coca-Robinot, David; Fernández-Toral, Joaquín; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel A; Martínez-Azorín, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify the disease gene(s) in a Spanish girl with failure to thrive, muscle weakness, mild facial weakness, elevated creatine kinase, deficiency of mitochondrial complex III and depletion of mtDNA. With whole-exome sequencing data, it was possible to get the whole mtDNA sequencing and discard any pathogenic variant in this genome. The analysis of whole exome uncovered a homozygous pathogenic mutation in thymidine kinase 2 gene ( TK2; NM_004614.4:c.323 C>T, p.T108M). TK2 mutations have been identified mainly in patients with the myopathic form of mtDNA depletion syndromes. This patient presents an atypical TK2-related myopathic form of mtDNA depletion syndromes, because despite having a very low content of mtDNA (TK2 gene in mtDNA depletion syndromes and expanded the phenotypic spectrum.

  3. A novel Noonan syndrome RAF1 mutation: lethal course in a preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ratola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Noonan syndrome is a relatively common and heterogeneous genetic disorder, associated with congenital heart defect in about 50% of the cases. If the defect is not severe, life expectancy is normal. We report a case of Noonan syndrome in a preterm infant with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and lethal outcome associated to acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by Adenovirus pneumonia. A novel mutation in the RAF1 gene was identified: c.782C>G (p.Pro261Arg in heterozygosity, not described previously in the literature. Consequently, the common clinical course in this mutation and its respective contribution to the early fatal outcome is unknown. No conclusion can be established regarding genotype/phenotype correlation.

  4. Neonatal Marfan Syndrome: Report of a Case with an Inherited Splicing Mutation outside the Neonatal Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gloan, Laurianne; Hauet, Quentin; David, Albert; Hanna, Nadine; Arfeuille, Chloé; Arnaud, Pauline; Boileau, Catherine; Romefort, Bénédicte; Benbrik, Nadir; Gournay, Véronique; Joram, Nicolas; Baron, Olivier; Isidor, Bertrand

    2016-02-01

    We report a child and her mother affected by Marfan syndrome. The child presented with a phenotype of neonatal Marfan syndrome, revealed by acute and refractory heart failure, finally leading to death within the first 4 months of life. Her mother had a common clinical presentation. Genetic analysis revealed an inherited FBN1 mutation. This intronic mutation (c.6163+3_6163+6del), undescribed to date, leads to exon 49 skipping, corresponding to in-frame deletion of 42 amino acids (p.Ile2014_Asp2055del). FBN1 next-generation sequencing did not show any argument for mosaicism. Association in the same family of severe neonatal and classical Marfan syndrome illustrates the intrafamilial phenotype variability.

  5. Engineered mutations in fibrillin-1 leading to Marfan syndrome act at the protein, cellular and organismal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyer, Karina A; Reinhardt, Dieter P

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillins are the major components of microfibrils in the extracellular matrix of elastic and non-elastic tissues. They are multi-domain proteins, containing primarily calcium binding epidermal growth factor-like (cbEGF) domains and 8-cysteine/transforming growth factor-beta binding protein-like (TB) domains. Mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene give rise to Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder with clinical complications in the cardiovascular, skeletal, ocular and other organ systems. Here, we review the consequences of engineered Marfan syndrome mutations in fibrillin-1 at the protein, cellular and organismal levels. Representative point mutations associated with Marfan syndrome in affected individuals have been introduced and analyzed in recombinant fibrillin-1 fragments. Those mutations affect fibrillin-1 on a structural and functional level. Mutations which impair folding of cbEGF domains can affect protein trafficking. Protein folding disrupted by some mutations can lead to defective secretion in mutant fibrillin-1 fragments, whereas fragments with other Marfan mutations are secreted normally. Many Marfan mutations render fibrillin-1 more susceptible to proteolysis. There is also evidence that some mutations affect heparin binding. Few mutations have been further analyzed in mouse models. An extensively studied mouse model of Marfan syndrome expresses mouse fibrillin-1 with a missense mutation (p.C1039G). The mice display similar characteristics to human patients with Marfan syndrome. Overall, the analyses of engineered mutations leading to Marfan syndrome provide important insights into the pathogenic molecular mechanisms exerted by mutated fibrillin-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The prognostic impact of mutations in spliceosomal genes for myelodysplastic syndrome patients without ring sideroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Min-Gu; Kim, Hye-Ran; Seo, Bo-Young; Lee, Jun Hyung; Choi, Seok-Yong; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Shin, Jong-Hee; Suh, Soon-Pal; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Shin, Myung-Geun

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in genes that are part of the splicing machinery for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), including MDS without ring sideroblasts (RS), have been widely investigated. The effects of these mutations on clinical outcomes have been diverse and contrasting. We examined a cohort of 129 de novo MDS patients, who did not harbor RS, for mutations affecting three spliceosomal genes (SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2). The mutation rates of SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 were 7.0 %, 7.8 %, and 10.1 %, respectively. Compared with previously reported results, these rates were relatively infrequent. The SRSF2 mutation strongly correlated with old age (P < 0.001), while the mutation status of SF3B1 did not affect overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformation. In contrast, MDS patients with mutations in U2AF1 or SRSF2 exhibited inferior PFS. The U2AF1 mutation was associated with inferior OS in low-risk MDS patients (P = 0.035). The SRSF2 mutation was somewhat associated with AML transformation (P = 0.083). Our findings suggest that the frequencies of the SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 splicing gene mutations in MDS without RS were relatively low. We also demonstrated that the U2AF1 and SRSF2 mutations were associated with an unfavorable prognostic impact in MDS patients without RS. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1493-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  7. Mitochondrial DNA mutation screening of male patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Ying; Li, Hong; Xu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Liang-Xing

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the differences between the genes of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displacement loop (D-loop) region and the Cambridge Reference sequence, in order to screen the mutation sites and investigate the correlation between mutations, clinical parameters and complications associated with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). mtDNA was obtained from male patients with OSAHS in the Zhejiang Province. In total, 60 male patients with OSAHS and 102 healthy adults were assessed to determine the levels of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and high-density and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Furthermore, peripheral mtDNA was extracted and bidirectional sequencing was conducted to enable mutation screening. In the mtDNA D-loop region, 178 mutation sites were identified, of which 115 sites were present in the two groups. The number of non-common sites in the OSAHS group was significantly higher compared with the control group (P0.05). A total of 21 cases in the severe OSAHS group exhibited mutation rates of >10%. In the control group, there were 24 cases where the np73A-G and np263A-G mutations were predominant. The np303-np315 region was identified to be the highly variable region and various mutation forms were observed. Statistically significant differences were observed in the neck perimeter, TG and LDL levels among the OSAHS-no-mutation subgroups (P<0.05) and LDL was shown to be associated with an mtDNA mutation in the OSAHS group. Numerous polymorphic mutation sites were identified in the mtDNA D-loop region of the OSAHS group. Therefore, mtDNA mutation sites may be closely associated with the clinical manifestations and complications of OSAHS.

  8. Mutation spectrum and risk of colorectal cancer in African American families with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindalini, Rodrigo Santa Cruz; Win, Aung Ko; Gulden, Cassandra; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Haile, Robert W; Raymond, Victoria; Stoffel, Elena; Hall, Michael; Llor, Xavier; Ukaegbu, Chinedu I; Solomon, Ilana; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Kalady, Matthew; Blanco, Amie; Terdiman, Jonathan; Shuttlesworth, Gladis A; Lynch, Patrick M; Hampel, Heather; Lynch, Henry T; Jenkins, Mark A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Kupfer, Sonia S

    2015-11-01

    African Americans (AAs) have the highest incidence of and mortality resulting from colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States. Few data are available on genetic and nongenetic risk factors for CRC among AAs. Little is known about cancer risks and mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes in AAs with the most common inherited CRC condition, Lynch syndrome. We aimed to characterize phenotype, mutation spectrum, and risk of CRC in AAs with Lynch syndrome. We performed a retrospective study of AAs with mutations in MMR genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) using databases from 13 US referral centers. We analyzed data on personal and family histories of cancer. Modified segregation analysis conditioned on ascertainment criteria was used to estimate age- and sex-specific CRC cumulative risk, studying members of the mutation-carrying families. We identified 51 AA families with deleterious mutations that disrupt function of the MMR gene product: 31 in MLH1 (61%), 11 in MSH2 (21%), 3 in MSH6 (6%), and 6 in PMS2 (12%); 8 mutations were detected in more than 1 individual, and 11 have not been previously reported. In the 920 members of the 51 families with deleterious mutations, the cumulative risks of CRC at 80 years of age were estimated to be 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.5%-83.9%) for men and 29.7% (95% CI, 8.31%-76.1%) for women. CRC risk was significantly higher among individuals with mutations in MLH1 or MSH2 (hazard ratio, 13.9; 95% CI, 3.44-56.5). We estimate the cumulative risk for CRC in AAs with MMR gene mutations to be similar to that of individuals of European descent with Lynch syndrome. Two-thirds of mutations were found in MLH1, some of which were found in multiple individuals and some that have not been previously reported. Differences in mutation spectrum are likely to reflect the genetic diversity of this population. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyhydramnios, Transient Antenatal Bartter's Syndrome, and MAGED2 Mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laghmani, Kamel; Beck, Bodo B.; Yang, Sung-Sen; Seaayfan, Elie; Wenzel, Andrea; Reusch, Bjorn; Vitzthum, Helga; Priem, Dario; Demaretz, Sylvie; Bergmann, Klasien; Duin, Leonie K.; Goebel, Heike; Mache, Christoph; Thiele, Holger; Bartram, Malte P.; Dombret, Carlos; Altmueller, Janine; Nuernberg, Peter; Benzing, Thomas; Levtchenko, Elena; Seyberth, Hannsjoerg W.; Klaus, Guenter; Yigit, Goekhan; Lin, Shih-Hua; Timmer, Albert; de Koning, Tom J.; Scherjon, Sicco; Schlingmann, Karl P.; Bertrand, Mathieu J. M.; Rinschen, Markus M.; de Backer, Olivier; Konrad, Martin; Koemhoff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Three' pregnancies with male offspring in one family were complicated by severe polyhydramnios and prematurity. One fetus died; the other two had transient massive salt-wasting and polyuria reminiscent of antenatal Bartter's syndrome. METHODS To uncover the molecular cause of this

  10. Novel TGM5 mutations in acral peeling skin syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Jaap J. A. J.; van Geel, Michel; Nellen, Ruud G. L.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; McGrath, John A.; Nanda, Arti; Sprecher, Eli; van Steensel, Maurice A. M.; McLean, W. H. Irwin; Cassidy, Andrew J.

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS, MIM #609796) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by superficial exfoliation and blistering of the volar and dorsal aspects of hands and feet. The level of separation is at the junction of the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. APSS is caused

  11. [Clinical classification and genetic mutation study of two pedigrees with type II Waardenburg syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Yang, Fuwei; Zheng, Hexin; Zhu, Ganghua; Hu, Peng; Wu, Weijing

    2015-12-01

    To explore the molecular etiology of two pedigrees affected with type II Waardenburg syndrome (WS2) and to provide genetic diagnosis and counseling. Blood samples were collected from the proband and his family members. Following extraction of genomic DNA, the coding sequences of PAX3, MITF, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes were amplified with PCR and subjected to DNA sequencing to detect potential mutations. A heterozygous deletional mutation c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene has been identified in all patients from the first family, while no mutation was found in the other WS2 related genes including PAX3, MITF, SOX10 and SNAI2. The heterozygous deletion mutation c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene probably underlies the disease in the first family. It is expected that other genes may also underlie WS2.

  12. [Analysis of SOX10 gene mutation in a family affected with Waardenburg syndrome type II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Yan, Yousheng; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Qinghua; Feng, Xuan; Hao, Shen

    2018-02-10

    OBJECTIVE To detect potential mutation of SOX10 gene in a pedigree affected with Warrdenburg syndrome type II. METHODS Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the proband and his family members. Exons and flanking sequences of MITF, PAX3, SOX10, SNAI2, END3 and ENDRB genes were analyzed by chip capturing and high throughput sequencing. Suspected mutations were verified with Sanger sequencing. RESULTS A c.127C>T (p.R43X) mutation of the SOX10 gene was detected in the proband, for which both parents showed a wild-type genotype. CONCLUSION The c.127C>T (p.R43X) mutation of SOX10 gene probably underlies the ocular symptoms and hearing loss of the proband.

  13. Prevalence and clinical correlates of JAK2 mutations in Down syndrome acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Amos; Rye, Cassia L.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Heerema, Nyla A.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Izraeli, Shai; Plon, Sharon E.; Basso, Giuseppe; Pession, Andrea; Rabin, Karen R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Recurrent, prognostically significant chromosomal abnormalities occur in approximately 75% of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but only infrequently in children with Down syndrome (DS) and ALL. Recently, novel somatic activating mutations in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) were reported in 18% of DS ALL. Here we report identification and clinical correlates of JAK2 mutations in an independent cohort. JAK2 activating mutations occurred in 10 of 53 DS ALL cases (18.9%). Mutations were overrepresented in males (p<0.03), occurred once in association with high hyperdiploidy, and were not significantly correlated with age, initial white blood count, or event-free survival. Our results confirm significance of JAK-STAT pathway activation in DS ALL. PMID:19120350

  14. 657del5 mutation of the NBS1 gene in myelodysplastic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunjevacki Vera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS are clonal hematologic stem cell disorders with an as yet unknown molecular pathology. Genetic instability has been proposed as a cause of MDS. Mutations in the NBS1 gene, whose product nibrin (p95 is involved in DNA damage repair and cell-cycle control, might be associated with an elevated predisposition to the development of MDS. The aim of the study was to examine truncating 5 bp deletion (657del5, the most frequent NBS1 gene mutation in Slavic populations, in MDS patients. Among 71 MDS patients, we found one case that was heterozygous for the NBS1 657del5 mutation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a NBS1 mutation in MDS. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175091

  15. Effects of Germline Mutations in the Ras/MAPK Signaling Pathway on Adaptive Behavior: Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome and Noonan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpont, Elizabeth I.; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Mendelsohn, Nancy J.; Roberts, Amy E.; Tworog-Dube, Erica; Rauen, Katherine A.; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) and Noonan syndrome (NS) are two phenotypically overlapping genetic disorders whose underlying molecular etiologies affect a common signaling pathway. Mutations in the BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2 genes cause most cases of CFC and mutations in PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS and RAF1 typically cause NS. Although both syndromes are associated with developmental delays of varying severity, the extent to which the behavioral profiles differ may shed light on the different roles these respective genes play in development of skills necessary for everyday functioning. In this study, profiles of adaptive behavior of individuals with CFC and NS who had confirmed pathogenic mutations in Ras/MAPK pathway genes were investigated. Patterns of strengths and weaknesses, age-related differences, and risk factors for difficulties in adaptive skills were assessed. Although genes acting more downstream in the Ras/MAPK pathway were associated with more difficulties in adaptive functioning than genes more upstream in the pathway, several inconsistencies highlight the wide spectrum of possible developmental courses in CFC and NS. Along with clinical and genetic factors, variables such as chronological age, gestational age at birth and parental education levels accounted for significant variance in adaptive skills. Results indicate that there is wide heterogeneity in adaptive ability in CFC and NS, but that these abilities are correlated to some extent with the specific disease-causing genes. PMID:20186801

  16. Homozygous EDNRB mutation in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Noriko; Mutai, Hideki; Namba, Kazunori; Kaneko, Hiroki; Kosaki, Rika; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2018-04-01

    To examine and expand the genetic spectrum of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1). Clinical features related to Waardenburg syndrome (WS) were examined in a five-year old patient. Mutation analysis of genes related to WS was performed in the proband and her parents. Molecular modeling of EDNRB and the p.R319W mutant was conducted to predict the pathogenicity of the mutation. The proband showed sensorineural hearing loss, heterochromia iridis, and dystopia canthorum, fulfilling the clinical criteria of WS1. Genetic analyses revealed that the proband had no mutation in PAX3 which has been known as the cause of WS1, but had a homozygous missense mutation (p.R319W) in endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) gene. The asymptomatic parents had the mutation in a heterozygote state. This mutation has been previously reported in a heterozygous state in a patient with Hirschsprung's disease unaccompanied by WS, but the patient and her parents did not show any symptoms in gastrointestinal tract. Molecular modeling of EDNRB with the p.R319W mutation demonstrated reduction of the positively charged surface area in this region, which might reduce binding ability of EDNRB to G protein and lead to abnormal signal transduction underlying the WS phenotype. Our findings suggested that autosomal recessive mutation in EDNRB may underlie a part of WS1 with the current diagnostic criteria, and supported that Hirschsprung's disease is a multifactorial genetic disease which requires additional factors. Further molecular analysis is necessary to elucidate the gene interaction and to reappraise the current WS classification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comprehensive Mutation Analysis of PMS2 in a Large Cohort of Probands Suspected of Lynch Syndrome or Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Klift, Heleen M; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Drost, Mark; Bik, Elsa C; Vos, Yvonne J; Gille, Hans J J P; Redeker, Bert E J W; Tiersma, Yvonne; Zonneveld, José B M; García, Encarna Gómez; Letteboer, Tom G W; Olderode-Berends, Maran J W; van Hest, Liselotte P; van Os, Theo A; Verhoef, Senno; Wagner, Anja; van Asperen, Christi J; Ten Broeke, Sanne W; Hes, Frederik J; de Wind, Niels; Nielsen, Maartje; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Wijnen, Juul T; Tops, Carli M J

    2016-11-01

    Monoallelic PMS2 germline mutations cause 5%-15% of Lynch syndrome, a midlife cancer predisposition, whereas biallelic PMS2 mutations cause approximately 60% of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD), a rare childhood cancer syndrome. Recently improved DNA- and RNA-based strategies are applied to overcome problematic PMS2 mutation analysis due to the presence of pseudogenes and frequent gene conversion events. Here, we determined PMS2 mutation detection yield and mutation spectrum in a nationwide cohort of 396 probands. Furthermore, we studied concordance between tumor IHC/MSI (immunohistochemistry/microsatellite instability) profile and mutation carrier state. Overall, we found 52 different pathogenic PMS2 variants explaining 121 Lynch syndrome and nine CMMRD patients. In vitro mismatch repair assays suggested pathogenicity for three missense variants. Ninety-one PMS2 mutation carriers (70%) showed isolated loss of PMS2 in their tumors, for 31 (24%) no or inconclusive IHC was available, and eight carriers (6%) showed discordant IHC (presence of PMS2 or loss of both MLH1 and PMS2). Ten cases with isolated PMS2 loss (10%; 10/97) harbored MLH1 mutations. We confirmed that recently improved mutation analysis provides a high yield of PMS2 mutations in patients with isolated loss of PMS2 expression. Application of universal tumor prescreening methods will however miss some PMS2 germline mutation carriers. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  18. Next-generation sequencing reveals the mutational landscape of clinically diagnosed Usher syndrome: copy number variations, phenocopies, a predominant target for translational read-through, and PEX26 mutated in Heimler syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Christine; Eisenberger, Tobias; Decker, Christian; Nagl, Sandra; Blank, Cornelia; Pfister, Markus; Kennerknecht, Ingo; Müller-Hofstede, Cornelie; Charbel Issa, Peter; Heller, Raoul; Beck, Bodo; Rüther, Klaus; Mitter, Diana; Rohrschneider, Klaus; Steinhauer, Ute; Korbmacher, Heike M; Huhle, Dagmar; Elsayed, Solaf M; Taha, Hesham M; Baig, Shahid M; Stöhr, Heidi; Preising, Markus; Markus, Susanne; Moeller, Fabian; Lorenz, Birgit; Nagel-Wolfrum, Kerstin; Khan, Arif O; Bolz, Hanno J

    2017-09-01

    Combined retinal degeneration and sensorineural hearing impairment is mostly due to autosomal recessive Usher syndrome (USH1: congenital deafness, early retinitis pigmentosa (RP); USH2: progressive hearing impairment, RP). Sanger sequencing and NGS of 112 genes (Usher syndrome, nonsyndromic deafness, overlapping conditions), MLPA, and array-CGH were conducted in 138 patients clinically diagnosed with Usher syndrome. A molecular diagnosis was achieved in 97% of both USH1 and USH2 patients, with biallelic mutations in 97% (USH1) and 90% (USH2), respectively. Quantitative readout reliably detected CNVs (confirmed by MLPA or array-CGH), qualifying targeted NGS as one tool for detecting point mutations and CNVs. CNVs accounted for 10% of identified USH2A alleles, often in trans to seemingly monoallelic point mutations. We demonstrate PTC124-induced read-through of the common p.Trp3955* nonsense mutation (13% of detected USH2A alleles), a potential therapy target. Usher gene mutations were found in most patients with atypical Usher syndrome, but the diagnosis was adjusted in case of double homozygosity for mutations in OTOA and NR2E3 , genes implicated in isolated deafness and RP. Two patients with additional enamel dysplasia had biallelic PEX26 mutations, for the first time linking this gene to Heimler syndrome. Targeted NGS not restricted to Usher genes proved beneficial in uncovering conditions mimicking Usher syndrome.

  19. Heterozygous Mutations in TREX1 Cause Familial Chilblain Lupus and Dominant Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gillian; Newman, William G.; Dean, John; Patrick, Teresa; Parmar, Rekha; Flintoff, Kim; Robins, Peter; Harvey, Scott; Hollis, Thomas; O’Hara, Ann; Herrick, Ariane L.; Bowden, Andrew P.; Perrino, Fred W.; Lindahl, Tomas; Barnes, Deborah E.; Crow, Yanick J.

    2007-01-01

    TREX1 constitutes the major 3′→5′ DNA exonuclease activity measured in mammalian cells. Recently, biallelic mutations in TREX1 have been shown to cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome at the AGS1 locus. Interestingly, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome shows overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus at both clinical and pathological levels. Here, we report a heterozygous TREX1 mutation causing familial chilblain lupus. Additionally, we describe a de novo heterozygous mutation, affecting a critical catalytic residue in TREX1, that results in typical Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. PMID:17357087

  20. Phenotypic spectrum of STRA6 mutations: from Matthew-Wood syndrome to non-lethal anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Nicolas; Golzio, Christelle; Odent, Sylvie; Lequeux, Léopoldine; Vigouroux, Adeline; Martinovic-Bouriel, Jelena; Tiziano, Francesco Danilo; Masini, Lucia; Piro, Francesca; Maragliano, Giovanna; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Attié-Bitach, Tania; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie; Etchevers, Heather C; Calvas, Patrick

    2009-05-01

    Matthew-Wood, Spear, PDAC or MCOPS9 syndrome are alternative names used to refer to combinations of microphthalmia/anophthalmia, malformative cardiac defects, pulmonary dysgenesis, and diaphragmatic hernia. Recently, mutations in STRA6, encoding a membrane receptor for vitamin A-bearing plasma retinol binding protein, have been identified in such patients. We performed STRA6 molecular analysis in three fetuses and one child diagnosed with Matthew-Wood syndrome and in three siblings where two adult living brothers are affected with combinations of clinical anophthalmia, tetralogy of Fallot, and mental retardation. Among these patients, six novel mutations were identified, bringing the current total of known STRA6 mutations to seventeen. We extensively reviewed clinical data pertaining to all twenty-one reported patients with STRA6 mutations (the seven of this report and fourteen described elsewhere) and discuss additional features that may be part of the syndrome. The clinical spectrum associated with STRA6 deficiency is even more variable than initially described. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. [SOX10 mutation is relevant to inner ear malformation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G Y; Hao, Q Q; Zhong, L L; Ren, W; Yan, Y; Liu, R Y; Li, J N; Guo, W W; Zhao, H; Yang, S M

    2016-11-07

    Objective: To determine the relevance between the SOX 10 mutation and Waardenburg syndrome (WS) accompanied with inner ear abnormality by analyzing the inner ear imaging results and molecular and genetic results of the WS patients with the SOX 10 mutation. Methods: This study included 36 WS in patients during 2001 and 2015 in the department of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery, Chinese Peoples's Liberation Army General Hospital. The condition of the inner ear of each patient was assessed by analyzing HRCT scans of the temporal bone and MRI scans of the brain and internal auditory canal. Meanwhile, the possible pathogenic genes of WS, including SOX10, MITF , and PAX 3, were also screened. Patients were divided into two groups according to SOX 10 mutation.The Fisher accuracy test was used to determine statistical difference of inner ear deformation incidence between the two groups. Results: Among all 36 patients, 12 were found to have inner ear abnormality. Most abnormalities were posterior semicircular canal deformations, some accompanied with cochlear deformation and an enlarged vestibule. Among all patients, 9 patients were SOX 10 heterozygous mutation carriers, among which six showed bilateral inner ear abnormality. Fisher accuracy test results suggested a significant correlation between the SOX 10 mutation and inner ear abnormality in WS patients ( P =0.036). Conclusion: This study found that WS patients with the SOX 10 mutation are more likely to have deformed inner ears when compared to WS patients without the SOX 10 mutation.

  2. Lynch syndrome caused by germline PMS2 mutations: delineating the cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke, Sanne W; Brohet, Richard M; Tops, Carli M; van der Klift, Heleen M; Velthuizen, Mary E; Bernstein, Inge; Capellá Munar, Gabriel; Gomez Garcia, Encarna; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Letteboer, Tom G W; Menko, Fred H; Lindblom, Annika; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Moller, Pal; van Os, Theo A; Rahner, Nils; Redeker, Bert J W; Sijmons, Rolf H; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Suerink, Manon; Vos, Yvonne J; Wagner, Anja; Hes, Frederik J; Vasen, Hans F; Nielsen, Maartje; Wijnen, Juul T

    2015-02-01

    The clinical consequences of PMS2 germline mutations are poorly understood compared with other Lynch-associated mismatch repair gene (MMR) mutations. The aim of this European cohort study was to define the cancer risk faced by PMS2 mutation carriers. Data were collected from 98 PMS2 families ascertained from family cancer clinics that included a total of 2,548 family members and 377 proven mutation carriers. To adjust for potential ascertainment bias, a modified segregation analysis model was used to calculate colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) risks. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to estimate risks for other Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. The cumulative risk (CR) of CRC for male mutation carriers by age 70 years was 19%. The CR among female carriers was 11% for CRC and 12% for EC. The mean age of CRC development was 52 years, and there was a significant difference in mean age of CRC between the probands (mean, 47 years; range, 26 to 68 years) and other family members with a PMS2 mutation (mean, 58 years; range, 31 to 86 years; P PMS2 mutation, and it should be noted that we observed a substantial variation in cancer phenotype within and between families, suggesting the influence of genetic modifiers and lifestyle factors on cancer risks. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. PYCR2 Mutations cause a lethal syndrome of microcephaly and failure to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Maha S; Bhat, Gifty; Sultan, Tipu; Issa, Mahmoud; Jung, Hea-Jin; Dikoglu, Esra; Selim, Laila; G Mahmoud, Imam; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Abdel-Salam, Ghada; Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2016-07-01

    A study was undertaken to characterize the clinical features of the newly described hypomyelinating leukodystrophy type 10 with microcephaly. This is an autosomal recessive disorder mapped to chromosome 1q42.12 due to mutations in the PYCR2 gene, encoding an enzyme involved in proline synthesis in mitochondria. From several international clinics, 11 consanguineous families were identified with PYCR2 mutations by whole exome or targeted sequencing, with detailed clinical and radiological phenotyping. Selective mutations from patients were tested for effect on protein function. The characteristic clinical presentation of patients with PYCR2 mutations included failure to thrive, microcephaly, craniofacial dysmorphism, progressive psychomotor disability, hyperkinetic movements, and axial hypotonia with variable appendicular spasticity. Patients did not survive beyond the first decade of life. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed global brain atrophy and white matter T2 hyperintensities. Routine serum metabolic profiles were unremarkable. Both nonsense and missense mutations were identified, which impaired protein multimerization. PYCR2-related syndrome represents a clinically recognizable condition in which PYCR2 mutations lead to protein dysfunction, not detectable on routine biochemical assessments. Mutations predict a poor outcome, probably as a result of impaired mitochondrial function. Ann Neurol 2016;80:59-70. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  4. Detecting novel genetic mutations in Chinese Usher syndrome families using next-generation sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ling-Hui; Jin, Xin; Xu, Hai-Wei; Li, Shi-Ying; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2015-02-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common cause of combined blindness and deafness inherited in an autosomal recessive mode. Molecular diagnosis is of great significance in revealing the molecular pathogenesis and aiding the clinical diagnosis of this disease. However, molecular diagnosis remains a challenge due to high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity in USH. This study explored an approach for detecting disease-causing genetic mutations in candidate genes in five index cases from unrelated USH families based on targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Through systematic data analysis using an established bioinformatics pipeline and segregation analysis, 10 pathogenic mutations in the USH disease genes were identified in the five USH families. Six of these mutations were novel: c.4398G > A and EX38-49del in MYO7A, c.988_989delAT in USH1C, c.15104_15105delCA and c.6875_6876insG in USH2A. All novel variations segregated with the disease phenotypes in their respective families and were absent from ethnically matched control individuals. This study expanded the mutation spectrum of USH and revealed the genotype-phenotype relationships of the novel USH mutations in Chinese patients. Moreover, this study proved that targeted NGS is an accurate and effective method for detecting genetic mutations related to USH. The identification of pathogenic mutations is of great significance for elucidating the underlying pathophysiology of USH.

  5. A functional alternative splicing mutation in AIRE gene causes autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease defined by the presence of two of the three conditions: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Loss-of-function mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene have been linked to APS-1. Here we report mutational analysis and functional characterization of an AIRE mutation in a consanguineous Chinese family with APS-1. All exons of the AIRE gene and adjacent exon-intron sequences were amplified by PCR and subsequently sequenced. We identified a homozygous missense AIRE mutation c.463G>A (p.Gly155Ser in two siblings with different clinical features of APS-1. In silico splice-site prediction and minigene analysis were carried out to study the potential pathological consequence. Minigene splicing analysis and subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed that the AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the splice donor of intron 3, causing alternative pre-mRNA splicing by intron 3 retention. Furthermore, the aberrant AIRE transcript was identified in a heterozygous carrier of the c.463G>A mutation. The aberrant intron 3-retaining transcript generated a truncated protein (p.G155fsX203 containing the first 154 AIRE amino acids and followed by 48 aberrant amino acids. Therefore, our study represents the first functional characterization of the alternatively spliced AIRE mutation that may explain the pathogenetic role in APS-1.

  6. Novel mutations in the TBX5 gene in patients with Holt-Oram Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna P.R. Porto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by upper limb and cardiac malformations. Mutations in the TBX5 gene cause HOS and have also been associated with isolated heart and arm defects. Interactions between the TBX5, GATA4 and NKX2.5 proteins have been reported in humans. We screened the TBX5, GATA4, and NKX2.5 genes for mutations, by direct sequencing, in 32 unrelated patients presenting classical (8 or atypical HOS (1, isolated congenital heart defects (16 or isolated upper-limb malformations (7. Pathogenic mutations in the TBX5 gene were found in four HOS patients, including two new mutations (c.374delG; c.678G > T in typical patients, and the hotspot mutation c.835C > T in two patients, one of them with an atypical HOS phenotype involving lower-limb malformations. Two new mutations in the GATA4 gene were found in association with isolated upper-limb malformations, but their clinical significance remains to be established. A previously described possibly pathogenic mutation in the NKX2.5 gene (c.73C > 7 was detected in a patient with isolated heart malformations and also in his clinically normal father.

  7. Spectrum of temporal bone abnormalities in patients with Waardenburg syndrome and SOX10 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaleh-Bergès, M; Baumann, C; Noël-Pétroff, N; Sekkal, A; Couloigner, V; Devriendt, K; Wilson, M; Marlin, S; Sebag, G; Pingault, V

    2013-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome, characterized by deafness and pigmentation abnormalities, is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, consisting of 4 distinct subtypes and involving several genes. SOX10 mutations have been found both in types 2 and 4 Waardenburg syndrome and neurologic variants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the full spectrum and relative frequencies of inner ear malformations in these patients. Fifteen patients with Waardenburg syndrome and different SOX10 mutations were studied retrospectively. Imaging was performed between February 2000 and March 2010 for cochlear implant work-up, diagnosis of hearing loss, and/or evaluation of neurologic impairment. Eleven patients had both CT and MR imaging examinations, 3 had MR imaging only, and 1 had CT only. Temporal bone abnormalities were bilateral. The most frequent pattern associated agenesis or hypoplasia of ≥1 semicircular canal, an enlarged vestibule, and a cochlea with a reduced size and occasionally an abnormal shape, but with normal partition in the 13/15 cases that could be analyzed. Three patients lacked a cochlear nerve, bilaterally in 2 patients. In addition, associated abnormalities were found when adequate MR imaging sequences were available: agenesis of the olfactory bulbs (7/8), hypoplastic or absent lacrimal glands (11/14), hypoplastic parotid glands (12/14), and white matter signal anomalies (7/13). In the appropriate clinical context, bilateral agenesis or hypoplasia of the semicircular canals or both, associated with an enlarged vestibule and a cochlear deformity, strongly suggests a diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome linked to a SOX10 mutation.

  8. Wiedemann-Steiner Syndrome With 2 Novel KMT2A Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Ko, Jung; Cho, Jae So; Yoo, Yongjin; Seo, Jieun; Choi, Murim; Chae, Jong-Hee; Lee, Hye-Ran; Cho, Tae-Joon

    2017-02-01

    Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by short stature, hairy elbows, facial dysmorphism, and developmental delay. It can also be accompanied by musculoskeletal anomalies such as muscular hypotonia and small hands and feet. Mutations in the KMT2A gene have only recently been identified as the cause of Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome; therefore, only 16 patients from 15 families have been described, and new phenotypic features continue to be added. In this report, we describe 2 newly identified patients with Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome who presented with variable severity. One girl exhibited developmental dysplasia of the hip and fibromatosis colli accompanied by other clinical features, including facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, patent ductus arteriosus, growth retardation, and borderline intellectual disability. The other patient, a boy, showed severe developmental retardation with automatic self-mutilation, facial dysmorphism, and hypertrichosis at a later age. Exome sequencing analysis of these patients and their parents revealed a de novo nonsense mutation, p.Gln1978*, of KMT2A in the former, and a missense mutation, p.Gly1168Asp, in the latter, which molecularly confirmed the diagnosis of Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome.

  9. Al-Awadi-Raas-Rothschild syndrome with dental anomalies and a novel WNT7A mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantaputra, Piranit Nik; Kapoor, Seema; Verma, Prashant; Kaewgahya, Massupa; Kawasaki, Katsushige; Ohazama, Atsushi; Ketudat Cairns, James R

    2017-12-01

    Al-Awadi-Raas-Rothschild syndrome (AARRS; OMIM 276820) is a very rare autosomal recessive limb malformation syndrome caused by WNT7A mutations. AARRS is characterized by various degrees of limb aplasia and hypoplasia. Normal intelligence and malformations of urogenital system are frequent findings. Complete loss of WNT7A function has been shown to cause AARRS, however, its partial loss leads to the milder malformation, Fuhrmann syndrome. An Indian boy affected with AARRS is reported. A novel homozygous base substitution mutation c.550A > C (p.Asn184Asp) is identified in the patient. Parents were heterozygous for the mutation. In addition to the typical features of AARRS, the patient had agenesis of the mandibular left deciduous lateral incisor. The heterozygous parents had microdontia of the maxillary left permanent third molar and taurodontism (enlarged dental pulp chamber at the expense of root) in a number of their permanent molars. Whole exome sequencing of the patient and his parents ruled out mutations in 11 known hypodontia-associated genes including WNT10A, MSX1, EDA, EDAR, EDARADD, PAX9, AXIN2, GREM2, NEMO, KRT17, and TFAP2B. In situ hybridization during tooth development showed Wnt7a expression in wild-type tooth epithelium at E14.5. All lines of evidence suggest that WNT7A has important role in tooth development and its mutation may lead to tooth agenesis, microdontia, and taurodontism. Oral examination of patients with AARRS and Fuhrmann syndromes is highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. CDH23 Mutation and Phenotype Heterogeneity: A Profile of 107 Diverse Families with Usher Syndrome and Nonsyndromic Deafness

    OpenAIRE

    Astuto, L. M.; Bork, J. M.; Weston, M. D.; Askew, J. W.; Fields, R. R.; Orten, D. J.; Ohliger, S. J.; Riazuddin, S.; Morell, R. J.; Khan, S.; Riazuddin, S.; Kremer, H.; van Hauwe, P.; Moller, C. G.; Cremers, C. W. R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Usher syndrome type I is characterized by congenital hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and variable vestibular areflexia. Usher syndrome type ID, one of seven Usher syndrome type I genetic localizations, have been mapped to a chromosomal interval that overlaps with a nonsyndromic-deafness localization, DFNB12. Mutations in CDH23, a gene that encodes a putative cell-adhesion protein with multiple cadherin-like domains, are responsible for both Usher syndrome and DFNB12 nonsyndromic deaf...

  11. Waardenburg syndrome type 4: report of two new cases caused by SOX10 mutations in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Raquel M; Núñez-Ramos, Raquel; Enguix-Riego, M Valle; Román-Rodríguez, Francisco José; Galán-Gómez, Enrique; Blesa-Sánchez, Emilio; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Núñez-Núñez, Ramón; Borrego, Salud

    2014-02-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome or Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) is a neurocristopathy characterized by the association of deafness, depigmentation and Hirschsprung disease. Three disease-causing genes have been identified so far for WS4: EDNRB, EDN3, and SOX10. SOX10 mutations, found in 45-55% of WS4 patients, are inherited in autosomal dominant way. In addition, mutations in SOX10 are also responsible for an extended syndrome involving peripheral and central neurological phenotypes, referred to as PCWH (peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leucodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, Hirschsprung disease). Such mutations are mostly private, and a high intra- and inter-familial variability exists. In this report, we present a patient with WS4 and a second with PCWH due to SOX10 mutations supporting again the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of these syndromes. Interestingly, the WS4 family carries an insertion of 19 nucleotides in exon 5 of SOX10, which results in distinct phenotypes along three different generations: hypopigmentation in the maternal grandmother, hearing loss in the mother, and WS4 in the proband. Since mosaicism cannot explain the three different related-WS features observed in this family, we propose as the most plausible explanation the existence of additional molecular events, acting in an additive or multiplicative fashion, in genes or regulatory regions unidentified so far. On the other hand, the PCWH case was due to a de novo deletion in exon 5 of the gene. Efforts should be devoted to unravel the mechanisms underlying the intrafamilial phenotypic variability observed in the families affected, and to identify new genes responsible for the still unsolved WS4 cases. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A family of oculofaciocardiodental syndrome (OFCD) with a novel BCOR mutation and genomic rearrangements involving NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yukiko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Doi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Noriko; Ryoo, Na-Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hun; Yu, Young Suk; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2012-03-01

    Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome (OFCD) is an X-linked dominant disorder associated with male lethality, presenting with congenital cataract, dysmorphic face, dental abnormalities and septal heart defects. Mutations in BCOR (encoding BCL-6-interacting corepressor) cause OFCD. Here, we report on a Korean family with common features of OFCD including bilateral 2nd-3rd toe syndactyly and septal heart defects in three affected females (mother and two daughters). Through the mutation screening and copy number analysis using genomic microarray, we identified a novel heterozygous mutation, c.888delG, in the BCOR gene and two interstitial microduplications at Xp22.2-22.13 and Xp21.3 in all the three affected females. The BCOR mutation may lead to a premature stop codon (p.N297IfsX80). The duplication at Xp22.2-22.13 involved the NHS gene causative for Nance-Horan syndrome, which is an X-linked disorder showing similar clinical features with OFCD in affected males, and in carrier females with milder presentation. Considering the presence of bilateral 2nd-3rd toe syndactyly and septal heart defects, which is unique to OFCD, the mutation in BCOR is likely to be the major determinant for the phenotypes in this family.

  13. A novel mutation in PAX3 associated with Waardenburg syndrome type I in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun; Luo, Jianfen; Zhang, Fengguo; Li, Jianfeng; Han, Yuechen; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Mingming; Ma, Yalin; Xu, Lei; Bai, Xiaohui; Wang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    The novel compound heterozygous mutation in PAX3 was the key genetic reason for WS1 in this family, which was useful to the molecular diagnosis of WS1. Screening the pathogenic mutations in a four generation Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1). WS1 was diagnosed in a 4-year-old boy according to the Waardenburg syndrome Consortium criteria. The detailed family history revealed four affected members in the family. Routine clinical, audiological examination, and ophthalmologic evaluation were performed on four affected and 10 healthy members in this family. The genetic analysis was conducted, including the targeted next-generation sequencing of 127 known deafness genes combined with Sanger sequencing, TA clone and bioinformatic analysis. A novel compound heterozygous mutation c.[169_170insC;172_174delAAG] (p.His57ProfsX55) was identified in PAX3, which was co-segregated with WS1 in the Chinese family. This mutation was absent in the unaffected family members and 200 ethnicity-matched controls. The phylogenetic analysis and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of Pax3 protein further confirmed that the novel compound heterozygous mutation was pathogenic.

  14. Novel Mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 Genes in Mexican Patients with Lynch Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Moreno-Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lynch Syndrome (LS is characterized by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. This syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and is characterized by early onset colorectal cancer (CRC and extracolonic tumors. The aim of this study was to identify mutations in MMR genes in three Mexican patients with LS. Methods. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed as a prescreening method to identify absent protein expression. PCR, Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (dHPLC, and Sanger sequencing complemented the analysis. Results. Two samples showed the absence of nuclear staining for MLH1 and one sample showed loss of nuclear staining for MSH2. The mutations found in MLH1 gene were c.2103+1G>C in intron 18 and compound heterozygous mutants c.1852_1854delAAG (p.K618del and c.1852_1853delinsGC (p.K618A in exon 16. In the MSH2 gene, we identified mutation c.638dupT (p.L213fs in exon 3. Conclusions. This is the first report of mutations in MMR genes in Mexican patients with LS and these appear to be novel.

  15. Two truncating USH3A mutations, including one novel, in a German family with Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebermann, Inga; Wilke, Robert; Lauhoff, Thomas; Lübben, Dirk; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bolz, Hanno Jörn

    2007-08-30

    To identify the genetic defect in a German family with Usher syndrome (USH) and linkage to the USH3A locus. DNA samples of five family members (both parents and the three patients) were genotyped with polymorphic microsatellite markers specific for eight USH genes. Three affected family members underwent detailed ocular and audiologic characterization. Symptoms in the patients were compatible with Usher syndrome and show intrafamilial variation, for both hearing loss (ranging from severe to profound with non-linear progression) and vision. Genotyping of microsatellite markers for the different USH loci was in line with a defect in the USH3A gene on chromosome 3q25. Sequence analysis of the USH3A gene revealed two truncating mutations; c.149_152delCAGGinsTGTCCAAT, which has been described previously, and a novel mutation, c.502_503insA, segregating with the phenotype. To date, only 11 USH3A mutations have been described. This is the first description of a German family with USH due to USH3A mutations, including one novel. Our findings indicate that also in the Central European population, USH3A mutations should be considered in cases of USH.

  16. A novel D458V mutation in the SANS PDZ binding motif causes atypical Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalay, E; de Brouwer, A P M; Caylan, R; Nabuurs, S B; Wollnik, B; Karaguzel, A; Heister, J G A M; Erdol, H; Cremers, F P M; Cremers, C W R J; Brunner, H G; Kremer, H

    2005-12-01

    Homozygosity mapping and linkage analysis in a Turkish family with autosomal recessive prelingual sensorineural hearing loss revealed a 15-cM critical region at 17q25.1-25.3 flanked by the polymorphic markers D17S1807 and D17S1806. The maximum two-point lod score was 4.07 at theta=0.0 for the marker D17S801. The linkage interval contains the Usher syndrome 1G gene (USH1G) that is mutated in patients with Usher syndrome (USH) type 1g and encodes the SANS protein. Mutation analysis of USH1G led to the identification of a homozygous missense mutation D458V at the -3 position of the PDZ binding motif of SANS. This mutation was also present homozygously in one out of 64 additional families from Turkey with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss and heterozygously in one out of 498 control chromosomes. By molecular modeling, we provide evidence that this mutation impairs the interaction of SANS with harmonin. Ophthalmologic examination and vestibular evaluation of patients from both families revealed mild retinitis pigmentosa and normal vestibular function. These results suggest that these patients suffer from atypical USH.

  17. Mutations in plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein cause severe syndromic protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekaert, Ilse Julia; Becker, Kerstin; Gottschalk, Ingo; Körber, Friederike; Dötsch, Jörg; Thiele, Holger; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Hünseler, Christoph; Cirak, Sebahattin

    2018-04-16

    Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is characterised by gastrointestinal protein leakage due to loss of mucosal integrity or lymphatic abnormalities. PLE can manifest as congenital diarrhoea and should be differentiated from other congenital diarrhoeal disorders. Primary PLEs are genetically heterogeneous and the underlying genetic defects are currently emerging. We report an infant with fatal PLE for whom we aimed to uncover the underlying pathogenic mutation. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) for the index patient. Variants were classified based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. WES results and our detailed clinical description of the patient were compared with the literature. We discovered a novel homozygous stop mutation (c.988C>T, p.Q330*) in the Plasmalemma Vesicle-Associated Protein ( PLVAP ) gene in a newborn with fatal PLE, facial dysmorphism, and renal, ocular and cardiac anomalies. The Q330* mutation is predicted to result in complete loss of PLVAP protein expression leading to deletion of the diaphragms of endothelial fenestrae, resulting in plasma protein extravasation and PLE. Recently, another single homozygous stop mutation in PLVAP causing lethal PLE in an infant was reported. Our findings validate PLVAP mutations as a cause of syndromic PLE. Prenatal anomalies, severe PLE and syndromic features may guide the diagnosis of this rare disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Compound heterozygous MYO7A mutations segregating Usher syndrome type 2 in a Han family.

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    Zong, Ling; Chen, Kaitian; Wu, Xuan; Liu, Min; Jiang, Hongyan

    2016-11-01

    Identification of rare deafness genes for inherited congenital sensorineural hearing impairment remains difficult, because a large variety of genes are implicated. In this study we applied targeted capture and next-generation sequencing to uncover the underlying gene in a three-generation Han family segregating recessive inherited hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. After excluding mutations in common deafness genes GJB2, SLC26A4 and the mitochondrial gene, genomic DNA of the proband of a Han family was subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing. The candidate mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and subsequently analyzed with in silico tools. An unreported splice site mutation c.3924+1G > C compound with c.6028G > A in the MYO7A gene were detected to cosegregate with the phenotype in this pedigree. Both mutations, located in the evolutionarily conserved FERM domain in myosin VIIA, were predicted to be pathogenic. In this family, profound sensorineural hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa without vestibular disorder, constituted the typical Usher syndrome type 2. Identification of novel mutation in compound heterozygosity in MYO7A gene revealed the genetic origin of Usher syndrome type 2 in this Han family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Observational cohort study of ventricular arrhythmia in adults with Marfan syndrome caused by FBN1 mutations.

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    Ali Aydin

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is associated with ventricular arrhythmia but risk factors including FBN1 mutation characteristics require elucidation.We performed an observational cohort study of 80 consecutive adults (30 men, 50 women aged 42±15 years with Marfan syndrome caused by FBN1 mutations. We assessed ventricular arrhythmia on baseline ambulatory electrocardiography as >10 premature ventricular complexes per hour (>10 PVC/h, as ventricular couplets (Couplet, or as non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (nsVT, and during 31±18 months of follow-up as ventricular tachycardia (VT events (VTE such as sudden cardiac death (SCD, and sustained ventricular tachycardia (sVT. We identified >10 PVC/h in 28 (35%, Couplet/nsVT in 32 (40%, and VTE in 6 patients (8%, including 3 with SCD (4%. PVC>10/h, Couplet/nsVT, and VTE exhibited increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide serum levels(P10/h and Couplet/nsVT also related to increased indexed end-systolic LV diameters (P = .024 and P = .020, to moderate mitral valve regurgitation (P = .018 and P = .003, and to prolonged QTc intervals (P = .001 and P = .006, respectively. Moreover, VTE related to mutations in exons 24-32 (P = .021. Kaplan-Meier analysis corroborated an association of VTE with increased NT-proBNP (P<.001 and with mutations in exons 24-32 (P<.001.Marfan syndrome with causative FBN1 mutations is associated with an increased risk for arrhythmia, and affected persons may require life-long monitoring. Ventricular arrhythmia on electrocardiography, signs of myocardial dysfunction and mutations in exons 24-32 may be risk factors of VTE.

  20. The heartstrings mutation in zebrafish causes heart/fin Tbx5 deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Deborah M; Childs, Sarah; Fishman, Mark C

    2002-10-01

    Holt-Oram syndrome is one of the autosomal dominant human "heart-hand" disorders, with a combination of upper limb malformations and cardiac defects. Holt-Oram syndrome is caused by mutations in the TBX5 gene, a member of a large family of T-box transcription factors that play important roles in cell-type specification and morphogenesis. In a screen for mutations affecting zebrafish cardiac function, we isolated the recessive lethal mutant heartstrings, which lacks pectoral fins and exhibits severe cardiac dysfunction, beginning with a slow heart rate and progressing to a stretched, non-functional heart. We mapped and cloned the heartstrings mutation and find it to encode the zebrafish ortholog of the TBX5 gene. The heartstrings mutation causes premature termination at amino acid 316. Homozygous mutant embryos never develop pectoral fin buds and do not express several markers of early fin differentiation. The total absence of any fin bud differentiation distinguishes heartstrings from most other mutations that affect zebrafish fin development, suggesting that Tbx5 functions very early in the pectoral fin induction pathway. Moderate reduction of Tbx5 by morpholino causes fin malformations, revealing an additional early requirement for Tbx5 in coordinating the axes of fin outgrowth. The heart of heartstrings mutant embryos appears to form and function normally through the early heart tube stage, manifesting only a slight bradycardia compared with wild-type siblings. However, the heart fails to loop and then progressively deteriorates, a process affecting the ventricle as well as the atrium. Relative to mammals, fish require lower levels of Tbx5 to produce malformed appendages and display whole-heart rather than atrial-predominant cardiac defects. However, the syndromic deficiencies of tbx5 mutation are remarkably well retained between fish and mammals.

  1. A Novel Fibrillin-1 Gene Mutation Leading to Marfan Syndrome in a Korean Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Nam, Myung-Hyun; Ha, Kee-Soo; Rhie, Young-Jun; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2017-03-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by a connective tissue defect. A nine-year-old girl was referred to our pediatric endocrinology clinic for tall stature. Physical examination revealed a lens dislocation with strabismus, high palate, positive wrist and thumb signs, joint hypermobility, and pes planus. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed dilatation of the aortic root. She was diagnosed with Marfan syndrome based on the revised Ghent diagnostic criteria. Molecular investigation identified a heterozygous c.2810G >A variation in the FBN1 gene in the patient, but not in her parents. To our knowledge, this sequence variant has been reported as a polymorphism (rs113602180), but it is the first report identifying it as the genetic cause of Marfan syndrome. We hypothesize that this de novo novel missense FBN1 mutation disrupts fibrillin-1 function and is probably involved in the development of Marfan syndrome in this patient. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  2. Coffin-Siris syndrome and cardiac anomaly with a novel SOX11 mutation.

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    Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Ehara, Eiji; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2017-08-08

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is characterized by growth deficiency, intellectual disability, microcephaly, dysmorphic features, and hypoplastic nails of the fifth fingers and/or toes. Variants in the genes encoding subunits of the BAF complex as well as in SOX11 encoding the transcriptional factor under the control of BAF complex are associated with CSS. We report a new patient with a novel SOX11 mutation. He showed the CSS phenotype and coarctation of the aorta. Sox11 is known to be associated with cardiac outflow development in mouse studies. Therefore, cardiac anomalies might be an important complication in patients with SOX11 mutations. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  3. Lamb–Shaffer syndrome, deferred outside not described by SOX5 mutation

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    I. V. Sharkova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and genetic characteristics of a patient with Lamb–Shaffer syndrome due to the newly discovered heterozygous missense mutation p.1868A>C in the 14 exon of the SOX5 gene are presented in the next generation sequencing of exom. It is shown that, in contrast to the previously described patients due to the presence of a deletion in the region of the gene or segment of chromosome 12p12.1, in the presence of missense mutation, the intellectual deficit and the dysmorphic features of the structure are not pronounced sharply and there is no anomaly in the development of other organs and systems.

  4. Clinical and mutational spectrum of hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Hendrica; Dahan, Karin; Cambier, Jean-François; Benoit, Valérie; Morelle, Johann; Bloch, Julie; Vanhille, Philippe; Pirson, Yves; Demoulin, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    Hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, secondary to mutations in the GATA-3 gene. Due to its wide range of penetrance and expressivity, the disease may not always be recognized. We herein describe clinical and genetic features of patients with HDR syndrome, highlighting diagnostic clues. Medical records of eight patients from five unrelated families exhibiting GATA-3 mutations were reviewed retrospectively, in conjunction with all previously reported cases. HDR syndrome was diagnosed in eight patients between the ages of 18 and 60 years. Sensorineural deafness was consistently diagnosed, ranging from clinical hearing loss since infancy in seven patients to deafness detected only by audiometry in adulthood in one single patient. Hypoparathyroidism was present in six patients (with hypocalcaemia and inaugural seizures in two out of six). Renal abnormalities observed in six patients were diverse and of dysplastic nature. Three patients displayed nephrotic-range proteinuria and reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between the ages of 19 and 61 years, whilst lesions of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis were histologically demonstrated in one of them. Interestingly, phenotype severity differed significantly between a mother and son within one family. Five new mutations of GATA-3 were identified, including three missense mutations affecting zinc finger motifs [NM_001002295.1: c.856A>G (p.N286D) and c.1017C>G (p.C339W)] or the conserved linker region [c.896G>A (p.R299G)], and two splicing mutations (c.924+4_924+19del and c.1051-2A>G). Review of 115 previously reported cases of GATA-3 mutations showed hypoparathyroidism and deafness in 95% of patients, and renal abnormalities in only 60%. Overall, 10% of patients had reached ESRD. We herein expand the clinical and mutational spectrum of HDR syndrome, illustrating considerable inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability. Diagnosis of HDR should be

  5. HELLP Syndrome and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated with Factor V Leiden Mutation during Pregnancy

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    Zeynep Ozcan Dag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. The neurological complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia are responsible for a major proportion of the morbidity and mortality for women and their infants alike. Hormonal changes during pregnancy and the puerperium carry an increased risk of venous thromboembolism including cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST. Factor 5 leiden (FVL is a procoagulant mutation associated primarily with venous thrombosis and pregnancy complications. We report a patient with FVL mutation who presented with CVST at 24th week of pregnancy and was diagnosed as HELLP syndrome at 34th week of pregnancy.

  6. Novel mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene in Indian cases of Rett syndrome.

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    Das, Dhanjit Kumar; Mehta, Bhakti; Menon, Shyla R; Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh

    2013-03-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, almost exclusively affecting females and characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Both the classic and atypical forms of Rett syndrome are primarily due to mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been identified in patients with atypical Rett syndrome, X-linked infantile spasms sharing common features of generally early-onset seizures and mental retardation. CDKL5 is known as serine/threonine protein kinase 9 (STK9) and is mapped to the Xp22 region. It has a conserved serine/threonine kinase domain within its amino terminus and a large C-terminal region. Disease-causing mutations are distributed in both the amino terminal domain and in the large C-terminal domain. We have screened the CDKL5 gene in 44 patients with atypical Rett syndrome who had tested negative for MECP2 gene mutations and have identified 6 sequence variants, out of which three were novel and three known mutations. Two of these novel mutations p.V966I and p.A1011V were missense and p.H589H a silent mutation. Other known mutations identified were p.V999M, p.Q791P and p.T734A. Sequence homology for all the mutations revealed that the two mutations (p.Q791P and p.T734A) were conserved across species. This indicated the importance of these residues in structure and function of the protein. The damaging effects of these mutations were analysed in silico using PolyPhen-2 online software. The PolyPhen-2 scores of p.Q791P and p.T734A were 0.998 and 0.48, revealing that these mutations could be deleterious and might have potential functional effect. All other mutations had a low score suggesting that they might not alter the activity of CDKL5. We have also analysed the position of the mutations in the CDKL5 protein and found that all the mutations were present in the C-terminal domain of the protein. The C-terminal domain is required for

  7. Whole exome sequencing identifies RAI1 mutation in a morbidly obese child diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Vidhu V; Esteves, Kristyn M; Towne, Meghan C; Brownstein, Catherine A; James, Philip M; Crowley, Laura; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Elsea, Sarah H; Beggs, Alan H; Picker, Jonathan; Agrawal, Pankaj B

    2015-05-01

    The current obesity epidemic is attributed to complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. However, a limited number of cases, especially those with early-onset severe obesity, are linked to single gene defects. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is one of the syndromes that presents with abrupt-onset extreme weight gain with an unknown genetic basis. To identify the underlying genetic etiology in a child with morbid early-onset obesity, hypoventilation, and autonomic and behavioral disturbances who was clinically diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome. Design/Setting/Intervention: The index patient was evaluated at an academic medical center. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on the proband and his parents. Genetic variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. We identified a novel de novo nonsense mutation, c.3265 C>T (p.R1089X), in the retinoic acid-induced 1 (RAI1) gene in the proband. Mutations in the RAI1 gene are known to cause Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). On further evaluation, his clinical features were not typical of either SMS or ROHHAD syndrome. This study identifies a de novo RAI1 mutation in a child with morbid obesity and a clinical diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome. Although extreme early-onset obesity, autonomic disturbances, and hypoventilation are present in ROHHAD, several of the clinical findings are consistent with SMS. This case highlights the challenges in the diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome and its potential overlap with SMS. We also propose RAI1 as a candidate gene for children with morbid obesity.

  8. Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: report of a case with a TCF4 gene mutation

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    Orsini Alessandro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims We will discuss the clinical and genetic diagnosis of a child with severe psychomotor delay, who at 3 years of age presented with paroxysms of hyperpnea-apnea and seizures unrelated to breathing anomalies. Methods The child underwent genetic (karyotype, FISH telomeres and neuroradiological (cranial CT and MRI tests, which proved to be normal. He came under our clinical observation at 3 years and 5 months of age. Due to severe psychomotor delay and facial dysmorphisms we completed the genetic investigations based on his clinical feature and analysis of the available literature. Results The presence of severe mental retardation associated with anomalous breathing pattern may suggest the Joubert and Rett syndrome, however these were excluded on the basis of clinical and genetic examination. Angelman syndrome, suspected for facial dysmorphisms and absent language, was also excluded because of the presence of a normal pattern of methylation at SNRPN locus. Another possible diagnosis was the Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome (PHS, characterized by severe mental retardation, breathing anomalies (paroxisms of hyperpnea-apnea, dysmorphisms and sometimes epilepsy. Haploinsufficiency of TCF4 gene located at 18q21.2 region has been recently identified as causative of this syndrome. In our patient the research of TCF4 mutation by the Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Erlangen (Germany, showed a de novo mutation. Conclusions The diagnosis of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, an underdiagnosed cause of mental retardation, was based on clinical and genetic findings. Searching for TCF4 mutations is highly recommended when others overlapping syndromes was excluded. At our knowledge our patient is the first italian case of PHS diagnosed at molecular level.

  9. Novel USH2A mutations in Japanese Usher syndrome type 2 patients: marked differences in the mutation spectrum between the Japanese and other populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Ohtsubo, Masafumi; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Hotta, Yoshihiro; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Mizuta, Kunihiro; Mineta, Hiroyuki; Minoshima, Shinsei

    2011-07-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by retinitis pigmentosa and hearing loss. USH type 2 (USH2) is the most common type of USH and is frequently caused by mutations in USH2A. In a recent mutation screening of USH2A in Japanese USH2 patients, we identified 11 novel mutations in 10 patients and found the possible frequent mutation c.8559-2A>G in 4 of 10 patients. To obtain a more precise mutation spectrum, we analyzed further nine Japanese patients in this study. We identified nine mutations, of which eight were novel. This result indicates that the mutation spectrum for USH2A among Japanese patients largely differs from Caucasian, Jewish and Palestinian patients. Meanwhile, we did not find the c.8559-2A>G in this study. Haplotype analysis of the c.8559-2G (mutated) alleles using 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms surrounding the mutation revealed an identical haplotype pattern of at least 635 kb in length, strongly suggesting that the mutation originated from a common ancestor. The fact that all patients carrying c.8559-2A>G came from western Japan suggests that the mutation is mainly distributed in that area; indeed, most of the patients involved in this study came from eastern Japan, which contributed to the absence of c.8559-2A>G.

  10. De Novo GMNN Mutations Cause Autosomal-Dominant Primordial Dwarfism Associated with Meier-Gorlin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Charng, Wu-Lin; Eldomery, Mohammad K; Willer, Jason R; Davis, Erica E; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Zhu, Wenmiao; Leduc, Magalie S; Akdemir, Zeynep C; Azamian, Mahshid; Zapata, Gladys; Hernandez, Patricia P; Schoots, Jeroen; de Munnik, Sonja A; Roepman, Ronald; Pearring, Jillian N; Jhangiani, Shalini; Katsanis, Nicholas; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Brunner, Han G; Beaudet, Arthur L; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Eng, Christine M; Xia, Fan; Lalani, Seema R; Lupski, James R; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Yang, Yaping

    2015-12-03

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a genetically heterogeneous primordial dwarfism syndrome known to be caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations in one of five genes encoding pre-replication complex proteins: ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6. Mutations in these genes cause disruption of the origin of DNA replication initiation. To date, only an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been described in individuals with this disorder, with a molecular etiology established in about three-fourths of cases. Here, we report three subjects with MGS and de novo heterozygous mutations in the 5' end of GMNN, encoding the DNA replication inhibitor geminin. We identified two truncating mutations in exon 2 (the 1(st) coding exon), c.16A>T (p.Lys6(∗)) and c.35_38delTCAA (p.Ile12Lysfs(∗)4), and one missense mutation, c.50A>G (p.Lys17Arg), affecting the second-to-last nucleotide of exon 2 and possibly RNA splicing. Geminin is present during the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and is degraded during the metaphase-anaphase transition by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which recognizes the destruction box sequence near the 5' end of the geminin protein. All three GMNN mutations identified alter sites 5' to residue Met28 of the protein, which is located within the destruction box. We present data supporting a gain-of-function mechanism, in which the GMNN mutations result in proteins lacking the destruction box and hence increased protein stability and prolonged inhibition of replication leading to autosomal-dominant MGS. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. HRAS mutations in Costello syndrome: detection of constitutional activating mutations in codon 12 and 13 and loss of wild-type allele in malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Anne L; Tidyman, William E; Teitell, Michael A; Cotter, Philip D; Rauen, Katherine A

    2006-01-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a complex developmental disorder involving characteristic craniofacial features, failure to thrive, developmental delay, cardiac and skeletal anomalies, and a predisposition to develop neoplasia. Based on similarities with other cancer syndromes, we previously hypothesized that CS is likely due to activation of signal transduction through the Ras/MAPK pathway [Tartaglia et al., 2003]. In this study, the HRAS coding region was sequenced for mutations in a large, well-characterized cohort of 36 CS patients. Heterogeneous missense point mutations predicting an amino acid substitution were identified in 33/36 (92%) patients. The majority (91%) had a 34G --> A transition in codon 12. Less frequent mutations included 35G --> C (codon 12) and 37G --> T (codon 13). Parental samples did not have an HRAS mutation supporting the hypothesis of de novo heterogeneous mutations. There is phenotypic variability among patients with a 34G --> A transition. The most consistent features included characteristic facies and skin, failure to thrive, developmental delay, musculoskeletal abnormalities, visual impairment, cardiac abnormalities, and generalized hyperpigmentation. The two patients with 35G --> C had cardiac arrhythmias whereas one patient with a 37G --> T transversion had an enlarged aortic root. Of the patients with a clinical diagnosis of CS, neoplasia was the most consistent phenotypic feature for predicating an HRAS mutation. To gain an understanding of the relationship between constitutional HRAS mutations and malignancy, HRAS was sequenced in an advanced biphasic rhabdomyosarcoma/fibrosarcoma from an individual with a 34G --> A mutation. Loss of the wild-type HRAS allele was observed, suggesting tumorigenesis in CS patients is accompanied by additional somatic changes affecting HRAS. Finally, due to phenotypic overlap between CS and cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndromes, the HRAS coding region was sequenced in a well-characterized CFC cohort

  13. Mutation inactivation of Nijmegen breakage syndrome gene (NBS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS with NBS1 germ-line mutation is a human autosomal recessive disease characterized by genomic instability and enhanced cancer predisposition. The NBS1 gene codes for a protein, Nbs1(p95/Nibrin, involved in the processing/repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a complex and heterogeneous tumor with several genomic alterations. Recent studies have shown that heterozygous NBS1 mice exhibited a higher incidence of HCC than did wild-type mice. The objective of the present study is to assess whether NBS1 mutations play a role in the pathogenesis of human primary liver cancer, including HBV-associated HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC. Eight missense NBS1 mutations were identified in six of 64 (9.4% HCCs and two of 18 (11.1% ICCs, whereas only one synonymous mutation was found in 89 control cases of cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B. Analysis of the functional consequences of the identified NBS1 mutations in Mre11-binding domain showed loss of nuclear localization of Nbs1 partner Mre11, one of the hallmarks for Nbs1 deficiency, in one HCC and two ICCs with NBS1 mutations. Moreover, seven of the eight tumors with NBS1 mutations had at least one genetic alteration in the TP53 pathway, including TP53 mutation, MDM2 amplification, p14ARF homozygous deletion and promoter methylation, implying a synergistic effect of Nbs1 disruption and p53 inactivation. Our findings provide novel insight on the molecular pathogenesis of primary liver cancer characterized by mutation inactivation of NBS1, a DNA repair associated gene.

  14. Inactivating mutations in ESCO2 cause SC phocomelia and Roberts syndrome: no phenotype-genotype correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Birgitt; Oviedo, Angelica; Johnston, Kathreen; Pai, Shashidhar; Francke, Uta

    2005-12-01

    The rare, autosomal recessive Roberts syndrome (RBS) is characterized by tetraphocomelia, profound growth deficiency of prenatal onset, craniofacial anomalies, microcephaly, and mental deficiency. SC phocomelia (SC) has a milder phenotype, with a lesser degree of limb reduction and with survival to adulthood. Since heterochromatin repulsion (HR) is characteristic for both disorders and is not complemented in somatic-cell hybrids, it has been hypothesized that the disorders are allelic. Recently, mutations in ESCO2 (establishment of cohesion 1 homolog 2) on 8p21.1 have been reported in RBS. To determine whether ESCO2 mutations are also responsible for SC, we studied three families with SC and two families in which variable degrees of limb and craniofacial abnormalities, detected by fetal ultrasound, led to pregnancy terminations. All cases were positive for HR. We identified seven novel mutations in exons 3-8 of ESCO2. In two families, affected individuals were homozygous--for a 5-nucleotide deletion in one family and a splice-site mutation in the other. In three nonconsanguineous families, probands were compound heterozygous for a single-nucleotide insertion or deletion, a nonsense mutation, or a splice-site mutation. Abnormal splice products were characterized at the RNA level. Since only protein-truncating mutations were identified, regardless of clinical severity, we conclude that genotype does not predict phenotype. Having established that RBS and SC are caused by mutations in the same gene, we delineated the clinical phenotype of the tetraphocomelia spectrum that is associated with HR and ESCO2 mutations and differentiated it from other types of phocomelia that are negative for HR.

  15. Under-recognition of acral peeling skin syndrome: 59 new cases with 15 novel mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczecinska, W; Nesteruk, D; Wertheim-Tysarowska, K; Greenblatt, D T; Baty, D; Browne, F; Liu, L; Ozoemena, L; Terron-Kwiatkowski, A; McGrath, J A; Mellerio, J E; Morton, J; Woźniak, K; Kowalewski, C; Has, C; Moss, C

    2014-11-01

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare skin fragility disorder usually caused by mutations in the transglutaminase 5 gene (TGM5). We investigated the mutation spectrum of APSS in the U.K., Germany and Poland. We identified 59 children with APSS from 52 families. The phenotype was readily recognizable, with some variation in severity both within and between families. Most cases had been misdiagnosed as the localized form of epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS-loc). Eighteen different TGM5 mutations were identified, 15 of which were novel. Eight mutations were unique to a single family, nine each occurred in two families, while the common p.Gly113Cys mutation linked to a second missense variant p.Thr109Met occurred in 47 of the 52 families and was homozygous in 28. Most patients were of nonconsanguineous white European origin. We propose that APSS is under-reported and widely misdiagnosed as EBS-loc, with significant counselling implications as APSS is autosomal recessive while EBS-loc is dominant. We recommend screening for TGM5 mutations when EBS-loc is suspected but not confirmed by mutations in KRT5 or KRT14. Our report trebles the number of known TGM5 mutations. It provides further evidence that p.Gly113Cys is a founder mutation in the European population. This is consistent with the striking ethnic distribution of APSS in U.K., where the majority of patients are of nonconsanguineous white European origin, in contrast to the pattern of other recessive skin disorders. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. A novel COL11A1 mutation affecting splicing in a patient with Stickler syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Haruka; Watanabe, Miki; Okamoto, Nana; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei; Okamoto, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Stickler syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous collagenopathy characterized by ocular, auditory, skeletal and orofacial abnormalities, commonly occurring as an autosomal dominant trait. We conducted target resequencing to analyze candidate genes associated with known clinical phenotypes from a 4-year-old girl with Stickler syndrome. We detected a novel heterozygous intronic mutation (NM_001854.3:c.3168+5G>A) in COL11A1 that may impair splicing, which was suggested by in silico prediction and a minigene assay.

  17. Mutation screening of USH3 gene (clarin-1) in Spanish patients with Usher syndrome: low prevalence and phenotypic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, E; Jaijo, T; Oltra, S; Alió, J; Galán, F; Nájera, C; Beneyto, M; Millán, J M

    2004-12-01

    Usher syndrome type III is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by the association of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), variable presence of vestibular dysfunction and progressive hearing loss, being the progression of the hearing impairment the critical parameter classically used to distinguish this form from Usher syndrome type I and Usher syndrome type II. Usher syndrome type III clinical subtype is the rarest form of Usher syndrome in Spain, accounting only for 6% of all Usher syndrome Spanish cases. The gene responsible for Usher syndrome type III is named clarin-1 and it is thought to be involved in hair cell and photoreceptor cell synapses. Here, we report a screening for mutations in clarin-1 gene among our series of Usher syndrome Spanish patients. Clarin-1 has been found to be responsible for the disease in only two families: the first one is a previously reported family homozygous for Y63X mutation and the second one, described here, is homozygous for C40G. This accounts for 1.7% of Usher syndrome Spanish families. It is noticeable that, whereas C40G family is clinically compatible with Usher syndrome type III due to the progression of the hearing loss, Y63X family could be diagnosed as Usher syndrome type I because the hearing impairment is profound and stable. Thus, we consider that the progression of hearing loss is not the definitive key parameter to distinguish Usher syndrome type III from Usher syndrome type I and Usher syndrome type II.

  18. Simultaneous Occurence of an Autosomal Dominant Inherited MSX1 Mutation and an X-linked Recessive Inherited EDA Mutation in One Chinese Family with Non-syndromic Oligodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Xia; Wong, Sing Wai; Han, Dong; Feng, Hai Lan

    2015-01-01

    To describe the simultaneous occurence of an autosomal dominant inherited MSX1 mutation and an X-linked recessive inherited EDA mutation in one Chinese family with nonsyndromic oligodontia. Clinical data of characteristics of tooth agenesis were collected. MSX1 and EDA gene mutations were detected in a Chinese family of non-syndromic oligodontia. Mild hypodontia in the parents and severe oligodontia in the son was recorded. A novel missense heterozygous mutation c.517C>A (p.Arg173Ser) was detected in the MSX1 gene in the boy and the father. A homozygous missense mutation c.1001G>A (p.Arg334His) was detected in the EDA gene in the boy and the same mutant occurred heterozygously in the mother. Simultaneous occurence of two different gene mutations with different inheritence patterns, which both caused oligodontia, which occurred in one subject and in one family, was reported.

  19. Association of Mismatch Repair Mutation With Age at Cancer Onset in Lynch Syndrome: Implications for Stratified Surveillance Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Neil A J; Morris, Julie; Green, Kate; Lalloo, Fiona; Woodward, Emma R; Hill, James; Crosbie, Emma J; Evans, D Gareth

    2017-12-01

    Lynch syndrome is caused by dominantly inherited germline mutations that predispose individuals to colorectal, endometrial, ovarian, and other cancers through inactivation of the cellular mismatch repair system. Lynch syndrome–associated cancers are amenable to surveillance strategies that may improve survival. The age at which surveillance should start is disputed. To determine whether mutated gene and type of mutation influence age at onset of Lynch syndrome–associated cancers. A retrospective cohort study of individuals with Lynch syndrome–associated colorectal, endometrial, and/or ovarian cancers whose medical records were included in the clinical database of a large quaternary referral center for genomic medicine in the Northwest of England. Mutated gene (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and/or PMS2) and type of mutation (truncating, splicing, or large rearrangement). Age at cancer diagnosis. A total of 1063 individuals with proven Lynch syndrome were included, 495 male and 568 female (mean age 52 years; age range, 10-93 years [children were included in the database, but no children developed cancer]). There were 546 men and women with colorectal cancer, 162 women with endometrial cancer, and 49 women with ovarian cancer; mean follow-up was 68.2 months. Among MLH1 mutation carriers, mutations in MLH1 were associated with colorectal cancer in 249 (61%) of 409 men and women; endometrial cancer in 53 of 196 (27%) women; and ovarian cancer in 15 (8%) of 196 women. Among MSH2 mutation carriers, mutations in MSH2 (the most prevalent mutations overall) were most commonly associated with female-specific cancers: endometrial cancer in 83 (30%) of 279 women; ovarian cancer in 28 (10%) of 279 women; and colorectal cancer in 239 (50%) 479 men and women. Mutations in MSH6 were less prevalent, and MSH6 mutation carriers presented with colorectal and endometrial cancer at later ages than carriers of mutations in MSH2 or MLH1. When stratified by mutation type, women with truncating

  20. Novel compound heterozygous MYO7A mutations in Moroccan families with autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Bakhchane

    Full Text Available The MYO7A gene encodes a protein belonging to the unconventional myosin super family. Mutations within MYO7A can lead to either non syndromic hearing loss or to the Usher syndrome type 1B (USH1B. Here, we report the results of genetic analyses performed on Moroccan families with autosomal recessive non syndromic hearing loss that identified two families with compound heterozygous MYO7A mutations. Five mutations (c.6025delG, c.6229T>A, c.3500T>A, c.5617C>T and c.4487C>A were identified in these families, the latter presenting two differently affected branches. Multiple bioinformatics programs and molecular modelling predicted the pathogenic effect of these mutations. In conclusion, the absence of vestibular and retinal symptom in the affected patients suggests that these families have the isolated non-syndromic hearing loss DFNB2 (nonsyndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss presentation, instead of USH1B.

  1. MELAS syndrome associated with a new mitochondrial tRNA-Val gene mutation (m.1616A>G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Yuka; Tanaka, Yuji; Satomi, Kazuo

    2017-09-11

    We describe the case of a 40-year-old-man with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, with cardiomyopathy and severe heart failure. He had a mitochondrial transfer RNA (tRNA) mutation (m.1616A>G) of the (tRNA-Val) gene, and it was not found in MELAS syndrome ever before. The presence of this newly observed tRNA-Val mutation (m.1616A>G) may induce multiple respiratory chain enzyme deficiencies and contribute to MELAS syndrome symptoms that are associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. We report that the pathognomonic symptom in MELAS syndrome caused by this newly observed mtDNA mutation may be rapid progression of cardiomyopathy and severe heart failure. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Precision Medicine in Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Leukemias: Lessons from Sequential Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazha, Aziz; Sekeres, Mikkael A

    2017-01-14

    Precision medicine can be simply defined as the identification of personalized treatment that matches patient-specific clinical and genomic characteristics. Since the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic makeup of diseases, especially cancers. The identification of somatic mutations that can drive cancer has led to the development of therapies that specifically target the abnormal proteins derived from these mutations. This has led to a paradigm shift in our treatment methodology. Although some success has been achieved in targeting some genetic abnormalities, several challenges and limitations exist when applying precision-medicine concepts in leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. We review the current understanding of genomics in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and leukemias and the limitations of precision-medicine concepts in MDS.

  3. Novel splice mutation in microthalmia-associated transcription factor in Waardenburg Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Laura; Burke, Kelly; Leduc, Charles A; Guha, Saurav; Guo, Jiancheng; Chung, Wendy K

    2011-01-01

    Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is a syndromic form of hearing loss associated with mutations in six different genes. We identified a large family with WS that had previously undergone clinical testing, with no reported pathogenic mutation. Using linkage analysis, a region on 3p14.1 with an LOD score of 6.6 was identified. Microthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor, a gene known to cause WS, is located within this region of linkage. Sequencing of Microthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor demonstrated a c.1212 G>A synonymous variant that segregated with the WS in the family and was predicted to cause a novel splicing site that was confirmed with expression analysis of the mRNA. This case illustrates the need to computationally analyze novel synonymous sequence variants for possible effects on splicing to maximize the clinical sensitivity of sequence-based genetic testing.

  4. A de novo SOX10 mutation causing severe type 4 Waardenburg syndrome without Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajer, Yves; Coldéa, Cristina; Meire, Françoise; Delpierre, Isabelle; Sekhara, Tayeb; Touraine, Renaud L

    2008-04-15

    Type 4 Waardenburg syndrome represents a well define entity caused by neural crest derivatives anomalies (melanocytes, intrinsic ganglion cells, central, autonomous and peripheral nervous systems) leading, with variable expressivity, to pigmentary anomalies, deafness, mental retardation, peripheral neuropathy, and Hirschsprung disease. Autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is prevalent when Sox10 gene mutation is identified. We report the natural history of a child who presented with synophrys, vivid blue eye, deafness, bilateral complete semicircular canals agenesis with mental retardation, subtle signs for peripheral neuropathy and lack of Hirschsprung disease. SOX10 gene sequencing identified "de novo" splice site mutation (c.698-2A > C). The present phenotype and the genotype findings underline the wide spectrum of SOX10 gene implication in unusual type 4 Waardenburg syndrome patient. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Whole exome sequencing identifies mutations in Usher syndrome genes in profoundly deaf Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Zied; Bonnet, Crystel; Zainine, Rim; Lahbib, Saida; Bouyacoub, Yosra; Bechraoui, Rym; Marrakchi, Jihène; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Louha, Malek; Largueche, Leila; Ben Yahia, Salim; Kheirallah, Moncef; Elmatri, Leila; Besbes, Ghazi; Abdelhak, Sonia; Petit, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by combined deafness-blindness. It accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deafness blindness cases. Three clinical subtypes (USH1, USH2, and USH3) are described, of which USH1 is the most severe form, characterized by congenital profound deafness, constant vestibular dysfunction, and a prepubertal onset of retinitis pigmentosa. We performed whole exome sequencing in four unrelated Tunisian patients affected by apparently isolated, congenital profound deafness, with reportedly normal ocular fundus examination. Four biallelic mutations were identified in two USH1 genes: a splice acceptor site mutation, c.2283-1G>T, and a novel missense mutation, c.5434G>A (p.Glu1812Lys), in MYO7A, and two previously unreported mutations in USH1G, i.e. a frameshift mutation, c.1195_1196delAG (p.Leu399Alafs*24), and a nonsense mutation, c.52A>T (p.Lys18*). Another ophthalmological examination including optical coherence tomography actually showed the presence of retinitis pigmentosa in all the patients. Our findings provide evidence that USH is under-diagnosed in Tunisian deaf patients. Yet, early diagnosis of USH is of utmost importance because these patients should undergo cochlear implant surgery in early childhood, in anticipation of the visual loss.

  6. EDNRB mutations cause Waardenburg syndrome type II in the heterozygous state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Sarah; Bondurand, Nadege; Faubert, Emmanuelle; Poisson, Sylvain; Lecerf, Laure; Nitschke, Patrick; Deggouj, Naima; Loundon, Natalie; Jonard, Laurence; David, Albert; Sznajer, Yves; Blanchet, Patricia; Marlin, Sandrine; Pingault, Veronique

    2017-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation anomalies. The clinical definition of four WS types is based on additional features due to defects in structures mostly arising from the neural crest, with type I and type II being the most frequent. While type I is tightly associated to PAX3 mutations, WS type II (WS2) remains partly enigmatic with mutations in known genes (MITF, SOX10) accounting for only 30% of the cases. We performed exome sequencing in a WS2 index case and identified a heterozygous missense variation in EDNRB. Interestingly, homozygous (and very rare heterozygous) EDNRB mutations are already described in type IV WS (i.e., in association with Hirschsprung disease [HD]) and heterozygous mutations in isolated HD. Screening of a WS2 cohort led to the identification of an overall of six heterozygous EDNRB variations. Clinical phenotypes, pedigrees and molecular segregation investigations unraveled a dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance. In parallel, cellular and functional studies showed that each of the mutations impairs the subcellular localization of the receptor or induces a defective downstream signaling pathway. Based on our results, we now estimate EDNRB mutations to be responsible for 5%-6% of WS2. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Autosomal recessive mutations in THOC6 cause intellectual disability: syndrome delineation requiring forward and reverse phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, J S; Huang, L; Thevenon, J; Kariminedjad, A; Beaulieu, C L; Masurel-Paulet, A; Najmabadi, H; Fattahi, Z; Beheshtian, M; Tonekaboni, S H; Tang, S; Helbig, K L; Alcaraz, W; Rivière, J-B; Faivre, L; Innes, A M; Lebel, R R; Boycott, K M

    2017-01-01

    THOC6 is a part of the THO complex, which is involved in coordinating mRNA processing with export. The THO complex interacts with additional components to form the larger TREX complex (transcription export complex). Previously, a homozygous missense mutation in THOC6 in the Hutterite population was reported in association with syndromic intellectual disability. Using exome sequencing, we identified three unrelated patients with bi-allelic mutations in THOC6 associated with intellectual disability and additional clinical features. Two of the patients were compound heterozygous for a stop and a missense mutation, and the third was homozygous for a missense mutation; the missense mutations were predicted to be pathogenic by in silico analysis and modeling. Clinical features of the three newly identified patients and those previously reported are reviewed; intellectual disability is moderate to severe, and malformations are variable including renal and heart defects, cleft palate, microcephaly, and corpus callosum dysgenesis. Facial features are variable and include tall forehead, short upslanting palpebral fissures +/- deep set eyes, and a long nose with overhanging columella. These subtle facial features render the diagnosis difficult to make in isolation with certainty. Our results expand the mutational and clinical spectrum of this rare disease, confirm that THOC6 is an intellectual disability causing gene, while providing insight into the importance of the THO complex in neurodevelopment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Restricted Spectrum of Mutations in the SMAD4 Tumor-Suppressor Gene Underlies Myhre Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Viviana; Cianetti, Luciano; Niceta, Marcello; Carta, Claudio; Ciolfi, Andrea; Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Carrani, Eugenio; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Biamino, Elisa; Belligni, Elga; Garavelli, Livia; Boccone, Loredana; Melis, Daniela; Andria, Generoso; Gelb, Bruce D.; Stella, Lorenzo; Silengo, Margherita; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Tartaglia, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Myhre syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by reduced growth, generalized muscular hypertrophy, facial dysmorphism, deafness, cognitive deficits, joint stiffness, and skeletal anomalies. Here, by performing exome sequencing of a single affected individual and coupling the results to a hypothesis-driven filtering strategy, we establish that heterozygous mutations in SMAD4, which encodes for a transducer mediating transforming growth factor β and bone morphogenetic protein signaling branches, underlie this rare Mendelian trait. Two recurrent de novo SMAD4 mutations were identified in eight unrelated subjects. Both mutations were missense changes altering Ile500 within the evolutionary conserved MAD homology 2 domain, a well known mutational hot spot in malignancies. Structural analyses suggest that the substituted residues are likely to perturb the binding properties of the mutant protein to signaling partners. Although SMAD4 has been established as a tumor suppressor gene somatically mutated in pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and skin cancers, and germline loss-of-function lesions and deletions of this gene have been documented to cause disorders that predispose individuals to gastrointestinal cancer and vascular dysplasias, the present report identifies a previously unrecognized class of mutations in the gene with profound impact on development and growth. PMID:22243968

  9. Mutation analysis of GJB2 gene and prenatal diagnosis in a non-syndromic deafness family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hua CHEN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the pathogenic gene in a non-syndromic deafness family, provide an accurate genetic consultation and early intervention for deaf family to reduce the incidence of congenital deafness. Methods Mutation analysis was carried out by polymerase chain reaction followed by DNA sequencing of coding region of GJB2 gene. The fetal DNA was extracted from the amniotic fluid cells by amniocentesis at 20 weeks during pregnancy. The genotype of the fetus was characterized for predicting the status of hearing. Results Complex heterozygous mutations 235delC and 176-191del16bp were detected in the proband of the family, heterozygous mutation 176-191del16bp was detected in the father, and 235delC was detected in the mother. Fetus carried 235delC heterozygous mutation inherited from his mother. Conclusions The proband's hearing loss is resulted from the complex heterozygous mutations 235delC and 176-191del16bp in GJB2 gene. Fetus is a heterozygous mutation 235delC carrier. Prenatal diagnosis for deafness assisted by genetic test can provide efficient guidance about offspring's hearing condition, and prevent another deaf-mute member from birth. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.07.09

  10. Whole exome sequencing identifies mutations in Usher syndrome genes in profoundly deaf Tunisian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Riahi

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by combined deafness-blindness. It accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deafness blindness cases. Three clinical subtypes (USH1, USH2, and USH3 are described, of which USH1 is the most severe form, characterized by congenital profound deafness, constant vestibular dysfunction, and a prepubertal onset of retinitis pigmentosa. We performed whole exome sequencing in four unrelated Tunisian patients affected by apparently isolated, congenital profound deafness, with reportedly normal ocular fundus examination. Four biallelic mutations were identified in two USH1 genes: a splice acceptor site mutation, c.2283-1G>T, and a novel missense mutation, c.5434G>A (p.Glu1812Lys, in MYO7A, and two previously unreported mutations in USH1G, i.e. a frameshift mutation, c.1195_1196delAG (p.Leu399Alafs*24, and a nonsense mutation, c.52A>T (p.Lys18*. Another ophthalmological examination including optical coherence tomography actually showed the presence of retinitis pigmentosa in all the patients. Our findings provide evidence that USH is under-diagnosed in Tunisian deaf patients. Yet, early diagnosis of USH is of utmost importance because these patients should undergo cochlear implant surgery in early childhood, in anticipation of the visual loss.

  11. Translational read-through of a nonsense mutation causing Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Lee, Beom Hee; Cheong, Hae Il

    2013-06-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) is classified into 5 genotypes according to underlying mutant genes and BS III is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CLCNKB gene encoding for basolateral ClC-Kb. BS III is the most common genotype in Korean patients with BS and W610X is the most common CLCNKB mutation in Korean BS III. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CLCNKB W610X mutation can be rescued in vitro using aminoglycoside antibiotics, which are known to induce translational read-through of a nonsense mutation. The CLCNKB cDNA was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and the W610X nonsense mutation was generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Cultured polarized MDCK cells were transfected with the vectors, and the read-through was induced using an aminoglycoside derivative, G418. Cellular expression of the target protein was monitored via immunohistochemistry. While cells transfected with the mutant CLCNKB failed to express ClC-Kb, G418 treatment of the cells induced the full-length protein expression, which was localized to the basolateral plasma membranes. It is demonstrated that the W610X mutation in CLCNKB can be a good candidate for trial of translational read-through induction as a therapeutic modality.

  12. Identification of a novel WFS1 homozygous nonsense mutation in Jordanian children with Wolfram syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoor, Khaldon; Batiha, Osama; Abu-Awad, Ayman; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon; Ziad, Haya; Jarun, Yousef; Abu-Sheikha, Aya; Abu Jalboush, Sara; Alibrahim, Khoulod S

    2016-09-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presentation of early onset type I diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy with later onset diabetes insipidus and deafness. WFS1 gene was identified on chromosome 4p16.1 as the gene responsible for WS disease given that most of the WS patients were found to carry mutations in this gene. This study was carried out to investigate the molecular spectrum of WFS1 gene in Jordanian families. Molecular and clinical characterization was performed on five WS patients from two unrelated Jordanian families. Our data indicated that WS patients of the first family harbored two deletion mutations (V415del and F247fs) located in exon 8 and exon 7 respectively, with a compound heterozygous pattern of inheritance; while in the second family, we identified a novel nonsense mutation (W185X) located in exon 5 in the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain with a homozygous pattern of inheritance. This mutation can be considered as loss of function mutation since the resulting truncated protein lost both the transmembrane domain and the C-terminal domain. Additionally, the W185X mutation lies within the CaM binding domain in wolframin protein which is thought to have a role in the regulation of wolframin function in response to calcium levels.

  13. Sick sinus syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disease, atrial flutter and ventricular tachycardia caused by a novel SCN5A mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders G; Liang, Bo; Jespersen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    father carried the same mutation, but had a milder phenotype, presenting with progressive cardiac conduction later in life. The mutation was found to result in a loss-of-function in the sodium current. In conclusion, the same SCN5A mutation can result in a wide array of clinical phenotypes and perhaps......Mutations in the cardiac sodium channel encoded by the gene SCN5A can result in a wide array of phenotypes. We report a case of a young male with a novel SCN5A mutation (R121W) afflicted by sick sinus syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disorder, atrial flutter and ventricular tachycardia. His...

  14. MKS3/TMEM67 mutations are a major cause of COACH Syndrome, a Joubert Syndrome related disorder with liver involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancati, Francesco; Iannicelli, Miriam; Travaglini, Lorena; Mazzotta, Annalisa; Bertini, Enrico; Boltshauser, Eugen; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Emma, Francesco; Fazzi, Elisa; Gallizzi, Romina; Gentile, Mattia; Loncarevic, Damir; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka; Pantaleoni, Chiara; Rigoli, Luciana; Salpietro, Carmelo D; Signorini, Sabrina; Stringini, Gilda Rita; Verloes, Alain; Zabloka, Dominika; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gleeson, Joseph G; Valente, Enza Maria

    2009-02-01

    The acronym COACH defines an autosomal recessive condition of Cerebellar vermis hypo/aplasia, Oligophrenia, congenital Ataxia, Coloboma and Hepatic fibrosis. Patients present the "molar tooth sign", a midbrain-hindbrain malformation pathognomonic for Joubert Syndrome (JS) and Related Disorders (JSRDs). The main feature of COACH is congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF), resulting from malformation of the embryonic ductal plate. CHF is invariably found also in Meckel syndrome (MS), a lethal ciliopathy already found to be allelic with JSRDs at the CEP290 and RPGRIP1L genes. Recently, mutations in the MKS3 gene (approved symbol TMEM67), causative of about 7% MS cases, have been detected in few Meckel-like and pure JS patients. Analysis of MKS3 in 14 COACH families identified mutations in 8 (57%). Features such as colobomas and nephronophthisis were found only in a subset of mutated cases. These data confirm COACH as a distinct JSRD subgroup with core features of JS plus CHF, which major gene is MKS3, and further strengthen gene-phenotype correlates in JSRDs. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Novel PMS2 Pseudogenes Can Conceal Recessive Mutations Causing a Distinctive Childhood Cancer Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Michel; Hayward, Bruce E.; Picton, Susan; Sheridan, Eamonn; Bonthron, David T.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated a family with an autosomal recessive syndrome of café-au-lait patches and childhood malignancy, notably supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. There was no cancer predisposition in heterozygotes; nor was there bowel cancer in any individual. However, autozygosity mapping indicated linkage to a region of 7p22 surrounding the PMS2 mismatch-repair gene. Sequencing of genomic PCR products initially failed to identify a PMS2 mutation. Genome searches then revealed a previo...

  16. Constitutional SAMD9L mutations cause familial myelodysplastic syndrome and transient monosomy 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Victor B; Sahoo, Sushree S; Boklan, Jessica; Schwabe, Georg C; Saribeyoglu, Ebru; Strahm, Brigitte; Lebrecht, Dirk; Voss, Matthias; Bryceson, Yenan T; Erlacher, Miriam; Ehninger, Gerhard; Niewisch, Marena; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Baumann, Irith; Achermann, John C; Shimamura, Akiko; Hochrein, Jochen; Tedgård, Ulf; Nilsson, Lars; Hasle, Henrik; Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Wlodarski, Marcin W

    2018-03-01

    Familial myelodysplastic syndromes arise from haploinsufficiency of genes involved in hematopoiesis and are primarily associated with early-onset disease. Here we describe a familial syndrome in seven patients from four unrelated pedigrees presenting with myelodysplastic syndrome and loss of chromosome 7/7q. Their median age at diagnosis was 2.1 years (range, 1-42). All patients presented with thrombocytopenia with or without additional cytopenias and a hypocellular marrow without an increase of blasts. Genomic studies identified constitutional mutations (p.H880Q, p.R986H, p.R986C and p.V1512M) in the SAMD9L gene on 7q21, with decreased allele frequency in hematopoiesis. The non-random loss of mutated SAMD9L alleles was attained via monosomy 7, deletion 7q, UPD7q, or acquired truncating SAMD9L variants p.R1188X and p.S1317RfsX21. Incomplete penetrance was noted in 30% (3/10) of mutation carriers. Long-term observation revealed divergent outcomes with either progression to leukemia and/or accumulation of driver mutations (n=2), persistent monosomy 7 (n=4), and transient monosomy 7 followed by spontaneous recovery with SAMD9L -wildtype UPD7q (n=2). Dysmorphic features or neurological symptoms were absent in our patients, pointing to the notion that myelodysplasia with monosomy 7 can be a sole manifestation of SAMD9L disease. Collectively, our results define a new subtype of familial myelodysplastic syndrome and provide an explanation for the phenomenon of transient monosomy 7. Registered at: www.clinicaltrials.gov; #NCT00047268 . Copyright© 2018 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  17. A novel PTCH1 mutation in a patient with Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Nana; Naruto, Takuya; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Komori, Takahide; Imoto, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to various tumors, and it is linked to the alteration of several causative genes, including PTCH1. We performed targeted resequencing using a next-generation sequencer to analyze genes associated with known clinical phenotypes in an 11-year-old male with sporadic jaw keratocysts. A novel duplication mutation (c.426dup) in PTCH1, resulting in a truncated protein, was identified.

  18. Short-Rib Polydactyly and Jeune Syndromes Are Caused by Mutations in WDR60

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney-Leo, Aideen M.; Schmidts, Miriam; Cortés, Claudio R.; Leo, Paul J.; Gener, Blanca; Courtney, Andrew D.; Gardiner, Brooke; Harris, Jessica A.; Lu, Yeping; Marshall, Mhairi; Scambler, Peter J.; Beales, Philip L.; Brown, Matthew A.; Zankl, Andreas; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Duncan, Emma L.; Wicking, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Short-rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS I–V) are a group of lethal congenital disorders characterized by shortening of the ribs and long bones, polydactyly, and a range of extraskeletal phenotypes. A number of other disorders in this grouping, including Jeune and Ellis-van Creveld syndromes, have an overlapping but generally milder phenotype. Collectively, these short-rib dysplasias (with or without polydactyly) share a common underlying defect in primary cilium function and form a subset of the ciliopathy disease spectrum. By using whole-exome capture and massive parallel sequencing of DNA from an affected Australian individual with SRPS type III, we detected two novel heterozygous mutations in WDR60, a relatively uncharacterized gene. These mutations segregated appropriately in the unaffected parents and another affected family member, confirming compound heterozygosity, and both were predicted to have a damaging effect on the protein. Analysis of an additional 54 skeletal ciliopathy exomes identified compound heterozygous mutations in WDR60 in a Spanish individual with Jeune syndrome of relatively mild presentation. Of note, these two families share one novel WDR60 missense mutation, although haplotype analysis suggested no shared ancestry. We further show that WDR60 localizes at the base of the primary cilium in wild-type human chondrocytes, and analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals revealed a defect in ciliogenesis and aberrant accumulation of the GLI2 transcription factor at the centrosome or basal body in the absence of an obvious axoneme. These findings show that WDR60 mutations can cause skeletal ciliopathies and suggest a role for WDR60 in ciliogenesis. PMID:23910462

  19. Short-rib polydactyly and Jeune syndromes are caused by mutations in WDR60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney-Leo, Aideen M; Schmidts, Miriam; Cortés, Claudio R; Leo, Paul J; Gener, Blanca; Courtney, Andrew D; Gardiner, Brooke; Harris, Jessica A; Lu, Yeping; Marshall, Mhairi; Scambler, Peter J; Beales, Philip L; Brown, Matthew A; Zankl, Andreas; Mitchison, Hannah M; Duncan, Emma L; Wicking, Carol

    2013-09-05

    Short-rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS I-V) are a group of lethal congenital disorders characterized by shortening of the ribs and long bones, polydactyly, and a range of extraskeletal phenotypes. A number of other disorders in this grouping, including Jeune and Ellis-van Creveld syndromes, have an overlapping but generally milder phenotype. Collectively, these short-rib dysplasias (with or without polydactyly) share a common underlying defect in primary cilium function and form a subset of the ciliopathy disease spectrum. By using whole-exome capture and massive parallel sequencing of DNA from an affected Australian individual with SRPS type III, we detected two novel heterozygous mutations in WDR60, a relatively uncharacterized gene. These mutations segregated appropriately in the unaffected parents and another affected family member, confirming compound heterozygosity, and both were predicted to have a damaging effect on the protein. Analysis of an additional 54 skeletal ciliopathy exomes identified compound heterozygous mutations in WDR60 in a Spanish individual with Jeune syndrome of relatively mild presentation. Of note, these two families share one novel WDR60 missense mutation, although haplotype analysis suggested no shared ancestry. We further show that WDR60 localizes at the base of the primary cilium in wild-type human chondrocytes, and analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals revealed a defect in ciliogenesis and aberrant accumulation of the GLI2 transcription factor at the centrosome or basal body in the absence of an obvious axoneme. These findings show that WDR60 mutations can cause skeletal ciliopathies and suggest a role for WDR60 in ciliogenesis. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CDH23 mutation and phenotype heterogeneity: a profile of 107 diverse families with Usher syndrome and nonsyndromic deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuto, L M; Bork, J M; Weston, M D; Askew, J W; Fields, R R; Orten, D J; Ohliger, S J; Riazuddin, S; Morell, R J; Khan, S; Riazuddin, S; Kremer, H; van Hauwe, P; Moller, C G; Cremers, C W R J; Ayuso, C; Heckenlively, J R; Rohrschneider, K; Spandau, U; Greenberg, J; Ramesar, R; Reardon, W; Bitoun, P; Millan, J; Legge, R; Friedman, T B; Kimberling, W J

    2002-08-01

    Usher syndrome type I is characterized by congenital hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and variable vestibular areflexia. Usher syndrome type ID, one of seven Usher syndrome type I genetic localizations, have been mapped to a chromosomal interval that overlaps with a nonsyndromic-deafness localization, DFNB12. Mutations in CDH23, a gene that encodes a putative cell-adhesion protein with multiple cadherin-like domains, are responsible for both Usher syndrome and DFNB12 nonsyndromic deafness. Specific CDH23 mutational defects have been identified that differentiate these two phenotypes. Only missense mutations of CDH23 have been observed in families with nonsyndromic deafness, whereas nonsense, frameshift, splice-site, and missense mutations have been identified in families with Usher syndrome. In the present study, a panel of 69 probands with Usher syndrome and 38 probands with recessive nonsyndromic deafness were screened for the presence of mutations in the entire coding region of CDH23, by heteroduplex, single-strand conformation polymorphism, and direct sequence analyses. A total of 36 different CDH23 mutations were detected in 45 families; 33 of these mutations were novel, including 18 missense, 3 nonsense, 5 splicing defects, 5 microdeletions, and 2 insertions. A total of seven mutations were common to more than one family. Numerous exonic and intronic polymorphisms also were detected. Results of ophthalmologic examinations of the patients with nonsyndromic deafness have found asymptomatic RP-like manifestations, indicating that missense mutations may have a subtle effect in the retina. Furthermore, patients with mutations in CDH23 display a wide range of hearing loss and RP phenotypes, differing in severity, age at onset, type, and the presence or absence of vestibular areflexia.

  1. CDH23 Mutation and Phenotype Heterogeneity: A Profile of 107 Diverse Families with Usher Syndrome and Nonsyndromic Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuto, L. M.; Bork, J. M.; Weston, M. D.; Askew, J. W.; Fields, R. R.; Orten, D. J.; Ohliger, S. J.; Riazuddin, S.; Morell, R. J.; Khan, S.; Riazuddin, S.; Kremer, H.; van Hauwe, P.; Moller, C. G.; Cremers, C. W. R. J.; Ayuso, C.; Heckenlively, J. R.; Rohrschneider, K.; Spandau, U.; Greenberg, J.; Ramesar, R.; Reardon, W.; Bitoun, P.; Millan, J.; Legge, R.; Friedman, T. B.; Kimberling, W. J.

    2002-01-01

    Usher syndrome type I is characterized by congenital hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and variable vestibular areflexia. Usher syndrome type ID, one of seven Usher syndrome type I genetic localizations, have been mapped to a chromosomal interval that overlaps with a nonsyndromic-deafness localization, DFNB12. Mutations in CDH23, a gene that encodes a putative cell-adhesion protein with multiple cadherin-like domains, are responsible for both Usher syndrome and DFNB12 nonsyndromic deafness. Specific CDH23 mutational defects have been identified that differentiate these two phenotypes. Only missense mutations of CDH23 have been observed in families with nonsyndromic deafness, whereas nonsense, frameshift, splice-site, and missense mutations have been identified in families with Usher syndrome. In the present study, a panel of 69 probands with Usher syndrome and 38 probands with recessive nonsyndromic deafness were screened for the presence of mutations in the entire coding region of CDH23, by heteroduplex, single-strand conformation polymorphism, and direct sequence analyses. A total of 36 different CDH23 mutations were detected in 45 families; 33 of these mutations were novel, including 18 missense, 3 nonsense, 5 splicing defects, 5 microdeletions, and 2 insertions. A total of seven mutations were common to more than one family. Numerous exonic and intronic polymorphisms also were detected. Results of ophthalmologic examinations of the patients with nonsyndromic deafness have found asymptomatic RP–like manifestations, indicating that missense mutations may have a subtle effect in the retina. Furthermore, patients with mutations in CDH23 display a wide range of hearing loss and RP phenotypes, differing in severity, age at onset, type, and the presence or absence of vestibular areflexia. PMID:12075507

  2. GBA2 Mutations Cause a Marinesco-Sjögren-Like Syndrome: Genetic and Biochemical Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Haugarvoll

    Full Text Available With the advent new sequencing technologies, we now have the tools to understand the phenotypic diversity and the common occurrence of phenocopies. We used these techniques to investigate two Norwegian families with an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with cataracts and mental retardation.Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip analysis followed by Exome sequencing identified a 2 bp homozygous deletion in GBA2 in both families, c.1528_1529del [p.Met510Valfs*17]. Furthermore, we report the biochemical characterization of GBA2 in these patients. Our studies show that a reduced activity of GBA2 is sufficient to elevate the levels of glucosylceramide to similar levels as seen in Gaucher disease. Furthermore, leucocytes seem to be the proper enzyme source for in vitro analysis of GBA2 activity.We report GBA2 mutations causing a Marinesco-Sjögren-like syndrome in two Norwegian families. One of the families was originally diagnosed with Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome based on an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with cataracts and mental retardation. Our findings highlight the phenotypic variability associated with GBA2 mutations, and suggest that patients with Marinesco-Sjögren-like syndromes should be tested for mutations in this gene.

  3. Inherited germline ATRX mutation in two brothers with ATR-X syndrome and osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianling; Quindipan, Catherine; Parham, David; Shen, Lishuang; Ruble, David; Bootwalla, Moiz; Maglinte, Dennis T; Gai, Xiaowu; Saitta, Sulagna C; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Mascarenhas, Leo

    2017-05-01

    We report a family in which two brothers had an undiagnosed genetic disorder comprised of dysmorphic features, microcephaly, severe intellectual disability (non-verbal), mild anemia, and cryptorchidism. Both developed osteosarcoma. Trio exome sequencing (using blood samples from the younger brother and both parents) was performed and a nonsense NM_000489.4:c.7156C>T (p.Arg2386*) mutation in the ATRX gene was identified in the proband (hemizygous) and in the mother's peripheral blood DNA (heterozygous). The mother is healthy, does not exhibit any clinical manifestations of ATR-X syndrome and there was no family history of cancer. The same hemizygous pathogenic variant was confirmed in the affected older brother's skin tissue by subsequent Sanger sequencing. Chromosomal microarray studies of both brothers' osteosarcomas revealed complex copy number alterations consistent with the clinical diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Recently, somatic mutations in the ATRX gene have been observed as recurrent alterations in both osteosarcoma and brain tumors. However, it is unclear if there is any association between osteosarcoma and germline ATRX mutations, specifically in patients with constitutional ATR-X syndrome. This is the first report of osteosarcoma diagnosed in two males with ATR-X syndrome, suggesting a potential increased risk for cancer in patients with this disorder. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An Allelic Series of Trp63 Mutations Defines TAp63 as a Modifier of EEC Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Emma Vernersson; Garcia, Elvin L.; Mills, Alea A.

    2014-01-01

    Human Ectrodactyly, Ectodermal dysplasia, Clefting (EEC) syndrome is an autosomal dominant developmental disorder defined by limb deformities, skin defects, and craniofacial clefting. Although associated with heterozygous missense mutations in TP63, the genetic basis underlying the variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance of EEC is unknown. Here we show that mice heterozygous for an allele encoding the Trp63 p.Arg318His mutation, which corresponds to the human TP63 p.Arg279His mutation found in patients with EEC, have features of human EEC. Using an allelic series, we discovered that whereas clefting and skin defects are caused by loss of Trp63 function, limb anomalies are due to gain- and/or dominant-negative effects of Trp63. Furthermore, we identify TAp63 as a strong modifier of EEC-associated phenotypes with regard to both penetrance and expressivity. PMID:23775923

  5. Tumor suppressor microRNAs are downregulated in myelodysplastic syndrome with spliceosome mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Derya; Garde, Christian; Nygaard, Mette Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Spliceosome mutations are frequently observed in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, it is largely unknown how these mutations contribute to the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, which have been implicated in most human cancers due to their role in post...... the most downregulated miRNAs were several tumor-suppressor miRNAs, including several let-7 family members, miR-423, and miR-103a. Finally, we observed that the predicted targets of the most downregulated miRNAs were involved in apoptosis, hematopoiesis, and acute myeloid leukemia among other cancer......- and metabolic pathways. Our data indicate that spliceosome mutations may play an important role in MDS pathophysiology by affecting the expression of tumor suppressor miRNA genes involved in the development and progression of MDS....

  6. A PLK4 mutation causing azoospermia in a man with Sertoli cell-only syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, T; Bando, Y; Koh, E; Tsujimura, A; Miyagawa, Y; Iijima, M; Namiki, M; Shiina, M; Ogata, K; Matsumoto, N; Sengoku, K

    2016-01-01

    About 15% of couples wishing to have children are infertile; approximately half these cases involve a male factor. Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK-4) is a member of the polo protein family and a key regulator of centriole duplication. Male mice with a point mutation in the Plk4 gene show azoospermia associated with germ cell loss. Mutational analysis of 81 patients with azoospermia and Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) identified one man with a heterozygous 13-bp deletion in the Ser/Thr kinase domain of PLK4. Division of centrioles occurred in wild-type PLK4-transfected cells, but was hampered in PLK-4-mutant transfectants, which also showed abnormal nuclei. Thus, this PLK4 mutation might be a cause of human SCOS and nonobstructive azoospermia. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Coffin-Siris syndrome: phenotypic evolution of a novel SMARCA4 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Michael; du Souich, Christèle; Cheung, Helen Wing-Hong; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2014-07-01

    Coffin-Siris Syndrome (CSS) is an intellectual disability disorder caused by mutation of components of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. We describe the evolution of the phenotypic features for a male patient with CSS from birth to age 7 years and 9 months and by review of reported CSS patients, we expand the phenotype to include neonatal and infantile hypertonia and upper airway obstruction. The propositus had a novel de novo heterozygous missense mutation in exon 17 of SMARCA4 (NM_001128849.1:c.2434C>T (NP_001122321.1:p.Leu812Phe)). This is the first reported mutation within motif Ia of the SMARCA4 SNF2 domain. In summary, SMARCA4-associated CSS is a pleiotropic disorder in which the pathognomic clinical features evolve and for which the few reported individuals do not demonstrate a clear genotype-phenotype correlation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. De novo dominant mutation of SOX10 gene in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaitian; Zong, Ling; Liu, Min; Zhan, Yuan; Wu, Xuan; Zou, Wenting; Jiang, Hongyan

    2014-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The condition is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigment disturbances of the hair, skin, and iris. The de novo mutation in the SOX10 gene, responsible for Waardenburg syndrome type II, is rarely seen. The present study aimed to identify the genetic causes of Waardenburg syndrome type II in a Chinese family. Clinical and molecular evaluations were conducted in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II. A novel SOX10 heterozygous c.259-260delCT mutation was identified. Heterozygosity was not observed in the parents and sister of the proband, indicating that the mutation has arisen de novo. The novel frameshift mutation, located in exon 3 of the SOX10 gene, disrupted normal amino acid coding from Leu87, leading to premature termination at nucleotide 396 (TGA). The high mobility group domain of SOX10 was inferred to be partially impaired. The novel heterozygous c.259-260delCT mutation in the SOX10 gene was considered to be the cause of Waardenburg syndrome in the proband. The clinical and genetic characterization of this family would help elucidate the genetic heterogeneity of SOX10 in Waardenburg syndrome type II. Moreover, the de novo pattern expanded the mutation data of SOX10. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, D; Li, F P; Strong, L C; Fraumeni, J F; Nelson, C E; Kim, D H; Kassel, J; Gryka, M A; Bischoff, F Z; Tainsky, M A

    1990-11-30

    Familial cancer syndromes have helped to define the role of tumor suppressor genes in the development of cancer. The dominantly inherited Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is of particular interest because of the diversity of childhood and adult tumors that occur in affected individuals. The rarity and high mortality of LFS precluded formal linkage analysis. The alternative approach was to select the most plausible candidate gene. The tumor suppressor gene, p53, was studied because of previous indications that this gene is inactivated in the sporadic (nonfamilial) forms of most cancers that are associated with LFS. Germ line p53 mutations have been detected in all five LFS families analyzed. These mutations do not produce amounts of mutant p53 protein expected to exert a trans-dominant loss of function effect on wild-type p53 protein. The frequency of germ line p53 mutations can now be examined in additional families with LFS, and in other cancer patients and families with clinical features that might be attributed to the mutation.

  10. Dynamics of ASXL1 mutation and other associated genetic alterations during disease progression in patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T-C; Hou, H-A; Chou, W-C; Tang, J-L; Kuo, Y-Y; Chen, C-Y; Tseng, M-H; Huang, C-F; Lai, Y-J; Chiang, Y-C; Lee, F-Y; Liu, M-C; Liu, C-W; Liu, C-Y; Yao, M; Huang, S-Y; Ko, B-S; Hsu, S-C; Wu, S-J; Tsay, W; Chen, Y-C; Tien, H-F

    2014-01-01

    Recently, mutations of the additional sex comb-like 1 (ASXL1) gene were identified in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), but the interaction of this mutation with other genetic alterations and its dynamic changes during disease progression remain to be determined. In this study, ASXL1 mutations were identified in 106 (22.7%) of the 466 patients with primary MDS based on the French-American-British (FAB) classification and 62 (17.1%) of the 362 patients based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. ASXL1 mutation was closely associated with trisomy 8 and mutations of RUNX1, EZH2, IDH, NRAS, JAK2, SETBP1 and SRSF2, but was negatively associated with SF3B1 mutation. Most ASXL1-mutated patients (85%) had concurrent other gene mutations at diagnosis. ASXL1 mutation was an independent poor prognostic factor for survival. Sequential studies showed that the original ASXL1 mutation remained unchanged at disease progression in all 32 ASXL1-mutated patients but were frequently accompanied with acquisition of mutations of other genes, including RUNX1, NRAS, KRAS, SF3B1, SETBP1 and chromosomal evolution. On the other side, among the 80 ASXL1-wild patients, only one acquired ASXL1 mutation at leukemia transformation. In conclusion, ASXL1 mutations in association with other genetic alterations may have a role in the development of MDS but contribute little to disease progression

  11. Nonsense mutations in the PAX3 gene cause Waardenburg syndrome type I in two Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Zhi; Cao, Ju-Yang; Zhang, Rui-Ning; Liu, Li-Xian; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Xin; Kang, Dong-Yang; Li, Mei; Han, Dong-Yi; Yuan, Hui-Jun; Yang, Wei-Yan

    2007-01-05

    Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmental abnormalities of the eye, hair and skin, and dystopia canthorum. The gene mainly responsible for WS1 is PAX3 which is involved in melanocytic development and survival. Mutations of PAX3 have been reported in familiar or sporadic patients with WS1 in several populations of the world except Chinese. In order to explore the genetic background of Chinese WS1 patients, a mutation screening of PAX3 gene was carried out in four WS1 pedigrees. A questionnaire survey and comprehensive clinical examination were conducted in four Chinese pedigrees of WS1. Genomic DNA from each patient and their family members was extracted and exons of PAX3 were amplified by PCR. PCR fragments were ethanol-purified and sequenced in both directions on an ABI_Prism 3100 DNA sequencer with the BigDye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Reaction Kit. The sequences were obtained and aligned to the wild type sequence of PAX3 with the GeneTool program. Two nonsense PAX3 mutations have been found in the study population. One is heterozygous for a novel nonsense mutation S209X. The other is heterozygous for a previously reported mutation in European population R223X. Both mutations create stop codons leading to truncation of the PAX3 protein. This is the first demonstration of PAX3 mutations in Chinese WS1 patients and one of the few examples of an identical mutation of PAX3 occurred in different populations.

  12. Alagille syndrome in a Vietnamese cohort: mutation analysis and assessment of facial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Henry C; Le Hoang, Phuc; Hutchinson, Anne; Chao, Grace; Gerfen, Jennifer; Loomes, Kathleen M; Krantz, Ian; Kamath, Binita M; Spinner, Nancy B

    2012-05-01

    Alagille syndrome (ALGS, OMIM #118450) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects multiple organ systems including the liver, heart, eyes, vertebrae, and face. ALGS is caused by mutations in one of two genes in the Notch Signaling Pathway, Jagged1 (JAG1) or NOTCH2. In this study, analysis of 21 Vietnamese ALGS individuals led to the identification of 19 different mutations (18 JAG1 and 1 NOTCH2), 17 of which are novel, including the third reported NOTCH2 mutation in Alagille Syndrome. The spectrum of JAG1 mutations in the Vietnamese patients is similar to that previously reported, including nine frameshift, three missense, two splice site, one nonsense, two whole gene, and one partial gene deletion. The missense mutations are all likely to be disease causing, as two are loss of cysteines (C22R and C78G) and the third creates a cryptic splice site in exon 9 (G386R). No correlation between genotype and phenotype was observed. Assessment of clinical phenotype revealed that skeletal manifestations occur with a higher frequency than in previously reported Alagille cohorts. Facial features were difficult to assess and a Vietnamese pediatric gastroenterologist was only able to identify the facial phenotype in 61% of the cohort. To assess the agreement among North American dysmorphologists at detecting the presence of ALGS facial features in the Vietnamese patients, 37 clinical dysmorphologists evaluated a photographic panel of 20 Vietnamese children with and without ALGS. The dysmorphologists were unable to identify the individuals with ALGS in the majority of cases, suggesting that evaluation of facial features should not be used in the diagnosis of ALGS in this population. This is the first report of mutations and phenotypic spectrum of ALGS in a Vietnamese population. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Quantification of sequence exchange events between PMS2 and PMS2CL provides a basis for improved mutation scanning of Lynch syndrome patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klift, H.M. van der; Tops, C.M.; Bik, E.C.; Boogaard, M.W.; Borgstein, A.M.; Hansson, K.B.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Gomez Garcia, E.; Green, A.; Hes, F.J.; Izatt, L.; Hest, L.P. van; Alonso, A.M.; Vriends, A.H.; Wagner, A.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Vasen, H.F.; Morreau, H.; Devilee, P.; Wijnen, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations in PMS2 are involved in Lynch syndrome, whereas biallelic mutations are found in Constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency syndrome patients. Mutation detection is complicated by the occurrence of sequence exchange events between the duplicated regions of PMS2 and PMS2CL. We

  14. Evaluation of current prediction models for Lynch syndrome: updating the PREMM5 model to identify PMS2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Goverde (Anne); M.C.W. Spaander (Manon); D. Nieboer (Daan); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); W.N.M. Dinjens (Winand); H.J. Dubbink (Erik Jan); C. Tops (Cmj); S.W. Ten Broeke (Sanne W.); M.J. Bruno (Marco); R.M.W. Hofstra (Robert); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); A. Wagner (Anja)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractUntil recently, no prediction models for Lynch syndrome (LS) had been validated for PMS2 mutation carriers. We aimed to evaluate MMRpredict and PREMM5 in a clinical cohort and for PMS2 mutation carriers specifically. In a retrospective, clinic-based cohort we calculated predictions for

  15. Further insights into the allan-herndon-dudley syndrome: Clinical and functional characterization of a novel MCT8 mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armour, C.M. (Christine M.); S. Kersseboom (Simone); Yoon, G. (Grace); T.J. Visser (Theo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Mutations in the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter MCT8 have been identified as the cause for Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome (AHDS), characterized by severe psychomotor retardation and altered TH serum levels. Here we report a novel MCT8 mutation identified in 4 generations of

  16. Evidence that WT1 mutations in Denys-Drash syndrome patients may act in a dominant-negative fashion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Little, M. H.; Williamson, K. A.; Mannens, M.; Kelsey, A.; Gosden, C.; Hastie, N. D.; van Heyningen, V.

    1993-01-01

    The triad of nephropathy, partial gonadal dysgenesis and Wilms' tumour (WT) is known as Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS). The WT predisposition gene WT1, which plays a vital role in both genital and renal development, is known to be mutated in DDS patients. The WT1 mutations in these patients are

  17. Allelic mutations of KITLG, encoding KIT ligand, cause asymmetric and unilateral hearing loss and Waardenburg syndrome type 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zazo Seco, C. (Celia); Serrão De Castro, L. (Luciana); J.W.I. van Nierop; Morín, M. (Matías); S.N. Jhangiani (Shalini N.); E.J.J. Verver (Eva J. J.); M. Schraders (Margit); Maiwald, N. (Nadine); Wesdorp, M. (Mieke); H. Venselaar (Hanka); L. Spruijt (Liesbeth); Oostrik, J. (Jaap); J. Schoots (Jeroen); J. van Reeuwijk (Jeroen); Lelieveld, S.H. (Stefan H.); P.L.M. Huygen (Patrick); Insenser, M. (María); R.J. Admiraal (Ronald); R.J.E. Pennings (Ronald J.E.); E.H. Hoefsloot (Lies); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); J. de Ligt (Joep); H.G. Yntema; Jansen, J.H. (Joop H.); D. Muzny (Donna); G. Huls (Gerwin); M.M. van Rossum (Michelle); J.R. Lupski (James R.); Moreno-Pelayo, M.A. (Miguel Angel); H.P.M. Kunst (Henricus P.M.); H. Kremer (Hannie)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLinkage analysis combined with whole-exome sequencing in a large family with congenital and stable non-syndromic unilateral and asymmetric hearing loss (NS-UHL/AHL) revealed a heterozygous truncating mutation, c.286-303delinsT (p.Ser96Ter), in KITLG. This mutation co-segregated with

  18. Allelic Mutations of KITLG, Encoding KIT Ligand, Cause Asymmetric and Unilateral Hearing Loss and Waardenburg Syndrome Type 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zazo Seco, C.; Castro, L.S. de; Nierop, J.W. van; Morin, M.; Jhangiani, S.; Verver, E.J.; Schraders, M.; Maiwald, N.; Wesdorp, F.M.; Venselaar, H.; Spruijt, L.; Oostrik, J.; Schoots, J.; Reeuwijk, J. van; Lelieveld, S.H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Insenser, M.; Admiraal, R.J.C.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Ligt, J. de; Yntema, H.G.; Jansen, J.H.; Muzny, D.M.; Huls, G.A.; Rossum, M.M. van; Lupski, J.R.; Moreno-Pelayo, M.A.; Kunst, H.P.M.; Kremer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Linkage analysis combined with whole-exome sequencing in a large family with congenital and stable non-syndromic unilateral and asymmetric hearing loss (NS-UHL/AHL) revealed a heterozygous truncating mutation, c.286_303delinsT (p.Ser96Ter), in KITLG. This mutation co-segregated with NS-UHL/AHL as a

  19. Impact Of Mutation-derived Antigens In Immune Recognition Of Hematological Malignancies, Specifically Myeloid Dysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Sunil Kumar; Dorfmüller, S.; Bjerregaard, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    Mutation-derived neoepitopes have been suggested as a major component for immune recognition of solid tumors with a high mutational load, e.g. Melanoma and Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid neoplasms characterized by increasing...

  20. Age of heart disease presentation and dysmorphic nuclei in patients with LMNA mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Jason Q; Mehrabi, Mehrsa; Robinson, Zachery R; Ochs, Alexander R; McCarthy, Linda A; Zaragoza, Michael V; Grosberg, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear shape defects are a distinguishing characteristic in laminopathies, cancers, and other pathologies. Correlating these defects to the symptoms, mechanisms, and progression of disease requires unbiased, quantitative, and high-throughput means of quantifying nuclear morphology. To accomplish this, we developed a method of automatically segmenting fluorescently stained nuclei in 2D microscopy images and then classifying them as normal or dysmorphic based on three geometric features of the nucleus using a package of Matlab codes. As a test case, cultured skin-fibroblast nuclei of individuals possessing LMNA splice-site mutation (c.357-2A>G), LMNA nonsense mutation (c.736 C>T, pQ246X) in exon 4, LMNA missense mutation (c.1003C>T, pR335W) in exon 6, Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome, and no LMNA mutations were analyzed. For each cell type, the percentage of dysmorphic nuclei, and other morphological features such as average nuclear area and average eccentricity were obtained. Compared to blind observers, our procedure implemented in Matlab codes possessed similar accuracy to manual counting of dysmorphic nuclei while being significantly more consistent. The automatic quantification of nuclear defects revealed a correlation between in vitro results and age of patients for initial symptom onset. Our results demonstrate the method's utility in experimental studies of diseases affecting nuclear shape through automated, unbiased, and accurate identification of dysmorphic nuclei.

  1. Waardenburg Syndrome: description of two novel mutations in the PAX3 gene, one of which incompletely penetrant

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    Eliete Pardono

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two different novel mutations in the PAX3 gene, detected in two families with cases of Waardenburg syndrome type I (WSI. The missense mutation detected in one family involved a single substitution in exon 2 (c.142 G > T and was present both in the affected individual and in his clinically normal father. The mutation found in the second family consisted of a deletion of 13 bases, c.764-776del(TTACCCTGACATT, in exon 5.

  2. Screening of the USH1G gene among Spanish patients with Usher syndrome. Lack of mutations and evidence of a minor role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Elena; Jaijo, Teresa; Beneyto, Magdalena; Nájera, Carmen; Morera, Constantino; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio; Ayuso, Carmen; Millán, Jose

    2007-09-01

    The Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder characterized by the association of sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and, in some cases, vestibular dysfunction. The USH1G gene, encoding SANS, has been found to cause both Usher syndrome type I and atypical Usher syndrome. 109 Spanish unrelated patients suffering from Usher syndrome type I, type II, type III and unclassified Usher syndrome were screened for mutations in this gene, but only eight different changes without a clear pathogenic effect have been detected. Based on these results as well as previous studies in other populations where mutational analysis of this gene has been carried out, one can conclude that USH1G has a minor involvement in Usher syndrome pathogenesis.

  3. Flecainide provocation reveals concealed brugada syndrome in a long QT syndrome family with a novel L1786Q mutation in SCN5A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, Jørgen K.; Yuan, Lei; Hedley, Paula L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in SCN5A can result in both long QT type 3 (LQT3) and Brugada syndrome (BrS), and a few mutations have been found to have an overlapping phenotype. Long QT syndrome is characterized by prolonged QT interval, and a prerequisite for a BrS diagnosis is ST elevation in the right...... interval. The proband presented with an aborted cardiac arrest, and his mother died suddenly and unexpectedly at the age of 65. Flecainide treatment revealed coved ST elevation in all mutation carriers. Electrophysiological investigations of the mutant in HEK293 cells indicated a reduced peak current...

  4. Prenatal diagnosis and a donor splice site mutation in fibrillin in a family with Marfan syndrome

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    Godfrey, M.; Vandemark, N.; Wang, M.; Han, J.; Rao, V.H. (Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (United States)); Velinov, M.; Tsipouras, P. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Sciences Center, Farmington (United States)); Wargowski, D.; Becker, J.; Robertson, W.; Droste, S. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The Marfan syndrome, an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder, is manifested by abnormalities in the cardiovascular, skeletal, and ocular systems. Recently, fibrillin, an elastic-associated microfibrillar glycoprotein, has been linked to the Marfan syndrome, and fibrillin mutations in affected individuals have been documented. In this study, genetic linkage analysis with fibrillin-specific markers was used to establish the prenatal diagnosis in an 11-wk-gestation fetus in a four-generation Marfan kindred. At birth, skeletal changes suggestive of the Marfan syndrome were observed. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification of the fibrillin gene mRNA detected a deletion of 123 bp in one allele in affected relatives. This deletion corresponds to an exon encoding an epidermal growth factor-like motif. Examination of genomic DNA showed a G[yields]C transversion at the +1 consensus donor splice site. 45 refs., 7 figs.

  5. A Novel Mutation on RAF1 in Association with Fetal Findings Suggestive of Noonan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneitel, Anna W; Norby, Audrey; Vettraino, Ivana; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2015-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a multisystem genetic disorder caused by genes encoding proteins involved in the RAS-MAPK pathway. Affected fetuses have variable presentations ranging from the absence of prenatal findings to increased nuchal fold, cystic hygromas, pleural effusions, cardiac malformations, or skin edema. We describe a male fetus who had features consistent with Noonan syndrome at the time of fetal anatomic survey, including hydrops and a possible cardiac defect. Subsequent scan revealed persistent bilateral pleural effusions (with predominance of lymphocytes). After bilateral thoracoamniotic shunt placement, the fetus did well and delivered at term. Prenatal testing revealed an S650F missense mutation in the RAF1 gene, which had not previously been associated with Noonan syndrome.

  6. De novo loss-of-function mutations in CHD2 cause a fever-sensitive myoclonic epileptic encephalopathy sharing features with Dravet syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suls, Arvid; Jaehn, Johanna A; Kecskés, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Dravet syndrome is a severe epilepsy syndrome characterized by infantile onset of therapy-resistant, fever-sensitive seizures followed by cognitive decline. Mutations in SCN1A explain about 75% of cases with Dravet syndrome; 90% of these mutations arise de novo. We studied a cohort of nine Dravet...

  7. Clinical Variability in a Family with an Ectodermal Dysplasia Syndrome and a Nonsense Mutation in the TP63 Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenkraft, A.; Pode-Shakked, B.; Goldstein, N.; Shpirer, Z.; Bokhoven, H. van; Anikster, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the TP63 gene have been associated with a variety of ectodermal dysplasia syndromes, among which the clinically overlapping Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal defects-Cleft lip/palate (AEC) and the Rapp-Hodgkin syndromes. We report a multiplex nonconsanguineous family of Ashkenazi-Jewish

  8. Hearing impairment caused by mutations in two different genes responsible for nonsyndromic and syndromic hearing loss within a single family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepokój, Katarzyna; Rygiel, Agnieszka M; Jurczak, Piotr; Kujko, Aleksandra A; Śniegórska, Dominika; Sawicka, Justyna; Grabarczyk, Alicja; Bal, Jerzy; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna

    2018-02-01

    Usher syndrome is rare genetic disorder impairing two human senses, hearing and vision, with the characteristic late onset of vision loss. This syndrome is divided into three types. In all cases, the vision loss is postlingual, while loss of hearing is usually prelingual. The vestibular functions may also be disturbed in Usher type 1 and sometimes in type 3. Vestibular areflexia is helpful in making a proper diagnosis of the syndrome, but, often, the syndrome is misdiagnosed as a nonsyndromic hearing loss. Here, we present a Polish family with hearing loss, which was clinically classified as nonsyndromic. After excluding mutations in the DFNB1 locus, we implemented the next-generation sequencing method and revealed that hearing loss was syndromic and mutations in the USH2A gene indicate Usher syndrome. This research highlights the importance of molecular analysis in establishing a clinical diagnosis of congenital hearing loss.

  9. Drosophila studies support a role for a presynaptic synaptotagmin mutation in a human congenital myasthenic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory C Shields

    Full Text Available During chemical transmission, the function of synaptic proteins must be coordinated to efficiently release neurotransmitter. Synaptotagmin 2, the Ca2+ sensor for fast, synchronized neurotransmitter release at the human neuromuscular junction, has recently been implicated in a dominantly inherited congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with a non-progressive motor neuropathy. In one family, a proline residue within the C2B Ca2+-binding pocket of synaptotagmin is replaced by a leucine. The functional significance of this residue has not been investigated previously. Here we show that in silico modeling predicts disruption of the C2B Ca2+-binding pocket, and we examine the in vivo effects of the homologous mutation in Drosophila. When expressed in the absence of native synaptotagmin, this mutation is lethal, demonstrating for the first time that this residue plays a critical role in synaptotagmin function. To achieve expression similar to human patients, the mutation is expressed in flies carrying one copy of the wild type synaptotagmin gene. We now show that Drosophila carrying this mutation developed neurological and behavioral manifestations similar to those of human patients and provide insight into the mechanisms underlying these deficits. Our Drosophila studies support a role for this synaptotagmin point mutation in disease etiology.

  10. [PAX3 gene mutation analysis for two Waardenburg syndrome type Ⅰ families and their prenatal diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y; Liu, N; Kong, X D; Yan, J; Qin, Z B; Wang, B

    2016-12-07

    Objective: To analyze the mutations of PAX3 gene in two Waardenburg syndrome type Ⅰ (WS1) pedigrees and make prenatal diagnosis for the high-risk 18-week-old fetus. Methods: PAX3 gene was first analyzed by Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification(MLPA) for detecting pathogenic mutation of the probands of the two pedigrees. The mutations were confirmed by MLPA and Sanger in parents and unrelated healthy individuals.Prenatal genetic diagnosis for the high-risk fetus was performed by amniotic fluid cell after genotyping. Results: A heterozygous PAX3 gene gross deletion (E7 deletion) was identified in all patients from WS1-01 family, and not found in 20 healthy individuals.Prenatal diagnosis in WS1-01 family indicated that the fetus was normal. Molecular studies identified a novel deletion mutation c. 1385_1386delCT within the PAX3 gene in all affected WS1-02 family members, but in none of the unaffected relatives and 200 healthy individuals. Conclusions: PAX3 gene mutation is etiological for two WS1 families. Sanger sequencing plus MLPA is effective and accurate for making gene diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis.

  11. Founder Fukutin mutation causes Walker-Warburg syndrome in four Ashkenazi Jewish families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wendy; Winder, Thomas L; LeDuc, Charles A; Simpson, Lynn L; Millar, William S; Dungan, Jeffrey; Ginsberg, Norman; Plaga, Stacey; Moore, Steven A; Chung, Wendy K

    2009-06-01

    Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a genetically heterogeneous congenital muscular dystrophy caused by abnormal glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) that is associated with brain malformations and eye anomalies. The Fukutin (FKTN) gene, which causes autosomal recessively inherited WWS is most often associated with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy in Japan. We describe the clinical features of four nonconsanguinous Ashkenazi Jewish families with WWS and identify the underlying genetic basis for WWS. We screened for mutations in POMGnT1, POMT1, POMT2, and FKTN, genes causing WWS, by dideoxy sequence analysis. We identified an identical homozygous c.1167insA mutation in the FKTN gene on a common haplotype in all four families and identified 2/299 (0.7%) carriers for the c.1167insA mutation among normal American Ashkenazi Jewish adults. These data suggest that the c.1167insA FKTN mutation described by us is a founder mutation that can be used to target diagnostic testing and carrier screening in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Founder Fukutin mutation causes Walker-Warburg syndrome in four Ashkenazi Jewish families†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wendy; Winder, Thomas L.; LeDuc, Charles A.; Simpson, Lynn L.; Millar, William S.; Dungan, Jeffrey; Ginsberg, Norman; Plaga, Stacey; Moore, Steven A.; Chung, Wendy K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a genetically heterogeneous congenital muscular dystrophy caused by abnormal glycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) that is associated with brain malformations and eye anomalies. The Fukutin (FKTN) gene, which causes autosomal recessively inherited WWS is most often associated with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy in Japan. We describe the clinical features of four nonconsanguinous Ashkenazi Jewish families with WWS and identify the underlying genetic basis for WWS. Method We screened for mutations in POMGnT1, POMT1, POMT2, and FKTN, genes causing WWS, by dideoxy sequence analysis. Results We identified an identical homozygous c.1167insA mutation in the FKTN gene on a common haplotype in all four families and identified 2/299 (0.7%) carriers for the c.1167insA mutation among normal American Ashkenazi Jewish adults. Conclusion These data suggest that the c.1167insA FKTN mutation described by us is a founder mutation that can be used to target diagnostic testing and carrier screening in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. PMID:19266496

  13. A novel CDKL5 mutation in a Japanese patient with atypical Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianto, Antonius; Katayama, Syouichi; Kameshita, Isamu; Inazu, Tetsuya

    2016-08-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe X-linked dominant inheritance disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Mutations in Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2), Cyclin dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and Forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) have been associated with classic and/or variant RTT. This study was conducted to identify the responsible gene(s) in atypical RTT patient, and to examine the effect of the mutation on protein function. DNA sequence analysis showed a novel heterozygous mutation in CDKL5 identified as c.530A>G which resulted in an amino acid substitution at position 177, from tyrosine to cysteine. Genotyping analysis indicated that the mutation was not merely a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We also revealed that patient's blood lymphocytes had random X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern. Further examination by bioinformatics analysis demonstrated the mutation caused damage or deleterious in its protein. In addition, we demonstrated in vitro kinase assay of mutant protein showed impairment of its activity. Taken together, the results suggested the mutant CDKL5 was responsible for the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel mutation of PAX3 in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Shu, Anli; Qian, Xueqing; Gao, Jianjun; Xing, Qinghe; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Yonglan; Li, Xingwang; Li, Sheng; Feng, Guoyin; He, Lin

    2006-08-28

    The molecular characterization of 34 members of a Chinese family, with 22 members in four generations, affected with Waardenburg syndrome (WS1). A detailed family history and clinical data were collected. A genome-wide scan by two-point linkage analysis using more than 400 microsatellite markers in combination with haplotype analysis was performed. Mutation screening was carried out in the candidate gene by sequencing of amplified products. A maximum two-point lod score of 6.53 at theta = 0.00 was obtained with marker D2S2248. Haplotype analysis placed the WS1 locus to a 45.74 cM region between D2S117 and D2S206, in close proximity to the PAX3 gene on chromosome 2q35. Mutation screening in PAX3 identified a 701T > C mutation which converted a highly conserved Leu to Pro. This nucleotide alteration was neither seen in unaffected members of the family nor found in 50 unrelated control subjects. The present study identified a novel 701T > C mutation in PAX3. The mutation observed in this family highlights the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder.

  15. A novel STXBP1 mutation causes typical Rett syndrome in a Japanese girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuge, Kotaro; Iwama, Kazuhiro; Yonee, Chihiro; Matsufuji, Mayumi; Sano, Nozomi; Saikusa, Tomoko; Yae, Yukako; Yamashita, Yushiro; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2018-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mostly caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2); however, mutations in various other genes may lead to RTT-like phenotypes. Here, we report the first case of a Japanese girl with RTT caused by a novel syntaxin-binding protein 1 (STXBP1) frameshift mutation (c.60delG, p.Lys21Argfs*16). She showed epilepsy at one year of age, regression of acquired psychomotor abilities thereafter, and exhibited stereotypic hand and limb movements at 3 years of age. Her epilepsy onset was earlier than is typical for RTT patients. However, she fully met the 2010 diagnostic criteria of typical RTT. STXBP1 mutations cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), various intractable epilepsies, and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the case described here presented a unique clinical presentation of typical RTT without EIEE and a novel STXBP1 mutation. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical implications of somatic mutations in aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome in genomic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Balasubramanian, Suresh K

    2017-12-08

    Recent technological advances in genomics have led to the discovery of new somatic mutations and have brought deeper insights into clonal diversity. This discovery has changed not only the understanding of disease mechanisms but also the diagnostics and clinical management of bone marrow failure. The clinical applications of genomics include enhancement of current prognostic schemas, prediction of sensitivity or refractoriness to treatments, and conceptualization and selective application of targeted therapies. However, beyond these traditional clinical aspects, complex hierarchical clonal architecture has been uncovered and linked to the current concepts of leukemogenesis and stem cell biology. Detection of clonal mutations, otherwise typical of myelodysplastic syndrome, in the course of aplastic anemia (AA) and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria has led to new pathogenic concepts in these conditions and created a new link between AA and its clonal complications, such as post-AA and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Distinctions among founder vs subclonal mutations, types of clonal evolution (linear or branching), and biological features of individual mutations (sweeping, persistent, or vanishing) will allow for better predictions of the biologic impact they impart in individual cases. As clonal markers, mutations can be used for monitoring clonal dynamics of the stem cell compartment during physiologic aging, disease processes, and leukemic evolution. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of a novel MYO7A mutation in Usher syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ling; Yu, Hongsong; Jiang, Yan; He, Juan; Pu, Sisi; Li, Xin; Zhang, Li

    2018-01-05

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by deafness and retinitis pigmentosa. In view of the high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity in USH, performing genetic screening with traditional methods is impractical. In the present study, we carried out targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) to uncover the underlying gene in an USH family (2 USH patients and 15 unaffected relatives). One hundred and thirty-five genes associated with inherited retinal degeneration were selected for deep exome sequencing. Subsequently, variant analysis, Sanger validation and segregation tests were utilized to identify the disease-causing mutations in this family. All affected individuals had a classic USH type I (USH1) phenotype which included deafness, vestibular dysfunction and retinitis pigmentosa. Targeted NGS and Sanger sequencing validation suggested that USH1 patients carried an unreported splice site mutation, c.5168+1G>A, as a compound heterozygous mutation with c.6070C>T (p.R2024X) in the MYO7A gene. A functional study revealed decreased expression of the MYO7A gene in the individuals carrying heterozygous mutations. In conclusion, targeted next-generation sequencing provided a comprehensive and efficient diagnosis for USH1. This study revealed the genetic defects in the MYO7A gene and expanded the spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with USH1 mutations.

  18. Expanding the spectrum of genetic mutations in antenatal Bartter syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretzayas, Andreas; Gole, Evangelia; Attilakos, Achilleas; Daskalaki, Anna; Nicolaidou, Polyxeni; Papadopoulou, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) is a group of genetic disorders characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia and elevated renin and aldosterone plasma concentrations. BS type II is caused by mutations in the KCNJ1 gene and usually presents with transient hyperkalemia. We report here a novel KCNJ1 mutation in a male neonate, prematurely born after a pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios. The infant presented with typical clinical and laboratory findings of BS type II, such as hyponatremia, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, severe weight loss, elevated renin and aldosterone levels and transient hyperkalemia in the early postnatal period, which were later normalized. Molecular analysis revealed a compound heterozygous mutation in the KCNJ1 gene, consisting of a novel K76E and an already described V315G mutation, both affecting functional domains of the channel protein. Typical manifestations of antenatal BS in combination with hyperkalemia should prompt the clinician to search for mutations in the KCNJ1 gene first. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Cataract as a phenotypic marker for a mutation in WFS1, the Wolfram syndrome gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titah, Salah Mohamed Cherif; Meunier, Isabelle; Blanchet, Catherine; Lopez, Severine; Rondouin, Gerard; Lenaers, Guy; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Reynier, Pascal; Paquis-Flucklinger, Veronique; Hamel, Christian P

    2012-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WS) or diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness (DIDMOAD) (OMIM 222300) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy as the 2 major criteria, followed later in life by deafness, diabetes insipidus, and various signs of neurologic impairment. The presence of a cataract has been variably mentioned in WS. Two members of a family had thorough ophthalmic examination and their DNA was screened for mutations in mitochondrial DNA, WFS1, OPA1, and OPA3 genes. We report a patient who first had surgery for bilateral cataract at age 5 and who subsequently presented typical signs of WS, i.e., diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy with reduced visual acuity at 20/400 on both eyes at age 22, and mild deafness. The patient was found to be a compound heterozygote for 2 truncating mutations in WFS1, the major WS gene. She carried the previously reported c.1231_1233 delCT and a novel c.2431_2465dup35 mutation. She also was heterozygote for a novel OPA1 sequence variant, c.929A>G in exon 9, whose pathogenicity remains uncertain. The patient's mother was a heterozygous carrier of the c.2431_2465dup35 mutation. She did not have diabetes mellitus or optic atrophy but had bilateral polar cataract. She did not carry the OPA1 sequence variant. Cataract could be a marker for the WFS1 heterozygosity in this family, namely the c.2431_2465dup35 mutation.

  20. TGM5 mutations impact epidermal differentiation in acral peeling skin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigors, Manuela; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Cobzaru, Cristina; Schwieger-Briel, Agnes; Suárez, Jose; Faletra, Flavio; Aho, Heikki; Mäkelä, Leeni; Kern, Johannes S; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Has, Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by acral blistering and peeling of the outermost layers of the epidermis. It is caused by mutations in the gene for transglutaminase 5, TGM5. Here, we report on clinical and molecular findings in 11 patients and extend the TGM5 mutation database by four, to our knowledge, previously unreported mutations: p.M1T, p.L41P, p.L214CfsX15, and p.S604IfsX9. The recurrent mutation p.G113C was found in 9 patients, but also in 3 of 100 control individuals in a heterozygous state, indicating that APSS might be more widespread than hitherto expected. Using quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence analysis, we demonstrate that expression and distribution of several epidermal differentiation markers and corneodesmosin (CDSN) is altered in APSS keratinocytes and skin. Although the expression of transglutaminases 1 and 3 was not changed, we found an upregulation of keratin 1, keratin 10, involucrin, loricrin, and CDSN, probably as compensatory mechanisms for stabilization of the epidermal barrier. Our results give insights into the consequences of TGM5 mutations on terminal epidermal differentiation.

  1. A novel mutation in the MITF may be digenic with GJB2 mutations in a large Chinese family of Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xukun; Zhang, Tianyu; Wang, Zhengmin; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Yan; Wang, Hongyan; Ma, Duan; Wang, Lei; Li, Huawei

    2011-12-20

    Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) is associated with syndromic deafness. A subset of WS2, WS2A, accounting for approximately 15% of patients, is attributed to mutations in the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene. We examined the genetic basis of WS2 in a large Chinese family. All 9 exons of the MITF gene, the single coding exon (exon 2) of the most common hereditary deafness gene GJB2 and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 12S rRNA were sequenced. A novel heterozygous mutation c.[742_743delAAinsT;746_747delCA] in exon 8 of the MITF gene co-segregates with WS2 in the family. The MITF mutation results in a premature termination codon and a truncated MITF protein with only 247 of the 419 wild type amino acids. The deaf proband had this MITF gene heterozygous mutation as well as a c.[109G>A]+[235delC] compound heterozygous pathogenic mutation in the GJB2 gene. No pathogenic mutation was found in mtDNA 12S rRNA in this family. Thus, a novel compound heterozygous mutation, c.[742_743delAAinsT;746_747delCA] in MITF exon 8 was the key genetic reason for WS2 in this family, and a digenic effect of MITF and GJB2 genes may contribute to deafness of the proband. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Identification of a novel mutation in the human growth hormone receptor gene (GHR) in a patient with Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennero, Isabelle; Edouard, Thomas; Rashad, Mona; Bieth, Eric; Conte-Aurio, Françoise; Marin, Françoise; Tauber, Maithé; Salles, Jean Pierre; El Kholy, Mohamed

    2007-07-01

    Deletions and mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene are the underlying etiology of Laron syndrome (LS) or growth hormone (GH) insensitivity syndrome (GHIS), an autosomal recessive disease. Most patients are distributed in or originate from Mediterranean and Middle-Eastern countries. Sixty mutations have been described so far. We report a novel mutation in the GHR gene in a patient with LS. Genomic DNA sequencing of exon 5 revealed a TT insertion at nucleotide 422 after codon 122. The insertion resulted in a frameshift introducing a premature termination codon that led to a truncated receptor. We present clinical, biochemical and molecular evidence of LS as the result of this homozygous insertion.

  3. A Turkish family with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome caused by a novel ALDH3A2 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Incecik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member A2 (ALDH3A2 gene that encodes fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase. Affected patients display ichthyosis, mental retardation, and spastic diplegia. More than 70 mutations in ALDH3A2 have been discovered in SLS patients. We diagnosed two brothers age of 12 and 20 years with characteristic features of this rare syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed demyelinating disease in both of them. We described a novel homozygous, c. 835 T > A (p.Y279N mutation in exon 6 in two patients.

  4. Mutation analysis in the long isoform of USH2A in American patients with Usher Syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Denise; Ouyang, Xiaomei; Patterson, D Michael; Du, Li Lin; Jacobson, Samuel G; Liu, Xue-Zhong

    2009-12-01

    Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderate to severe hearing impairment and progressive visual loss due to retinitis pigmentosa (RP). To identify novel mutations and determine the frequency of USH2A mutations as a cause of USH2, we have carried out mutation screening of all 72 coding exons and exon-intron splice sites of the USH2A gene. A total of 20 USH2 American probands of European descent were analyzed using single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and direct sequencing methods. Ten different USH2A mutations were identified in 55% of the probands, five of which were novel mutations. The detected mutations include three missense, three frameshifts and four nonsense mutations, with c.2299delG/p.E767fs mutation, accounting for 38.9% of the pathological alleles. Two cases were homozygotes, two cases were compound heterozygotes and one case had complex allele with three variants. In seven probands, only one USH2A mutation was detected and no pathological mutation was found in the remaining eight individuals. Altogether, our data support the fact that c.2299delG/p.E767fs is indeed the most common USH2A mutation found in USH2 patients of European Caucasian background. Thus, if screening for mutations in USH2A is considered, it is reasonable to screen for the c.2299delG mutation first.

  5. A novel growth hormone receptor gene deletion mutation in a patient with primary growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (Laron syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Kouhara, Haruhiko; Iida, Keiji; Chihara, Kazuo; Kasayama, Soji

    2008-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) insensitivity syndrome (Laron syndrome) is known to be caused by genetic disorders of the GH-IGF-1 axis. Although many mutations in the GH receptor have been identified, there have been only a few reports of deletions of the GH receptor gene. A Japanese adult female patient with Laron syndrome was subjected to chromosome analysis with basic G-banding and also with a high accuracy technique. Each exon of the GH receptor gene was amplified by means of PCR. Since this patient was diagnosed with osteoporosis, the effects of alendronate on bone mineral density (BMD) were also examined. The chromosome analysis with the high accuracy technique demonstrated a large deletion of the short arm in one allele of chromosome 5 from p11 to p13.1 [46, XX, del (5) (p11-p13.1)]. PCR amplification of exons of the GH receptor gene showed that only exons 2 and 3 were amplified. Low-dose IGF-1 administration (30microg/kg body weight) failed to increase her BMD, whereas alendronate administration resulted in an increase associated with a decrease in urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and serum osteocalcin concentrations. The GH receptor gene of the patient was shown to lack exons 4-10. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case report of Laron syndrome with large GH receptor deletion. Alendronate was effective for the enhancement of BMD.

  6. Insights into the mutation-induced HHH syndrome from modeling human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fang Wang

    Full Text Available Human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1 is reported in coupling with the hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. For in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of the disease, it is crucially important to acquire the 3D structure of human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1. Since no such structure is available in the current protein structure database, we have developed it via computational approaches based on the recent NMR structure of human mitochondrial uncoupling protein (Berardi MJ, Chou JJ, et al. Nature 2011, 476:109-113. Subsequently, we docked the ligand L-ornithine into the computational structure to search for the favorable binding mode. It was observed that the binding interaction for the most favorable binding mode is featured by six remarkable hydrogen bonds between the receptor and ligand, and that the most favorable binding mode shared the same ligand-binding site with most of the homologous mitochondrial carriers from different organisms, implying that the ligand-binding sites are quite conservative in the mitochondrial carriers family although their sequences similarity is very low with 20% or so. Moreover, according to our structural analysis, the relationship between the disease-causing mutations of human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1 and the HHH syndrome can be classified into the following three categories: (i the mutation occurs in the pseudo-repeat regions so as to change the region of the protein closer to the mitochondrial matrix; (ii the mutation is directly affecting the substrate binding pocket so as to reduce the substrate binding affinity; (iii the mutation is located in the structural region closer to the intermembrane space that can significantly break the salt bridge networks of the protein. These findings may provide useful insights for in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of the HHH syndrome and

  7. Nelson`s syndrome associated with a somatic frame shift mutation in the glucocorticoid recepter gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, M.; Stratakis, C.A.; Chrousos, G.P.; Katz, D.A.; Ali, I.U.; Oldfield, E.H. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Nelson`s syndrome is the appearance and/or progression of ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas in patients who had previously undergone bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing`s disease. Extremely high plasma ACTH levels and aggressive neoplastic growth might be explained by the lack of appropriate glucocorticoid negative feedback due to defective glucocorticoid signal transduction. To study the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene in Nelson`s syndrome, DNA was extracted from pituitary adenomas and leukocytes of four patients with this condition and amplified by PCR for direct sequence analysis. In one of the tumors, a heterozygous mutation, consisting of an insertion of a thymine between complementary DNA nucleotides 1188 and 1189, was found in exon 2. This frame-shift mutation led to premature termination at amino acid residue 366 of the world-type coding sequence, excluding the expression of a functioning receptor protein from the defective allele. The mutation was not detected in the sequence of the GR gene in the patient`s leukocyte DNA, indicating a somatic origin. By lowering the receptor number in tumorous cells, this defect might have caused local resistance to negative glucocorticoid feedback similar to that caused by the presence of a null allele in a kindred with the generalized glucocorticoid resistance syndrome. P53 protein accumulation, previously reported in 60% of corticotropinomas, could not be detected in any of the four pituitary tumors examined by immunohistochemistry. We suggest that a somatic GR defect might have played a pathophysiological role in the tumorigenesis of the corticotropinoma bearing this mutation. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cone structure in patients with usher syndrome type III and mutations in the Clarin 1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Kavitha; Västinsalo, Hanna; Roorda, Austin; Sankila, Eeva-Marja K; Duncan, Jacque L

    2013-01-01

    To study macular structure and function in patients with Usher syndrome type III (USH3) caused by mutations in the Clarin 1 gene (CLRN1). High-resolution macular images were obtained by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in 3 patients with USH3 and were compared with those of age-similar control subjects. Vision function measures included best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic and static perimetry, and full-field electroretinography. Coding regions of the CLRN1 gene were sequenced. CLRN1 mutations were present in all the patients; a 20-year-old man showed compound heterozygous mutations (p.N48K and p.S188X), and 2 unrelated women aged 25 and 32 years had homozygous mutations (p.N48K). Best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/16 to 20/40, with scotomas beginning at 3° eccentricity. The inner segment-outer segment junction or the inner segment ellipsoid band was disrupted within 1° to 4° of the fovea, and the foveal inner and outer segment layers were significantly thinner than normal. Cones near the fovea in patients 1 and 2 showed normal spacing, and the preserved region ended abruptly. Retinal pigment epithelial cells were visible in patient 3 where cones were lost. Cones were observed centrally but not in regions with scotomas, and retinal pigment epithelial cells were visible in regions without cones in patients with CLRN1 mutations. High-resolution measures of retinal structure demonstrate patterns of cone loss associated with CLRN1 mutations. These findings provide insight into the effect of CLRN1 mutations on macular cone structure, which has implications for the development of treatments for USH3. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00254605.

  9. PAX3 mutations and clinical characteristics in Chinese patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Li, Shiqiang; Xiao, Xueshan; Wang, Panfeng; Guo, Xiangming

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To detect paired box gene 3 (PAX3) mutations and associated phenotypes in Chinese patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1). Methods Five unrelated families with suspected WS1 were selected from our Genomic DNA Repository for Hereditary Eye Diseases. The coding and adjacent intronic regions of PAX3 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplicons were then analyzed by cycle sequencing. Variations detected were further evaluated in available family members as well as one hundred controls with heteroduplex-single strand conformational polymorphism (heteroduplex-SSCP) analysis and/or clone sequencing. Results Three novel and two known mutations in PAX3 were detected in five patients, respectively: c.567_586+17del (p.Asp189_Gln505delinsGluGlyGlyAlaLeuAlaGly), c.456_459dupTTCC (p.Ile154PhefsX162), c.795_800delCTGGTT (p.Trp266_Phe267del), c.799T>A (p.Phe267Ile), and c.667C>T (p.Arg223X). Two novel mutations proved to be de novo as their parents did not carry the mutations. All five patients with PAX3 mutations had dystopia canthorum and different iris color and fundi between their two eyes. However, none had white forelock, skin hypopigmentation, and deafness. Conclusions Our findings expand the frequency and spectrum of PAX3 mutations and ethnic-related phenotypes in Chinese patients with WS1. De novo mutations in PAX3 have not been reported before. PMID:20664692

  10. Clinical characteristics and STK11 gene mutations in Chinese children with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiheng; Miao, Shijian; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Ping; Wu, Bingbing; Wu, Jie; Huang, Ying

    2015-11-25

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps and mucocutaneous melanin spots. Germline mutation of the serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11) gene are responsible for PJS. In this study, we investigated the clinical characteristics and molecular basis of the disease in Chinese children with PJS. Thirteen children diagnosed with PJS in our hospital were enrolled in this study from 2011 to 2015, and their clinical data on polyp characteristics, intussusceptions events, family histories, etc. were described. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole-blood samples from each subject, and the entire coding sequence of the STK11 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by direct sequencing. The median age at the onset of symptoms was 2 years and 4 months. To date, these children have undergone 40 endoscopy screenings, 17 laparotomies and 9 intussusceptions. Polyps were found in the stomach, duodenum, small bowel, colon and rectum, with large polyps found in 7 children. Mutations were found in eleven children, including seven novel mutations (c.481het_dupA, c.943_944het_delCCinsG, c.397het_delG, c.862 + 1G > G/A, c.348_349het_delGT, and c.803_804het_delGGinsC and c.121_139de l19insTT) and four previously reported mutations (c.658C > C/T, c.890G > G/A, c.1062 C > C/G, and c.290 + 1G > G/A). One PJS patient did not have any STK11 mutations. The polyps caused significant clinical consequences in children with PJS, and mutations of the STK11 gene are generally the cause of PJS in Chinese children. This study expands the spectrum of known STK11 gene mutations.

  11. SEMA3A, a gene involved in axonal pathfinding, is mutated in patients with Kallmann syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchate, Naresh Kumar; Giacobini, Paolo; Lhuillier, Pierre; Parkash, Jyoti; Espy, Cécile; Fouveaut, Corinne; Leroy, Chrystel; Baron, Stéphanie; Campagne, Céline; Vanacker, Charlotte; Collier, Francis; Cruaud, Corinne; Meyer, Vincent; García-Piñero, Alfons; Dewailly, Didier; Cortet-Rudelli, Christine; Gersak, Ksenija; Metz, Chantal; Chabrier, Gérard; Pugeat, Michel; Young, Jacques; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Prevot, Vincent; Dodé, Catherine

    2012-08-01

    Kallmann syndrome (KS) associates congenital hypogonadism due to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency and anosmia. The genetics of KS involves various modes of transmission, including oligogenic inheritance. Here, we report that Nrp1(sema/sema) mutant mice that lack a functional semaphorin-binding domain in neuropilin-1, an obligatory coreceptor of semaphorin-3A, have a KS-like phenotype. Pathohistological analysis of these mice indeed showed abnormal development of the peripheral olfactory system and defective embryonic migration of the neuroendocrine GnRH cells to the basal forebrain, which results in increased mortality of newborn mice and reduced fertility in adults. We thus screened 386 KS patients for the presence of mutations in SEMA3A (by Sanger sequencing of all 17 coding exons and flanking splice sites) and identified nonsynonymous mutations in 24 patients, specifically, a frameshifting small deletion (D538fsX31) and seven different missense mutations (R66W, N153S, I400V, V435I, T688A, R730Q, R733H). All the mutations were found in heterozygous state. Seven mutations resulted in impaired secretion of semaphorin-3A by transfected COS-7 cells (D538fsX31, R66W, V435I) or reduced signaling activity of the secreted protein in the GN11 cell line derived from embryonic GnRH cells (N153S, I400V, T688A, R733H), which strongly suggests that these mutations have a pathogenic effect. Notably, mutations in other KS genes had already been identified, in heterozygous state, in five of these patients. Our findings indicate that semaphorin-3A signaling insufficiency contributes to the pathogenesis of KS and further substantiate the oligogenic pattern of inheritance in this developmental disorder.

  12. SEMA3A, a gene involved in axonal pathfinding, is mutated in patients with Kallmann syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Hanchate

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Kallmann syndrome (KS associates congenital hypogonadism due to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH deficiency and anosmia. The genetics of KS involves various modes of transmission, including oligogenic inheritance. Here, we report that Nrp1(sema/sema mutant mice that lack a functional semaphorin-binding domain in neuropilin-1, an obligatory coreceptor of semaphorin-3A, have a KS-like phenotype. Pathohistological analysis of these mice indeed showed abnormal development of the peripheral olfactory system and defective embryonic migration of the neuroendocrine GnRH cells to the basal forebrain, which results in increased mortality of newborn mice and reduced fertility in adults. We thus screened 386 KS patients for the presence of mutations in SEMA3A (by Sanger sequencing of all 17 coding exons and flanking splice sites and identified nonsynonymous mutations in 24 patients, specifically, a frameshifting small deletion (D538fsX31 and seven different missense mutations (R66W, N153S, I400V, V435I, T688A, R730Q, R733H. All the mutations were found in heterozygous state. Seven mutations resulted in impaired secretion of semaphorin-3A by transfected COS-7 cells (D538fsX31, R66W, V435I or reduced signaling activity of the secreted protein in the GN11 cell line derived from embryonic GnRH cells (N153S, I400V, T688A, R733H, which strongly suggests that these mutations have a pathogenic effect. Notably, mutations in other KS genes had already been identified, in heterozygous state, in five of these patients. Our findings indicate that semaphorin-3A signaling insufficiency contributes to the pathogenesis of KS and further substantiate the oligogenic pattern of inheritance in this developmental disorder.

  13. Cone Structure in Patients With Usher Syndrome Type III and Mutations in the Clarin 1 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Kavitha; Västinsalo, Hanna; Roorda, Austin; Sankila, Eeva-Marja K.; Duncan, Jacque L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study macular structure and function in patients with Usher syndrome type III (USH3) caused by mutations in the Clarin 1 gene (CLRN1). Methods High-resolution macular images were obtained by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in 3 patients with USH3 and were compared with those of age-similar control subjects. Vision function measures included best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic and static perimetry, and full-field electroretinography. Coding regions of the CLRN1 gene were sequenced. Results CLRN1 mutations were present in all the patients; a 20-year-old man showed compound heterozygous mutations (p.N48K and p.S188X), and 2 unrelated women aged 25 and 32 years had homozygous mutations (p.N48K). Best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/16 to 20/40, with scotomas beginning at 3° eccentricity. The inner segment-outer segment junction or the inner segment ellipsoid band was disrupted within 1° to 4° of the fovea, and the foveal inner and outer segment layers were significantly thinner than normal. Cones near the fovea in patients 1 and 2 showed normal spacing, and the preserved region ended abruptly. Retinal pigment epithelial cells were visible in patient 3 where cones were lost. Conclusions Cones were observed centrally but not in regions with scotomas, and retinal pigment epithelial cells were visible in regions without cones in patients with CLRN1 mutations. High-resolution measures of retinal structure demonstrate patterns of cone loss associated with CLRN1 mutations. Clinical Relevance These findings provide insight into the effect of CLRN1 mutations on macular cone structure, which has implications for the development of treatments for USH3. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00254605 PMID:22964989

  14. PAX3 mutations and clinical characteristics in Chinese patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Li, Shiqiang; Xiao, Xueshan; Wang, Panfeng; Guo, Xiangming; Zhang, Qingjiong

    2010-06-22

    To detect paired box gene 3 (PAX3) mutations and associated phenotypes in Chinese patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1). Five unrelated families with suspected WS1 were selected from our Genomic DNA Repository for Hereditary Eye Diseases. The coding and adjacent intronic regions of PAX3 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplicons were then analyzed by cycle sequencing. Variations detected were further evaluated in available family members as well as one hundred controls with heteroduplex-single strand conformational polymorphism (heteroduplex-SSCP) analysis and/or clone sequencing. Three novel and two known mutations in PAX3 were detected in five patients, respectively: c.567_586+17del (p.Asp189_Gln505delinsGluGlyGlyAlaLeuAlaGly), c.456_459dupTTCC (p.Ile154PhefsX162), c.795_800delCTGGTT (p.Trp266_Phe267del), c.799T>A (p.Phe267Ile), and c.667C>T (p.Arg223X). Two novel mutations proved to be de novo as their parents did not carry the mutations. All five patients with PAX3 mutations had dystopia canthorum and different iris color and fundi between their two eyes. However, none had white forelock, skin hypopigmentation, and deafness. Our findings expand the frequency and spectrum of PAX3 mutations and ethnic-related phenotypes in Chinese patients with WS1. De novo mutations in PAX3 have not been reported before.

  15. Identification of 51 novel exons of the Usher syndrome type 2A (USH2A) gene that encode multiple conserved functional domains and that are mutated in patients with Usher syndrome type II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, E. van; Pennings, R.J.E.; Brinke, H. te; Claassen, A.M.W.; Yntema, H.G.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Kremer, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The USH2A gene is mutated in patients with Usher syndrome type IIa, which is the most common subtype of Usher syndrome and is characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. Since mutation analysis by DNA sequencing of exons 1-21 revealed only ~63% of the expected USH2A mutations, we

  16. A mouse model of the human Fragile X syndrome I304N mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B Zang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mental retardation, autistic features, and behavioral abnormalities characteristic of the Fragile X mental retardation syndrome result from the loss of function of the RNA-binding protein FMRP. The disease is usually caused by a triplet repeat expansion in the 5'UTR of the FMR1 gene. This leads to loss of function through transcriptional gene silencing, pointing to a key function for FMRP, but precluding genetic identification of critical activities within the protein. Moreover, antisense transcripts (FMR4, ASFMR1 in the same locus have been reported to be silenced by the repeat expansion. Missense mutations offer one means of confirming a central role for FMRP in the disease, but to date, only a single such patient has been described. This patient harbors an isoleucine to asparagine mutation (I304N in the second FMRP KH-type RNA-binding domain, however, this single case report was complicated because the patient harbored a superimposed familial liver disease. To address these issues, we have generated a new Fragile X Syndrome mouse model in which the endogenous Fmr1 gene harbors the I304N mutation. These mice phenocopy the symptoms of Fragile X Syndrome in the existing Fmr1-null mouse, as assessed by testicular size, behavioral phenotyping, and electrophysiological assays of synaptic plasticity. I304N FMRP retains some functions, but has specifically lost RNA binding and polyribosome association; moreover, levels of the mutant protein are markedly reduced in the brain specifically at a time when synapses are forming postnatally. These data suggest that loss of FMRP function, particularly in KH2-mediated RNA binding and in synaptic plasticity, play critical roles in pathogenesis of the Fragile X Syndrome and establish a new model for studying the disorder.

  17. Brugada syndrome with a novel missense mutation in SCN5A gene: A case report from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahidus Sayeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brugada syndrome is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia that follows autosomal dominant transmission and can cause sudden death. We report a case of Brugada syndrome in a 55-year-old male patient presented with recurrent palpitation, atypical chest pain and presyncope. ECG changes were consistent with type 1 Brugada. Gene analysis revealed a novel missense mutation in SCN5A gene with a genetic variation of D785N and a nucleotide change at 2353G-A. One of his children also had the same mutation. To our knowledge this is the first genetically proved case of Brugada syndrome in Bangladesh.

  18. Two novel POC1A mutations in the primordial dwarfism, SOFT syndrome: Clinical homogeneity but also unreported malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-García, Jimena; Iván Rivera-Pedroza, Carlos; Salamanca, Luis; Belinchón, Alberta; López-González, Vanesa; Sentchordi-Montané, Lucía; del Pozo, Ángela; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Lapunzina, Pablo; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; González-Casado, Isabel; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Heath, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    Primordial dwarfism encompasses rare conditions characterized by severe intrauterine growth retardation and growth deficiency throughout life. Recently, three POC1A mutations have been reported in six families with the primordial dwarfism, SOFT syndrome (Short stature, Onychodysplasia, Facial dysmorphism, and hypoTrichosis). Using a custom-designed Next-generation sequencing skeletal dysplasia panel, we have identified two novel homozygous POC1A mutations in two individuals with primordial dwarfism. The severe growth retardation and the facial profiles are strikingly similar between our patients and those described previously. However, one of our patients was diagnosed with severe foramen magnum stenosis and subglottic tracheal stenosis, malformations not previously associated with this syndrome. Our findings confirm that POC1A mutations cause SOFT syndrome and that mutations in this gene should be considered in patients with severe pre- and postnatal short stature, symmetric shortening of long bones, triangular facies, sparse hair and short, thickened distal phalanges. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Clinical spectrum and molecular diagnosis of Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome patients with an imprinting mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, S.; Cassidy, S.B.; Conroy, J.M. [Univ. of Hospitals of Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-01-20

    Recent studies have identified a new class of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) patients who have biparental inheritance, but neither the typical deletion nor uniparental disomy (UPD) or translocation. However, these patients have uniparental DNA methylation throughout 15q11-q13, and thus appear to have a mutation in the imprinting process for this region. Here we describe detailed clinical findings of five AS imprinting mutation patients (three families) and two PWS imprinting mutation patients (one new family). All these patients have essentially the classical clinical phenotype for the respective syndrome, except that the incidence of microcephaly is lower in imprinting mutation AS patients than in deletion AS patients. Furthermore, imprinting mutation AS and PWS patients do not typically have hypopigmentation, which is commonly found in patients with the usual large deletion. Molecular diagnosis of these cases is initially achieved by DNA methylation analyses of the DN34/ZNF127, PW71 (D15S63), and SNRPN loci. The latter two probes have clear advantages in the simple molecular diagnostic analysis of PWS and AS patients with an imprinting mutation, as has been found for typical deletion or UPD PWS and AS cases. With the recent finding of inherited microdeletions in PWS and AS imprinting mutation families, our studies define a new class of these two syndromes. The clinical and molecular identification of these PWS and AS patients has important genetic counseling consequences. 49 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Novel PSTPIP1 gene mutation in a patient with pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Elvira; Singla, Shikha; Davis, William E; Quinet, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne (PAPA) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease that usually presents in childhood with recurrent sterile arthritis. As the child ages into puberty, cutaneous features develop and arthritis subsides. We report the case of a now 25-year-old male patient with PAPA syndrome with the E250K mutation in PSTPIP1. We also present a systematic literature review of other PAPA cases. We conducted a literature search of PubMed using the following search terms: E250K mutation, PSTPIP1, and PAPA. PAPA syndrome is caused by mutations on chromosome 15q affecting the proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 1 (PSTPIP1) gene, also known as CD2-binding protein 1 (CD2BP1). The reported cases of PAPA syndrome currently in the literature involve mutations in A230T and E250Q. One case of a novel E250K mutation has been reported, which presented with a different phenotype to previously described cases of PAPA syndrome. With variation present between disease presentations from case to case, it is possible that the spectrum of PAPA syndrome is wider than currently thought. Further research is needed which may uncover an as-yet undiscovered genetic abnormality linking these interrelated diseases together. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel mutation in the connexin 26 gene (GJB2) in a child with clinical and histological features of keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Tranebjaerg, L; Esberg, G

    2011-01-01

    Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare congenital ectodermal disorder, caused by heterozygous missense mutation in GJB2, encoding the gap junction protein connexin 26. The commonest mutation is the p.Asp50Asn mutation, and only a few other mutations have been described to date....

  2. Clinical Expression and New SPINK5 Splicing Defects in Netherton Syndrome : Unmasking a Frequent Founder Synonymous Mutation and Unconventional Intronic Mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacroix, Matthieu; Lacaze-Buzy, Laetitia; Furio, Laetitia; Tron, Elodie; Valari, Manthoula; Van der Wier, Gerda; Bodemer, Christine; Bygum, Anette; Bursztejn, Anne-Claire; Gaitanis, George; Paradisi, Mauro; Stratigos, Alexander; Weibel, Lisa; Deraison, Celine; Hovnanian, Alain

    Netherton syndrome (NS) is a severe skin disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in SPINK5 (serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5) encoding the serine protease inhibitor LEKTI (lympho-epithelial Kazal type-related inhibitor). Here, we disclose new SPINK5 defects in 12 patients, who presented a

  3. An Usher syndrome type 1 patient diagnosed before the appearance of visual symptoms by MYO7A mutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Hidekane; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Kanda, Yukihiko; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Murata, Toshinori; Iwasa, Yoh-ichiro; Nishio, Shin-ya; Takumi, Yutaka; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2013-02-01

    Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) appears to have only profound non-syndromic hearing loss in childhood and retinitis pigmentosa develops in later years. This study examined the frequency of USH1 before the appearance of visual symptoms in Japanese deaf children by MYO7A mutation analysis. We report the case of 6-year-old male with profound hearing loss, who did not have visual symptoms. The frequency of MYO7A mutations in profound hearing loss children is also discussed. We sequenced all exons of the MYO7A gene in 80 Japanese children with severe to profound non-syndromic HL not due to mutations of the GJB2 gene (ages 0-14 years). A total of nine DNA variants were found and six of them were presumed to be non-pathogenic variants. In addition, three variants of them were found in two patients (2.5%) with deafness and were classified as possible pathogenic variants. Among them, at least one nonsense mutation and one missense mutation from the patient were confirmed to be responsible for deafness. After MYO7A mutation analysis, the patient was diagnosed with RP, and therefore, also diagnosed with USH1. This is the first case report to show the advantage of MYO7A mutation analysis to diagnose USH1 before the appearance of visual symptoms. We believed that MYO7A mutation analysis is valid for the early diagnosis of USH1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Severe manifestation of Bartter syndrome Type IV caused by a novel insertion mutation in the BSND gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablos, Augusto Luque; García-Nieto, Victor; López-Menchero, Jesús C; Ramos-Trujillo, Elena; González-Acosta, Hilaria; Claverie-Martín, Félix

    2014-05-01

    Bartter syndrome Type IV is a rare subtype of the Bartter syndromes that leads to both severe renal salt wasting and sensorineural deafness. This autosomal recessive disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding barttin, BSND, an essential subunit of the ClC-K chloride channels expressed in renal and inner ear epithelia. Patients differ in the severity of renal symptoms, which appears to depend on the modification of channel function by the mutant barttin. To date, only a few BSND mutations have been reported, most of which are missense or nonsense mutations. In this study, we report the identification of the first insertion mutation, p.W102Vfs*7, in the BSND gene of a newborn girl with acute clinical symptoms including early-onset chronic renal failure. The results support previous data indicating that mutations that are predicted to abolish barttin expression are associated with a severe phenotype and early onset renal failure.

  5. A de novo missense mutation of FGFR2 causes facial dysplasia syndrome in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; McEvoy, Fintan J; Heegaard, Steffen; Charlier, Carole; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord

    2017-08-02

    Surveillance for bovine genetic diseases in Denmark identified a hitherto unreported congenital syndrome occurring among progeny of a Holstein sire used for artificial breeding. A genetic aetiology due to a dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or a mosaic germline mutation was suspected as all recorded cases were progeny of the same sire. Detailed investigations were performed to characterize the syndrome and to reveal its cause. Seven malformed calves were submitted examination. All cases shared a common morphology with the most striking lesions being severe facial dysplasia and complete prolapse of the eyes. Consequently the syndrome was named facial dysplasia syndrome (FDS). Furthermore, extensive brain malformations, including microencephaly, hydrocephalus, lobation of the cerebral hemispheres and compression of the brain were present. Subsequent data analysis of progeny of the sire revealed that around 0.5% of his offspring suffered from FDS. High density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping data of the seven cases and their parents were used to map the defect in the bovine genome. Significant genetic linkage was obtained for three regions, including chromosome 26 where whole genome sequencing of a case-parent trio revealed two de novo variants perfectly associated with the disease: an intronic SNP in the DMBT1 gene and a single non-synonymous variant in the FGFR2 gene. This FGFR2 missense variant (c.927G>T) affects a gene encoding a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and across species. It is predicted to change an evolutionary conserved tryptophan into a cysteine residue (p.Trp309Cys). Both variant alleles were proven to result from de novo mutation events in the germline of the sire. FDS is a novel genetic disorder of Holstein cattle. Mutations in the human FGFR2 gene are associated with various dominant inherited craniofacial dysostosis syndromes. Given

  6. WNT10A missense mutation associated with a complete odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Sadia; Klar, Joakim; Wajid, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad; Tariq, Muhammad; Schuster, Jens; Baig, Shahid Mahmood; Dahl, Niklas

    2009-12-01

    Wnt signalling is one of a few pathways that are crucial for controlling genetic programs during embryonic development as well as in adult tissues. WNT10A is expressed in the skin and epidermis and it has shown to be critical for the development of ectodermal appendages. A nonsense mutation in WNT10A was recently identified in odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia (OODD; MIM 257980), a rare syndrome characterised by severe hypodontia, nail dystrophy, smooth tongue, dry skin, keratoderma and hyperhydrosis of palms and soles. We identified a large consanguineous Pakistani pedigree comprising six individuals affected by a complete OODD syndrome. Autozygosity mapping using SNP array analysis showed that the affected individuals are homozygous for the WNT10A gene region. Subsequent mutation screening showed a homozygous c.392C>T transition in exon 3 of WNT10A, which predicts a p.A131V substitution in a conserved alpha-helix domain. We report here on the first inherited missense mutation in WNT10A with associated ectodermal features.

  7. Mutations in the evolutionarily highly conserved KEOPS complex genes cause nephrotic syndrome with microcephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Daniela A.; Rao, Jia; Mollet, Geraldine; Schapiro, David; Daugeron, Marie-Claire; Tan, Weizhen; Gribouval, Olivier; Boyer, Olivia; Revy, Patrick; Jobst-Schwan, Tilman; Schmidt, Johanna Magdalena; Lawson, Jennifer A.; Schanze, Denny; Ashraf, Shazia; Boddaert, Nathalie; Collinet, Bruno; Martin, Gaëlle; Liger, Dominique; Lovric, Svjetlana; Furlano, Monica; Guerrera, I. Chiara; Sanchez-Ferras, Oraly; Menten, Björn; Vergult, Sarah; De Rocker, Nina; Airik, Merlin; Hermle, Tobias; Shril, Shirlee; Widmeier, Eugen; Gee, Heon Yung; Choi, Won-Il; Sadowski, Carolin E.; Pabst, Werner L.; Warejko, Jillian; Daga, Ankana; LeBerre, Tamara Basta; Matejas, Verena; Behnam, Babak; Beeson, Brendan; Begtrup, Amber; Bruce, Malcolm; Ch'ng, Gaik-Siew; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Chen, Chao-Huei; Cho, Megan T.; Gipson, Patrick E.; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Kari, Jameela A.; Ke, Yu-Yuan; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Lai, Wai-ming; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Littlejohn, Rebecca Okasha; Masri, Amira; Moghtaderi, Mastaneh; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Praet, Marleen; Prasad, Chitra; Prytula, Agnieszka; Roeder, Elizabeth; Rump, Patrick; Schnur, Rhonda E.; Shiihara, Takashi; Sinha, Manish; Soliman, Neveen A; Soulami, Kenza; Sweetser, David A.; Tsai, Wen-Hui; Tsai, Jeng-Daw; Vester, Udo; Viskochil, David H.; Vatanavicharn, Nithiwat; Waxler, Jessica L.; Wolf, Matthias T.F.; Wong, Sik-Nin; Poduri, Annapurna; Truglio, Gessica; Mane, Shrikant; Lifton, Richard P.; Bouchard, Maxime; Kannu, Peter; Chitayat, David; Magen, Daniella; Calleweart, Bert; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Zenker, Martin; Antignac, Corinne; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2018-01-01

    Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is a severe autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of early-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and microcephaly with brain anomalies. To date, mutations of WDR73 are the only known monogenic cause of GAMOS and in most affected individuals the molecular diagnosis remains elusive. We here identify recessive mutations of OSGEP, TP53RK, TPRKB, or LAGE3, encoding the 4 subunits of the KEOPS complex in 33 individuals of 30 families with GAMOS. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout in zebrafish and mice recapitulates the human phenotype of microcephaly and results in early lethality. Knockdown of OSGEP, TP53RK, or TPRKB inhibits cell proliferation, which human mutations fail to rescue, and knockdown of either gene activates DNA damage response signaling and induces apoptosis. OSGEP and TP53RK molecularly interact and co-localize with the actin-regulating ARP2/3 complex. Furthermore, knockdown of OSGEP and TP53RK induces defects of the actin cytoskeleton and reduces migration rate of human podocytes, an established intermediate phenotype of SRNS. We thus identify 4 novel monogenic causes of GAMOS, describe the first link between KEOPS function and human disease, and delineate potential pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:28805828

  8. Novel mutation in Sjogren-Larsson syndrome is associated with divergent neurologic phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathleen; Holden, Kenton R; S'Aulis, Dana; Amador, Claudia; Matheus, M Gisele; Rizzo, William B

    2013-10-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene that codes for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, which results in accumulation of fatty aldehydes and alcohols and is characterized by ichthyosis, intellectual disability, and spastic diplegia/quadriplegia. The authors describe 2 unrelated Honduran patients who carried the same novel homozygous nonsense mutation (c.1309A>T, p.K437X) and ALDH3A2 DNA haplotype, but widely differed in disease severity. One patient exhibited spastic quadriplegia with unusual neuroregression, whereas the other patient had the usual static form of spastic diplegia with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Biochemical analyses showed a similar profound deficiency of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and impaired fatty alcohol metabolism in both patients' cultured fibroblasts. These results indicate that variation in the neurologic phenotype of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is not strictly determined by the ALDH3A2 mutation or the biochemical defect as expressed in cultured fibroblasts, but by unidentified epigenetic/environmental factors, gene modifiers, or other mechanisms.

  9. Predicting the impact of Lynch syndrome-causing missense mutations from structural calculations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie V Nielsen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate methods to assess the pathogenicity of mutations are needed to fully leverage the possibilities of genome sequencing in diagnosis. Current data-driven and bioinformatics approaches are, however, limited by the large number of new variations found in each newly sequenced genome, and often do not provide direct mechanistic insight. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that saturation mutagenesis, biophysical modeling and co-variation analysis, performed in silico, can predict the abundance, metabolic stability, and function of proteins inside living cells. As a model system, we selected the human mismatch repair protein, MSH2, where missense variants are known to cause the hereditary cancer predisposition disease, known as Lynch syndrome. We show that the majority of disease-causing MSH2 mutations give rise to folding defects and proteasome-dependent degradation rather than inherent loss of function, and accordingly our in silico modeling data accurately identifies disease-causing mutations and outperforms the traditionally used genetic disease predictors. Thus, in conclusion, in silico biophysical modeling should be considered for making genotype-phenotype predictions and for diagnosis of Lynch syndrome, and perhaps other hereditary diseases.

  10. Mutational analysis of the PTPN11 gene in Egyptian patients with Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essawi, Mona L; Ismail, Manal F; Afifi, Hanan H; Kobesiy, Maha M; El Kotoury, Ahmed; Barakat, Maged M

    2013-11-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder with dysmorphic facies, short stature, and cardiac defects, which can be caused by missense mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 11 (PTPN11) gene, which encodes src homology region 2 domain containing tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2), a protein tyrosine phosphatase that acts in signal transduction downstream to growth factors and cytokines. The current study aimed to study the molecular characterization of the PTPN11 gene among Egyptian patients with Noonan syndrome. Eleven exons of the PTPN11 gene were amplified and screened by single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP). DNA samples showing band shift in SSCP were subjected to sequencing. Mutational analysis of the PTPN11 gene revealed T→C transition at position 854 in exon 8, predicting Phe285Ser substitution within PTP domain of SHP-2 protein, in one NS patient and -21C→T polymorphism in intron 7 in four other cases. Knowing that NS is phenotypically heterogeneous, molecular characterization of the PTPN11 gene should serve to establish NS diagnosis in patients with atypical features, although lack of a mutation does not exclude the possibility of NS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. [Constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency syndrome (CMMR-D) - a case report of a family with biallelic MSH6 mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilenčíková, D

    2012-01-01

    This work gives comprehensive information about new recessively inherited syndrome characterized by development of childhood malignancies. Behind this new described syndrome, called Constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency syndrome (CMMR-D), there are biallelic mutations in genes, which cause adult cancer syndrom termed Lynch syndrom (Hereditary non-polyposis cancer syndrom-HNPCC) if they are heterozygous mutations. Biallelic germline mutations of genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 in CMMR-D are characterized by increased risk of hematological malignancies, atypical brain tumors and early onset of colorectal cancers. An accompanying manifestation of the disease are skin spots with diffuse margins and irregular pigmentation reminiscent of Café au lait spots of NF1. This paper reports a case of a family with CMMR-D caused by novel homozygous MSH6 mutations leading to gliomatosis cerebri, T-ALL in an 11-year-old female and glioblastoma multiforme in her 10-year-old brother, both with rapid progression of the diseases. A literature review of brain tumors in CMMR-D families shows that they are treatment-resistant and lead to early death. Therefore, this work highlights the importance of early identification of patients with CMMR-D syndrome - in terms of initiation of a screening program for early detection of malignancies as well as early surgical intervention.

  12. Mutations in WNT7A cause a range of limb malformations, including Fuhrmann syndrome and Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, C G; Stricker, S; Seemann, P; Stern, R; Cox, J; Sherridan, E; Roberts, E; Springell, K; Scott, S; Karbani, G; Sharif, S M; Toomes, C; Bond, J; Kumar, D; Al-Gazali, L; Mundlos, S

    2006-08-01

    Fuhrmann syndrome and the Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome are considered to be distinct limb-malformation disorders characterized by various degrees of limb aplasia/hypoplasia and joint dysplasia in humans. In families with these syndromes, we found homozygous missense mutations in the dorsoventral-patterning gene WNT7A and confirmed their functional significance in retroviral-mediated transfection of chicken mesenchyme cell cultures and developing limbs. The results suggest that a partial loss of WNT7A function causes Fuhrmann syndrome (and a phenotype similar to mouse Wnt7a knockout), whereas the more-severe limb truncation phenotypes observed in Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome result from null mutations (and cause a phenotype similar to mouse Shh knockout). These findings illustrate the specific and conserved importance of WNT7A in multiple aspects of vertebrate limb development.

  13. Detection of mutations in the COL4A5 gene by SSCP in X-linked Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Juncker, I; Persson, U

    2001-01-01

    , three in-frame deletions, four nonsense mutations, and six splice site mutations. Twenty-two of the mutations have not previously been reported. Furthermore, we found one non-pathogenic amino acid substitution, one rare variant in a non-coding region, and one polymorphism with a heterozygosity of 28...... of type IV-collagen. We performed mutation analysis of the COL4A5 gene by PCR-SSCP analysis of each of the 51 exons with flanking intronic sequences in 81 patients suspected of X-linked Alport syndrome including 29 clear X-linked cases, 37 cases from families with a pedigree compatible with X...

  14. A Case of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome Due To a Novel Mutation in Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman Thulasi BA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by motor, sensory, and cranial neuronopathies, associated with mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 genes that code for human riboflavin transporters RFVT2 and RFVT3, respectively. The authors describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl with Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome and a novel homozygous mutation c.1156T>C in the SLC52A3 gene, who presented at the age of 2.5 years with progressive brain stem dysfunction including ptosis, facial weakness, hearing loss, dysphagia, anarthria with bilateral vocal cord paralysis, and ataxic gait. She subsequently developed respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy and worsening dysphagia necessitating a gastrostomy. Following riboflavin supplementation, resolution of facial diplegia and ataxia, improvements in ptosis, and bulbar function including vocalization and respiration were noted. However, her sensorineural hearing loss remained unchanged. Similar to other cases of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, our patient responded favorably to early riboflavin supplementation with significant but not complete neurologic recovery.

  15. Acute myeloid leukemia-associated DNMT3A p.Arg882His mutation in a patient with Tatton-Brown-Rahman overgrowth syndrome as a constitutional mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Rika; Terashima, Hiroshi; Kubota, Masaya; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a critical role in both embryonic development and tumorigenesis and is mediated through various DNA methyltransferases. Constitutional mutations in the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A cause a recently identified Tatton-Brown-Rahman overgrowth syndrome (TBRS). Somatically acquired mutations in DNMT3A are causally associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and p.Arg882His represents the most prevalent hotspot. So far, no patients with TBRS have been reported to have subsequently developed AML. Here, we report a live birth and the survival of a female with the TBRS phenotype who had a heterozygous constitutional DNMT3A mutation at the AML somatic mutation hotspot p.Arg882His in her DNA from peripheral blood and buccal tissue. Her characteristic features at birth included hypotonia, narrow palpebral fissures, ventricular septal defect, umbilical hernia, sacral cyst, Chiari type I anomaly. At the age of 6 years, she exhibited overgrowth (> 3 SD) and round face and intellectual disability. This report represents the first documentation of the same variant (DNMT3A p.Arg882His) as both the constitutional mutation associated with TBRS and the somatic mutation hotspot of AML. The observation neither confirms nor denies the notion that mutations responsible for TBRS and those for AML might share the same mode of action. Larger data sets are required to determine whether TBRS patients with constitutional DNMT3A mutations are at an increased risk for AML. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Same MSH2 Gene Mutation But Variable Phenotypes in 2 Families With Lynch Syndrome: Two Case Reports and Review of Genotype-Phenotype Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardo, Raffaella; De Rosa, Marina; Duraturo, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome that can be subdivided into Lynch syndrome I, or site-specific colonic cancer, and Lynch syndrome II, or extracolonic cancers, particularly carcinomas of the stomach, endometrium, biliary and pancreatic systems, and urinary tract. Lynch syndrome is associated with point mutations and large rearrangements in DNA MisMatch Repair ( MMR ) genes. This syndrome shows a variable phenotypic expression in people who carry pathogenetic mutations. So far, a correlation in genotype-phenotype has not been definitely established. In this study, we describe 2 Lynch syndrome cases presenting with the same genotype but different phenotypes and discuss possible reasons for this.

  17. Non-syndromic hearing loss caused by the dominant cis mutation R75Q with the recessive mutation V37I of the GJB2 (Connexin 26) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juwon; Jung, Jinsei; Lee, Min Goo; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Kyung-A

    2015-06-19

    GJB2 alleles containing two cis mutations have been rarely found in non-syndromic hearing loss. Herein, we present a Korean patient with non-syndromic hearing loss caused by the R75Q cis mutation with V37I, which arose de novo in the father and was inherited by the patient. Biochemical coupling and hemichannel permeability assays were performed after molecular cloning and transfection of HEK293T cells. Student's t-tests or analysis of variance followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test was used as statistical analysis. Biochemical coupling was significantly reduced in connexin 26 (Cx26)-R75Q- and Cx26-V37I-transfected cells, with greater extent in Cx26-R75Q and Cx26-R75Q+V37I cells. Interestingly, our patient and his father with the mutations had more residual hearing compared with patients with the dominant mutation alone. Although the difference in hemichannel activity between R75Q alone and R75Q in combination with V37I failed to reach significance, it is of note that there is a possibility that V37I located upstream of R75Q might have the ability to ameliorate R75Q expression. Our study emphasizes the importance of cis mutations with R75Q, as the gene effect of R75Q can be modulated depending on the type of additional mutation.

  18. New splice site acceptor mutation in AIRE gene in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Mora

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1, OMIM 240300 is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by the presence of at least two of three major diseases: hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. We aim to identify the molecular defects and investigate the clinical and mutational characteristics in an index case and other members of a consanguineous family. We identified a novel homozygous mutation in the splice site acceptor (SSA of intron 5 (c.653-1G>A in two siblings with different clinical outcomes of APS-1. Coding DNA sequencing revealed that this AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the constitutive SSA of intron 5, splicing upstream onto a nearby cryptic SSA in intron 5. Surprisingly, the use of an alternative SSA entails the uncovering of a cryptic donor splice site in exon 5. This new transcript generates a truncated protein (p.A214fs67X containing the first 213 amino acids and followed by 68 aberrant amino acids. The mutation affects the proper splicing, not only at the acceptor but also at the donor splice site, highlighting the complexity of recognizing suitable splicing sites and the importance of sequencing the intron-exon junctions for a more precise molecular diagnosis and correct genetic counseling. As both siblings were carrying the same mutation but exhibited a different APS-1 onset, and one of the brothers was not clinically diagnosed, our finding highlights the possibility to suspect mutations in the AIRE gene in cases of childhood chronic candidiasis and/or hypoparathyroidism otherwise unexplained, especially when the phenotype is associated with other autoimmune diseases.

  19. Beneficial Outcome of Losartan Therapy Depends on Type of FBN1 Mutation in Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Romy; den Hartog, Alexander W; Radonic, Teodora; Micha, Dimitra; Maugeri, Alessandra; van Dijk, Fleur S; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J; van den Berg, Maarten P; Groenink, Maarten; Mulder, Barbara J M; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; de Waard, Vivian; Pals, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that losartan reduces aortic dilatation in patients with Marfan syndrome. However, treatment response is highly variable. This study investigates losartan effectiveness in genetically classified subgroups. In this predefined substudy of COMPARE, Marfan patients were randomized to daily receive losartan 100 mg or no losartan. Aortic root dimensions were measured by MRI at baseline and after 3 years. FBN1 mutations were classified based on fibrillin-1 protein effect into (1) haploinsufficiency, decreased amount of normal fibrillin-1, or (2) dominant negative, normal fibrillin-1 abundance with mutant fibrillin-1 incorporated in the matrix. A pathogenic FBN1 mutation was found in 117 patients, of whom 79 patients were positive for a dominant negative mutation (67.5%) and 38 for a mutation causing haploinsufficiency (32.5%). Baseline characteristics between treatment groups were similar. Overall, losartan significantly reduced aortic root dilatation rate (no losartan, 1.3±1.5 mm/3 years, n=59 versus losartan, 0.8±1.4 mm/3 years, n=58; P=0.009). However, losartan reduced only aortic root dilatation rate in haploinsufficient patients (no losartan, 1.8±1.5 mm/3 years, n=21 versus losartan 0.5±0.8 mm/3 years, n=17; P=0.001) and not in dominant negative patients (no losartan, 1.2±1.7 mm/3 years, n=38 versus losartan 0.8±1.3 mm/3 years, n=41; P=0.197). Marfan patients with haploinsufficient FBN1 mutations seem to be more responsive to losartan therapy for inhibition of aortic root dilatation rate compared with dominant negative patients. Additional treatment strategies are needed in Marfan patients with dominant negative FBN1 mutations. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp; Unique Identifier: NTR1423. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Novel mutations in the long isoform of the USH2A gene in patients with Usher syndrome type II or non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Terri L; Seyedahmadi, Babak Jian; Sweeney, Meredith O; Dryja, Thaddeus P; Berson, Eliot L

    2010-07-01

    Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Mutations in the USH2A gene are the most common cause of USH2 and are also a cause of some forms of RP without hearing loss (ie, non-syndromic RP). The USH2A gene was initially identified as a transcript comprised of 21 exons but subsequently a longer isoform containing 72 exons was identified. The 51 exons unique to the long isoform of USH2A were screened for mutations among a core set of 108 patients diagnosed with USH2 and 80 patients with non-syndromic RP who were all included in a previously reported screen of the short isoform of USH2A. For several exons, additional patients were screened. In total, 35 deleterious mutations were identified including 17 nonsense mutations, 9 frameshift mutations, 5 splice-site mutations, and 4 small in-frame deletions or insertions. Twenty-seven mutations were novel. In addition, 65 rare missense changes were identified. A method of classifying the deleterious effect of the missense changes was developed using the summed results of four different mutation assessment algorithms, SIFT, pMUT, PolyPhen, and AGVGD. This system classified 8 of the 65 changes as 'likely deleterious' and 9 as 'possibly deleterious'. At least one mutation was identified in 57-63% of USH2 cases and 19-23% of cases of non-syndromic recessive RP (calculated without and including probable/possible deleterious changes) thus supporting that USH2A is the most common known cause of RP in the USA.

  1. SOS1 and PTPN11 mutations in five cases of Noonan syndrome with multiple giant cell lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneteau, Claire; Cavé, Hélène; Moncla, Anne; Dorison, Nathalie; Munnich, Arnold; Verloes, Alain; Leheup, Bruno

    2009-10-01

    We report five cases of multiple giant cell lesions in patients with typical Noonan syndrome. Such association has frequently been referred to as Noonan-like/multiple giant cell (NL/MGCL) syndrome before the molecular definition of Noonan syndrome. Two patients show mutations in PTPN11 (p.Tyr62Asp and p.Asn308Asp) and three in SOS1 (p.Arg552Ser and p.Arg552Thr). The latter are the first SOS1 mutations reported outside PTPN11 in NL/MGCL syndrome. MGCL lesions were observed in jaws ('cherubism') and joints ('pigmented villonodular synovitis'). We show through those patients that both types of MGCL are not PTPN11-specific, but rather represent a low penetrant (or perhaps overlooked) complication of the dysregulated RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. We recommend discarding NL/MGCL syndrome from the nosology, as this presentation is neither gene-nor allele-specific of Noonan syndrome; these patients should be described as Noonan syndrome with MGCL (of the mandible, the long bone...). The term cherubism should be used only when multiple giant cell lesions occur without any other clinical and molecular evidence of Noonan syndrome, with or without mutations of the SH3BP2 gene.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome due to mutations in the RRM2B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Belén; Area, Estela; Flanigan, Kevin M; Ganesh, Jaya; Jayakar, Parul; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Coku, Jorida; Naini, Ali; Shanske, Sara; Tanji, Kurenai; Hirano, Michio; DiMauro, Salvatore

    2008-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS) is characterized by a reduction in mtDNA copy number and has been associated with mutations in eight nuclear genes, including enzymes involved in mitochondrial nucleotide metabolism (POLG, TK2, DGUOK, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, PEO1) and MPV17. Recently, mutations in the RRM2B gene, encoding the p53-controlled ribonucleotide reductase subunit, have been described in seven infants from four families, who presented with various combinations of hypotonia, tubulopathy, seizures, respiratory distress, diarrhea, and lactic acidosis. All children died before 4 months of age. We sequenced the RRM2B gene in three unrelated cases with unexplained severe mtDNA depletion. The first patient developed intractable diarrhea, profound weakness, respiratory distress, and died at 3 months. The other two unrelated patients had a much milder phenotype and are still alive at ages 27 and 36 months. All three patients had lactic acidosis and severe depletion of mtDNA in muscle. Muscle histochemistry showed RRF and COX deficiency. Sequencing the RRM2B gene revealed three missense mutations and two single nucleotide deletions in exons 6, 8, and 9, confirming that RRM2B mutations are important causes of MDS and that the clinical phenotype is heterogeneous and not invariably fatal in infancy.

  3. Targeted exome sequencing reveals novel USH2A mutations in Chinese patients with simplex Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hai-Rong; Bi, Huai; Pan, Yang-Chun; Xu, Hang-Yu; Song, Jian-Xin; Hu, Jie

    2015-09-16

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hearing impairment and vision dysfunction due to retinitis pigmentosa. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneities of this disease make it impractical to obtain a genetic diagnosis by conventional Sanger sequencing. In this study, we applied a next-generation sequencing approach to detect genetic abnormalities in patients with USH. Two unrelated Chinese families were recruited, consisting of two USH afflicted patients and four unaffected relatives. We selected 199 genes related to inherited retinal diseases as targets for deep exome sequencing. Through systematic data analysis using an established bioinformatics pipeline, all variants that passed filter criteria were validated by Sanger sequencing and co-segregation analysis. A homozygous frameshift mutation (c.4382delA, p.T1462Lfs*2) was revealed in exon20 of gene USH2A in the F1 family. Two compound heterozygous mutations, IVS47 + 1G > A and c.13156A > T (p.I4386F), located in intron 48 and exon 63 respectively, of USH2A, were identified as causative mutations for the F2 family. Of note, the missense mutation c.13156A > T has not been reported so far. In conclusion, targeted exome sequencing precisely and rapidly identified the genetic defects in two Chinese USH families and this technique can be applied as a routine examination for these disorders with significant clinical and genetic heterogeneity.

  4. Atypical Alstrom syndrome with novel ALMS1 mutations precluded by current diagnostic criteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Jillian

    2014-02-01

    We report on clinical and genetic studies in a non-consanguineous Irish sib-pair with infantile dilated cardiomyopathy and retinopathy. A diagnosis of Alström Syndrome (AS) was considered and diagnostic testing pursued. The Alströms gene (ALMS1) is very large (23 exons) and diagnostic testing of mutational hotspots (exon 6, 8 and 10) was negative. Furthermore the siblings were tall and did not have the typical phenotype of nystagmus, photophobia, obesity or hearing loss and so the AS diagnosis was removed. We then sought to identify the causative gene in this family using whole exome sequencing. Unexpectedly, the exome analysis identified novel compound heterozygous ALMS1 mutations in exon 5 (c.777delT:p.D260fs*26) and exon 20 (c.12145_12146insC:p.S4049fs*36) that segregated with the phenotype. Although the siblings show some clinical overlap with AS, their phenotype is not classical. It is plausible that their atypical presentation may be due to the location of the ALMS1 mutations outside the usual mutational hotspots. Our findings show how atypical cases of AS may be missed under the current diagnostic guidelines and support consideration of complete ALMS1 sequencing in children with two or more features, even if all of the core clinical features of AS are not present.

  5. Nonsyndromic recessive deafness DFNB18 and Usher syndrome type IC are allelic mutations of USHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zubair M; Smith, Tenesha N; Riazuddin, Saima; Makishima, Tomoko; Ghosh, Manju; Bokhari, Sirosh; Menon, Puthezhath S N; Deshmukh, Dilip; Griffith, Andrew J; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Friedman, Thomas B; Wilcox, Edward R

    2002-06-01

    Human chromosome 11 harbors two Usher type I loci, USHIB and USHIC, which encode myosin VIIA and harmonin, respectively. The USHIC locus overlaps the reported critical interval for nonsyndromic deafness locus DFNB18. We found an IVS12+5G-->C mutation in the USHIC gene, which is associated with nonsyndromic recessive deafness ( DFNB18) segregating in the original family, S-11/12. No other disease-associated mutation was found in the other 27 exons or in the intron-exon boundaries, and the IVS12+5G-->C mutation was not present in 200 representative unaffected individuals ascertained from the same area of India. An exon-trapping assay with a construct harboring IVS12+5G-->C generated wildtype spliced mRNA having exons 11 and 12 and mRNA that skipped exon 12. We conclude that mutations of USHIC can cause both Usher syndrome type IC and nonsyndromic recessive deafness DFNB18.

  6. Novel and recurrent MYO7A mutations in Usher syndrome type 1 and type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Weining; Chen, Xue; Zhao, Kanxing; Liu, Yani; Liu, Xiaoxing; Ha, Shaoping; Liu, Wenzhou; Kang, Xiaoli; Sheng, Xunlun; Zhao, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a group of disorders manifested as retinitis pigmentosa and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, with or without vestibular dysfunction. Here, we recruited three Chinese families affected with autosomal recessive USH for detailed clinical evaluations and for mutation screening in the genes associated with inherited retinal diseases. Using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach, three new alleles and one known mutation in MYO7A gene were identified in the three families. In two families with USH type 1, novel homozygous frameshift variant p.Pro194Hisfs*13 and recurrent missense variant p.Thr165Met were demonstrated as the causative mutations respectively. Crystal structural analysis denoted that p.Thr165Met would very likely change the tertiary structure of the protein encoded by MYO7A. In another family affected with USH type 2, novel biallelic mutations in MYO7A, c.[1343+1G>A];[2837T>G] or p.[?];[Met946Arg], were identified with clinical significance. Because MYO7A, to our knowledge, has rarely been correlated with USH type 2, our findings therefore reveal distinguished clinical phenotypes associated with MYO7A. We also conclude that targeted NGS is an effective approach for genetic diagnosis for USH, which can further provide better understanding of genotype-phenotype relationship of the disease.

  7. Mutations in a novel gene with transmembrane domains underlie Usher syndrome type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensuu, T; Hämäläinen, R; Yuan, B; Johnson, C; Tegelberg, S; Gasparini, P; Zelante, L; Pirvola, U; Pakarinen, L; Lehesjoki, A E; de la Chapelle, A; Sankila, E M

    2001-10-01

    Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive hearing loss, severe retinal degeneration, and variably present vestibular dysfunction, assigned to 3q21-q25. Here, we report on the positional cloning of the USH3 gene. By haplotype and linkage-disequilibrium analyses in Finnish carriers of a putative founder mutation, the critical region was narrowed to 250 kb, of which we sequenced, assembled, and annotated 207 kb. Two novel genes-NOPAR and UCRP-and one previously identified gene-H963-were excluded as USH3, on the basis of mutational analysis. USH3, the candidate gene that we identified, encodes a 120-amino-acid protein. Fifty-two Finnish patients were homozygous for a termination mutation, Y100X; patients in two Finnish families were compound heterozygous for Y100X and for a missense mutation, M44K, whereas patients in an Italian family were homozygous for a 3-bp deletion leading to an amino acid deletion and substitution. USH3 has two predicted transmembrane domains, and it shows no homology to known genes. As revealed by northern blotting and reverse-transcriptase PCR, it is expressed in many tissues, including the retina.

  8. Mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome - additional functional evidence and expanding the clinical phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenighofer, M; Hung, C Y; McCauley, J L; Dallman, J; Back, E J; Mihalek, I; Gripp, K W; Sol-Church, K; Rusconi, P; Zhang, Z; Shi, G-X; Andres, D A; Bodamer, O A

    2016-03-01

    RASopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of conditions caused by mutations in 1 of 16 proteins in the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway. Recently, mutations in RIT1 were identified as a novel cause for Noonan syndrome. Here we provide additional functional evidence for a causal role of RIT1 mutations and expand the associated phenotypic spectrum. We identified two de novo missense variants p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly. Both variants resulted in increased MEK-ERK signaling compared to wild-type, underscoring gain-of-function as the primary functional mechanism. Introduction of p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly into zebrafish embryos reproduced not only aspects of the human phenotype but also revealed abnormalities of eye development, emphasizing the importance of RIT1 for spatial and temporal organization of the growing organism. In addition, we observed severe lymphedema of the lower extremity and genitalia in one patient. We provide additional evidence for a causal relationship between pathogenic mutations in RIT1, increased RAS-MAPK/MEK-ERK signaling and the clinical phenotype. The mutant RIT1 protein may possess reduced GTPase activity or a diminished ability to interact with cellular GTPase activating proteins; however the precise mechanism remains unknown. The phenotypic spectrum is likely to expand and includes lymphedema of the lower extremities in addition to nuchal hygroma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Novel and recurrent MYO7A mutations in Usher syndrome type 1 and type 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weining Rong

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is a group of disorders manifested as retinitis pigmentosa and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, with or without vestibular dysfunction. Here, we recruited three Chinese families affected with autosomal recessive USH for detailed clinical evaluations and for mutation screening in the genes associated with inherited retinal diseases. Using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS approach, three new alleles and one known mutation in MYO7A gene were identified in the three families. In two families with USH type 1, novel homozygous frameshift variant p.Pro194Hisfs*13 and recurrent missense variant p.Thr165Met were demonstrated as the causative mutations respectively. Crystal structural analysis denoted that p.Thr165Met would very likely change the tertiary structure of the protein encoded by MYO7A. In another family affected with USH type 2, novel biallelic mutations in MYO7A, c.[1343+1G>A];[2837T>G] or p.[?];[Met946Arg], were identified with clinical significance. Because MYO7A, to our knowledge, has rarely been correlated with USH type 2, our findings therefore reveal distinguished clinical phenotypes associated with MYO7A. We also conclude that targeted NGS is an effective approach for genetic diagnosis for USH, which can further provide better understanding of genotype-phenotype relationship of the disease.

  10. Inherited mutations in the helicase RTEL1 cause telomere dysfunction and Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhong; Glousker, Galina; Molczan, Aliah; Fox, Alan J; Lamm, Noa; Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Weizman, Orr-El; Schertzer, Michael; Wang, Zhuo; Vladimirova, Olga; Schug, Jonathan; Aker, Memet; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Kaestner, Klaus H; Lieberman, Paul M; Tzfati, Yehuda

    2013-09-03

    Telomeres repress the DNA damage response at the natural chromosome ends to prevent cell-cycle arrest and maintain genome stability. Telomeres are elongated by telomerase in a tightly regulated manner to ensure a sufficient number of cell divisions throughout life, yet prevent unlimited cell division and cancer development. Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS) is characterized by accelerated telomere shortening and a broad range of pathologies, including bone marrow failure, immunodeficiency, and developmental defects. HHS-causing mutations have previously been found in telomerase and the shelterin component telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1)-interacting nuclear factor 2 (TIN2). We identified by whole-genome exome sequencing compound heterozygous mutations in four siblings affected with HHS, in the gene encoding the regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1). Rtel1 was identified in mouse by its genetic association with telomere length. However, its mechanism of action and whether it regulates telomere length in human remained unknown. Lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained from a patient and from the healthy parents carrying heterozygous RTEL1 mutations displayed telomere shortening, fragility and fusion, and growth defects in culture. Ectopic expression of WT RTEL1 suppressed the telomere shortening and growth defect, confirming the causal role of the RTEL1 mutations in HHS and demonstrating the essential function of human RTEL1 in telomere protection and elongation. Finally, we show that human RTEL1 interacts with the shelterin protein TRF1, providing a potential recruitment mechanism of RTEL1 to telomeres.

  11. Inherited mutations in the helicase RTEL1 cause telomere dysfunction and Hoyeraal–Hreidarsson syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhong; Glousker, Galina; Molczan, Aliah; Fox, Alan J.; Lamm, Noa; Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Weizman, Orr-El; Schertzer, Michael; Wang, Zhuo; Vladimirova, Olga; Schug, Jonathan; Aker, Memet; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Lieberman, Paul M.; Tzfati, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres repress the DNA damage response at the natural chromosome ends to prevent cell-cycle arrest and maintain genome stability. Telomeres are elongated by telomerase in a tightly regulated manner to ensure a sufficient number of cell divisions throughout life, yet prevent unlimited cell division and cancer development. Hoyeraal–Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS) is characterized by accelerated telomere shortening and a broad range of pathologies, including bone marrow failure, immunodeficiency, and developmental defects. HHS-causing mutations have previously been found in telomerase and the shelterin component telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1)-interacting nuclear factor 2 (TIN2). We identified by whole-genome exome sequencing compound heterozygous mutations in four siblings affected with HHS, in the gene encoding the regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1). Rtel1 was identified in mouse by its genetic association with telomere length. However, its mechanism of action and whether it regulates telomere length in human remained unknown. Lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained from a patient and from the healthy parents carrying heterozygous RTEL1 mutations displayed telomere shortening, fragility and fusion, and growth defects in culture. Ectopic expression of WT RTEL1 suppressed the telomere shortening and growth defect, confirming the causal role of the RTEL1 mutations in HHS and demonstrating the essential function of human RTEL1 in telomere protection and elongation. Finally, we show that human RTEL1 interacts with the shelterin protein TRF1, providing a potential recruitment mechanism of RTEL1 to telomeres. PMID:23959892

  12. Identification of novel FBN1 and TGFBR2 mutations in 65 probands with Marfan syndrome or Marfan-like phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Brian Hon-Yin; Lam, Stephen Tak-Sum; Tong, Tony Ming-For; Li, Susanna Yuk-Han; Lun, Kin-Shing; Chan, Daniel Hon-Chuen; Fok, Susanna Fung-Shan; Or, June Siu-Fong; Smith, David Keith; Yang, Wanling; Lau, Yu-Lung

    2009-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder, and mutations in the FBN1 and TGFBR2 genes have been identified in probands with MFS and related phenotypes. Using DHPLC and sequencing, we studied the mutation spectrum in 65 probands with Marfan syndrome and related phenotypes. A total of 24 mutations in FBN1 were identified, of which 19 (nine missense, six frameshift, two nonsense and two affecting splice junctions) were novel. In the remaining 41 probands, six were identified to have novel TGFBR2 mutations (one frameshift and five missense mutations). All novel mutations found in this study were confirmed to be absent in 50 unrelated normal individuals of the same ethnic background. In probands who fulfilled the Ghent criteria (n = 16), mutations in FBN1 were found in 81% of cases. None of those with TGFBR2 mutations fulfilled the Ghent criteria. Novel missense mutations of unknown significance were classified according to the latest ACMG guidelines and their likelihood to be causative was evaluated.

  13. Waardenburg syndrome: a rare cause of inherited neuropathy due to SOX10 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova-Mihaylova, Petya; Alexander, Michael D; Murphy, Raymond P J; Murphy, Sinéad M

    2017-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disorder comprising sensorineural deafness and pigmentation abnormalities. Four distinct subtypes are defined based on the presence or absence of additional symptoms. Mutations in six genes have been described in WS. SOX10 mutations are usually associated with a more severe phenotype of WS with peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, and Hirschsprung disease. Here we report a 32-year-old man with a novel heterozygous missense variant in SOX10 gene, who presented with congenital deafness, Hirschsprung disease, iris heterochromia, foot deformity, and intermediate conduction velocity length-dependent sensorimotor neuropathy. This case highlights that the presence of other non-neuropathic features in a patient with presumed hereditary neuropathy should alert the clinician to possible atypical rare causes. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  14. A novel COL11A1 missense mutation in siblings with non-ocular Stickler syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Atsumi; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Naruto, Takuya; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kashimada, Kenichi; Enomoto, Keisuke; Morio, Tomohiro; Harada, Hiroyuki; Imoto, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Stickler syndrome (STL) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited, clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous connective tissue disorder characterized by ocular, auditory, orofacial and skeletal abnormalities. We conducted targeted resequencing using a next-generation sequencer for molecular diagnosis of a 2-year-old girl who was clinically suspected of having STL with Pierre Robin sequence. We detected a novel heterozygous missense mutation, NM_001854.3:n.4838G>A [NM_001854.3 (COL11A1_v001):c.4520G>A], in COL11A1, resulting in a Gly to Asp substitution at position 1507 [NM_001854.3(COL11A1_i001)] within one of the collagen-like domains of the triple helical region. The same mutation was detected in her 4-year-old brother with cleft palate and high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss.

  15. Brittle Cornea Syndrome Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Zinc-Finger 469 Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Elisabeth; Knappskog, Per Morten; Midtbø, Marit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the diverse clinical manifestations, identify the causative mutation and explain the association with red hair in a family with brittle cornea syndrome (BCS). Methods: Eight family members in three generations underwent ophthalmic, dental, and general medical examination...... mapping with SNP markers, DNA sequencing, and MC1R genotyping. Results: At 42 and 48 years of age, respectively, both affected individuals were blind due to retinal detachment and secondary glaucoma. They had extremely thin and bulging corneas, velvety skin, chestnut colored hair, scoliosis, reduced BMD......, dental anomalies, hearing loss and minor cardiac defects. The morphologies of the skin biopsies were normal except that in some areas slightly thinner collagen fibrils were seen in one of the affected individuals. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a novel missense mutation of ZNF469, c.10016G...

  16. Rare mutations in RINT1 predispose carriers to breast and Lynch Syndrome-spectrum cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daniel J.; Tao, Kayoko; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Nguyen-Dumont, Tu; Robinot, Nivonirina; Hammet, Fleur; Odefrey, Fabrice; Tsimiklis, Helen; Teo, Zhi L.; Thingholm, Louise B.; Young, Erin L.; Voegele, Catherine; Lonie, Andrew; Pope, Bernard J.; Roane, Terrell C.; Bell, Russell; Hu, Hao; Shankaracharya; Huff, Chad D.; Ellis, Jonathan; Li, Jun; Makunin, Igor V.; John, Esther M.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Terry, Mary B.; Daly, Mary; Buys, Saundra S.; Snyder, Carrie; Lynch, Henry T.; Devilee, Peter; Giles, Graham G.; Hopper, John L.; Feng, Bing J.; Lesueur, Fabienne; Tavtigian, Sean V.; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half of the familial aggregation of breast cancer remains unexplained. A multiple-case breast cancer family exome sequencing study identified three likely pathogenic mutations in RINT1 (NM_021930.4) not present in public sequencing databases: RINT1 c.343C>T (p.Q115X), c.1132_1134del (p.M378del) and c.1207G>T (p.D403Y). Based on this finding, a population-based case-control mutation-screening study was conducted and identified 29 carriers of rare (MAF Lynch syndrome-spectrum cancers (SIR 3.35, 95% CI 1.7-6.0; P=0.005), particularly for relatives diagnosed with cancer under age 60 years (SIR 10.9, 95%CI 4.7-21; P=0.0003). PMID:25050558

  17. Novel SCARB2 mutation in action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome and evaluation of SCARB2 mutations in isolated AMRF features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopfner Franziska

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome is a hereditary form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy associated with renal failure. It is considered to be an autosomal-recessive disease related to loss-of-function mutations in SCARB2. We studied a German AMRF family, additionally showing signs of demyelinating polyneuropathy and dilated cardiomyopathy. To test the hypothesis whether isolated appearance of individual AMRF syndrome features could be related to heterozygote SCARB2 mutations, we screened for SCARB2 mutations in unrelated patients showing isolated AMRF features. Methods In the AMRF family all exons of SCARB2 were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. The mutation screening of unrelated patients with isolated AMRF features affected by either epilepsy (n = 103, progressive myoclonus epilepsy or generalized epilepsy, demyelinating polyneuropathy (n = 103, renal failure (n = 192 or dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 85 was performed as high resolution melting curve analysis of the SCARB2 exons. Results A novel homozygous 1 bp deletion (c.111delC in SCARB2 was found by sequencing three affected homozygous siblings of the affected family. A heterozygous sister showed generalized seizures and reduction of nerve conduction velocity in her legs. No mutations were found in the epilepsy, renal failure or dilated cardiomyopathy samples. In the polyneuropathy sample two individuals with demyelinating disease were found to be carriers of a SCARB2 frameshift mutation (c.666delCCTTA. Conclusions Our findings indicate that demyelinating polyneuropathy and dilated cardiomyopathy are part of the action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome. Moreover, they raise the possibility that in rare cases heterozygous SCARB2 mutations may be associated with PNP features.

  18. Loss-of-function mutations in SOX10 cause Kallmann syndrome with deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingault, Veronique; Bodereau, Virginie; Baral, Viviane; Marcos, Severine; Watanabe, Yuli; Chaoui, Asma; Fouveaut, Corinne; Leroy, Chrystel; Vérier-Mine, Odile; Francannet, Christine; Dupin-Deguine, Delphine; Archambeaud, Françoise; Kurtz, François-Joseph; Young, Jacques; Bertherat, Jérôme; Marlin, Sandrine; Goossens, Michel; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Dodé, Catherine; Bondurand, Nadege

    2013-05-02

    Transcription factor SOX10 plays a role in the maintenance of progenitor cell multipotency, lineage specification, and cell differentiation and is a major actor in the development of the neural crest. It has been implicated in Waardenburg syndrome (WS), a rare disorder characterized by the association between pigmentation abnormalities and deafness, but SOX10 mutations cause a variable phenotype that spreads over the initial limits of the syndrome definition. On the basis of recent findings of olfactory-bulb agenesis in WS individuals, we suspected SOX10 was also involved in Kallmann syndrome (KS). KS is defined by the association between anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to incomplete migration of neuroendocrine gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cells along the olfactory, vomeronasal, and terminal nerves. Mutations in any of the nine genes identified to date account for only 30% of the KS cases. KS can be either isolated or associated with a variety of other symptoms, including deafness. This study reports SOX10 loss-of-function mutations in approximately one-third of KS individuals with deafness, indicating a substantial involvement in this clinical condition. Study of SOX10-null mutant mice revealed a developmental role of SOX10 in a subpopulation of glial cells called olfactory ensheathing cells. These mice indeed showed an almost complete absence of these cells along the olfactory nerve pathway, as well as defasciculation and misrouting of the nerve fibers, impaired migration of GnRH cells, and disorganization of the olfactory nerve layer of the olfactory bulbs. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel GATA3 nonsense mutation in a newly diagnosed adult patient of hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanba, Kazutaka; Usui, Takeshi; Nakamura, Michikazu; Toyota, Yuko; Hirota, Keisho; Tamanaha, Tamiko; Kawashima, Sachiko-Tsukamoto; Nakao, Kanako; Yuno, Akiko; Tagami, Tetsuya; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Shimatsu, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a GATA3 gene mutation. Here we report a novel mutation of GATA3 in a patient diagnosed with HDR syndrome at the age of 58 with extensive intracranial calcification. A 58-year-old Japanese man showed severe hypocalcemia and marked calcification in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, deep white matter, and gray-white junction on computed tomography (CT). The serum intact parathyroid hormone level was relatively low against low serum calcium concentration. The patient had been diagnosed with bilateral sensorineural deafness in childhood and had a family history of hearing disorders. Imaging studies revealed no renal anomalies. The patient was diagnosed with HDR syndrome, and genetic testing was performed. Genetic analysis of GATA3 showed a novel nonsense mutation at codon 198 (S198X) in exon 3. The S198X mutation leads to a loss of two zinc finger deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) binding domains and is considered to be responsible for HDR syndrome. We identified a novel nonsense mutation of GATA3 in an adult patient with HDR syndrome who showed extensive intracranial calcification.

  20. Expanding the clinical and mutational spectrum of B4GALT7-spondylodysplastic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritelli, Marco; Dordoni, Chiara; Cinquina, Valeria; Venturini, Marina; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo; Colombi, Marina

    2017-09-07

    Spondylodysplastic EDS (spEDS) is a rare connective tissue disorder that groups the phenotypes caused by biallelic B4GALT7, B3GALT6, and SLC39A13 mutations. In the 2017 EDS nosology, minimal criteria (general and gene-specific) for a clinical suspicion of spEDS have been proposed, but molecular analysis is required to reach a definite diagnosis. The majority of spEDS patients presented with short stature, skin hyperextensibility, facial dysmorphisms, peculiar radiological findings, muscle hypotonia and joint laxity and/or its complications. To date only 7 patients with β4GALT7-deficiency (spEDS-B4GALT7) have been described and their clinical data suggested that, in addition to short stature and muscle hypotonia, radioulnar synostosis, hypermetropia, and delayed cognitive development might be a hallmark of this specific type of spEDS. Additional 22 patients affected with an overlapping phenotype, i.e., Larsen of Reunion Island syndrome, all carrying a homozygous B4GALT7 mutation, are also recognized. Herein, we report on a 30-year-old Moroccan woman who fitted the minimal criteria to suspect spEDS, but lacked radioulnar synostosis and intellectual disability and presented with neurosensorial hearing loss and limb edema of lymphatic origin. Sanger sequencing of B4GALT7 was performed since the evaluation of the spEDS gene-specific minor criteria suggested this specific subtype. Mutational screening revealed the homozygous c.829G>T, p.Glu277* pathogenetic variant leading to aberrant splicing. Our findings expand both the clinical and mutational spectrum of this ultrarare connective tissue disorder. The comparison of the patient's features with those of the other spEDS and Larsen of Reunion Island syndrome patients reported up to now offers future perspectives for spEDS nosology and clinical research in this field.

  1. Mutations in EXTL3 Cause Neuro-immuno-skeletal Dysplasia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Machteld M; Tuijnenburg, Paul; Hempel, Maja; van Vlies, Naomi; Ren, Zemin; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Jansen, Machiel H; Santer, René; Johannsen, Jessika; Bacchelli, Chiara; Alders, Marielle; Li, Rui; Davies, Rosalind; Dupuis, Lucie; Cale, Catherine M; Wanders, Ronald J A; Pals, Steven T; Ocaka, Louise; James, Chela; Müller, Ingo; Lehmberg, Kai; Strom, Tim; Engels, Hartmut; Williams, Hywel J; Beales, Phil; Roepman, Ronald; Dias, Patricia; Brunner, Han G; Cobben, Jan-Maarten; Hall, Christine; Hartley, Taila; Le Quesne Stabej, Polona; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Davies, E Graham; de Sousa, Sérgio B; Lessel, Davor; Arts, Heleen H; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2017-02-02

    EXTL3 regulates the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS), important for both skeletal development and hematopoiesis, through the formation of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs). By whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous missense mutations c.1382C>T, c.1537C>T, c.1970A>G, and c.2008T>G in EXTL3 in nine affected individuals from five unrelated families. Notably, we found the identical homozygous missense mutation c.1382C>T (p.Pro461Leu) in four affected individuals from two unrelated families. Affected individuals presented with variable skeletal abnormalities and neurodevelopmental defects. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with a complete absence of T cells was observed in three families. EXTL3 was most abundant in hematopoietic stem cells and early progenitor T cells, which is in line with a SCID phenotype at the level of early T cell development in the thymus. To provide further support for the hypothesis that mutations in EXTL3 cause a neuro-immuno-skeletal dysplasia syndrome, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of the disorder, we analyzed the localization of EXTL3 in fibroblasts derived from affected individuals and determined glycosaminoglycan concentrations in these cells as well as in urine and blood. We observed abnormal glycosaminoglycan concentrations and increased concentrations of the non-sulfated chondroitin disaccharide D0a0 and the disaccharide D0a4 in serum and urine of all analyzed affected individuals. In summary, we show that biallelic mutations in EXTL3 disturb glycosaminoglycan synthesis and thus lead to a recognizable syndrome characterized by variable expression of skeletal, neurological, and immunological abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Choline transporter mutations in severe congenital myasthenic syndrome disrupt transporter localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haicui; Salter, Claire G; Refai, Osama; Hardy, Holly; Barwick, Katy E S; Akpulat, Ugur; Kvarnung, Malin; Chioza, Barry A; Harlalka, Gaurav; Taylan, Fulya; Sejersen, Thomas; Wright, Jane; Zimmerman, Holly H; Karakaya, Mert; Stüve, Burkhardt; Weis, Joachim; Schara, Ulrike; Russell, Mark A; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Chilton, John; Blakely, Randy D; Baple, Emma L; Cirak, Sebahattin; Crosby, Andrew H

    2017-11-01

    The presynaptic, high-affinity choline transporter is a critical determinant of signalling by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at both central and peripheral cholinergic synapses, including the neuromuscular junction. Here we describe an autosomal recessive presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome presenting with a broad clinical phenotype due to homozygous choline transporter missense mutations. The clinical phenotype ranges from the classical presentation of a congenital myasthenic syndrome in one patient (p.Pro210Leu), to severe neurodevelopmental delay with brain atrophy (p.Ser94Arg) and extend the clinical outcomes to a more severe spectrum with infantile lethality (p.Val112Glu). Cells transfected with mutant transporter construct revealed a virtually complete loss of transport activity that was paralleled by a reduction in transporter cell surface expression. Consistent with these findings, studies to determine the impact of gene mutations on the trafficking of the Caenorhabditis elegans choline transporter orthologue revealed deficits in transporter export to axons and nerve terminals. These findings contrast with our previous findings in autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy of a dominant-negative frameshift mutation at the C-terminus of choline transporter that was associated with significantly reduced, but not completely abrogated choline transporter function. Together our findings define divergent neuropathological outcomes arising from different classes of choline transporter mutation with distinct disease processes and modes of inheritance. These findings underscore the essential role played by the choline transporter in sustaining acetylcholine neurotransmission at both central and neuromuscular synapses, with important implications for treatment and drug selection. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. MERRF/MELAS overlap syndrome due to the m.3291T>C mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaiming; Zhao, Hui; Ji, Kunqian; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old Chinese female harboring the m.3291T>C mutation in the MT-TL1 gene encoding the mitochondrial transfer RNA for leucine. She presented with a complex phenotype characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, frequent myoclonus seizures, recurrent stroke-like episodes, migraine-like headaches with nausea and vomiting, and elevated resting lactate blood level. It is known that the myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) is characterized by cerebellar ataxia and myoclonus epilepsy, while that the mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is characterized by recurrent stroke-like episodes, migraine-like headaches, and elevated resting lactate blood level. So the patient's clinical manifestations suggest the presence of a MERRF/MELAS overlap syndrome. Muscle biopsy of the patient showed the presence of numerous scattered ragged-red fibers, some cytochrome c oxidase-deficient fibers, and several strongly succinate dehygrogenase-reactive vessels, suggestive of a mitochondrial disorder. Direct sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of the proband revealed no mutations other than the T-to-C transition at nucleotide position 3291. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the proband and her family revealed maternal inheritance of the mutation in a heteroplasmic manner. The analysis of aerobic respiration and glycolysis demonstrated that the fibroblasts from the patient had mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that the m.3291T>C is pathogenic. This study is the first to describe the m.3291T>C mutation in association with the MERRF/MELAS overlap syndrome.

  4. A Turkish family with Nance-Horan Syndrome due to a novel mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tug, Esra; Dilek, Nihal F; Javadiyan, Shahrbanou; Burdon, Kathryn P; Percin, Ferda E

    2013-08-01

    Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS) is a rare X-linked syndrome characterized by congenital cataract which leads to profound vision loss, characteristic dysmorphic features and specific dental anomalies. Microcornea, microphthalmia and mild or moderate mental retardation may accompany these features. Heterozygous females often manifest similarly but with less severe features than affected males. We describe two brothers who have the NHS phenotype and their carrier mother who had microcornea but not cataract. We identified a previously unreported frameshift mutation (c.558insA) in exon 1 of the NHS gene in these patients and their mother which is predicted to result in the incorporation of 11 aberrant amino acids prior to a stop codon (p.E186Efs11X). We also discussed genotype-phenotype correlation according to relevant literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional analysis of a SOX10 gene mutation associated with Waardenburg syndrome II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Ping; Hao, Zi-Qi; Liu, Ya-Lan; Mei, Ling-Yun; He, Chu-Feng; Niu, Zhi-Jie; Sun, Jie; Zhao, Yu-Lin; Feng, Yong

    2017-11-04

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant inherited non-syndromic type of hereditary hearing loss characterized by varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and inner ear. WS is classified into four subtypes (WS1-WS4) based on additional symptoms. WS2 is characterized by the absence of additional symptoms. Recently, we identified a SOX10 missense mutation c.422T > C (p.L141P) associated with WS2. We performed functional assays and found the mutant loses DNA-binding capacity, shows aberrant cytoplasmic and nuclear localization, and fails to interact with PAX3. Therefore, the mutant cannot transactivate the MITF promoter effectively, inhibiting melanin synthesis and leading to WS2. Our study confirmed haploinsufficiency as the underlying pathogenesis for WS2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mainzer-Saldino Syndrome Is a Ciliopathy Caused by IFT140 Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Isabelle; Saunier, Sophie; Hanein, Sylvain; Filhol, Emilie; Bizet, Albane A.; Collins, Felicity; Salih, Mustafa A.M.; Gerber, Sylvie; Delphin, Nathalie; Bigot, Karine; Orssaud, Christophe; Silva, Eduardo; Baudouin, Véronique; Oud, Machteld M.; Shannon, Nora; Le Merrer, Martine; Roche, Olivier; Pietrement, Christine; Goumid, Jamal; Baumann, Clarisse; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Zahrate, Mohammed; Beales, Philip; Arts, Heleen H.; Munnich, Arnold; Kaplan, Josseline; Antignac, Corinne; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Rozet, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MSS) is a rare disorder characterized by phalangeal cone-shaped epiphyses, chronic renal failure, and early-onset, severe retinal dystrophy. Through a combination of ciliome resequencing and Sanger sequencing, we identified IFT140 mutations in six MSS families and in a family with the clinically overlapping Jeune syndrome. IFT140 is one of the six currently known components of the intraflagellar transport complex A (IFT-A) that regulates retrograde protein transport in ciliated cells. Ciliary abundance and localization of anterograde IFTs were altered in fibroblasts of affected individuals, a result that supports the pivotal role of IFT140 in proper development and function of ciliated cells. PMID:22503633

  7. Mutations in the novel protocadherin PCDH15 cause Usher syndrome type 1F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagramam, K N; Yuan, H; Kuehn, M H; Murcia, C L; Wayne, S; Srisailpathy, C R; Lowry, R B; Knaus, R; Van Laer, L; Bernier, F P; Schwartz, S; Lee, C; Morton, C C; Mullins, R F; Ramesh, A; Van Camp, G; Hageman, G S; Woychik, R P; Smith, R J; Hagemen, G S

    2001-08-01

    We have determined the molecular basis for Usher syndrome type 1F (USH1F) in two families segregating for this type of syndromic deafness. By fluorescence in situ hybridization, we placed the human homolog of the mouse protocadherin Pcdh15 in the linkage interval defined by the USH1F locus. We determined the genomic structure of this novel protocadherin, and found a single-base deletion in exon 10 in one USH1F family and a nonsense mutation in exon 2 in the second. Consistent with the phenotypes observed in these families, we demonstrated expression of PCDH15 in the retina and cochlea by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. This report shows that protocadherins are essential for maintenance of normal retinal and cochlear function.

  8. Mutations in Three Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Hair Shaft Formation Cause Uncombable Hair Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ü Basmanav, F Buket; Cau, Laura; Tafazzoli, Aylar

    2016-01-01

    Uncombable hair syndrome (UHS), also known as "spun glass hair syndrome," "pili trianguli et canaliculi," or "cheveux incoiffables" is a rare anomaly of the hair shaft that occurs in children and improves with age. UHS is characterized by dry, frizzy, spangly, and often fair hair that is resistant...... in the majority of UHS case subjects. The two enzymes PADI3 and TGM3, responsible for posttranslational protein modifications, and their target structural protein TCHH are all involved in hair shaft formation. Elucidation of the molecular outcomes of the disease-causing mutations by cell culture experiments...... and tridimensional protein models demonstrated clear differences in the structural organization and activity of mutant and wild-type proteins. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed morphological alterations in hair coat of Padi3 knockout mice. All together, these findings elucidate the molecular genetic...

  9. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette S.; Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Forsberg, R.

    2001-01-01

    A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates was sequen......A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates...... in the vaccine virus sequence during cell-culture adaptation. Evaluation of the remaining mutations in the ORF1 sequence revealed stronger selective pressure for amino acid conservation during spread in pigs than during vaccine production. Furthermore, it was found that the selective pressure did not change...

  10. Novel mutation in forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) gene in an Indian patient with Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhanjit Kumar; Jadhav, Vaishali; Ghattargi, Vikas C; Udani, Vrajesh

    2014-03-15

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the progressive loss of intellectual functioning, fine and gross motor skills and communicative abilities, deceleration of head growth, and the development of stereotypic hand movements, occurring after a period of normal development. The classic form of RTT involves mutation in MECP2 while the involvement of CDKL5 and FOXG1 genes has been identified in atypical RTT phenotype. FOXG1 gene encodes for a fork-head box protein G1, a transcription factor acting primarily as transcriptional repressor through DNA binding in the embryonic telencephalon as well as a number of other neurodevelopmental processes. In this report we have described the molecular analysis of FOXG1 gene in Indian patients with Rett syndrome. FOXG1 gene mutation analysis was done in a cohort of 34 MECP2/CDKL5 mutation negative RTT patients. We have identified a novel mutation (p. D263VfsX190) in FOXG1 gene in a patient with congenital variant of Rett syndrome. This mutation resulted into a frameshift, thereby causing an alteration in the reading frames of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. The start position of the frameshift (Asp263) and amino acid towards the carboxyl terminal end of the protein was found to be well conserved across species using multiple sequence alignment. Since the mutation is located at forkhead binding domain, the resultant mutation disrupts the secondary structure of the protein making it non-functional. This is the first report from India showing mutation in FOXG1 gene in Rett syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CEP78 is mutated in a distinct type of Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Xu, Mingchu; Chen, Xue; Sheng, Xunlun; Yuan, Zhisheng; Liu, Yani; Li, Huajin; Sun, Zixi; Li, Huiping; Yang, Lizhu; Wang, Keqing; Zhang, Fangxia; Li, Yumei; Zhao, Chen; Sui, Ruifang; Chen, Rui

    2017-03-01

    Usher syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder featured by combined visual impairment and hearing loss. Despite a dozen of genes involved in Usher syndrome having been identified, the genetic basis remains unknown in 20-30% of patients. In this study, we aimed to identify the novel disease-causing gene of a distinct subtype of Usher syndrome. Ophthalmic examinations and hearing tests were performed on patients with Usher syndrome in two consanguineous families. Target capture sequencing was initially performed to screen causative mutations in known retinal disease-causing loci. Whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were applied for identifying novel disease-causing genes. RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to evaluate the splicing-altering effect of identified CEP78 variants. Patients from the two independent families show a mild Usher syndrome phenotype featured by juvenile or adult-onset cone-rod dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss. WES and WGS identified two homozygous rare variants that affect mRNA splicing of a ciliary gene CEP78 . RT-PCR confirmed that the two variants indeed lead to abnormal splicing, resulting in premature stop of protein translation due to frameshift. Our results provide evidence that CEP78 is a novel disease-causing gene for Usher syndrome, demonstrating an additional link between ciliopathy and Usher protein network in photoreceptor cells and inner ear hair cells. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Potential hot spot for de novo mutations in PTCH1 gene in Gorlin syndrome patients: a case report of twins from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musani, Vesna; Ozretić, Petar; Trnski, Diana; Sabol, Maja; Poduje, Sanja; Tošić, Mateja; Šitum, Mirna; Levanat, Sonja

    2018-02-28

    We describe a case of twins with sporadic Gorlin syndrome. Both twins had common Gorlin syndrome features including calcification of the falx cerebri, multiple jaw keratocysts, and multiple basal cell carcinomas, but with different expressivity. One brother also had benign testicular mesothelioma. We propose this tumor type as a possible new feature of Gorlin syndrome. Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by both developmental abnormalities and cancer predisposition, with variable expression of various developmental abnormalities and different types of tumors. The syndrome is primarily caused by mutations in the Patched 1 (PTCH1) gene, although rare mutations of Patched 2 (PTCH2) or Suppressor of Fused (SUFU) genes have also been found. Neither founder mutations nor hot spot locations have been described for PTCH1 in Gorlin syndrome patients. Although de novo mutations of the PTCH1 gene occur in almost 50% of Gorlin syndrome cases, there are a few recurrent mutations. Our twin patients were carriers of a de novo mutation in the PTCH1 gene, c.3364_3365delAT (p.Met1122ValfsX22). This is, to our knowledge, the first Gorlin syndrome-causing mutation that has been reported four independent times in distant geographical locations. Therefore, we propose the location of the described mutation as a potential hot spot for mutations in PTCH1.

  13. Juvenile-Onset Diabetes and Congenital Cataract: “Double-Gene” Mutations Mimicking a Syndromic Diabetes Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lenfant

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monogenic forms of diabetes may account for 1–5% of all cases of diabetes, and may occur in the context of syndromic presentations. We investigated the case of a girl affected by insulin-dependent diabetes, diagnosed at 6 years old, associated with congenital cataract. Her consanguineous parents and her four other siblings did not have diabetes or cataract, suggesting a recessive syndrome. Using whole exome sequencing of the affected proband, we identified a heterozygous p.R825Q ABCC8 mutation, located at the exact same amino-acid position as the p.R825W recurring diabetes mutation, hence likely responsible for the diabetes condition, and a homozygous p.G71S mutation in CRYBB1, a gene known to be responsible for congenital cataract. Both mutations were predicted to be damaging and were absent or extremely rare in public databases. Unexpectedly, we found that the mother was also homozygous for the CRYBB1 mutation, and both the mother and one unaffected sibling were heterozygous for the ABCC8 mutation, suggesting incomplete penetrance of both mutations. Incomplete penetrance of ABCC8 mutations is well documented, but this is the first report of an incomplete penetrance of a CRYBB1 mutation, manifesting between susceptible subjects (unaffected mother vs. affected child and to some extent within the patient herself, who had distinct cataract severities in both eyes. Our finding illustrates the importance of family studies to unmask the role of confounding factors such as double-gene mutations and incomplete penetrance that may mimic monogenic syndromes including in the case of strongly evocative family structure with consanguinity.

  14. The Splicing Efficiency of Activating HRAS Mutations Can Determine Costello Syndrome Phenotype and Frequency in Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Mette Hartung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Costello syndrome (CS may be caused by activating mutations in codon 12/13 of the HRAS proto-oncogene. HRAS p.Gly12Val mutations have the highest transforming activity, are very frequent in cancers, but very rare in CS, where they are reported to cause a severe, early lethal, phenotype. We identified an unusual, new germline p.Gly12Val mutation, c.35_36GC>TG, in a 12-year-old boy with attenuated CS. Analysis of his HRAS cDNA showed high levels of exon 2 skipping. Using wild type and mutant HRAS minigenes, we confirmed that c.35_36GC>TG results in exon 2 skipping by simultaneously disrupting the function of a critical Exonic Splicing Enhancer (ESE and creation of an Exonic Splicing Silencer (ESS. We show that this vulnerability of HRAS exon 2 is caused by a weak 3' splice site, which makes exon 2 inclusion dependent on binding of splicing stimulatory proteins, like SRSF2, to the critical ESE. Because the majority of cancer- and CS- causing mutations are located here, they affect splicing differently. Therefore, our results also demonstrate that the phenotype in CS and somatic cancers is not only determined by the different transforming potentials of mutant HRAS proteins, but also by the efficiency of exon 2 inclusion resulting from the different HRAS mutations. Finally, we show that a splice switching oligonucleotide (SSO that blocks access to the critical ESE causes exon 2 skipping and halts proliferation of cancer cells. This unravels a potential for development of new anti-cancer therapies based on SSO-mediated HRAS exon 2 skipping.

  15. [Analysis of clinical manifestations and genetic mutations in a child with Laron syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Guo-ying; Chen, Shao-ke; Gu, Xue-fan; Gong, Zhu-wen; Zhang, Qi-gang

    2013-12-01

    To analyze clinical manifestations and gene mutations in a child with severe short stature, explore its molecular mechanism and further clarify the diagnostic procedure for short stature. We observed clinical characteristics of a patient with short stature and did diagnostic examinations, assessed the function of GH-IGF-1 axis, and surveyed its family members.Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, GHR, IGFALS, STAT5b and GH1 gene were amplified by PCR for sequencing, including exons and splicing areas. The patient presented symmetrical short stature (height -8.2 SDS) and facial features, and other congenital abnormalities.It displayed non-growth hormone deficiency. The baseline value of GH was 21 µg/L, and the peak was 57.9 µg/L. The value of IGF-1 was less than 25 µg/L, and the IGFBP-3 less than 50 µg/L. And IGF-1 generation test showed no response. There was no similar patients in the family members.Sequencing of GHR in the patient revealed a homozygous point mutation (c.Ivs6+1G>A), and her father and mother had the same heterozygous mutation. The same mutation was not identified for her sister.No other candidate gene was found. As the result of combined clinical characteristics and lab examinations, as well as gene detection, the case was diagnosed with Laron syndrome and GHR gene mutation is the molecular mechanism.We should explicit the etiological diagnosis for short stature, and avoid missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis.

  16. A COLQ missense mutation in Labrador Retrievers having congenital myasthenic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin J Rinz

    Full Text Available Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs are heterogeneous neuromuscular disorders characterized by skeletal muscle weakness caused by disruption of signal transmission across the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. CMSs are rarely encountered in veterinary medicine, and causative mutations have only been identified in Old Danish Pointing Dogs and Brahman cattle to date. Herein, we characterize a novel CMS in 2 Labrador Retriever littermates with an early onset of marked generalized muscle weakness. Because the sire and dam share 2 recent common ancestors, CMS is likely the result of recessive alleles inherited identical by descent (IBD. Genome-wide SNP profiles generated from the Illumina HD array for 9 nuclear family members were used to determine genomic inheritance patterns in chromosomal regions encompassing 18 functional candidate genes. SNP haplotypes spanning 3 genes were consistent with autosomal recessive transmission, and microsatellite data showed that only the segment encompassing COLQ was inherited IBD. COLQ encodes the collagenous tail of acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for termination of signal transduction in the NMJ. Sequences from COLQ revealed a variant in exon 14 (c.1010T>C that results in the substitution of a conserved amino acid (I337T within the C-terminal domain. Both affected puppies were homozygous for this variant, and 16 relatives were heterozygous, while 288 unrelated Labrador Retrievers and 112 dogs of other breeds were wild-type. A recent study in which 2 human CMS patients were found to be homozygous for an identical COLQ mutation (c.1010T>C; I337T provides further evidence that this mutation is pathogenic. This report describes the first COLQ mutation in canine CMS and demonstrates the utility of SNP profiles from nuclear family members for the identification of private mutations.

  17. Bartter and Gitelman syndromes: Spectrum of clinical manifestations caused by different mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shibli, Amar; Narchi, Hassib

    2015-01-01

    Bartter and Gitelman syndromes (BS and GS) are inherited disorders resulting in defects in renal tubular handling of sodium, potassium and chloride. Previously considered as genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneous diseases, recent evidence suggests that they constitute a spectrum of disease caused by different genetic mutations with the molecular defects of chloride reabsorption originating at different sites of the nephron in each condition. Although they share some characteristic metabolic abnormalities such as hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus with hyperreninemia, hyperaldosteronism, the clinical and laboratory manifestations may not always allow distinction between them. Diuretics tests, measuring the changes in urinary fractional excretion of chloride from baseline after administration of either hydrochlorothiazide or furosemide show very little change (< 2.3%) in the fractional excretion of chloride from baseline in GS when compared with BS, except when BS is associated with KCNJ1 mutations where a good response to both diuretics exists. The diuretic test is not recommended for infants or young children with suspected BS because of a higher risk of volume depletion in such children. Clinical symptoms and biochemical markers of GS and classic form of BS (type III) may overlap and thus genetic analysis may specify the real cause of symptoms. However, although genetic analysis is available, its use remains limited because of limited availability, large gene dimensions, lack of hot-spot mutations, heavy workup time and costs involved. Furthermore, considerable overlap exists between the different genotypes and phenotypes. Although BS and GS usually have distinct presentations and are associated with specific gene mutations, there remains considerable overlap between their phenotypes and genotypes. Thus, they are better described as a spectrum of clinical manifestations caused by different gene mutations. PMID:26140272

  18. Kallmann syndrome: 14 novel mutations in KAL1 and FGFR1 (KAL2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuisson, Juliette; Pêcheux, Chistophe; Carel, Jean-Claude; Lacombe, Didier; Leheup, Bruno; Lapuzina, Pablo; Bouchard, Philippe; Legius, Eric; Matthijs, Gert; Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Delpech, Marc; Young, Jacques; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Dodé, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Kallmann syndrome (KAL) combines hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. Hypogonadism is due to Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) deficiency and anosmia is related to hypoplasia of the olfactory bulbs. Occasional symptoms include renal agenesis, bimanual synkinesia, cleft lip palate, dental agenesis. KAL is genetically heterogeneous and two genes have so far been identified, namely KAL1 (Xp22.3) and FGFR1/KAL2 (8p12), which underlie the X chromosome-linked form and an autosomal dominant form of the disease, respectively. We studied a cohort of 98 unrelated Caucasian KAL patients. We identified KAL1 mutations in 14 patients, of which 7 (c.3G>A (p.M1?), g.IVS1+1G>T, c.570_571insA (p.R191fsX14), c.784G>C (p.R262P), c.958G>T (p.E320X), c.1651_1654delinsAGCT (p.P551_E552delinsSX), c.1711T>A (p.W571R)) have not been previously reported. In addition, we found FGFR1 mutations in 7 patients, namely c.303G>A (p.V102I), C.385A>C (p.D129A), c.810G>A (p.V273M), c.1093_1094delAG (p.R365fsX41), c.1561G>A (p.A520T), c.1836_1837insT (p.Y613fsX42), c.2190C>G (p.Y730X), all of which were novel mutations. In this study, unilateral renal agenesis and bimanual synkinesia were exclusively found associated with KAL1mutations, cleft palate and dental agenesia with FGFR1mutations. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Constitutional abnormalities of IDH1 combined with secondary mutations predispose a patient with Maffucci syndrome to acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Shinsuke; Seki, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Kato, Motohiro; Hyakuna, Nobuyuki; Shuo, Takuya; Kimura, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Kenichi; Kataoka, Keisuke; Fujii, Yoichi; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Takita, Junko; Manabe, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    Maffucci syndrome is a nonhereditary disorder caused by somatic mosaic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1 or IDH2) mutations and is characterized by multiple enchondromas along with hemangiomas. Malignant transformation of enchondromas to chondrosarcomas and secondary neoplasms, such as brain tumors or acute myeloid leukemia, are serious complications. A 15-year-old female with Maffucci syndrome developed B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). A somatic mutation in IDH1 was detected in hemangioma and leukemic cells. KRAS mutation and deletion of IKZF1 were detected in leukemic cells. Patients with Maffucci syndrome may, therefore, be at risk of BCP-ALL associated with secondary genetic events that affect lymphocyte differentiation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A de novo deletion mutation in SOX10 in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Yaowu; Shen, Na; Peng, Jing; Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Haiyi; Lu, Yanjun

    2017-01-27

    Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) or Waardenburg-Shah syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with a prevalence of <1/1,000,000 and characterized by the association of congenital sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary abnormalities, and intestinal aganglionosis. There are three types of WS4 (WS4A-C) caused by mutations in endothelin receptor type B, endothelin 3, and SRY-box 10 (SOX10), respectively. This study investigated a genetic mutation in a Chinese family with one WS4 patient in order to improve genetic counselling. Genomic DNA was extracted, and mutation analysis of the three WS4 related genes was performed using Sanger sequencing. We detected a de novo heterozygous deletion mutation [c.1333delT (p.Ser445Glnfs*57)] in SOX10 in the patient; however, this mutation was absent in the unaffected parents and 40 ethnicity matched healthy controls. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis and three-dimensional modelling of the SOX10 protein confirmed that the c.1333delT heterozygous mutation was pathogenic, indicating that this mutation might constitute a candidate disease-causing mutation.

  1. Molecular genetics of the Usher syndrome in Lebanon: identification of 11 novel protein truncating mutations by whole exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ramesh; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; El Zir, Elie; Mansour, Ahmad; Megarbane, Andre; Majewski, Jacek; Slim, Rima

    2014-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a genetically heterogeneous condition with ten disease-causing genes. The spectrum of genes and mutations causing USH in the Lebanese and Middle Eastern populations has not been described. Consequently, diagnostic approaches designed to screen for previously reported mutations were unlikely to identify the mutations in 11 unrelated families, eight of Lebanese and three of Middle Eastern origins. In addition, six of the ten USH genes consist of more than 20 exons, each, which made mutational analysis by Sanger sequencing of PCR-amplified exons from genomic DNA tedious and costly. The study was aimed at the identification of USH causing genes and mutations in 11 unrelated families with USH type I or II. Whole exome sequencing followed by expanded familial validation by Sanger sequencing. We identified disease-causing mutations in all the analyzed patients in four USH genes, MYO7A, USH2A, GPR98 and CDH23. Eleven of the mutations were novel and protein truncating, including a complex rearrangement in GPR98. Our data highlight the genetic diversity of Usher syndrome in the Lebanese population and the time and cost-effectiveness of whole exome sequencing approach for mutation analysis of genetically heterogeneous conditions caused by large genes.

  2. Molecular genetics of the Usher syndrome in Lebanon: identification of 11 novel protein truncating mutations by whole exome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Reddy

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is a genetically heterogeneous condition with ten disease-causing genes. The spectrum of genes and mutations causing USH in the Lebanese and Middle Eastern populations has not been described. Consequently, diagnostic approaches designed to screen for previously reported mutations were unlikely to identify the mutations in 11 unrelated families, eight of Lebanese and three of Middle Eastern origins. In addition, six of the ten USH genes consist of more than 20 exons, each, which made mutational analysis by Sanger sequencing of PCR-amplified exons from genomic DNA tedious and costly. The study was aimed at the identification of USH causing genes and mutations in 11 unrelated families with USH type I or II.Whole exome sequencing followed by expanded familial validation by Sanger sequencing.We identified disease-causing mutations in all the analyzed patients in four USH genes, MYO7A, USH2A, GPR98 and CDH23. Eleven of the mutations were novel and protein truncating, including a complex rearrangement in GPR98.Our data highlight the genetic diversity of Usher syndrome in the Lebanese population and the time and cost-effectiveness of whole exome sequencing approach for mutation analysis of genetically heterogeneous conditions caused by large genes.

  3. Molecular Genetics of the Usher Syndrome in Lebanon: Identification of 11 Novel Protein Truncating Mutations by Whole Exome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ramesh; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; El Zir, Elie; Mansour, Ahmad; Megarbane, Andre; Majewski, Jacek; Slim, Rima

    2014-01-01

    Background Usher syndrome (USH) is a genetically heterogeneous condition with ten disease-causing genes. The spectrum of genes and mutations causing USH in the Lebanese and Middle Eastern populations has not been described. Consequently, diagnostic approaches designed to screen for previously reported mutations were unlikely to identify the mutations in 11 unrelated families, eight of Lebanese and three of Middle Eastern origins. In addition, six of the ten USH genes consist of more than 20 exons, each, which made mutational analysis by Sanger sequencing of PCR-amplified exons from genomic DNA tedious and costly. The study was aimed at the identification of USH causing genes and mutations in 11 unrelated families with USH type I or II. Methods Whole exome sequencing followed by expanded familial validation by Sanger sequencing. Results We identified disease-causing mutations in all the analyzed patients in four USH genes, MYO7A, USH2A, GPR98 and CDH23. Eleven of the mutations were novel and protein truncating, including a complex rearrangement in GPR98. Conclusion Our data highlight the genetic diversity of Usher syndrome in the Lebanese population and the time and cost-effectiveness of whole exome sequencing approach for mutation analysis of genetically heterogeneous conditions caused by large genes. PMID:25211151

  4. A novel mutation in the NOD2 gene associated with Blau syndrome: a Norwegian family with four affected members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Ursin, K; Rødevand, E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blau syndrome is a chronic granulomatous disease with an autosomal dominant trait characterized by the triad granulomatous dermatitis, arthritis, and uveitis. It is caused by mutations in the NOD2 gene, also termed the CARD15 gene. OBJECTIVE: To report a novel mutation in the NOD2 gen...... with an autosomal dominant heritage. Most likely the mutation has arisen de novo in the proband. Genetic counselling and antenatal diagnostics should be available to the involved families....... associated with Blau syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: The proband was a 68-year-old ethnic Norwegian male who had uveitis and arthritis since 10 years of age followed by lifelong recurrent arthritis and chronic eye involvement. Genetic analysis showed a heterozygous c.1814 C>A, T605N mutation in NOD2 that has...

  5. Boosting ATM activity alleviates aging and extends lifespan in a mouse model of progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Minxian; Liu, Zuojun; Peng, Linyuan; Tang, Xiaolong; Meng, Fanbiao; Ao, Ying; Zhou, Mingyan; Wang, Ming; Cao, Xinyue; Qin, Baoming; Wang, Zimei; Zhou, Zhongjun; Wang, Guangming; Gao, Zhengliang; Xu, Jun; Liu, Baohua

    2018-05-02

    DNA damage accumulates with age (Lombard et al., 2005). However, whether and how robust DNA repair machinery promotes longevity is elusive. Here, we demonstrate that ATM-centered DNA damage response (DDR) progressively declines with senescence and age, while low dose of chloroquine (CQ) activates ATM, promotes DNA damage clearance, rescues age-related metabolic shift, and prolongs replicative lifespan. Molecularly, ATM phosphorylates SIRT6 deacetylase and thus prevents MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Extra copies of Sirt6 extend lifespan in Atm-/- mice, with restored metabolic homeostasis. Moreover, the treatment with CQ remarkably extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans , but not the ATM-1 mutants. In a progeria mouse model with low DNA repair capacity, long-term administration of CQ ameliorates premature aging features and extends lifespan. Thus, our data highlights a pro-longevity role of ATM, for the first time establishing direct causal links between robust DNA repair machinery and longevity, and providing therapeutic strategy for progeria and age-related metabolic diseases. © 2018, Qian et al.

  6. [Type 1 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome associated with C322fsx372 mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalés-Samanes, P; de Arriba Muñoz, A; Lou Francés, G M; Ferrer Lozano, M; Justa Roldán, M L; Labarta Aizpun, J I

    2015-01-01

    Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes are rare diseases based on autoimmune mechanisms in which endocrine and non-endocrine disorders coexist. In type 1 the characteristic manifestations are chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. A case is presented of a patient with typical clinical sequence, along with other changes, and in whom a mutation in homozygosis, C322fsX372, was detected after performing a molecular analysis of autoimmunity regulator gene (AIRE). Inheritance is autosomal recessive, associated with mutations in the AIRE gene, which encodes a protein involved in autoimmunity and immunodeficiency. For diagnosis, At least two of the three major clinical manifestations are required for a diagnosis. However, only one of them is necessary in the study of relatives of affected patients. These syndromes must be diagnosed early, given their high morbidity and mortality. Every manifestation needs to be treated, in order to maintain the quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. The changing landscape of Lynch syndrome due to PMS2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, J; Prakash, A

    2018-07-01

    DNA repair pathways are essential for cellular survival as our DNA is constantly under assault from both exogenous and endogenous DNA damaging agents. Five major mammalian DNA repair pathways exist within a cell to maintain genomic integrity. Of these, the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is highly conserved among species and is well documented in bacteria. In humans, the importance of MMR is underscored by the discovery that a single mutation in any 1 of 4 genes within the MMR pathway (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2) results in Lynch syndrome (LS). LS is a autosomal dominant condition that predisposes individuals to a higher incidence of many malignancies including colorectal, endometrial, ovarian, and gastric cancers. In this review, we discuss the role of PMS2 in the MMR pathway, the evolving testing criteria used to identify variants in the PMS2 gene, the LS phenotype as well as the autosomal recessive condition called constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome, and current methods used to elucidate the clinical impact of PMS2 mutations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mutations in KEOPS-complex genes cause nephrotic syndrome with primary microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Daniela A; Rao, Jia; Mollet, Geraldine; Schapiro, David; Daugeron, Marie-Claire; Tan, Weizhen; Gribouval, Olivier; Boyer, Olivia; Revy, Patrick; Jobst-Schwan, Tilman; Schmidt, Johanna Magdalena; Lawson, Jennifer A; Schanze, Denny; Ashraf, Shazia; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Hoogstraten, Charlotte A; Boddaert, Nathalie; Collinet, Bruno; Martin, Gaëlle; Liger, Dominique; Lovric, Svjetlana; Furlano, Monica; Guerrera, I Chiara; Sanchez-Ferras, Oraly; Hu, Jennifer F; Boschat, Anne-Claire; Sanquer, Sylvia; Menten, Björn; Vergult, Sarah; De Rocker, Nina; Airik, Merlin; Hermle, Tobias; Shril, Shirlee; Widmeier, Eugen; Gee, Heon Yung; Choi, Won-Il; Sadowski, Carolin E; Pabst, Werner L; Warejko, Jillian K; Daga, Ankana; Basta, Tamara; Matejas, Verena; Scharmann, Karin; Kienast, Sandra D; Behnam, Babak; Beeson, Brendan; Begtrup, Amber; Bruce, Malcolm; Ch'ng, Gaik-Siew; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Chen, Chao-Huei; Cho, Megan T; Gaffney, Patrick M; Gipson, Patrick E; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Kari, Jameela A; Ke, Yu-Yuan; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Lai, Wai-Ming; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Littlejohn, Rebecca Okashah; Masri, Amira; Moghtaderi, Mastaneh; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Ozaltin, Fatih; Praet, Marleen; Prasad, Chitra; Prytula, Agnieszka; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Rump, Patrick; Schnur, Rhonda E; Shiihara, Takashi; Sinha, Manish D; Soliman, Neveen A; Soulami, Kenza; Sweetser, David A; Tsai, Wen-Hui; Tsai, Jeng-Daw; Topaloglu, Rezan; Vester, Udo; Viskochil, David H; Vatanavicharn, Nithiwat; Waxler, Jessica L; Wierenga, Klaas J; Wolf, Matthias T F; Wong, Sik-Nin; Leidel, Sebastian A; Truglio, Gessica; Dedon, Peter C; Poduri, Annapurna; Mane, Shrikant; Lifton, Richard P; Bouchard, Maxime; Kannu, Peter; Chitayat, David; Magen, Daniella; Callewaert, Bert; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Zenker, Martin; Antignac, Corinne; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2017-10-01

    Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of early-onset nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and microcephaly with brain anomalies. Here we identified recessive mutations in OSGEP, TP53RK, TPRKB, and LAGE3, genes encoding the four subunits of the KEOPS complex, in 37 individuals from 32 families with GAMOS. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout in zebrafish and mice recapitulated the human phenotype of primary microcephaly and resulted in early lethality. Knockdown of OSGEP, TP53RK, or TPRKB inhibited cell proliferation, which human mutations did not rescue. Furthermore, knockdown of these genes impaired protein translation, caused endoplasmic reticulum stress, activated DNA-damage-response signaling, and ultimately induced apoptosis. Knockdown of OSGEP or TP53RK induced defects in the actin cytoskeleton and decreased the migration rate of human podocytes, an established intermediate phenotype of SRNS. We thus identified four new monogenic causes of GAMOS, describe a link between KEOPS function and human disease, and delineate potential pathogenic mechanisms.

  9. Identification and characterization of a novel XK splice site mutation in a patient with McLeod syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Lionel; Salachas, François; Lucien, Nicole; Maisonobe, Thierry; Le Pennec, Pierre-Yves; Babinet, Jérôme; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2009-03-01

    McLeod syndrome is a rare X-linked neuroacanthocytosis syndrome with hematologic, muscular, and neurologic manifestations. McLeod syndrome is caused by mutations in the XK gene whose product is expressed at the red blood cell (RBC) surface but whose function is currently unknown. A variety of XK mutations has been reported but no clear phenotype-genotype correlation has been found, especially for the point mutations affecting splicing sites. A man suspected of neuroacanthocytosis was evaluated by neurologic examination, electromyography, muscle biopsy, muscle computed tomography, and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. The McLeod RBC phenotype was disclosed by blood smear and immunohematology analyses and then confirmed at the biochemical level by Western blot analysis. The responsible XK mutation was characterized at the mRNA level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), identified by genomic DNA sequencing, and verified by allele-specific PCR. A novel XK splice site mutation (IVS1-1G>A) has been identified in a McLeod patient who has developed hematologic, neuromuscular, and neurologic symptoms. This is the first reported example of a XK point mutation affecting the 3' acceptor splice site of Intron 1, and it was demonstrated that this mutation indeed induces aberrant splicing of XK RNA and lack of XK protein at the RBC membrane. The detailed characterization at the molecular biology level of this novel XK splice site mutation associated with the clinical description of the patient contributes to a better understanding of the phenotype-genotype correlation in the McLeod syndrome.

  10. Novel association of neurofibromatosis type 1-causing mutations in families with neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekvall, Sara; Sjörs, Kerstin; Jonzon, Anders; Vihinen, Mauno; Annerén, Göran; Bondeson, Marie-Louise

    2014-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome (NFNS) is a rare condition with clinical features of both neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Noonan syndrome (NS). All three syndromes belong to the RASopathies, which are caused by dysregulation of the RAS-MAPK pathway. The major gene involved in NFNS is NF1, but co-occurring NF1 and PTPN11 mutations in NFNS have been reported. Knowledge about possible involvement of additional RASopathy-associated genes in NFNS is, however, very limited. We present a comprehensive clinical and molecular analysis of eight affected individuals from three unrelated families displaying features of NF1 and NFNS. The genetic etiology of the clinical phenotypes was investigated by mutation analysis, including NF1, PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, RAF1, SHOC2, SPRED1, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, and CBL. All three families harbored a heterozygous NF1 variant, where the first family had a missense variant, c.5425C>T;p.R1809C, the second family a recurrent 4bp-deletion, c.6789_6792delTTAC;p.Y2264Tfs*6, and the third family a splice-site variant, c.2991-1G>A, resulting in skipping of exon 18 and an in-frame deletion of 41 amino acids. These NF1 variants have all previously been reported in NF1 patients. Surprisingly, both c.6789_6792delTTAC and c.2991-1G>A are frequently associated with NF1, but association to NFNS has, to our knowledge, not previously been reported. Our results support the notion that NFNS represents a variant of NF1, genetically distinct from NS, and is caused by mutations in NF1, some of which also cause classical NF1. Due to phenotypic overlap between NFNS and NS, we propose screening for NF1 mutations in NS patients, preferentially when café-au-lait spots are present. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Usher syndrome type 1 due to missense mutations on both CDH23 alleles: investigation of mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becirovic, Elvir; Ebermann, Inga; Nagy, Ditta; Zrenner, Eberhart; Seeliger, Mathias Wolfgang; Bolz, Hanno Jörn

    2008-03-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and visual impairment due to retinitis pigmentosa. Truncating mutations in the cadherin-23 gene (CDH23) result in Usher syndrome type 1D (USH1D), whereas missense mutations affecting strongly conserved motifs of the CDH23 protein cause non-syndromic deafness (DFNB12). Four missense mutations constitute an exception from this genotype-phenotype correlation: they have been described in USH1 patients in homozygous state. Using a minigene assay, we have investigated these changes (c.1450G>C, p.A484P; c.3625A>G, p.T1209A; c.4520G>A, p.R1507Q; and c.5237G>A, p.R1746Q) for a possible impact on mRNA splicing which could explain the syndromic phenotype. While in silico analysis suggested impairment of splicing in all four cases, we found aberrant splicing for only one mutation, p.R1746Q. However, splicing was normal in case of p.A484P, p.T1209A and p.R1507Q. These three latter CDH23 missense mutations could interfere with functions of both, the auditory and the visual system. Alternatively, they could represent rare non-pathogenic polymorphisms.

  12. Coronary artery ectasia in Noonan syndrome: Report of an individual with SOS1 mutation and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Baban, Anwar; De Luca, Enrica; Leonardi, Benedetta; Pongiglione, Giacomo; Digilio, Maria Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is the second most frequent hereditary syndrome with cardiac involvement. Pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are the most prevalent cardiovascular abnormalities. We report on a 14-year-old girl with NS due to SOS1 mutation with pulmonary stenosis and idiopathic coronary ectasia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing coronary ectasia in a patient with NS secondary to a SOS1 mutation. We include a literature review of this rare association. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Gitelman or Bartter type 3 syndrome? A case of distal convoluted tubulopathy caused by CLCNKB gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, António José; Castro, Alexandra

    2013-01-22

    A 32-year-old woman with no significant medical history was sent to our consultation due to hypokalaemia (syndrome (GS) came negative. CLCNKB gene mutation analysis present in both GS and Bartter (BS) type 3 syndromes was positive. The patient is now being treated with potassium and magnesium oral supplements, ramipril and spironolactone with stable near-normal potassium and magnesium levels. This article presents the case of a patient with hypokalaemia caused by CLCNKB gene mutation hard to categorise as GS or BS type 3.

  14. Expanding the clinical spectrum of ocular anomalies in Noonan syndrome: Axenfeld-anomaly in a child with PTPN11 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Andrea; So, Joyce; Mireskandari, Kamiar; Jougeh-Doust, Soghra; Chisholm, Caitlin; Klatt, Regan; Richer, Julie

    2015-02-01

    Ocular anomalies have been frequently reported in Noonan syndrome. Anterior segment anomalies have been described in 57% of PTPN11 positive patients, with the most common findings being corneal changes and in particular, prominent corneal nerves and cataracts. We report on a neonate with a confirmed PTPN11 mutation and ocular findings consistent with Axenfeld anomaly. The patient initially presented with non-immune hydrops and subsequently developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dysmorphic features typical of Noonan syndrome. While a pathogenic mutation in PTPN11 was confirmed, prior testing for the two common genes associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, PITX2, and FOXC1 was negative. This finding expands the spectrum of anterior chamber anomalies seen in Noonan syndrome and perhaps suggests a common neural crest related mechanism that plays a critical role in the development of the eye and other organs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Tietz/Waardenburg type 2A syndrome associated with posterior microphthalmos in two unrelated patients with novel MITF gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-González, Vianney; Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Guzmán-Sánchez, Martín; Giordano-Herrera, Verónica; Guadarrama-Vallejo, Dalia; Ruíz-Quintero, Narlly; Villanueva-Mendoza, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    Tietz syndrome and Waardenburg syndrome type 2A are allelic conditions caused by MITF mutations. Tietz syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and is characterized by congenital deafness and generalized skin, hair, and eye hypopigmentation, while Waardenburg syndrome type 2A typically includes variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss and patches of de-pigmented skin, hair, and irides. In this paper, we report two unrelated families with MITF mutations. The first family showed an autosomal dominant pattern and variable expressivity. The second patient was isolated. MITF gene analysis in the first family demonstrated a c.648A>C heterozygous mutation in exon 8 c.648A>C; p. (R216S), while in the isolated patient, an apparently de novo heterozygous c.1183_1184insG truncating mutation was demonstrated in exon 10. All patients except one had bilateral reduced ocular anteroposterior axial length and a high hyperopic refractive error corresponding to posterior microphthalmos, features that have not been described as part of the disease. Our results suggest that posterior microphthalmos might be part of the clinical characteristics of Tietz/Waardenburg syndrome type 2A and expand both the clinical and molecular spectrum of the disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Shah-Waardenburg syndrome and PCWH associated with SOX10 mutations: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheij, Johanna B G M; Sival, Deborah A; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Vos, Yvonne J; Meiners, Linda C; Brouwer, Oebele F; van Essen, Anthonie J

    2006-01-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome is a rare congenital disorder with variable clinical expression, characterised by aganglionosis of the rectosigmoïd (Hirschsprung disease), and abnormal melanocyte migration, resulting in pigmentary abnormalities and sensorineural deafness (Waardenburg syndrome). Mutations in the EDN, EDNRB and SOX10 genes can be found in patients with this syndrome. SOX10 mutations are specifically associated with a more severe phenotype called PCWH: peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease. Neuronal expression of SOX10 occurs in neural crest cells during early embryonic development and in glial cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems during late embryonic development and in adults. We present a 4-year-old girl with the PCWH phenotype associated with a de novo nonsense mutation (S384X) in SOX10. Main clinical features were mental retardation, peripheral neuropathy, deafness, Hirschsprung disease, distal arthrogryposis, white hairlock, and growth retardation. She presented with hypotonia, developmental delay, reduced peripheral nerve conduction velocities, and radiologically assessed central hypomyelination. Subsequently, the formation of abnormal myelin within the central and peripheral nervous system was functionally and radiologically assessed. Children presenting with features of Waardenburg syndrome and neurological dysfunction should be tested for mutations in the SOX10 gene to enable diagnosis and counselling.

  17. Chronic constipation recognized as a sign of a SOX10 mutation in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Yukiko; Namba, Kazunori; Nakano, Atsuko; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2014-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is characterized by hearing loss, pigmentation abnormalities, dysmorphologic features, and neurological phenotypes. Waardenburg syndrome consists of four distinct subtypes, and SOX10 mutations have been identified in type II and type IV. Type IV differs from type II owing to the presence of Hirschsprung disease. We identified a de novo nonsense mutation in SOX10 (p.G39X) in a female pediatric patient with Waardenburg syndrome with heterochromia iridis, profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, inner ear malformations, and overall hypopigmentation of the hair without dystopia canthorum. This patient has experienced chronic constipation since she was a neonate, but anorectal manometry showed a normal anorectal reflex. Chronic constipation in this patient was likely to be a consequence of a mild intestinal disorder owing to the SOX10 mutation, and this patient was considered to have a clinical phenotype intermediate between type II and type IV of the syndrome. Chronic constipation may be recognized as indicative of a SOX10 mutation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of a novel NHS mutation in a Chinese family with Nance-Horan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aijun; Li, Bingzhen; Wu, Lemeng; Yang, Liping; Chen, Ningning; Ma, Zhizhong

    2015-04-01

    To identiy the disease causing mutation in a Chinese family presenting with early-onset cataract and dental anomalies. A specific Hereditary Eye Disease Enrichment Panel (HEDEP) (personalized customization by MyGenostics, Baltimore, MD) based on targeted exome capture technology was used to collect the protein coding regions of 30 early-onset cataract associated genes, and high throughput sequencing was done with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The identified variant was confirmed with Sanger sequencing. A novel deletion in exon 4 (c.852delG) of NHS gene was identified; the identified 1 bp deletion altered the reading frame and was predicted to result in a premature stop codon after the addition of twelve novel amino acid (p.S285PfsX13). This mutation co-segregated in affected males and obligate female carriers, but was absent in 100 matched controls. Our findings broaden the spectrum of NHS mutations causing Nance-Horan syndrome and phenotypic spectrum of the disease in Chinese patients.

  19. Identification of fibrillin 1 gene mutations in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) without Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most frequent congenital heart disease with frequent involvement in thoracic aortic dilatation, aneurysm and dissection. Although BAV and Marfan syndrome (MFS) share some clinical features, and some MFS patients with BAV display mutations in FBN1, the gene encoding fibrillin-1, the genetic background of isolated BAV is poorly defined. Methods Ten consecutive BAV patients [8 men, age range 24–42 years] without MFS were clinically characterized. BAV phenotype and function, together with evaluation of aortic morphology, were comprehensively assessed by Doppler echocardiography. Direct sequencing of each FBN1 exon with flanking intron sequences was performed on eight patients. Results We detected three FBN1 mutations in two patients (aged 24 and 25 years) displaying aortic root aneurysm ≥50 mm and moderate aortic regurgitation. In particular, one patient had two mutations (p.Arg2726Trp and p.Arg636Gly) one of which has been previously associated with variable Marfanoid phenotypes. The other patient showed a pArg529Gln substitution reported to be associated with an incomplete MFS phenotype. Conclusions The present findings enlarge the clinical spectrum of isolated BAV to include patients with BAV without MFS who have involvement of FBN1 gene. These results underscore the importance of accurate phenotyping of BAV aortopathy and of clinical characterization of BAV patients, including investigation of systemic connective tissue manifestations and genetic testing. PMID:24564502

  20. In-frame mutations in exon 1 of SKI cause dominant Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmignac, Virginie; Thevenon, Julien; Adès, Lesley; Callewaert, Bert; Julia, Sophie; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Gueneau, Lucie; Courcet, Jean-Benoit; Lopez, Estelle; Holman, Katherine; Renard, Marjolijn; Plauchu, Henri; Plessis, Ghislaine; De Backer, Julie; Child, Anne; Arno, Gavin; Duplomb, Laurence; Callier, Patrick; Aral, Bernard; Vabres, Pierre; Gigot, Nadège; Arbustini, Eloisa; Grasso, Maurizia; Robinson, Peter N; Goizet, Cyril; Baumann, Clarisse; Di Rocco, Maja; Sanchez Del Pozo, Jaime; Huet, Frédéric; Jondeau, Guillaume; Collod-Beroud, Gwenaëlle; Beroud, Christophe; Amiel, Jeanne; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Boileau, Catherine; De Paepe, Anne; Faivre, Laurence

    2012-11-02

    Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is characterized by severe marfanoid habitus, intellectual disability, camptodactyly, typical facial dysmorphism, and craniosynostosis. Using family-based exome sequencing, we identified a dominantly inherited heterozygous in-frame deletion in exon 1 of SKI. Direct sequencing of SKI further identified one overlapping heterozygous in-frame deletion and ten heterozygous missense mutations affecting recurrent residues in 18 of the 19 individuals screened for SGS; these individuals included one family affected by somatic mosaicism. All mutations were located in a restricted area of exon 1, within the R-SMAD binding domain of SKI. No mutation was found in a cohort of 11 individuals with other marfanoid-craniosynostosis phenotypes. The interaction between SKI and Smad2/3 and Smad 4 regulates TGF-β signaling, and the pattern of anomalies in Ski-deficient mice corresponds to the clinical manifestations of SGS. These findings define SGS as a member of the family of diseases associated with the TGF-β-signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dominant mutations in KAT6A cause intellectual disability with recognizable syndromic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Emma; Lindstrand, Anna; Santani, Avni; Malmgren, Helena; Nesbitt, Addie; Dubbs, Holly A; Zackai, Elaine H; Parker, Michael J; Millan, Francisca; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Wilson, Golder N; Nordgren, Ann

    2015-03-05

    Through a multi-center collaboration study, we here report six individuals from five unrelated families, with mutations in KAT6A/MOZ detected by whole-exome sequencing. All five different de novo heterozygous truncating mutations were located in the C-terminal transactivation domain of KAT6A: NM_001099412.1: c.3116_3117 delCT, p.(Ser1039∗); c.3830_3831insTT, p.(Arg1278Serfs∗17); c.3879 dupA, p.(Glu1294Argfs∗19); c.4108G>T p.(Glu1370∗) and c.4292 dupT, p.(Leu1431Phefs∗8). An additional subject with a 0.23 MB microdeletion including the entire KAT6A reading frame was identified with genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization. Finally, by detailed clinical characterization we provide evidence that heterozygous mutations in KAT6A cause a distinct intellectual disability syndrome. The common phenotype includes hypotonia, intellectual disability, early feeding and oromotor difficulties, microcephaly and/or craniosynostosis, and cardiac defects in combination with subtle facial features such as bitemporal narrowing, broad nasal tip, thin upper lip, posteriorly rotated or low-set ears, and microretrognathia. The identification of human subjects complements previous work from mice and zebrafish where knockouts of Kat6a/kat6a lead to developmental defects. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth hormone receptor gene mutations in two Italian patients with Laron Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassone, L; Corneli, G; Bellone, S; Camacho-Hübner, C; Aimaretti, G; Cappa, M; Ubertini, G; Bona, G

    2007-05-01

    Laron Syndrome (LS) represents a condition characterized by GH insensitivity caused by molecular defects in the GH receptor (GHR) gene or in the post-receptor signalling pathway. We report the molecular characterization of two unrelated Italian girls from Sicily diagnosed with LS. The DNA sequencing of the GHR gene revealed the presence of different nonsense mutations, occurring in the same background haplotype. The molecular defects occurred in the extracellular domain of the GHR leading to a premature termination signal and to a truncated non-functional receptor. In one patient, a homozygous G to T transversion, in exon 6, led to the mutation GAA to TAA at codon 180 (E180X), while in the second patient a homozygous C to T transition in exon 7 was detected, causing the CGA to TAA substitution at codon 217 (R217X). Both probands presented the polymorphisms Gly168Gly and Ile544Leu in a homozygous state in exons 6 and 10, respectively. The E180X represents a novel defect of the GHR gene, while the R217X mutation has been previously reported in several patients from different ethnic backgrounds but all from countries located in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern region.

  3. Autoimmune manifestations in SCID due to IL7R mutations: Omenn syndrome and cytopenias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Claudia Augusta; Jacob, Cristina Miuki Abe; de Albuquerque Diniz, Edna Maria; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Zerbini, Maria Claudia Nogueira; Dorna, Mayra; Watanabe, Letícia; Fernandes, Juliana Folloni; Rocha, Vanderson; Oliveira, João Bosco; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2014-07-01

    B+NK+SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) due to IL7Rα deficiency represents approximately 10% of American SCID cases. To better understand the spectrum of autoimmune disorders associated with IL7Rα deficiency, we describe two unrelated IL7Rα-deficient female SCID infants whose clinical picture was dominated by autoimmune manifestations: one with intrauterine Omenn syndrome (OS) and another with persistent thrombocytopenic purpura since 4months of age. The OS baby harbored a homozygous p.C118Y mutation in IL7R. She presented dense eosinophilic infiltrates in several organs, including pancarditis, which may have contributed to her death (on the 2nd day of life). B cells were observed in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and thymus. The second patient harbored compound heterozygous p.C118Y and p.I121NfsX8 mutations. She underwent a successful unrelated cord blood transplant. In conclusion, early OS can be observed in patients with IL7R mutations, and autoimmune cytopenias could also complicate the clinical course of SCID babies with this type of defect. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Structural, Functional, and Clinical Characterization of a Novel PTPN11 Mutation Cluster Underlying Noonan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannone, Luca; Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Flex, Elisabetta; Rossi, Cesare; Baldassarre, Giuseppina; Lissewski, Christina; Pantaleoni, Francesca; Consoli, Federica; Lepri, Francesca; Magliozzi, Monia; Anselmi, Massimiliano; Delle Vigne, Silvia; Sorge, Giovanni; Karaer, Kadri; Cuturilo, Goran; Sartorio, Alessandro; Tinschert, Sigrid; Accadia, Maria; Digilio, Maria C; Zampino, Giuseppe; De Luca, Alessandro; Cavé, Hélène; Zenker, Martin; Gelb, Bruce D; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Stella, Lorenzo; Ferrero, Giovanni B; Martinelli, Simone; Tartaglia, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Germline mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2), cause Noonan syndrome (NS), a relatively common, clinically variable, multisystem disorder. Here, we report on the identification of five different PTPN11 missense changes affecting residues Leu 261 , Leu 262 , and Arg 265 in 16 unrelated individuals with clinical diagnosis of NS or with features suggestive for this disorder, specifying a novel disease-causing mutation cluster. Expression of the mutant proteins in HEK293T cells documented their activating role on MAPK signaling. Structural data predicted a gain-of-function role of substitutions at residues Leu 262 and Arg 265 exerted by disruption of the N-SH2/PTP autoinhibitory interaction. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested a more complex behavior for changes affecting Leu 261 , with possible impact on SHP2's catalytic activity/selectivity and proper interaction of the PTP domain with the regulatory SH2 domains. Consistent with that, biochemical data indicated that substitutions at codons 262 and 265 increased the catalytic activity of the phosphatase, while those affecting codon 261 were only moderately activating but impacted substrate specificity. Remarkably, these mutations underlie a relatively mild form of NS characterized by low prevalence of cardiac defects, short stature, and cognitive and behavioral issues, as well as less evident typical facial features. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. Targeted exome sequencing identified novel USH2A mutations in Usher syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Feng Huang

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is a leading cause of deaf-blindness in autosomal recessive trait. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneities in USH make molecular diagnosis much difficult. This is a pilot study aiming to develop an approach based on next-generation sequencing to determine the genetic defects in patients with USH or allied diseases precisely and effectively. Eight affected patients and twelve unaffected relatives from five unrelated Chinese USH families, including 2 pseudo-dominant ones, were recruited. A total of 144 known genes of inherited retinal diseases were selected for deep exome resequencing. Through systematic data analysis using established bioinformatics pipeline and segregation analysis, a number of genetic variants were released. Eleven mutations, eight of them were novel, in the USH2A gene were identified. Biparental mutations in USH2A were revealed in 2 families with pseudo-dominant inheritance. A proband was found to have triple mutations, two of them were supposed to locate in the same chromosome. In conclusion, this study revealed the genetic defects in the USH2A gene and demonstrated the robustness of targeted exome sequencing to precisely and rapidly determine genetic defects. The methodology provides a reliable strategy for routine gene diagnosis of USH.

  6. Novel germline MSH2 mutation in lynch syndrome patient surviving multiple cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janavicius Ramunas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lynch syndrome (LS individuals are predisposed to a variety of cancers, most commonly colorectal, uterine, urinary tract, ovarian, small bowel, stomach and biliary tract cancers. The risk of extracolonic manifestations appears to be highest in MSH2 mutations carriers. We present a carrier case with a novel MSH2 gene mutation that clearly demonstrates the broad extent of LS phenotypic expression and highlights several important clinical aspects. Current evidence suggests that colorectal tumors from LS patients tend to have better prognoses than their sporadic counterparts, however survival benefits for other cancers encountered in LS are unclear. In this article we describe a family with a novel protein truncating mutation of c.2388delT in the MSH2 gene, particularly focusing on one individual carrier affected with multiple primary cancers who is surviving 25 years on. Our report of multiple primary tumors occurring in the 12-25 years interval might suggest these patients do not succumb to other extracolonic cancers, provided they are regularly followed-up.

  7. Clinical Characteristics of Wolfram Syndrome in Chinese Population and a Novel Frameshift Mutation in WFS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Li, Qian; Tong, An-Li; Mao, Jiang-Feng; Yu, Miao; Yuan, Tao; Chai, Xiao-Feng; Gu, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare, degenerative, and hereditary disorder characterized by ear diabetes mellitus (DM) and optic atrophy (OA). We aim to characterize clinical features in Chinese patients who had been poorly studied until now. We performed a retrospective review of patients with WS seen in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2002 to 2017. Data including demographic data, clinical presentations, examination results, family history, and genetic analysis were described. Six patients with WS were identified, meeting the diagnostic criteria of the coincidence of DM and OA before 15 years old or the existence of two WFS1 mutations. All were male, with the median age of 14.5 years (range 10-19 years). Blood glucose impairment, OA, and diabetes insipidus were present in all (100%), hearing impairment in four (66.7%), urological abnormalities in four (66.7%), neurological abnormalities in one (16.7%), and endocrine disorder in one (16.7%). Rare presentation includes cataract, glaucoma, and spina bifida occulta. Diabetes was insulin-dependent and not ketosis onset, with antibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase and islet cell negative. Genetic analysis revealed mutations in WFS1 in three patients. A novel frameshift mutation (p.Asp151Glufs*93) was identified in exon 4 of WFS1 . Our series of WS patients indicated that WS is a degenerative disease with a wide and variable spectrum, characterized by ear non-autoimmune DM and bilateral OA. Genetic analysis is recommended when suspected of WS.

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD mutations and haemoglobinuria syndrome in the Vietnamese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Nick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vietnam the blackwater fever syndrome (BWF has been associated with malaria infection, quinine ingestion and G6PD deficiency. The G6PD variants within the Vietnamese Kinh contributing to the disease risk in this population, and more generally to haemoglobinuria, are currently unknown. Method Eighty-two haemoglobinuria patients and 524 healthy controls were screened for G6PD deficiency using either the methylene blue reduction test, the G-6-PDH kit or the micro-methaemoglobin reduction test. The G6PD gene variants were screened using SSCP combined with DNA sequencing in 82 patients with haemoglobinuria, and in 59 healthy controls found to be G6PD deficient. Results This study confirmed that G6PD deficiency is strongly associated with haemoglobinuria (OR = 15, 95% CI [7.7 to 28.9], P G6PD variants were identified in the Vietnamese population, of which two are novel (Vietnam1 [Glu3Lys] and Vietnam2 [Phe66Cys]. G6PD Viangchan [Val291Met], common throughout south-east Asia, accounted for 77% of the variants detected and was significantly associated with haemoglobinuria within G6PD-deficient ethnic Kinh Vietnamese (OR = 5.8 95% CI [114-55.4], P = 0.022. Conclusion The primary frequency of several G6PD mutations, including novel mutations, in the Vietnamese Kinh population are reported and the contribution of G6PD mutations to the development of haemoglobinuria are investigated.

  9. Alport Syndrome: De Novo Mutation in the COL4A5 Gene Converting Glycine 1205 to Valine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Antón-Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Alport syndrome is a primary basement membrane disorder arising from mutations in genes encoding the type IV collagen protein family. It is a genetically heterogeneous disease with different mutations and forms of inheritance that presents with renal affection, hearing loss and eye defects. Several new mutations related to X-linked forms have been previously determined. Methods We report the case of a 12 years old male and his family diagnosed with Alport syndrome after genetic analysis was performed. Result Anew mutation determining a nucleotide change C.3614G > T (p. Gly1205Val in hemizygosis in the COL4A5 gene was found. This molecular defect has not been previously described. Conclusion Molecular biology has helped us to comprehend the mechanisms of pathophysiology in Alport syndrome. Genetic analysis provides the only conclusive diagnosis of the disorder at the moment. Our contribution with a new mutation further supports the need of more sophisticated molecular methods to increase the mutation detection rates with lower costs and less time.

  10. [Mutational frequencies in usherin(USH2A gene) in 26 Colombian individuals with Usher syndrome type II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Greizy; Gelvez, Nancy Yaneth; Tamayo, Martalucía

    2011-03-01

    Usher syndrome is a disorder characterized by progressive retinitis pigmentosa, prelingual sensory hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. It is the most frequent cause of deaf-blindness in humans. Three clinical types and twelve genetic subtypes have been characterized. Type II is the most common, and among these cases, nearly 80% have mutations in the USH2A gene. The aim of the study was to establish the mutational frequencies for the short isoform of USH2A gene in Usher syndrome type II. Twenty-six Colombian individuals with Usher syndrome type II were included. SSCP analysis for 20 exons of the short isoform was performed and abnormal patterns were sequenced. Sequencing of exon 13 of the USH2A gene was performed for all the individuals because the most frequent mutation is located in this exon. The most frequent mutation was c.2299delG, identified in the 27% (n=8) of the sample. The second mutation, p.R334W, showed a frequency of 15%. A new variant identified in the 5’UTR region, g.129G>T, was present in 1 individual (4%). Four polymorphisms were identified; one of them is a new deletion in exon 20, first reported in this study. Mutations in the usherin short isoform were identified in 38% of a sample of 26 USH2 cases. Molecular diagnosis was established in 7 of the 26.

  11. Prevalence of 2314delG mutation in Spanish patients with Usher syndrome type II (USH2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneyto, M M; Cuevas, J M; Millán, J M; Espinós, C; Mateu, E; González-Cabo, P; Baiget, M; Doménech, M; Bernal, S; Ayuso, C; García-Sandoval, B; Trujillo, M J; Borrego, S; Antiñolo, G; Carballo, M; Nájera, C

    2000-06-01

    The Usher syndrome (USH) is a group of autosomal recessive diseases characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. Three clinically distinct forms of Usher syndrome have so far been recognized and can be distinguished from one another by assessing auditory and vestibular function. Usher syndrome type II (USH2) patients have congenital moderate-to-severe nonprogressive hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, and normal vestibular function. Genetic linkage studies have revealed genetic heterogeneity among the three types of USH, with the majority of USH2 families showing linkage to the USH2A locus in 1q41. The USH2A gene (MIM 276901) has been identified: three mutations, 2314delG, 2913delG, and 4353-54delC, were initially reported in USH2A patients, the most frequent of which is the 2314delG mutation. It has been reported that this mutation can give rise to typical and atypical USH2 phenotypes. USH2 cases represent 62% of all USH cases in the Spanish population, and 95% of these cases have provided evidence of linkage to the USH2A locus. In the present study, the three reported mutations were analyzed in 59 Spanish families with a diagnosis of USH type II. The 2314delG was the only mutation identified in our population: it was detected in 25% of families and 16% of USH2 chromosomes analyzed. This study attempts to estimate the prevalence of this common mutation in a homogeneous Spanish population.

  12. Concomitant mutation and epimutation of the MLH1 gene in a Lynch syndrome family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cini, Giulia; Carnevali, Ileana; Quaia, Michele; Chiaravalli, Anna Maria; Sala, Paola; Giacomini, Elisa; Maestro, Roberta; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Viel, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited predisposition cancer syndrome, typically caused by germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. In the last years, a role for epimutations of the same genes has also been reported. MLH1 promoter methylation is a well known mechanism of somatic inactivation in tumors, and more recently, several cases of constitutional methylation have been identified. In four subjects affected by multiple tumors and belonging to a suspected LS family, we detected a novel secondary MLH1 gene epimutation. The methylation of MLH1 promoter was always linked in cis with a 997 bp-deletion (c.-168_c.116+713del), that removed exon 1 and partially involved the promoter of the same gene. Differently from cases with constitutional primary MLH1 inactivation, this secondary methylation was allele-specific and CpGs of the residual promoter region were totally methylated, leading to complete allele silencing. In the colon tumor of the proband, MLH1 and PMS2 expression was completely lost as a consequence of a pathogenic somatic point mutation (MLH1 c.199G>A, p.Gly67Arg) that also abrogated local methylation by destroying a CpG site. The evidences obtained highlight how MLH1 mutations and epimutations can reciprocally influence each other and suggest that an altered structure of the MLH1 locus results in epigenetic alteration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. LEOPARD syndrome-associated SHP2 mutation confers leanness and protection from diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajan, Mylène; Batut, Aurélie; Cadoudal, Thomas; Deleruyelle, Simon; Le Gonidec, Sophie; Saint Laurent, Céline; Vomscheid, Maëlle; Wanecq, Estelle; Tréguer, Karine; De Rocca Serra-Nédélec, Audrey; Vinel, Claire; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Pozzo, Joffrey; Kunduzova, Oksana; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Tauber, Maithé; Raynal, Patrick; Cavé, Hélène; Edouard, Thomas; Valet, Philippe; Yart, Armelle

    2014-10-21

    LEOPARD syndrome (multiple Lentigines, Electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonary stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth, sensorineural Deafness; LS), also called Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder associating various developmental defects, notably cardiopathies, dysmorphism, and short stature. It is mainly caused by mutations of the PTPN11 gene that catalytically inactivate the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (Src-homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2). Besides its pleiotropic roles during development, SHP2 plays key functions in energetic metabolism regulation. However, the metabolic outcomes of LS mutations have never been examined. Therefore, we performed an extensive metabolic exploration of an original LS mouse model, expressing the T468M mutation of SHP2, frequently borne by LS patients. Our results reveal that, besides expected symptoms, LS animals display a strong reduction of adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity, associated with overall better metabolic profile. We provide evidence that LS mutant expression impairs adipogenesis, triggers energy expenditure, and enhances insulin signaling, three features that can contribute to the lean phenotype of LS mice. Interestingly, chronic treatment of LS mice with low doses of MEK inhibitor, but not rapamycin, resulted in weight and adiposity gains. Importantly, preliminary data in a French cohort of LS patients suggests that most of them have lower-than-average body mass index, associated, for tested patients, with reduced adiposity. Altogether, these findings unravel previously unidentified characteristics for LS, which could represent a metabolic benefit for patients, but may also participate to the development or worsening of some traits of the disease. Beyond LS, they also highlight a protective role of SHP2 global LS-mimicking modulation toward the development of obesity and associated disorders.

  14. FAM20A mutations can cause enamel-renal syndrome (ERS.

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    Shih-Kai Wang

    Full Text Available Enamel-renal syndrome (ERS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe enamel hypoplasia, failed tooth eruption, intrapulpal calcifications, enlarged gingiva, and nephrocalcinosis. Recently, mutations in FAM20A were reported to cause amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis syndrome (AIGFS, which closely resembles ERS except for the renal calcifications. We characterized three families with AIGFS and identified, in each case, recessive FAM20A mutations: family 1 (c.992G>A; g.63853G>A; p.Gly331Asp, family 2 (c.720-2A>G; g.62232A>G; p.Gln241_Arg271del, and family 3 (c.406C>T; g.50213C>T; p.Arg136* and c.1432C>T; g.68284C>T; p.Arg478*. Significantly, a kidney ultrasound of the family 2 proband revealed nephrocalcinosis, revising the diagnosis from AIGFS to ERS. By characterizing teeth extracted from the family 3 proband, we demonstrated that FAM20A(-/- molars lacked true enamel, showed extensive crown and root resorption, hypercementosis, and partial replacement of resorbed mineral with bone or coalesced mineral spheres. Supported by the observation of severe ectopic calcifications in the kidneys of Fam20a null mice, we conclude that FAM20A, which has a kinase homology domain and localizes to the Golgi, is a putative Golgi kinase that plays a significant role in the regulation of biomineralization processes, and that mutations in FAM20A cause both AIGFS and ERS.

  15. Molecular and clinical analyses of Greig cephalopolysyndactyly and Pallister-Hall syndromes: Robust phenotype prediction from the type and position of GLI3 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnston, Jennifer J.; Olivos-Glander, Isabelle; Killoran, Christina; Elson, Emma; Turner, Joyce T.; Peters, Kathryn F.; Abbott, Margaret H.; Aughton, David J.; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Booth, Carol; Curry, Cynthia J.; David, Albert; Dinulos, Mary Beth; Flannery, David B.; Fox, Michelle A.; Graham, John M.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Guttmacher, Alan E.; Hannibal, Mark C.; Henn, Wolfram; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Holmes, Lewis B.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Leppig, Kathleen A.; Lin, Angela E.; Macleod, Patrick; Manchester, David K.; Marcelis, Carlo; Mazzanti, Laura; McCann, Emma; McDonald, Marie T.; Mendelsohn, Nancy J.; Moeschler, John B.; Moghaddam, Billur; Neri, Giovanni; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Pagon, Roberta A.; Phillips, John A.; Sadler, Laurie S.; Stoler, Joan M.; Tilstra, David; Walsh Vockley, Catherine M.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Zadeh, Touran M.; Brueton, Louise; Black, Graeme Charles M.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the GLI3 zinc-finger transcription factor gene cause Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) and Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS), which are variable but distinct clinical entities. We hypothesized that GLI3 mutations that predict a truncated functional repressor protein cause PHS and

  16. Genotype-Phenotype Correlation of Coffin-Siris Syndrome Caused by Mutations in SMARCB1, SMARCA4, SMARCE1, and ARID1A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosho, Tomoki; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Imai, Yoko; Ohashi, Hirofumi; van Eerde, Albertien M.; Chrzanowska, Krystyna; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kingston, Helen; Mari, Francesca; Aggarwal, Shagun; Mowat, David; Niikawa, Norio; Hiraki, Yoko; Matsumoto, Naoya; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Josifova, Dragana; Dean, John; Smigiel, Robert; Sakazume, Satoru; Silengo, Margherita; Tinschert, Sigrid; Kawame, Hiroshi; Yano, Shoji; Yamagata, Takanori; van Bon, Bregje W. M.; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Bigoni, Stefania; Alanay, Yasemin; Miyake, Noriko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Santen, Gijs W. E.; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Wollnik, Bernd; Hennekam, Raul C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome, recently found to be caused by mutations in several genes encoding components of the BAF complex. To date, 109 patients have been reported with their mutations: SMARCB1 (12%), SMARCA4 (11%), SMARCE1 (2%), ARID1A (7%), ARID1B

  17. Genotype-phenotype correlation of Coffin-Siris syndrome caused by mutations in SMARCB1, SMARCA4, SMARCE1, and ARID1A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosho, T.; Okamoto, N.; Bon, B.W. van; Vulto-van Silfhout, A.T.; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome, recently found to be caused by mutations in several genes encoding components of the BAF complex. To date, 109 patients have been reported with their mutations: SMARCB1 (12%), SMARCA4 (11%), SMARCE1 (2%), ARID1A (7%), ARID1B

  18. Targeted/exome sequencing identified mutations in ten Chinese patients diagnosed with Noonan syndrome and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noonan syndrome (NS and Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML are autosomal dominant developmental disorders. NS and NSML are caused by abnormalities in genes that encode proteins related to the RAS-MAPK pathway, including PTPN11, RAF1, BRAF, and MAP2K. In this study, we diagnosed ten NS or NSML patients via targeted sequencing or whole exome sequencing (TS/WES. Methods TS/WES was performed to identify mutations in ten Chinese patients who exhibited the following manifestations: potential facial dysmorphisms, short stature, congenital heart defects, and developmental delay. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the suspected pathological variants in the patients and their family members. Results TS/WES revealed three mutations in the PTPN11 gene, three mutations in RAF1 gene, and four mutations in BRAF gene in the NS and NSML patients who were previously diagnosed based on the abovementioned clinical features. All the identified mutations were determined to be de novo mutations. However, two patients who carried the same mutation in the RAF1 gene presented different clinical features. One patient with multiple lentigines was diagnosed with NSML, while the other patient without lentigines was diagnosed with NS. In addition, a patient who carried a hotspot mutation in the BRAF gene was diagnosed with NS instead of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFCS. Conclusions TS/WES has emerged as a useful tool for definitive diagnosis and accurate genetic counseling of atypical cases. In this study, we analyzed ten Chinese patients diagnosed with NS and related disorders and identified their correspondingPTPN11, RAF1, and BRAF mutations. Among the target genes, BRAF showed the same degree of correlation with NS incidence as that of PTPN11 or RAF1.

  19. Nonsense mutation in the glycoprotein Ibα coding sequence associated with Bernard-Soulier syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, J.; Russell, S.R.; Vicente, V.; Scharf, R.E.; Tomer, A.; McMillian, R.; Ruggeri, Z.M.

    1990-01-01

    Three distinct gene products, the α and β chains of glycoprotein (GP) Ib and GP IX, constitute the platelet membrane GP Ib-IX complex, a receptor for von Willebrand factor and thrombin involved in platelet adhesion and aggregation. Defective function of the GP Ib-IX complex is the hallmark of a rare congenital bleeding disorder of still undefined pathogenesis, the Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The authors have analyzed the molecular basis of the disease in one patient in whom immunoblotting of solubilized platelets demonstrated absence of normal GP Ibα but presence of a smaller immunoreactive species. The truncated polypeptide was also present, along with normal protein, in platelets from the patient's mother and two of his four children. Genetic characterization identified a nucleotide transition changing the Trp-343 codon (TGG) to a nonsense codon (TGA). Such a mutation explains the origin of the smaller GP Ibα, which by lacking half of the sequence on the carboxyl-terminal side, including the transmembrane domain, cannot be properly inserted in the platelet membrane. Both normal and mutant codons were found in the patient, suggesting that he is a compound heterozygote with a still unidentified defect in the other GP Ibα allele. Nonsense mutation and truncated GP Ibα polypeptide were found to cosegregate in four individuals through three generations and were associated with either Bernard-Soulier syndrome or carrier state phenotype. The molecular abnormality demonstrated in this family provides evidence that defective synthesis of GP Ibα alters the membrane expression of the GP Ib-IX complex and may be responsible for Bernard-Soulier syndrome

  20. Germline mutation of CBL is associated with moyamoya disease in a child with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Noonan syndrome-like disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyakuna, Nobuyuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Higa, Takeshi; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Wang, Xinan; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    Germline mutations in CBL have been identified in patients with Noonan syndrome-like phenotypes, while juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) harbors duplication of a germline CBL, resulting in acquired isodisomy. The association between moyamoya disease and Noonan syndrome carrying a PTPN11 mutation has recently been reported. We present a patient with JMML who developed moyamoya disease and neovascular glaucoma. Our patient exhibited a Noonan syndrome-like phenotype. Genetic analysis revealed acquired isodisomy and a germline heterozygous mutation in CBL. This is a rare case of CBL mutation associated with moyamoya disease. Prolonged RAS pathway signaling may cause disruption of cerebrovascular development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A in a Chinese family with Usher syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Ying; Li, Weirong; Wong, Fulton; Du, Rong; Wang, Lei; Li, Chang; Jiang, Fagang; Tang, Zhaohui; Liu, Mugen

    2013-01-01

    To identify the disease-causing mutation(s) in a Chinese family with autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1). An ophthalmic examination and an audiometric test were conducted to ascertain the phenotype of two affected siblings. The microsatellite marker D11S937, which is close to the candidate gene MYO7A (USH1B locus), was selected for genotyping. From the DNA of the proband, all coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of MYO7A were sequenced to identify the disease-causing mutation(s). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed to exclude the alternative conclusion that the mutations are non-pathogenic rare polymorphisms. Based on severe hearing impairment, unintelligible speech, and retinitis pigmentosa, a clinical diagnosis of Usher syndrome type 1 was made. The genotyping results did not exclude the USH1B locus, which suggested that the MYO7A gene was likely the gene associated with the disease-causing mutation(s) in the family. With direct DNA sequencing of MYO7A, two novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.3742G>A and c.6051+1G>A) of MYO7A were identified in the proband. DNA sequence analysis and RFLP analysis of other family members showed that the mutations cosegregated with the disease. Unaffected members, including the parents, uncle, and sister of the proband, carry only one of the two mutations. The mutations were not present in the controls (100 normal Chinese subjects=200 chromosomes) according to the RFLP analysis. In this study, we identified two novel mutations, c.3742G>A (p.E1248K) and c.6051+1G>A (donor splice site mutation in intron 44), of MYO7A in a Chinese non-consanguineous family with USH1. The mutations cosegregated with the disease and most likely cause the phenotype in the two affected siblings who carry these mutations compound heterozygously. Our finding expands the mutational spectrum of MYO7A.

  2. Ala397Asp mutation of myosin VIIA gene segregating in a Spanish family with type-Ib Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinós, C; Millán, J M; Sánchez, F; Beneyto, M; Nájera, C

    1998-06-01

    In the current study, 12 Spanish families affected by type-I Usher syndrome, that was previously linked to chromosome 11q, were screened for the presence of mutations in the N-terminal coding portion of the motor domain of the myosin VIIA gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the first 14 exons. A mutation (Ala397Asp) segregating with the disease was identified, and several polymorphisms were also detected. It is presumed that the other USHIB mutations in these families could be located in the unscreened regions of the gene.

  3. Blau syndrome-associated mutations in exon 4 of the caspase activating recruitment domain 15 (CARD 15) gene are not found in ethnic Danes with sarcoidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distinct mutations of the caspase activating recruitment domain 15 (CARD15) gene (also known as nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain protein 2) on chromosome 16q are associated with the chronic granulomatous disease called Blau syndrome. Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous...... disease, which has features in common with Blau syndrome. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ethnic Danes with sarcoidosis have CARD15 mutations associated with Blau syndrome. METHODS: Analysis of exon 4 of the CARD15 gene containing mutations associated with Blau syndrome was performed...

  4. Novel mutations in the SOX10 gene in the first two Chinese cases of type IV Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu; Chen, Hongsheng; Jiang, Wen; Hu, Zhengmao; Mei, Lingyun; Xue, Jingjie; He, Chufeng; Liu, Yalan; Xia, Kun; Feng, Yong

    2011-05-20

    We analyzed the clinical features and family-related gene mutations for the first two Chinese cases of type IV Waardenburg syndrome (WS4). Two families were analyzed in this study. The analysis included a medical history, clinical analysis, a hearing test and a physical examination. In addition, the EDNRB, EDN3 and SOX10 genes were sequenced in order to identify the pa